WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical fertilizers application

  1. Organic and chemical fertilizers application effects on potato production soil's fertility (Solanum tuberosum)

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, E A

    2007-01-01

    Objectives, treatments, activities and preliminary results of the project that evaluates the effects of organic and chemical fertilizers application on potato production soil's fertility (Solanum tuberosum). available in SANREM office, ESIILTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  2. Effect of vermicompost and chemical nitrogen fertilizer application on the various functioning of maize seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Namazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to analyze the effect of Vermicompost and chemical Nitrogen fertilizer on the function and component of maize seed traits. A factorial test with complete randomize block designs was conducted at the city of Behbahan in the year 2012 with 4 repetitions. Analyzed treatments contains three level of chemical Nitrogen fertilizer viz 50, 75 and 100 percent of soil test area and application of vermicompost is also conducted at 3 levels of check (0, 5 and 10 tons in hectare. Results of the study showed a significant correlation between the quantitative traits of maize seed and various levels of chemical Nitrogen fertilizer and vermicompost. Highest functioning of maize seed was obtained from the treatment containing 100 percent Nitrogen and 10 tons/hectare of vermicompost while the lowest amount was obtained from the treatment containing 50 percent Nitrogen without vermicompost application. Furthermore, application of vermicompost and chemical Nitrogen fertilizer affects the biological function and increase in the yield of seed in rows and weight of each 1000 seeds, also has positive and meaningful effect on the index of maize seed's harvesting. The results of the study revealed that the application of Nitrogen fertilizer at the levels of 50 and 75 percents of area soil test and vermicompost at the level of 5 tons in a hectare in this area are appropriate to obtain the maximum yield and proper functioning.

  3. Effect of consolidate application of organic and chemical fertilizers on the physical and chemical traits of soil and qualitative index of corn (Zea mays L plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Namazi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to analysis the effect of Vermicompost and chemical nitrogen fertilizer on physical and chemical traits of soil's and qualitative indexes of corn plant. A factorial test with complete random block designs with 4 repetitions was conducted in the year of 2012. Three doses of chemical nitrogen fertilizers viz 50, 75 & 100 kg/hectare and two level of vermicompost viz 5 & 10 tons/hectare were used either individually or in combination with each others. Results of the study revealed that the use of Vermicompost and chemical nitrogen fertilizer caused a significant increase in the percentage of seed oil contents. At individual application of chemical nitrogen fertilizer highest increment in seed oil content was reported at 100 kg/hectare application, while in combination it was reported higher in the combination of 75 kg/hectare chemical Nitrogen fertilizer and 10ton/hectare vermicompost. The least effective treatment of was the combination of 100 kg/hectare chemical nitrogen fertilizer and 10 tons/hectare vermicompost combination. The most bulk gravity and real gravity is due to the treatment of Nitrogen chemical fertilizer at 50kg/hectare of soil test and without the use of vermicompost and the least bulk and real gravity of soil belong to the treatment of Nitrogen chemical fertilizer at the amount of 100kg/hectare of soil test and use of vermicompost at the amount of 10 tons in hectare.

  4. Effects of Organic Manure Application with Chemical Fertilizers on Nutrient Absorption and Yield of Rice in Hunan of Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ming-gang; LI Dong-chu; LI Ju-mei; QIN Dao-zhu; Kazuyuki Yagi; Yasukazu Hosen

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of organic manure application with chemical fertilizers on rice yield and soil fertility under long-term double-rice cropping system, a six year field experiment was conducted continually in the paddy soil derived from Quaternary red clay in Hunan Province of southern China. Four different treatments, i.e., no nitrogen with chemical P and K (PK), swine manure only (M), N, P and K chemical fertilizers only (NPK), and half chemical fertilizers combined with half swine manure (NPKM) with four replications were included. Each N, P and K application rate was the same at all the treatments (except the N application rate at PK) and N application rate was 150 kg N ha-'. All fertilizers were applied to soil tillage layer with once application as baseal fertilizers. The nutrients uptake rate, grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency, and soil organic matter content at each treatment were investigated. The NPKM treatment achieved the highest mean annual yield of 12.2 t ha-1 (68% higher than that of PK). Higher dry matter accumulation and nutrients absorption were observed during the middle-late growth period in the NPKM treatment, with higher panicle number per unit and filled-grain number per panicle. Its average nitrogen use efficiency was 36.3% and soil organic matter increased by 18.5% during the experimental period in the NPKM treatment, which were significantly higher than those in the NPK treatment. Organic manure application with chemical fertilizers increased the yield and nitrogen use efficiency of rice, reduced the risk of environmental pollution and improved soil fertility greatly. It could be a good practical technique that protects the environment and raises the rice yield in this region.

  5. Effect of Long-Term Application of Chemical Fertilizers on microbial biomass and Functional Diversity of a Black Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Wei-Dong; ZHU Yong-Guan; FU Bo-Jie; HAN Xiao-Zeng; ZHANG Lei; HE Ji-Zheng

    2008-01-01

    An experiment with seven N, P, K-fertilizer treatments, i.e., control (no fertilizer), NP, NK, PK, NPK, NP2K, and NPK2 where P2 and K2 indicate double amounts of P and K fertilizers respectively, was conducted to examine the effect of long-term continuous application of chemical fertilizers on microbial biomass and functional diversity of a black soil (Udoll in the USDA Soil Taxonomy) in Northeast China. The soil microbial biomass C ranged between 94 and 145 mg kg-1, with the NK treatment showing a lower biomass; the functional diversity of soil microbial community ranged from 4.13 to 4.25, with an increasing tendency from control to double-fertilizer treatments, and to triple-fertilizer treatments. The soil microbial biomass, and the microbial functional diversity and evenness did not show any significant differences among the different fertilizer treatments including control, suggesting that the long-term application of chemical fertilization would not result in significant changes in the microbial characteristics of the black soil.

  6. On Diffused Pollution Effect of Chemical Fertilizers in Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Limeng; GU; Lianchao; YU; Qian; BI

    2015-01-01

    Improper use of chemical fertilizers is an essential reason for diffused pollution of agriculture. Therefore,finding out influence factors of farmers in application of chemical fertilizers will play a significant role in controlling the diffused pollution of agriculture. Through field survey,a total of 340 samples in 4 counties of Chongqing Municipality were obtained. On the basis of these samples,an empirical study was carried out. The study results indicate that farmers’ application of chemical fertilizers is negatively correlated with farmers’ age,education level,male labor proportion,and soil fertility,while the annual family income,agricultural production population proportion,commodity trading characteristics,and scientific fertilizer application ability fail to pass the significance test. These results will provide reference for proper application of chemical fertilizers and controlling diffused pollution.

  7. Environmental Issues Related to Chemical Fertilizer Use in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAOZHIHONG

    1996-01-01

    The current status of chemical fertilizers production and consumption in China as well as their important roles in Chinese modern agriculture are discussed with special concerns to the environmental issues related to chemical fertilizer use.On the one hand.the total amount of chemical fertilizer produced is insufficient to meet the agricultural needs.On the other hand.the production and consumption of chemical fertilizers in China are obviously not balanced.In some areas over application of nitrogen fertilizers and loss of phosphate fertilizer due to soil erosion have resulted in some undesirable environmental problems such as increase of nitrate in water and eutrophication of water bodies.Maximum scientific uses of organic manures in combination with reasonable use of chemical fertilizers are part of good practices not only in increasuing soil productivity and keeping sustainable agriculture development but also in minimizing their detrimental effects on the environment.

  8. 近代江南地区化肥和有机肥使用变化研究%On the Application Changes of Chemical Fertilizers and Organic Fertilizers in Southeast China in Modern Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    过慈明; 惠富平

    2012-01-01

    化肥作为西方农学的主要标志物,20世纪初进入中国,二三十年代在江南以及沿海省份的施用量逐渐增加,但始终处于试验及推广阶段,未能在农业生产中普遍应用。有机肥(农家肥)是中国的传统肥料,近代江南的肥料施用始终以有机肥为主体,农学家还借助西方实验科学手段研究有机肥积制及施用问题。化肥传入对当地农业生产的影响有限。外来的化肥与本土的有机肥各有优劣,化肥的销售、施用与推广,以及化肥与有机肥的配合使用等问题.引发相关农学家及管理者的关注、争论和试验研究,并逐步改变了江南地区传统的肥料观念和施肥方式.人们总结出以有机肥为主、化肥为辅的一套施肥经验。近代江南地区化肥与有机肥的应用、推广和研究的变化,从一个侧面反映出中西方农学交汇的艰难过程和历史特点,对当今倡导化肥的合理使用和有机肥的回归具有一定参考价值。%Chemical fertilizer as the main marker of Western agriculture was first introduced to China in the early 20th century. During the 1920s and 1930s, its application gradually increased in the south and the coastal provinces, but was still in the experimental and promotion stage and couldn't be widely used in the agricultural production. Organic fertilizer (manure) is China's traditional fertilizer. In modern times, organic fertilizer was still the main fertilizer used in south-eastern China. Moreover, agronomists began to study the production and application of organic fertilizers by means of Western experimental science. As a result, chemical fertilizer had limited influence on the local agricultural production. Foreign fertilizer and domestic organic fertilizer have their own advantages and disadvantages. The sales, application and promotion of chemical fertilizer as well as the combination of chemical fertilizer with organic

  9. The Demand for Chemical Fertilizers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Daiyan; Kawaguchi, Tsunemasa

    2001-01-01

    During the past two decades, the tremendous increase in the use of chemical fertilizers compared with other inputs in Chinese agriculture is particularly impressive. This growing use of chemical fertilizers has played a crucial role Chinese agricultural growth. In the future, the use of chemical fertilizers will continue to play an unsubstitutably important role. As land become more scarce, the future growth of Chinese agriculture will mainly depend on technological progress like the adoption...

  10. Paddy Soil Stability and Mechanical Properties as Affected by Long-Term Application of Chemical Fertilizer and Animal Manure in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Wet stability, penetration resistance (PR), and tensile strength (TS) of paddy soils under a fertilization experiment for 22 years were determined to elucidate the function of soil organic matter in paddy soil stabilization. The treatments included no fertilization (CK), normal chemical fertilization (NPK), double the NPK application rates (2NPK), and NPK mixed with organic manure (NPK+OM). Compared with CK, fertilization increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil porosity. The results of soil aggregate fragmentation degree (SAFD) showed that fast wetting by water was the key fragmentation mechanism. Among the treatments, the NPK+OM treatment had the largest size of water-stable aggregates and greatest normal mean weight diameter (NMWD) (P ≤ 0.05), but the lowest PR and TS in both cultivated horizon (Ap) and plow pan. The CK and 2NPK treatments were measured with PR > 2.0 MPa and friability index < 0.20,respectively, in the Ap horizon, suggesting that the soils was mechanically unfavourable to root growth and tillage. In the plow pan, the fertilization treatments had greater TS and PR than in CK. TS and PR of the tested soil aggregates were negatively correlated to SOC content and soil porosity. This study suggested that chemical fertilization could cause deterioration of mechanical properties while application of organic manure could improve soil stability and mechanical properties.

  11. Integrated application of February Orchid (Orychophragmus violaceus) as green manure with chemical fertilizer for improving grain yield and reducing nitrogen losses in spring maize system in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jin-shun; CAO Wei-dong; XIONG Jing; ZENG Nao-hua; GAO Song-juan; Shimizu Katsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The development of more efifcient management systems is crucial to achieving high grain yields with high nitrogen use efifciency (NUE). February Orchid-spring maize rotation system is a newly established planting system with the beneifts of ground cover and potential wind erosion in northern China. A ifeld experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of integrated application of February Orchid as green manure with reduction of chemical fertilizers (INTEGRATED) on spring maize yield, N uptake, ammonium volatilization, and soil residual mineral N in northern China. Compared to farmers’ traditional fertilization (CON), integrated application of February Orchid as green manure with 30% reduction of nitrogen fertilizers (INTEGRATED) increased maize grain yield and biomass by 9.9 and 10.2%, respectively. The 0–100 cm soil residual Nmin at harvest was decreased by 58.5% and thus nitrogen use efifciency was increased signiifcantly by 26.7%. The nitrogen balance calculation further demonstrated that the INTEGRATED approach performed better than CON with lower apparent nitrogen loss (decreased by 48.9%) which evidenced by the ammonium volatilization of top-dressing fertilizer was decreased by 31.1%, the Nmin movement to the deeper soil layers was reduced, and the apparent nitrogen leaching loss nearly equal to 0 under the INTEGRATED treatment. Therefore, in northern China, integrated application of green manure and chemical fertilizers is an efifcient management approach for improving maize yields and NUE simultaneously.

  12. On Diffused Pollution Effect of Chemical Fertilizers in Chongqing Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    GU, Limeng; YU, Lianchao; Bi, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Improper use of chemical fertilizers is an essential reason for diffused pollution of agriculture. Therefore, finding out influence factors of farmers in application of chemical fertilizers will play a significant role in controlling the diffused pollution of agriculture. Through field survey, a total of 340 samples in 4 counties of Chongqing Municipality were obtained. On the basis of these samples, an empirical study was carried out. The study results indicate that farmers’ application of...

  13. SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND GROWTH OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. AS AFFECTED BY THE APPLICATION OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND INOCULATION WITH ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolino José Nogueira da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic fertilizers and the inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi in the cultivation of oil crops is essential to reduce production costs and minimize negative impacts on natural resources. A field experiment was conducted in an Argissolo Amarelo (Ultisol with the aim of evaluating the effects of fertilizer application and inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth attributes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and on soil chemical properties. The experiment was conducted at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, using a randomized block design with three replicates in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of four treatments in regard to application of organic fertilizer (liquid biofertilizer, cow urine, mineral fertilizer, and unfertilized control and two treatments in regard to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (with and without mycorrhizal fungi. The results showed that the physiological attributes of relative growth rate and leaf weight ratio were positively influenced by fertilization, compared to the control treatment, likely brought about by the supply of nutrients from the fertilizers applied. The growth and productivity attributes were positively affected by mycorrhization.

  14. [Effects of combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers on CH4 and N2O emissions and their global warming potentials in paddy fields with double-rice cropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Shen, Jian-Lin; Zheng, Liang; Liu, Jie-Yun; Qin, Hong-Ling; Li, Yong; Wu, Jin-Shui

    2014-08-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effects of combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers on CH4 and N2O emissions, which were measured using the static chamber/gas chromatography method, and their global warming potentials in typical paddy fields with double-rice cropping in Hunan province. The results showed that the combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers did not change the seasonal patterns of CH4 and N2O emissions from paddy soils, but significantly changed the magnitudes of CH4 and N2O fluxes in rice growing seasons as compared with sole application of chemical fertilizers. During the two rice growing seasons, the cumulative CH4 emissions for the pig manure and chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer each contributing to 50% of the total applied N (1/2N + PM) treatment were higher than those for the treatments of no N fertilizer (ON), half amount of chemical N fertilizer (1/2N) and 100% chemical N fertilizer (N) by 54.83%, 33.85% and 43.30%, respectively (P fertilizers in paddy fields would increase the GWP of CH4 and N2O emissions during rice growing seasons and this effect should be considered in regional greenhouse gases emissions inventory.

  15. Differences in chemical composition of soil organic carbon resulting from long-term fertilization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zengqiang; Zhao, Bingzi; Wang, Qingyun; Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jiabao

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is central to soil fertility. We hypothesize that change in SOC content resulting from various long-term fertilization strategies accompanies the shift in SOC chemical structure. This study examined the effect of fertilization strategies along with the time of fertilizer application on the SOC composition by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The soils (Aquic Inceptisol) subjected to seven fertilizer treatments were collected in 1989, 1999 and 2009, representing 0, 10 and 20 years of fertilization, respectively. The seven fertilizer treatments were (1-3) balanced fertilization with application of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) including organic compost (OM), half organic compost plus half chemical fertilizer (1/2OM), and pure chemical NPK fertilizer (NPK); (4-6) unbalanced chemical fertilization without application of one of the major elements including NP fertilizer (NP), PK fertilizer (PK), and NK fertilizer (NK); and (7) an unamended control (CK). The SOC content in the balanced fertilization treatments were 2.3-52.6% and 9.4-64.6% higher than in the unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999 and 2009, respectively, indicating significant differences in SOC content with time of fertilizer application between the two treatment groups. There was a significantly greater proportion of O-alkyl C and a lower proportion of aromatic C in the balanced fertilization than in unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999, but not in 2009, because their proportions in the former treatments approached the latter in 2009. Principal component analysis further showed that the C functional groups from various fertilization strategies tended to become compositionally similar with time. The results suggest that a shift in SOC chemical composition may be firstly dominated by fertilization strategies, followed by fertilization duration.

  16. Differences in chemical composition of soil organic carbon resulting from long-term fertilization strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zengqiang; Zhao, Bingzi; Wang, Qingyun; Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jiabao

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is central to soil fertility. We hypothesize that change in SOC content resulting from various long-term fertilization strategies accompanies the shift in SOC chemical structure. This study examined the effect of fertilization strategies along with the time of fertilizer application on the SOC composition by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The soils (Aquic Inceptisol) subjected to seven fertilizer treatments were collected in 1989, 1999 and 2009, representing 0, 10 and 20 years of fertilization, respectively. The seven fertilizer treatments were (1-3) balanced fertilization with application of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) including organic compost (OM), half organic compost plus half chemical fertilizer (1/2OM), and pure chemical NPK fertilizer (NPK); (4-6) unbalanced chemical fertilization without application of one of the major elements including NP fertilizer (NP), PK fertilizer (PK), and NK fertilizer (NK); and (7) an unamended control (CK). The SOC content in the balanced fertilization treatments were 2.3-52.6% and 9.4-64.6% higher than in the unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999 and 2009, respectively, indicating significant differences in SOC content with time of fertilizer application between the two treatment groups. There was a significantly greater proportion of O-alkyl C and a lower proportion of aromatic C in the balanced fertilization than in unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999, but not in 2009, because their proportions in the former treatments approached the latter in 2009. Principal component analysis further showed that the C functional groups from various fertilization strategies tended to become compositionally similar with time. The results suggest that a shift in SOC chemical composition may be firstly dominated by fertilization strategies, followed by fertilization duration. PMID:25884713

  17. The Impact of Price on Chemical Fertilizer Demand in China

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wen-fang; Du, Cheng; John K. Dagsvik

    2012-01-01

    Since 1998, the national policies on chemical fertilizer in China have been concentrated in limiting price plus subsidizing, abolishing agricultural tax, giving direct subsidies to farmers, and other aspects. In order to analyze the impact of national policies on the consumption of chemical fertilizer, this article selects the consumption of chemical fertilizer per unit, chemical fertilizer price index and farmers' net income in different provinces during the period 1998-2007 as variables, to...

  18. Comparison of sewage sludge and chemical fertilizer application on yield and concentration of some nutrients in spinach (Spinosa olerace L. in three textural classes of a calcareous soil

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    A. Ronaghi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Addition of sewage sludge (SS in soil causes increasing soil organic matter, which in turn improves soil physical properties, and could supply part of the nutrients required by plants. For comparison of SS application and chemical fertilizer treatment (CFT on yield and concentration of some macro and micro nutrients in spinach, a greenhouse factorial experiment, arranged in a completely randomized design (CRD, was conducted with three replications. The first factor included SS levels (0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 gr kg-1 and the second factor was soil textural classes (clay loam, sandy loam and sandy. A CFT was also used to compare its affect with that of SS levels. Results showed that addition of all levels of SS caused significant increase in the weight of spinach shoots in three soil textures. Application of all SS levels caused significant increase of nitrogen (N, phosphorous (P, iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu and manganese (Mn concentration in spinach shoots. With SS application, none of the nutrients’ concentration in spinach reached the toxic level. The amounts of cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb were not detectable in shoots. However, in frequent application of SS, especially at high levels, it is necessary to measure and detect these elements in plants. Effect of fertilizer in increasing yield and concentration of nutrients was less than the 40 and 80 gr kg-1 SS treatments. Considering the Fe and Zn deficiency in calcareous soils, application of SS can be effective for combating this deficiency. Prior to any recommendation of SS application, the results of this research need to be verified under field conditions.

  19. The Impact of Price on Chemical Fertilizer Demand in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John K.Dagsvik

    2012-01-01

    Since 1998,the national policies on chemical fertilizer in China have been concentrated in limiting price plus subsidizing,abolishing agricultural tax,giving direct subsidies to farmers,and other aspects.In order to analyze the impact of national policies on the consumption of chemical fertilizer,this article selects the consumption of chemical fertilizer per unit,chemical fertilizer price index and farmers’net income in different provinces during the period 1998-2007 as variables,to conduct regression analysis of chemical fertilizer expenditure function,and calculate the price elasticity and income elasticity of chemical fertilizer demand in different provinces over the decade based on the regression results.The results show that at present the basic consumption of chemical fertilizer for agricultural development in China is 0.35 t/hm 2 ,and the consumption of chemical fertilizer is excessive in some provinces;the chemical fertilizer market has not been really established,and the price has little impact on demand.This indicates that the chemical fertilizer is essential for agricultural economic development,and it increases along with the increase of farmers’income; the intervention of the national policy in chemical fertilizer price is a fundamental reason for the rising demand for chemical fertilizer.This also to some extent indicates that the policy effect of merely using environmental taxes to change farmers’consumption of chemical fertilizer is limited;there is a need to transform the existing policies purely promoting agricultural economic development,toward giving different subsidies in accordance with whether the farmers’fertilization pattern is beneficial to the environment.

  20. INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZATION WITH OR WITHOUT MINERAL FERTILIZER ON SOME CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EUTRIC FLUVISOLS

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Tănase; M. DUMITRU; D.M. Motelică; Nicoleta Vrînceanu; Mihaela Preda; Alexandrina Manea

    2010-01-01

    Manure from cattle was composted and used as fertilizer in a field experience organised on Eutric Fluvisols. There were studied the changes of chemical characteristics of soil under the influence of organic fertilization with or without mineral fertilization. Organic fertilization did not resulted in significant changes in soil reaction but mineral fertilization produced significant decreases of pH values. There was also observed a slight increase in organic carbon content in variants fertili...

  1. Effects of Organic Fertilizer on Fruit Quality and Acidified Soil Chemical Properties in Yantai Orchard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao SUN; Yiming WANG; Peiping ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Objective] This study aimed to investigate the improving effect of organic fertilizer on acidified soil as wel as their ef-fects on fruit quality and quantity in Yantai orchard. [Method] Plot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of organic fertilizer on fruit yield and quality of Red Fuji and chemical properties of acidified soil. [Result] The apple yield in acidified soil applied with organic fertilizer al increased. Under the application of biological organic fertilizer, the apple yield was higher, and it was 8.92% higher than that in the control group. Under the mixed application of chemical fertilizer and biological organic fertiliz-er, the growth and development of apple trees were improved, and the total soluble solid (TSS) content, vitamin C (Vc) content and TSS-acid ratio in mature apples al increased. The application of organic fertilizer significantly reduced soil acidity. Compared with those in the control group, the soil pH value, organic matter content and alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content under the ap-plication of biological organic fertilizer were increased by 8.33%, 15.10% and 30.80%, respectively. [Conclusion] The application of biological organic fertilizer could improve the yield of apple in acidified soil.

  2. Effects of Long-term Located Fertilization on the Physico-chemical Property of Soil Humus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ji-ping; ZHANG Fu-dao; LIN Bao

    2002-01-01

    A systematic study concerning the effects of a long-term stationary fertilization on content and property of soil humus in fluvo-aquic soil sampled from Malan Farm, Xinji City, Hebei, and arid red soil and paddy red soil sampled from the Institute of Red Soil, Jinxian County, Jiangxi was conducted. The results showed that long-term fertilization had effects not only on the content and composition of soil humus, but also on the physico-chemical property of humus. With applying organic manure or combined application of organic manure and chemical fertilizer, E4 and E6 values of humic acid decreased in fluvo-aquic soil and arid red soil,but increased in paddy red soil. In paddy red soil, E4 and E6 values of humic acid increased also with a single application of chemical fertilizer, but E4 and E6 values had less change of humic acid in fluvo-aquic soil and arid red soil. The effects on the visible spectroscopic property of fulvic acid were different from that of humic acid. Long-term application of organic manure or combined application of organic manure and chemical fertilizer could increase E4 and E6 values of fulvic acid in three types of soil. Single application of chemical fertilizer had less effect on the E4 and E6. Long-term fertilization could also influence the ultraviolet spectroscopic property of humus. With a single application of organic manure or combined application of organic manure and chemical fertilizer, the ultraviolet absorbance of humic acid and fulvic acid increased in the three types of soil.But this effect was obvious only in short wave length, and the effect could decrease if the wave length increased. With a single application of chemical fertilizer the ultraviolet absorbance of fulvic acid could increase, but it of humic acid increased only in fluvo-aquic soil. Long-term application of organic manure or combined application of organic manure and chemical fertilizer could increase the content of total acidic groups, carboxy groups and

  3. Chemical Fertilizers Management Change in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Urfi

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The history of chemical fertilization in Hungary over the last three decades, could be divided into three periods: an extremely fast increase of consumption from the middle 60's to the middle 70's; a period of constancy till the 90's; permanent decrease, the phase of new reckless exploitation up to the present. The Hungarian nutrient-management has had a strongly negative nutrient-balance for the last 8 years. This fact is quite a problem for our country in meeting the expectations of EU member-states. Due to accumulation and consumption of nutritive materials in the soil, the income redistribution took place between the 80's and the 90's. Behind extreme soil utilization in planting practice, lie new environmental risks and negative economic effects. Although special conditions call for specific measures, these facts don't seem to be important either to legal administration or to the media. Therefore, the environment policy of not decreasing the nutrient content of soils any longer, is urgent.

  4. Comparison of chemical fertilizer and sewage sludge application on some nutrients’ bioavailability in three textural classes of a calcareous soil after harvesting spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R Boostani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge (SS as a source of macro- and micro nutrients has been utilized in many countries for crop and vegetable production. To compare the influence of SS with chemical fertilizer on macro- and micro nutrients bioavailability in three textural classes of a calcareous soil after harvesting spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., a factorial experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with two factors and three replications under glasshouse conditions. The first factor was SS levels (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg per kg soil and the second factor was soil textural classes (sandy, sandy loam, and clay loam. A chemical fertilizer treatment was used for comparison with the applied SS treatments. Results indicated that total nitrogen (N and available phosphorus (P was significantly higher in SS amended soils compared to fertilizer treatment. Effect of increasing soil potassium (K due to addition of SS was less than P and N, which is probably due to low content of K in SS. Soil DTPA extractable iron, zinc, copper, and manganese were significantly increased in SS treatments in all soil textures and were higher than fertilizer treatment. Based on nutrients’ bioavailability in soil after harvesting spinach, especially at high rates of SS, addition of most nutrients is not necessary for the next crop. Concentration of DTPA extractable cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb was not detectable in all treatments. Therefore, because of low contents of Cd and Pb in the utilized SS, reaching to a toxic level of these elements in soil is unexpected. However, if high levels of SS are applied frequently, soil test is recommended for monitoring heavy metals concentration in amended soils. Prior to any SS recommendation, the results of this research need to be verified under field conditions.

  5. [Reducing nutrients loss by plastic film covering chemical fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huo-jun; Wei, Ze-bin; Wu, Qi-tang; Zeng, Shu-cai

    2010-03-01

    With the low utilization rate of fertilizers by crop and the growing amount of fertilizer usage,the agricultural non-point source pollution in China is becoming more and more serious. The field experiments planting corns were conducted, in which the applied chemical fertilizers were recovered with plastic film to realize the separation of fertilizers from rain water. In the experiments, the influences of different fertilizing treatments on the growing and production of sweet corn were observed. The fertilizer utilization rate and the nutrient contents in surface run-off water with and without the film covering were also determined. Results showed that, with only 70% of the normal amount of fertilizers,the sweet corn could already get high yield under the experimental soil conditions. Soil analysis after corn crops showed that the amounts of available N, P and K in the soil increased obviously with the film-covering, and the decreasing order was: 100% fertilizers with film-covering > 70% fertilizers with film-covering > 100% fertilizers, 70% fertilizers > no fertilizer. The average utilization coefficients of fertilizers by the crop were 42%-87%, 0%-3%, 5%-15% respectively for N, P and K. It was higher with film-covering than that without covering, especially for the high fertilization treatment. Analysis of water samples collected for eight run-off events showed that, without film-covering, N, P and K average concentrations in the runoff waters with fertilizations were 27.72, 2.70 and 7.07 mg x L(-1), respectively. And they were reduced respectively by 39.54%, 28.05%, 43.74% with the film-covering. This can give significant benefits to the decrease of agricultural non-point source pollution and water eutrophication.

  6. Influence of chemical and organic fertilizer on growth, yield and essential oil of dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L. plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen JANMOHAMMADI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out to study the response of Dracocephalum moldavica L. to NPK fertilizer and different application techniques of MOG organic fertilizer in two regions of Iran (Piranshahr with cold Mediterranean climate and clay loam soil,  Maragheh with cool sub-humid temperate climate and sandy loam  soil. MOG is bio-organic fertilizer with plant origin and contains different natural enzymes and amino acids. In current study following treatments have been applied: NPK (a complete NPK 20-20-20, 90 kg fertilizer ha-1; MOG1 (soil application of MOG organic fertilizer at sowing stage; MOG2 (foliar application of MOG organic fertilizer at early stage of flowering; MOG3 (soil application of MOG organic fertilizer at sowing and at 5 to 6 leaf stage; MOG4 (soil application of MOG organic fertilizer at sowing and at 5 to 6 leaf stage with foliar application at early stage of flowering. Results indicated that all MOG treatments overcome the chemical fertilizers in both locations. However, plants grown in Piranshahr were more responsive to MOG fertilizer treatments than those grown in Mragheh. Overall, it could be concluded that utilization of MOG fertilizer as both soil and foliar application (MOG4 may increase content and yield of essential oil, which could be suggested as a suitable alternative for chemical fertilizers.

  7. 上海地区化肥施用与粮食产量现状分析%Analysis on the present situation of chemical fertilizer application and grain yields in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤勇华; 林月霞

    2013-01-01

    以2001-2010年上海市统计年鉴数据为依据,分析了上海地区化肥施用和粮食产量现状.结果表明:近年来上海地区化肥施用量有所下降,但整体仍然高于全国平均水平,粮食增产缓慢;并针对现状提出了精准施肥、施肥方式调整等建议和对策.%The present situation of chemical fertilizer application and grain yields in Shanghai suburbs was analyzed according to the data from The Shanghai Statistical Yearbook 2001-2010.The result showed that in recent years the amount of applied chemical fertilizer somewhat decreased but was still higher than the national average level,and the grain yield increased slowly.In view of the above,some proposals such as precise fertilization and fertilization pattern adjustment were put forward.

  8. 安徽沿江棉区控失型化肥施用技术研究%Research on the Application Technology of Controlled-release Chemical Fertilizer in the Cotton Area along Yangtze River in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余立祥; 邱冠男; 吴跃进

    2009-01-01

    [目的]研究控失肥在棉区的施用技术,验证控失肥的"控失"效果及其经济效益.[方法]以当地主要推广的抗虫棉品种为供试作物,通过在安徽省沿江棉田进行施肥试验研究了控失肥不同施用方式对棉花产量和效益的影响.[结果]与一次基施全部控失肥相比,将控失肥分3次施用使棉花产量增加了240 kg/hm~2,棉农的净收入增加了156元/hm~2;将控失肥基施,后期追施速效化肥使棉花产量增加了7.04%,棉农的净收入增加了833.4元/hm~2.施用减氮20%的控失肥的棉花的现蕾期提前了6 d,开花期提前了7 d,吐絮期提前了8 d,生育期短了8 d.与施用普通氮肥的棉花相比,施用控失氮肥的棉花的秋桃增加幅度为22.29%~36.31%,皮棉产量增加了27.78%.[结论]该研究为在安徽沿江棉区推广应用控失肥提供了科学依据.%[Objective] The purpose was to research the application technology of controlled-release fertilizer in cotton area and validate its controlled-release effect and economic benefit. [Method] With the insect-resistant cotton varieties mainly popularized in the local place as tested crops, the effect of different application methods of controlled-release fertilizer on the yield and benefit of cotton was researched through carrying out fertilization experiment in the cotton fields along Yangtze River in Anhui Province. [Result] Compared with applying all the controlled-release fertilizer as base fertilizer at the first fertilization, when the controlled-release fertilizer was applied 3 times separately, the cotton yield was increased for 240 kg/hm~2 and the net income of cotton farmers was increased for 156 yuan/hm~2; when the controlled-release fertilizer was applied as base fertilizer and the fast-available chemical fertilizer was dressed in the anaphase, the cotton yield was increased by 7.04% and the net income of cotton farmers was increased for 833.4 yuan/hm~2. The squaring period of cottons applied

  9. Tillage, fertilization systems and chemical attributes of a Paleudult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Penedo Dorneles

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tillage and fertilization methods may affect soil fertility. With the aim of assessing changes in soil chemical properties over a period of ten years, soil samples of a Paleudult were collected over nine seasons at three layer depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20 cm and were chemically analyzed. Grain yield and nutrient export in two summer crops, soybean (Glycine max and corn (Zea mays, in a field experiment set in Eldorado do Sul, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were determined. Three soil tillage systems were evaluated, conventional (CT, reduced (RT and no-tillage (NT, combined with mineral (lime and fertilizers and organic (poultry litter fertilization. The no-tillage system stood out as compared to the others, especially in the surface layer, in terms of values of organic matter, soil pH, available phosphorus, cation exchange capacity and base saturation. Phosphorus content was higher under organic than mineral fertilization due to the criteria used for the establishment of fertilizer doses. Under organic fertilization, soil pH values were similar to those obtained in limed soil samples because of the cumulative effect of the organic fertilizer. Soybean yield was lower under NT in comparison to the RT and CT systems. Consequently, soybean grain exported a lower content of nutrients than maize grain. Maize yield was not affected by either tillage or fertilization systems.

  10. Effects of Organic and Chemical Fertilizations and Microbe Inoculation on Physiology and Growth ofSweet Corn Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out in a glasshouse to compare the physiology and growth of sweet corn plants (Zea mays L. cv. Honey Bantam) grown under organic and chemical fertilizations with or without microbial inoculation (MI). The organic fertilizer used was fermented mainly using rice bran and oil mill sludge, and the MI was a liquid product containing many beneficial microbes such as lactic acid bacteria, yeast, photosynthetic bacteria and actinomycetes. The application amounts of the organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizers were based on the same rate of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Sweet corn plants fertilized with organic materials inoculated with beneficial microbes grew better than those without inoculation. There were no significant differences in physiology and growth of the sweet corn plants between treatments of chemical fertilizers with and without MI. Among the organic fertilization treatments, only the sweet corn plants with organic fertilizer and MI applied 4 weeks before sowing had similar photosynthetic capacity, total dry matter yield and ear yield to those with chemical fertilizers. Sweet corn plants in other organic fertilization treatments were weaker in physiology and growth than those in chemical fertilization treatments. There was no significant variance among chemical fertilization treatments at different time. It is concluded from this research that this organic fertilizer would be more effective if it was inoculated with the beneficial microbes. Early application of the organic fertilizer with beneficial microbes before sowing was recommended to make the nutrients available before the rapid growth at the early stage and obtain a yield similar to or higher than that with chemical fertilizations.

  11. Effect of Azolla Based - Organic Fertilizer, Rock Phosphate and Rice Hull Ash on Rice Yield and Chemical Properties of Alfisols

    OpenAIRE

    Sudadi; Sumarno; Wiki Handi

    2014-01-01

    The application of chemical fertilizer for long time may adverse soil environment. Organic agriculture, for example combination use of azolla based-organic fertilizer, phosphate rock and rice hull ash, was one of ways that able to recover it. Research was conducted in Sukosari, Jumantono, Karanganyar while soi chemical properties analysis was analysed in Soil Chemistry and Fertility Laboratory, Fac. of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University April to November 2013. Research design used was R...

  12. Effect of long-term chemical fertilizer application on soil microbial diversity in anthropogenic loess soil%长期施用化肥对(土娄)土微生物多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明霞; 孙瑞; 崔全红; 杨学云; 张树兰; 孙本华

    2015-01-01

    [Objectives] Soil microbes play key functions in organic matter decomposition , nutrient cycling and regulation of plant growth . Investigating the effect of long-term chemical fertilizers application on microbial characteristics is critical for the improvement in rational fertilizer application , and provides theoretical understanding in sustainability of agricultural management .[Methods] The experiment was based on the long-term experiment in "National Monitoring Base of Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Efficiency on Loess Soil" in Yangling City , Shaanxi Province .Six treatments were chosen , including no fertilization control ( CK ) , nitrogen fertilizer only ( N) , nitrogen and potassium fertilizer ( NK) , phosphorous and potassium fertilizer ( PK) , nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizer(NP), and nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium fertilizer (NPK).Biolog Eco-plate was applied to test the effect of long-term chemical fertilization on soil microbial characteristics .Moreover, soil microbial biomass and soil microbial community functional diversity were determined .[Results] Compared to the control ( CK ) , the soil microbial biomass C (SMBC) and soil microbial biomass N (SMBN) did not change in N treatment.However, the microbial quotient ( qMB ) and the N utilization ( SMBN/TN ) were reduced significantly under N treatment . SMBC, SMBN concentration and qMB were increased in NP and NPK treatments , where the shift in soil microbial community structure was also found .But N utilization was not increased in these treatments .In NK and PK treatments, SMBC, SMBN concentration and qMB were slightly increased , while soil microbial community structure did not show much difference .Biolog analysis showed that soil microbial activity was increased under the treatments including P ( PK, NP and NPK) .At the initial stage of incubation , the metabolism activity was greater under the treatments with P than those without P ( CK, N and NK ) .Nitrogen application alone did not

  13. Foundation laid for the Aksu large chemical fertilizer project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On October 10, CNPC laid foundation of a large chemical fertilizer project in Aksu, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. CNPC President Zhou Jiping attended the ceremony and delivered a speech. The Aksu fertilizer project is the largest natural gas deep processing project in Southern Xinjiang, with a total planned investment of RMB 3.2 billion. Designed and constructed by CNPC's packaged technology with independent intellectual property rights,

  14. [Coupling effects of water and chemical fertilizers on Hevea brasiliensis latex yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yuan-Gang; Chen, Qiu-Bo; Lin, Zhao-Mu; Luo, Wei

    2008-06-01

    Water and nutrient are the two main factors limiting Hevea brasiliensis growth and its latex yield. With 17 year-old Clone SCATC 7-33-97 H. brasiliensis as test material, the coupling effects of water and chemical N, P and K fertilizers on latex yield were studied by general orthogonal rotation design of quadratic regression with four factors and five levels under field condition, and a regressive mathematical model was set up based on the latex yield by quadratic regression analysis. The results showed that all test coupling levels of water and chemical fertilizers had significant effects on the latex yield. The yield-increasing effect of test factors was in the order of N application rate > irrigation amount > P application rate > K application rate, while the coupling effect of water and chemical fertilizers was in the sequence of water and N > N and P > water and P > water and K. There was a negative coupling effect of K application rate and soil moisture content. For latex yield, the optimum application rates of chemical fertilizers were 476.39 kg x hm(-2) of urea, 187.70 kg x hm(-2) of superphosphate and 225.77 kg x hm(-2) of potassium chloride, and the optimum irrigation amount was to have 82.78% soil relative water content. PMID:18808010

  15. Measurement of natural radioactivity in chemical fertilizer and agricultural soil: evidence of high alpha activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Bera, Sukumar; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, Kanchan Kumar

    2008-02-01

    People are exposed to ionizing radiation from the radionuclides that are present in different types of natural sources, of which phosphate fertilizer is one of the most important sources. Radionuclides in phosphate fertilizer belonging to 232Th and 238U series as well as radioisotope of potassium (40K) are the major contributors of outdoor terrestrial natural radiation. The study of alpha activity in fertilizers, which is the first ever in West Bengal, has been performed in order to determine the effect of the use of phosphate fertilizers on human health. The data have been compared with the alpha activity of different types of chemical fertilizers. The measurement of alpha activity in surface soil samples collected from the cultivated land was also performed. The sampling sites were randomly selected in the cultivated land in the Midnapore district, which is the largest district in West Bengal. The phosphate fertilizer is widely used for large agricultural production, mainly potatoes. The alpha activities have been measured using solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The results show that alpha activity of those fertilizer and soil samples varies from 141 Bq/kg to 2,589 Bq/kg and from 109 Bq/kg to 660 Bq/kg, respectively. These results were used to estimate environmental radiation exposure on human health contributed by the direct application of fertilizers.

  16. [Effects of fertilizer application on greenhouse vegetable yield: a case study of Shouguang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Li, Yan; Jiang, Li-Hua; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Gao, Xin-Hao; Lin, Hai-Tao; Zheng, Fu-Li; Shi, Jing

    2014-06-01

    Data collected from 51 representative greenhouses of Shouguang through questionnaire survey were analyzed to investigate the effect of chemical fertilizers on vegetable yield, relationship between application of organic manure and yield, and influence factors and evolution rule of fertilizer application rate. The results showed that averages of 3338 kg N x hm(-2), 1710 kg P2O5 x hm(-2) 3446 kg K2O x hm(-2) were applied to greenhouse vegetables annually in Shouguang, 6-14 times as that in the local wheat-maize rotation system. The application rates of chemical N, P, and K fertilizers accounted for about 35%, 49% and 42% of the total input. Increasing application of chemical fertilizers had no significant effect on vegetable yields, while organic manure input significantly increased the vegetable yields. With the increase of greenhouse cultivating time, no significant changes in the input of chemical N, P, and K fertilizers were observed in greenhouse vegetable production while organic manure input decreased significantly. Differences in vegetable species, planting pattern and cultivating time of greenhouses was one of the reasons for large variations in nutrient application rate. In recent more than ten years, organic manure nutrient input increased significantly, chemical N and P fertilizer input presented a downward trend, chemical K fertilizer input increased significantly, and the N/P/K ratio became more and more reasonable in greenhouse vegetable production in Shouguang.

  17. Inducing fertility restoration in the genic male sterile line of rice with chemical regulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGKaizhi

    1994-01-01

    For the first time, the fertility of rice genic male sterile line was partially restored with the application of chemical regulators at Hainan Rice Breeding Nursery on Mar 1993. A single panicle of the rice plant couldbear as many as 27 grains.

  18. Effect of different fertilizer application on the soil fertility of paddy soils in red soil region of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenyi; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin; Dai, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xiaomin; Qiu, Weiwen; Yang, Fengting

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate fertilizer application is an important management practice to improve soil fertility and quality in the red soil regions of China. In the present study, we examined the effects of five fertilization treatments [these were: no fertilizer (CK), rice straw return (SR), chemical fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM) and green manure (GM)] on soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio and available nutrients (AN, AP and AK) contents in the plowed layer (0-20 cm) of paddy soil from 1998 to 2009 in Jiangxi Province, southern China. Results showed that the soil pH was the lowest with an average of 5.33 units in CK and was significantly higher in NPK (5.89 units) and OM (5.63 units) treatments (Pfertilizers have remarkably improved SOC and TN values compared with the CK, Specifically, the OM treatment resulted in the highest SOC and TN concentrations (72.5% and 51.2% higher than CK) and NPK treatment increased the SOC and TN contents by 22.0% and 17.8% compared with CK. The average amounts of C/N ratio ranged from 9.66 to 10.98 in different treatments, and reached the highest in OM treatment (Pfertility in this region and K fertilizer should be simultaneously applied considering the soil K contents. Considering the long-term fertilizer efficiency, our results also suggest that annual straw returning application could improve soil fertility in this trial region.

  19. Effect of chemical fertilization and green manure on the abundance and community structure of ammonia oxidizers in a paddy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia oxidization is a critical step in the soil N cycle and can be affected by the fertilization regimes. Chinese milk-vetch (Astragalus sinicus L., MV is a major green manure of rice (Oryza sativa L. fields in southern China, which is recommended as an important agronomic practice to improve soil fertility. Soil chemical properties, abundance and community structures of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA in a MV-rice rotation field under different fertilization regimes were investigated. The field experiment included six treatments: control, without MV and chemical fertilizer (CK; 100% chemical fertilizer (NPK; 18 000 kg MV ha-1 plus 100% chemical fertilizer (NPKM1; 18 000 kg MV ha-1 plus 40% chemical fertilizer (NPKM2; 18 000 kg MV ha-1 alone (MV; and 18 000 kg MV ha-1 plus 40% chemical fertilizer plus straw (NPKMS. Results showed that NPKMS treatment could improve the soil fertility greatly although the application of 60% chemical fertilizer. The abundance of AOB only in the MV treatment had significant difference with the control; AOA were more abundant than AOB in all corresponding treatments. The NPKMS treatment had the highest AOA abundance (1.19 x 10(8 amoA gene copies g-1 and the lowest abundance was recorded in the CK treatment (3.21 x 10(7 amoA gene copies g-1. The abundance of AOA was significantly positively related to total N, available N, NH4+-N, and NO3--N. The community structure of AOA exhibited little variation among different fertilization regimes, whereas the community structure of AOB was highly responsive. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all AOB sequences were affiliated with Nitrosospira or Nitrosomonas and all AOA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE bands belonged to the soil and sediment lineage. These findings could be fundamental to improve our understanding of AOB and AOA in the N cycle in the paddy soil.

  20. 棉农化肥施用技术效率及影响因子分析--基于莎车县农户调查数据的实证研究%Analysis of chemical fertilizer application efficiency by cotton farmers and its influence factors:an empirical study based on peasant household survey in Shache County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜璐; 马惠兰

    2014-01-01

    基于莎车县203户棉农的实地调查数据,运用随机前沿分析法估算棉农的化肥技术效率,并进一步运用双对数模型分析各因子对棉农化肥施用技术效率的影响程度.结果显示:莎车县棉花作物化肥施用技术效率较低,仅0.4598,有一半以上的量无法作用于农业生产.文化程度对技术效率影响最大;之后由高到低依次为化肥利用率的认识程度、农技培训、土壤质量变化、纯农人数占比和有机肥的施用;而种植规模、化肥价格变化和务农时间对化肥施用技术效率影响较低.最后,提出了提高棉农受教育水平、加大农技推广力度、控制化肥价格、推进农户适度规模化经营等相关的对策建议.%Summary Chemical fertilizer application efficiency is an important influence factor in agricultural production. Low chemical fertilizer application efficiency not only lead to cotton production cost increase and constrain cotton per unit area yield,but also may cause agricultural non-point source pollution,because excessive use of chemical fertilizers damage inevitably the environment and resources which are vital for agricultural development. Therefore,our aim is first to systematically evaluate chemical fertilizer application efficiency by cotton farmers. And second,with the purpose to figure out the essential ways to raise production efficiency of agricultural internal system,we assess the active results of different kinds of influence factors of technical efficiency.Furthermore,we hope the results can help to increase agricultural economic benefits of farmers and agricultural scientific and technical level,and ultimately prompt the sustainable development of agriculture. By using the field survey data which were obtained from 203 peasant households in Shache County,a first agricultural county in Xinjiang with favorable cotton plant conditions,an evaluation model with stochastic frontier approach (SFA

  1. Chemical and organic fertilizers affect physiological performance and antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mardani-Talaee1

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Myzus persicae is a widespread and polyphagous insect that causes severe damages to hundreds of host plants. In the current study, zinc sulfate and vermicompost as chemical and organic fertilizers, were added into cultural soil of Capsicum annuum to determine their effects on physiology and antioxidant activities of M. persicae. The aphids reared on zinc sulfate-treated culture showed the highest activities of general protease, trypsin, cathepsins, carboxypeptidase and lipase but activities of chymotrypsin and aminopeptidase were the highest in vermicompost-treated culture. Although activities of α-amylase in the fertilizer-treated cultures were higher than control but activities of α- and β-glucosideases showed the highest values in zinc sulfate and vermicompost treatments, respectively. Aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase showed the highest activity in the aphids reared on the vermicompost-treated culture but alanine aminotransferase activity got the lowest value in fertilizer-treated cultures. Activities of aldolase and lactate dehydrogenase in the fertilizer-treated aphids were higher than those of control and vermicompost-treated aphids, but alkaline phosphatase showed the lower activity although activity of acid phosphatase decreased in vermicompost- treated aphids compared to other treatments. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were found to be the highest in the aphids fed on vermicompost-treated culture including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and ascorbate oxidase but catalase in vermicompost treatment had lower activity than control and zinc-sulfate treatments. Also, malondialdehyde and RSSR/RSH ratio demonstrated higher values in the aphids fed on zinc sulfate- and vermicompost-treated plants than control, respectively. Finally, the amounts of glycogen and triglyceride revealed the highest values in zinc sulfate-treated plants compared to other treatments. These results

  2. Precision Timing and Spatial Allocation of Economic Fertilizer Application

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Carl R.; Gandonou, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    Recent increases in fertilizer, particularly nitrogen, and fuel price have resulted in increased production cost for farmers. In this paper a farm level production model that compare uniform and variable rate fertilizer (NPK) application is developed that permits an analysis of the economic performance of fertilizer management regarding profitability. Results show that farmer's exposure to fertilizer and fuel prices risk have substantial impact both on the expected net returns and production ...

  3. Effects of Dairy Cattle Manure and Chemical Fertilizers on Fertility of Soils Grown with Cichorium intybus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore recycling utilization of manure of dairy cattle through returning of manures into fields. [Method] Effects of dairy cattle ma- nure and chemical fertilizer on fertility of soils grown with Cichorium intybus were in- vestigated through a pot experiment. [Result] After manure of dairy cattle was ap- plied, it can be concluded that organic matter, total N, total P, alkali-hydrolyzable ni- trogen, available P, activities of urease and invertase in soils increased by 0.14-1.28 times, 43.8%-79.7%, 17.4%-30.8%, 147%-188%, 7 times, 17.2%-38.5%, and 1.36%- 3.34%, respectively. Furthermore, organic matter, total N. urease and invertase activi- ties in group of M7F3 increased most; total P and available P achieved the best in group of M3F7. These indicated that the applied manures of dairy cattle would maintain and improve soil fertility, providing better soils for Cichorium intybus. [Conclusion] The research provides reference for recycling of cattle manures and construction of ecological cyclical pattern of "grass planting-cattle breeding-methane fermentation-returning of manures into fields".

  4. 有机无机肥料配合施用对日光温室土壤氨挥发的影响%Effects of Combined Application of Organic Manure and Chemical Fertilizers on Ammonia Volatilization from Greenhouse Vegetable Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝小雨; 高伟; 王玉军; 金继运; 黄绍文; 唐继伟; 张志强

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] Excessive use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers suffer from nitrogen loss through ammonia (NH3) volatilization, resulting in decreasing effectiveness of the fertilizers and increasing the risk of environmental pollution. Less information is available on the effect of different fertilization patterns on NH3 volatilization from greenhouse vegetable soils. Based on balanced fertilization and optimized irrigation, this study was conducted to determine the effect of combined application of organic manure and chemical fertilizers on NH3 volatilization. [ Method J A field experiment was designed to study the dynamics of NH3 volatilization by the venting method under celery-tomato rotation system in Tianjin from September 2010 to June 2011. The field experiment consisted of six treatments of 1 (No N), 2 (4/4 CN+0/4 PN, all nitrogen in chemical fertilizer, PN denotes nitrogen in pig manure), 3 (3/4 CN+1/4 PN), 4 (2/4 CN+2/4 PN), 5 (2/4 CN+2/4 SN, SN denotes nitrogen in straw), and 6 (CF, conventional fertilization). Equal NPK was designed for treatments 2, 3, 4, and 5. Rates of P2O5 and K2O application were respectively equal for each of treatments 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. [Result] The peak of NH3 volatilization rate occurred within 2-3 days after basal fertilization,whereas in first day after fertilizer top-dressing (fertilization and irrigation were carried out simultaneously) during the celery and tomato growth period. The NH3 volatilization rate from the nitrogen application treatment closed to the rate from the no nitrogen application treatment until first 8-10 days after basal fertilization and first 10-11 days after fertilizer top-dressing, respectively. 70%-80% of total NH3 volatilization during celery or tomato growth period were from over the first 10 days after basal fertilization to the first 11 days after the second fertilizer top-dressing. Distinct total NH3 volatilization during tomato growth period with higher temperature was found, with the total

  5. Chemical state of mercury and selenium in sewage sludge ash based P-fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Christian; Krüger, Oliver; Herzel, Hannes; Amidani, Lucia; Adam, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Phosphorus-fertilizers from secondary resources such as sewage sludge ash (SSA) will become more important in the future as they could substitute conventional fertilizers based on the nonrenewable resource phosphate rock. Thermochemical approaches were developed which remove heavy metals from SSA prior to its fertilizer application on farmlands. We analyzed the chemical state of mercury and selenium in SSA before and after thermochemical treatment under different conditions for P-fertilizer production by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. In some incineration plants the mercury loaded carbon adsorber from off-gas cleaning was collected together with the SSA for waste disposal. SSAs from those plants contained mercury mainly bound to carbon/organic material. The other SSAs contained inorganic mercury compounds which are most probably stabilized in the SSA matrix and were thus not evaporated during incineration. During thermochemical treatment, carbon-bound mercury was removed quantitatively. In contrast, a certain immobile fraction of inorganic mercury compounds remained in thermochemically treated SSA, which were not clearly identified. HgSe might be one of the inorganic compounds, which is supported by results of Se K-edge XANES spectroscopy. Furthermore, the chemical state of selenium in the SSAs was very sensitive to the conditions of the thermochemical treatment. PMID:27060867

  6. Research on Factors Influencing Fertilizer Application of Farmer Households in Anhui Province

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    Known as the “food of grain†, chemical fertilizer plays a very important role in increasing the output of agricultural products. In the meantime, its negative externalities such as soil and water environment pollutions as well as the quality and safety hazards caused to agricultural products have been revealed gradually. Taking 126 farmer households in 5 counties (districts) of Anhui Province as samples, the fertilizer application behaviors of farmer households are analyzed. Research show...

  7. 应用PGPR菌肥减少烤烟生产化肥的施用量%EFFECT OF APPLICATION OF PGPR ON CHEMICAL FERTILIZER APPLICATION RATE FOR FLUE-CUED TOBACCO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王豹祥; 李富欣; 张朝辉; 吴风光; 席淑雅; 朱宝; 曹育博; 刘天翔; 邱立友

    2011-01-01

    the use of PGPR bacterial manure is an effective approach to reduction of the application rate of chemical fertilizers in tobacco production and sustainable production of quality and hazard-free flue-cured tobacco leaves.%利用从烤烟根际筛选的抗生菌、固氮菌、解磷菌和解钾菌菌株制成PGPR菌肥,进行田间完全区组随机试验,研究其在减施化肥的条件下对烤烟产量质量的影响.试验地土壤类型为黄棕壤,种植烤烟品种为云烟89,菌肥施用量30 kg hm-2,于烤烟移栽时溶于生根水中一起施入.共设4个处理,分别是(1)常规施肥同时施用PGPR菌肥;(2)NPK肥为常规施肥的80%同时施用PGPR菌肥;(3)常规施肥;(4) NPK肥为常规施肥的80%.结果表明,施用菌肥的二处理与未施用菌肥的二处理相比,施用菌肥不同生长期烤烟根际放线菌的数量显著降低17%~27% (p<0.05),根际微生物生物量碳含量提高3% ~ 16%,现蕾期根际解磷菌的数量显著提高24%(p<0.05),并可提高烤烟的抗病性,烤后烟外观质量好.处理(2)与处理(4)比较,现蕾期烤烟根际氮、钾、铜、锌、硼和铁6种元素的有效性提高4.46% ~ 28.87%,而磷、钙、镁和锰4种矿质元素的有效性降低2.63%~30.19%,烤烟产量和净产值分别提高7.53%和30.05%.处理(2)与处理(3)比较,烤烟产量和净产值分别提高4.52%和24.68%.使用PGPR菌肥可适当减少化肥用量,为可持续生产优质、无公害烟叶的有效途径之一.

  8. Present Status of Growth of Domestic Chemical Fertilizer Industry from View Point of Trend in World Chemical Fertilizer Structure%从世界化肥结构动态看我国化肥行业发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱东方; 何建芳; 陈明良

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the growth trend in fertilizers of world developed nations, an analysis is done of the present status of development of the domestic compound fertilizer industry, fertilizer utilization ratio, fertilizer application based on soil analysis and formulation, pollution from application of chemical fertilizers, and new types of fertilizers. Based on the development status of domestic chemical fertilizers, suggestions for sustained growth are proposed, viz., the compound fertilizer industry should improve the product quality, lower the cost; the nitrogenous fertilizer industry should change the present pattern of urea alone taking the greatest share and may vigorously increase nitric acid and ammonia-based nitrogenous fertilizer; however, the phosphatic fertilizer industry, in the light of the domestic conditions and the limitation of the mineral resources, should continue to produce low-analysis phosphatic fertilizers, and slow down the growth of high-analysis ones; and it should attach great importance to developing organic fertilizers, especially organic-inorganic compound fertilizers.%根据世界发达国家肥料发展的趋势,对我国复合混肥行业、肥料利用率、测土配方施肥、化肥施用污染、新型肥料的发展现状等进行了分析.根据我国化肥行业的发展现状,提出了可持续发展的建议,即:复合肥行业应提升产品品质,降低成本;氮肥行业应改变目前尿素独大的格局,可大力发展硝酸氨基氮肥;而磷肥行业应根据我国的国情和矿产资源的有限性,应保留低浓度磷肥,减缓高浓度磷肥的发展;重视有机肥的开发,尤其是有机-无机复混肥.

  9. Potential of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers on soil enzymes and plant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation deals with the role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers alone or in combination on urease, invertase and phosphatase activities of rhizospheric soil and also on general impact on growth of safflower cvv. Thori and Saif-32. The PGPR (Azospirillum brasilense and Azotobacter vinelandii) were applied at 10/sup 6/ cells/mL as seed inoculation prior to sowing. Chemical fertilizers were applied at full (Urea 60 Kg ha/sup -1/ and Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 30 Kg ha/sup -1/), half (Urea 30 Kg ha/sup -1/ and DAP 15 Kg ha/sup -1/) and quarter doses (Urea 15 Kg ha-1 and DAP 7.5 Kg ha/sup -1/) during sowing. The chemical fertilizers and PGPR enhanced urease and invertase activities of soil. Presence of PGPR in combination with quarter and half doses of chemical fertilizers further augmented their effect on soil enzymes activities. The soil phosphatase activity was greater in Azospirillum and Azotobacter in combination with half dose of chemical fertilizers. Maximum increase in leaf melondialdehyde content was recorded in full dose of chemical fertilizers whereas coinoculation treatment exhibited significant reduction in cv. Thori. Half and quarter dose of chemical fertilizers increased the shoot length of safflower whereas maximum increase in leaf protein was recorded in Azotobacter in combination with full dose of chemical fertilizers. Root length was improved by Azospirillum and Azotobacter in combination with quarter dose of chemical fertilizers. Leaf area and chlorophyll contents were significantly improved by Azotobacter in combination with half dose of chemical fertilizers. It is inferred that PGPR can supplement 50 % chemical fertilizers for better plant growth and soil health. (author)

  10. Influence of organic-mineral fertilization of an oxisol on soil chemical properties and Bracharia brizantha production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Andrade Schiavoni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic-mineral fertilizer produced by the manufacturing industry of lysine and threonine amino acids can improve the fertility of tropical soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different doses of the organic-mineral fertilizer named Ajifer L-14 on chemical properties and on the response with increased production of a forage on a Red Latosol in the northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil. A randomized block design was used with seven treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of: T1- control (without application of Ajifer L-14; T2- control (natural vegetation; T3- mineral fertilization according to crop requirements and soil analysis (application of 1.35 kg plot-1 of urea, 2.20 single superphosphate, and 0.51 KCl, corresponding to 60 of N, 40 P2O5 and 30 kg ha-1 of K2O; T4- fertilization with Ajifer L-14 according to the recommendation resulting from the soil chemical analysis (40 L plot-1, corresponding to 60 kg ha-1 N; T5- fertilization with Ajifer L-14, at a rate of 150 % of the recommended values (60 L plot-1, corresponding to 90 kg ha-1 N; T6- fertilization with Ajifer L-14 at a rate of 50 % of the recommended values (20 L plot-1, corresponding to 30 kg ha-1 N; T7- fertilization with Ajifer L-14 at a rate of 125 % of the recommended values (50 L plot-1, corresponding to 75 kg ha-1 N; T8- fertilization with Ajifer L-14 at a rate of 75 % of the recommended values (30 L plot-1, corresponding to 45 kg ha-1 N. The following soil chemical properties were evaluated (layers 0.0-0.1 and 0.1-0.2 m: P, organic matter, pH, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, cation exchange capacity, potential acidity, and base saturation. The application of this organic-mineral fertilizer does not influence the soil chemical properties. Regression analysis indicated a polynomial relationship between the application rates of organic-mineral fertilizer and the production of dry matter and crude protein of Bracharia Brizantha.

  11. Investigation the natural radioactivity in local and imported chemical fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad Obid Hussain

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the radioactive level in the environment, the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were measured by using a gamma ray spectrometer based on a NaI(Tl detector. The results showed that the specific activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K were 12.846-88.585, 1.304-26.656 and 11.598-2275.896 Bq/kg respectively. The radium equivalent activity was also calculated which varied from 0.893 to 175.244 Bq/kg. The radium equivalent average values were lower than the world average. In general, the highest level of radium equivalent value was in leafy type NPK fertilizers. The urea type had no radionuclide. The specific activity and absorbed dose rate at 1m above the ground surface (nGy/h after NPK fertilizers agricultural applications were calculated and the maximum value of dose rate was 0.15% of the world average outdoor exposure due to terrestrial gamma radiation.

  12. Effect of fertilizer and dolomite applications on growth and yield of tapping rubber trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issariyaporn Damrongrak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical acid soil used for rubber planting has usually low fertility due to continuous loss of plant nutrient elements by crop removal and leaching. Thus, proper soil improvement in tapping rubber is very essential. This study aimed to measure the growth and yield of 17-year-old rubber trees, chemical properties of soil, and plant nutrient status in the leaf and latex after two years of soil improvement. A randomized complete block of seven treatments: No fertilizer (Control treatment, Chemical fertilizer based on soil analysis according to the recommendation of the Rubber Research Institute (Ch.F, Ch.F+ Dolomite to raise pH up to 6.0 (D, 3 kg per plant of compost (C, Ch.F+C, ½ Ch.F+C and ½ Ch.F+C+D, with three replicates was designed. After two years of giving treatments, it was found that adding full rate of chemical fertilizer based on soil test together with compost or dolomite increased the tree girth increment from the first year to the second year. Rubber yield after soil improvements tended to increase from the beginning to the end of the year, especially with compost application. Increasing of soil fertility was found after soil improvement treatments. However, total N, available P and available K were still lower than optimum levels as well as leaf N and K. Nitrogen in rubber latex after soil improvement treatments was higher than those in the control treatment, which contrasted to those of Ca and Mg. However, fertilizer and dolomite effect on micronutrient elements in rubber leaf and latex were not clear. Thus, fertilizer should be continuously applied at least with the full rate of chemical fertilizer based on soil analysis, and organic fertilizer should be applied to gain some trace elements. Dolomite could also be applied in a very strong acid soil.

  13. Potassium fertilization for pineapple: effects on soil chemical properties and plant nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out on an Ultisol located at the city of Agudos (22º30'S; 49º03'W, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to determine the effects of rates and sources of potassium fertilizer on nutritional status of 'Smooth Cayenne' pineapple and on some soil chemical properties. The experiment was a complete factorial design with four rates (0, 175, 350, and 700 kg ha-1 of K2O and three combinations of K sources (100% KCl, 100% K2SO4 and 40% K2SO4 + 60% KCl. Soil samples were taken from the depths 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm at planting and 14 months after. Nutritional status of pineapple plants was assessed by means of tissue analysis. Soil K availability increased with application of K fertilizer, regardless of K sources. Soil chlorine and Cl concentration in pineapple leaves increased with application of KCl or K2SO4+KCl. Plant uptake of potassium was shaped by soil K availability and by the application rates of K fertilizer, independently of K sources.

  14. Research on Factors Influencing Fertilizer Application of Farmer Households in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwei; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Known as the " food of grain",chemical fertilizer plays a very important role in increasing the output of agricultural products. In the meantime,its negative externalities such as soil and water environment pollutions as well as the quality and safety hazards caused to agricultural products have been revealed gradually. Taking 126 farmer households in 5 counties( districts) of Anhui Province as samples,the fertilizer application behaviors of farmer households are analyzed. Research shows that farmers applying fertilizer are generally older in age with relatively lower degree of education,inveterate farming habits and small area of cultivation. Besides,the farmer households wish to receive training and guidance on techniques of fertilization,but very few of them have attended the trainings on agricultural technology. Moreover,the individual characteristics and family factors of farmer households have a significant impact on their fertilizer application behaviors. And the degrees of impact are also different for the fertilizer applying behaviors in different stages. Therefore,improving the educational level of farmer households,strengthening the training and promotion of agricultural techniques and accelerating land transfer among farmer households will play a fundamental role in regularizing the fertilizer application behaviors of farmer households and improving the quality and safety of agricultural products.

  15. [Effects of different organic manure sources and their combinations with chemical fertilization on soil nematode community structure in a paddy field of East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Ye, Cheng-Long; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qi-Rong; Hu, Feng; Li, Hui-Xin

    2013-12-01

    A comparative study was conducted to investigate the effects of different fertilization modes on the soil nematode community structure in a paddy field with paddy rice and wheat rotation in Jintan County (31 degrees 39'41.8" N, 119 degrees 28'23.5" E) of Jiangsu Province, East China. Six treatments were installed, i. e., no fertilization (CK), 100% chemical NPK fertilization (F), pig manure compost plus 50% chemical fertilization (PF), straw returning plus 100% chemical fertilization (SF), pig manure compost and straw returning plus 50% chemical fertilization (PSF), and application of commercial pig manure-inorganic complex fertilizer (PMF). The soil samples were collected from the field after the paddy rice harvested in autumn. The two continuous years study showed that the soil nematode community structure varied with fertilization treatments and years. The combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures increased the total number of soil nematodes, decreased the abundance of soil bacterivorous nematodes, and made the abundance of predator- and omnivore nematodes increased significantly. No significant differences were observed in the abundance of soil fungivorous nematodes among all the treatments. Chemical fertilization alone and the application of commercial pig manure-inorganic complex fertilizer had no obvious suppression effect on the soil phytophagous nematodes. The abundance of soil bacteriavorous nematodes under the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures was relatively increased in the second year, as compared with that in the first year, while the abundance of soil phytophagous nematodes (Hirschmanniella) was relatively decreased in the second year. From the aspect of nematode ecological indices, the Margalef diversity index (H) under the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures in the second year had an increasing trend, while the NCR index had less change. The Wasilewka index had a

  16. Aqueous and gaseous nitrogen losses induced by fertilizer application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, C.; Maggi, F.; Riley, W.J.; Hornberger, G.M.; Xu, T.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Spycher, N.; Miller, N.L.; Venterea, R.T.; Steefel, C.

    2009-01-15

    In recent years concern has grown over the contribution of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use to nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) water pollution and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), nitric oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) atmospheric pollution. Characterizing soil N effluxes is essential in developing a strategy to mitigate N leaching and emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, a previously described and tested mechanistic N cycle model (TOUGHREACT-N) was successfully tested against additional observations of soil pH and N{sub 2}O emissions after fertilization and irrigation, and before plant emergence. We used TOUGHREACT-N to explain the significantly different N gas emissions and nitrate leaching rates resulting from the different N fertilizer types, application methods, and soil properties. The N{sub 2}O emissions from NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N fertilizer were higher than from urea and NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N fertilizers in coarse-textured soils. This difference increased with decreases in fertilization application rate and increases in soil buffering capacity. In contrast to methods used to estimate global terrestrial gas emissions, we found strongly non-linear N{sub 2}O emissions as a function of fertilizer application rate and soil calcite content. Speciation of predicted gas N flux into N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} depended on pH, fertilizer form, and soil properties. Our results highlighted the need to derive emission and leaching factors that account for fertilizer type, application method, and soil properties.

  17. Chemical analysis of substrates with controlled release fertilizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreij, de C.

    2004-01-01

    Water-soluble fertilizer added to media containing controlled release fertilizer cannot be analysed with the 1:1.5 volume water extract, because the latter increases the element content in the extract. During storage and stirring or mixing the substrate with the extractant, part of the controlled re

  18. 沼渣与化肥配施对大豆田土壤理化性质和土壤微生物的影响%Effects of Matching Application of Biogas Residues and Chemical Fertilizers on Physical and Chemical Proporties and Microorganism of Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家军; 刘杰; 张瑞萍; 于佰双; 李进荣; 王粟; 孙彬

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The research aimed to provide the basis for the safeguard of the sustainable production of soybean. [Method] The effects of matching application of biogas residues and chemical fertilizers on soil physical and chemical properties and microorganism number were studied by randomized block design. [Result] After 3 years' planting, the application of biogas residues could improve total porosity, capillary interstice, non-capillary interstice, and field capacity, while soil bulk density declined. And available N, available P, available K, and organic matter content in soil were all obviously improved. Soil microorganism (fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes) number was different in different development period. Conclusively,they were active in flowering-bearing pod stage, while they showed the same changes in seedling-maturity stage. [Conclusion] The soil physical and chemical properties of soybean soil and the microbial activity were improved significantly by the application of biogas residues arid chemical fertilizers.%[目的]为保障大豆可持续生产提供依据.[方法]采用随机区组设计,研究了沼渣与化肥配合施用对大豆田土壤理化性质和土壤微生物的影响.[结果]与不施肥对照(C1)相比,施入沼渣肥3年后,土壤容重降低,总孔隙度、毛管孔隙度、非毛管孔隙度以及田间持水量提高,土壤碱解氮、速效磷、速效钾、有机质含量都明显增加.土壤微生物(真菌、细菌、放线菌)在不同大豆生育期规律不一.总的来说,开花期-结英期表现活跃,在苗期和成熟期动态变化一致.[结论]沼渣与化肥配施可明显改善土壤理化性状,提高土壤微生物活性.

  19. 中国化肥需求弹性计算%The elasticity of chemical fertilizer demand in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文芳; John K.Dagsvik

    2012-01-01

    tax policy was limited in changing the farmers'chemical fertilizer consumption, and the existing policies should be changed from simply promoting agricultural economic development to subsidizing the farmers according to their fertilizer application manners to be environment-friendly or not.

  20. 40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70 Section 418.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory § 418.70 Applicability; description...

  1. Nitrogênio e potássio em bananeira via fertirrigação e adubação convencional-atributos químicos do solo Nitrogen and potassium application on banana plant by fertirrigation and conventional fertilization-soil chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Junqueira Teixeira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento em Pindorama (SP, no qual se avaliaram os efeitos da fertirrigação e da adubação convencional com N e K em alguns atributos químicos de solo sob cultivo com bananeira, durante dois ciclos de produção. Avaliaram-se a disponibilidade e a movimentação de nutrientes (P, K, Ca e Mg no perfil do solo, bem como outros atributos químicos (matéria orgânica, acidez e saturação por bases, por meio de amostragens realizadas na implantação do experimento e ao final do primeiro e segundo ciclos de produção. Os principais efeitos dos tratamentos foram no pH do solo e no teor de K+ trocável. A adubação, tanto aplicada via fertirrigação como na forma convencional, implicou incrementos na acidez do solo, principalmente até 20 cm de profundidade. Observou-se que o impacto da adubação via fertirrigação no pH do solo foi proporcional à dose. A adubação convencional também causou decréscimo no pH, especialmente na região mais próxima das plantas, refletindo o efeito da aplicação localizada dos fertilizantes. A aplicação de adubo sólido na superfície do solo determinou significativo acúmulo de K nas camadas até 20 cm e na região mais próxima ao pseudocaule das plantas. Os efeitos da adubação via fertirrigação foram mais difusos, visto que os adubos são espalhados numa área de solo maior do que a coberta pela adubação convencional.A field experiment was carried out in Pindorama (Sao Paulo State, Brazil in which it was evaluated the effects of N and K application through fertirrigation and conventional fertilization on soil chemical properties in a banana plantation, during two cycles of production. Nutrient (P, K, Ca and Mg availability and movement in soil profile and some chemical properties (organic matter, pH and base saturation were evaluated through samples carried out in the experiment implantation and at the end of the first and second production cycles. The most important treatment

  2. Effects of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizers on the nutritional status of the loquat trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, I; Kaya, Z; Caglar, S

    2003-07-01

    The nutritional status of the loquat trees was investigated using cattle manure and commercial fertilizers for three years. The farmyard manure increased N, P, K, Mg, Fe and Zn contents of the leaves. No significant difference was found between the fertilizer types for trunk growth. Yield efficiency was nearly doubled by application of farmyard manure. Fertilizers did not affect the weight and shape of the fruits; however, commercial fertilizers led the lower total acidity in fruits. It was concluded that the loquat trees grown in sandy soils could fulfill their principal nutrient requirements for growth and commercial yield with application of farmyard manure.

  3. Effect of fertilizer application on yield of oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eksomtramage, T.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fertilizer application rates on leaf nutrient contents and yield of oil palm were investigated at the Agricultural and Technological College Plantation in Trang province during May 1998 - June 2001. A five-year-old oil palm plantation, planted on the Na Tham soil series (Fine loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic Oxic Plinthudults with spacing 9x9x9 m, was selected for study. A randomized complete block designwith three replications with 20 palms/replication was used. The treatments included six different rates of fertilizer application. The rates of fertilizer were as follows: T1 (farmer practice, T2 (40% of application rate in T4, T3 (70% of application rate in T4, T4 (urea 2,750 g/plant; triple super phosphate 1,500 g/plant; potassium chloride 4,000 g/plant; kieserite 1,000 g/plant; borate 80 g/plant, T5 (130% of application rate in T4 and T6 (170% of application rate in T4. The high leaf nutrient contents of N, P and K at the range of 2.6-2.8%, 0.16-0.18% and 1.13-1.18%, respectively, were found in the high nutrient application rate treatments (T5, T6. However, the amounts of leaf Ca and Mg in T5 and T6 decreased from 0.75-0.80% and 0.33- 0.37% at the beginning of experiment to 0.65-0.70% and 0.22-0.24%, respectively, at the end of the experiment. Small increases of leaf sulphur and boron up to about 0.20-0.22% and 16-19 mg/kg were also found in the high rate of fertilizer treatments. Accumulated fresh fruit bunch yield (FFB increased according to increasing rate of fertilizer application. Accumulated FFB yield of 268.4 kg/plant in the low fertilizer rate (T1 (farmer practice and 278.8 kg/plant in T2 were found compared with the highest yield of 370.2 kg/plant in the highest fertilizer application treatment (T6 for the 3 years experiment. Regarding the economic return, the medium rate of fertilizer application (T3 which achieved an accumulated FFB yield of 338.0 kg/ plant gave the highest profit with the VCR (Value: Cost ratio of 2.53.

  4. Rock inhabiting potassium solubilizing bacteria from Kerala, India: characterization and possibility in chemical K fertilizer substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjanadevi, Indira Parameswaran; John, Neetha Soma; John, Kuzhivilayil Susan; Jeeva, Muthulekshmi Lajapathy; Misra, Raj Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    The role of rock inhabiting bacteria in potassium (K) solubilization from feldspar and their application in crop nutrition through substitution of fertilizer K was explored through the isolation of 36 different bacteria from rocks of a major hill station at Ponmudi in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. A comprehensive characterization of K solubilization from feldspar was achieved with these isolates which indicated that the K solubilizing efficiency increases with decrease in pH and increase in viscosity and viable cell count. Based on the level of K solubilization, two potent isolates were selected and identified as Bacillus subtilis ANctcri3 and Bacillus megaterium ANctcri7. Exopolysaccharide production, scanning electron microscopic and fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies with these efficient strains conclusively depicted the role of low pH, increase in viscosity, and bacterial attachment in K solubilization. They were also found to be efficient in phosphorus (P) solubilization, indole acetic acid production as well as tolerant to wide range of physiological conditions. Moreover, the applicability of K containing rock powder as a carrier for K solubilizing bacteria was demonstrated. A field level evaluation on the yield of a high K demanding tuberous vegetable crop, elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (dennst.) nicolson) established the possibility of substituting chemical K fertilizer with these biofertilizer candidates successfully.

  5. 丹江口库区化肥施用控制与农田生态补偿标准%Control of Chemical Fertilizer Application and Eco-compensation Standard of Croplands in Danjiangkou Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭秋成

    2012-01-01

    For protecting Danjiangkou Reservoir water from being polluted by too much nitrogen and phosphor, eco-compensation can be used to encourage farmers to fallow parts of lands or return them to forest. By using micro data of rural households from questionnaire, this paper estimates the empirical functional relation between the output of major crops like wheat, corn and rice and chemical fertilizer application in Danjiangkou Reservoir Area, and computes the average eco-compensation standard of croplands. The results are as follows; Based on production conditions, technologies and market prices of 2008, wheat land, corn land, and paddy field per mu (1 ha = 15 mu )should be compensated 259.69, 331.64, and 567. 31 Yuan (RMB) on average respectively. To reduce the government's coercion and information rent in compensation, we suggest that farmers' land can be further graded in terms of output through past several years, and lands of the same grade can be paid the highest net income of that grade. The paper takes net income of crops, namely the labor income and land rent per mu , as eco-compensation standard of croplands. This compensation standard is based on farmers' loss. It belongs to reserve utility and is just a jumping-off point of farmers' negotiation. If the middle route project of transferring water from south to north is profitable, parts of net income of the project can be further distributed to the farmers who maintain ecosystem and protect water quality in reservoir area. The real distributive share depends on farmers' negotiation power.%为保护丹江口水库水质,减少氮、磷流入水体,可考虑以生态补偿方式鼓励农民将部分土地体耕或退耕.利用样本调查的农户微观数据,估计了丹江口库区主要农作物小麦、玉米、水稻产量与化肥施用量的经验函数,计算了库区农田平均生态补偿标准.结果是:基于2008年的生产条件、技术水平和市场价格,种植小麦须补偿259.69

  6. Evaluation of Slow Release Fertilizer Applying Chemical and Spectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlled-release fertilizer offers a number of advantages in relation to crop production in newly reclaimed soils. Butadiene styrene latex emulsion is one of the promising polymer for different purposes. In this work, laboratory evaluation of butadiene styrene latex emulsion 24/76 polymer loaded with a mixed fertilizer was carried out. Macro nutrients (N, P and K) and micro-nutrients(Zn, Fe, and Cu) were extracted by basic extract from the polymer fertilizer mixtures. Micro-sampling technique was investigated and applied to measure Zn, Fe, and Cu using flame atomic absorption spectrometry in order to overcome the nebulization difficulties due to high salt content samples. The cumulative releases of macro and micro-nutrients have been assessed. From the obtained results, it is clear that the release depends on both nutrients and polymer concentration in the mixture. Macro-nutrients are released more efficient than micro-nutrients of total added. Therefore it can be used for minimizing micro-nutrients hazard in soils

  7. Factors affecting 137Cs bio- availability under the application of different fertilizing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorkova, M. V.; Belova, N. I.

    2012-04-01

    Although it has been 25 years since the Chernobyl accident, it was generally found that radiocaesium remained bio-availability in some regions. Plant uptake of 137Cs is depended from quantity of exchangeable radionuclide and strongly influenced by soil properties. The addition of fertilizers to soil induces chemical and biological changes that influence the distribution of free ions the different phases (soil and soil solution). In this study we try to estimate influence of different soil conditions affecting the 137Cs bio-availability under the application of manure and inorganic fertilizers. Our research carried out in 2001-2008 years on contaminated after Chernobyl accident sod-podzolic soil during of prolonged field experiment. The experimental site was located in south-west of Bryansk region, Russia. Contamination density by 137Cs in the sampling point was equal to 475±30 kBq/m2. The sequence of crops in rotation was: 1) potato; 2) oats 3) lupine 4) winter rye. Three fertilizing systems were compared: organic - 80 tons per hectare of cow manure; inorganic fertilizing system - different rates of NPK (low, temperate and high) and mixed - 40 tons per hectare of cow manure + NPK. Main soil properties and chemical form of 137Cs and K (potassium) were detected. Radiocaesium activity was determined in soil and plant samples by gamma spectrometry, using a high purity Ge detectors. Overall efficiency was known to an accuracy of about 10-12%. Obtained results shows, that various fertilizing systems influence soil properties, chemical forms of 137Cs and K in soil and radionuclide soil-to-plant transfer in different ways. The highest reduction of exchangeable 137Cs in soil was found in case with application of organic fertilizers and also - temperate NPK rates. Part of exchangeable 137Cs is equal 6.8% (from total activity) in case of manure, 7.8% in case of inorganic fertilizers with control value - 10.2%. Caesium mobility in soil is affected by such soil properties as

  8. THE ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF VARIABLE RATE FERTILIZER APPLICATION: THE CASE OF MISSISSIPPI

    OpenAIRE

    Intarapapong, Walaiporn; Hite, Diane; Hudson, Darren

    2002-01-01

    A number of programs have been introduced to limit environmental nonpoint pollution (NPP) associated with agricultural practices. One such program, precision agriculture, involves a range of management practices that utilize site-specific information at the field level. These practices can limit the amount of nutrient and chemical runoff to the environment because they precisely match fertilizer and pesticide application to the needs of the crop. This study uses bioeconomic modeling to invest...

  9. Effect of Organic Amendments and Chemical Fertilization in Production of Corn (Zea Mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Emilio Forero Ulloa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Corn is grown in 135 countries, and because of its uses and nutritional benefits is the world's most important cereal. In Colombia it is grown in various agro-ecological conditions of production. The bagasse is an organic residue resulting from the grinding of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L., used for the production of jaggery (solid resulting of boiling and evaporation of the juice from sugar cane, which can be used as an amendment and is a soil conditioner, as a rich source of phosphorus, calcium and nitrogen. The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of bagasse against the application of other organic sources and chemical fertilization in maize, variety ICA-V-305. For this, a completely random statistical design with four treatments and absolute control was established. Results were subjected to analysis of variance and Tukey comparison test. Applying Bagasse + Abimgra® produced the greatest number of ears of corn, while the use of only bagasse, presented the second best results in terms of number of grains / ear and weight of 100 grains of corn, therefore bagasse becomes , through time, an important option as organic amendment, which would favor the production of corn, and an option as organic fertilizer.

  10. Fertility awareness-based mobile application for contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund Scherwitzl, Elina; Gemzell Danielsson, Kristina; Sellberg, Jonas A.; Scherwitzl, Raoul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of a fertility awareness-based method supported by a mobile-based application to prevent unwanted pregnancies as a method of natural birth control. Methods: In a retrospective analysis, the application’s efficiency as a contraceptive method was examined on data from 4054 women who used the application as contraception for a total of 2085 woman-years. Results: The number of identified unplanned pregnanc...

  11. Mercury in some chemical fertilizers and the effect of calcium superphosphate on mercury uptake by corn seedlings (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiulan; Wang, Dingyong

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) contents in ten chemical fertilizers were determined, and the effect of calcium superphosphate (CSP) on the uptake and translocation of Hg in corn seedlings was investigated by pot experiments. CSP was applied at the levels of 0, 66.7, and 133.4 mg P2O5/kg to Hg-treated (2 mg/kg) and untreated soils. CSP had the highest Hg content (5.1 mg/kg), followed by the NPK compound fertilizer 15-5-5 (15% N, 5% P2O5, 5% K2O) (1.2 mg/kg), then by nitrogen fertilizers (except for ammonia sulfate) and potassium fertilizers. Application of CSP did not obviously influence the biomass of corn roots, but it significantly increased the biomass of corn shoots in Hg-treated soil. Application of CSP at the levels of 66.7 and 133.4 mg P2O5/kg did not obviously influence the uptake of Hg by corn seedlings on soils without Hg treatment, but it decreased the Hg uptake of corn seedlings significantly on Hg-treated soils. The transfer coefficient of Hg in corn seedlings improved slightly on soils without Hg treatment, but decreased slightly on Hg-treated soils with the application of CSP. These results implied that CSP could ameliorate Hg toxicity to corn seedlings by inhibiting the uptake and the translocation of Hg in plants on Hg-polluted soils. PMID:21179956

  12. Effects of Sewage Sludge and Chemical Fertilizers on Pb and Cd Accumulation in Fenugreek (Trigonella gracum)

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Cheraghi; Soheil Sobhanardakani; Bahareh Lorestani

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reprocessing of sewage sludge to agricultural land is preferred to disposal through landfill or incineration due to its potentially beneficial effects on soil fertility from organic matter and plant nutrients, such as N and P, present in the sludge. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the impact of sewage sludge and chemical fertilizers on Pb and Cd accumulation in fenugreek, Trigonella gracum. Methods: The experiment was carried out in earthen pots, 30 cm in dia...

  13. Predicting Nitrogen in Streams: A Comparison of Two Estimates of Fertilizer Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehaffey, M.; Neale, A.

    2011-12-01

    Decision makers frequently rely on water and air quality models to develop nutrient management strategies. Obviously, the results of these models (e.g., SWAT, SPARROW, CMAQ) are only as good as the nutrient source input data and recently the Nutrient Innovations Task Group has called for a better accounting of nonpoint nutrient sources. Currently, modelers frequently rely on county level fertilizer sales records combined with acreage of crops to estimate nitrogen sources from fertilizer for counties or watersheds. However, since fertilizer sales data are based on reported amounts they do not necessarily reflect actual use on the fields. In addition the reported sales data quality varies by state resulting in differing accuracy between states. In this study we examine an alternative method potentially providing a more uniform, spatially explicit, estimate of fertilizer use. Our nitrogen application data is estimated at a 30m pixel resolution which allows for scalable inputs for use in water and air quality models. To develop this dataset we combined raster data from the National Cropland data layer (CDL) data with the National Land Cover Data (NLCD). This process expanded the NLCD's 'cultivated crops' classes to included major grains, cover crops, and vegetable and fruits. The Agriculture Resource Management Survey chemical fertilizer application rate data were summarized by crop type and year for each state, encompassing the corn, soybean, spring wheat, and winter wheat crop types (ARMS, 2002-2005). The chemical fertilizer application rate data were then used to estimate annual application parameters for nitrogen, phosphate, potash, herbicide, pesticide, and total pesticide, all expressed on a mass-per-unit-crop-area basis for each state for each crop type. By linking crop types to nitrogen application rates, we can better estimate where applied fertilizer would likely be in excess of the amounts used by crops or where conservation practices may improve retention

  14. The Use of Organic vs. Chemical Fertilizer with a Mineral Losses Tax: The Case of Dutch Arable Farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feinerman, E.; Komen, M.H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The paper focuses on farm-level nitrogen fertilization strategies of Dutch arable farmers for analyzing the substitution of organic fertilizers (manure) with chemical fertilizers. The model developed investigates the impact of the major parameters affecting the inferiority of manure compared with ch

  15. Effects of soil water conditions and organic and chemical fertilizers on growth characteristics and water use efficiency of rice in an alkaline non-calcareous soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbasi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a greenhouse research, the effects of soil water conditions, sewage sludge and chemical fertilizers on growth characteristics and water use efficiency of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Ali Kazemi were studied in a loamy sand alkaline non-calcareous soil. The study was performed as a factorial experiment in a randomized complete blocks design including soil water conditions in three levels (continuous submergence, alternate submergence and alternate saturation and source and amount of organic and chemical fertilizers in 10 levels [control, 100% chemical fertilizers (434.8 mg urea, 66.1 mg KH2PO4, 40 mg KCl, 50 mg FeSO4.7H2O, 38.5 mg FeSO4.7H2O, 21.3 mg ZnSO4.7H2O and 7.9 mg CuSO4.5H2O per kg of soil, 20 g sewage sludge per kg of soil with and without 50% of chemical fertilizers, 40 g sewage sludge per kg of soil with and without 50% of chemical fertilizers, 20 g poultry manure per kg of soil with and without 50% of chemical fertilizers and 40 g poultry manure per kg of soil with and without 50% of chemical fertilizers] with three replications. At the end of growth period, tiller and leaf number per plant, length and diameter of stem, length and volume of roots, and shoot and root dry matter were measured and water use efficiency (WUE was calculated. The results showed that application of 20 and 40 g poultry manure per kg of soil prevented the growth of rice due to increase of soil salinity. Application of 20 and 40 g sewage sludge per kg of soil increased significantly tiller and leaf number per plant, length and diameter of stem, length and volume of roots, shoot and root dry matter and WUE compared to control and 100% chemical fertilizers treatments. Addition of 50% chemical fertilizers to 40 g sewage sludge per kg of soil did not significantly affect tiller and leaf number per plant, stem length, volume of roots, shoot dry matter and WUE of rice. The highest tiller number per plant, stem diameter, root length and the ratio of shoot dry matter to

  16. Effect of nitrogen and fish manure fertilization on growth and chemical composition of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ertan; Kul, Raziye; Turan, Metin; Ekinci, Melek; Alak, Gonca; Atamanalp, Muhammet

    2016-04-01

    Present experiment was designed to determine the response of various dozes of fish manure (FM) and commercial fertilizers on plant growth, yield and nutrient content of lettuce. The treatments consisted of fish manure, commercial fertilizer and the combination of fish manure and commercial fertilizer with four dozes of nitrogen (0 kg/ha, 100 kg/ha, 150 kg/ha and 200 kg/ha). The results of the study showed that treatments significantly affected the growth and chemical characteristics of lettuce. The best results in regard to plant growth and yield were obtained from 100 and 150 kg kg/ha nitrogen dozes of the combination of fish manure and commercial fertilizer.

  17. Profiling contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients to evaluate the effects of pesticides and organic and chemical fertilizers on tomato fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masami; Ohta, Yuko; Licang, Sun; Motoyama, Naoki; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients were measured in tomatoes cultured using organic and chemical fertilizers, with or without pesticides. Mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, respectively, and results were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). The mineral nutrient and water-soluble metabolite profiles differed between organic and chemical fertilizer applications, which accounted for 88.0% and 55.4%, respectively, of the variation. (1)H-(13)C-hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified aliphatic protons that contributed to the discrimination of PCA. Pesticide application had little effect on mineral nutrient content (except Fe and P), but affected the correlation between mineral nutrients and metabolites. Differences in the content of mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites resulting from different fertilizer and pesticide applications probably affect tomato quality.

  18. Response of nitric and nitrous oxide fluxes to N fertilizer application in greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaojun; Lin, Feng; Jin, Yaguo; Wang, Xiaofei; Liu, Shuwei; Zou, Jianwen

    2016-02-01

    It is of great concern worldwide that active nitrogenous gases in the global nitrogen cycle contribute to regional and global-scale environmental issues. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) are generally interrelated in soil nitrogen biogeochemical cycles, while few studies have simultaneously examined these two gases emission from typical croplands. Field experiments were conducted to measure N2O and NO fluxes in response to chemical N fertilizer application in annual greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in southeast China. Annual N2O and NO fluxes averaged 52.05 and 14.87 μg N m-2 h-1 for the controls without N fertilizer inputs, respectively. Both N2O and NO emissions linearly increased with N fertilizer application. The emission factors of N fertilizer for N2O and NO were estimated to be 1.43% and 1.15%, with an annual background emission of 5.07 kg N2O-N ha-1 and 1.58 kg NO-N ha-1, respectively. The NO-N/N2O-N ratio was significantly affected by cropping type and fertilizer application, and NO would exceed N2O emissions when soil moisture is below 54% WFPS. Overall, local conventional input rate of chemical N fertilizer could be partially reduced to attain high yield of vegetable and low N2O and NO emissions in greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in China.

  19. Effects of Combined Application of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers on Soil Nitrogen Transformation, Yield and Quality of Tomato%有机无机肥配施对土壤氮素转化和番茄产量品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵征宇; 孙永红; 赵明; 蔡葵; 王文娇; 陈建美

    2013-01-01

    通过大田番茄试验,进行了有机肥与无机肥不同配比施用对土壤NO3--N和NH4+-N含量以及番茄产量和品质的影响研究.结果表明,在施氮量相同的条件下,番茄各生育期土壤NO3--N和NH4+-N含量随无机N配施比例的增加而增加,变化动态相似.番茄拉秧期不同施肥处理土壤全N和有机C含量有明显变化,且均为高量有机肥配施处理>低量有机肥配施处理>化肥处理.有机氮与无机氮配施比例为3∶2,对土壤N素矿化与固持、土壤全N与有机C的提升以及增加番茄产量较为有利.番茄果实中可溶性糖、酸和维生素C含量的变化规律与肥料施用无相关性,可能是受番茄产量高低的影响.各处理的番茄果实硝酸盐含量随有机肥配施比例的增加而下降,番茄果实硝酸盐和亚硝酸盐含量均低于国家限量标准.%A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of chemical fertilizers application combine with manure with different combined rate on soil NO3--N and NH4+ -N as well as tomato yield and quality. The results in dicated that soil NO3 -N contents increased with chemical fertilizer contents increased. And soil NH4+ -N contents showed the similar tends. The total nitrogen and organic carbon contents in soil changed significantly at tomato har vest stage. The sequence from higher to lower was high manure fertilizer treatment, low manure fertilizer treatment and chemical fertilizer treatment. The mineralization and immobilization of soil nitrogen, total nitrogen, organic car bon and tomato yield get favorable effect when the combined rate of organic nitrogen and chemical nitrogen was 3:2. However,statistical results indicated there were no obvious relativity between the content of soluble sugar,or ganic acid and Vc in different fertilizer treatments. Which maybe impact by different tomato yields. The nitrate con tents in tomato fruits decreased with the increase of manure fertilizer ratio. The nitrate

  20. Effect of Organic Fertilizers on Soil Chemical Properties on Vineyard Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Karažija

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic fertilizers are an important contribution of organic matter that modify the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of the soil. The aim of investigation was to determine the effect of different organic fertilization on soil chemical properties on vineyard calcareous soil. Two-year fertilization trial was carried out in the Plešivica wine-growing region, in a 10-year old vineyard, cv. Sauvignon White grafted on Kobber 5BB rootstock, planted on soil with quite high pH for grapevine growing. The trial was performed according to randomize complete block design with 6 treatments (unfertilized, farmyard manure 20 t ha-1 and 40 t ha-1, peat 20 000 L ha-1 and 40 000 L ha-1, NPK 5-20-30 500 kg ha-1+200 kg UREA ha-1 in 4 repetitions. Statistically significant differences in soil reaction (pH in plowing layer (0-30 cm were found among fertilization treatments in the second year of studies. In the plowing layer (0-30 cm in both years of the study significant differences between the values of average total nitrogen content and available phosphorus as well were found, while there were no significant differences in the subplowing layer (30-60cm. Regarding to average value of fertilization treatment, statistically significant difference in the content of available potassium in plowing layer were found in the both investigated years, while in subplowing layer statistical differences were found in the first year of investigation only. Therefore, fertilization with different organic fertilizers significantly influenced the most of studied chemical properties of the soil, especially in plowing layer (0-30 cm.

  1. Effects of Cattle Barnyard Compost and Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Yield and Chemical Composition of Maize (Zea mays L.) and Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) in Double Cropping System

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Ahmad Darobin; Kumagai, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cattle barnyard compost (CBC) and nitrogen (N) fertilizer on soil and on yield and quality of maize (MZ) and italian ryegrass (IR) in double cropping system. The experiment used 4 rates of CBC and N fertilizer, respectively, i.e. CBC at rate of 0, 3, 6, 9 ton/10a and N fertilizer at rate of 0, 18, 36, 54 kg N/10a for MZ and 0, 10, 20, 30 kg N/10a for IR. Cattle barnyard compost increased organic matter and total N in soil. There was n...

  2. Application of nuclear technique to assess the optimization and benefits from bio and organic fertilization of some vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two field experiments were, conducted in the Plant Nutrition and Fertilization Unit, Soils and Water Department Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt, assessing application of N in totally organic or totally mineral or different mixtures with the rat of N (being fixed) with or without bio fertilizers carried out following design factorial complete block design with three replicates .In the first one, pea was planted and in the second cucumber was planted in the same plots. This study was planned to Determine the contribution of mineral, organic and bio fertilizers in supplying plant with nitrogen using nuclear technology 15N and assess the optimization and benefits from bio and organic fertilization of some vegetables .Fertilization treatments indicated that the combination of 50% mineral fertilizer + 50% organic compost was superior over all other treatments. It means that half of the recommended dose of mineral fertilizer is enough to meet the requirement of pea and cucumber crops when supplemented with organic compost. This combination may have an environmental impact since it would reduce the risks of chemical fertilizers.

  3. Effects of Chemical Fertilizer Combined with Crushed Straw Application on Soil Evaporation of Winter Wheat%秸秆粉碎还田与化肥配施对冬小麦棵间蒸发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董勤各; 冯浩; 杜健

    2012-01-01

    The Micro-lysimeters were employed to determine the process of soil evaporation of winter wheat at its growth stages under chemical fertilizer combined with crushed straw(S) and current chemical fertilizer(R).The effects of S on soil evaporation were investigated in the wheat field,and the differences of soil evaporation were studied among seven varieties of winter wheat.The results showed that the effects of S on soil evaporation varied to a certain degree at different growing stages.The daily soil evaporation existed the same law under S and R and the accumulative soil evaporation under S was lower than the R's.The soil evaporation of different winter wheat varieties was inhibited significantly by S,and the ratios of restraining soil evaporation ranged from 8.02% to 11.60%;the amount of evaporation about 12 mm was translated into transpiration owing to the use of S.The soil evaporation of different varieties had no obvious difference and variation.%采用微型蒸渗仪测定了冬小麦农田的棵间蒸发量,分析了秸秆粉碎还田与化肥配施和常规施肥两种措施下不同品种冬小麦生育期棵间蒸发量的差异。结果表明:秸秆粉碎还田与化肥配施对棵间蒸发有一定的影响,在各个生育期差异程度有所不同;两种肥料措施的逐日棵间蒸发量规律基本一致;秸秆粉碎还田与化肥配施对棵间蒸发的抑制效果明显,抑制蒸发率在8.02%~11.60%之间,可以使12 mm左右的土壤水分由无效耗水转化为作物蒸腾水;不同品种间的棵间蒸发量差异很小。

  4. Soil pH Dynamics and Nitrogen Transformations Under Long-Term Chemical Fertilization in Four Typical Chinese Croplands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Hong-qi; XU Ming-gang; L Jia-long; HE Xin-hua; LI Jian-wei; SHI Xiao-jun; PENG Chang; WANG Bo-ren; ZHANG Hui-min

    2013-01-01

    Long-term fertilization experiment provides the platform for understanding the proton budgets in nitrogen transformations of agricultural ecosystems. We analyzed the historical (1990-2005) observations on four agricultural long-term experiments in China (Changping, Chongqing, Gongzhuling and Qiyang) under four different fertilizations, i.e., no-fertilizer (control), sole chemical nitrogen fertilizer (FN), sole chemical phosphorous and potassium fertilizers (FPK) and chemical nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium fertilizers (FNPK). The significant decline in topsoil pH was caused not only by chemical N fertilization (0.29 and 0.89∆pH at Gongzhuling and Qiyang, respectively) but also by chemical PK fertilization (0.59∆pH at Gongzhuling). The enhancement of available nutrients in the topsoil due to long-term direct nutrients supply with chemical fertilizers was in the descending order of available P (168-599%)>available K (16-189%)>available N (9-33%). The relative rate of soil pH decline was lower under long-term judicious chemical fertilization (-0.036-0.034 ∆pH yr-1) than that under long-term sole N or PK fertilization (0.016-0.086 ∆pH yr-1). Long-term judicious chemical fertilization with N, P and K elements decreases the nutritional limitation to normal crop growth, under which more N output was distributed in biomass removal rather than the loss via nitrate leaching. We concluded that the N distribution percentage of nitrate leaching to biomass removal might be a suitable indicator to the sensitivity of agricultural ecosystems to acid inputs.

  5. Fertilizer/Chemical Sales and Service Worker. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for fertilizer/chemical sales and service workers. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the occupational,…

  6. PHOSPHATE FERTILIZERS AS GENERATIVE SUBJECT OF CHEMICAL KNOWLEDGE

    OpenAIRE

    SANTOS, Ana Flávia dos; ARAÚJO, Sandra Cristina Marquez

    2010-01-01

    The process of Chemistry teach-learning is being object of concern to educators of the area since a long time. This concern has stimulated a search for improvements in the quality of education, what it evidences the number of projects that aim expressive changes in the pedagogical practices. In this direction, the approach of chemical contents with the subject “Phosphate Fertilizers” had as objective show for the students the other side of Chemistry, with intention to promote a differentia...

  7. Application Effect of Organic Fertilizer in Wheat Production%有机肥在小麦生产上的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟; 麻建东

    2015-01-01

    In order to find out the reasonable use of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer,to understand the application effect of organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer,the study on effect of organic fertilizer in wheat production in 2014 was carried out,the results showed that,the use of organic manure and chemical fertilizer could significantly increase the yield of wheat.%为摸清有机肥与化肥的合理使用量,了解有机肥与无机肥配合应用效果,2014年在小麦生产上对有机肥进行肥效研究,结果表明有机肥与化肥配合使用可使小麦显著增产。

  8. Verrucomicrobial community structure and abundance as indicators for changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Soares, Tielle; Rossetto, Raffaella; van Veen, Johannes Antonie; Tsai, Siu Mui; Kuramae, Eiko Eurya

    2015-09-01

    Here we show that verrucomicrobial community structure and abundance are extremely sensitive to changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint and real-time quantitative PCR assay were used to analyze changes in verrucomicrobial communities associated with contrasting soil nutrient conditions in tropical regions. In case study Model I ("Slash-and-burn deforestation") the verrucomicrobial community structures revealed disparate patterns in nutrient-enriched soils after slash-and-burn deforestation and natural nutrient-poor soils under an adjacent primary forest in the Amazonia (R = 0.819, P = 0.002). The relative proportion of Verrucomicrobia declined in response to increased soil fertility after slash-and-burn deforestation, accounting on average, for 4 and 2 % of the total bacterial signal, in natural nutrient-poor forest soils and nutrient-enriched deforested soils, respectively. In case study Model II ("Management practices for sugarcane") disparate patterns were revealed in sugarcane rhizosphere sampled on optimal and deficient soil fertility for sugarcane (R = 0.786, P = 0.002). Verrucomicrobial community abundance in sugarcane rhizosphere was negatively correlated with soil fertility, accounting for 2 and 5 % of the total bacterial signal, under optimal and deficient soil fertility conditions for sugarcane, respectively. In nutrient-enriched soils, verrucomicrobial community structures were related to soil factors linked to soil fertility, such as total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and sum of bases, i.e., the sum of calcium, magnesium and potassium contents. We conclude that community structure and abundance represent important ecological aspects in soil verrucomicrobial communities for tracking the changes in chemical factors linked to soil fertility under tropical environmental conditions. PMID:26184407

  9. Effect of Azolla Based - Organic Fertilizer, Rock Phosphate and Rice Hull Ash on Rice Yield and Chemical Properties of Alfisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of chemical fertilizer for long time may adverse soil environment. Organic agriculture, for example combination use of azolla based-organic fertilizer, phosphate rock and rice hull ash, was one of ways that able to recover it. Research was conducted in Sukosari, Jumantono, Karanganyar while soi chemical properties analysis was analysed in Soil Chemistry and Fertility Laboratory, Fac. of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University April to November 2013. Research design used was RAKL with 5 treatments, each repeated 5 times. The treatments applied were P0 (control, P1 ( azola inoculum dosage 250 g/m2 + phosphate rock + rice hull ash equal to 150 kg/ha KCl, P2 (azola inoculum dosage 500 g/m2 + phosphate rock equal to 150kg/ha, SP-36 + rice hull ash equal to 100 kg/ha KCl, P3 (manure dosage of 5 ton/ha,P4 (Urea 250 kg/ha + SP-36 150 kg/ha + KCl 100 kg/ha. Data analysed statistically by F test (Fisher test with level of confident 95% followed by DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test if any significant differences. The result showed that the treatment combination of azolla, phosphate rock and rice hull ash increase soil organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, available-P and exchangeable-K as well as rice yield ( (at harvest-dry grain weight and milled-dry grain weight.

  10. Social and Economic Reasons for Changed Approach to the Use of Chemical Fertilizers in Hungary Chemical Fertilizers Management Change in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Péter Urfi; Péter MolnÁr; Ernő KovÁcs

    1999-01-01

    The history of chemical fertilization in Hungary over the last three decades, could be divided into three periods: an extremely fast increase of consumption from the middle 60's to the middle 70's; a period of constancy till the 90's; permanent decrease, the phase of new reckless exploitation up to the present. The Hungarian nutrient-management has had a strongly negative nutrient-balance for the last 8 years. This fact is quite a problem for our country in meeting the expectations of EU memb...

  11. Effects of Sewage Sludge and Chemical Fertilizers on Pb and Cd Accumulation in Fenugreek (Trigonella gracum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Cheraghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reprocessing of sewage sludge to agricultural land is preferred to disposal through landfill or incineration due to its potentially beneficial effects on soil fertility from organic matter and plant nutrients, such as N and P, present in the sludge. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the impact of sewage sludge and chemical fertilizers on Pb and Cd accumulation in fenugreek, Trigonella gracum. Methods: The experiment was carried out in earthen pots, 30 cm in diameter and 30 cm in depth. The study was done on five groups- control, S1: sewage sludge (50 tone/ha, S2: sew-age sludge (50 tone/ha+heavy metals [85 ppm of Cd(Cl2; 840 ppm of Pb(NO32], F1: chemi-cal fertilizer (250 kg/ha, and F2: chemical fertilizer (250 kg/ha+ heavy metals [85 ppm of Cd(Cl2; 840 ppm of Pb(NO32]- in three replicates. Results: The results showed that total Pb concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 2 mg/kg, with the maximum level in the sewage sludge treatment (S2 while Cd concentrations in the plant ranged from 0.07 to 1.1 mg/kg with the maximum content in the chemical fertilizer treatment (F2. The concentrations of Pb and Cd in vegetables were significantly higher than the permis-sible limits. Conclusion: This study highlights the potential risks involved in the cultivation and consump-tion of vegetables on plots irrigated with sewage sludge, a practice which may endanger the health of urban populations that consume these vegetables.

  12. Effects of silicate application on soil fertility and wheat yield

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Vinícius Mansano Sarto; Maria do Carmo Lana; Leandro Rampim; Jean Sérgio Rosset; Jaqueline Rocha Wobeto

    2015-01-01

    An improvement in soil chemical properties and crop development with silicate application has been confirmed in several plant species. The effects of silicate application on soil chemical properties and wheat growth were investigated in the present study. The experiment was carried out in 8-L plastic pots in a greenhouse. Treatments were arranged in a randomized block design in a 3 × 5 factorial: three soils [Rhodic Acrudox (Ox1), Rhodic Hapludox (Ox2) and Arenic Hapludult (Ult)] and five sil...

  13. Effects of Phosphate Chemical Fertilizers and Biologic Fertilizers in Various Moisture Regimes on Some Morphological Characteristics and Seeds Performance in Maize S.C. 704

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ali Koliaei

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In farming year 2008, a test as split factorial plan in form of fully random block was carried out in three frequencies at the Resarch Farm of Aboureyhan Pardis of Tehran University to study the effects of different irrigation regimes (water tension and biologic fertilizer, consisting a mixture containing (2 phosphate solvent microorganisms and various amounts of phosphate fertilizers on some morphological characteristics and performance of hybrid SC704 maize seeds. The stress treatment (low irrigation in three levels(a consisting 75, 100 and 125 mm accumulation evaporation, the evaporation dish class A was used as the main factor; the minor factors included a combination biologic fertilizers in two levels(b (use or not use along with phosphate chemical fertilities from triple super phosphate source in 4 levels(c, including no use of fertilizer (0, 75, 150 and 225 kg/ha as factorial in secondary in field experimental plot. In this test, the process of changes in dry weight of stem and leaves, height, chlorophyll amount and the seeds and biologic performances were studied. By taking distance from optimized humidity and nutritional conditions, significant decrease in the characteristics subject of study was observed. The destructive conditions of height stress and amount of chlorophyll in the leave in 125mm evaporation treatment (severe stress was seriously reduced. In normal humidity conditions, using biologic fertilizer and consuming 150 kg/ha, the triple super phosphate fertilizer increased seeds performance significantly and the effect of biologic fertilizer was in a way that by producing organic acids and phosphates enzyme in insoluble phosphate, it performed effectively and showed that in conditions of using this fertilizer with respect to the results obtained, it could decrease chemical fertilizer consumption up to 50 percents.

  14. Fessibility Study on Nitrogen in Explosives using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy: Chemical Fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was known that an explosive is defined as a material which contains a large amount of energy stored in chemical bonds. The energetic stability of gaseous products, and hence, their generation come from the strong bond formation of carbon (mono/di)oxide and (di)nitrogen. Consequently, most commercial explosives are contained -NO2, -ONO2 and/or -NHNO2 groups which when detonated release gases like the aforementioned ones, e.g., nitroglycerin, TNT, HMX, PETN, nitrocellulose, etc. It was revealed that the elemental compositions, especially N was found in most of the explosive and fertilizer. Chemical fertilizers that used as explosive stimulants were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). XPS spectra showed relatively high amount of nitrogen (N) in the various samples, especially sample #6 and #7. In addition, the elemental analysis revealed the presence of trace elements. Explosives and fertilizers have differences in specific compositions. It can be concluded that these methods seem to be used as a fingerprint examination to identify various kinds of explosives and fertilizers.

  15. Farmers' Character and Behavior of Fertilizer Application - Evidence from a Survey of Xinxiang County, Henan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Hong-yun; ZHAO Lian-ge

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural chemical use has caused a public concern over environmental issue while decisions about applying chemicals are made by individual farmers. The critical decision-making role of farmers relative to agricultural chemical use creates a need for accurate information on their perceptions of various chemical-related hazards and the factors that may influence such judgments. Based on data collected from 177 land operators at Xinxiang County in Henan Province of China, an empirical analysis is conducted to examine the relationship between farmers' character and the behavior of fertilizer application. Study findings reveal that: the characteristics of household head and household, and the nature of farming management positively affect the amount of fertilizers applied; information on fertilizers and the knowledge about environmental impact of fertilizer application have negative impacts by contrast. To formulate effective pollution control policies at the farm level, it is imperative for policy-makers to convey information to producers by demonstration projects, technical assistance, and education programs. Under a changed political environment, some combination of education and economic incentives could be lower cost and more effective tools for achieving desired environmental conservative goals.

  16. Nutrients behavior from the association pig slurry and chemical fertilizers on soybean crop

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Smanhotto; Silvio César Sampaio; Tatiane Cristina Dal Bosco; Maritane Prior; Rosimaldo Soncela

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effects of pig slurry application with mineral fertilizer on ions leaching from the soil in soybean crop. The experiment was carried out in 24 drainage lysimeters under protection. The soybean cultivar CD 202/COODETEC was sown in a soil that received 0, 100, 200 and 300 m³ha-1of pig slurry in one cycle, with or without mineral fertilizer. There were three samplings of soil throughout the trial to determine the pH, N, NO3-, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, Cu+2, Zn+2, OM...

  17. Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, a...

  18. Long-term fertilization alters chemically-separated soil organic carbon pools: Based on stable C isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools under the influence of long-term fertilization is essential for predicting carbon (C) sequestration. We combined soil chemical fractionation with stable C isotope analyses to investigate the C dynamics of the various SOC pools after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples (0-20, 20-40 cm) including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, IN; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into recalcitrant and labile fractions, and the fractions were analysed for C content, C:N ratios, δ13C values, soil C and N recalcitrance indexes (RIC and RIN). Chemical fractionation showed long-term MNPK fertilization strongly increased the SOC storage in both soil layers (0-20 cm = 1492.4 gC m2 and 20-40 cm = 1770.6 gC m2) because of enhanced recalcitrant C (RC) and labile C (LC). The 25 years of inorganic fertilizer treatment did not increase the SOC storage mainly because of the offsetting effects of enhanced RC and decreased LC, whereas no clear SOC increases under the SNPK fertilization resulted from the fast decay rates of soil C.

  19. Long-term fertilization alters chemically-separated soil organic carbon pools: Based on stable C isotope analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools under the influence of long-term fertilization is essential for predicting carbon (C) sequestration. We combined soil chemical fractionation with stable C isotope analyses to investigate the C dynamics of the various SOC pools after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples (0-20, 20-40 cm) including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, IN; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into recalcitrant and labile fractions, and the fractions were analysed for C content, C:N ratios, δ(13)C values, soil C and N recalcitrance indexes (RIC and RIN). Chemical fractionation showed long-term MNPK fertilization strongly increased the SOC storage in both soil layers (0-20 cm = 1492.4 gC m(2) and 20-40 cm = 1770.6 gC m(2)) because of enhanced recalcitrant C (RC) and labile C (LC). The 25 years of inorganic fertilizer treatment did not increase the SOC storage mainly because of the offsetting effects of enhanced RC and decreased LC, whereas no clear SOC increases under the SNPK fertilization resulted from the fast decay rates of soil C.

  20. Long-term incorporation of manure with chemical fertilizers reduced total nitrogen loss in rain-fed cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yinghua; Xu, Minggang; Gao, Suduan; Liu, Hua; Huang, Shaomin; Wang, Boren

    2016-09-01

    Improving soil fertility/productivity and reducing environmental impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization are essential for sustainable agriculture. Quantifying the contribution of various fertilization regimes to soil N storage and loss has been lacking in a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Based on data collected from field experiments at three typical agricultural zones in China, soil N dynamics and N changes in soil profile (0–100 cm) were examined during 1990–2009 under chemical fertilization, manure incorporation with fertilizer, and fertilizer with straw return treatments. We employed a mass balance approach to estimate the N loss to the environment after taking into account soil N change. Results showed a significant increase in soil N storage under manure incorporation treatments, accompanied with the lowest N loss (ave.20–24% of total N input) compared to all other treatments (ave.35–63%). Both soil N distribution and mass balance data suggested higher leaching risk from chemical fertilization in acidic soil of southern China with higher precipitation than the other two sites. This research concludes that manure incorporation with chemical fertilizer not only can achieve high N use efficiency and improve soil fertility, but also leads to the lowest total N loss or damage to the environment.

  1. Long-term incorporation of manure with chemical fertilizers reduced total nitrogen loss in rain-fed cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yinghua; Xu, Minggang; Gao, Suduan; Liu, Hua; Huang, Shaomin; Wang, Boren

    2016-01-01

    Improving soil fertility/productivity and reducing environmental impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization are essential for sustainable agriculture. Quantifying the contribution of various fertilization regimes to soil N storage and loss has been lacking in a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Based on data collected from field experiments at three typical agricultural zones in China, soil N dynamics and N changes in soil profile (0–100 cm) were examined during 1990–2009 under chemical fertilization, manure incorporation with fertilizer, and fertilizer with straw return treatments. We employed a mass balance approach to estimate the N loss to the environment after taking into account soil N change. Results showed a significant increase in soil N storage under manure incorporation treatments, accompanied with the lowest N loss (ave.20–24% of total N input) compared to all other treatments (ave.35–63%). Both soil N distribution and mass balance data suggested higher leaching risk from chemical fertilization in acidic soil of southern China with higher precipitation than the other two sites. This research concludes that manure incorporation with chemical fertilizer not only can achieve high N use efficiency and improve soil fertility, but also leads to the lowest total N loss or damage to the environment. PMID:27650801

  2. Long-term incorporation of manure with chemical fertilizers reduced total nitrogen loss in rain-fed cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yinghua; Xu, Minggang; Gao, Suduan; Liu, Hua; Huang, Shaomin; Wang, Boren

    2016-01-01

    Improving soil fertility/productivity and reducing environmental impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization are essential for sustainable agriculture. Quantifying the contribution of various fertilization regimes to soil N storage and loss has been lacking in a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Based on data collected from field experiments at three typical agricultural zones in China, soil N dynamics and N changes in soil profile (0-100 cm) were examined during 1990-2009 under chemical fertilization, manure incorporation with fertilizer, and fertilizer with straw return treatments. We employed a mass balance approach to estimate the N loss to the environment after taking into account soil N change. Results showed a significant increase in soil N storage under manure incorporation treatments, accompanied with the lowest N loss (ave.20-24% of total N input) compared to all other treatments (ave.35-63%). Both soil N distribution and mass balance data suggested higher leaching risk from chemical fertilization in acidic soil of southern China with higher precipitation than the other two sites. This research concludes that manure incorporation with chemical fertilizer not only can achieve high N use efficiency and improve soil fertility, but also leads to the lowest total N loss or damage to the environment. PMID:27650801

  3. Benchmarking the Fertilizer and Crop Protectant Application Activities of Agricultural Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Ouedraogo, Frederic; Phillip, Kenkel

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to benchmark agricultural supply cooperatives regarding their fertilizer application services. Cooperative fertilizer application departments are essentially an extension of member farm operations. Because farm supply cooperatives return profits to their user members, the efficiency of the application department directly impacts farm profitability. Therefore, a benchmark analysis is needed to compare performances among competitive cooperatives, identify the best practices, ...

  4. Organic and mineral fertilization and chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B. Sodré

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae, is an herb with great growth prospects in the cosmetic industry due to its essential oil. In order to improve its production, it is necessary to study related agricultural practices. This study evaluated the effect of organic and mineral fertilization on the chemical composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. essential oil. The assay was conducted at the "Fazenda Experimental do Glória" of the Federal University of Uberlândia, and essential oil extraction and GC/MS analyses were completed by the Centre for Research and Development on Plant Genetic Resources of the Campinas Agronomic Institute. The assay was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The tested treatments were six types of fertilization (0, 1, 2, 4, 8 kg.m-2 of cattle manure and mineral fertilizing with 60 g.m-2 of NPK 4-14-8 + 4 g.m-2 of boric acid with four replications. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a modified Clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The essential oil presented the same compounds for all treatments; however, the relative proportion of some chemical constituents was altered according to the treatment. Neral, geranial, and citronellal were the major constituents.

  5. The Input of Chemical Fertilizer and Soil Nutrient in Apple Orchard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Li-zhi; YOU Hai-xia; WANG Gan; SUN Xue-yan

    2012-01-01

    In order to get the formation about the content of alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen in soil, available phosphorus and available potassium, and the input of chemical fertilizer in apple orchard, we survey 25 peasant households’ input of chemical fertilizer in apple orchard, and collect soil samples for measuring and analysis. The results show that the average input of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium nutrient is 839.6 kg/hm2, 520.4 kg/hm2, and 899.7 kg/hm2, respectively; the input proportion of nitrogen to phosphorus to potassium nutrient is 1∶0.62∶1.07; in 0-60cm soil, the average content of alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen is 53.49 mg/kg, the average content of available phosphorus in soil is 70.73 kg/mg, and the average content of available potassium in soil is 180.1 mg/kg (the proportion of alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen to available phosphorus to available potassium in soil is 1:1.32:3.37). It indicates that the overall level of input of chemical fertilizer in apple orchard is relatively high; the content of alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen in soil is very low on the whole, the content of available phosphorus in soil is very high, and the content of available potassium in soil is high.

  6. Disk shaped radiation sources for education purposes made of chemical fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for fabricating a disk-shaped radiation source from material containing natural radioisotopes was developed. In this compression and formation method, a certain amount of powdered material is placed in a stainless steel formwork and compressed to form a solid disk. Using this method, educational radiation sources were fabricated using commercially available chemical fertilizers that naturally contain the radionuclide, 40K, which emits either beta or gamma rays, at each disintegration. The compression and formation method was evaluated by inspecting eleven radiation sources thus fabricated. Then the suitability of the fertilizer radiation source as an education aid was evaluated. The results showed that the method could be used to fabricate radiation sources without the need for learning special skills or techniques. It was also found that the potassium fertilizer radiation source could be used to demonstrate that the inverse-square law can be applied to the distance between the radiation source and detector, and that an exponential relationship can be seen between the shielding effectiveness and the total thickness of the shielding materials. It is concluded that a natural fertilizer radiation source is an appropriate aid for demonstrating the characteristics of radiation. (author)

  7. [Effects of different potassium fertilizer application periods on the yield and quality of Fuji apple].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yong-li; Yang, Xian-long; Li, Ru; Li, Shui-li; Tong, Yan-an

    2015-04-01

    In order to ascertain the effects of potassium fertilizer application periods on apple production, we conducted a field experiment and analyzed the differences in apple yield, fruit quality, potassium fertilizer use efficiency, and nutrient concentrations in leaves and fruits among treatments with differences in timing of potassium application. The results indicated that, compared with no potassium-applied treatment (CK), all potassium fertilizer application treatments significantly increased the apple yield by 4.3%-33.2%, meanwhile, it also obviously improved the fruit quality. In comparison with the application of 100% potassium fertilizer as a base, the application of 50% or 100% of potassium fertilizer at the fruit enlargement stage (the remaining 50% applied as a base or after flowering) significantly increased the apple yield by 20.5% - 27.7% and improved the fruit quality. Compared with the application 100% potassium fertilizer at the stage of fruit enlargement, the evenly split application as base flowering stage and at the fruit enlargement: stage not only contributed to a higher yield, better quality and higher potassium use efficiency, but also maintained a relatively stable potassium concentration level in leaves. However, the split potassium fertilizer application at the flowering and fruit enlargement stages resulted in the significant decrease in concentration of calcium in fruit, which would be negative to fruit quality. In conclusion, our research suggested that evenly split application of potassium fertilizer as a base and at the fruit enlargement stage was the suitable period for apple production in Fuji apple orchards in this region.

  8. Cadmium and zinc in soil solution extracts following the application of phosphate fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Raphaël; Grant, Cynthia; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated the solubility of cadmium and zinc in soils after the application of phosphate fertilizers containing those two metals. The solubility of cadmium and zinc was assessed by measuring their concentration in soil water extracts. Three monoammonium phosphate fertilizers containing various amounts of metals were applied on cultivated fields for 3 years at three different rates. In order to investigate the effects of long-term applications of fertilizers on the solubility of Cd and Zn, a similar design was used to apply contaminated fertilizers to soils in a laboratory experiment using a single fertilizer addition equivalent to 15 years of application. Phosphate fertilizers increased the concentration of Cd in soil extracts compared to control in 87% and 80% of the treatments in field and laboratory experiments respectively. Both increasing the rate of application and using fertilizer containing more Cd lead to higher Cd concentrations in extracts for the field and the laboratory experiments. The addition of the equivalent of 15 years of fertilizer application in the laboratory results in higher Cd concentration in extracts compared to the field experiment. For Zn, the fertilizer treatments enhanced the metal solution concentration in 83% of field treatments, but no significant correlations could be found between Zn inputs and its concentration in solution. In the laboratory, fertilizer additions increase the Zn concentrations in 53% of the treatments and decrease it in most of the other treatments. The decrease in Zn concentrations in the laboratory trial is attributed to the higher phosphate concentrations in the soil solution; which is presumed to have contributed to the precipitation of Zn-phosphates. For both trials, the metal concentrations in soil extracts cannot be related to the Zn concentration in the fertilizer or the rate of application. The high Zn to Cd ratio is presumably responsible for the Cd increase in the soil extracts due to

  9. Evaluation of a model recommended for N fertilizer application in irrigated rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGZhiming; YanLijiao; WANGZhaoqian

    1997-01-01

    The response of rice to N fertilizer application has shown that high rates of N application do not always ensure a proportional increase in yield due to high N losses. A model, ORYZA-0 was developed by ten Berge for designing optimum N fertilizer management strategy inrice . We evaluated the performance of ORYZA-0 in Jinhua. Zhejiang Province.

  10. Response of nitrogen, phosphorus and zinc efficiency of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum- graecum to combination of chemical and biological fertilizers in greenhouse culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of combination of chemical and biological fertilizers on dry matter, uptake and efficiency of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and zinc (Zn by fenugreek (Trigonella foenum- graecum, an experiment was conducted as randomized complete blocks design with three replications in the Research Greenhouse of Shahrekord University. Eight fertilizer treatments consisted of control (no fertilizer, urea fertilizer (UF, UF+ zinc sulfate (ZS, UF+ Azotobacter (Az, UF+ mycorrhiza (My, UF+ ZS+ Az, UF+ ZS+ My and UF+ ZS+ Az+ My. Results indicated that there was significant difference (P≤ 0.05 among different fertilizer treatments for agronomic efficiency of N, P and Zn. The highest agronomic efficiency of N, P and Zn (60, 96 and 198 g/g, respectively was achieved in UF+ZS+Az treatment. The highest P-uptake efficiency (18.7 % was observed in UF+My treatment and it had significant (P≤ 0.05 difference with other treatments, except UF+ZS treatment. The highest Zn physiologic efficiency was obtained in UF+ZS, which had no significant difference with UF+ ZS+ Az and UF+ ZS+ Az+ My. Maximum dry matter (292 g/m2 was produced in UF+ ZS+ Az treatment. In general, application of biofertilizers, especially Azotobacter, integrated with urea and zinc sulfate not only is effective in increasing dry matter, but also can increase productivity of fenugreek by increasing chemical fertilizers’ efficiency in greenhouse culture.

  11. Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha. PMID:22629204

  12. Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Oloyede

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November, and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P=0.05 depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha.

  13. Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha. PMID:22629204

  14. Power efficiency of mineral and organic fertilizers application in crop rotations

    OpenAIRE

    BOSAK V.M.

    2009-01-01

    In researches on sod podzolic light loamy soil the application of mineral and organic fertilizers has provided high indicators of agronomic and power efficiency. Entering of mineral fertilizers has raised efficiency of field crop rotations on 19,9-30,3 tha -1 of f.u., as well as entering of organic fertilizers on 5,2-10,8 tha -1 of f.u. at a recoupment of 1 ton of manure of 65,0-131,3 f.u. and 1 kg of NPK of 8,1-9,7 f.u. Power return of application of mineral fertilizers in crop rotations has...

  15. THE USE OF CHEMICALS AS FERTILIZERS. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. ONE OF A SERIES OF EIGHT MODULES, IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES. SUBJECT MATTER AREAS ARE (1) CHEMICAL NUTRITION OF PLANTS, (2) PLANT GROWTH, (3) TERMINOLOGY,…

  16. Growth and Yield of Chili Pepper under Different Time Application of Wedelia (Wedelia trilobata) and Siam Weed (Chromolaena odorata) Organic Fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Nanik Setyowati; Zainal Muktamar; Silma Oktiasa; Dwi W Ganefianti

    2014-01-01

    Low content of soil organic matter and low availability of nutrients in Ultisol are major constraints of this soil to support growth and development of chili pepper. Application of organic fertilizer is required to increase content of soil organic matter as well as to improve other chemical, biological, physical properties of this soil. Wedelia (Wedelia trilobata)  and Siam Weed (Chromolaena odorata)  are potential sources of organic fertilizer. The aim of this study was to compare growth and...

  17. Response of nitric and nitrous oxide fluxes to N fertilizer application in greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in southeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Yaojun Zhang; Feng Lin; Yaguo Jin; Xiaofei Wang; Shuwei Liu; Jianwen Zou

    2016-01-01

    It is of great concern worldwide that active nitrogenous gases in the global nitrogen cycle contribute to regional and global-scale environmental issues. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) are generally interrelated in soil nitrogen biogeochemical cycles, while few studies have simultaneously examined these two gases emission from typical croplands. Field experiments were conducted to measure N2O and NO fluxes in response to chemical N fertilizer application in annual greenhouse vegeta...

  18. Short-term fertilizer application alters phenotypic traits of symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Anna K; Han, Shery; Rekret, Phil; Rentschler, Christine S; Heath, Katy D; Stinchcombe, John R

    2015-01-01

    Fertilizer application is a common anthropogenic alteration to terrestrial systems. Increased nutrient input can impact soil microbial diversity or function directly through altered soil environments, or indirectly through plant-microbe feedbacks, with potentially important effects on ecologically-important plant-associated mutualists. We investigated the impacts of plant fertilizer, containing all common macro and micronutrients on symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), a group of bacteria that are important for plant productivity and ecosystem function. We collected rhizobia nodule isolates from natural field soil that was treated with slow-release plant fertilizer over a single growing season and compared phenotypic traits related to free-living growth and host partner quality in these isolates to those of rhizobia from unfertilized soils. Through a series of single inoculation assays in controlled glasshouse conditions, we found that isolates from fertilized field soil provided legume hosts with higher mutualistic benefits. Through growth assays on media containing variable plant fertilizer concentrations, we found that plant fertilizer was generally beneficial for rhizobia growth. Rhizobia isolated from fertilized field soil had higher growth rates in the presence of plant fertilizer compared to isolates from unfertilized field soil, indicating that plant fertilizer application favoured rhizobia isolates with higher abilities to utilize fertilizer for free-living growth. We found a positive correlation between growth responses to fertilizer and mutualism benefits among isolates from fertilized field soil, demonstrating that variable plant fertilizer induces context-dependent genetic correlations, potentially changing the evolutionary trajectory of either trait through increased trait dependencies. Our study shows that short-term application is sufficient to alter the composition of rhizobia isolates in the population or community, either directly

  19. Distribution of uranium in soil components of agricultural fields after long-term application of phosphate fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N. [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3, Kan-nondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)], E-mail: nyamag@affrc.go.jp; Kawasaki, A.; Iiyama, I. [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3, Kan-nondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    Long-term application of phosphate fertilizers causes accumulation of U in the surface soil of agricultural fields. We investigated the soil constituents that contribute to the accumulation of U by using chemical extraction methods. Surface soil samples were obtained from upland fields, pastures, and paddy fields cultivated without any phosphate fertilizer (control site), with NPK fertilizer (NPK site), and with both NPK fertilizer and compost (NPK + compost site) for more than 20 years. In addition to the total U (U{sub t}) concentration in soil, the concentrations of pyrophosphate- and acid oxalate-extractable U were determined as a measure of U associated with soil organic matter and poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals in soil, respectively. The total, pyrophosphate-extractable, and acid oxalate-extractable U concentrations were higher in the soil obtained from the NPK and NPK + compost sites than in that obtained from the control site. The difference in the U concentrations between the NPK or NPK + compost site and the control site corresponded with the increased U concentration observed after the application of the phosphate fertilizer or both the fertilizer and compost. In the upland field and pasture soil, the increase in pyrophosphate-extractable U was 83-94% of that in U{sub t}. On the other hand, the increase in acid oxalate-extractable U was 44-58% of that in U{sub t} in the upland field and pasture soil, but it was almost equivalent to the increase in U{sub t} in the paddy soil with NPK. In conclusion, most of the phosphate fertilizer-derived U was either incorporated into the soil organic matter or poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals in the surface soil of agricultural fields. Thus, soil organic matter is an important pool of U in upland field and pasture soil, whereas poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals are important pools of U in paddy soil experiencing alternating changes in redox conditions.

  20. Potassium fertilization for pineapple: effects on soil chemical properties and plant nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira; José Antonio Quaggio; Heitor Cantarella; Estêvão Vicari Mellis

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out on an Ultisol located at the city of Agudos (22º30'S; 49º03'W), in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to determine the effects of rates and sources of potassium fertilizer on nutritional status of 'Smooth Cayenne' pineapple and on some soil chemical properties. The experiment was a complete factorial design with four rates (0, 175, 350, and 700 kg ha-1 of K2O) and three combinations of K sources (100% KCl, 100% K2SO4 and 40% K2SO4 + 60% KCl). Soil samp...

  1. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    1969-01-01

    High Resolution NMR: Theory and Chemical Applications focuses on the applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as well as chemical shifts, lattices, and couplings. The book first offers information on the theory of NMR, including nuclear spin and magnetic moment, spin lattice relaxation, line widths, saturation, quantum mechanical description of NMR, and ringing. The text then ponders on instrumentation and techniques and chemical shifts. Discussions focus on the origin of chemical shifts, reference compounds, empirical correlations of chemical shifts, modulation and phase detection,

  2. Fertilizer Formulations and Methods of their Application Influences Vegetative Growth and Productivity in Organic Greenhouse Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Bhat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were conducted from 2006-2010 in order to develop a package of cultivation practices for producing organic greenhouse vegetables under Kuwait’s environmental conditions. One of the objectives of these investigations was to evaluate different organic fertilizer formulations with a view to select fertilizers for organic greenhouse vegetable production. Commercial organic fertilizer formulations viz. Earth juice, fish hydrosylate (Neptunes Harvest, seaweed and desert bat guano (Squantos secret were evaluated in different proportions, either as soil drench or foliar applications in tomato. Results revealed that soil application of Earth juice products and fish hydrosylate produced equally good or even better vegetative growth and fruit yields as compared to conventional fertilizers. Soil application of organic fertilizers was found to be significantly effective than the foliar application.

  3. Response of wheat to additional nitrogen fertilizer application after pig slurry on over-fertilized soils

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaumes Cullell, Elisenda; Carrasco Martín, Israel; Villar Mir, Josep Ma.

    2006-01-01

    Pig slurry is a valuable nutrient resource but constitutes a waste disposal problem in areas of high animal density. In the semiarid area of Pla d’Urgell, in the Ebro Valley, North-East Spain, irrigated crops receive large amounts of nutrients in the form of manure and mineral fertilizers. We studied the effect of pig slurry and additional side-dress mineral fertilizers on irrigated wheat, Triticum aestivum L., on a coarse loam soil, with high soil P and K levels. Yields increased by 62...

  4. The Effect of Fertilization and Limingon Some Soil Chemical Properties of Eutric Gleysol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Kisić

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different rates of mineral and organic fertilizers, liming and twotypes of zeolite tuffs upon the changes in the soil chemical complex were monitored in an exact field trial set up on Eutric Gleysol near Karlovac in Central Croatia. The trial was set up according to the randomized block method with four replications. The four-year investigations revealed a significant increase in pH values in treatments with hydrated lime, as well as in variants in which special natural amendments based on zeolite tuffs were applied. The applied rates of liming materials led to a significant increase in the base saturation of the cation exchange capacity as well as in content of investigation nutrients - phosphorus and potassium. While organic fertilizers and zeolite tuffs had less effect on changes of the studied parameters, significantly greater changes of the studied parameters (pH, cation exchange capacity, content of phosphorus and potassium were recorded in treatments in which the hydrated lime was combined with mineral fertilizers.

  5. Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taher, A; Althoyaib, S S

    2012-01-01

    The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, (226)Ra and (232)Th series, their decay products and (40)K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring γ-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5±5.2-106.3±7.5, 5.1±1.6-9.9±3.2. and 462.6±21-607.3±14Bqkg(-1), respectively. The activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Ra(eq) in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43Bqkg(-1) and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19Bqkg(-1), which are lower than the limit of 370Bqkg(-1) adopted from NEA-OECD (1979). The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those used worldwide.

  6. Influence of Long—Term Fertilization with Different Minceral Fertilizers and Farmyard Manure on Some Soil Chemical Properties and Crop Yields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUDEHUI; J.LABETOWICZ; 等

    1998-01-01

    A long-term fertiliztion experiment was carried out in an experimental field in Lyczyn near Warsaw,Poland.Application ofmineral fertilizers ,especially Nfertilizer with and without farmyard manure accel-erated the eacidification process of the soil.Application of 1.6 t CaO ha-1 every four years was essential to maintenance of the soil pHKCl at 5.5-6.6 and base saturation degree above 60% Application of 50 t farmyard manur ha-1 every 4 years,whih contained 46 kg P and 240 kg K,was sufficient to maintain boh the K and P fertility of the soil.Besides,it was beneficial to alleviating soil acidifcation. As a result of long-term unbalanced fertilization,yield responses to N,P and K fertilizers incereased significantly with time.the efficiency of N from farmyard manure was found to be comparable to that of N fertilizer during 1988-1991.

  7. Effect of Agricultural Amendments on Cajanus cajan (Pigeon Pea) and Its Rhizospheric Microbial Communities--A Comparison between Chemical Fertilizers and Bioinoculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rashi; Bisaria, V S; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Inoculation of leguminous seeds with bioinoculants has been practiced in agriculture for decades to ameliorate grain yield by enhanced growth parameters and soil fertility. However, effective enhancement of plant growth parameters results not only from the direct effects these bioinoculants impose on them but also from their non-target effects. The ability of bioinoculants to reduce the application of chemicals for obtaining optimum yield of legume appears to be of great ecological and economic importance. In the present study, we compared the influence of seed inoculation of Cajanus cajan with a microbial consortium, comprising Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum, with that of application of chemical fertilizers on plant's growth parameters and its rhizospheric microbial communities. Real-time PCR assay was carried out to target the structure (16S rRNA) and function (nitrogen cycle) of rhizospheric microbiota, using both DNA and RNA as markers. The results showed that the microbial consortium was the most efficient in increasing grain yield (2.5-fold), even better than the recommended dose of chemical fertilizers (by 1.2-fold) and showed enhancement in nifH and amoA transcripts by 2.7- and 2.0-fold, respectively. No adverse effects of bioinoculants' application were observed over the rhizospheric microbial community, rendering the consortium to be safe for release in agricultural fields. PMID:26231030

  8. Effect of Agricultural Amendments on Cajanus cajan (Pigeon Pea and Its Rhizospheric Microbial Communities--A Comparison between Chemical Fertilizers and Bioinoculants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashi Gupta

    Full Text Available Inoculation of leguminous seeds with bioinoculants has been practiced in agriculture for decades to ameliorate grain yield by enhanced growth parameters and soil fertility. However, effective enhancement of plant growth parameters results not only from the direct effects these bioinoculants impose on them but also from their non-target effects. The ability of bioinoculants to reduce the application of chemicals for obtaining optimum yield of legume appears to be of great ecological and economic importance. In the present study, we compared the influence of seed inoculation of Cajanus cajan with a microbial consortium, comprising Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum, with that of application of chemical fertilizers on plant's growth parameters and its rhizospheric microbial communities. Real-time PCR assay was carried out to target the structure (16S rRNA and function (nitrogen cycle of rhizospheric microbiota, using both DNA and RNA as markers. The results showed that the microbial consortium was the most efficient in increasing grain yield (2.5-fold, even better than the recommended dose of chemical fertilizers (by 1.2-fold and showed enhancement in nifH and amoA transcripts by 2.7- and 2.0-fold, respectively. No adverse effects of bioinoculants' application were observed over the rhizospheric microbial community, rendering the consortium to be safe for release in agricultural fields.

  9. [Effect of Long-term Fertilizer Application on the Stability of Organic Carbon in Particle Size Fractions of a Paddy Soil in Zhejiang Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xia-li; Lu, Kou-ping; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-kai; He, Li-zhi; Wang, Hai-long

    2015-05-01

    Effects of chemical fertilizers and organic manure on the soil organic carbon (SOC) content in particle size fractions of paddy soil were investigated in a 17-year long-term fertilization field experiment in Zhejiang Province, China. The inherent chemical composition of silt- and clay-associated SOC was evaluated with solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Compared to CK (no fertilizer treatment), NPKRS (NPK fertilizers plus rice straw) , NPKOM (NPK fertilizers plus organic manure) , NPK (NPK fertilizers) and OM (organic manure alone) treatments significantly (P fertilizers alone, combined application of organic amendments and NPK fertilizers facilitated the storage of newly sequestered SOC in silt- and clay-sized fractions, which could be more conducive to the stability of SOC. Based on 13C-NMR spectra, both silt and clay fractions were composed of Alkyl-C, O-alkyl-C, Aromatic-C and carbonyl-C. Changes in the relative proportion of different C species were observed between silt and clay fractions: the clay fraction had relatively more Alkyl-C, carbonyl-C and less O-alkyl-C, Aromatic-C than those in the silt fraction. This might be ascribed to the fact that the organic matter complexed with clay was dominated by microbial products, whereas the silt appeared to be rich in aromatic residues derived from plants. The spectra also showed that the relative proportion of different C species was modified by fertilization practices. In comparison with organic amendments alone, the relative proportion of Alkyl-C was decreased by 9.1%-11.9% and 13.7%-19.9% under combined application of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers, for silt and clay, respectively, and that of O-alkyl-C was increased by 2.9%-6.3% and 13.4%-22.1%, respectively. These results indicated that NPKOM and NPKRS treatments reduced the decomposition rate of SOC. The aromaticity, hydrophobicity and, hence, chemical recalcitrance of silt- and clay-associated SOC in the NPK fertilizer treatments were lower than

  10. [Effect of Long-term Fertilizer Application on the Stability of Organic Carbon in Particle Size Fractions of a Paddy Soil in Zhejiang Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xia-li; Lu, Kou-ping; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-kai; He, Li-zhi; Wang, Hai-long

    2015-05-01

    Effects of chemical fertilizers and organic manure on the soil organic carbon (SOC) content in particle size fractions of paddy soil were investigated in a 17-year long-term fertilization field experiment in Zhejiang Province, China. The inherent chemical composition of silt- and clay-associated SOC was evaluated with solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Compared to CK (no fertilizer treatment), NPKRS (NPK fertilizers plus rice straw) , NPKOM (NPK fertilizers plus organic manure) , NPK (NPK fertilizers) and OM (organic manure alone) treatments significantly (P NPK fertilizers alone, combined application of organic amendments and NPK fertilizers facilitated the storage of newly sequestered SOC in silt- and clay-sized fractions, which could be more conducive to the stability of SOC. Based on 13C-NMR spectra, both silt and clay fractions were composed of Alkyl-C, O-alkyl-C, Aromatic-C and carbonyl-C. Changes in the relative proportion of different C species were observed between silt and clay fractions: the clay fraction had relatively more Alkyl-C, carbonyl-C and less O-alkyl-C, Aromatic-C than those in the silt fraction. This might be ascribed to the fact that the organic matter complexed with clay was dominated by microbial products, whereas the silt appeared to be rich in aromatic residues derived from plants. The spectra also showed that the relative proportion of different C species was modified by fertilization practices. In comparison with organic amendments alone, the relative proportion of Alkyl-C was decreased by 9.1%-11.9% and 13.7%-19.9% under combined application of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers, for silt and clay, respectively, and that of O-alkyl-C was increased by 2.9%-6.3% and 13.4%-22.1%, respectively. These results indicated that NPKOM and NPKRS treatments reduced the decomposition rate of SOC. The aromaticity, hydrophobicity and, hence, chemical recalcitrance of silt- and clay-associated SOC in the NPK fertilizer treatments were lower

  11. Efficient Phosphorus Cycling in Food Production: Predicting the Phosphorus Fertilization Effect of Sludge from Chemical Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk Øgaard, Anne; Brod, Eva

    2016-06-22

    This study examined the P fertilization effects of 11 sewage sludges obtained from sewage treated with Al and/or Fe salts to remove P by a pot experiment with ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and a nutrient-deficient sand-peat mixture. Also it investigated whether fertilization effects could be predicted by chemical sludge characteristics and/or by P extraction. The mineral fertilizer equivalent (MFE) value varied significantly but was low for all sludges. MFE was best predicted by a negative correlation with ox-Al and ox-Fe in sludge, or by a positive correlation with P extracted with 2% citric acid. Ox-Al had a greater negative impact on MFE than ox-Fe, indicating that Fe salts are preferable as a coagulant when aiming to increase the plant availability of P in sludge. The results also indicate that sludge liming after chemical wastewater treatment with Al and/or Fe salts increases the P fertilization effect.

  12. Soil NH+4 Fixation and Fertilizer N Recovery as Affected by Soil Moisture and Fertilizer Application Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Yah-An; O.EMTERYD; H.GRIP; LU Dian-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Ammonium fixation and the effects of soil moisture and application methods on fertilizer N recovery were investigated in two soils of Shaanxi Province,China,a Luvisol and an Entisol,through two experiments performed in the laboratory and in a glass shelter,respectively,by using ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3). The laboratory closed incubation box experiment was conducted using the Luvisol to study NH4+ fixation rate at soil moisture levels of 10.1%,22.7% and 35.3% water filled pore space (WFPS). The fixed NH4+-N increased dramatically to 51% and 66%,67% and 74%,and 82% and 85% 1,2 and 36 h after fertilizer incorporation at moisture levels of 10.1% and 22.7% WFPS and 35.3%WFPS,respectively. The rapid NH4+ fixation rates at all moisture levels could help prevent NH4+ losses from ammonia volatilization. In the glass shelter pot experiment,N fertilizer was applied by either banding (in a concentrated strip)or incorporating (thoroughly mixing) with the Entisol and the Luvisol. An average of 74.2% of the added N fertilizer was recovered 26 days after application to the Luvisol,while only 61.4% could be recovered from the Entisol,due to higher NH4+ fixation capacity of the Luvisol. The amount of fixed NH4+ decreased with increasing WFPS. The amount of fixed NH4+ in the incorporated fertilizer treatment was,on average,10% higher than that in the banded treatment.Higher NH4+ fixation rates could prevent N loss and thus increase N recovery. The results from the Luvisol showed lower nitrogen recovery as soil moisture level increased,which could be explained by the fact that most of the fixed NH4+ was still not released when the soil moisture level was low. When the fertilizer was incorporated into the soil,the recovery of N increased,compared with the banded treatment,by an average of 26.2% in the Luvisol and 11.2% in the Entisol,which implied that when farmers applied fertilizer,it would be best to mix it well with the soil.

  13. Organic and Nitrogen Fertilization of Soil under ‘Syrah’ Grapevine: Effects on Soil Chemical Properties and Nitrate Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Davi José Silva; Luís Henrique Bassoi; Marlon Gomes da Rocha; Alexsandro Oliveira da Silva; Magnus Dall’Igna Deon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viticulture is an activity of great social and economic importance in the lower-middle region of the São Francisco River valley in northeastern Brazil. In this region, the fertility of soils under vineyards is generally poor. To assess the effects of organic and nitrogen fertilization on chemical properties and nitrate concentrations in an Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo (Typic Plinthustalf), a field experiment was carried out in Petrolina, Pernambuco, on Syrah grapevines. Treatments cons...

  14. 配施生物菌肥及化肥减量对玉米水肥及光能利用效率的影响%Effect on Water, Fertilizer and Light Use Efficiency of Maize under Biological Bacterial Fertilizer and Chemical Fertilizer Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鹏; 何甜; 杜娟

    2011-01-01

    Use single factor randomized block design method to study the effect on natural resources use efficiency of maize under different fertilization at irrigation district in Hexi corridor of Gansu province.The results showed that: combined application of biological bacterial fertilizer and chemical fertilizer reduction can significantly improve the fertilizer utilization rate and make some effect on yield components, water use efficiency and light use efficiency of maize.In the combined application of biological fertilizer conditions, the chemical fertilizer compared with the optimal fertilization levels in current.Reduction of 15% and 30%, the maize yields were 14828 kg/hm2, 13837 kg/hm2, water use efficiency were 1.75 kg/m3, 1.69 kg/m3, N use efficiency was 32.20%, 31.79%, P use efficiency were 22.31%, 22.07%, light use efficiency were 0.71%,0.68%.Combined application of biological bacterial fertilizer and chemical fertilizer reduction of 15%, the yield of maize and light use efficiency was no significant difference with the optimal fertilization levels in current.This experiment results had already prove was viable in produce practice that fertilizer reduce lower 15% compares wither optimal fertilization levels in current under the condition of combined application of biological bacterial fertilizer.%采用单因素随机区组设计,在甘肃河西绿洲灌区通过大田试验,研究了不同施肥处理下玉米对自然资源利用率的影响.结果表明,配施生物菌肥及化肥减量可以显著提高玉米的肥料利用率,对玉米的产量构成、水分利用率,光能利用率均有一定的影响.在配施生物菌肥的条件下,化肥较当地最佳施肥水平减量15%和30%时,玉米的产量分别为14828 kg/hm2、13837 kg/hm2,水分利用率分别为1.75kg/m3、1.69kg/m3,氮肥利用率分别为32.20%、31.79%,磷肥利用率分别为22.31%、22.07%,光能利用率分别为0.71%、0.68%.配施生物菌肥及化肥减量15%

  15. [Regional difference of NPK fertilizers application and environmental risk assessment in Jiangsu Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin-pu

    2015-05-01

    It is of great importance to have a deep understanding of the spatial distribution of NPK fertilizers application and the potential threat to the ecological environment in Jiangsu Province, which is helpful for regulating the rational fertilization, strengthening the fertilizer use risk management and guidance, and preventing agricultural non-point pollution. Based on the environmental risk assessment model with consideration of different impacts of N, P, K fertilizers on environment, this paper researched the regional differentiation characteristic and environmental risk of intensity of NPK fertilizer usages in Jiangsu. Analystic hierarchy process ( AHP) was used to determine the weithts of N, P, K. The environmental safety thresholds of N, P, K were made according to the standard of 250 kg · hm(-2) for the construction of ecological counties sponsered by Chinese government and the proportion of 1:0.5:0.5 for N:P:K surposed by some developed countries. The results showed that the intensity of NPK fertilizer application currently presented a gradually increasing trend from south to north of Jiangsu, with the extremum ratio of 3.3, and the extremum ratios of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer were 3.3, 4.5 and 4.4, respectively. The average proportion of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer of 13 cities in Jiangsu was 1:0.39:0.26. Their proportion was relatively in equilibrium in southern Jiangsu, but the nutrient structure disorder was serious in northern Jiangsu. In Jiangsu, the environmental risk index of fertilization averaged at 0.69 and in the middle-range of environmental risk. The environmental risk index of fertilizer application in southern and central Jiangsu was respectively at the low and moderate levels, while that of cities in northern Jiangsu was at the moderate, serious or severe level. In Jiangsu, the regional difference of fertilizer application and environmental risk assessment were

  16. [Regional difference of NPK fertilizers application and environmental risk assessment in Jiangsu Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin-pu

    2015-05-01

    It is of great importance to have a deep understanding of the spatial distribution of NPK fertilizers application and the potential threat to the ecological environment in Jiangsu Province, which is helpful for regulating the rational fertilization, strengthening the fertilizer use risk management and guidance, and preventing agricultural non-point pollution. Based on the environmental risk assessment model with consideration of different impacts of N, P, K fertilizers on environment, this paper researched the regional differentiation characteristic and environmental risk of intensity of NPK fertilizer usages in Jiangsu. Analystic hierarchy process ( AHP) was used to determine the weithts of N, P, K. The environmental safety thresholds of N, P, K were made according to the standard of 250 kg · hm(-2) for the construction of ecological counties sponsered by Chinese government and the proportion of 1:0.5:0.5 for N:P:K surposed by some developed countries. The results showed that the intensity of NPK fertilizer application currently presented a gradually increasing trend from south to north of Jiangsu, with the extremum ratio of 3.3, and the extremum ratios of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer were 3.3, 4.5 and 4.4, respectively. The average proportion of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer of 13 cities in Jiangsu was 1:0.39:0.26. Their proportion was relatively in equilibrium in southern Jiangsu, but the nutrient structure disorder was serious in northern Jiangsu. In Jiangsu, the environmental risk index of fertilization averaged at 0.69 and in the middle-range of environmental risk. The environmental risk index of fertilizer application in southern and central Jiangsu was respectively at the low and moderate levels, while that of cities in northern Jiangsu was at the moderate, serious or severe level. In Jiangsu, the regional difference of fertilizer application and environmental risk assessment were

  17. Dynamic adjustment in agricultural practices to economic incentives aiming to decrease fertilizer application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shanxia; Delgado, Michael S; Sesmero, Juan P

    2016-07-15

    Input- and output-based economic policies designed to reduce water pollution from fertilizer runoff by adjusting management practices are theoretically justified and well-understood. Yet, in practice, adjustment in fertilizer application or land allocation may be sluggish. We provide practical guidance for policymakers regarding the relative magnitude and speed of adjustment of input- and output-based policies. Through a dynamic dual model of corn production that takes fertilizer as one of several production inputs, we measure the short- and long-term effects of policies that affect the relative prices of inputs and outputs through the short- and long-term price elasticities of fertilizer application, and also the total time required for different policies to affect fertilizer application through the adjustment rates of capital and land. These estimates allow us to compare input- and output-based policies based on their relative cost-effectiveness. Using data from Indiana and Illinois, we find that input-based policies are more cost-effective than their output-based counterparts in achieving a target reduction in fertilizer application. We show that input- and output-based policies yield adjustment in fertilizer application at the same speed, and that most of the adjustment takes place in the short-term. PMID:27100331

  18. Does nitrogen fertilizer application rate to corn affect nitrous oxide emissions from the rotated soybean crop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javed; Mitchell, David C; Barker, Daniel W; Miguez, Fernando; Sawyer, John E; Pantoja, Jose; Castellano, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Little information exists on the potential for N fertilizer application to corn ( L.) to affect NO emissions during subsequent unfertilized crops in a rotation. To determine if N fertilizer application to corn affects NO emissions during subsequent crops in rotation, we measured NO emissions for 3 yr (2011-2013) in an Iowa, corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation with three N fertilizer rates applied to corn (0 kg N ha, the recommended rate of 135 kg N ha, and a high rate of 225 kg N ha); soybean received no N fertilizer. We further investigated the potential for a winter cereal rye ( L.) cover crop to interact with N fertilizer rate to affect NO emissions from both crops. The cover crop did not consistently affect NO emissions. Across all years and irrespective of cover crop, N fertilizer application above the recommended rate resulted in a 16% increase in mean NO flux rate during the corn phase of the rotation. In 2 of the 3 yr, N fertilizer application to corn (0-225 kg N ha) did not affect mean NO flux rates from the subsequent unfertilized soybean crop. However, in 1 yr after a drought, mean NO flux rates from the soybean crops that received 135 and 225 kg N ha N application in the corn year were 35 and 70% higher than those from the soybean crop that received no N application in the corn year. Our results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that cover crop effects on NO emissions are not easily generalizable. When N fertilizer affects NO emissions during a subsequent unfertilized crop, it will be important to determine if total fertilizer-induced NO emissions are altered or only spread across a greater period of time.

  19. Response of Tomato Plants to a New Application Method of Polyolefin-Coated Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Xiao-Hong; M.SAIGUSA

    2005-01-01

    The response of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants basically fertilized with 0.3 g N per plant of compound fertilizer with a N:P2O5:K2O ratio of 20:10:20 to sticks of polyolefin-coated fertilizer (POCF) (Long70 with a N:P2O5:K2O ratio of 14:12:14) applied 23 d after transplanting was investigated using rooting boxes in the greenhouse. The results at 26 and 40 d after stick fertilizer treatment showed that the use of the stick fertilizer greatly increased the production of many new fine roots from the tomato plants. Compared to the unfertilized control, root length and root length density in the stick fertilizer treatment increased by 3.6-6.7 fold. In the soil zones near the stick fertilizer, root weight and root mass density were also significantly higher for the stick fertilizer treatment. Additionally, the use of the stick fertilizer increased the N, P and K concentrations in the leaves and stems of the tomato plants. The new fine roots growing near the stick fertilizer not only absorbed more nutrients and translocated them to the shoots, but also contained more nutrients within themselves. The soil ammonium and nitrate N data showed that N released from the stick fertilizer played a major role in inducing the production of new fine roots. These results indicated that stick fertilizer could be used as an alternative to the co-situs application technique to change and control the root distribution of crops as well as to increase the potential capacity of roots for water and nutrient absorption.

  20. Chemical Attributes of Soil Fertilized with Cassava Mill Wastewater and Cultivated with Sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Suyane Marques Dantas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of waste arising from agroindustrial activities, such as cassava wastewater, has been steadily implemented in order to reduce environmental pollution and nutrient utilization. The aim of this study is that the changes in chemical properties of dystrophic red-yellow latosol (oxisol were evaluated at different sampling times after reuse of cassava wastewater as an alternative to mineral fertilizer in the cultivation of sunflower, hybrid Helio 250. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Agricultural Research Company of Pernambuco (IPA, located in Vitória de Santo Antão. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 6×5 subplots; six doses of cassava wastewater (0; 8.5; 17.0; 34.0; 68.0; and 136 m3 ha−1; and five sampling times (21, 42, 63, 84, and 105 days after applying the cassava wastewater, with four replications. Concentrations of available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium, pH, and electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract were evaluated. Results indicate that cassava wastewater is an efficient provider of nutrients to the soil and thus to the plants, making it an alternative to mineral fertilizers.

  1. 有机肥与化肥配施对烤烟品质及土壤的影响%Effect of Applying Organic Fertilizer with Chemical Fertilizer on Flue-cured Tobacco Leaf Quality and Soil Fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树会; 纳红艳; 陈发荣; 赵宪凤

    2011-01-01

    为了改善植烟土壤的理化性状,提高土壤质量,研究了在高肥力土壤上几种有机肥(秸秆、菜籽饼和猪粪)与化肥配施对烤烟品质及土壤的影响.结果表明:与单施化肥相比(对照),化肥+秸秆处理有利于烟株的生长发育和提高烟叶的产量产值和上等烟比例;而化肥+菜籽饼处理对烟株前期的生长表现不佳,尽管产量比单施化肥增加12%,但上等烟比例较低;化肥+猪粪处理处于两者之间.有机肥与化肥配施明显提高了烟叶中的总糖、还原糖、糖碱比、氮碱比以及钾含量,同时降低了烟叶中总氮、烟碱和氯离子含量,从而使烟叶中的化学成分得到协调和平衡.有机肥与化肥配施后增加了土壤中有机质、全氮、全磷、全钾和有效锌含量,在一定程度上改善了土壤的理化性状.%In order to improve the physicochemical characters and quality of soil, this experiment studies the effect of applying several organic fertilizers with chemical fertilizer on the flue-cured tobacco leaf quality and soil fertility. The results showed that straw mulch + chemical fertilizer treatment could not only improve tobacco growth and development, but also increase the yield and the ratio of super-grade tobacco leaves. While rapeseed cake + chemical fertilizer treatment impeded tobacco plant growth at the early stage. Although this treatment increased the yield by 12% compared with the CK, the ratio of super-grade leaves was relatively low. The effect of pig manure + chemical fertilizer treatment was between the above mentioned 2 treatments. Applying organic fertilizer with chemical fertilizer could distinctively increase the contents of total sugar, reduced sugar and potassium in leaves, and the ratios between sugar and nicotine, between nitrogen and nicotine. At the same time, it decreased the contents of total nitrogen, nicotine and chloride, thus to adjust and balance the chemical components in tobacco leaf

  2. Disease incidence and severity of rice plants in conventional chemical fertilizer input compared with organic farming systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Luo, Fan

    2015-04-01

    To study the impacts of different fertilizer applications on rice growth and disease infection, a 3-year field experiment of rice cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai from 2012-2014. No any pesticides and herbicides were applied during the entire experiment to prevent their disturbance to rice disease. Compared with green (GM) and cake manures (CM), the application of chemical fertilizer (CF) stimulated the photosysthesis and vegetative growth of rice plants more effectively. Chlorophyll content, height and tiller number of the rice plants treated with the CF were generally higher than those treated with the GM and CM and the control; the contents of nitrate (NO3--N), ammonium (NH4+-N), Kjeldahl nitrogen (KN) and soluble protein treated with the CF were also higher than those with the others during the 3-year experiment. The 3-year experiment also indicated that the incidences of stem borers, shreath blight, leaf rollers and planthoppers of the rice treated with the CF were signficantly higher than those treated with the GM and CM and the control. Especially in 2012 and 2014, the incidences of rice pests and diseases treated with the CF were far more severe than those with the others. As a result, the grain yield treated with the CF was not only lower than that treated with the GM and CM, but also lower than that of the no-fertilizer control. This might be attributed to two reasons: Pests favor the rice seedlings with sufficient N-related nutrients caused by CF application; the excessive accumulation of nutrients in the seedlings might have toxic effects and weaken their immune systems, thus making them more vulnerable to pests and diseases. In comparison, the plants treated with a suitable amount of organic manure showed a better capability of disease resistance and grew more healthy. In addition, the incidences of rice pests and diseases might also be related to climatic conditions. Shanghai was hit by strong subtropical storms in the summer of

  3. 有机无机肥配施对蔬菜轮作系统重金属污染和产品质量的影响%Risk of heavy metal pollution and product quality in tomato-radish-greengrocery cropping system under applications of commercial organic manure and chemical fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔文杰

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to assess the impacts of chemical fertilizers and integrated fertilization with commercial organic manure made from feces of domestic animals and chemical fertilizers on the risk of heavy metal pollution in tomato-radish-greens cropping system.The dosages of N,P2O5,and K2O of all treatments were set to equal.The results indicate that the fruit yield of tomato plants as the first season crop was reduced significantly(P0.05) in the treatments applied with lower and medium rates of organic manure and chemical fertilizers,while the yields of radish and greengrocery as the following crops were increased in the treatments applied with organic manure.It was found that the differences of copper,zinc,cadmium and lead concentrations and accumulations in tomato fruit and greengrocery shoot were not significant(P﹥0.05).Lead concentrations in radish flesh root of the treatments with lower and medium rates of organic manure were significantly lower than that with chemical fertilizers,and lead accumulations in radish flesh root of the treatments with organic manure were significantly lower than that with chemical fertilizers.Cadmium and lead concentrations in edible parts of vegetable crops of all treatments were lower than the limits of these heavy metals in foods(GB18406.1—2001).Copper was deficit in soil-crops system with chemical fertilizers,and lead accumulations were decreased apparently in the treatments applied with organic manure.These results implied that integrated fertilization could not only remain the balance of zinc and copper as micronutrients,but also minimize the risk of heavy metal pollution in the cropping system.%采用田间试验方法,研究了等量氮、磷、钾条件下,单施化肥和禽畜商品有机肥与化肥配合施用对番茄-萝卜-青菜轮作系统中的重金属污染和农产品质量的影响。结果表明,中、低量有机肥与化肥配合施用(T3和T2)使蔬菜作物轮作试

  4. Chemically and biologically-mediated fertilizing value of manure-derived biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, R; Taupe, N; Ikoyi, I; Bertora, C; Zavattaro, L; Schmalenberger, A; Leahy, J J; Grignani, C

    2016-04-15

    This study evaluates the potential of manure-derived biochars in promoting plant growth and enhancing soil chemical and biological properties during a 150day pot experiment. Biochars from pyrolysis of poultry litter (PL) and swine manure (SM) at 400 and 600°C, and a commonly available wood chip (WC) biochar produced at high temperature (1000°C) were incorporated to silt-loam (SL) and sandy (SY) soils on a 2% dry soil weight basis. Ryegrass was sown and moisture was adjusted to 60% water filled pore space (WFPS). The PL400 and SM400 biochars significantly increased (pfertilizer as proven by increased NPK uptake, positive liming effect and high soil nutrient availability, while WC biochar could work only in combination with fertilizers (organic as well as mineral). PMID:26851878

  5. The Performance of Zea mays as Influenced by NPK fertilizer Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolawole Edomwonyi LAW-OGBOMO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were made to estimate the effect of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer on the growth and yield of maize were conducted over a two year period. NPK fertilizer applications significantly increase plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation and yield. The optimum level of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer for successful production of maize grains was 400 (60 kg N + 27.16 kg P + 49.80 kg K kg / ha compound fertilizer based on the fact that it had the greatest dry cob yield (12.44 t / ha, grain yield (7.95 t /ha, relative grain yield (2.26 and 100-seeds weight (11.62g. Keywords: Growth, NPK fertilizer, plant height, stem girth and yield.

  6. EFFECT OF ELECTRIC FERTILIZER ON SOIL PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ya-qin; WANG Ji-hong

    2004-01-01

    Electric fertilizer, I. E. Exerting electric field on plants during growing season instead of chemical fertilizer, is a kind of physical fertilizer, and the third kind of fertilizer with developmental prospect after inorganic fertilizer and organic fertilizer. For the purpose of studying the changes of physical and chemical properties of soil after exerting electric field, five treatments with different applications of chemical fertilizer were arranged on the black soil in Yushu City of Jilin Province by randomized block method, and electric field was exerted on plants every ten days during the growing season. Through sample analysis the paper arrives at following conclusions: 1) Exerting electric field can make soil's granular structure increase, bulk density decrease, moisture capacity increase,thus improving the perviousness of soil. 2) Exerting electric field can make microorganism's number increase and activity strengthen, thus activating nutrient and increasing organic matter content. 3) Exerting electric field with 0.1A medium has the best effect. So the chemical fertilizer can be saved. Therefore, we can say that the application of electric fertilizer is favorable for decreasing chemical poison, improving soil, relaxing the contradiction between the supply and demand of chemical fertilizer, and decreasing production cost of agriculture and forestry.

  7. Impacts of supplementing chemical fertilizers with organic fertilizers manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Hao, Yangyang; Shen, Min; Zhao, Qingxin; Li, Qing; Hu, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Using pig manure (PM) compost as a partial substitute for the conventional chemical fertilizers (CFs) is considered an effective approach in sustainable agricultural systems. This study aimed to analyze the impacts of supplementing CF with organic fertilizers (OFs) manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) as well as the community structures and diversities of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRB) in bulk and cucumber rhizosphere soils. In this study, three organic fertilizers manufactured using the PM as a substrate, namely fresh PM, common OF, and bio-organic fertilizer (BF), were supplemented with a CF. Composted manures combined with a CF did not significantly increase TRB compared with the CF alone, but PM treatment resulted in the long-term survival of TRB in soil. The use of CF+PM also increased the risk of spreading TRGs in soil. As beneficial microorganisms in BF may function as reservoirs for the spread of antibiotic resistance genes, care should be taken when adding them to the OF matrix. The PM treatment significantly altered the community structures and increased the species diversity of TRB, especially in the rhizosphere soil. BF treatment caused insignificant changes in the community structure of TRB compared with CF treatment, yet it reduced the species diversities of TRB in soil. Thus, the partial use of fresh PM as a substitute for CF could increase the risk of spread of TRGs. Apart from plant growth promotion, BF was a promising fertilizer owing to its potential ability to control TRGs. PMID:27152658

  8. Impact of Tillage and Fertilizer Application Method on Gas Emissions in a Corn Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. SMITH; D. WATTS; T. WAY; H. TORBERT; S. PRIOR

    2012-01-01

    Tillage and fertilization practices used in row crop production are thought to alter greenhouse gas ernissions from soil.This study was conducted to determine the impact of fertilizer sources,land management practices,and fertilizer placement methods on greenhouse gas (CO2,CH4,and N2O) emissions.A new prototype implement developed for applying poultry litter in subsurface bands in the soil was used in this study.The field site was located at the Sand Mountain Research and Extension Center in the Appalachian Plateau region of northeast Alabama,USA,on a Hartsells fine sandy loam (fine-loamy,siliceous,subactive,thermic Typic Hapludults).Measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2),methane (CH4),and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions followed GRACEnet (greenhouse gas reduction through agricultural carbon enhancement network) protocols to assess the effects of different tillage (conventional vs.no-tillage) and fertilizer placement (subsurface banding vs.surface application) practices in a corn (Zea mays L.) cropping system.Fertilizer sources were urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN),ammonium nitrate (AN) and poultry litter (M) applied at a rate of 170 kg ha -1 of available N.Banding of fertilizer resulted in the greatest concentration of gaseous loss (CO2 and N2O) compared to surface applications of fertilizer.Fertilizer banding increased CO2 and N2O toss on various sampling days throughout the season with poultry litter banding emitting more gas than UAN banding.Conventional tillage practices also resulted in a higher concentration of CO2 and N2O loss when evaluating tillage by sampling day.Throughout the course of this study,CH4 flux was not affected by tillage,fertilizer source,or fertilizer placement method.These results suggest that poultry litter use and banding practices have the potential to increase greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Aqeuous and Gaseous Nitrogen Losses Induced by Fertilizer Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years concern has grown over the contribution of nitrogen (N) fertilizers to nitrate (NO3-) water pollution and atmospheric pollution of nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH3). Characterizing the amount and species of N losses is therefore essential in developing a strat...

  10. INFLUENCE OF LONG TERM APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS ON SOIL ORGANIC MATTER CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Naga Madhuri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The soil samples were collected from the soils of Long Term Fertilizer Experiments that have been fertilized for the last 25 years from a control plot (receiving no fertilizer/FYM; b plot receiving 100% NPK fertilizer application and c Plot receiving 100% N in the form of FYM, to study the changes in nature and amount of organic matter and these were compared with a similar adjacent soil under natural vegetation. The soil samples were collected from 0-15 cm (surface and 15-30 cm (sub surface layers. The humic substances were fractionated by Tyurins method. The total N and available N content was determined and C/N ratio was calculated. The humic acid was isolated, purified and analyzed for oxygen containing functional groups and spectral properties. It was observed that the soil under natural vegetation had a higher total N while the soil under continuous cultivation had higher available N. The C/N ratio of soil under natural vegetation was high compared to the soil under continuous cultivation. These values were high in surface layers compare to sub surface layers. The oxygen containing functional groups in Humic acid (HA were high in soil under natural vegetation compared to the soil under continuous cultivation. The total acidity and COOH content of surface layers was high compared to sub surface layers in soils under both situations. Phenolic OH groups of subsurface layer was high in soil under natural vegetation and continuous cultivation indicating that this group in sub surface layers and high potential for interaction with clays and metal ions. The higher contents of total acidity and –COOH groups in soil under natural vegetation could be attributed to the difference in chemical composition and molecular weight of humic substances. The E4/E6 ratios of HA’S were less than 5.0 indicating high degree of condensation of aromatic humic acid. The potentiometric titrations of humic acids with standard 0.1 N NaOH indicated a gradual increase

  11. Chemical analysis and molecular models for calcium-oxygen-carbon interactions in black carbon found in fertile Amazonian anthrosoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archanjo, Braulio S; Araujo, Joyce R; Silva, Alexander M; Capaz, Rodrigo B; Falcão, Newton P S; Jorio, Ado; Achete, Carlos A

    2014-07-01

    Carbon particles containing mineral matter promote soil fertility, helping it to overcome the rather unfavorable climate conditions of the humid tropics. Intriguing examples are the Amazonian Dark Earths, anthropogenic soils also known as "Terra Preta de Índio'' (TPI), in which chemical recalcitrance and stable carbon with millenary mean residence times have been observed. Recently, the presence of calcium and oxygen within TPI-carbon nanoparticles at the nano- and mesoscale ranges has been demonstrated. In this work, we combine density functional theory calculations, scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of TPI-carbons to elucidate the chemical arrangements of calcium-oxygen-carbon groups at the molecular level in TPI. The molecular models are based on graphene oxide nanostructures in which calcium cations are strongly adsorbed at the oxide sites. The application of material science techniques to the field of soil science facilitates a new level of understanding, providing insights into the structure and functionality of recalcitrant carbon in soil and its implications for food production and climate change. PMID:24892495

  12. Organic and mineral fertilization of squash plant with application of 1'5N staple isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted on virgin sand soil under drip irrigation system using squash fertilized with ammonium sulfate fertilizer, commercial compost locally manufactured in Egypt and artificial compost prepared fertilizer were applied either completely (100%) of mineral or of organic; or 50%: 50% (mineral: organic) by the authors at the Atomic Energy Authority of Egypt. All fertilization treatments were either inoculated or not inoculated with Azospirillum. Inoculation increased roots fresh weight. This was more pronounced with application of 50% mineral fertilizer plus 50% commercial compost, 100% artificial compost and 100% commercial compost. Similar trends, but to high extent were noticed with shoot fresh weight as affected by microbial inoculation and different organic composts. The 50%: 50% treatments as well as 100% artificial compost treatment gave high root and shoot dry weights. Inoculation and 50%: 50% fertilization treatments were more effective on N uptake. Higher N uptake was by shoots than roots. Portion and absolute value of N derived by roots from mineral fertilizer were significantly affected by combined fertilization treatments. Nitrogen derived from air (Ndfa) was positively affected by addition of organic compost and bacterial inoculation. Reversible trend was noticed with N derived from soil (Ndfa) which decreased when treated with compost and bacterial inoculation. All measurements were high in shoots than roots

  13. Effects of Combined Application of Organic Manure and Chemical Fertilizer on Maize Yield and Nitrogen Utilization under Equal Nitrogen Rates%等氮量投入下有机无机肥配施对玉米产量及氮素利用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀芝; 高洪军; 彭畅; 李强; 朱平

    2012-01-01

    以1989年建立的国家黑土肥力与肥料效益监测基地的长期肥料定位试验为研究平台,研究等氮条件下有机无机肥长期配施对玉米产量及氮肥利用率的影响.研究结果表明,长期氮磷钾肥配施(NPK)及氮磷钾肥与有机肥配施(牛粪+NPK、秸秆+NPK)有利于玉米产量的提高,与不施肥(CK)相比,分别提高192.0%、218.3%和192.6%.NPK、牛粪+NPK及秸秆+NPK处理氮肥农学利用率、氮肥偏生产力均显著高于单施氮肥处理.经18年长期定位试验,与试验初期相比均能提高土壤有机质含量、全氮含量及碱解氮含量,以牛粪+NPK处理效果最好,分别增加46.6%、28.6%和36.8%.施用牛粪及秸秆后土壤pH值年纪间变化不大,长期施用化肥土壤pH值降低.%Based on a long-term fertilizer experiment in black soil which was established in 1989, the effects of combined application of organic manure and chemical fertilizer on maize yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency under equal nitrogen rates were studied. The results showed that NPK and NPK combined organic manure (cow manure + NPK,straw + NPK) could improve maize yield,contrast to CK, increased 192.0%, 218.3% and 192.6%, respectively. N agronomic efficiency and N partial factor productivity of NPK, cow manure + NPK and straw + NPK treatments were higher than N treatment. Compared with the beginning of the trial, the three treatments all could increase soil organic matter, total N and available N contents were increased in NPK, cow manure + NPK and straw + NPK treatment, with the best effect in cow manure + NPK treatments, soil organic matter, total N and available N contents increased 46.6%, 28.6% and 36.8%, respectively. Soil pH had no significant change in cow manure and straw treatments during different years, but decreased in the applications of chemical nitrogen treatments.

  14. 氮磷钾配施对烤烟农艺性状和主要化学成分的影响%EFFECT OF COMBINED APPLICATION N,P AND K FERTILIZER ON AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS AND THE MAIN CHEMICAL COMPONENTS OF FLUE-CURED TOBACCO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹鹏达; 赵丽娜; 朱文旭; 焦玉生; 赵光伟; 孙广玉

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to investigate the secondary influence relationships of the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) fertilizers on the agronomic characters and the main chemical composition, using the gray correlation analysis method, during growth and development of flue cured tobacco leaves. Results showed that agronomic characters nitrogen fertilizer with the association order of single - leaf weight 〉 leaf length 〉 leaf width 〉 plant height 〉 remained leaves; with phosphorus fertilizer, the order is the single -leaf weight 〉 plant height 〉 leaf length 〉 leaf width 〉 remained leaves; for potassium fertilizer, it followed the order of the single leaf weight 〉 leaf length 〉 plant height 〉 leaf width 〉 remained leaves. Leaf nitrogen content was closely related to phosphorus fertilizers, and leaf potassium content was closely related to potassium fertilizer. The impact of nitrogen and phosphorus were also more significant than potassium. The main factor affecting starch was phosphorus fertilizer and the main factors affection total sugar and reducing sugar content were potassium and phosphorus fertilizers, respectively. Potassium fertilizer was the main factors affecting free amino acids. Therefore, in flue - cured tobacco cultivation, a reasonable proportion of N, P and K fertilizer can effectively coordinate flue - cured tobacco agronomic characters and the content of main chemical components, which in turn provide basis for high yield and quality of flue - cured tobacco.%采用灰色关联分析法,通过大田试验,研究了氮磷钾肥在影响烤烟生长发育中农艺性状和叶片主要化学成分的主次关系。结果表明,烤烟农艺性状与氮肥的关联序为:单叶重〉叶长〉叶宽〉株高〉留叶数;与磷肥为:单叶重〉株高〉叶长〉叶宽〉留叶数;与钾肥为:单叶重〉叶长〉株高〉叶宽〉留叶数。叶片含氮量与磷肥密切相关;

  15. [Mechanisms for the increased fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency of rice in wheat-rice rotation system under combined application of inorganic and organic fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Ren; Li, Xiang; Yu, Jie; Shen, Qi-Rong; Xu, Yang-Chun

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the nitrogen uptake by rice and the nitrogen supply by soil in a wheat-rice rotation system, and approach the mechanisms for the increased fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency of rice under the combined fertilization from the viewpoint of microbiology. Comparing with applying inorganic fertilizers, combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers decreased the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and soil mineral nitrogen contents before tillering stage, but increased them significantly from heading to filling stage. Under the combined fertilization, the dynamics of soil nitrogen supply matched best the dynamics of rice nitrogen uptake and utilization, which promoted the nitrogen accumulation in rice plant and the increase of rice yield and biomass, and increased the fertilizer nitrogen use efficiency of rice significantly. Combined application of inorganic and organic fertilizers also promoted the propagation of soil microbes, and consequently, more mineral nitrogen in soil was immobilized by the microbes at rice early growth stage, and the immobilized nitrogen was gradually released at the mid and late growth stages of rice, being able to better satisfy the nitrogen demand of rice in its various growth and development stages.

  16. Bioinoculants: A sustainable approach to maximize the yield of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata L.) under low input of chemical fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosheen, Asia; Bano, Asghari; Ullah, Faizan

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to find out the effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR; Azospirillum brasilense and Azotobacter vinelandii) either alone or in combination with different doses of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers on growth, seed yield, and oil quality of Brassica carinata (L.) cv. Peela Raya. PGPR were applied as seed inoculation at 10(6) cells/mL(-1) so that the number of bacterial cells per seed was 2.6 × 10(5) cells/seed. The chemical fertilizers, namely, urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were applied in different doses (full dose (urea 160 kg ha(-1) + DAP 180 kg ha(-1)), half dose (urea 80 kg ha(-1) + DAP 90 kg ha(-1)), and quarter dose (urea 40 kg ha(-1) + DAP 45 kg ha(-1)). The chemical fertilizers at full and half dose significantly increased the chlorophyll, carotenoids, and protein content of leaves and the seed yield (in kilogram per hectare) but had no effect on the oil content of seed. The erucic acid (C22:1) content present in the seed was increased. Azospirillum performed better than Azotobacter and its effect was at par with full dose of chemical fertilizers (CFF) for pigments and protein content of leaves when inoculated in the presence of half dose of chemical fertilizers (SPH). The seed yield and seed size were greater. Supplementing Azospirillum with SPH assisted Azospirillum to augment the growth and yield, reduced the erucic acid (C22:1) and glucosinolates contents, and increased the unsaturation in seed oil. It is inferred that A. brasilense could be applied as an efficient bioinoculant for enhancing the growth, seed yield, and oil quality of Ethiopian mustard at low fertilizer costs and sustainable ways.

  17. Effects of field-applied composted cattle manure and chemical fertilizer on ammonia and particulate ammonium exchanges at an upland field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kentaro; Koga, Nobuhisa; Yanai, Yosuke

    The present study aimed to investigate the NH 3 volatilization loss from field-applied compost and chemical fertilizer and evaluate the atmosphere-land exchange of NH 3 and particulate NH 4+ (pNH 4) at an upland field with volcanic ash soil (Andosol) in Hokkaido, northern Japan. Two-step basal fertilization was conducted on the bare soil surface. First, a moderately fermented compost of cattle manure was applied by surface incorporation (mixing depth, 0-15 cm) at a rate of 117 kg N ha -1 as total nitrogen (T-N) corresponding to 9.9 kg N ha -1 as ammoniacal nitrogen (NH 4-N). Twelve days later, a chemical fertilizer containing 10% (w/w) of NH 4-N as a mixture of ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphates was applied by row placement (cover depth, 3 cm) at a rate of 100 kg N ha -1 as NH 4-N. The study period was divided into the first-half, beginning after the compost application (CCM period), and the second-half, beginning after the chemical fertilizer application (CF period). The mean air concentrations of NH 3 and pNH 4 (1.5 m height) were 7.6 and 3.0 μg N m -3, respectively, in the CCM period; the values were 3.7 and 3.9 μg N m -3, respectively, in the CF period. The composition ratios of NH 3 to the sum of NH 3 and pNH 4 (1.5 m height) were 72% and 49% in the CCM and CF periods, respectively. The NH 3 volatilization loss from the compost was 0.8% of the applied T-N (or 9.3% of the applied NH 4-N) and that from the chemical fertilizer was near zero. Excluding the period immediately after the compost application, the upland field acted as a net sink for NH 3 and pNH 4.

  18. Effects of application of certain types of fertilizers on anise seed yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevđović Radosav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two-year research on the effect of application of certain types of fertilizers on yield and quality of anise seed are analyzed in this paper. Application of fertilizer has significantly influenced the yield, so in both study years (2004, 2005 the highest yield was achieved in fertilization variant with Baktofil 80 I/ha. Year as a factor (in this case probably higher precipitation in 2004 by 127 mm has significantly influenced the yield of anise seed and in all fertilization variants (even in the variant without fertilization - control seed yield was higher in 2004. The situation in regard to the quality of seed (GE, TG wasn't the same like with the yield, since the quality in all variants was better in the second study year (2005 when yield was lower. The best quality of seed was realized in the second investigation year in variant of fertilization, using organic fertilizer (ecological manure 10 t/ha.

  19. Influence of Fertilizer Materials on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Soils: cases of Wine Stefanesti-Arges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejan, C.

    2009-07-01

    The overall objective is the preservations or improvement Heritage ground, avoiding the loss of organic matter. This objective is consistent with the general approach of sustainable agriculture is an investment in the long term. Organic materials play an important role in the global funtionnement soil, through its physical, chemical and biological properties which define the concept of fertility. (Author)

  20. Effects of foliar application of nano-fertile fertilizer containing humic acid on growth, yield and nutrient concentration of mint (Mentha sativa in aquaponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Roosta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent droughts in Iran and other parts of the world and consequently limited water resources, tending to aquaponic system, in which fish and plants grow together, is a logical and practical method. For this reason, in the current experiment, possibility of mint planting in aquaponic system and the effects of applying nano-fertile fertilizer containing 60% humic acid on its growth was investigated. Mint rhizomes were planted in pure-perlite-contained pots and after reaching trnsferable stage, the plants were transferred to course-sand medium of aquaponic system. Nano-fertile fertilizer concentrations for foliar spray were 0 (control, 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/L, with 100 mL for each treatment. Foliar application was continued every week, for 6 weeks, and the plants were harvested after 60 days. Results showed that all concentrations of foliar spray of mint plants with nano-fertile fertilizer increased fresh and dry weight of shoot and root as compared to control. Nano-fertile fertilizer increased chlorophyll content, soluble sugars, Fv/Fm, and PI as compared to control plants. Plant growth enhancement and better physiological conditions of nano-fertile sprayed plants were correlated with higher potassium, phosphorus, calcium, iron, manganese and copper content in shoots of the treated plants. Therefore, considering higher concentration of some nutrients and chlorophyll content in the leaves of plants treated with nano-fertile fertilizer and consequently higher photochemical quantum yield (Fv/Fm and photosynthesis performance index (PI, it is concluded that nano-fertile-treated plants had a better photosynthesis condition and thus carbon fixation was carried out well, dry matter was increased and plant growth was improved.

  1. Soil chemical properties as affected by plant derived ash to replace potassium fertilizer and its conversion value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bako Baon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Potassium chloride (KCl presently used as main source of K, tends to become more expensive, therefore, there is a need for a breakthrough in finding alternative materials to replace KCl. The aim of this paper is to present recent research on the use of plant derived ash to replace KCl fertilizer, especially in relation with soil chemical characteristics and its conversion value. Plant derived ash coming from palm sugar processing unit which use farm waste as main fuel was used in this experiment. Treatments investigated were no K2O application (control, applied with K2O in forms of both KCl and plant derived ash in dosages of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mg kg-1 air dry soil. The mixture of soil with those treatments were then incubated for one year. After incubation period, the soil in pots were divided into two parts, first part was added with 2g urea, while other part was added with 2 g SP 36. Both parts were incubated for two months. Results of this experiment showed that plant derived ash can be used to replaced KCl. To obtain similar soil K content, the amount of K2O in form of plant derived ash needed to be added or its conversion value is 1.44 times the amount of K2O in form of KCl. Use of plant derived ash also increased the content of soil Ca, available P, ratio of Ca/Mg and pH. Plant derived ash did not caused nitrogen loss. Key words: Potassium, fertilizer, plant derived ash, pH, soil.

  2. [Effects of long-term application of organic fertilizer and superphosphate on accumulation and leaching of Olsen-P in Fluvo-aquic soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shao-Min; Guo, Dou-Dou; Zhang, Shui-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Based on a 20-year experiment of fertilization with organic and chemical fertilizers on a Fluvo-aquic soil under wheat-corn cropping system, this paper studied the relationships between Olsen-P concentration in plough layer and crop yields as well as the accumulation and vertical translocation of Olsen-P in soil profile. The results showed that when the Olsen-P concentration in plough layer maintained at 10-40 mg x kg(-1), the grain yields of wheat and corn were higher, whereas when the concentration of Olsen-P in plough layer was higher than 40 mg x kg(-1), it started to leach, which meant that in light loam Fluvo-aquic soil, the threshold value for P leaching might be 40 mg x kg(-1). In the treatments of chemical fertilization (NPK) and corn straw returning (SNPK) with the P application rate of 77-90 kg x hm(-2), the Olsen-P concentration in plough layer was increased by 0.63-0.72 mg x kg(-1) per 100 kg x hm(-2) of applied P, with an annual increment of 0.49-0.65 mg x kg(-1) and needed 45-60 years for reaching the threshold value for P leaching. In the treatments of chemical fertilization combined with manure application (MNPK, MNPK2, and 1.5MNPK), the formula of Olsen-P accumulation in 0-20 cm soil layer were Y(MNPK) = 3.1097x + 6.9615 (R2 = 0.8562), Y(MNPK2) = 2.4765x + 13.563 (R2 = 0.9307), and Y1.5MNPK = 4.506x + 6.4464 (R2 = 0.8862). It might take 8 years to reach the threshold value for Olsen-P leaching when the P application rate in treatment 1.5MNPK was 210 kg x hm(-2), 11 years when the P application rate in treatments MNPK2 and MNPK was 125 and 140 kg x hm(-2). Organic fertilization combined with chemical fertilization increased the Olsen-P accumulation rate being 2.5 times higher than chemical fertilization. Excessive application of organic fertilizer could increase the accumulation and leaching of Olsen-P in soil profile. PMID:21548294

  3. Germ cell toxicity: significance in genetic and fertility effects of radiation and chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primordial germ cells originate in the region of the caudal end of the primitive streak, root of the allantois, and yolk sac splanchnopleure, and migrate to the gonadal ridges where they divide to form the oogonia of the female and gonocytes of the male. In the female, the transition to oocytes occurs in utero, and the female mammal is born with a finite number of oocytes that cannot be replaced. By contrast, the gonocytes of the male initiate divisions soon after birth to form the spermatogonial stem cells, which persist throughout reproductive life of the male and are capable of regenerating the seminiferous epithelium after injury. As a result of these basic differences in gametogenesis, the response of the male and female to radiation and chemicals is different. The response of both the male and female changes with development of the embryonic to the adult gonad, and with differentiation and maturation in the adult. The primordial germ cells, early oocytes, and differentiating spermatogonia of the adult male are unusually sensitive to the cytotoxic action of noxious agents, but each agent elicits a specific response owing to the intricate biochemical and physiological changes associated with development and maturation of the gametes. The relationship of germ cell killing to fertility is direct, and long-term fertility effects can be predicted from histological analysis of the gonads. The relationship to genetic effects, on the other hand, is indirect, and acts primarily by limiting the cell stages available for testing, by affecting the distribution of mitotically active stem cells among the different stages of the mitotic cycle, and thereby changing both the type and frequency of genetic effects observed

  4. Organic and Nitrogen Fertilization of Soil under ‘Syrah’ Grapevine: Effects on Soil Chemical Properties and Nitrate Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi José Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Viticulture is an activity of great social and economic importance in the lower-middle region of the São Francisco River valley in northeastern Brazil. In this region, the fertility of soils under vineyards is generally poor. To assess the effects of organic and nitrogen fertilization on chemical properties and nitrate concentrations in an Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo (Typic Plinthustalf, a field experiment was carried out in Petrolina, Pernambuco, on Syrah grapevines. Treatments consisted of two rates of organic fertilizer (0 and 30 m3 ha-1 and five N rates (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 kg ha-1, in a randomized block design arranged in split plots, with five replications. The organic fertilizer levels represented the main plots and the N levels, the subplots. The source of N was urea and the source of organic fertilizer was goat manure. Irrigation was applied through a drip system and N by fertigation. At the end of the third growing season, soil chemical properties were determined and nitrate concentration in the soil solution (extracted by porous cups was determined. Organic fertilization increased organic matter, pH, EC, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, sum of bases, base saturation, and CEC, but decreased exchangeable Cu concentration in the soil by complexation of Cu in the organic matter. Organic fertilization raised the nitrate concentration in the 0.20-0.40 m soil layer, making it leachable. Nitrate concentration in the soil increased as N rates increased, up to more than 300 mg kg-1 in soil and nearly 800 mg L-1 in the soil solution, becoming prone to leaching losses.

  5. Short-term fertilizer application alters phenotypic traits of symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsen, Anna K.; Han, Shery; Rekret, Phil; Rentschler, Christine S.; Heath, Katy D.; Stinchcombe, John R

    2015-01-01

    Fertilizer application is a common anthropogenic alteration to terrestrial systems. Increased nutrient input can impact soil microbial diversity or function directly through altered soil environments, or indirectly through plant-microbe feedbacks, with potentially important effects on ecologically-important plant-associated mutualists. We investigated the impacts of plant fertilizer, containing all common macro and micronutrients on symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), a group of ba...

  6. Intensity of Nutrient Leaching after Application of Different Organic and Mineral Fertilizers

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Lingytė; Laima Česonienė

    2013-01-01

    Tests have been conducted in an experimental eight lysimeter plot. Lysimeters are dug into the ground. All lysimeters are connected by a tube which leads towards a well with containers for leachate collection installed inside of it. The aim of the research is to determine nutrient leaching intensity after application of various organic and mineral fertilizers. The following fertilizers were chosen for the research: organic - Biojodis, Biokal, slurry, Horn Shavings Provita, Horn Core Powder; m...

  7. Intensity of Nutrient Leaching after Application of Different Organic and Mineral Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Lingytė

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tests have been conducted in an experimental eight lysimeter plot. Lysimeters are dug into the ground. All lysimeters are connected by a tube which leads towards a well with containers for leachate collection installed inside of it. The aim of the research is to determine nutrient leaching intensity after application of various organic and mineral fertilizers. The following fertilizers were chosen for the research: organic - Biojodis, Biokal, slurry, Horn Shavings Provita, Horn Core Powder; mineral - ammonium saltpeter. After application of fertilizers, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium ions and phosphate concentrations in leachate were periodically measured. Research results show that the lowest concentrations of nitrites and ammonium ions are found after application of Horn Shavings, Horn Core Powder and Provita fertilizers. Application of ammonium saltpeter fertilizers resulted in nitrates leaching into lysimetric water by the 14th month; application of slurry, Biokal and Biojodis resulted in nitrates leaching into lysimetric water by the 36th month; application of Horn Core Powder, Horn Shavings and Provita did not result in nitrates leaching into lysimetric water by the 44th month.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.65.3.4800

  8. THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOLS IN FRUIT OF HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY (VACCINIUM CORYMBOSUM L.) RELATING TO DIFFERENT FERTILIZER APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Medvecký; Ján Daniel; Alena Vollmannová; Stanislav Zupka; Miriama Kopernická

    2015-01-01

    Six varieties of high blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) grown on a plantation of research station in Krivá, that is located in the northern part of Slovakia, was examined to determine the content of polyphenols in the fruit depending on the three variants of fertilization. The first variant was realized with the application of organic fertilization, second one with mineral fertilizers and third variant was left without fertilization. The content of total polyphenols (TP) was determined sp...

  9. Microbiological and chemical attributes of a Hapludalf soil with swine manure fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael da Rosa Couto; Jucinei José Comin; Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa Soares; Paulo Belli Filho; Lucas Benedet; Marcel Pires de Moraes; Gustavo Brunetto; Caetano Luiz Beber

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical attributes of a soil with a seven‑year history of urea and swine manure application. In the period from October 2008 to October 2009, soil samples were collected in the 0-10 cm layer and were subjected to the treatments: control, without application of urea or manure; and with the application of urea, pig slurry, and deep pig litter in two doses, in order to supply one or two times the recommended N doses for the maiz...

  10. A comparative study of distillery spent wash with NPK (standard chemical fertilizers at seedling stage of sorghum (sorghum bicolor l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz Ahmed Soomro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The price of commercial chemical fertilizers is beyond the purchasing power of farming community of world’s developing countries. Therefore, to find out the substitute of these commercial chemical fertilizers a comparative study was conducted at seedling stage of sorghum variety named Sarokartuho in seed testing laboratory. The experiment was carried out in completely randomized design (CRD with three replications and three treatments, i.e. only drinking water (as check, recommended dose of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium (NPK commercial fertilizer, 30%+70% of distillery spent wash + water, 50%+50% distillery spent wash + water respectively. The results for spent wash (T2 were at seed germination% (95.33%, shoot length (6.62 cm, root length (5.49 cm, shoot fresh weight (0.18 mg, root fresh weight (0.019 mg, shoot dry weight (0.017 mg and root-dry weight (0.005 mg of sorghum. However, the maximum values for these all traits of observations except seed germination were recorded at recommended dose of NPK (chemical fertilizers.

  11. Smart Chemical Sensors: Concepts and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Udina Oliva, Sergi

    2012-01-01

    This PhD thesis introduces basic concepts of smart chemical sensors design, which are afterwards applied to a particular application: the analysis of natural gas. The thesis addresses thus two sets of objective, a first set of objectives related to the conceptual design of a smart chemical sensor using smart sensor standards: - The design of an optimal smart chemical sensor architecture - The novel combination in a working prototype of the highly complementary smart sensor stan...

  12. [Regional differences of inputs of organic matter and chemical fertilizer in South Central China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan-yao; Wu, Jin-shui; Zhou, Jiao-gen; Xiao, He-ai; Zhou, Ping

    2015-09-01

    This article analyzed the inputs of organic matter and chemical fertilizer in the cropland of South Central China, i.e., Hunan, Hubei, Guangdong and Guangxi, and then calculated the budgets of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), based on the data from field investigations and peasant household surveys in the four provinces. The results showed that total amounts of organic matter inputs in the four provinces was ranked as follow: 8993 kg · hm(-2) in Guangxi, 6390 kg · hm(-2) in Hunan, 5012 kg · hm(-2) in Hubei, 4630 kg · hm(-2) in Guangdong, and average NPK inputs in the four provinces were ranked as follow: 777.5 kg · hm(-2) in Guangxi, 501.6 kg · hm(-2) in Hunan, 486.4 kg · hm(-2) in Hubei, 340.4 kg · hm(-2) in Guangdong. The N and P input surpluses were greatest in Guangxi (67.2% and 99.0% as for N and P, respectively) , followed by Hunan (33.2% and 50.8%), Hubei (11.8% and 11.0%), and Guangdong (7.8% and 30.0%). However, K input was deficient in Hunan, Hubei, and Guangdong (6.6%, 18.7% and 12.4%), but surplus in Guangxi (19.5%). PMID:26785554

  13. Chemical Microsensor Development for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Lukco, Dorothy; Chen, Liangyu; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous aerospace applications, including low-false-alarm fire detection, environmental monitoring, fuel leak detection, and engine emission monitoring, would benefit greatly from robust and low weight, cost, and power consumption chemical microsensors. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to develop a variety of chemical microsensors with these attributes to address the aforementioned applications. Chemical microsensors using different material platforms and sensing mechanisms have been produced. Approaches using electrochemical cells, resistors, and Schottky diode platforms, combined with nano-based materials, high temperature solid electrolytes, and room temperature polymer electrolytes have been realized to enable different types of microsensors. By understanding the application needs and chemical gas species to be detected, sensing materials and unique microfabrication processes were selected and applied. The chemical microsensors were designed utilizing simple structures and the least number of microfabrication processes possible, while maintaining high yield and low cost. In this presentation, an overview of carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), and hydrogen/hydrocarbons (H2/CxHy) microsensors and their fabrication, testing results, and applications will be described. Particular challenges associated with improving the H2/CxHy microsensor contact wire-bonding pad will be discussed. These microsensors represent our research approach and serve as major tools as we expand our sensor development toolbox. Our ultimate goal is to develop robust chemical microsensor systems for aerospace and commercial applications.

  14. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Liu, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical sensors often need to be specifically designed (or tailored) to operate in a given environment. It is often the case that a chemical sensor that meets the needs of one application will not function adequately in another application. The more demanding the environment and specialized the requirement, the greater the need to adapt exiting sensor technologies to meet these requirements or, as necessary, develop new sensor technologies. Aerospace (aeronautic and space) applications are particularly challenging since often these applications have specifications which have not previously been the emphasis of commercial suppliers. Further, the chemical sensing needs of aerospace applications have changed over the years to reflect the changing emphasis of society. Three chemical sensing applications of particular interest to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) which illustrate these trends are launch vehicle leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection. Each of these applications reflects efforts ongoing throughout NASA. As described in NASA's "Three Pillars for Success", a document which outlines NASA's long term response to achieve the nation's priorities in aerospace transportation, agency wide objectives include: improving safety and decreasing the cost of space travel, significantly decreasing the amount of emissions produced by aeronautic engines, and improving the safety of commercial airline travel. As will be discussed below, chemical sensing in leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection will help enable the agency to meet these objectives. Each application has vastly different problems associated with the measurement of chemical species. Nonetheless, the development of a common base technology can address the measurement needs of a number of applications.

  15. Agricultural Chemical and Fertilizer Storage Rules: Costs and Benefits for Insuring Cleaner Water for Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of public goods is presented with a discussion of the rules for fertilizer and pesticide storage units in Indiana. A basic rule summary is presented with descriptions of the types of dikes that might be considered for containment. Estimated costs are projected along with the number of contained liquid fertilizer spills by size in…

  16. Soil chemical properties as affected by plant derived ash to replace potassium fertilizer and its conversion value

    OpenAIRE

    John Bako Baon; Sugiyanto Sugiyanto

    2011-01-01

    Potassium chloride (KCl) presently used as main source of K, tends to become more expensive, therefore, there is a need for a breakthrough in finding alternative materials to replace KCl. The aim of this paper is to present recent research on the use of plant derived ash to replace KCl fertilizer, especially in relation with soil chemical characteristics and its conversion value. Plant derived ash coming from palm sugar processing unit which use farm waste as main fuel was used in this experi...

  17. Effects of Long-Term Combined Application of Organic and Mineral Fertilizers on Microbial Biomass, Soil Enzyme Activities and Soil Fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Juan; ZHAO Bing-qiang; LI Xiu-ying; JIANG Rui-bo; So Hwat Bing

    2008-01-01

    Soil health is important for the sustainable development of terrestrial ecosystem.In this paper,we studied the relationship between soil quality and soil microbial properties such as soil microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities in order to illustrate the function of soil microbial properties as bio-indicators of soil health.In this study,microbial biomass C and N contents(Cmic&Nmic),soil enzyme activities,and soil fertility with different fertilizer regimes were carried out based on a 15-year long-term fertilizer experiment in Drab Fluvo-aquic soil in Changping County,Beijing,China.At this site,7 different treatments were established in 1991.They were in a wheat-maize rotation receiving either no fertilizer(CK),mineral fertilizers(NPK),mineral fertilizers with wheat straw incorporated(NPKW),mineral fertilizers with incremental wheat straw incorporated(NPKW+),mineral fertilizers plus swine manure(NPKM),mineral fertilizers plus incremental swine manure(NPKM+)or mineral fertilizers with maize straw incorporated(NPKS).In different fertilization treatments Cmic changed from 96.49 to 500.12 mg kg-1,and Nmic changed from 35.89 to 101.82 mg kg-1.Compared with CK,the other treatments increased Cmic&Nmic,Cmic/Corg(organic C)ratios,Cmic/Nmic,urease activity,soil organic matter(SOM),soil total nitrogen(STN),and soil total phosphorus(STP).All these properties in treatment with fertilizers input NPKM+ were the highest.Meantime,long-term combined application of mineral fertilizers with organic manure or crop straw could significantly decrease the soil pH in Fluvo-aquic soil(the pH around 8.00 in this experimental soil).Some of soil microbial properties(Cmic/Nmic,urease activity)were positively correlated with soil nutrients.Cmic/Nmic was significantly correlated with SOM and STN contents.The correlation between catalase activity and soil nutrients was not significant.In addition,except of catalase activity,the soil pH in this experiment was negatively correlated with soil

  18. Microbiological and chemical attributes of a Hapludalf soil with swine manure fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Rosa Couto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical attributes of a soil with a seven‑year history of urea and swine manure application. In the period from October 2008 to October 2009, soil samples were collected in the 0-10 cm layer and were subjected to the treatments: control, without application of urea or manure; and with the application of urea, pig slurry, and deep pig litter in two doses, in order to supply one or two times the recommended N doses for the maize (Zea mays/black oat (Avena strigosa crop succession. The carbon of the microbial biomass (MB‑C and the basal respiration (C‑CO2 were analyzed, and the metabolic (qCO2 and microbial quotient (qmic were calculated with the obtained data. Organic matter, pH in water, available P and K, and exchangeable Ca and Mg were also determined. The application of twice the dose of deep pig litter increases the MB‑C and C‑CO2 values. The qmic and qCO2 are little affected by the application of swine manure. The application of twice the dose of deep pig litter increases the values of pH in water and the contents of available P and of exchangeable Ca and Mg in the soil.

  19. Changes in vegetation types and Ellenberg indicator values after 65 years of fertilizer application in the Rengen Grassland Experiment, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytry, M.; Hejcman, M.; Hennekens, S.M.; Schellberg, J.

    2009-01-01

    Question: How does semi-natural grassland diversify after 65 years of differential application of Ca, N, P, and K fertilizers? Is fertilizer application adequately reflected by the Ellenberg indicator values (EIVs)? Location: Eifel Mountains, West Germany. Methods: The Rengen Grassland Experiment (R

  20. Features of a reciprocating sprout-broadcaster in the process of granular fertilizer application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, L.

    1979-01-01

    IntroductionSince the end of the 1950's, variable bout width distributors were used for broadcast application of granular fertilizers. The bout width is a multiple of the width of the metering and distribution devices. The most important types are the spinning disc and reciprocating sprout broadcast

  1. Chemical Sniffing Instrumentation for Security Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoukos, Stamatios; Brkić, Boris; Taylor, Stephen; Marshall, Alan; Verbeck, Guido F

    2016-07-27

    Border control for homeland security faces major challenges worldwide due to chemical threats from national and/or international terrorism as well as organized crime. A wide range of technologies and systems with threat detection and monitoring capabilities has emerged to identify the chemical footprint associated with these illegal activities. This review paper investigates artificial sniffing technologies used as chemical sensors for point-of-use chemical analysis, especially during border security applications. This article presents an overview of (a) the existing available technologies reported in the scientific literature for threat screening, (b) commercially available, portable (hand-held and stand-off) chemical detection systems, and (c) their underlying functional and operational principles. Emphasis is given to technologies that have been developed for in-field security operations, but laboratory developed techniques are also summarized as emerging technologies. The chemical analytes of interest in this review are (a) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with security applications (e.g., illegal, hazardous, and terrorist events), (b) chemical "signatures" associated with human presence, and PMID:27388215

  2. Chemical Sniffing Instrumentation for Security Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoukos, Stamatios; Brkić, Boris; Taylor, Stephen; Marshall, Alan; Verbeck, Guido F

    2016-07-27

    Border control for homeland security faces major challenges worldwide due to chemical threats from national and/or international terrorism as well as organized crime. A wide range of technologies and systems with threat detection and monitoring capabilities has emerged to identify the chemical footprint associated with these illegal activities. This review paper investigates artificial sniffing technologies used as chemical sensors for point-of-use chemical analysis, especially during border security applications. This article presents an overview of (a) the existing available technologies reported in the scientific literature for threat screening, (b) commercially available, portable (hand-held and stand-off) chemical detection systems, and (c) their underlying functional and operational principles. Emphasis is given to technologies that have been developed for in-field security operations, but laboratory developed techniques are also summarized as emerging technologies. The chemical analytes of interest in this review are (a) volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with security applications (e.g., illegal, hazardous, and terrorist events), (b) chemical "signatures" associated with human presence, and

  3. Properties and applications of chemically functionalized graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vast and yet largely unexplored family of graphene materials has great potential for future electronic devices with novel functionalities. The ability to engineer the electrical and optical properties in graphene by chemically functionalizing it with a molecule or adatom is widening considerably the potential applications targeted by graphene. Indeed, functionalized graphene has been found to be the best known transparent conductor or a wide gap semiconductor. At the same time, understanding the mechanisms driving the functionalization of graphene with hydrogen is proving to be of fundamental interest for energy storage devices. Here we discuss recent advances on the properties and applications of chemically functionalized graphene. (topical review)

  4. Effects of combined Application of Organic-inorganic Fertilizer on Nutrient Uptake and Nitrogen Fertilizer Use Efficiency of Lettuce%有机无机配施对生菜养分吸收和氮肥利用率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范茂攀; 汤利; 徐智; 姜鸿飞

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of organic-inorganic fertilizer on nutrients absorption of the crops and improvement of soil fertility, pot experiment was to study the effects of application of organic-inorganic fertilizer on nutrient uptake and fertilizer use efficiency of lettuce. The results showed that: compared to chemical fertilizer application only, combined application of organic fertilizer (fine organic fertilizer and bio-organic fertilizer) and inorganic fertilizer contribution rate increased 6.4 and 6.8 percentage point. At the same nitrogen application level, compared to chemical fertilizer application only, combined application of refined organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer and combined application of bio-organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer (organic nitrogen: inorganic nitrogen=4:6) could increase the lettuce biomass significantly, promote the NPK nutrients absorption of the lettuce on, improve the nitrogen use efficiency. Combined organic (fine organic fertilizer and bio-organic fertilizer) and inorganic fertilizer application compared with single chemical fertilizer application, biomass increased by 38.7% and 41.6%; lettuce nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content increased by 12.9% and 17.5%, 7.0% and 12.8%, 7.3% and 17.2%, lettuce nitrogen use efficiency increased by 9.2% and 13.7%, respectively.%为了研究有机无机肥配施对作物吸收养分和土壤培肥的作用,通过盆栽试验,研究不同有机无机肥配施对生菜养分吸收和氮肥利用的影响.结果表明:在盆栽条件下,有机无机配施(精制有机肥,生物有机肥)较单施化肥贡献率分别提高6.4和6.8个百分点.在等氮量条件下,与单施化肥(100%无机氮)相比,有机无机配施(有机氮:无机氮=4:6)显著增加生菜生物量,促进生菜对氮磷钾养分的吸收,提高氮肥利用率.与单施化肥相比,精制有机肥与化肥配施和生物有机肥与化肥配施,生菜生物量分别增加了38.7%和41.6%;

  5. Effect of Fertilization on Soil Fertility and Wheat Yield of Dryland in the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Ming-De; FAN Jun; WEI Xiao-Rong; PEN Lin-Fa; LAI Lu

    2005-01-01

    Long-term fertility experiments have become an important tool for investigating the sustainability of cropping systems.Therefore, a long-term (18-year) fertilization experiment was conducted in Changwu County, Shaanxi Province, China,to ascertain the effect of the long-term application of chemical fertilizers and manure on wheat yield and soil fertility in the Loess Plateau, so as to provide a scientific basis for sustainable land management. The experiment consisted of nine fertilizer treatments with three replicates arranged in a completely randomized design: 1) CK (no fertilizer); 2) N (N 120 kg ha-i); 3) P (P 26.2 kg ha-1); 4) NP (N 120, P 26.2 kg ha-1); 5) M (manure 75 t ha-1); 6) NM (N 120 kg ha-1,manure 75 t ha-1); 7) PM (P 26.2 kg ha-1, manure 75 t ha-1); 8) NPM (N 120, P 26.2 kg ha-1, manure 75 t ha-1);and 9) fallow (no fertilizer, no crop). N fertilizer was applied in the form of urea and P was applied as calcium super phosphate. The results showed that precipitation had a large effect on the response of wheat yield to fertilization. Manure (M), NP, PM, NM, and NPM treatments significantly increased (P < 0.05) average yield. In the NP, PM, NM and NPM treatments, the percentage increases in yield due to fertilization were highest in normal years, and lowest in the drought years. Long-term P application enhanced soil available P markedly, and manure applications contributed more to soil fertility than chemical fertilizers alone. Chemical fertilizers applied together with manure distinctly improved soil fertility.The results also showed that the soil nutrient concentration changed mainly in the 0-60 cm layers and fertilization and planting only slightly affected soil nutrients below the 100 cm layers.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF FOLIAR NUTRITION WITH InCa FERTILIZER ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF LEAVES AND FRUITS OF SWEET CHERRY

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Mikiciuk; Małgorzata Mikiciuk; Ewa Możdżer; Małgorzata Statkiewicz; Urszula Chylewska

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the foliar fertilizer InCa on the chemical composition of fruits and leaves of sweet cherry cultivar ‘Burlat’. The study involved 14-year old sweet cherry trees of ‘Burlat’ cultivar, grafted onto ‘PHL-A’ rootstock and growing at 4×3 m spacing. The trees were sprayed with InCa calcium fertilizer based on CaT technology (manufacturer: Plant Impact). The fertilizer was applied three times, at a dose of 1.5 dm3∙ha. The first foliar fertilization...

  7. Effects of Direct Application of Fertilizers and Hydrogel on the Establishment of Poplar Cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Böhlenius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of poplar plantations is to achieve high biomass production over a short rotation period. This requires low mortality and fast development of the transplants. The experiment described in this paper examines methods aimed at enhancing survival and development of Populus trichocarpa plants by application of fertilizers, a hydrogel or a combination of both to dormant cuttings just before planting. The experiment was carried out at two agricultural sites with different soil characteristics, a loamy sand and a silty loam. It was demonstrated that none of the treatments influenced survival or early growth at the silty loam soil site, and plant development was delayed by the solid fertilizer. At the site with loamy sand, the solid fertilizer negatively affected both survival and early growth. Hydrogel and the combination of hydrogel and the solid fertilizer also hampered early growth. Overall, treatments of poplar cuttings with hydrogel or fertilizers alone, or in combination, may not be a method to reduce poplar cutting mortality or to enhance early plant development on agricultural land. However, our results demonstrate that establishing poplar with cuttings as transplants can be used on both loamy sand and silty loam soils.

  8. Effect of time course application of nitrogen fertilizer on the N-fertilizer use efficiency, lint properties and seed cotton yield using 15N isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiment was carried out at Der El-Hajar research station during 1998 growing season to evaluate the effect of time course application of nitrogen fertilizer on N-recovery, seed cotton yield and lint properties using 15N isotope dilution technique. Aleppo 40 variety was tested, irrigation scheduling was set up at 80% of field capacity. Phosphorus fertilizer was applied as TSP 46% before planting at a rate of 180 kg/ha. N fertilizer was applied as urea (46%) in four different applications follows: one application 180 kg N/ha before planting (T1), two split application 180 (90 + 90) kg N/ha (T2), three equally split applications 180 (60 + 60 + 60) kg N/ha (T3), and four equally split applications 180 (45 + 45 + 45 + 45) kg N/ha (T4). Labeled N-fertilizer (5.09 a.e%) was also applied as urea 46% to the subplots (1.0 m2 each) of the corresponding treatments. All agricultural practices were carried out as the common practices locally employed. Soil samples were analyzed for CEC, ph, EC, OM, total N, available P, and CaCO3 as outlined by our laboratory standard procedure. Plant samples were collected at physiological maturity and analyzed for 15N enrichment to assess N recovery. Lint samples were analyzed for lint properties. the results showed no significant effect of the nitrogen fertilizer time course application on the tested parameters such as dry matter production, seed cotton yield, N uptake and lint properties. on the other hand the T2, T3 and T4 treatments where shown to have a positive significant response toward time course application relative to T1 treatment. (authors)

  9. Efficiency of liming and potassium fertilizers application on decrease in radiation dose of radionuclides on population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of such protective measure as liming is expedient at density of pollution from above 0,5-0,7 Ci/square km on 90Sr and from above 15 Ci/square km on 137Cs, the raised dozes of potash fertilizers application - at density of pollution from above 10 Ci/square km on 137Cs at putting of economic and radiological parameters to an uniform cost scale. Application of N90P90K120-180 of fertilizers doses a background of liming of dolomitic flour in a doze of 6 t/ha can be considered as an optimum variant from the point of view of economy of a doze and expenses for it. Accounts have shown that at full mineral fertilizers application in a dose of N90P90K60 under spring rape economy of collective dose 90Sr has made 1,2 manSv, in doses N90P90K120-180 – 2,4 manSv. Application of similar doses of mineral fertilizers on the liming backgrounds was more effective. On the background of dolomitic flour in a doze of 6 t/ha at N90P90K120-180 application economy of a dose has made 8,6 manSv and at increased dose of potassium in variant N90P90K120 – 8,9 manSv, on the background of 18 t/ha – 9,5 and 9,7 manSv accordingly. At density contamination 1 Ci/square km on 90Sr the cost of collective dose on 1 manSv was lower than normative indicator – 43 mln. rbl. except variants with NPK application acid soil

  10. 有机无机肥配施对烤烟叶面分泌物数量及烟叶产质的影响%Effects of Mixing Application with Organic fertilizer and Inorganic Fertilizer on Leaf Surface Secretion Quantity and Quality and Yield of Flue-cured Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 周清明; 杨铁钊; 胡宏坤; 陆中山

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨有机肥和无机肥配施对烤烟叶片腺毛密度、叶面分泌物数量及烟叶主要化学成分和经济性状的影响.[方法]在大田设置施用100%化肥、70%化肥+30%芝麻饼肥、30%化肥+70%芝麻饼肥、100%芝麻饼肥4种试验处理,研究有机无机肥配施对烤烟叶片腺毛密度和分泌物数量及烟叶产质的影响.[结果]除100%芝麻饼肥处理外,随着施用处理中芝麻饼肥比例的提高,烤烟叶片腺毛密度和叶面分泌物数量逐渐增大;烟叶中主要化学成分含量比例的协调性逐渐增强,烤后烟叶的单产、均价、产值及上中等烟比例逐渐增大.[结论]有机肥和无机肥配施有利于烤烟叶片表面分泌物的形成及烟叶产质的提高,其中30%化肥+70%饼肥配施综合表现最优.%[Objective] The study aimed to investigate the effects of mixing application with the organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer on the leaf glandular hair density, leaf surface secretion quantity, main chemistry component and economic character of the flue-cured tobacco. [Method] In the field test, 4 fertilization treatments of 100% chemical fertilizer, 70% chemical fertilizer + 30% sesame cake fertilizer, 30% chemical fertilizer +70% sesame cake fertilizer and 100% sesame cake fertilizer were set up to study the effects of mixing application with the organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer on the leaf glandular hair density, leaf surface secretion quantity, and the yield and quality of the flue-cured tobacco. [ Result] Except the treatment of 100% cake fertilizer, as the proportion of cake fertilizer to total fertilizer was enhanced, both the glandular hair density and the surface secretion quantity was increased gradually; the coordination for the proportion of the main chemistry component in the tobacco leaf was enhanced gradually and the single yield, average price and output value of tobacco leaf and the proportion of superior and

  11. Effect of organic fertilizers on soil chemical properties and performance of blackberry (Rubus adenotrichus) in two agroecology zones of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of two organic fertilizers on soil chemical properties and plant performance blackberry (Rubus adenotrichus cv.Vino) in two areas of Costa Rica were evaluated. For this purpose, two experiments were established, one in Buena Vista of Perez Zeledon (BVPZ) and another in San Martin of Leon Cortes (SMLC), both in the province of San Jose, Costa Rica. The research was conducted between August 2005 and July 2008. Three treatments were evaluated in each experiment: Compost (C) and Vermicompost (L), at the rate of 4 kg/plant and 3 kg/plant respectively, and a control without fertilizer (T). The frequency of application of fertilizer at planting was given at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months for a total of 6,6 t/ha for C and 4,9 t/ha for L. Soil samples were taken at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 35 months, after planting for analysis. The results have shown that in both agro-ecosystems, the application of C and L has increased soil pH, reduced acidity, has increased the availability of Ca, Mg, K, N, and P, and has favored the effective cation exchange capacity (ICC) and the percentage of organic matter. The accumulation of Mn, Cu and Zn was not observed. Performance-wise, in BVPZ only significant have found differences (P = 0,00188) between C (1,8 t/ha) and T (0,9 t/ha), while in SMLC, found no differences statistical significant (P <0,05) between treatments. (author)

  12. 有机无机肥配施对莴苣产量及品质的影响%Effects of Combined Application of Organic Fertilizer with Inorganic Fertilizer on Yields and Quality of Lettuce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司婷; 刘强; 张玉平; 荣湘民; 谢桂先; 高德才

    2012-01-01

    Field plot trial was conducted to study the effects of combined application of organic fertilizer with inorganic fertilizer on the activity of nitrate reductase (NR), root characteristics, yield and quality of lettuce. The results indicated that combined application of organic fertilizer with inorganic fertilizer can promote the activity of NR in lettuce functional leaves and the root vigor of lettuce, significantly increase the yield of lettuce, and increase the contents of vitamin C and soluble sugar in stem and leaves of lettuce, while the contents of nitrate and crude fiber in stem and leaves of lettuce were decreased. Compared with pure chemical fertilizer treatment, the activity of NR in lettuce functional leaves was improved by 28.2%~178.5%, the root vigor of lettuce was improved by 16.4%~38.9%, and the yield of lettuce was increased by 48.3% in the treatment applied the combination of 20% pig manure composting nitrogen and 80% chemical nitrogen fertilizer.%采用田间小区试验,研究了不同有机无机肥配施对莴苣功能叶硝酸还原酶(NR)、根系特性、产量和品质的影响.结果表明:在施用无机肥的基础上配施有机肥可提高莴苣叶片的硝酸还原酶活性,增强莴苣的根系活力,显著提高莴苣的产量,增加莴苣茎叶中可溶性糖、维生素C的含量,降低茎叶中硝酸盐、粗纤维的含量.与施纯化肥处理相比,以20%的猪粪堆肥氮配施80%的化肥氮处理的效果最好,莴苣功能叶NR酶活性提高了28.2%~178.5%,根系活力提高了16.4%~38.9%,总产量增加了48.3%.

  13. Assessing soil fertility decline in the tropics using soil chemical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    Soil fertility decline is perceived to be widespread in the upland soils of the tropics, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Most studies have used nutrient balances to assess the degree and extent of nutrient depletion; these have created awareness but suffer methodological problems as several of t

  14. Measurement of Ammonia Emission Following Surface Application of Urea Fertilizer from Irrigated Paddy Rice Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md.Toufiq Iqbal; TIAN Guang-ming; LIANG Xin-qiang; Fatima Rukshana

    2005-01-01

    Ammonia emission is one of the most important pathways of nitrogen loss from agricultural cultivated field. In this paper, we report the measurement of ammonia emission from paddy rice field obtained by surface application of urea fertilizer with water management. The main objective of the present study were to assess the amount of NH3 emission and the loss of nitrogen from paddy field as affected by various N doses, i.e., 0 (control), 90 (N1), 180 (N2), 270 (N3) and 360 (N4) kg ha-1, following field surface application of urea fertilizer with water management. Ammonia emissions were measured by continuous airflow enclosure method from plots fertilized with the application of surface urea. Increase in urea-N dosage increased NH3 emission thatwas measured from paddy rice field. Ammonia emission started immediately and was almost complete within 12 days after top dressing of urea application to the soils. Ammonia emissions were nearly constant in all treatments from 12 days after fertilizer application. Highest ammonia emission rate was 28 g/day and total amount of ammonia emission was 56.21 kg ha-1 for 360 kg N ha-1 dose. No remarkable observation was found about temperature for ammonia emission. Due to proper water management practices less emission was observed throughout the experiment period. The results also show that N loss through NH3 emission accounted for 11 to 16% during the ricegrowing season. These magnitudes of loss of N appear to be most important for environmental point of view.

  15. Study of Environmental Impacts Before and After Using the Organic-Chemical Fertilizer in Rice Paddy Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Wipawee KHAMWICHIT; Wipada SANONGRAJ; Sompop SANONGRAJ

    2006-01-01

    The environmental impact of an organic-chemical fertilizer developed by the Institute of National Science and Technology has been studied at Bansrangsabaeng Posai Ubonratchathani. The study revealed that the values of pH, EC, OC, total N, available P, and exchangeable K in soils from two varieties of rice tested Kor-Khor 10 and         Kor-Khor 15 paddy fields are almost the same. The concentrations of VOC, NH3, and CH4 in the air from the rice paddy fields mentioned above are lower than 0....

  16. Nanotechnology Applications for Chemical and Biological Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Patra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries indicate that when the materials are brought down to sizes in the range 1–100 nm, theseexhibit unique electrical, optical, magnetic, chemical, and mechanical properties. Methods have now beenestablished to obtain the monodisperse nanocrystals of various metallic and semiconducting materials, single-walled and multi-walled nanotubes of carbon and other metallic and non-metallic materials together withorganic nanomaterials such as supra-molecular nanostructures, dendrimers, hybrid composites with tailoredfunctionalities. The high surface-to-volume ratio with an added element of porosity makes these highly potentialcandidates for chemical and biological sensor applications with higher degree of sensitivity and selectivity ascompared to their bulk counterparts. The paper reviews the recent developments and applications of chemicaland biological sensors based on nanomaterials of various structural forms.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(5, pp.636-649, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1686

  17. Effect of long-term compost and inorganic fertilizer application on background N2O and fertilizer-induced N2O emissions from an intensively cultivated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Weixin; Luo, Jiafa; Li, Jie; Yu, Hongyan; Fan, Jianling; Liu, Deyan

    2013-11-01

    The influence of inorganic fertilizer and compost on background nitrous oxide (N2O) and fertilizer-induced N2O emissions were examined over a maize-wheat rotation year from June 2008 to May 2009 in a fluvo-aquic soil in Henan Province of China where a field experiment had been established in 1989 to evaluate the long-term effects of manure and fertilizer on soil organic status. The study involved five treatments: compost (OM), fertilizer NPK (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium, NPK), half compost N plus half fertilizer N (HOM), fertilizer NK (NK), and control without any fertilizer (CK). The natural logarithms of the background N2O fluxes were significantly (P<0.05) correlated with soil temperature, but not with soil moisture, during the maize or wheat growing season. The 18-year application of compost alone and inorganic fertilizer not only significantly (P<0.05) increased soil organic carbon (SOC) by 152% and 10-43% (respectively), but also increased background N2O emissions by 106% and 48-76% (respectively) compared with the control. Total N in soils was a better indicator for predicting annual background N2O emission than SOC. The estimated emission factor (EF) of mineralized N, calculated by dividing annual N2O emission by mineralized N was 0.13-0.19%, significantly (P<0.05) lower than the EF of added N (0.30-0.39%). The annual N2O emission in the NPK, HOM and OM soils amended with 300 kg ha(-1) organic or inorganic N was 1427, 1325 and 1178 g N ha(-1), respectively. There was a significant (P<0.05) difference between the NPK and OM. The results of this study indicate that soil indigenous N was less efficiently converted into N2O compared with exogenous N. Increasing SOC by compost application, then partially increasing N supply to crops instead of adding inorganic N fertilizer, may be an effective measure to mitigate N2O emissions from arable soils in the North China plain. PMID:23229048

  18. Application a {sup 32}P bioassay for P-fertilization of citrus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jun; U, Zang Kual [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    Uptake of phosphorus (as {sup 32}P) by excised root samples from Citrus trees growing in the soil with originally less than 30 mg kg{sup -1} available P was significantly lowered after P-fertilization. This effect became more prominent in the 2nd and 3rd year of the experiment. High concentration of available P in the soil (80mg kg{sup -1}) resulted in a higher P-content in the excised roots and therefore decreased P-uptake. Application of phosphate fertilizer to such soil increased the content of available P but P concentration in Citrus leaves was not significantly changed. Branch length, fruit yield, and Brix sugar in fruit juice were also not influenced. These data show that response to P-fertilization can be tested by leaf analysis, growth or yield measurement. P-uptake of excised roots harvested from the soil with available P above 150 mg kg{sup -1} reached a level of 400 {approx} 500 pg P/mg root, which indicates that P-fertilization is unnecessary at the soil of P-content above this limit.

  19. The accuracy of farm machinery for precision agriculture: a case for fertilizer application.

    OpenAIRE

    Goense, D.

    1997-01-01

    Work quality, capacity and reliability are important criteria for design and evaluation of farm equipment. With the introduction of precision agriculture, the ability to adapt to spatially variable soil and crop conditions, becomes an additional aspect. A calculation method was developed to find the precision of site specific fertilizer application. The variance between the required rate, RR, and the applied rate, AR, was used as a measure for precision. The theory of geo-statistics was used ...

  20. BIOREMEDIATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FOR LAND APPLICATION AS A FERTILIZER USING BIOLEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ghavidel; ALIKHANI, H.A.; SAVAGHEBI, G.; NAJI RAD, S.

    2012-01-01

    Huge amount of sewage sludge is generated worldwide that needs a proper discharge strategy, which retains both future sustainability and present needs. Land application of sewage sludge can be a good solution, whereas it is cost-effective disposal method for treatment plants and also can provide a favorable fertilizer for farm lands. It provides an economical alternative for the final disposal of the sewage sludge, but heavy metals in sewage sludge is always an issue restricting its general u...

  1. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Fu; Yunze Ruan; Chengyuan Tao; Rong Li; Qirong Shen

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and cultu...

  2. Effect of Different Fertilization Practices on Yield of a Wheat-Maize Rotation and Soil Fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A 15-year field experiment was carried out in Henan Province, China, to study the effects of different fertilization practices on yield of a wheat-maize rotation. Fertilizers tested contained N alone (N), N plus P (NP) or plus P and K (NPK), all with or without manure (M). Different long-term fertilization practices affected the yields under the rotation system of wheat and maize differently and the effects on yields was in a general trend of MNPK>MNP>MN>NPK>NP>M>N>the control. The average contribution rate of soil fertility to the highest yield was 37.9%, and the rest 62.1% came from fertilizer applications. The yield effects of the chemical fertilizers were in the order of N>P>K and were increased by application of manure.Balanced fertilization with multielement chemical fertilizers and manure can be effective in maintaining growth in agricultural production. Combined application of chemical fertilizer and organic manure also increased the content of soil organic matter.

  3. 等氮条件下饼肥与无机肥配合施用对烤烟生长与土壤养分淋失的影响%Effects of Cake Fertilizer/Chemical Ratio on Flue-cured Tobacco Growth and Loss of Soil Nutrients Under Same Nitrogen Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春江; 胡钟胜; 施旭; 招启柏; 钱志宏

    2013-01-01

    Pot experiments were conducted in Yurman Province of China.Six different treatments with mixed chemical and cake fertilizers,included no fertilization (CK),cake fertilizers only (100M),75% organic manure and 25% chemical fertilizers (75M+25F),50% organic manure and 50% chemical fertilizers (50M+50F),25% organic manure and 75% chemical fertilizers (25M+ 70F) with their replications and N,P and K chemical fertilizers only (100F) were examined.N application rate was the same in all the treatments (except no fertilization in CK).The effects of the fertilization modes on flue-cured tobacco,as well as nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium accumulation,losses of N and P were investigated.The results showed that application of cake fertilizers fermented could promote the growth of flue-cured tobacco plant,enhance leaf yield,increase ratio of high quality and economic benefits level leaves,while no fertilization resulted in soil fertility degeneration.There was a significant increase of soil fertility with balanced fertilization while cake fertilizers application combined with chemical fertilizers increased soil fertility most.Both the concentrations of N and P in different treatments decreased first and then increased during the whole growing period.At the same applied amount of N fertilizer,soil nitrogen leakage amount decreased with the increase of the ratio of cake fertilizers applied,but the more proportion of cake fertilizers,the higher accumulative leaching amount of P in leacheate.Based on the point of flue-cured tobacco growth and environment protection consideration,1 ∶ 1 of organic nitrogen/inorganic nitrogen was recommended in the flue-cured tobacco fertilization.%为综合评价在植烟土壤上有机肥与无机肥配合施用对烤烟生长及土壤养分的效应,通过盆栽试验,比较等氮养分条件下饼肥与无机肥不同配比处理的烤烟生长、土壤养分以及氮磷流失变化.结果表明:通过增施有机饼肥,能促进

  4. Effects of re-application of nitrogen fertilizer on forest soil-water chemistry, with special reference to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A greatly increased concentration of cadmium was found in soil water following the application of nitrogen fertilizer. Our study was conducted at an experimental site in the western part of central Sweden. Prior to this, the area had been used to study the effects of the repeated application of fertilizer, under different regimes, on forest production. In this experiment, we examined the residual effects of previous nitrogen fertilizer application regimes on soil-water chemistry, following a final, additional fertilizer application. Soil water was sampled using suction lysimeters installed at a depth of 50 cm. However, due to the failure of the lysimeters at two of the study plots, the differences between fertilizer regimes could not be evaluated. Instead, we focused on changes in the solubility of cadmium and aluminium caused by soil-water acidification due to the re-application of nitrogen fertilizer. Every fourth or eighth year, between 1981 and 1997, the study plots received 150 kg N ha-1, in the form of ammonium nitrate (AN) and calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN). The effects of the final fertilizer application (CAN) were studied. Application of nitrogen fertilizer resulted in a rapid increase in NO3- concentration in soil-water, and a decrease in pH. The increased soil-water acidity resulted in some metals becoming more soluble and occurring in higher concentrations within the soil water. The increase in concentration of some toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium, was of concern. The highest measured cadmium concentration was 2.7 μg l-1, compared to the government health limit of 5 μg l-1 for drinking water. The cadmium detected must originate from the soil since it was not present in the nitrogen fertilizer. Cadmium is highly toxic to both animals and plants, and knowledge of its occurrence, in relation to various silvicultural operations, is of great importance

  5. 生物有机无机复混肥在花生上的应用效果研究%Research on Application Effects of Biological Organic Inorganic Fertilizer on Peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜守良; 丁美丽

    2015-01-01

    In order to give full play to the fertilizer effect of biological organic inorganic fertilizer ,taking Weihua 8 as tested peanut variety ,Malaidazhuang biological organic inorganic fertilizer as tested fertilizer ,the influence of different fertilizer treatments of biological organic fertilizer on peanut was studied .The test results showed that in the selection of basal application of compound fertilizer 580 kg·hm‐2 ,yield of treatments of bio‐logical organic inorganic fertilizer 550 or 700 kg·hm‐2 was the higher ,and no significant difference between pro‐duction for medium fertility of the soil .For general fertility of the sandy loam ,adjusted the ratio of biological organic inorganic fertilizer as the basal fertilizer and seed manure appropriately ,could improve the yield of pea‐nut .Under the condition of fertilization increased costs not much ,the peanut yield of treatment which combing the biological organic inorganic fertilizer (basal fertilizer4/5 +seed manure 1/5 ) and chemical fertilizer (inclu‐ding micronutrient fertilizer) were the highest .%为了充分发挥生物有机无机复混肥的肥效,以潍花8号为供试花生品种,马来大壮生物有机无机复混肥为供试肥料,研究了生物有机无机复混肥不同施肥处理对花生产量的影响。结果表明:对于中等肥力土壤,施用复合肥580 kg·hm‐2、生物有机无机复混肥550或700 kg·hm‐2产量均较高,且三者之间产量差异不显著。对于一般肥力的砂壤土,在肥料施用量相同情况下,适当调整生物有机无机复混肥作为基、种肥的比例,可以提高花生的产量。在施肥成本增加不多的条件下,生物有机无机复混肥(4/5基肥+1/5种肥)+化肥追肥(含微肥)配合施用的花生产量最高。

  6. Influence of the Organic Fertilizer Conditon the Content of Heavy Metals and Soil Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Hecl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of amendment Condit on the mobility and uptake of Cd, Pb and Ni by crops, such as peas, spring barley, carrot and red beet, and selected chemical soil properties was tested in a field trial in years 2006–2008. Experimental field was situated close by sources of pollution, chemical factory Chemko Strážske and waste dump. The soil at experimental area was highly contaminated mainly by Cd. Heavy metals content was tested in the following parts of the crops: pea seed, spring barley green mater, carrot root and red beet root. Heavy metals content in soil and plant samples was detected in 2M HNO3 solution by the AAS method. It was found that Condit reduced Cd content in the soil under each cultivated crop. The most considerable Cd reducing (77.2% was at treatment with pea. The reduction of Pb and Ni content in the soil after Condit application was markedly lower as in the case of Cd, in comparison with control treatment. Positive effect of tested amendment Condit on reduction of Cd uptake was found by all crops under test. The best effect of Condit was found in carrot. Content of Cd in the carrot root was lower for about 55% compared with control treatment without amendment. Soil organic carbon content was significantly higher at treatment with Condit in comparison with control treatment. Measured content of soil organic carbon was higher by 1.16 g kg-1. The changes of soil carbon were insignificant at control treatment. Tested amendment Condit had significant impact on uptake of all measured heavy metals by plants. The result suggests that most significant impact had Condit on uptake of Cd. The measured amounts were the lowest of evaluated heavy metals.

  7. Influence of the Organic Fertilizer Conditon the Content of Heavy Metals and Soil Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hecl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Effect of amendment Condit on the mobility and uptake of Cd, Pb and Ni by crops, such as peas, spring barley, carrot and red beet, and selected chemical soil properties was tested in a field trial in years 2006–2008. Experimental field was situated close by sources of pollution, chemical factory Chemko Strážske and waste dump. The soil at experimental area was highly contaminated mainly by Cd. Heavy metals content was tested in the following parts of the crops: pea seed, spring barley green mater, carrot root and red beet root. Heavy metals content in soil and plant samples was detected in 2M HNO3 solution by the AAS method. It was found that Condit reduced Cd content in the soil under each cultivated crop. The most considerable Cd reducing (77.2% was at treatment with pea. The reduction of Pb and Ni content in the soil after Condit application was markedly lower as in the case of Cd, in comparison with control treatment. Positive effect of tested amendment Condit on reduction of Cd uptake was found by all crops under test. The best effect of Condit was found in carrot. Content of Cd in the carrot root was lower for about 55% compared with control treatment without amendment. Soil organic carbon content was significantly higher at treatment with Condit in comparison with control treatment. Measured content of soil organic carbon was higher by 1.16 g kg-1. The changes of soil carbon were insignificant at control treatment. Tested amendment Condit had significant impact on uptake of all measured heavy metals by plants. The result suggests that most significant impact had Condit on uptake of Cd. The measured amounts were the lowest of evaluated heavy metals.

  8. Influence of the Organic Fertilizer Conditon the Content of Heavy Metals and Soil Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Hecl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of amendment Condit on the mobility and uptake of Cd, Pb and Ni by crops, such as peas, spring barley, carrot and red beet, and selected chemical soil properties was tested in a field trial in years 2006–2008. Experimental field was situated close by sources of pollution, chemical factory Chemko Strážske and waste dump. The soil at experimental area was highly contaminated mainly by Cd. Heavy metals content was tested in the following parts of the crops: pea seed, spring barley green mater, carrot root and red beet root. Heavy metals content in soil and plant samples was detected in 2M HNO3 solution by the AAS method. It was found that Condit reduced Cd content in the soil under each cultivated crop. The most considerable Cd reducing (77.2% was at treatment with pea. The reduction of Pb and Ni content in the soil after Condit application was markedly lower as in the case of Cd, in comparison with control treatment. Positive effect of tested amendment Condit on reduction of Cd uptake was found by all crops under test. The best effect of Condit was found in carrot. Content of Cd in the carrot root was lower for about 55% compared with control treatment without amendment. Soil organic carbon content was significantly higher at treatment with Condit in comparison with control treatment. Measured content of soil organic carbon was higher by 1.16 g kg-1. The changes of soil carbon were insignificant at control treatment. Tested amendment Condit had significant impact on uptake of all measured heavy metals by plants. The result suggests that most significant impact had Condit on uptake of Cd. The measured amounts were the lowest of evaluated heavy metals.

  9. Extraction/export of nutrients in Opuntia ficus-indica under different spacings and chemical fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A. da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aimed to evaluate extraction/ export of nutrients and dry matter production in the 'Gigante' cactus pear, grown in different spacings and fertilizations 620 days after planting. Twelve combination of treatments were used consisting of: three spacings - 1.00 x 0.50; 2.00 x 0.25; and 3.00 x 1.00 x 0.25 m, and four fertilizations - 000-000-000; 000-150-000; 200-150-000; and 200-150-100, kg ha-1, of N, P2O5 and K2O, in a 3 x 4 factorial scheme in a randomized block design, with three replicates. Extraction/export of N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, B, Fe, Mn, Zn, Na and Cu were determined and the means were 304.35; 18.81; 421.04; 62.35; 464.63; 215.77; 0.39; 0.81; 23.74; 1.11; 0.62 and 0.08 kg ha-1, besides the mean dry matter production of 17.11 Mg ha-1. There were significant interactions for extraction/export of Mg and dry matter production. The fertilizations used were insufficient to meet the demand of N, K, Ca, Mg, S and micronutrients. Fertilization increased the extraction of nutrients, particularly N, P and S at the spacing of 1.00 x 0.50 m, and increased dry matter production. The decreasing order of extraction/export was Ca, K, N, Mg, S and P for macronutrients and Mn, Zn, Fe, Na, B and Cu for micronutrients.

  10. Effect of the time of application of phosphorus fertilizer on yield and quality parameters of melon crop amended with winery waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Mariscal, María Isabel; Cartagena, María Carmen; Villena Gordo, Raquel; Arce Martínez, Augusto; Ribas Elcorobarrutia, Francisco; Jesús Cabello Cabello, María; Castellanos Serrano, María Teresa

    2016-04-01

    In Spain, drip irrigation systems are widely used for horticultural crop production. In drip irrigation systems, emitter clogging has been identified as one of the most important concerns. Clogging is closely related to the quality of the irrigation water and the structure of the emitter flow path, and occurs as a result of multiple physical, biological and chemical factors. So, the use of acid fertilizers (e.g. phosphoric acid) in these systems is common to avoid the emitter clogging. Moreover, in this country the use of exhausted grape marc compost as source of nutrients and organic matter has been identified as a good management option of soil fertility, especially in grape-growing areas with a large generation of wastes from the wine and distillery industries. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of the time of application of phosphorus fertilizer with fertirrigation in a melon crop amended with winery waste compost on yield and quality parameters. During two years, the melon crop was grown under field conditions and beside the control treatment, three doses of compost were applied: 6.7, 13.3 and 20.0 t ha-1. All the compost treatments received 120 kg ha-1 of phosphorus fertilizer (phosphoric acid) for the season varying the time of application: The first year phosphorus application started after male and female flowering, and the second year the application started before flowering. Yield and quality parameters were evaluated to assess the suitability of these practices. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03. Keywords: Phosphorus fertilizer, exhausted grape marc compost, melon crop, yield and quality parameters.

  11. Return to fertility after extended chemical castration with a GnRH antagonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antagonistic analogues of GnRH for the treatment of prostate cancer may be used clinically in persons for whom return to fertility after such treatment is important or desirable. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the effects of a long term treatment with orntide, a GnRH antagonist, on testosterone levels and fertility in male rats. Two groups of male rats received either 120-day orntide microspheres (8.8 mg orntide/kg/120 days) or vehicle alone (control group). Serum orntide and testosterone levels in both groups were monitored at certain intervals for 9 months from the initiation of treatment. After recovery of normal serum testosterone levels in the treated animals, each rat was housed with two proven breeder, but drug-naive, females. All mates of treated rats achieved pregnancy as rapidly as the mates of control rats although two of the control rats did not sire a litter with either female and one sired only one litter. The mean size of the litters of treated (12.3 offspring per litter) and control (10.6 offspring per litter) were similar. All offspring were grossly normal morphologically and behaviorally during the time to weaning. These results suggest that lack of fertility due to testosterone suppression is reversible after cessation of treatment with this GnRH antagonist

  12. Effects of biogas fertilizer application on growth status of Camellia oleifera seedlings%施用沼肥对油茶苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏世清; 覃文能; 蒋湖波; 何禄; 曾广宇

    2011-01-01

    In order to research effects of biogas fertilizer application on growth status of Camellia oleifera seedlings, effects of biogas fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, mixed fertilizer of biogas slurry and chemical fertilizer and the control on C. Oleifera growth and soil fertility were experimented with pot. The results indicated that applicating biogas residue as base fertilizer and biogas slurry for topdressing could stimulate growing of C. Oleifera seedlings and improve soil fertility. The height increment in biogas fertilizer treatment was (38.23±3.95) cm, and it was significant. The increments of ground diameter and crown were 19.4% and 18.37%, respectively, and it was not significantly higher than the control. The leaf area was (1587.97+37.56) mm2, highly significantly bigger than the control. Number, length and base diameter of new shoots per plant in biogas fertilizer treatment were (12.57±1.28), (51.27±2.83) cm and (1.95±0.05) mm, respectively. The length of new shoot was significantly higher than the control and the base diameter was highly significantly higher than the control. The chlorophyll content in biogas fertilizer treatment was (2.005±0.042) mg · G-1. Applicating biogas residue as base fertilizer and biogas slurry for topdressing could greatly increase the contents of organic matter, total N, available N, exchangeable Ca, Mg, effective Cu, and Zn.%为了探寻施用沼肥对油茶苗生长的影响规律,设沼肥、沼肥化肥、化肥、不施肥(用作对照)4个处理,就其对油茶苗生长和土壤肥力的影响进行了盆栽试验.结果表明:油茶苗期施用沼渣底肥与沼液追肥,能有效促进其生长,且能提高土壤养分的含量.沼肥组油茶苗苗高的平均增量为(38.23±3.48) cm,苗高增长明显,其地径和冠幅的增量分别提高了19.4%与18.28%,与对照组的差异不显著;叶面积为(1587.97±43.82) mm2,与对照的差异极显著;沼肥组油茶苗每株新梢数量为(12.57±1.89)

  13. Effects of Chemical Fertilizer Reduction on Soil Microbiological and Microbial Biomass in Wheat Field%化肥减量对麦田土壤微生物量及微生物区系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆; 海江波; 岳忠娜; 门倩

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the effects of chemical fertilizer reduction with organic fertilizer application on soil microbes,winter wheat was planted under diffierent fertilizer treatments.4 chemical fertilizer(NPK) levels of 100%,70%,50% and 30%,and three organic fertilizer(M) level of 18 000,25 500 and 34 500 kg·km-2(representing with LM,MM and HM,respectively) were selected in the experiment with single NPK application as CK.In the treatments with 100% NPK,the explicating amount of urea,diammonium phosphate and potassium sulfate per hectare were 251.8,255.7 and 375.2 kg·km-2,respectively).The serial dilution plate culture method and chloroform evaporated method were used to determine the difference of soil microbial carbon,nitrogen contents and the distribution of microbial flora with different treatment.The results indicated that the together application of organic and inorganic fertilizers significantly increased the content of soil microbial carbon and nitrogen,the number of microbes such as bacteria,nitrogen-fixing bacteria,actinomyces,but did not affect the number of soil fungus.The effect of fertilizers rose with the increasing of organic fertilizer under no reducing of chemical fertilizer.the best treatment was 50%NPK + MM when reducing chemical fertilizer.It illustrated that moderate fertilizer reduction with matching application of organic fertilizer could improve soil microbial biomass in favor of soil fertility.%为了解化肥减量和有机培肥配施对冬小麦田土壤微生物的影响,以单施常量化肥(表示为NPK,分别施尿素、磷酸二铵和硫酸钾251.8、255.7和375.2kg.km-2)为对照,设置不同化肥(不减量、减量30%、减量50%和减量70%)和有机肥(18 000、25 500和34 500kg.km-2,分别用LM、MM和HM表示)配施处理,采用系列稀释平板法和氯仿熏蒸培养法分别测定了不同处理下土壤微生物量碳、氮以及微生物区系分布的差异。结果表明,有机无机

  14. EnviroAtlas - Synthetic N fertilizer application to agricultural lands by 12-digit HUC in the Conterminous United States, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains data on the mean synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer application to cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands per 12-digit Hydrologic...

  15. [Effects of continuous application of bio-organic fertilizer on banana production and cultural microflora of bulk soil in orchard with serious disease incidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shu-tang; Shen, Zong-zhuan; Sun, Yi-fei; Lyu, Na-na; Ruan, Yun-ze; Li, Rong; Shen, Qi-rong

    2015-02-01

    A field experiment was conducted for two years to investigate the effects of different fertilization applications on the suppression of banana fusarium wilt disease, crop yield, fruit quality and culturable microflora in a banana orchard which has been monocultured with banana for 12 years and suffered serious banana fusarium wilt disease. The fertilizers included chemical fertilizer (CF), cow manure compost (CM), pig manure compost (PM) and bio-organic fertilizer (BIO). The banana soil microflora was invested using plate-counting method and culture-dependent polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis method (CD PCR-DGGE). Results showed that, compared with the other treatments, 2-year consecutive application of BIO significantly reduced the banana fusarium wilt disease incidence, and improved the banana mass per tree, crop yield, total soluble sugar content and the ratio of total soluble sugar to titratable acidity of fruits (sugar/acid ratio). Moreover, the analysis of culturable microflora showed that BIO application significantly increased the soil microbial biomass, soil culturable bacteria, bacillus and actinomycetes, and the ratio of bacteria to fungi (B/F) , while decreased the Fusarium oxysporum. Based on the CD PCR-DGGE results, the BIO application significantly altered the soil culturable bacterial structure and showed highest richness and diversity after 2 years of BIO application. The phylogenetic analysis of the selected bands showed that BIO application enriched the soil with the species of Paenibacillus sp., Burkholderia sp., uncultured Verrucomicrobia sp. and Bacillus aryabhattai, and depressed the species of Ralstonia sp., Chryseobacterium gleum, Fluviicola taffensis, Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus megaterium. These results confirmed that the continuous application of BIO effectively controlled the fusarium wilt disease, improved the crop yield and fruit quality, and modulated the soil culturable microflora under field

  16. 中耕施肥机常用排肥器类型及性能研究%Research on Types and Performance of Commonly Used Fertilizer Feeders in Intertillage Fertilizer Applicator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国委文

    2015-01-01

    Fertilizer Feeder is one of the main components in intertillage fertilizer applicator; its performance directly influences the working quality of fertilizing. The article introduces several fertilizer feeders'construction, performance and working condition in present market of intertillage fertilizer applicators, in order to provide a reference for selecting suitable fertilizer feeder in the working of intertillage fertilizing.%排肥器是中耕施肥机具的主要工作部件之一,排肥器的性能直接影响施肥作业质量。介绍目前中耕施肥机具上常用的几种排肥器的结构、性能及工作条件,以期为中耕施肥实际作业中合理选用排肥器提供参考。

  17. Influences of nitrogen fertilizer application rates on radish yield, nutrition quality, and nitrogen recovery efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulin LIAO; Xiangmin RONG; Shengxian ZHENG; Qiang LIU; Meirong FAN; Jianwei PENG; Guixian XIE

    2009-01-01

    Radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) were grown in plastic pots in a screenhouse to investigate the influences of nitrogen fertilizer application rates (NFAR) on yield, nitrate content, nitrate reductase activity (NR), nutrition quality, and nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE) at commercial mature stage. Five N-rate treatments, 0.644, 0.819, 0.995, 1.170, and 1.346 g·por-1, were set up in the screenhouse pot experiments, and nitrogen fertilizer (unlabeled N and l5N-labeled fertilizer) was applied as basal dressing and topdressing, respectively. The results indicated that the fresh and dry weight yields of radish increased with the increase of NFAR at the range of 0.099 to 0.180g N-kg-1 soil, decreased at 0.207 g N-kg-1 soil, and accordingly there was a significant quadratic relationship between the fresh and dry weight yields of radish and the NFAR. At the high addition of urea-N fertilizer, the nitrate content accumulated in the fleshy roots and leaves due to the decline in NR activity. From 0.644 to 0.819 g N-por1 NR increased most rapidly, the highest NR activity occurred at 0.819 g N-por-1, and the lowest NR activity happened at 1.346 g N-por-1. Soluble sugar and ascorbic acid initially increased to the highest value and then decreased, and, contrarily, crude fiber rapidly decreased with the increase of NFAR. Total N uptake (TNU), N derived from fertilizer (Ndff), and N derived from soil (Ndfs) in radish increased, except that Ndfs relatively and slightly decreased at the rate of 0.207 g N-kg'soil. The ratio of Ndff to TNU increased, but the ratio of Ndfs to TNU as well as NRE of N fertilizer decreased with the increase of NFAR. Therefore, the appropriate NFAR should be preferably recommended for improving the yields and nutrition qualities of radish and NRE of N fertilizer.

  18. Optimizing Nitrogen Fertilizer Application for Rice Production in the Taihu Lake Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Mei-Hua; SHI Xiao-Jun; TIAN Yu-Hua; YIN Bin; ZHANG Shao-Lin; ZHU Zhao-Liang; S. D. KIMURA

    2012-01-01

    To determine the optimal amount of nitrogen (N) fertilizer for achieving a sustainable rice production at the Taihu Lake region of China,two-year on-farm field experiments were performed at four sites using various N application rates.The results showed that 22%-30% of the applied N was recovered in crop and 7%-31% in soils at the rates of 100-350 kg N ha-1.Nitrogen losses increased with N application rates,from 44% of the applied fertilizer N at the rate of 100 kg N ha-1 to 69% of the N applied at 350 kg N ha-1.Ammonia volatilization and apparent denitrification were the main pathways of N losses.The N application rate of 300 kg N ha-1,which is commonly used by local farmers in the study region,was found to lead to a significant reduction in economic and environmental efficiency.Considering the cost for mitigating environmental pollution and the maximum net economic income,an application rate of 100-150 kg N ha-1 would be recommended.This recommended N application rate could greatly reduce N loss from 199 kg N ha-1 occurring at the N application rate of 300 kg N ha-1 to 80-110 kg N ha-1,with the rice grain yield still reaching 7300-8300 kg DW ha-1 in the meantime.

  19. Long-term combined chemical and manure fertilizations increase soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in aggregate fractions at three typical cropland soils in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y T; Zhang, W J; Xu, M G; Tong, X G; Sun, F X; Wang, J Z; Huang, S M; Zhu, P; He, X H

    2015-11-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) are important factors of soil fertility. However, effects of the combined chemical fertilizer and organic manure or straw on these factors and their relationships are less addressed under long-term fertilizations. This study addressed changes in SOC, TN, MBC and MBN at 0-20 cm soil depth under three 17 years (September 1990-September 2007) long-term fertilization croplands along a heat and water gradient in China. Four soil physical fractions (coarse free and fine free particulate organic C, cfPOC and ffPOC; intra-microaggregate POC, iPOC; and mineral associated organic C, MOC) were examined under five fertilizations: unfertilized control, chemical nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) (NPK), NPK plus straw (NPKS, hereafter straw return), and NPK plus manure (NPKM and 1.5NPKM, hereafter manure). Compared with Control, manure significantly increased all tested parameters. SOC and TN in fractions distributed as MOC > iPOC > cfPOC > ffPOC with the highest increase in cfPOC (329.3%) and cfPTN (431.1%), and the lowest in MOC (40.8%) and MTN (45.4%) under manure. SOC significantly positively correlated with MBC, cfPOC, ffPOC, iPOC and MOC (R(2) = 0.51-0.84, P fertilization for improving soil fertility while straw return should take into account climate factors in Chinese croplands. PMID:26119378

  20. Long-term combined chemical and manure fertilizations increase soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in aggregate fractions at three typical cropland soils in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y T; Zhang, W J; Xu, M G; Tong, X G; Sun, F X; Wang, J Z; Huang, S M; Zhu, P; He, X H

    2015-11-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) are important factors of soil fertility. However, effects of the combined chemical fertilizer and organic manure or straw on these factors and their relationships are less addressed under long-term fertilizations. This study addressed changes in SOC, TN, MBC and MBN at 0-20 cm soil depth under three 17 years (September 1990-September 2007) long-term fertilization croplands along a heat and water gradient in China. Four soil physical fractions (coarse free and fine free particulate organic C, cfPOC and ffPOC; intra-microaggregate POC, iPOC; and mineral associated organic C, MOC) were examined under five fertilizations: unfertilized control, chemical nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) (NPK), NPK plus straw (NPKS, hereafter straw return), and NPK plus manure (NPKM and 1.5NPKM, hereafter manure). Compared with Control, manure significantly increased all tested parameters. SOC and TN in fractions distributed as MOC > iPOC > cfPOC > ffPOC with the highest increase in cfPOC (329.3%) and cfPTN (431.1%), and the lowest in MOC (40.8%) and MTN (45.4%) under manure. SOC significantly positively correlated with MBC, cfPOC, ffPOC, iPOC and MOC (R(2) = 0.51-0.84, P fertilization for improving soil fertility while straw return should take into account climate factors in Chinese croplands.

  1. An assessment of planting flexibility options to reduce the excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    W-Y Huang; N D Uri

    1992-01-01

    The analysis in this paper is directed at estimating the marginal value of a base acre, the nitrogen rate of fertilizer use, the corn yield, and the excess nitrogen fertilizer application rate under alternative policy options designed to encourage planting flexibility in response to changing relative agricultural commodity prices. Encouragement of planting flexibility via an option of detaching deficiency payments from the base acreage is an effective way to reduce the excessive application r...

  2. Graphene Chemical Sensor for Heliophysics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Mahmooda; Herrero, Fred; Khazanov, George

    2013-01-01

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms that offer a unique set of advantages as a chemical sensor due to a number of its inherent properties. Graphene has been explored as a gas sensor for a variety of gases, and molecular sensitivity has been demonstrated by measuring the change in electrical properties due to the adsorption of target species. In this paper, we discuss the development of an array of chemical sensors based on graphene and its relevance to plasma physics due to its sensitivity to radical species such as oxonium, hydron and the corresponding neutrals. We briefly discuss the great impact such sensors will have on a number of heliophysics applications such as ground-based manifestations of space weather.

  3. NH3 Emission from Fertilizer Application: A Collaborative Study in the Midwestern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, L.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.; Bernacchi, C.; Lehmann, C.; Saylor, R. D.; Heuer, M.; Sibble, D.; Caldwell, J. A.; Balasubramanian, S.; Nelson, A. J.; Rood, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) is a precursor for secondary particulate matter and a contributor to soil acidification and eutrophication when deposited to land and surface waters. Fertilizer application is a major source of atmospheric NH3, particularly in intensive agricultural regions such as the Midwestern U.S. Quantification of NH3 emission from fertilized crops remains highly uncertain, which limits the representativeness of NH3 emissions that are used in air quality models. A collaborative study to improve understanding of NH3 emission from fertilizer application focused on [1] measurement of above-canopy NH3 fluxes from a fertilized corn field in Illinois using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) and flux gradient methods and in-canopy fluxes with the inverse Lagrangian dispersion analysis method, [2] estimation of NH3 emissions at the regional scale using a process-based approach with available archived independent variables, and the currently used top-down approach, in order to compare and determine differences in predicted spatial and temporal variability of NH3 emissions, and [3] performance of spatial analysis to determine spatial and temporal patterns of ammonia emissions and relate them to independent variables characteristic of land use, soil, meteorology, and agricultural management practices. NH3 flux was measured over and within a maize canopy from pre-cultivation through senescence (May-September 2014) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) Energy Biosciences Institute Energy Farm, and data from the field study was incorporated into models to facilitate connection of local emissions with the regional scale and to improve understanding of the processes that drive emission and deposition.

  4. Comparing application methods for N-fertilizer in the sugar beet crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpietro Venturi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet seeders have been developed in other countries, in order to place nitrogen into the soil at a few centimeters from the seed. Placing fertilizer has proved safe for seedling emergence, successful in reducing soil residual nitrogen at harvest, sometimes even better-yielding than broadcast applications. In a 3-year research on sugar beet, spreading fertilizer on the soil surface followed by incorporation was compared with placing in rows 6 and 3 cm far from the seed ones, slightly deeper than the seed, in combination with two rates of urea-N, 60 and 120 kg ha-1, plus an unfertilized check. The course of soil mineral nitrogen and that of N-uptake were evaluated during crop cycle. Yield and quality were evaluated at harvest. Nitrogen placement close to the seed (3 cm negatively affected crop emergence. In the plant-soil system, placement showed a higher soil N-content in the first phases and a lower plant uptake at harvest. As for yield, placement attained a slightly-lower level than broadcasting at 60 kg N ha-1 of N, almost the same at 120. No significant difference in quality was observed between the two patterns. At a certain distance from the seed, placement proved a safe way of applying fertilizer. Its yield and quality, the uptake by the plant and the amount of soil residual-N are comparable with those of broadcast fertilizer; in the case of soil nitrogen, it is perceived that the year/location effect is potentially stronger than that of rate/pattern of application.

  5. Phosphorus availability and microbial immobilization in a Nitisol with the application of mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Francisco A; Gatiboni, Luciano C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate P availability, P and C contained in the microbial biomass, and enzymatic activity (acid phosphatases and β-glucosidases) in a Nitisol with the application of mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers. The experiment was performed in a protected environment with control over air temperature and soil moisture. The experimental design was organized in a "5 x 4" factorial arrangement with five sources of P and four times of soil incubation. The sources were: control (without P), triple superphosphate, diammonium phosphate, natural Arad reactive rock phosphate, and organo-mineral fertilizer. The experimental units consisted of PVC columns filled with agricultural soil. The columns were incubated and broken down for analysis at 1, 20, 40, and 60 days after application of the fertilizers. In each column, samples were taken at the layers of 0-2.5, 2.5-5.0, and 5.0-15.0 cm below the zone of the fertilizers. The application of soluble phosphates and organo-mineral fertilizer temporarily increased P availability in the zone near the fertilizers (0-2.5 cm), with maximum availability occurring at approximately 32 days. Microbial immobilization showed behavior similar to P availability, and the greatest immobilizations occurred at approximately 30 days. The organo-mineral fertilizer was not different from soluble phosphates.

  6. Phosphorus availability and microbial immobilization in a Nitisol with the application of mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Francisco A; Gatiboni, Luciano C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate P availability, P and C contained in the microbial biomass, and enzymatic activity (acid phosphatases and β-glucosidases) in a Nitisol with the application of mineral and organo-mineral fertilizers. The experiment was performed in a protected environment with control over air temperature and soil moisture. The experimental design was organized in a "5 x 4" factorial arrangement with five sources of P and four times of soil incubation. The sources were: control (without P), triple superphosphate, diammonium phosphate, natural Arad reactive rock phosphate, and organo-mineral fertilizer. The experimental units consisted of PVC columns filled with agricultural soil. The columns were incubated and broken down for analysis at 1, 20, 40, and 60 days after application of the fertilizers. In each column, samples were taken at the layers of 0-2.5, 2.5-5.0, and 5.0-15.0 cm below the zone of the fertilizers. The application of soluble phosphates and organo-mineral fertilizer temporarily increased P availability in the zone near the fertilizers (0-2.5 cm), with maximum availability occurring at approximately 32 days. Microbial immobilization showed behavior similar to P availability, and the greatest immobilizations occurred at approximately 30 days. The organo-mineral fertilizer was not different from soluble phosphates. PMID:26628018

  7. Response of soil nematode communities to long-term application of inorganic fertilizers in the black soil of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoke ZHANG; Yong JIANG; Lei LIANG; Xiaofan ZHAO; Qi LI

    2009-01-01

    The effects of inorganic fertilizers on soil nematode communities were studied in a long-term fertilization experimental field in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China,where no fertilizer (CK),N fertilizer (N),combined application of N and P (NP),combined application of N and K (NK),and combined application of N,P and K (NPK) were compared.The results showed that the total nematode abundance was not affected significantly by inorganic fertilizers in the long-term field experiment.The numbers of bacterivores increased significantly in the NP treatment compared to the CK treatment,and those of fungivores and plant-parasites were inhibited in the NPK treatment.The similarity between CK and NPK treatment and the nematode diversity were higher than in other treatments.The stability of the soil ecosystem was disturbed by the inorganic fertilizers,as indicated by the change in MI values under different treatments.The response of soil nematodes mainly depended on the types of inorganic fertilizers applied.

  8. [Nutrient use efficiency and yield-increasing effect of single basal application of rice specific controlled release fertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiansheng; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Zhang, Fabao; Xie, Chunsheng

    2005-10-01

    A series of pot and field experiments and field demonstrations showed that in comparing with the commonly used specific-fertilizers containing same amounts of nutrients, single basal application of rice-specific controlled release fertilizer could increase the use efficiency of N and P by 12.2% - 22.7% and 7.0% - 35.0%, respectively in pot experiment, and the use efficiency of N by 17.1% in field experiment. In 167 field demonstrations successively conducted for 3 years in various rice production areas of Guangdong Province, single basal application of the fertilizer saved the application rate of N and P by 22.1% and 21.8%, respectively, and increased the yield by 8.2%, compared with normal split fertilization.

  9. [Nutrient use efficiency and yield-increasing effect of single basal application of rice specific controlled release fertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiansheng; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Zhang, Fabao; Xie, Chunsheng

    2005-10-01

    A series of pot and field experiments and field demonstrations showed that in comparing with the commonly used specific-fertilizers containing same amounts of nutrients, single basal application of rice-specific controlled release fertilizer could increase the use efficiency of N and P by 12.2% - 22.7% and 7.0% - 35.0%, respectively in pot experiment, and the use efficiency of N by 17.1% in field experiment. In 167 field demonstrations successively conducted for 3 years in various rice production areas of Guangdong Province, single basal application of the fertilizer saved the application rate of N and P by 22.1% and 21.8%, respectively, and increased the yield by 8.2%, compared with normal split fertilization. PMID:16422505

  10. 长期施肥对水稻土酶活性及理化特性的影响%Effect of long-term fertilization on enzyme activities and chemical properties of paddy soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵兴华; 张建忠; 夏雪琴; 杨新

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the relation between soil enzyme activity and soil chemical properties in paddy soil under different fertilizer treatments, we conducted a study to determine the effects of inorganic fertilizer and combination of pig manure and inorganic NPK on soil chemical and biological properties in a more than 30 a long term fertilization experiment. The treatments as the following: no fertilization (CK), N, P, K, NPK, double NPK, NPK + pig manure. The results showed, P fertilizer(only applied P fertilizer or applied P fertilizer with other chemical fertilizer) could increase total P and availabel P of paddy soils. Soil organic matter, total P, available P, total N and available N in NPK+pig manure treatment all increased significantly compared with no fertilization(CK) and mineral fertilization treatments( N, P, K, NPK and 2NPK). Except for the highest urease activity was NPK treatment, the soil invertase, acid phosphatase and catalase activities were all significantly higher than those in other fertilization treatments. Acid phosphatase activity negatively correlated with soil total P. Catalase, urease and invertase activities were significant and dramatically significant positively correlated with total N, organic matter, available N, available P. So, co-application of manure and mineral fertilizers not only increased the soil fertility, but also enhaced significantly soil enzymes activities, thus could inprove paddy soil sustainable productivity.%为了明确不同施肥种类对水稻土土壤肥力与酶活性的影响,以30年(1981年至今)长期定位试验地为基础,研究不同施肥处理(CK,N,P,K,NPK,2倍NPK,NPK+猪粪)水稻田耕层(0~20 cm)土壤酶活性与养分的变化趋势及其相关性.结果表明:1)施P(配施或单施)增加土壤全P、速效P含量,平衡施肥配施有机肥(NPK+猪粪处理)土壤的有机质、全P、速效P、全N、速效N均显著增加,所有施肥处理间pH值差异均不显著;2)除了NPK处

  11. Soil fertility, nutrition and yield of maize and barley with gypsum application on soil surface in no-till

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Michalovicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Annual crop yield and nutrition have shown differentiated responses to modifications in soil chemical properties brought about by gypsum application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gypsum application rates on the chemical properties of a Latossolo Bruno (Clayey Oxisol, as well as on the nutrition and yield of a maize-barley succession under no-till. The experiment was set up in November 2009 in Guarapuava, Parana, Brazil, applying gypsum rates of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 Mg ha-1 to the soil surface upon sowing maize, with crop succession of barley. Gypsum application decreased the levels of Al3+ and Mg2+ in the 0.0-0.1 m layer and increased soil pH in the layers from 0.2-0.6 m depth. Gypsum application has increased the levels of Ca2+ in all soil layers up to 0.6 m, and the levels of S-SO4(2- up to 0.8 m. In both crops, the leaf concentrations of Ca and S were increased while Mg concentrations have decreased as a function of gypsum rates. There was also an effect of gypsum rates on grain yield, with a quadratic response of maize and a linear increase for barley. Yield increases were up to 11 and 12 % in relation to control for the maximum technical efficiency (MTE rates of 3.8 and 6.0 Mg ha-1 of gypsum, respectively. Gypsum application improved soil fertility in the profile, especially in the subsurface, as well as plant nutrition, increasing the yields of maize and barley.

  12. Quantifying Fertilizer Application Response Variability with VHR Satellite NDVI Time Series in a Rainfed Smallholder Cropping System of Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Blaes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility in smallholder farming areas is known to vary strongly on multiple scales. This study measures the sensitivity of the recorded satellite signal to on-farm soil fertility treatments applied to five crop types, and quantifies this fertilization effect with respect to within-field variation, between-field variation and field position in the catena. Plant growth was assessed in 5–6 plots per field in 48 fields located in the Sudano-Sahelian agro-ecological zone of southeastern Mali. A unique series of Very High Resolution (VHR satellite and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV images were used to calculate the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. In this experiment, for half of the fields at least 50% of the NDVI variance within a field was due to fertilization. Moreover, the sensitivity of NDVI to fertilizer application was crop-dependent and varied through the season, with optima at the end of August for peanut and cotton and early October for sorghum and maize. The influence of fertilizer on NDVI was comparatively small at the landscape scale (up to 35% of total variation, relative to the influence of other components of variation such as field management and catena position. The NDVI response could only partially be benchmarked against a fertilization reference within the field. We conclude that comparisons of the spatial and temporal responses of NDVI, with respect to fertilization and crop management, requires a stratification of soil catena-related crop growth conditions at the landscape scale.

  13. Application of bokashi and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. to improve inorganic fertilizer efficiency on maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Yuliana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted lo learn about the effect of Bokashi and Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. on maize production and inorganic fertilizer use efficiency on maize. The experiment was conducted in Jatikerto, Malang; at the altitude of 303 m above sea level, in Alfisol soil type, the average daily temperature ranges 21-33oC, from June to October 2013. The experiment was conducted as factorial, designed in a randomized block design (RBD. The first factor was dose of inorganic fertilizer (100% ; 75% and 50% of recommendation dose. The second factor was the organic fertilizer (Without organic fertilizer20 t Bokashi/ ha, 20 t Sunn hemp/ha, 10 t Bokashi/ha + 10 t Sunn hemp/ha. The results showed that application of 20 t Bokashi/ha, 20 t Sunn hemp/ha, and combination of 10 t Bokashi/ha + 10 t Sunn hemp/ha, along with the application of inorganic fertilizer by dose of 100% increased the yields of maize for about 41.8%; 47.6% and 54.7% (10.73 t/ha; 11.17 t/ha, and 11.71 t/ha, respectively. The yield and nutrient use efficiency in the treatment dose of 100% inorganic fertilizer did not have any significant difference from the application of 20 t Bokashi /ha, 20 t Sunn hemp/ha, and 10 t Bokashi/ha + 10 t Sunn hemp/ha along with doses of inorganic fertilization 75% and 50%. Therefore, the organic fertilizer of 20 t Bokashi/ ha, 20 t Sunn hemp/ha, and combination of 10 t Bokashi/ha + 10 t Sunn hemp/ha could reduce the need of inorganic fertilizer for about 50%.

  14. Leaf tissues proportion and chemical composition of Axonopus jesuiticus x A. scoparius as a function of pig slurry application

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Reschke Lajús; Mário Miranda; Simone Meredith Scheffer Basso; Cercí Maria Carneiro; Pedro Alexandre Varella Escosteguy

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical and anatomical attributes of leaves of giant missionary grass to application of 0, 62, 124, 186, 248 and 310m³ ha-1 of pig slurry. At 83 days after the last application of fertilizer, the leaf blades were collected, fixed in FAA 70%, sectioned, stained, photographed and digitalized. The transversal section of leaf blades were evaluated for proportion of epidermis, lignified vascular tissue + sclerenchyma, non-lignified vascular tissue and parenchyma w...

  15. Effects of types and application rates of nitrogen fertilizer on the development and nitrogen utilization of summer maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenxie YI; Pu WANG; Hongbin TAO; Hongfang ZHANG; Lixia SHEN

    2008-01-01

    To reduce nitrogen fertilizer (NF) loss and improve nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in summer maize, the effects of the different application rates of three types of NF (urea, coated urea and compound fertilizer) on the growth and development and NUE of summer maize (cultivars: Zhengdan958 and Nongda108) were studied in 2004. The main findings of this study were: (1) The yields of the two cultivars increased significantly with each The increase in the yield of summer maize treated with compound fertilizer was greater than the yield of those treated with either of the other two fertilizers at the same application rate, while the differences among the three types of NF were not significant. (2) Grain number per ear of the two cultivars rose in relation to the increase in N application rate, while its relationship with the type of NF was very weak. The type of NF had a greater impact on 1000-grain weight, and a difference between cultivars was observed. (3) Leaf area index (LAI), dry matter weight and leaf chlorophyll content grew in relation to the increase in N application rate, and were improved more sharply by compound fertilizer or coated urea than by urea alone. (4) Compared to the results achieved with urea, the NUEs of summer maize treated with coated urea and compound fertilizer were higher but the nitrogen harvest index was not improved. In addition, the NUEs of three types of NF exhibited a genotype difference from summer maize.

  16. Slug responses to grassland cutting and fertilizer application under plant functional group removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everwand, Georg; Scherber, Christoph; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-04-01

    Current studies on trophic interactions in biodiversity experiments have largely relied on artificially sown gradients in plant diversity, but removal experiments with their more natural plant community composition are more realistic. Slugs are a major part of the invertebrate herbivore community, with some species being common pests in agriculture. We therefore investigated how strongly slugs are influenced by grassland management, plant biodiversity and composition. Here we analysed the effects of cutting frequency, fertilizer application and plant functional group composition on slug densities and their contribution to herbivory on Rumex acetosa in a removal experiment within a >100-year old grassland in Northern Germany. The experiment was laid out as a Latin rectangle with full factorial combinations of (i) plant functional group removal (3 levels) using herbicides, (ii) fertilizer application (2 levels) and (iii) cutting frequency (2 levels). The resulting 12 treatment combinations were replicated 6 times, resulting in 72 plots. We collected a total of 1020 individuals belonging to three species Arion distinctus (60.4% of individuals), Deroceras reticulatum (34.7%) and Arion lusitanicus (4.9%) using a cover board technique and additionally measured herbivore damage to R. acetosa. We found the highest slug abundance on plots with a low cutting frequency and high food resource availability (increased cover of forbs and taller vegetation). Fertilizer application had no significant effect on slug abundance, but caused higher herbivore damage to on R. acetosa, possibly as a result of increased tissue quality. The negative effect of higher cutting frequency on slug abundance was lowest in control plots with their naturally developed graminoid-forb communities (cutting reduced slug density by 6% in the control vs. 29% in herbicide plots). Our experiments therefore support the idea that more natural plant species compositions reduce the impact of disturbances (e

  17. Growth and Yield of Chili Pepper under Different Time Application of Wedelia (Wedelia trilobata and Siam Weed (Chromolaena odorata Organic Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Setyowati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low content of soil organic matter and low availability of nutrients in Ultisol are major constraints of this soil to support growth and development of chili pepper. Application of organic fertilizer is required to increase content of soil organic matter as well as to improve other chemical, biological, physical properties of this soil. Wedelia (Wedelia trilobata  and Siam Weed (Chromolaena odorata  are potential sources of organic fertilizer. The aim of this study was to compare growth and yield of chili pepper under different time application of Wedelia and Siam Weed based organic fertilizers. Greenhouse house experiment was conducted employing Completely Randomized Design with 2 factors namely Wedelia and Siam Weed composts as first factor and 5 (five different time of application as second factor. Each treatment was replicated 5 times. The study showed that most variables observed in this experiment were not affected by types of compost. Only were plant height, canopy width and dry weight of biomass significant difference between the two composts. Siam weed compost applied two weeks before planting resulted in plant canopy wider than Wedelia compost. However, Wedelia compost applied at planting resulted in longer chili pepper as compared to Siam weed compost. The experiment also revealed that Wedelia compost produced higher plant height and root dry weight as compared to Siam weed compost.

  18. Fertilization Effects on the Chemical Composition and In vitro Organic Matter Digestibility of Semi-natural Meadows as Predicted by NIR Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. DALE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Management of livestock grazing in highly-productive mountain meadows is an important aspect for the economic viability and the environmental impact of a grassland-based farm. The main aim of this study was to build near infrared models to determine the chemical composition and in vitro organic matter digestibility of Romanian meadow forages. The treatments were organic and mineral fertilizer combinations, and forage samples were obtained from three fertilization experiments conducted in the Apuseni Mountains; these samples were analysed using classical and NIR methods. The samples were scanned in the NIR wavelength band. The CRA-W Gembloux ‘local’ calibration models were validated with Romanian meadow forages and then used in order to predict the forage quality of samples. A second objective of the study was to determine the effects of fertilization on forage quality. The results showed a decrease in crude protein content from the NPK treatment (150:75:75, which can be explained by a reduction of Fabaceae plants with this treatment from 17.25% of the populations in the control (semi-natural meadow not fertilized to 6.25% in the fertilized plots. The decrease in protein content and in vitro organic matter digestibility was related to a reduced Fabaceae presence. Our recommendation is to use mineral fertilization with NPK doses less than 100:50:50 to improve meadow productivity; meanwhile organic fertilization can also be used to complement and maintain biodiversity and forage quality.

  19. Application of N-15 Technique for Quantification of N-Fertilizer and N-Soil Uptake in Difference Maize Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Kasim, Nurlina

    2014-01-01

    Application of N-15 Technique for Quantification of N-Fertilizer and N-Soil Uptake in Difference Maize Varieties. A pot study has been carried out, where the treatments were N-fertilizers (N-F) : F0 = without N-fertilizer (F), F1 = 100% anorganic N-F/urea, F2 = 100% organic N-F, and 50% anorganic + 50% organic N-F and three maize varieties namely, var. Anoman (A), var. Lamuru (L) and var. Sukmaraga (S). An Anova was implemented to observe any difference among the treatments and their inter...

  20. Effects of Long-Term Application of Inorganic Fertilizers on Biochemical Properties of a Rice-Planting Red Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Wen-Hui; CAI Zu-Cong; ZHANG He

    2007-01-01

    A long-term experiment was set up in Yingtan of Jiangxi Province to investigate the effects of long-term application of inorganic fertilizers on the biochemical properties of a rice-planting soil derived from Quaternary red earth. Noncultivated soils are extremely eroded and characterized by a low pH and deficiencies in available nutrients, in particular P and N. After 13 years of inorganic fertilization in cultivation for double-cropped rice, the biochemical properties of the soil were changed. The nitrification potential and urease activity were higher in the treatments with N application than those without N application. Acid phosphatase activity and dehydrogenase activity were also higher in the treatments with P application than in those without P application. The dehydrogenase activity correlated well with the concentrations of both total P and hydrolysable N and with rice crop yield, suggesting that dehydrogenase activity might be a suitable indicator for improvement in soil fertility.

  1. Effectiveness of nitrogen fertilization and application of microbial preparations in potato cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Kolodziejczyk, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of nitrogen fertilization and application of microbiological preparations in potato cultivation. The experiment factors were doses of nitrogen of 0, 60, 120, and 180 kg N ha-1 and microbial preparations of BactoFil B10, Effective Microorganisms EM, and UGmax. The amount of inorganic N in the 0-0.9 m soil layer before potato planting fluctuated from 63.5 to 80.4 kg N ha-1, while after harvest it ranged from 44.4 to 119.7 kg N ha-1. Nitrogen supply from min...

  2. Leaching and Transformation of Nitrogen Fertilizers in Soil After Application of N with Irrigation: A Soil Column Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A soil column method was used to compare the effect of drip fertigation (the application of fertilizer through drip irrigation systems, DFI) on the leaching loss and transformation of urea-N in soil with that of surface fertilization combined with flood irrigation (SFI), and to study the leaching loss and transformation of three kinds of nitrogen fertilizers (nitrate fertilizer, ammonium fertilizer, and urea fertilizer) in two contrasting soils after the fertigation. In comparison to SFI,DFI decreased leaching loss of urea-N from the soil and increased the mineral N (NH4+-N + NO3--N) in the soil. The N leached from a clay loam soil ranged from 5.7% to 9.6% of the total N added as fertilizer, whereas for a sandy loam soil they ranged between 16.2% and 30.4%. Leaching losses of mineral N were higher when nitrate fertilizer was used compared to urea or ammonium fertilizer. Compared to the control (without urea addition), on the first day when soils were fertigated with urea, there were increases in NH4+-N in the soils. This confirmed the rapid hydrolysis of urea in soil during fertigation. NH4+-N in soils reached a peak about 5 days after fertigation, and due to nitrification it began to decrease at day 10. After applying NH4+-N fertilizer and urea and during the incubation period, the mineral nitrogen in the soil decreased. This may be related to the occurrence of NH4+-N fixation or volatilization in the soil during the fertigation process.

  3. Growth responses of Lycoris longituba to application of soybean meal and P-K fertilizers%豆饼和磷钾肥对长筒石蒜生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍淳松; 张鹏翀; 江燕

    2015-01-01

    A furrow fertilizer application method was carried out, in which bulb of Lycoris longituba was planted on the top of casing soil over the applied fertilizer, soybean meal fertilizer at the bottom and superphosphate and potassium chloride fertilizer on the upper layer, to study the fertilizing effects of different usages of soybean meal and chemical fertilizer on the leaf growth and bulb biomass. Results showed that relative leaf biomass decreased with the fertilization amount at the late stage of the first growth season. The fertilization did not significantly increase average leaf count, leaf length and bulb biomass in the following 2 years. Bulb of L. longituba grew slowly, and the average annual compound growth rate of fresh bulb weight was only about 41%. It is suggested that relative fertile soil be selected to plant Lycoris longituba, and the principal of multiple and light fertilizations were suggested to follow.%试验采用先施豆饼肥、上面施化肥后覆土,再在上面种植鳞茎的沟施方法,探讨不同用量的豆饼肥和化肥(过磷酸钙+氯化钾)对长筒石蒜生长的影响。结果表明:施肥未显著增加叶生长量和鳞茎生物量。施肥后首季表现出用量越多叶量越小的趋势,表现出施肥的负面效应,但随后年份负面影响减小。长筒石蒜生长缓慢,鳞茎鲜重平均年复合增长率仅41%。建议选择相对肥沃的土壤种植,施肥则宜多次薄施。

  4. Nitrogen fertilizer split-application for corn in no-till succession to black oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceretta Carlos Alberto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies of fertilization splitting are necessary specially for the grass succession black oat-corn where N immobilization is very common. Four experiments were carried out in commercial farms under no-tillage, in four counties - Itaara, Santo Ângelo, Júlio de Castilhos and Tupanciretã, all of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the splitting of N application in a corn/black oat crop rotation, during the 97/98 and 98/99 cropping seasons. The N was applied at three times -- pre-planted, starter and sidedressed. The pre-planted applied N for corn, corresponding to total or partial rates that would be sidedressed presented similar results in relation to the sidedress application, however, years of above average rainfall presented N deficiency for corn, reducing yield, which indicates that N application as starter or sidedress is recommended.

  5. Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  6. Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  7. Evolution of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilizer Application Rates in Cotton Fields and lts lnfluences on Cotton Yield in the Yangtze River Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naiyin XU; Jian Ll

    2014-01-01

    Objective] The historical evolution pattern of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizer application rate and its effects on lint cotton yield were explored to provide the theoretical basis for reasonable fertilizer management strate-gy in the cotton planting region of the Yangtze River Val ey. [Method] GGE biplot analysis method was adopted to analyze the correlation among N, P and K fertilizer application rate and lint cotton yield with the dataset of national cotton regional trials of the Yangtze River Val ey during 1991-2013. The linear and nonlinear regression analysis method was used to reveal the evolution of the fertilizer applying patterns, and analyze the effects of N, P, K application rates on cotton lint yield. [Result] The application rates of N, P and K fertilizer presented highly significant positive corre-lation with lint cotton yield, among which the potassium fertilizer was the strongest relative factor with lint cotton yield, fol owed by phosphorus fertilizer, while nitrogen fertilizer was the weakest factor. The application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was relat-ed with the test year in the pattern of a quadratic function, while phosphate and potassium had progressive increase linear relation with the test year in the cotton planting region of the Yangtze River Val ey. Meanwhile, cotton lint yield was in re-sponse to nitrogen fertilizer content increase with a quadratic parabola function, and increased with the applying phosphate fertilizer and potassium fertilizer content with linearly increasing function. [Conclusion] The increasing application amount of N, P and K fertilizer was general y beneficial to cotton yield improvements, however, ex-orbitant applying nitrogen fertilizer was unfavorable for cotton production, and a reasonable mixture formula of N, P and K fertilizer was better in terms of cotton yield-increasing effect.

  8. Effects of fertilizer application and dry/wet processing of Miscanthus x giganteus on bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye-Boaten, Nana Abayie; Xiu, Shuangning; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Wang, Lijun; Li, Rui; Mims, Michelle; Schimmel, Keith

    2016-03-01

    The effects of wet and dry processing of miscanthus on bioethanol production using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process were investigated, with wet samples showing higher ethanol yields than dry samples. Miscanthus grown with no fertilizer, with fertilizer and with swine manure were sampled for analysis. Wet-fractionation was used to separate miscanthus into solid and liquid fractions. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment was employed and the SSF process was performed with saccharomyces cerevisiae and a cocktail of enzymes at 35°C. After pretreatment, cellulose compositions of biomass of the wet samples increased from 61.0-67.0% to 77.0-87.0%, which were higher than the compositions of dry samples. The highest theoretical ethanol yield of 88.0% was realized for wet processed pretreated miscanthus, grown with swine manure. Changes to the morphology and chemical composition of the biomass samples after pretreatment, such as crystallinity reduction, were observed using SEM and FTIR. These changes improved ethanol production. PMID:26773953

  9. Band versus Nursery Pot Application of Polyolefin-coated Fertilizer for Bell Peppers Grown in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    OMBODI, Attila; Saigusa,Masahiko

    2005-01-01

    Using a single basal application of controlled-release fertilizers for bell peppers is a perspective method, because by the elimination of top-dressings, labour and energy costs can be reduced. In this study, effects of band and nursery pot applications of polyolefin-coated fertilizers (POCF) on bell peppers grown in the field were compared at two different application rates, in 1997 and 1998. As a consequence of continuous nutrient supply, a good yield could be achieved in case of both appli...

  10. [Long-Term Different Fertilizations Changed the Chemical and Spectrum Characteristics of DOM of the Irrigation-Desert Soil in North-Western China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dan-na; Cao, Wei-dong; Bag, Xing-guo; Bai, Jin-shun; Zhang, Jiu-dong; Lu, Bing-lin; Gao, Song-juan; Zeng, Nao-hua; Wang, Xue-cui; Katsuyoshi, Shimizu

    2016-01-01

    By using Ultraviolet-visible Spectrometry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer and Elemental Analyzer, spectrum and chemical characteristics of soil DOM affected by long-term different fertilizations were investigated in irrigation-desert soil in North-western China based on an experiment started from 1988. Four different fertilization treatments were included, i. e., organic fertilizer (OF), green manure (GM), chemical fertilizer (CF) and a control of no fertilization (CK). The results showed that fertilization could increase the contents of DOM. Compared to CK, the treatments of OF, GM, CF increased the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 37%, 29%, 16%; increased the dissolved nitrogen (DON) by 334%, 257%, 182%; increased the total carbohydrate (TCs) by 90%, 25%, 2%; and increased the total organic acids (TOAs) by 195%, 116%, 58%; respectively. Furthermore, DOC, DON, TCs, and TOAs in the OF treatment were significantly higher than those in CK, they were also significantly higher in the GM and CF treatments except for TCs. The ultraviolet-visible analysis showed that fertilizations enhanced the SUVA(254), SUVA(260), SUVA(272) and SUVA(280) of DOM, indicating that fertilizations increased the aromatic and hydrophobic percentage, humification degree, and average molecular weight, and thus resulting in more stability of DOM. Same trends were showed for all the 4 ultraviolet spectrum absorption values in different fertilizations, i. e., the strongest effect was found in the OF treatment, and then was the GM treatment and CF treatment successively. From the results by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry, the characteristic peak of aromatic in the OF treatment was observed shifting from 1 625 to 1 649 cm(-1), which was close to the characteristic peak of humin, suggesting that the aromaticity of DOM in the OF treatment was higher than the other treatments. The characteristic peaks of C-O at 1 260-1 000 cm(-1) belonging to sugar, alcohol, and carboxylic acid

  11. Incomplete Markets and Fertilizer Use : Evidence from Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Zerfu, Daniel; Donald F. Larson

    2010-01-01

    While the economic returns to using chemical fertilizer in Africa can be large, application rates are low. This study explores whether this is due to missing and imperfect markets. Results based on a panel survey of Ethiopian farmers suggest that while fertilizer markets are not altogether missing in rural Ethiopia, high transport costs, unfavorable climate, price risk, and illiteracy pres...

  12. Chemical and biological properties of phosphorus-fertilized soil under legume and grass cover (Cerrado region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fernando Pereira Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops has been suggested as an effective method to maintain and/or increase the organic matter content, while maintaining and/or enhancing the soil physical, chemical and biological properties. The fertility of Cerrado soils is low and, consequently, phosphorus levels as well. Phosphorus is required at every metabolic stage of the plant, as it plays a role in the processes of protein and energy synthesis and influences the photosynthetic process. This study evaluated the influence of cover crops and phosphorus rates on soil chemical and biological properties after two consecutive years of common bean. The study analyzed an Oxisol in Selvíria (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in a randomized block, split plot design, in a total of 24 treatments with three replications. The plot treatments consisted of cover crops (millet, pigeon pea, crotalaria, velvet bean, millet + pigeon pea, millet + crotalaria, and millet + velvet bean and one plot was left fallow. The subplots were represented by phosphorus rates applied as monoammonium phosphate (0, 60 and 90 kg ha-1 P2O5. In August 2011, the soil chemical properties were evaluated (pH, organic matter, phosphorus, potential acidity, cation exchange capacity, and base saturation as well as biological variables (carbon of released CO2, microbial carbon, metabolic quotient and microbial quotient. After two years of cover crops in rotation with common bean, the cover crop biomass had not altered the soil chemical properties and barely influenced the microbial activity. The biomass production of millet and crotalaria (monoculture or intercropped was highest. The biological variables were sensitive and responded to increasing phosphorus rates with increases in microbial carbon and reduction of the metabolic quotient.

  13. Acidification rate from chemical N fertilization and alleviation by manure in an 18–year field experiment in a ferralic cambisol, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil acidification from chemical N fertilization has worsened and is a major yield-limiting factor in the red soils of southern China. Assessment of the acidification process under field conditions over a long term is essential to develop strategies for maintaining soil productivity. The objective o...

  14. Responses of Agronomic Benefit and Soil Quality to Better Management of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application in Greenhouse Vegetable Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hui-Min; ZHANG Jian-Feng; SONG Xiao-Zong; LIU Zhao-Hui; JIANG Li-Hua; YANG Jun-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    As a result of intensive greenhouse vegetable production in northern China,the potential risk of nitrogen (N) fertilizer over-applied is increasingly apparent and is threatening ecosystem and the sustainability of food production.An experiment was carried out in Shouguang,Shangdong Province,China to evaluate agronomic benefit and soil quality under different N applications,including the conventional chemical N rate (1 000 kg N ha-1 season-1,N1),70% of N1 (N2),70% of N1 + maize straw (N3),50% of N1 + maize straw + drip irrigation (N4),and 0% of N1 (N0),during two successive growing seasons of autumn-winter (AW) and winter-spring (WS).The maximum yields for N4 were 1.1 and 1.0 times greater than those for N1 in the AW and WS seasons,respectively.N agronomic efficiency (AEN) and apparent N recovery efficiency (REN) were greatest with the N4.A significant relationship was found between soil NO3--N content and electrical conductivity (EC) (R2=0.61 in the AW season and R2 =0.29 in the WS season) Reducing N fertilizer decreased soil NO3--N accumulation (20.9%-37.8% reduction in the AW season and 11.7% 20.1% reduction in the WS season) relative to the accumulation observed for N1 within the 0-100 cm soil layer.Soil urease and invertase activities were not significantly different among N treatments.The N4 treatment would be practical for reducing excess N input and maintaining the sustainability of greenhouse-based intensive vegetable systems in Shouguang.

  15. Seedling response of three agroforestry tree species to phosphorous fertilizer application in Bangladesh: growth and nodulation capabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Belal Uddin; Sharif Ahmed Mukul; Mohammed Abu Sayed Arfin Khan; Mohammed Kamal Hossain

    2009-01-01

    Triple Super Phosphate, TSP fertilizer, was applied @ 80 kg(ha-1 as the source of phosphorous on six months old polybag seedlings of Albizia chinensis, Albizia saman and Pongamia pinnta in nursery beds in Bangladesh. The effects of P-fertilizer on seedling growth and nodulation were compared to that of seedlings grown in unfertilized soil or in control at different harvesting intervals. The study revealed that, seedling growth was enhanced significantly with the application of P-fertilizer. The growth was found more pronounced in cases of A. saman and P. pinnata, whereas it was not noticeable and showed depressed growth in case of A. chinensis. The study also suggests that nodulation in terms of nodule number and size was also increased significantly with P-fertilization except in case of P. pinnata, where higher harvesting intervals lowered the nodulation performance of that species

  16. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of water eroded soils of Sharkul area of district Mansehra, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmanullah Khan, A. Iqbal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation is the major threat to agricultural sustainability because it affects the soil productivity. Present study was conducted in 2008 to evaluate physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some eroded soil series of Sharkul area district Manshera, Hazara division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Six soil series including slightly eroded (Dosera and Girari, moderately eroded (Nakholi and Sharkul and severely eroded (Ahl and Banser were selected. Soil samples were collected from surface (0-15 cm, subsurface (30-45 cm and substrata soil (60-75cm depths and were analyzed for various soil properties. Due to severity of erosion, bulk density increased, while total porosity, saturation percentage and organic matter decreased significantly. AB-DTPA extractable P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn concentrations were decreased due to the severity of erosion in surface and sub surface soils, whereas in the substrata soils (60-75 cm depth, the effect of erosion was almost non significant. Sub-surface and sub-strata soils were found deficient in available P ( Zn > Fe > Mn. The physical and chemical properties of eroded soils varied significantly and the increasing severity of erosion resulted in corresponding deterioration of soil quality.

  17. Cover crops for managing weeds, soil chemical fertility and nutritional status of organically grown orange orchard in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Paolo Mauro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops can offer significant advantages in the agronomic management of citrus orchards in Mediterranean environments. Therefore, a three-year research was conducted in eastern Sicily aimed at studying the effects of four cover crop sequences (Sinapis arvensis-Trigonella foenum-graecum-T. foenum-graecum; Medicago scutellata-Avena sativa-Lolium perenne; Vicia faba minor-A. sativa-A. sativa; A. sativa-V. faba. minor-L. perenne on weeds, major soil chemical properties and nutritional status of an organically grown orange orchard. The results highlighted that, among the studied cover crop sequences, Vicia faba-Avena-Avena was the most beneficial for weeds control within the orchard (92%, of cover crop cover, and 586 and 89 g DW m–2 of cover crop aboveground biomass and weeds aboveground biomass, respectively. Overall, the chemical fertility of the soil was positively influenced. In particular, it was observed an increase of the content of total nitrogen and available phosphorus in the soil by both Sinapis-Trigonella-Trigonella (0.75 g kg–1 and 59.0 mg kg–1, respectively and Vicia faba-Avena-Avena (0.70 g kg–1 and 56.0 mg kg–1, respectively cover crop sequences. Medicago-Avena-Lolium sequence seemed to be the most useful to ensure a better nutritional status of the orange orchard.

  18. Effects of combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers plus nitrification inhibitor DMPP on nitrogen runoff loss in vegetable soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiaogang; Ma, Junwei; Zou, Ping; Lin, Hui; Sun, Wanchun; Yin, Jianzhen; Fu, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    The application of nitrogen fertilizers leads to various ecological problems such as large amounts of nitrogen runoff loss causing water body eutrophication. The proposal that nitrification inhibitors could be used as nitrogen runoff loss retardants has been suggested in many countries. In this study, simulated artificial rainfall was used to illustrate the effect of the nitrification inhibitor DMPP (3,4-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate) on nitrogen loss from vegetable fields under combined organic and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer application. The results showed that during the three-time simulated artificial rainfall period, the ammonium nitrogen content in the surface runoff water collected from the DMPP application treatment increased by 1.05, 1.13, and 1.10 times compared to regular organic and inorganic combined fertilization treatment, respectively. In the organic and inorganic combined fertilization with DMPP addition treatment, the nitrate nitrogen content decreased by 38.8, 43.0, and 30.1% in the three simulated artificial rainfall runoff water, respectively. Besides, the nitrite nitrogen content decreased by 95.4, 96.7, and 94.1% in the three-time simulated artificial rainfall runoff water, respectively. A robust decline in the nitrate and nitrite nitrogen surface runoff loss could be observed in the treatments after the DMPP addition. The nitrite nitrogen in DMPP addition treatment exhibited a significant low level, which is near to the no fertilizer application treatment. Compared to only organic and inorganic combined fertilizer treatment, the total inorganic nitrogen runoff loss declined by 22.0 to 45.3% in the organic and inorganic combined fertilizers with DMPP addition treatment. Therefore, DMPP could be used as an effective nitrification inhibitor to control the soil ammonium oxidation in agriculture and decline the nitrogen runoff loss, minimizing the nitrogen transformation risk to the water body and being beneficial for the ecological environment.

  19. Effect of Fertilizer Application on Indigenous Medicinal Plant Andrographis paniculata Nees (Sega-gyi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments were carried out to assess the effect of fertilizer application on indigenous medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata Nees (Sega-gyi) on yield components such as plant heigh (cm), fresh weight of whole plant (g), dry weigth of whole plant (g), dry weigth of leave per plant (g), mineral elemental contents of the leaves (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) and medically active compound andrographolide of the leaves from the green-house experiment. Various methods applied in the growth of medicinal plant A. paniculata Nees (Sega-gyi), comprised the dripping (Dropwise) and the spraying methods of the prepared blue green algae (BGA) Spirulina, the composite mixture of prepared BGA+ soil, mineral fertilizer + soil and soil itself as control. In all the fertilizer treatments, the dripping (Dropwise) method using the BGA biofertilizer gave rise to the highest growth of 100 cm when the average fresh weigth of the whole plant was 440g. Andrographolide crystals were isolated, identified and confirmed by chromatographic techniques. A single standard HPLC peak by UV detection (225 nm) indication a retention time of 4.36 min and its melting point (232 C) were found to correspond to the literature values. Analytical results of the leaves of Sega-gyi by the dripping (Dropwise) method indicated the presence of 2.12% andrographolide and also the mineral elements with the composition of N (22.78), P (1.93), K (16.15), Ca (23.70) and Mg (4.85) mg/g. Although the mechanism of micro-algal plant growth regulatory action has not yet been studied, from this research work it was observed that the BGA biofertilizer promotes plant growth, improves the soil physical conditions, and also enhance the yield of medicinally active compound andrographolide.

  20. Effects of Exposure to Four Endocrine Disrupting-Chemicals on Fertilization and Embryonic Development of Barbel Chub (Squaliobarbus curriculus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Cuijuan; WANG Wei; GAO Ying; LI Li

    2013-01-01

    The toxicities of 4 common endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs),17β-estradiol (E2),p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE),4-nonylphenol (NP) and tributyltin (TBT),to sperm motility,fertilization rate,hatching rate and embryonic development of Barbel chub (Squaliobarbus curriculus) were investigated in this study.The duration of sperm motility was significantly shortened by exposure to the EDCs at the threshold concentrations of 10ngL-1 for E2 and TBT,1 μgL-1 for NP and 100μgL-1 for DDE,respectively.The fertilization rate was substantially reduced by the EDCs at the lowest observable effect concentrations (LOECs) of 10ng L-1 for E2 and TBT and 10 lg L-1 for DDE and NP,respectively.Of the tested properties of S.curriculus,larval deformity rate was most sensitive to EDC exposure and was significantly increased by DDE at the lowest experimental level of 0.1 μgL-1.Other EDCs increased the larval deformity rate at the LOECs of 1 ngL-1 for E2,10ngL-1 for TBT and 1 μgL-1 for NP,respectively.Despite their decreases with the increasing EDC concentrations,the hatching rate and larval survival rate ofS.curriculus were not significantly affected by the exposure to EDCs.The results indicated that all the 4 EDCs affected significantly and negatively the early life stages of the freshwater fish S.curriculus.Overall,E2 and TBT were more toxic than NP and DDE,while DDE might be more toxic to larval deformity rate than to other measured parameters.Thus,the 4 EDCs showed potential negative influences on natural population dynamics of S.curriculus.Our findings provided valuable basic data for the ecological risk assessment of E2,DDE,NP and TBT.

  1. Effects of exposure to four endocrine disrupting-chemicals on fertilization and embryonic development of Barbel chub ( Squaliobarbus curriculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Cuijuan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Ying; Li, Li

    2013-09-01

    The toxicities of 4 common endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), 17β-estradiol (E2), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE), 4-nonylphenol (NP) and tributyltin (TBT), to sperm motility, fertilization rate, hatching rate and embryonic development of Barbel chub ( Squaliobarbus curriculus) were investigated in this study. The duration of sperm motility was significantly shortened by exposure to the EDCs at the threshold concentrations of 10 ng L-1 for E2 and TBT, 1 μg L-1 for NP and 100 μg L-1 for DDE, respectively. The fertilization rate was substantially reduced by the EDCs at the lowest observable effect concentrations (LOECs) of 10 ng L-1 for E2 and TBT and 10 μg L-1 for DDE and NP, respectively. Of the tested properties of S. curriculus, larval deformity rate was most sensitive to EDC exposure and was significantly increased by DDE at the lowest experimental level of 0.1 μg L-1. Other EDCs increased the larval deformity rate at the LOECs of 1 ng L-1 for E2, 10 ng L-1 for TBT and 1 μg L-1 for NP, respectively. Despite their decreases with the increasing EDC concentrations, the hatching rate and larval survival rate of S. curriculus were not significantly affected by the exposure to EDCs. The results indicated that all the 4 EDCs affected significantly and negatively the early life stages of the freshwater fish S. curriculus. Overall, E2 and TBT were more toxic than NP and DDE, while DDE might be more toxic to larval deformity rate than to other measured parameters. Thus, the 4 EDCs showed potential negative influences on natural population dynamics of S. curriculus. Our findings provided valuable basic data for the ecological risk assessment of E2, DDE, NP and TBT.

  2. [Responses of soil nematode communities to long-term application of inorganic fertilizers in upland red soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Man-Qiang; He, Yuan-Qiu; Fan, Jian-Bo; Chen, Yan

    2014-08-01

    Soil biota plays a key role in ecosystem functioning of red soil. Based on the long-term inorganic fertilization field experiment (25-year) in an upland red soil, the impacts of different inorganic fertilization managements, including NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), NPKCaS (NPK plus gypsum fertilizers), NP (nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers), NK (nitrogen and potassium fertilizers) and PK (phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), on the assemblage of soil nematodes during the growing period of peanut were investigated. Significant differences among the treatments were observed for total nematode abundance, trophic groups and ecological indices (P NPKCaS > NPK > NP > NK. The total number of nematodes was significantly higher in NPKCaS and PK than in NPK, NP and NK except in May. Plant parasitic nematodes were the dominant trophic group in all treatments excepted in NPKCaS, and their proportion ranged between 38% and 65%. The dominant trophic group in NPKCaS was bacterivores and represented 42.1%. Furthermore, the higher values of maturity index, Wasilewska index and structure index in NPKCaS indicated that the combined application of NPK and gypsum could remarkably relieve soil acidification, resulting in a more mature and stable soil food web structure. While, that of the NK had the opposite effect. In conclusion, our study suggested that the application of both gypsum and phosphate is an effective practice to improve soil quality. Moreover, the analysis of nematode assemblage is relevant to reflect the impact of different inorganic fertilizer on the red soil ecosystem. PMID:25509090

  3. [Responses of soil nematode communities to long-term application of inorganic fertilizers in upland red soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Man-Qiang; He, Yuan-Qiu; Fan, Jian-Bo; Chen, Yan

    2014-08-01

    Soil biota plays a key role in ecosystem functioning of red soil. Based on the long-term inorganic fertilization field experiment (25-year) in an upland red soil, the impacts of different inorganic fertilization managements, including NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), NPKCaS (NPK plus gypsum fertilizers), NP (nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers), NK (nitrogen and potassium fertilizers) and PK (phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), on the assemblage of soil nematodes during the growing period of peanut were investigated. Significant differences among the treatments were observed for total nematode abundance, trophic groups and ecological indices (P NPKCaS > NPK > NP > NK. The total number of nematodes was significantly higher in NPKCaS and PK than in NPK, NP and NK except in May. Plant parasitic nematodes were the dominant trophic group in all treatments excepted in NPKCaS, and their proportion ranged between 38% and 65%. The dominant trophic group in NPKCaS was bacterivores and represented 42.1%. Furthermore, the higher values of maturity index, Wasilewska index and structure index in NPKCaS indicated that the combined application of NPK and gypsum could remarkably relieve soil acidification, resulting in a more mature and stable soil food web structure. While, that of the NK had the opposite effect. In conclusion, our study suggested that the application of both gypsum and phosphate is an effective practice to improve soil quality. Moreover, the analysis of nematode assemblage is relevant to reflect the impact of different inorganic fertilizer on the red soil ecosystem.

  4. Chemical and microbiological attributes of an oxisol treated with successive applications of sewage sludge¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Pires Bueno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on sewage sludge (SS have confirmed the possibilities of using this waste as fertilizer and/or soil conditioner in crop production areas. Despite restrictions with regard to the levels of potentially toxic elements (PTE and pathogens, it is believed that properly treated SS with low PTE levels, applied to soil at adequate rates, may improve the soil chemical and microbiological properties. This study consisted of a long-term field experiment conducted on a Typic Haplorthox (eutroferric Red Latosol treated with SS for seven successive years for maize production, to evaluate changes in the soil chemical and microbiological properties. The treatments consisted of two SS rates (single and double dose of the crop N requirement and a mineral fertilizer treatment. Soil was sampled in the 0-0.20 m layer and analyzed for chemical properties (organic C, pH, P, K, Ca, Mg, CEC, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Pb and microbiological properties (basal respiration, microbial biomass activity, microbial biomass C, metabolic quotient, microbial quotient, and protease and dehydrogenase enzyme activities. Successive SS applications to soil increased the macro- and micronutrient availability, but the highest SS dose reduced the soil pH significantly, indicating a need for periodic corrections. The SS treatments also affected soil microbial activity and biomass negatively. There were no significant differences among treatments for maize grain yield. After seven annual applications of the recommended sludge rate, the heavy metal levels in the soil had not reached toxic levels.

  5. Changes in fertility parameters and contents of heavy metals of soddy-podzolic soils upon the long-term application of sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasbieva, M. T.; Kosolapova, A. I.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of the long-term sewage sludge (SS) application on the chemical, agrophysical, and biological properties of a soddy-podzolic soil ( Umbric Albeluvisols Abruptic) was studied. Regular SS application in the course of five crop rotations (1976-2013) ensured the improvement of the soil fertility parameters, i.e., a rise in the contents of humus, available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium; a better state of the soil adsorption complex, bulk density, and aggregation; and higher cellulolytic, nitrification, and urease activities. The efficiencies of SS and the traditional organic fertilizer (cattle manure) were compared. The effect of the long-term application of SS on the accumulation of heavy metals in the soils was also studied. It was found that the application of SS caused a rise in the bulk content of heavy metals and in the contents of their acid-extractable and mobile forms by 1.1-6.0 times. However, the maximum permissible concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were not exceeded. In the soil subjected to the application of SS for more than 25 years, the cadmium concentration somewhat exceeded the maximum permissible concentration.

  6. [Effects of fertilization method and nitrogen application rate on soil nitrogen vertical migration in a Populus xeuramericana cv. 'Guariento' plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Teng-fei; Xi, Ben-ye; Yan, Xiao-li; Jia, Li-ming

    2015-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fertilization methods, i.e., drip (DF) and furrow fertilization (GF), and nitrogen (N) application rates (25, 50, 75 g N · plant(-1) · time(-1)) on the dynamics of soil N vertical migration in a Populus x euramericana cv. 'Guariento' plantation. The results showed that soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N contents decreased with the increasing soil depth under different fertilization methods and N application rates. In the DF treatment, soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N were mainly concentrated in the 0-40 cm soil layer, and their contents ascended firstly and then descended, reaching their maximum values at the 5th day (211.1 mg · kg(-1)) and 10th day (128.8 mg · kg(-1)) after fertilization, respectively. In the GF treatment, soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N were mainly concentrated in the 0-20 cm layer, and the content of soil NO3(-)-N rose gradually and reached its maximum at the 20th day (175.7 mg · kg(-1)) after fertilization, while the NH4(+)-N content did not change significantly after fertilization. Overall, N fertilizer had an effect within 20 days in the DF treatment, and more than 20 days in the GF treatment. In the DF treatment, the content and migration depth of soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N increased with the N application rate. In the GF treatment, the NO3(-)-N content increased with the N application rate, but the NH4(+)-N content was not influenced. Under the DF treatment, the hydrolysis rate, nitrification rate and migration depth of urea were higher or larger than that under the GF treatment, and more N accumulated in deep soil as the N application rate increased. Considering the distribution characteristics of fine roots and soil N, DF would be a better fertilization method in P. xeuramericana cv. 'Guariento' plantation, since it could supply N to larger distribution area of fine roots. When the N application rate was 50 g · tree(-1) each time, nitrogen mainly distributed in the zone of fine roots and

  7. Heavy metals availability and soil fertility after land application of sewage sludge on dystroferric Red Latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos Moreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge is the solid residue obtained from urban sewage treatment plants. It is possible to use the sludge in a sustainable way as fertilizer and as soil conditioner due to its high levels of organic matter and nutrients. Besides pathogens and volatile organic compounds, the residue may also contain heavy metals which may accumulate and contaminate crops and the food chain. The aim of this study was evaluates the changes in the fertility of dystrophic Red Latosol and in the availability of heavy metals following application of sewage sludge. It was assessed whether organic matter supplied to the soil as large amounts of sewage sludge would decrease availability of heavy metals in the soil due to of insoluble compounds formation. From this, an experiment was carried out in polyethylene pots using lettuce plant for test. Sewage sludge were applied to the soil in concentrations equivalent to 60, 120 and 180 t ha-1, and a control without sludge, in four replicates, in a completely randomized design. The results show that sewage sludge led to an increase of organic matter contents, of the cation exchange capacity (CEC and of nutrients found in the soil. It also improved plant growth up to a concentration of 120 t ha-1. Availability of heavy metals, however, was reduced in sludge concentrations starting with 120 t ha-1.

  8. LONG TERM 32-YEAR-OLD APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS FOR THE FERTILITY OF THE ORDINARY BLACK SOIL AND PRODUCTIVITY OF SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neshchadim N. N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the effectiveness of mineral and organic fertilizers in long-term application (for more than thirty years according to the influence on the fertility of ordinary black soil of the Western Ciscaucasia and productivity of sugar beet. The investigations were carried out in the long-term stationary experiment laid on the experimental stationary section "Severokubanskaya agricultural experimental station" of P.P. Lukyanenko Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute. The experiment was laid simultaneously in time and space in two ten-course crop rotations and combined grain-grass tilled. In the structure of sown areas sugar beet occupied 10% of crop rotation area and was placed after the winter wheat. During three rotations it was studied: 1- control without fertilizer with natural forming level of mineral nutrition; 2- minimal dose N21P26K16 3- medium dose N43P52K33 ; 4 - N43P52K33, 5- high dose N96P104K68; 6- organo-mineral system¹ N43P52K34 + 12 t/ha of manure; 7- organo-mineral system² N20P24K34 + II-III rotations tillage of straw crop + 6 t/ha of manure; 8- medium dose P52K33; 9- medium dose N43K33; 10- medium dose N43K52. The soil which is used by organo-mineral system with increased and high standards of mineral fertilizers had higher concentration of mineral nitrogen. Long systematic application of fertilizer had more noticeable effect on soil phosphorus regime. The provision of soil by exchange potassium tended to decline from rotation to rotation. If at the completion of the first rotation the content of this battery was at the level 362,0-433,0 mg / kg of soil, in 2010, these values were 356,0-405,0 mg / kg of soil, remaining at the level of increased and high provision characterized to ordinary black-soil. Fertilizers for crop rotation provided almost equal yield increase: in the first rotation - 4,9-16,0 t / ha in the second 5,3- 17,1, the third 6,1-15,5 t / ha. In the moderate favorable for moisture and

  9. Continous application of bioorganic fertilizer induced resilient culturable bacteria community associated with banana Fusarium wilt suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Ruan, Yunze; Tao, Chengyuan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana always drives farmers to find new land for banana cultivation due to the comeback of the disease after a few cropping years. A novel idea for solving this problem is the continuous application of bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), which should be practiced from the beginning of banana planting. In this study, BIO was applied in newly reclaimed fields to pre-control banana Fusarium wilt and the culturable rhizobacteria community were evaluated using Biolog Ecoplates and culture-dependent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (CD-DGGE). The results showed that BIO application significantly reduced disease incidences and increased crop yields, respectivly. And the stabilized general bacterial metabolic potential, especially for the utilization of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds, was induced by BIO application. DGGE profiles demonstrated that resilient community structure of culturable rhizobacteria with higher richness and diversity were observed in BIO treated soils. Morever, enriched culturable bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were also detected. In total, continuous application of BIO effectively suppressed Fusarium wilt disease by stabilizing culturable bacterial metabolic potential and community structure. This study revealed a new method to control Fusarium wilt of banana for long term banana cultivation. PMID:27306096

  10. Effects of Fertilizer Application on Forage Production and Botanical Composition of Floodplain and Steppe Rangelands of Tekirdağ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Altin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was planned and conducted on floodplain and steppe areas of a natural rangeland in Karamurat Village, Malkara District, Tekirdağ Province in 2005-2006 period. The purpose of this study, effects of fertilizer application on forage production and botanical composition of Floodplain and steppe rangelands of Tekirdağ. The yields of forage and dry matter vegetation was determined by cutting in blooming time and botanical composition and canopy cover via transect and point-frame measurements. In the 2005 and 2006 , in Autumn, 4 kg/da N and P and 3.6 kg/da N and P, in Spring 4.2 and 5 kg/da N was applied on the rangeland. The experimental area was 1940da. 1m2cages were placed for measurements on unfertilized areas. The rangeland was under control in both years (2005-2006. On barren and basement area of natural rangelands, fertilizing gave rise to most amount of fresh forage and dry hay in 2005 and 2006. Fertilization gave rise to significant yields in forage and dry matter in both floodplain and steppe areas in the study period. According to the averages of fresh forage and dry weights in 2005 and 2006, the estimated rangeland yields were in both fertilized and unfertilized the floodplain areas 2095.0 kg/da and 1150.0 kg/da, 620.0 kg/da and 349.0 kg/da, respectively. The yields were in fresh forage weight and dry weight in both fertilized and unfertilized of the dryland areas as 1665.0 kg/da and 845.0 kg/da, 342.0 kg/da and 240.0 kg /da in the cages, respectively. Fertilizing primarily effects botanical composition and canopy cover of a rangeland. With fertilizing, botanical composition was determined to increase rates of Fabaceae and Poaceae and reduce the rates of other families in transect and point-frame measurements in the fertilized area. The results indicated that plant-covered area measurement values on fertilized rangeland were 85.6% and 95.8% on average by transect measurement method the values on fertilized areas were 88

  11. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2013-09-05

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  12. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Karimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb.

  13. Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P₂O₅:10% K₂O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P₂O₅, 15% K₂O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb. PMID:24013410

  14. 秸秆有机肥施用效果研究%Study on Application Effect of Straw Organic Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾显权

    2016-01-01

    秸秆有机肥可以有效解决有机肥源减少问题,又可以使秸秆资源得到有序利用。本试验通过调查施用秸秆有机肥对马铃薯生长发育、产量及品质方面的影响,验证施用秸秆有机肥的作用,替代一部分化肥的效果和效益,探索有机肥在马铃薯上的最佳施用模式,以推进化肥减量提效,提高肥料利用率。%Straw organic fertilizer can effectively solve the problem of organic manure and straw can be reduced, resource be orderly used. Through the investigation and application of straw organic fertilizer on potato growth and development, yield and quality of, verify the application of straw and the effect of organic manure, the author tested effectiveness and efficiency of the fertilizer, explored the best use model of organic fertilizer on potato, aiming to improve fertilizer utilization rate.

  15. Optimizing nitrogen fertilizer application to irrigated wheat. Results of a co-ordinated research project. 1994-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This TECDOC summarizes the results of a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on the Use of Nuclear Techniques for Optimizing Fertilizer Application under Irrigated Wheat to Increase the Efficient Use of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Consequently Reduce Environmental Pollution. The project was carried out between 1994 and 1998 through the technical co-ordination of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Fourteen Member States of the IAEA and FAO carried out a series of field experiments aimed at improving irrigation water and fertilizer-N uptake efficiencies through integrated management of the complex Interactions involving inputs, soils, climate, and wheat cultivars. Its goals were: to investigate various aspects of fertilizer N uptake efficiency of wheat crops under irrigation through an interregional research network involving countries growing large areas of irrigated wheat; to use 15N and the soil-moisture neutron probe to determine the fate of applied N, to follow water and nitrate movement in the soil, and to determine water balance and water-use efficiency in irrigated wheat cropping systems; to use the data generated to further develop and refine various relationships in the Ceres-Wheat computer simulation model; to use the knowledge generated to produce a N-rate-recommendation package to refine specific management strategies with respect to fertilizer applications and expected yields

  16. Effect of long-term combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil nematode communities within aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiaoke; Mahamood, Md; Zhang, Shuiqing; Huang, Shaomin; Liang, Wenju

    2016-01-01

    A long-term fertilization experiment was conducted to examine the effects of different fertilization practices on nematode community composition within aggregates in a wheat-maize rotation system. The study was a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The experiment involved the following four treatments: no fertilizer, inorganic N, P and K fertilizer (NPK), NPK plus manure (NPKM) and NPK plus maize straw (NPKS). Soil samples were taken at 0-20 cm depth during the wheat harvest stage. Based on our results, NPKS contributed to soil aggregation and moisture retention, with a positive effect on soil total nitrogen accumulation, particularly within small macroaggregates (0.25-1 mm) and microaggregates (nematode community. Both manure application and straw incorporation increased the nematode functional metabolic footprints within all aggregates. Additionally, the functional metabolic footprints decreased with a decline in aggregate size. The accumulation of total nitrogen within nematodes. In our study, both crop straw incorporation and inorganic fertilizer application effectively improved soil physicochemical properties and were also beneficial for nematode survival within small aggregate size fractions. PMID:27502433

  17. The comparison of the farmers' fertilizer application with the suggestions of extension organization in the indeterminate tomatoes farming. A case study of Tokat province - Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, whether farmers' fertilizer application is in harmony with fertilizer application suggested by farmers education and extension unit (FEEU) has been investigated. In addition, situation of contact of indeterminate tomatoes growers with extension staff has been examined. It has been determined that farmers have harmonized the suggestions of FEEU related to time of fertilization and application of fertilizer but not harmonized related to amount of fertilizer to be used. According to chi-square test, the relationship between educational level of farmers and the level of fertilizer use is not statistically significant. In addition, indeterminate tomatoes farmers have not had enough contact with extension staff. To use resources efficiently extension services should be directed to farmers more actively. Refs. 8 (author)

  18. Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Relation to Soil Particle-Size Fractions after 32 Years of Chemical and Manure Application in a Continuous Maize Cropping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Andong; Xu, Hu; Shao, Xingfang; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Wenju; Xu, Minggang; Murphy, Daniel V

    2016-01-01

    Long-term manure application is recognized as an efficient management practice to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and nitrogen (N) mineralization capacity. A field study was established in 1979 to understand the impact of long-term manure and/or chemical fertilizer application on soil fertility in a continuous maize cropping system. Soil samples were collected from field plots in 2012 from 9 fertilization treatments (M0CK, M0N, M0NPK, M30CK, M30N, M30NPK, M60CK, M60N, and M60NPK) where M0, M30, and M60 refer to manure applied at rates of 0, 30, and 60 t ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively; CK indicates no fertilizer; N and NPK refer to chemical fertilizer in the forms of either N or N plus phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soils were separated into three particle-size fractions (2000-250, 250-53, and fertilization application, on the accumulation and mineralization of SOC and total N in each fraction. Results showed that long-term manure application significantly increased SOC and total N content and enhanced C and N mineralization in the three particle-size fractions. The content of SOC and total N followed the order 2000-250 μm > 250-53 μm > 53 μm fraction, whereas the amount of C and N mineralization followed the reverse order. In the fertilizers, resulted in increased soil microbial biomass C and N, and a decreased microbial metabolic quotient. Consequently, long-term manure fertilization was beneficial to both soil C and N turnover and microbial activity, and had significant effect on the microbial metabolic quotient. PMID:27031697

  19. Chemical fertilizers as a source of (238)U, (40)K, (226)Ra, (222)Rn, and trace metal pollutant of the environment in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahri, Fatimh; Alqahtani, Muna

    2015-06-01

    The specific activities of (238)U, (226)Ra, (40)K, and (222)Rn in chemical fertilizers were measured using gamma ray spectrometer and Cr-39 detector. In this study, 21 chemical fertilizers were collected from Eastern Saudi Arabian markets. The specific activities of (238)U ranged from 23 ± 0.5 to 3900 ± 195 Bq kg(-1); (226)Ra ranged from 5.60 ± 2.80 to 392 ± 18 Bq kg(-1); and (40)K ranged from 18.4 ± 3 to 16,476 ± 820 Bq kg(-1). The radon concentrations and the radon exhalation rates were found to vary from 3.20 ± 1.20 to 1532 ± 160 Bq m(-3) and from 1.60 to 774 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively. Radium equivalent activities (Raeq) were calculated for the analyzed samples to assess the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these chemical fertilizers in the agriculture soil. The Raeq for six local samples (nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium (NPK) and single superphosphate (SSP)) and one imported sample (Sulfate of Potash (SOP)) were greater than the acceptable value 370 Bq kg(-1). The total air absorbed doses rates in air 1 m above the ground (D) were calculated for all samples. All samples, except one imported granule sample diammonium phosphate (DAP), were higher than the estimated average global terrestrial radiation of 55 nGy h(-1). The highest annual effective dose was in triple super phosphate (TSP) fertilizers (2.1 mSv y(-1)). The results show that the local TSP, imported SOP, and local NPK (sample 13) fertilizers were unacceptable for use as fertilizers in agricultural soil. Furthermore, the toxic elements and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Hg, and As) were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The concentrations of chromium in chemical fertilizers were higher than the global values.

  20. Chemical fertilizers as a source of (238)U, (40)K, (226)Ra, (222)Rn, and trace metal pollutant of the environment in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahri, Fatimh; Alqahtani, Muna

    2015-06-01

    The specific activities of (238)U, (226)Ra, (40)K, and (222)Rn in chemical fertilizers were measured using gamma ray spectrometer and Cr-39 detector. In this study, 21 chemical fertilizers were collected from Eastern Saudi Arabian markets. The specific activities of (238)U ranged from 23 ± 0.5 to 3900 ± 195 Bq kg(-1); (226)Ra ranged from 5.60 ± 2.80 to 392 ± 18 Bq kg(-1); and (40)K ranged from 18.4 ± 3 to 16,476 ± 820 Bq kg(-1). The radon concentrations and the radon exhalation rates were found to vary from 3.20 ± 1.20 to 1532 ± 160 Bq m(-3) and from 1.60 to 774 mBq m(-2) h(-1), respectively. Radium equivalent activities (Raeq) were calculated for the analyzed samples to assess the radiation hazards arising due to the use of these chemical fertilizers in the agriculture soil. The Raeq for six local samples (nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium (NPK) and single superphosphate (SSP)) and one imported sample (Sulfate of Potash (SOP)) were greater than the acceptable value 370 Bq kg(-1). The total air absorbed doses rates in air 1 m above the ground (D) were calculated for all samples. All samples, except one imported granule sample diammonium phosphate (DAP), were higher than the estimated average global terrestrial radiation of 55 nGy h(-1). The highest annual effective dose was in triple super phosphate (TSP) fertilizers (2.1 mSv y(-1)). The results show that the local TSP, imported SOP, and local NPK (sample 13) fertilizers were unacceptable for use as fertilizers in agricultural soil. Furthermore, the toxic elements and trace metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Hg, and As) were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The concentrations of chromium in chemical fertilizers were higher than the global values. PMID:25532871

  1. Enteropathogenic bacterial contamination of a latosol following application of organic fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alexandre Escosteguy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Poultry manure is used as fertilizer in natura, but little is known about whether it contaminates the soil with pathogenic organisms. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of organic, organomineral and mineral fertilizers on soil contamination by enteric pathogens, using poultry manure as the organic fertilizer. Manure was applied in field experiments at rates of 7.0 ton. ha-1 (maize crop, 2008/2009, 8.0 ton. ha-1 (wheat crop, 2009 and 14 ton. ha-1 (maize crop, 2010/2011. Organomineral fertilizer was applied at the same rates but was comprised of 50% manure and 50% mineral fertilizer. At 30 and 70 days after fertilization, the organic fertilizer and the upper 0-5 cm layer of the soil were tested for the presence of helminth eggs and larvae and enteropathogenic bacteria. Fecal and non-fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringes were found in the organic fertilizer, but neither Salmonella spp. nor enteroparasites were detected. The population of enteropathogenic bacteria in the soil was similar among the treatments for all crops at both evaluation times. The population of thermotolerant coliforms in the organic fertilizer was larger than the maximum level allowed in Brazil, but neither the organic or nor the organomineral fertilizer contaminated the soil.

  2. Long-Term Dynamics of Standing Crop and Species Composition after the Cessation of Fertilizer Application to Mown Grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, H.; Bakker, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    (1) Current agricultural overproduction in Western Europe has led to an increase in the area of unfertilized grassland. This paper reports an experiment where fertilizer application was stopped to try to restore former species-rich vegetation. (2) Standing crop and species composition of three diffe

  3. Evaluation of a Dual-Purpose Chemical Applicator for Paddy Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed S. Abubakar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: One of the major problems of rice production is the shortage of labor resulting from migration from rural to urban areas, making it very difficult to meet peak demands for paddy production. In most developing countries of Southeast Asia, agricultural mechanization of paddy field operation is mostly carried out using conventional machines. For example in rice production powerintensive operations such as water pumping, land preparations, transplanting seedlings, harvestings and threshing are being mechanized but other operations like fertilizer and chemical (pesticides applications are not yet fully mechanized, rather they are performed manually with motorized backpack knapsack sprayers which have many disadvantages. The main objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a new concept dual-purpose chemical applicator for paddy fields farmers in order to complement the labor shortage during the peak period. Approach: A dual-purpose chemical applicator for flooded paddy field was evaluated using the S341.4 Standard in respect to the distribution patterns/droplet sizes and uniformity of spreading/spraying for the chemical application to boost agricultural mechanization in rice production and also to overcome the safety concern of hazardous spray drift during chemical application by the paddy farmers. The dual purpose applicator was mounted on a high clearance prime mover. The machine performances for both granular and liquid chemical application were reported. Results: Results for urea granular chemical indicate that at low (40 kg ha−1 and high (120 kg ha−1 rates and 550 rpm disc speed distribution pattern skewed to the left whereas the distribution pattern shape at medium (80 kg ha−1 rates was good flattop. At high rate (120 kg ha−1 and 1000 rpm disc speed, mean distribution pattern became poor (M-shape and also at low and medium application rates the distribution pattern shapes lopsided

  4. Response of seed tocopherols in oilseed rape to nitrogen fertilizer sources and application rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nazim HUSSAIN; Hui LI; Yu-xiao JIANG; Zahra JABEEN; Imran Haider SHAMSI; Essa ALI; Li-xi JIANG

    2014-01-01

    本文题目:氮肥种类与施量对油菜种子生育酚的影响Response of seed tocopherols in oilseed rape to nitrogen fertilizer sources and application rates研究目的:生育酚是菜籽重要的品质指标,氮肥是影响作物生物学与籽粒产量最常用的肥料。这项研究旨在搞清楚氮肥种类与施量对油菜种子生育酚含量与组分的确切影响,以及这种影响在基因型之间的差异。创新要点:这篇论文研究了不同的氮肥种类(硝态氮与铵态氮)与低、中、高施用量对种子生育酚总量与组分的影响,并分析了其中的原因,为通过合理的氮肥施用方案配置,以达到最理想的菜籽生育酚含量或组分提供依据。研究方法:采用盆钵实验控制氮肥施量与流失的精准方法,五种基因型、二种氮肥种类、三档施量水平,三重复控制误差;尝试用气相色谱法检测菜籽生育酚含量的新方法。重要结论:尿素比硝酸氨更有利于菜籽总生育酚、阿尔法生育酚及伽马生育酚的有效形成;提高氮肥施量对于菜籽形成高含量的总生育酚与伽马生育酚非常有效,但对提高菜籽阿尔法生育酚含量的效果却不太明显。%Tocopherols (Tocs) are vital scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and important see d oil quality indicators. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important fertilizers in promoting biomass and grain yield in crop production. However, the effect of different sources and application rates of N on seed Toc contents in oilseed rape is poorly understood. In this study, pot trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and ammonium nitrate). Each source was applied to five oilseed rape genotypes (Zheshuang 72, Jiu-Er-1358, Zheshuang 758, Shiralee, and Pakola) at three different application rates (0.41 g/pot (N1), 0.81 g/pot (N2), and 1.20 g/pot (N3)). Results indicated that urea increasedα-,γ-, and total

  5. IMPACT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CHARDONNAY, ITALIAN RIESLING AND WHITE RIESLING GRAPE CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Karoglan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization is one of the common farming practices in vine production which may affect the increase in vegetative mass of vine and grape yield, but also the dynamics of maturation related primaryly to differences in the concentrations of sugar, total acidity, and content of organic acids in grapes. The experiment was conducted in 2006 – 2007 years on cultivars Chardonnay, Riesling and Italian Riesling, with three different intensities of nitrogen fertilization 23 kg, 70 kg and 117 kg N/ha. The concentrations of sugar, malic and citric acid have not been changed due to nitrogen fertilization. Differences were observed in the Riesling grapes from 2006th year with 23 kg and 70 kg N/ha fertilization, and in the Chardonnay grapes with 117 kg N / ha fertilization.

  6. Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Karimi; Ali Ghasemzadeh; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic f...

  7. Cadmium and zinc uptake by vegetable tissues after nine annual applications of phosphate fertilizer to soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant uptake of heavy metals such as Cd and Zn applied to soil as contaminants in P fertilizers is of concern because of their possible entry into the human food chain. Concentrations in P fertilizers generally range from 1 to 50 mg kg/sup -1/ of Cd and 50 to 500 mg kg/sup -1/ of Zn, but much higher concentrations have been reported. Such wide ranges are due to variations in heavy metal contents of phosphate rock (PR) used to produce P fertilizers. Samples of vegetable tissues grown in New York on soil fertilized with triple superphosphate (TSP) for nine years of a 10-year experiment were analyzed for Cd and Zn. Results of this study show that plant availability of Cd and Zn contaminants in P fertilizers is rather low, even at high rates of P fertilization

  8. Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Relation to Soil Particle-Size Fractions after 32 Years of Chemical and Manure Application in a Continuous Maize Cropping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Andong; Xu, Hu; Shao, Xingfang; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Wenju; Xu, Minggang; Murphy, Daniel V

    2016-01-01

    Long-term manure application is recognized as an efficient management practice to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and nitrogen (N) mineralization capacity. A field study was established in 1979 to understand the impact of long-term manure and/or chemical fertilizer application on soil fertility in a continuous maize cropping system. Soil samples were collected from field plots in 2012 from 9 fertilization treatments (M0CK, M0N, M0NPK, M30CK, M30N, M30NPK, M60CK, M60N, and M60NPK) where M0, M30, and M60 refer to manure applied at rates of 0, 30, and 60 t ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively; CK indicates no fertilizer; N and NPK refer to chemical fertilizer in the forms of either N or N plus phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soils were separated into three particle-size fractions (2000-250, 250-53, and 250-53 μm > 53 μm fraction, whereas the amount of C and N mineralization followed the reverse order. In the soil microbial biomass C and N, and a decreased microbial metabolic quotient. Consequently, long-term manure fertilization was beneficial to both soil C and N turnover and microbial activity, and had significant effect on the microbial metabolic quotient.

  9. Proton accumulation accelerated by heavy chemical nitrogen fertilization and its long-term impact on acidifying rate in a typical arable soil in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ping; ZHANG Jia-bao; XIN Xiu-li; ZHU An-ning; ZHANG Cong-zhi; MA Dong-hao; ZHU Qiang-gen; YANG Shan; WU Sheng-jun

    2015-01-01

    Cropland productivity has been signiifcantly impacted by soil acidiifcation resulted from nitrogen (N) fertilization, especialy as a result of excess ammoniacal N input. With decades’ intensive agricultural cultivation and heavy chemical N input in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, the impact extent of induced proton input on soil pH in the long term was not yet clear. In this study, acidiifcation rates of different soil layers in the soil proifle (0–120 cm) were calculated by pH buffer capacity (pHBC) and net input of protons due to chemical N incorporation. Topsoil (0–20 cm) pH changes of a long-term fertilization ifeld (from 1989) were determined to validate the predicted values. The results showed that the acid and alkali buffer capacities varied signiifcantly in the soil proifle, averaged 692 and 39.8 mmolc kg–1 pH–1, respectively. A signiifcant (P<0.05) correlation was found between pHBC and the content of calcium carbonate. Based on the commonly used application rate of urea (500 kg N ha–1 yr–1), the induced proton input in this region was predicted to be 16.1 kmol ha–1 yr–1, and nitriifcation and plant uptake of nitrate were the most important mechanisms for proton producing and consuming, respectively. The acidiifcation rate of topsoil (0–20 cm) was estimated to be 0.01 unit pH yr–1 at the assumed N fertilization level. From 1989 to 2009, topsoil pH (0–20 cm) of the long-term fertilization ifeld decreased from 8.65 to 8.50 for the PK (phosphorus, 150 kg P2O5 ha–1 yr–1;potassium, 300 kg K2O ha–1 yr–1; without N fertilization), and 8.30 for NPK (nitrogen, 300 kg N ha–1 yr–1; phosphorus, 150 kg P2O5 ha–1 yr–1; potassium, 300 kg K2O ha–1 yr–1), respectively. Therefore, the apparent soil acidiifcation rate induced by N fertilization equaled to 0.01 unit pH yr–1, which can be a reference to the estimated result, considering the effect of atmospheric N deposition, crop biomass, ifeld management and plant uptake of other

  10. NUTRITIONAL BALANCE, ESSENTIAL OIL AND WOOD PRODUCTION FROM Corymbia citriodora HILL & JOHNSON WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE AND MINERAL FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Müller da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987563The Corymbia citriodora is one of the most important forest species in Brazil and the reason is the diversity of its use, because it produces good quality wood and the leaves may be used for essential oil production. Although, there are not many studies about species and the handling effect in the nutritional balance. This study aimed to evaluate the biomass production and nutrient balance in the conventional production of essential oil and wood of C. citriodora with sewage sludge application. The experiment design established was the randomized blocks, with four replicates and two treatments: 1 – fertilization with 10 tons ha-1 (dry mass of sewage sludge, supplemented with K and B, and 2 - mineral fertilization. It was evaluated the aerial biomass production, the nutrient export of the leaves, the essential oil and wood production at four years old. The trees that received application of sewage sludge produced 20% more leaves biomass than the trees with mineral fertilization, resulting in larger oil production. Besides, the trees with sewage sludge application produced 14.2 tons ha-1 yr-1 of woody biomass that was 27% higher than the treatment with mineral fertilization. For both treatments the N balance was negative, but treatment with sewage sludge application (-45 kg ha-1 was four times lower than the observed on mineral fertilization treatment (-185 kg ha-1. It may be concluded in this paper that the application of sewage sludge benefits the production of leaves biomass, essential oil and wood, besides result better nutritional balance of the C. citriodora production system.

  11. Improved Access to Supercomputers Boosts Chemical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Stu

    1989-01-01

    Supercomputing is described in terms of computing power and abilities. The increase in availability of supercomputers for use in chemical calculations and modeling are reported. Efforts of the National Science Foundation and Cray Research are highlighted. (CW)

  12. The Application of Biosorption for Production of Micronutrient Fertilizers Based on Waste Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Tuhy, Łukasz; Samoraj, Mateusz; Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, new environmental-friendly fertilizer components were produced in biosorption process by the enrichment of the biomass with zinc, essential in plant cultivation. The obtained new preparations can be used as controlled release micronutrient fertilizers because microelements are bound to the functional groups present in the cell wall structures of the biomass. It is assumed that new fertilizing materials will be characterized by higher bioavailability, gradual release of m...

  13. The application of biosorption for production of micronutrient fertilizers based on waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhy, Lukasz; Samoraj, Mateusz; Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, new environmental-friendly fertilizer components were produced in biosorption process by the enrichment of the biomass with zinc, essential in plant cultivation. The obtained new preparations can be used as controlled release micronutrient fertilizers because microelements are bound to the functional groups present in the cell wall structures of the biomass. It is assumed that new fertilizing materials will be characterized by higher bioavailability, gradual release of micronutrients required by plants, and lower leaching to groundwater. The biological origin of the material used in plant fertilization results in the elimination of toxic effect towards plants and groundwater mainly caused by low biodegradability of fertilizers. Utilitarian properties of new formulations enable to reduce negative implications of fertilizers for environmental quality and influence ecological health. In this work, the utilitarian properties of materials such as peat, bark, seaweeds, seaweed post-extraction residues, and spent mushroom substrate enriched via biosorption with Zn(II) ions were examined in germination tests on Lepidium sativum. Obtained results were compared with conventional fertilizers-inorganic salt and chelate. It was shown that zinc fertilization led to biofortification of plant in these micronutrients. Moreover, the mass of plants fertilized with zinc was higher than in the control group.

  14. The application of biosorption for production of micronutrient fertilizers based on waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuhy, Lukasz; Samoraj, Mateusz; Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, new environmental-friendly fertilizer components were produced in biosorption process by the enrichment of the biomass with zinc, essential in plant cultivation. The obtained new preparations can be used as controlled release micronutrient fertilizers because microelements are bound to the functional groups present in the cell wall structures of the biomass. It is assumed that new fertilizing materials will be characterized by higher bioavailability, gradual release of micronutrients required by plants, and lower leaching to groundwater. The biological origin of the material used in plant fertilization results in the elimination of toxic effect towards plants and groundwater mainly caused by low biodegradability of fertilizers. Utilitarian properties of new formulations enable to reduce negative implications of fertilizers for environmental quality and influence ecological health. In this work, the utilitarian properties of materials such as peat, bark, seaweeds, seaweed post-extraction residues, and spent mushroom substrate enriched via biosorption with Zn(II) ions were examined in germination tests on Lepidium sativum. Obtained results were compared with conventional fertilizers-inorganic salt and chelate. It was shown that zinc fertilization led to biofortification of plant in these micronutrients. Moreover, the mass of plants fertilized with zinc was higher than in the control group. PMID:25108517

  15. The effect of fertilizer applications on 137Cs uptake by different plant species and vegetation types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trial carried out in a greenhouse over a two-year period is discussed. The effects on 137Cs concentration in plants, roots and soil have been investigated versus the grassland species composition (legume, grass and mixture) and eight combinations of mineral fertilizers (NPK). The results indicate: (a) the effect of K fertilizer in reducing 137Cs plant absorption; (b) the effect of N fertilizer in favouring grass growth and radiocaesium absorption; (c) for all fertilizer combinations, a higher 137Cs storage in the root system of the legumes and a lower 137Cs absorption in the plants. (author)

  16. Transition of fertilizer application and agricultural pollution loads: a case study in the Nhue-Day River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, P H; Harada, H; Fujii, S; Lien, N P H; Hai, H T; Anh, P N; Tanaka, S

    2015-01-01

    Rapid socio-economic development in suburban areas of developing countries has induced changes in agricultural waste and nutrient management, resulting in water pollution. The study aimed at estimating agricultural nutrient cycles and their contribution to the water environment. A material flow model of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) was developed focusing on agricultural activities from 1980 to 2010 in Trai hamlet, an agricultural watershed in Nhue-Day River basin, Vietnam. The model focused on the change in household management of human excreta and livestock excreta, and chemical fertilizer consumption. The results showed that the proportion of nutrients from compost/manure applied to paddy fields decreased from 85 to 41% for both N and P between 1980 and 2010. The nutrient inputs derived from chemical fertilizer decreased 6% between 1980 and 2000 for both N and P. Then, these nutrients increased 1.4 times for N and 1.2 times for P from 2000 to 2010. As of 2010, the total inputs to paddy fields have amounted to 435 kg-N/ha/year and 90 kg-P/ha/year. Of these nutrient inputs, 40% of N and 65% of P were derived from chemical fertilizer. Thirty per cent (30%) of total N input was discharged to the water bodies through agricultural runoff and 47% of total P input accumulated in soil. PMID:26398021

  17. Transition of fertilizer application and agricultural pollution loads: a case study in the Nhue-Day River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, P H; Harada, H; Fujii, S; Lien, N P H; Hai, H T; Anh, P N; Tanaka, S

    2015-01-01

    Rapid socio-economic development in suburban areas of developing countries has induced changes in agricultural waste and nutrient management, resulting in water pollution. The study aimed at estimating agricultural nutrient cycles and their contribution to the water environment. A material flow model of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) was developed focusing on agricultural activities from 1980 to 2010 in Trai hamlet, an agricultural watershed in Nhue-Day River basin, Vietnam. The model focused on the change in household management of human excreta and livestock excreta, and chemical fertilizer consumption. The results showed that the proportion of nutrients from compost/manure applied to paddy fields decreased from 85 to 41% for both N and P between 1980 and 2010. The nutrient inputs derived from chemical fertilizer decreased 6% between 1980 and 2000 for both N and P. Then, these nutrients increased 1.4 times for N and 1.2 times for P from 2000 to 2010. As of 2010, the total inputs to paddy fields have amounted to 435 kg-N/ha/year and 90 kg-P/ha/year. Of these nutrient inputs, 40% of N and 65% of P were derived from chemical fertilizer. Thirty per cent (30%) of total N input was discharged to the water bodies through agricultural runoff and 47% of total P input accumulated in soil.

  18. Relationship between malt qualities and p-amylase activity and protein content as affected by timing of nitrogen fertilizer application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-xin; DAI Fei; WEI Kang; ZHANG Guo-ping

    2006-01-01

    The effects of different timing of N fertilizer application at the same rate on grain β-amylase activity, protein concentration, weight and malt quality of barley were studied. Grain β-amylase activity and protein concentration were significantly higher in treatments where all top-dressed N fertilizer was applied at booting stage only or equally applied at two-leaf stage and booting stage than in the treatment where all top-dressed N fertilizer was applied at two-leaf age stage only. On the other hand,grain weight and malt extract decreased with increased N application at booting stage. There were obvious differences between barley varieties and experimental years in the grain and malt quality response to the timing of N fertilizer application. It was found that grain protein concentration was significantly and positively correlated with β-amylase activity, but significantly and negatively correlated with malt extract and Kolbach index. The effect of grain protein concentration on malt quality was predominant over the effect of grain β-amylase activity.

  19. [Effects of different organic fertilizers on the microbes in rhizospheric soil of flue-cured tobacco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Wei; Xu, Zhi; Tang, Li; Li, Yan-Hong; Song, Jian-Qun; Xu, Jian-Qin

    2013-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying different organic fertilizers (refined organic fertilizer and bio-organic fertilizer) and their combination with 20% reduced chemical fertilizers on the microbes in rhizospheric soil of flue-cured tobacco, the resistance of the tobacco against bacterial wilt, and the tobacco yield and quality. As compared with conventional chemical fertilization (CK), applying refined organic fertilizer (ROF) or bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization increased the bacterial number and the total microbial number in the rhizospheric soil significantly. Applying BIO in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization also increased the actinomyces number in the rhizospheric soil significantly, with an increment of 44.3% as compared with that under the application of ROF in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization, but decreased the fungal number. As compared with CK, the ROF and BIO increased the carbon use capacity of rhizospheric microbes significantly, and the BIO also increased the capacity of rhizospheric microbes in using phenols significantly. Under the application of ROF and BIO, the disease incidence and the disease index of bacterial wilt were decreased by 4% and 8%, and 23% and 15.9%, and the proportions of high grade tobacco leaves increased significantly by 10.5% and 9.7%, respectively, as compared with those in CK. BIO increased the tobacco yield and its output value by 17.1% and 18.9% , respectively, as compared with ROF.

  20. Effect of Long-Term Fertilization on Organic Nitrogen Forms in a Calcareous Alluvial Soil on the North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to illustrate the change of nitrogen (N) supply capacity after long-term application of manure and chemical fertilizer, as well as to properly manage soil fertility through fertilizer application under the soil-climatic conditions of the North China Plain, organic N forms were quantified in the topsoil with different manure and chemical fertilizer treatments in a 15-year fertilizer experiment in a Chinese calcareous alluvial soil Soil total N (TN) and various organic N forms were significantly influenced by long-term application of chemical fertilizer and manure. TN, total hydrolysable N, acid-insoluble N, amino acid N and ammonium N in the soil increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing manure and fertilizer N rates, but were not influenced by increasing P rates. Also, application of manure or N fertilizer or P fertilizer did not significantly influence either the quantity of amino sugar N or its proportion of TN. Application of manure significantly increased (P < 0.05) hydrolysable unknown N, but adding N or P did not. In addition, application of manure or N fertilizer or P fertilizer did not significantly influence the proportions of different soil organic N forms.

  1. Physical and chemical properties of a durably efficacious ammonium bicarbonate as a fertilizer and its yield-increasing mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志明; 李继云; 冯元琦; 毕庶春; 伍蔚民

    1997-01-01

    A new fertilizer of cocrystal type,known as durably efficacious ammonium bicarbonate (DEAB),has been developed by adding a certain amount of dicyandiamide (DCD) as an ammonia-stabilizing agent to ammonium bearbenate(AB)during the process of its production.As compared with AB,DEAB was found to have a reduction of direct volatilization loss by 53%,a fertilizer availability period prolonged from 35-45 to 90-110 d,and an increase in the rate of nitrogen in fertilizer being utilized by 5.9%-10.2%,and a saving of the amount of fertilizer to be ap-phed by 20%-30% for the same level of yield,or an increase of the crop yield by over 10% for the same level of ni-tregen fertilization;in addition,it was found to show usually a function of promoting the crop to early mature.It can be apptied as basal dressing all in one time to soil and thus also used as a labour-saving and crop yield-increasing fertil-izer for is non-mtertillage,plastics film covering and water-saving agriculture

  2. Studies on the effects of application of different foliar fertilizer materials, crop residue and inter cropping on Banana plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five separate experiments were conducted at university of Khartoum demonstration farm during 1993 to 1995 under both orchard and nursery conditions to evaluate the effect of foliar application of different fertilizers, use of crop residue and intercropping on banana (dwarf cavendish). In the first experiment, the effects of foliar application of different concentrations of potassium solution (38%) were studied. The results indicated that application of all concentrations resulted in greater increases in overall growth parameters, higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents, higher values of yield and yield components , finger length of both plant crop and the first ratoon crop and reduction of time from planting to flowering and from flowering to harvesting of both plant crop and the first crop compared to the control. In the second experiment, the effects of three different foliar fertilizers, namely, compound cryst, fetrilon comb-2 and x-garden were investigated. The results revealed that all fertilizers gave greater values of all growth parameters, higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents, higher values of yield and yield components , finger length of both plant crop and the first ratoon crop and reduction of time from planting to flowering and from flowering to harvesting of both plant crop and the first crop compared to the control. In the third experiment, the effect of four different fertilizer materials containing different combinations of NPK on growth parameters and nutrient elements contents of leaves of banana suckers grown under nursery conditions was evaluated. The results revealed that all fertilizer materials gave greater increases of growth parameters over the control as well as higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents. In the fourth experiment, the effect of different concentrations of N19, P19, K19 fertilizers on growth characteristics and nutrient elements contents of leaves of banana suckers was studied

  3. Antagonism at combined effects of chemical fertilizers and carbamate insecticides on the rice-field N2-fixing cyanobacterium Cylindrospermum sp. in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhy Rabindra N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of chemical fertilizers (urea, super phosphate and potash on toxicities of two carbamate insecticides, carbaryl and carbofuran, individually to the N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermum sp. were studied in vitro at partially lethal levels (below highest permissive concentrations of each insecticide. The average number of vegetative cells between two polar heterocysts was 16.3 in control cultures, while the mean value of filament length increased in the presence of chemical fertilizers, individually. Urea at the 10 ppm level was growth stimulatory and at the 50 ppm level it was growth inhibitory in control cultures, while at 100 ppm it was antagonistic, i.e. toxicity-enhancing along with carbaryl, individually to the cyanobacterium, antagonism was recorded. Urea at 50 ppm had toxicity reducing effect with carbaryl or carbofuran. At 100 and 250 ppm carbofuran levels, 50 ppm urea only had a progressive growth enhancing effect, which was marked well at 250 ppm carbofuran level, a situation of synergism. Super phosphate at the 10 ppm level only was growth promoting in control cultures, but it was antagonistic at its higher levels (50 and 100 ppm along with both insecticides, individually. Potash (100, 200, 300 and 400 ppm reduced toxicity due to carbaryl 20 and carbofuran 250 ppm levels, but potash was antagonistic at the other insecticide levels. The data clearly showed that the chemical fertilizers used were antagonistic with both the insecticides during toxicity to Cylindrospermum sp.

  4. Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization in Relation to Soil Particle-Size Fractions after 32 Years of Chemical and Manure Application in a Continuous Maize Cropping System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andong Cai

    Full Text Available Long-term manure application is recognized as an efficient management practice to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC accumulation and nitrogen (N mineralization capacity. A field study was established in 1979 to understand the impact of long-term manure and/or chemical fertilizer application on soil fertility in a continuous maize cropping system. Soil samples were collected from field plots in 2012 from 9 fertilization treatments (M0CK, M0N, M0NPK, M30CK, M30N, M30NPK, M60CK, M60N, and M60NPK where M0, M30, and M60 refer to manure applied at rates of 0, 30, and 60 t ha(-1 yr(-1, respectively; CK indicates no fertilizer; N and NPK refer to chemical fertilizer in the forms of either N or N plus phosphorus (P and potassium (K. Soils were separated into three particle-size fractions (2000-250, 250-53, and 250-53 μm > 53 μm fraction, whereas the amount of C and N mineralization followed the reverse order. In the <53 μm fraction, the M60NPK treatment significantly increased the amount of C and N mineralized (7.0 and 10.1 times, respectively compared to the M0CK treatment. Long-term manure application, especially when combined with chemical fertilizers, resulted in increased soil microbial biomass C and N, and a decreased microbial metabolic quotient. Consequently, long-term manure fertilization was beneficial to both soil C and N turnover and microbial activity, and had significant effect on the microbial metabolic quotient.

  5. Effects of slow-release fertilizers of Silvamix and Silvagen line on growth of a young spruce and larch forest plantation three years after application

    OpenAIRE

    Štofko, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This work evaluates effects of tablet fertilizers Silvamix, Silvamix Mg and Silvagen on height and diameter growth of a young plantation of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) after the third year of fertilizer application. The experiment was conducted on one experimental plot in the Low Tatra Mountains. The fertilizers were applied at a rate five tablets (50 g) per each tree, considering not treated trees as the control. The tablets were laid on t...

  6. Comparison of point injection and top-dressing application of nitrogen fertilizers with sulphur addition in winter rape (Brassica napus L.) in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Peklová; Jindřich Černý; Zuzana Peklová; Karin Kubešová; Ondřej Sedlář; Jiří Balík

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we are analyzing the yield and yield parameters of winter rape, fertilized using CULTAN system (Controlled Uptake Long Term Ammonium Nutrition) in comparison with top-dressing application of nitrogen fertilizers, which were studied on Haplic Luvisol over 5 years. No significant differences in seed yields between the two systems of fertilization were observed in 2008, 2009 and 2011. The effect of sulphur on a higher seed yield was proved in 2010 and 2012. The seed yield was high...

  7. Comparison of Fertilizer Effect of Different Fertilizer Applications on Summer Maize in Guanzhong Area%陕西关中地区夏玉米不同施肥方式效果的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萌; 郭强; 何秀萍; 王玉莹; 高辉明; 蔺崇明; 杨引福

    2012-01-01

    通过对陕西主栽普通玉米和特用玉米施用普通化肥、配方肥、新型BB肥后的产量及相关植株性状的分析,结果表明,增施钾肥和新型BB肥能明显提高玉米百粒重和单株生产能力,显著提高玉米产量.NPK优化处理和新型BB肥的优势明显,分别较普通肥料(尿素、磷酸氢二铵)平均增产7.4%和12.8%.相同肥料水平下,普通玉米和特用玉米分别平均增产15.0%和4.1%.施用配方肥和新型BB肥是陕西关中玉米进一步提高产量高效栽培措施的肥料调控方向,且相同肥料水平下普通玉米较特用玉米增产更为明显.%Using main normal and special maize cultivars as experimental materials, the effects of applying normal fertilizer, formula fertilizer, and new BB fertilizer on the productions and related plant traits of summer maize in Shaanxi province were analyzed. Increasing application of K fertilizer, and applying new BB fertilizer could improve kernel weight and plant productivity of maize, then significantly increase grain yield. The formula fertilizer and the new BB fertilizer had more obvious advantages in increasing the yield of maize than the normal fertilizer, and increased by 7.4% and 12.8% respectively. Under the same application level of fertilizer, the yield of normal and special maize cultivars respectively increased by 15.0% and 4.1% respectively. These results showed that the application of compound fertilizer with K and new BB fertilizer was important for further increasing the yield of maize in Guanzhong area of Shaanxi Province, and under the same application level of fertilizer, the normal maize cultivar had more obvious increase in yield than the special maize cultivar.

  8. Effect of reducing chemical fertilizer insteaed of PGPR compound biofertilizer on Maize%复合菌肥代替部分化肥对玉米生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣良燕; 姚拓; 刘青海; 王炳煜

    2012-01-01

    筛选出5株植物根际菌株与1株根瘤菌制成复合菌肥,将研制的菌肥和1种引进的菌肥替代20%~30%化肥与全量化肥作对比,研究4种肥料处理对单作玉米生长的影响。结果表明:菌株LM4-3、LH12-3、Lx191、Jm92、LHS11和GDB27之间互不拮抗,可制成复合菌肥;自制复合菌肥替代20%化肥用量可使成熟期玉米地上生物量鲜重提高10%,替代20%~30%的化肥可提高4%~8%的籽实产量,优于引进的菌肥;以复合菌肥替代20%~30%的化肥施用于玉米后,玉米生长良好。%The effect of reducing 20%-30% chemical fertilizer insteaed of plant growth promoting rhi- zobacteria (PGPR) compound biofertilizer on Maize was measured under field condition. The results showed that five PGPR strains, LM4-3, L H 12-3, Lx191, J m92 and LHSll, have no antagonism to each other and could be mix-cultured and produce compound bioferitilizer. The compound bioferitilizer with 80% dose of Chemical Fer tilizer 100% place could increase above ground biomass of maize by 10% and enhance yield of seed by 4 %- 8% comparing to dose of chemical fertilizer under field condition. Thus, the application of compound bioferitilizert could re 20% to 30% fertilizer.

  9. Soil microbes and plant fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miransari, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    With respect to the adverse effects of chemical fertilization on the environment and their related expenses, especially when overused, alternative methods of fertilization have been suggested and tested. For example, the combined use of chemical fertilization with organic fertilization and/or biological fertilization is among such methods. It has been indicated that the use of organic fertilization with chemical fertilization is a suitable method of providing crop plants with adequate amount of nutrients, while environmentally and economically appropriate. In this article, the importance of soil microbes to the ecosystem is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and endophytic bacteria in providing necessary nutrients for plant growth and yield production. Such microbes are beneficial to plant growth through colonizing plant roots and inducing mechanisms by which plant growth increases. Although there has been extensive research work regarding the use of microbes as a method of fertilizing plants, it is yet a question how the efficiency of such microbial fertilization to the plant can be determined and increased. In other words, how the right combination of chemical and biological fertilization can be determined. In this article, the most recent advances regarding the effects of microbial fertilization on plant growth and yield production in their combined use with chemical fertilization are reviewed. There are also some details related to the molecular mechanisms affecting the microbial performance and how the use of biological techniques may affect the efficiency of biological fertilization.

  10. Effects of bio-organic fertilizer's application on flue-cured tobacco planted on continuous cropping soil%生物有机肥改良连作土壤及烤烟生长发育的效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵孝侯; 刘旭; 周永波; 于静

    2011-01-01

    The effects of compost mixed with earthworm fertilizer and effective microorganism on continuous cropping soil was studied. It discussed the effects of bio-organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer's mixing application by different ratios on fluecured planting and the soil chemical properties with pot experiment. The result indicated that: the fertilization significantly promoted the growth of flue-cured tobacco, the best proportion of bio-organic fertilizer was fifty percent, followed by seventy percent, while the yield of flue-cured tobacco was the highest when the proportion was fifty percent, the growth and yield of flue-cured tobacco of pure bio-organic fertilizer treatment was better than pure fertilizer treatment, the bio-organic fertilizer could promote the nitrogen and potassium absorption when the proportion was between thirty percent and fifty percent, and was more propitious to the production of high quality tobacco, the application of organic fertilizer could significantly increase the cropping soil's pH, organic matter content and available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content.%以蚯蚓肥和有效微生物制剂堆置发酵制成生物有机肥,采用盆栽试验研究了生物有机肥和化肥按不同配比混合施用后对烤烟生长发育及植烟土壤理化性质的影响.结果表明,施肥显著促进烤烟的生长发育,以生物有机肥比例为50%时最佳,70%次之,同时生物有机肥比例为50%时烤烟产量最高;纯生物有机肥施用后烤烟的生长指标和产量均优于纯化肥处理;生物有机肥比例为30%~50%时可以促进烤烟对氮素、钾素的吸收,更有利于优质烟叶的生产;施用生物有机肥可显著提高连作土壤的pH值、有机质含量和碱解氮、速效磷及速效钾的含量.

  11. [Variation characteristics of maize yield and fertilizer utilization rate on an upland yellow soil under long term fertilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Long-Zao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wen-An; Xiao, Hou-Jun; Jiang, Tai-Ming

    2013-10-01

    An analysis was made on the 16-year experimental data from the long term fertilization, experiment of maize on a yellow soil in Guizhou of Southwest China. Four treatments, i. e. , no fertilization (CK), chemical fertilization (165 kg N x hm(-2), 82.5 kg P2O5 x hm(-2), and 82.5 kg K2O x hm(-2), NPK), organic manure (30555 kg x hm(-2), M), and combined applicatioin of chemical fertilizers and organic manure (NPKM), were selected to analyze the variation trends of maize yield and fertilizer use efficiency on yellow soil under effects of different long term fertilization modes, aimed to provide references for evaluating and establishing long term fertilization mode and promote the sustainable development of crop production. Overall, the maize yield under long term fertilization had an increasing trend, with a large annual variation. Treatment NPKM had the best yield-increasing effect, with the maize yield increased by 4075.71 kg x hm(-2) and the increment being up to 139.2%. Long term fertilization increased the fertilizer utilization efficiency of maize. In treatment M, the nitrogen and phosphorus utilization rates were increased significantly by 35.4% and 18.8%, respectively. Treatment NPK had obvious effect in improving potassium utilization rate, with an increment of 20% and being far higher than that in treatments M (8.7%) and NPKM (9.2%). The results showed that long term fertilization, especially the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure, was of great importance in increasing crop yield and fertilizer use efficiency.

  12. Uniform and variable-rate application of potassium fertilizers in Louisiana sugarcane production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    If sugar and cane yields are to be optimized and profitability improved, it is critical that a sugarcane crop receive the proper levels of plant nutrients. Under-fertilization can result in reduced cane yields, while over-fertilization can reduce sugar recovery. Potassium (K) has been associated wit...

  13. Application technique affects the potential of mineral concentrates from livestock manure to replace inorganic nitrogen fertilizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.; Velthof, G.L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that mineral concentrates (MCs) produced from livestock manure might partly replace inorganic N fertilizers, thereby further closing the nitrogen (N) cycle. Here, we quantified nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and N loss pathways associated with MCs, compared with inorganic fertil

  14. 精准施肥技术在烟草上的应用%Application of Tobacco Precision Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏海乾; 孟琳; 石俊雄; 霍沁建; 蒋卫; 郑登峰; 王玉川

    2011-01-01

    To provide a theoretical basis for tobacco-planting area location and Geld nutrient management with precision fertilization, the DCPS technology was used to locate grid sampling, and the GIS technology was used to analyze and manage the soil nutrients, then form the flue-cured tobacco precision fertilization scheme. The results showed that precision fertilization had little effect on tobacco growth, chemical production and quality, However, the yield, mean price and first-class tobacco rate were increased by 2.4% , 3.0% and 3.6 % respectively, the average fertilizer cost was reduced by 220 yuan/t. Thus, according to the soil fertility and tobacco nutrition, precision fertilization could coordinate the tobacco nutrients, reduce fertilizer input costs directly and indirectly improve fertilizer use efficiency and increase farm-erg' income.%为了对烟区实施定位、定量的精准田间养分管理提供理论依据,利用DGPS技术进行网格定位取样、GIS技术进行土壤养分分析和管理,以形成烤烟精准施肥配方,进行推荐施肥.结果表明,精准配方肥料对烟株田间长势、产量和烤后烟叶化学品质影响不大,但烟叶产值、均价和上等烟率分别提高了2.4%、3.0%和3.6%,肥料投入成本平均降低220元/t.结论:根据土壤肥力和烤烟营养规律进行的精准施肥,能协调烟株营养,直接减少肥料成本投入,间接提高肥料利用率和增加烟农收入.

  15. Chemical speciation code CHEMSPEC and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption and migration behavior of a radionuclide in geological media heavily depends on its chemical forms in a given chemical environment.In order to predict the temporal and spatial distribution of radionuclides around a disposal site when its canister is damaged,it is necessary to develop coupled chemical speciation-solute transport models and relevant software.For that reason,we wrote a new chemical speciation program CHEMSPEC.In this paper,the principles and structure of CHEMSPEC are briefly described,and the strategy and algorithms that were used in this code are interpreted in some detail,such as the measures adopted to prevent divergence in iteratively solving the mass balance equations,the "predictor-corrector" algorithm for calculation of the number and quantities of solid species formed,and the alternate use of "freezing" and "defreezing" oxidation states in handling of co-existent redox and precipitation equilibria.Four examples are given to illustrate CHEMSPEC’s features and capabilities.

  16. Microwave Technology--Applications in Chemical Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave heating, being specific and instantaneous, is unique and has found a place for expeditious chemical syntheses. Specifically, the solvent-free reactions are convenient to perform and have advantages over the conventional heating protocols as summarized in the previous se...

  17. Effects of Controlled-Release Fertilizers and Their Application Methods on Germination and Seedling Growth of Dent and Sweet Corns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Xiao-hong; SAIGUSA Masahiko; KIKAWA Naoto

    2005-01-01

    Effects of controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs) (C-AS, polyolefin coated ammonium sulfate, 50-day-type; Dd-LP, polyolefin coated urea with dicyandiamide, 40-day-type; C-ANP, polyolefin coated ammonium nitrate phosphate, 40-day-type; and C-DAP, polyolefin coated diammonium acid phosphate, 40-day-type), ammonium sulphate and no fertilizer control, and their application methods (spot, band, surface and mixed) on germination and seedling development of sweet corn (Zea mays L.var. saccharata Sturt.) and dent corn (Zea mays L.var. indentata Sturt.) were investigated in a greenhouse. Under co-situs application (band and spot) of CRFs, there were no obvious differences in the germination speed and rate for both dent corn and sweet corn relative to control. Mortality rates of sweet corn seedlings under co-situs application were high in experiment 1, but were very low in experiment 2, because the environmental conditions were different in the two experiments. That is, under lower temperature and weaker sunlight, young seedlings easily die due to high soil nutrient concentration and slow growth speed of corn. Shoot weight of both dent and sweet corn did not greatly decrease in experiment 1. In experiment 2, there were no significant differences in shoot and root weight of both corns between cositus and surface or mixed application methods. However, with spot and band application of ammonium sulfate, shoot and root weight were significantly reduced. Soil EC and pH were considerably affected by co-situs application, especially at the fertilizer application site. For both dent and sweet corn, EC in the 0-3 cm soil was significantly higher under co-situs application and surface application than that under mixed application, whereas in the 3-6 cm soil depth the situation was reversed. Compared with control, mixed application of CRFs decreased soil pH slightly (0-3 cm depth) or greatly (3-6 cm depth).

  18. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer application and solar radiation on the growth response of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor] seedlings to soil moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of nitrogen fertilizer application and solar radiation on the growth response to soil moisture were examined in sorghum seedlings grown in culture boxes. The effects of soil moisture (f) and amount of nitrogen fertilizer application (g) on the increment of total dry matter weight of sorghum seedling (ΔW) were represented satisfactorily by the following reciprocal equation, 1/ΔW = A/(f - f0) + B(g + g0)/(f - f0) + C/[(f - f0) (g + g0)] + D/(g + g0) + E, where f0 and g0 were the uppermost value of unavailable soil moisture and the amount of nitrogen supplied from soil and seeds. A, B, C, D and E were coefficients. The effects of soil moisture (f) and solar radiation (S) on ΔW were expressed approximately by the following reciprocal equation, 1/ΔW = A/(S - S0) + B/(f - f0) + C(f - f0) + D, where S0 was the daily compensation point. These results indicated that the effects of solar radiation and soil moisture are additive, but the interaction between soil moisture and nitrogen fertilizer is not negligible. The transpiration efficiency was unaffected by soil moisture, nitrogen fertilizer and solar radiation

  19. Soil Aggregates and Organic Carbon Distribution in Red Soils after Long-term Fertilization with Different Fertilizer Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Red soils, a typical Udic Ferrosols, widespread throughout the subtropical and tropical region in southern China, support the majority of grain production in this region. The red soil is naturally low in pH values, cation exchange capacity, fertility, and compaction, resulting in low organic matter contents and soil aggregation. Application of chemical fertilizers and a combination of organic-chemical fertilizers are two basic approaches to improve soil structure and organic matter contents. We studied the soil aggregation and the distribution of aggregate-associated organic carbon in red soils with a long-term fertilization experiment during 1988-2009. We established treatments including 1) NPK and NK in the chemical fertilizer plots, 2) CK (Control), and 3) CK+ Peanut Straw (PS), CK+ Rice Straw (RS), CK+ Fresh Radish (FR), and CK + Pig Manure (PM) in the organic-chemical fertilizer plots. Soil samples were fractionated into 6 different sized aggregate particles through the dry-wet sieving method according to the hierarchical model of aggregation. Organic carbon in the aggregate/size classes was analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of mechanically stable aggregates in red soils after long-term fertilization decreased with the size, from > 5mm, 5 ~ 2 mm, 2 ~ 1 mm, 1~ 0.25 mm, to fertilizer application alone, the addition of pig manure and green manure can significantly improve the distribution of aggregates in the 5-2 mm, 2-1 mm and 1-0.25 mm classes. The organic carbon (OC) contents in red soils were all increased after the long-term fertilization. Compared with Treatment NK, soil OC in Treatment NPK was increased by 45.4%. Compared with Treatment CK (low chemical fertilizer), organic fertilizer addition increased soil OC. The OC in the different particle of water-stable aggregates were all significantly increased after long-term fertilization. OC mainly existed in the macroaggregate (> 0.25 mm) of red soils after the long-term fertilization, and the

  20. Chemical modification of cellulose for electrospinning applications

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Ferrer, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to develop technology for producing cellulose fatty acid esters that later will be used to produce fibrous materials by means of electrospinning. Main material of the study is cellulose-stearate which is a polymer synthesised by reaction between stearoyl chloride and cellulose. The experimental part consists of synthesis of it by chemical modification of cellulose using ionic liquid as a reaction media. In addition, ionic liquid is also synthesised from the beginning....

  1. Association of manganese effluent with the application of fertilizer and manure on tea field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Yuko; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Baba, Yoshiteru; Nagafuchi, Yoshitaka; Imato, Toshihiko; Hirata, Tatemasa

    2004-07-01

    Manganese (Mn) concentrations in the tea field effluent were 1.1-3.5 mg/l over a 2 year period from June 1997 to May 1998 (first water year) and June 1998 to May 1999 (second water year). The annual Mn loads were 38,000 g/ha in the first water year and 19,000 g/ha in the second. The highest Mn loads were observed, respectively, in July 1997 (10,000 g/ha) in the first water year and in June 1998 (4100 g/ha) in the second. The water-soluble Mn content of soil of the tea field increased abruptly with decreasing soil pH in the pH region below 4.5. The large Mn load from the tea field during the rainy season is likely due to application of excess fertilizer and manure before the rainy season, which may lead to acidification of the soil. PMID:15223275

  2. Impact of fertilizer phosphorus application on phosphorus release kinetics in some calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpur, A. R.; Biabanaki, F. S.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphate reactions and retention in the soil are of paramount importance from the perspective of plant nutrition and fertilizer use efficiency. The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of phosphorus (P) desorption in different soils of Hamadan in fertilized and unfertilized soils. Soils were fertilized with 200 mg P kg-1. Fertilized and unfertilized soils were incubated at 25 ± 1°C for 6 months. After that, release of P was studied by successive extraction with 0.5 M NaHCO3 over a period of 1,752 h. The results showed that phosphorus desorption from the fertilized and unfertilized soils began with a fast initial reaction, followed by a slow secondary reaction. The amount of P released after 1,752 h in fertilized and unfertilized soils ranged from 457 to 762.4 and 309.6 to 586.7 mg kg-1, respectively. The kinetics of cumulative P release was evaluated using the five kinetic equations. Phosphorus desorption kinetics were best described by parabolic diffusion law, first order, and power function equations. Rate constants of these equations were higher in fertilized than unfertilized soils. Results from this study indicate that release rate of P plays a significant role in supplying available P and released P in runoff.

  3. Microheater as an alternative to lasers for in-vitro fertilization applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel V.; Turovets, Igor; Glazer, Rima; Reubinoff, Benjamin E.; Hilman, Dalia; Lewis, Aaron

    1999-06-01

    During the last decade various lasers have been applied to drilling of the micrometer-sized holes in the zona pellucida of oocytes for in-vitro fertilization applications. In this paper we describe an alternative approach to laser instrumentation based on microfabricated device capable of precise drilling of uniform holes in the zona pellucida of oocytes. This device consists of a thin (1 micrometer) film microheater built on the tip of glass capillary with a diameter varying between a few to a few tens of micrometers. Duration of the pulse of heat produced by this microheater determines the spatial confinement of the heat wave in the surrounding liquid medium. We have demonstrated that gradual microdrilling of the zona pellucida can be accomplished using a series of pulses with duration of about 300 microseconds when the microheater was held in contact with the zona pellucida. Pulse energy applied to 20 micrometer tip was about 4 (mu) J. In vitro development and hatching of 127 micromanipulated embryos was compared to 103 non-drilled control embryos. The technique was found to be highly efficient in creating round, uniform, well defined holes with a smooth wall surface, matching the size of the heating source. The architecture of the surrounding zona pellucida was unaffected by the drilling, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. Micromanipulated embryos presented no signs of thermal damage under light microscopy. The rate of blastocyst formation and hatching was similar in the micromanipulated and control groups. Following further testing in animal models, this methodology may be used as a cost- effective alternative to laser-based instrumentation in clinical applications such as assisted hatching and embryo biopsy.

  4. Integrated Microreactor for Chemical and Biochemical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwesinger, N.; Dressler, L.; Frank, Th.; Wurmus, H.

    1995-01-01

    A completely integrated microreactor was developed that allows for the processing of very small amounts of chemical solutions. The entire system comprises several pumps and valves arranged in different branches as well as a mixing unit and a reaction chamber. The streaming path of each branch contains two valves and one pump each. The pumps are driven by piezoelectric elements mounted on thin glass membranes. Each pump is about 3.5 mm x 3.5 mm x 0.7 mm. A pumping rate up to 25 microliters per hour can be achieved. The operational voltage ranges between 40 and 200 V. A volume stroke up to 1.5 millimeter is achievable from the membrane structures. The valves are designed as passive valves. Sealing is by thin metal films. The dimension of a valve unit is 0.8 x 0.8. 07 mm. The ends of the separate streaming branches are arranged to meet in one point. This point acts as the beginning of a mixer unit which contains several fork-shaped channels. The arrangement of these channels allows for the division of the whole liquid stream into partial streams and their reuniting. A homogeneous mixing of solutions and/or gases can be observed after having passed about 10 of the fork elements. A reaction chamber is arranged behind the mixing unit to support the chemical reaction of special fluids. This unit contains heating elements placed outside of the chamber. The complete system is arranged in a modular structure and is built up of silicon. It comprises three silicon wafers bonded together by applying the silicon direct bonding technology. The silicon structures are made only by wet chemical etching processes. The fluid connections to the outside are realized using standard injection needles glued into v-shaped structures on the silicon wafers. It is possible to integrate other components, like sensors or electronic circuits using silicon as the basic material.

  5. Application of synchrotron radiation in chemical dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 1992, funding was approved to begin construction of a beamline and two end stations to support chemical dynamics experiments at LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS). This workshop was organized to develop specifications and plans and to select a working team to design and supervise the construction project. Target date for starting the experiments is January 1995. Conclusions of the workshop and representative experiments proposed in earlier workshops to form the basis for beamline plans and end-station designs are summarized in this report. 6 figs

  6. Application of synchrotron radiation in chemical dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, P.; Koike, M.; Kung, A.H.; Ng, C.Y.; White, M.G.; Wodtke, A.

    1993-05-01

    In October 1992, funding was approved to begin construction of a beamline and two end stations to support chemical dynamics experiments at LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS). This workshop was organized to develop specifications and plans and to select a working team to design and supervise the construction project. Target date for starting the experiments is January 1995. Conclusions of the workshop and representative experiments proposed in earlier workshops to form the basis for beamline plans and end-station designs are summarized in this report. 6 figs.

  7. Application of synchrotron radiation in chemical dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, P.; Koike, M.; Kung, A.H.; Ng, C.Y.; White, M.G.; Wodtke, A.

    1993-05-01

    In October 1992, funding was approved to begin construction of a beamline and two end stations to support chemical dynamics experiments at LBL`s Advanced Light Source (ALS). This workshop was organized to develop specifications and plans and to select a working team to design and supervise the construction project. Target date for starting the experiments is January 1995. Conclusions of the workshop and representative experiments proposed in earlier workshops to form the basis for beamline plans and end-station designs are summarized in this report. 6 figs.

  8. Changes in chemical properties of distrophic Red Latosol as result of swine wastewater application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez R. Cabral

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Swine wastewater (SW has characteristics that allow its disposal in the soil as a fertilizer. This is an alternative in order not to accumulate this material in the farm as well as it provides savings with mineral fertilizers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of applying swine wastewater on the chemical properties of a distrophic Red Latosol for two seasons. The experiment was carried out under field conditions with treatments defined as T0 = 0 (control, T1 = 150, T2 = 300, T3 = 450, T4 = 600, T5 = 750 m3 ha-1 of SW applied during the crop cycle of elephant grass. SW application contributed to the increase of magnesium and phosphorus and the reduction of soil aluminum in the first season. As for the second season when compared to the first one, there were reductions in K, Ca, and P concentrations. Hence applications of SW did not contribute to the increase in concentration of elements in the soil.

  9. Property Modelling for Applications in Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    is missing, the atom connectivity based model is employed to predict the missing group interaction. In this way, a wide application range of the property modeling tool is ensured. Based on the property models, targeted computer-aided techniques have been developed for design and analysis of organic chemicals......, polymers, mixtures as well as separation processes. The presentation will highlight the framework (ICAS software) for property modeling, the property models and issues such as prediction accuracy, flexibility, maintenance and updating of the database. Also, application issues related to the use of property......Physical-chemical properties of pure chemicals and their mixtures play an important role in the design of chemicals based products and the processes that manufacture them. Although, the use of experimental data in design and analysis of chemicals based products and their processes is desirable...

  10. Application of fertilizer phosphorus to nonfarm land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of fertilizer phosphorus that was applied to nonfarm land in the...

  11. Application of fertilizer nitrogen to nonfarm land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of fertilizer nitrogen that was applied to nonfarm land in the...

  12. Application of fertilizer nitrogen to farm land in the United States Pacific Northwest for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial data set was created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to represent the amount of fertilizer nitrogen that was applied to farm land in the Pacific...

  13. ON ECONOMIC-MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR TECHNOLOGY OF DIFFERENTIATED APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS

    OpenAIRE

    Gennadiy Litchman; Sayahat Nukeshev

    2009-01-01

    The paper studies agricultural crops’ yield depending on quality of entering of mineral fertilizers. It is established that determining average productivity, under square-law dependence of yield on a dose, there is not necessity to set the law of fertilizers distribution across the field and will be sufficient to know expected value D and standard deviation sD. The paper considers approaches to economic-mathematical model of optimization of fertilizers’ doses at the differentiated enterin...

  14. Effects of Manure Fertilizer and Chemical Fertilizer on Nitrogen Transformation Bacteria and Soil Enzyme in Black Soil%农肥和化肥对黑土氮素转化功能菌和土壤酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于佳; 王宏燕; 赵伟; 宋立娟

    2011-01-01

    Various trends of soil function bacteria and its activity was Analyzed under different ratios of the manure and chemical fertilizers,in on the black soil field under maize. The results showed that the high manure fertilizer ratio scenario leads to an increase in ammonification bacteria and nitrobacteria, which were 2. 22 times and 4. 09 times of standard sample (CK) respectively. Meanwhile, the high chemical fertilizer ratio also contributed to a significant raise in the amount of denitrifying bacteria, which was 8.49 times of CK.Furthermore, Manure fertilizer scenario had a positive influence on soil microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen, soil urease and catalase as the analyzed data of activities of these factors were much higher than that of CK. Specifically speaking, the positive correlations existed in the following groups: soil microbial biomass C and soil urease activity, microbial biomass N and catalyse activity and microbial biomass and soil ammonification bacteria as well At the same time, soil microbial biomass C and soil ammonification bacteria had significant negative correlation ship.%实验以玉米田黑土为研究对象,主要研究土壤氮素转化功能菌及其活性在不同施入量农肥和化肥处理下的变化.结果表明:农肥高量处理使土壤氨化细菌和硝化细菌数量升高,分别是对照的2.22倍和4.09倍,而化肥高量处理使反硝化细菌数量明显增加,是对照的8.49倍;农肥处理对土壤微生物量碳、微生物量氮、土壤脲酶和土壤过氧化氢酶有促进作用,其活性明显高于对照.相关分析表明,土壤微生物量碳与土壤脲酶,土壤微生物量氮与过氧化氢酶和土壤氨化细菌之间均存在着极显著的正相关关系,而土壤微生物量碳与土壤氨化细菌之间存在着极显著的负相关关系.图8,表1,参14.

  15. 生物有机肥在日光温室黄瓜上的应用效果研究%Application Efficiency Study on Bio-organic Fertilizer on Greenhouse Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾大路; 梁晓辉; 吴洪生; 王伟中

    2012-01-01

    研究生物有机肥对黄瓜生长及产量的影响,为日光温室黄瓜生产科学应用生物有机肥提供技术依据。在丁集镇娘庄村的日光温室内进行田间试验,品种为滓春3号,以不施用肥料的土壤为对照,研究施用化肥、生物有机肥与化学肥料配合施用、施用生物有机肥对黄瓜生长、产量、品质等的影响。通过对黄瓜植株性状、产量性状等方面的考察发现,在日光温室内应用肥料均可以促进黄瓜根系的生长、培育壮苗,提高黄瓜的产量性状,增强黄瓜的光合效率,增加黄瓜的产量,改善黄瓜的商品性和品质,增加黄瓜的经济效益,但是以生物有机肥与化学肥料配合施用的效果最好。在日光温室内施用生物有机肥可以促进黄瓜的生长,增加黄瓜产量,提高日光温室种植黄瓜的经济效益。%To provide technical basis for greenhouse cucumber production and scientific applications of bio-organic fertilizer,bi-oorganic fertilizer on the growth and yield of cucumber was studied.Field trials in the solar greenhouse Dingji Zhen Niang village, the 3rd Jinchun varieties,soil application of fertilizers for the control,application of chemical fertilizers,bio-organic manure and chemical fertilizers combined application,the effect of application of bio-organic fertilizer on the growth of cucumber,yield and quality was studied.Found by inspection of the cucumber plant traits, yield, etc., in greenhouse application of fertilizer could promote the growth of cucumber roots,nurturing seedlings, cucumber yield traits,and enhance the photosynthetic efficiency of cucumber to increase the yield of cucumber and improve the marketability and quality of cucumber,increase the economic benefits of cucumber. But with the application of the best bio-organic manure and chemical fertilizers,application of bio-organic fertilizer could promote the growth of cucumber increased cucumber yield

  16. Chemical applications of molecular quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular systems of chemical interest are investigated with the aid of molecular quantum theory. The self-consistent field (SCF) method is used to predict the molecular structures of ClF2, ClF4 and Cl3 radicals, and the ions ClF2+, ClF2-, ClF4+ and ClF4-. The ClF2 and Cl3 radicals are predicted to be bent with bond angles of 145.20 and 158.60, respectively, while the ions ClF2+ and ClF2- are predicted to be bent with a bond angle of 97.40 and linear, respectively. The geometry predictions for the ClF4 radical and the ClF4+ ion are found to be notably basis set dependent. The ClF4- ion is predicted to be square-planar. Multi-configuration self-consistent field (MCSCF) calculations have yielded the dipole moment function for the 1sigma+ state of HI, which qualitatively confirms the experimental finding that the dipole derivative at R/sub e/ is negative. The 2sigma+ F + H2 potential energy surface is studied extensively with the configuration interaction (CI) method. The most complete calculations yield an activation energy of 2.74 kcal/mole and an exothermicity of 30.0 kcal/mole. The production of a potential energy surface of ''chemical accuracy'' for this system is found to be more difficult than previously believed. The simplest hydrophobic model, the water-methane system, is studied with the SCF method in order to determine the nature and magnitude of the interaction. The most favorable geometric arrangement corresponds to an attraction of 0.5 kcal/mole

  17. Amendment of Tephrosia Improved Fallows with Inorganic Fertilizers Improves Soil Chemical Properties, N Uptake, and Maize Yield in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie G. Munthali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize production in Malawi is limited mainly by low soil N and P. Improved fallows of N-fixing legumes such as Tephrosia and Sesbania offer options for improving soil fertility particularly N supply. The interactions of Tephrosia fallows and inorganic fertilizers on soil properties, N uptake, and maize yields were evaluated at Chitedze Research Station in Malawi. The results indicated that the level of organic matter and pH increased in all the treatments except for the control. Total N remained almost unchanged while available P decreased in all plots amended with T. vogelii but increased in T. candida plots where inorganic P was applied. Exchangeable K increased in all the plots irrespective of the type of amendment. The interaction of N and P fertilizers with T. vogelii fallows significantly increased the grain yield. The treatment that received 45 kg N ha−1 and 20 kg P ha−1 produced significantly higher grain yields (6.8 t ha−1 than all the other treatments except where 68 kg N ha−1 and 30 kg P ha−1 were applied which gave 6.5 t ha−1 of maize grain. T. candida fallows alone or in combination with N and P fertilizers did not significantly affect grain yield. However, T. candida fallows alone can raise maize grain yield by 300% over the no-input control. Based on these results we conclude that high quality residues such as T. candida and T. vogelii can be used as sources of nutrients to improve crop yields and soil fertility in N-limited soils. However, inorganic P fertilizer is needed due to the low soil available P levels.

  18. Yield and nutrition of sunflower fertilized with sewage sludge stabilized by different processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altina Lacerda Nascimento

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The different methods of sewage sludge stabilization modify their physical chemical and biological properties, altering its efficiency when applied in agriculture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrient levels in soil and the yield of sunflower fertilized with sewage sludge stabilized by different processes. The experiment was conducted in Cambisol, with the treatments: control (without fertilization, fertilization with sewage sludge solarized, composted, vermicomposted, limed and chemical fertilizer recommended for sunflower crop. The experimental design a randomized block with four replications. The different methods of sewage sludge treatment did not affect the yield; however, the application of sewage sludge, regardless the stabilization process adopted, was more effective than chemical fertilizer and the control treatment. Overall, fertilization with limed sewage sludge provided higher soil nutrients concentrations, while treatments with composted and vermicomposted sewage sludge showed higher levels of nutrients in the plant.

  19. Improvement of Preimplantation Development of In Vitro-Fertilized Bovine Zygotes by Glucose Supplementation to a Chemically Defined Medium

    OpenAIRE

    SAKAGAMI, Nobutada; Nishino, Osamu; Adachi, Satoshi; UMEKI, Hidenobu; UCHIYAMA, Hiroko; ICHIKAWA, Kyoko; TAKESHITA, Kazuhisa; KANEKO, Etsushi; AKIYAMA, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The influences of glucose supplementation on early development of bovine embryos in BSA-free synthetic oviduct fluid were examined. Among the groups supplemented with 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 or 5.6 mM glucose either at 0, 72 or 144 hr after fertilization, blastocysts yield significantly increased in the group supplemented with 4.0 mM glucose 144 hr after fertilization compared to the controls without glucose supplementation. The results suggest that appropriate amounts of glucose supplemented ...

  20. Fourier transform infrared spectra applications to chemical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R

    1978-01-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Applications to Chemical Systems presents the chemical applications of the Fourier transform interferometry (FT-IR).The book contains discussions on the applications of FT-IR in the fields of chromatography FT-IR, polymers and biological macromolecules, emission spectroscopy, matrix isolation, high-pressure interferometry, and far infrared interferometry. The final chapter is devoted to the presentation of the use of FT-IR in solving national technical problems such as air pollution, space exploration, and energy related subjects.Researc

  1. Quantitative physical and chemical variables used to assess erosion and fertility loss in tropical Dominican and Haitian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, J.; Alexis, S.; Vizcayno, C.; Hernández, A. J.

    2009-04-01

    physical and chemical erosion in this region. The main types of clay are: hematite, kaolin, bohemite (the most abundant) gibbsite and calcite. Textures range from sandy-silty to clayey. Sand and clay fractions seem more abundant than silt ones. Soil pHs are generally in the basic range with infrequent acid soils. OM and total Nitrogen levels are not low, especially OM in the dry forest and N in the latifoliated forest. Available K contents are low in mountain forests and high in dry forests. Available P contents are generally low to very low. The topsoil layers (0-20 cm) of different types of wet and dry tropical forests and agroecosystems were assessed in terms of several physical factors related to erosion. These factors were: particle size, aggregate structural instability index (Is), and soil physical degradation index, erodibility index and erosionability index. This study reports also fertility loss, OM and heavy metal data obtained in the topsoil samples from both natural ecosystems and agroecosystems. Soil fertility also needs to be assessed since has been severely compromised by changes in the physical and chemical properties of the soil induced by the felling and burning of trees to make way for crops. Acknowledgements: Projects CTM2005-02165/TECNO (MEC) & CTM2008-04827/TECNO (MceI). Program EIADES S-0505/AMB/0296 (CAM) and Project "Promoción de la calidad educativa y el desarrollo local en la provincia de Pedernales, R. Dominicana" (CAM & Centro Cultural Poveda of Sto. Domingo, Dominican Republic).

  2. Impact of Melia azedarach Linn. (Meliaceae Dry Fruit Extract, Farmyard Manure and Nitrogenous Fertilizer Application Against Cabbage Aphid Brevicornye brassicae Linn. (Homoptera: Aphididae in Home Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Nagappan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to check the impact of Melia azedarach dry fruit extract, farmyard manure and nitrogenous fertilizer application against cabbage aphid Brevicornye brassicae. B. brassicae is one of the key pests affect the quality and market value of cabbage. The home garden experiment was conducted in two season (September to December 2009 and February to May 2010. For this experiment totally five plots were prepared with 4 m length and 0.6 m width. Among the five plots one was used as control and another four was experimental plot for the application of nutrient and botanical spraying. M. azedarach dry fruit extract (5% was mixed with 0.2% local soap solution and sprayed in experimental plot. Purposive sampling method was adopted for data collection for which the number of aphids was recorded from three leaves of each plant. The experimental results indicates that except farmyard manure and combination of farmyard manure+urea treated plot remaining all showed significant difference (p0.025 in control and farmyard manure treated plot but the remaining showed statistically significant difference. The experimental results for both cropping seasons were consistent. Nitrogenous fertilizer applications influence the growth of the plants but did not show any remarkable changes in cabbage head weight except plant growth. The study concludes that foliar and basal application of M. azedarach dry fruit powder had significant impact on cabbage aphid, B. brassicae. It can be a suitable alternative method to protect cabbage crop against aphid infestation particularly small farming community those who are unable to afford cost of chemical pesticides.

  3. Research Progress in the Effect and Mechanism of Fertilization Measures on Soil Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Dongfeng; Wang, Limin; LI, Weihua; QIU, Xiaoxuan

    2015-01-01

    This paper firstly summarized the domestic and foreign research progress in the relationship between fertilization measures and soil fertility. It elaborated the relationship between fertilization measures and basic physical and chemical properties, soil enzyme activity, soil microorganism fertility index, and soil animal fertility index. It pointed out future researches about the relationship between fertilization measures and soil fertility include: (i) the relationship between fine and hig...

  4. Effects of Fertilizer Application on Growth and Yield of Jatropha curcas L. in an Aeric Tropaquept of Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar MOHAPATRA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Jatropha curcas L. has emerged as a biofuel crop attracting considerable interest of the researchers. The seeds of the plant yield non-edible oil with properties that are well suited for production of biodiesel. However it is still considered a semi-wild plant and systematic crop improvement programmes need to be undertaken to exploit its full yield potential. The present study deals with agronomic trials pertaining to optimum requirements of N:P:K fertilizers for better economic returns. Field experiments were conducted between 2008 and 2009 at the research farm of IMMT, Bhubaneswar, India (20�40� North and 85�50� East to evaluate the effect of N:P:K fertilizers on the yield attributing characters of Jatropha. Five-year-old standing crop plantation was treated with two levels of N (60 and 50 g/plant, P (80 and 100 g/plant and K (75 and 60 g/plant, either alone or in combination. Analysis of the results revealed significant differences in growth as well as yield characteristics due to application of inorganic fertilizers. While maximum seed yield (427.21 kg/ha was recorded in N60 treatment, the seed oil content varied significantly from 32.00% to 35.69% under various regimes of N:P:K applications. Treatment with N50P100K60 and N60 resulted in consistent higher yield of seed oil. Based on the results of growth and yield attributes, application of N fertilizer proved to be beneficial for Jatropha under tropical agroclimatic conditions in an Aeric Tropaquept of eastern India.

  5. Aqua ammonia 15 N obtaining and application with vainness for sugar-cane fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen compounds marked with the isotope 15 N are continuously being used in agronomic studies and, when associated to the isotopic dilution technique, they constitute an important tool in clarifying the N cycle. At the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), it was obtained ( 15 NH4)2SO4 enhanced at 3,5% of 15 N atoms, by means of the ionic exchange chromatography technique, which made possible to produce aqua ammonia (15 NH3aq). Four repetitions were taken to the aqua ammonia production process to use the nitrogen compound in the field experiment. In each process 150g of ammonium sulfate enhanced at 3,5% of 15 N atoms was used, obtaining 31,0 ± 1,6 g of aqua ammonia on the average (80% yield), with the same enhancement. The incidence of isotopic dilution has not been observed during the procedure, what made the use of such methodology possible. After obtaining the aqua ammonia 15 N through this procedure, it was added to the vinasse (an equivalent to 50 m3 ha-1 ) in doses that corresponded to 70 kg ha-1 of N-NH3aq. The mixture was applied to the sugar-cane straw on the soil's surface, aimed to the crop's fertilization. The compound's isotopic composition was analyzed by means of a spectrometer of masses ANCA-SL Europe Scientific, while the total-N volatilized, by the micro-Kjeldahl. Method. In accordance to the low NH3 (6,4 ± 1,9 kg ha-1 ) volatilization results, it could be concluded that the application of vinasse and aqua ammonia mixture to the straw on the soil's surface was efficient, due to the vinasse's acid character, which allowed the NH3, in presence of the ion H+, to stay in the NH4+ form in solution. (author)

  6. Quantifying uncertainties in N(2O emission due to N fertilizer application in cultivated areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Philibert

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N(2O is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential approximately 298 times greater than that of CO(2. In 2006, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC estimated N(2O emission due to synthetic and organic nitrogen (N fertilization at 1% of applied N. We investigated the uncertainty on this estimated value, by fitting 13 different models to a published dataset including 985 N(2O measurements. These models were characterized by (i the presence or absence of the explanatory variable "applied N", (ii the function relating N(2O emission to applied N (exponential or linear function, (iii fixed or random background (i.e. in the absence of N application N(2O emission and (iv fixed or random applied N effect. We calculated ranges of uncertainty on N(2O emissions from a subset of these models, and compared them with the uncertainty ranges currently used in the IPCC-Tier 1 method. The exponential models outperformed the linear models, and models including one or two random effects outperformed those including fixed effects only. The use of an exponential function rather than a linear function has an important practical consequence: the emission factor is not constant and increases as a function of applied N. Emission factors estimated using the exponential function were lower than 1% when the amount of N applied was below 160 kg N ha(-1. Our uncertainty analysis shows that the uncertainty range currently used by the IPCC-Tier 1 method could be reduced.

  7. Application of herbicides as growth regulators of emerald Zoysia grass fertilized with nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raíssa Pereira Dinalli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is essential for nutrition and for the maintenance of the intense green color of lawns. However, this element affects shoot growth and, therefore, mowing frequency, which is a key factor of lawn-maintenance costs. Accordingly, this study aimed to evaluate the use of nitrogen fertilization in combination with the use of potential herbicides as growth regulators to promote the maintenance of the high visual (intense green and nutritional quality of lawns of emerald Zoysia (Zoysia japonica Steud. grown in Ultisol soil while reducing their leaf growth. The experiment was conducted at the Teaching, Research and Extension Education Farm (Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão of São Paulo State University (Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, UNESP, Ilha Solteira Campus/ São Paulo (SP, from June/2012 to June/2013. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with 20 treatments established in a 5 x 4 factorial arrangement with four replicates, including four herbicides (glyphosate, imazaquin, imazethapyr, and metsulfuron-methyl, applied at doses of 200, 420, 80, and 140 g ha-1 active ingredient (a.i., respectively and a control (without herbicide, and four N doses (0, 5, 10, and 20 g m-2, split into five applications delivered throughout the year. The following items were evaluated: length, LCI (leaf chlorophyll index, leaf dry matter production and leaf N concentration and the percentage of phytotoxicity on lawn grass shoots. Doses from 10 to 20 g m-2 N provided sufficient N concentrations to maintain the emerald Zoysia. The herbicides metsulfuron-methyl and glyphosate were superior in the control of lawn leaf growth. While the former was phytotoxic, the latter had no effect on the aesthetic quality of the lawn, standing out as an herbicide that may be used at a dose of 200 g ha-1 toregulate the growth of emerald Zoysia.

  8. Response of hydrolytic enzyme activities and nitrogen mineralization to fertilizer and organic matter application in subtropical paddy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Mohammed Abdul; Yeasmin, Sabina; Akter, Masuda; Sleutel, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Driving controllers of nitrogen (N) mineralization in paddy soils, especially under anaerobic soil conditions, remain elusive. The influence of exogenous organic matter (OM) and fertilizer application on the activities of five relevant enzymes (β-glucosaminidase, β-glucosidase, L-glutaminase, urease and arylamidase) was measured in two long-term field experiments. One 18-years field experiment was established on a weathered terrace soil with a rice-wheat crop rotation at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU) having five OM treatments combined with two mineral N fertilizer levels. Another 30-years experiment was established on a young floodplain soil with rice-rice crop rotation at the Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) having eight mineral fertilizer treatments combined with organic manure. At BSMRAU, N fertilizer and OM amendments significantly increased all enzyme activities, suggesting them to be primarily determined by substrate availability. At BAU, non-responsiveness of β-glucosidase activity suggested little effect of the studied fertilizer and OM amendments on general soil microbial activity. Notwithstanding probably equal microbial demand for N, β-glucosaminidase and L-glutaminase activities differed significantly among the treatments (P>0.05) and followed strikingly opposite trends and correlations with soil organic N mineralization. So enzymatic pathways to acquire N differed by treatment at BAU, indicating differences in soil N quality and bio-availability. L-glutaminase activity was significantly positively correlated to the aerobic and anaerobic N mineralization rates at both field experiments. Combined with negative correlations between β-glucosaminidase activity and N mineralization rates, it appears that terminal amino acid NH2 hydrolysis was a rate-limiting step for soil N mineralization at BAU. Future investigations with joint quantification of polyphenol accumulation and binding of N, alongside an

  9. Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) for Microelectronic Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuzhuo

    2004-01-01

    Surface planarity is of paramount importance in microelectronics. Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) is the most viable approach to address the planarity issues during the fabrication of advanced semiconductor devices. With the integration of copper as interconnect and low k materials as dielectric, the CMP community is facing an ever increasing demand on reducing defectivity without scarifying production throughput. Key issues in CMP today include reduction of surface defectivity and enhancement of planarization efficiency. More specifically, the polished surface should be free of defects such as scratches, pits, corrosion spots, and residue particles. To accomplish these goals, we have investigated a wide range of pathways including reduction of oversized particles,use of unique abrasives such as functionalized nanoparticles, and development of polishing solution without abrasive particles.In this presentation, some fundamental aspects of the CMP process will be given first.Several academic and industrial examples will be used to illustrate the issues and challenges during the implementation of various slurry designs into the CMP processes.

  10. High Temperature Materials for Chemical Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Sandra; Hickman, Robert; O'Dell, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Radiation or passively cooled thrust chambers are used for a variety of chemical propulsion functions including apogee insertion, reaction control for launch vehicles, and primary propulsion for planetary spacecraft. The performance of these thrust chambers is limited by the operating temperature of available materials. Improved oxidation resistance and increased operating temperatures can be achieved with the use of thermal barrier coatings such as zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and hafnium oxide (HfO2). However, previous attempts to include these materials showed cracking and spalling of the oxide layer due to poor bonding. Current research at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has generated unique, high temperature material options for in-space thruster designs that are capable of up to 2500 C operating temperatures. The research is focused on fabrication technologies to form low cost Iridium,qF_.henium (Ir/Re) components with a ceramic hot wall created as an integral, functionally graded material (FGM). The goal of this effort is to further de?celop proven technologies for embedding a protective ceramic coating within the Ir/Re liner to form a robust functional gradient material. Current work includes the fabrication and testing of subscale samples to evaluate tensile, creep, thermal cyclic/oxidation, and thermophysical material properties. Larger test articles have also being fabricated and hot-fire tested to demonstrate the materials in prototype thrusters at 1O0 lbf thrust levels.

  11. [Analysis of soil humus and components after 26 years' fertilization by infrared spectroscopy method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Lan; Sun, Cai-Xia; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Li, Dong-Po; Liu, Xing-Bin; Chen, Li-Jun; Wu, Zhi-Jie; Du, Jian-Xiong

    2010-05-01

    The infrared spectrum was used to discuss structure change of soil humus and components of chemical groups in soil humic acids (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) isolated from soils in different fertilization treatment after 26 year's fertilization. The result indicated that using the infrared spectroscopy method for the determination of humus, humus fractions (HA and FA) and their structure is feasible. Fertilization affected the structure and content of soil humus and aromatization degree. After 26 years' fertilization, the infrared spectrum shapes with different treatments are similar, but the characteristic peak intensity is obviously different, which reflects the effects of different fertilization treatments on the structure and amounts of soil humus or functional groups. Compared with no fertilization, little molecule saccharides decreased and aryl-groups increased under application of inorganic fertilizer or combined application of organic and chemical fertilizer. The effect was greater in Treatment NPK and M+NPK than in Treatment M1 N and M2 N. Organic and NPK fertilizer increased the development of soil and increased soil quality to a certain extent. Results showed that organic fertilization increased aromatization degree of soil humus and humus fractions distinctly. The authors could estimate soil humus evolvement of different fertilization with infrared spectroscopy.

  12. Online measurement of contents in compound fertilizer and application research using VIS-NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhidan; Wang, Yubing; Wang, Rujing; Liu, Jing; Lu, Cuiping; Wang, Liusan

    2015-10-01

    The on-line measurement of the main component contents is essential for production, detection and identification of compound fertilizer. Using developed VIS-NIR sensors for on-line measurement of the main component contents in compound fertilizer, primary results about nitrogen (N), phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) and potassium oxide (K2O) were reported. A visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) spectrophotometer (Ocean Optics), with a measurement range of 360.18-2221.53 nm was used to measure fertilizer spectra in reflectance mode. By using principal component analysis (PCA) and mahalanobis distance method, 3 outlier samples were detected and eliminated from 174 samples firstly. Then these models of three components with the 124 samples in calibration set were established using principal component regress (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS) coupled respectively with the full cross-validation technique after preprocessing the original spectrum with different methods. These models were used to estimate the contents of N, P2O5 and K2O of the other 47 samples in predicted set. The research results showed that the method could be applied to rapid measurement to the main component contents in compound fertilizer. Compared with the traditional analysis method, the on-line measurement could do it rapidly, inexpensively and pollution-freely. It suggested the potential use of the VIS-NIR sensing system for on-line measurement in the production, detection and identification process of compound fertilizer.

  13. [Effects of irrigation mode and N application rate on cotton field fertilizer N use efficiency and N losses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Wei, Chang-Zhou; Zhang, Jun; Dong, Peng; Wang, Juan; Zhu, Qi-Chao; Wang, Jin-Xin

    2012-10-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different irrigation modes (drip irrigation and furrow irrigation) and different N application rates (0, 240, 360 and 480 kg N x hm(-2)) on the fertilizer N use efficiency and N losses in a cotton field in Xinjiang, Northwest China. The main N cycling pathways, such as the N uptake by cotton plant, NO3(-)-N residual in soil, NH3 volatilization, NO3(-)-N leaching, and nitrification-denitrification, were quantitatively monitored. Compared with furrow irrigation, drip irrigation increased the seed cotton yield, plant N uptake, and fertilizer N use efficiency significantly. The NO3(-)-N residual in soil was significantly greater under furrow irrigation than under drip irrigation. With the application of fertilizer N, the N loss from NH3 volatilization under drip irrigation occupied 0.06% -0.14% of applied N, and was significantly greater than that under furrow irrigation. The N loss from NO3(-)-N leaching under drip irrigation and furrow irrigation was 4.4% and 8.8% of the applied N, respectively. Compared with furrow irrigation, drip irrigation could significantly decrease the NO3(-)-N leakage rate in leakage water. The nitrification-dinetrification loss under drip irrigation and furrow irrigation was 17.9% and 16.8% of the applied N, respectively. It was suggested that NO3(-)-N leaching and nitrification-denitrification were the main N losses in the cotton fields of Xinjiang.

  14. Changes in Grain Yield of Rice and Emission of Greenhouse Gases from Paddy Fields after Application of Organic Fertilizers Made from Maize Straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yi-hu; GU Dao-jian; LIU Li-jun; WANG Zhi-qin; ZHANG Hao; YANG Jian-chang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the farm of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China, to study the effects of organic fertilizers made from maize straw on rice grain yield and the emission of greenhouse gases. Four organic fertilizer treatments were as follows:maize straw (MS), compost made from maize straw (MC), methane-generating maize residue (MR), and black carbon made from maize straw (BC). These organic fertilizers were applied separately to paddy fields before rice transplanting. No organic fertilizer was applied to the control (CK). The effects of each organic fertilizer on rice grain yield and emission of greenhouse gases were investigated under two conditions, namely, no nitrogen (N) application (0N) and site-specific N management (SSNM). Rice grain yields were significantly higher in the MS, MC and MR treatments than those in CK under either 0N or SSNM. The MS treatment resulted in the highest grain yield and agronomic N use efficiency. However, no significant difference was observed for these parameters between the BC treatment and CK. The changes in the emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), or nitrous oxide (N2O) from the fields were similar among all organic fertilizer treatments during the entire rice growing season. The application of each organic fertilizer significantly increased the emission of each greenhouse gas (except N2O emission in the BC treatment) and global warming potential (GWP). Emissions of all the greenhouse gases and GWP increased under the same organic fertilizer treatment in the presence of N fertilizer, whereas GWP per unit grain yield decreased. The results indicate that the application of organic fertilizer (MS, MC or MR) could increase grain yield, but also could enhance the emissions of greenhouse gases from paddy fields. High grain yield and environmental efficiency could be achieved by applying SSNM with MR.

  15. Effects of Different Fertilizer Applications on Strawberry Growth in Greenhouse%不同肥料运筹对大棚草莓生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贤辉; 张华; 刘明

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study on effects of fertilizer management on strawberry growth and fruit quality in greenhouse. [Method] Applied different fertilizer applications of organic fertilizer, hio-organic fertilizer and inorganic fertilizer on strawberry in greenhouse, analyzed the growth and fruit quality of them. [Result] Branching and flowering of strawberry were promoted, production was increased which applied inorganic fertilizer. With the application of inorganic fertilizer and organic fertilizer could promote the branch and leaf of strawberry growth, and could increase fruit number, improve fruit weight, increase the sugar content of fruit, and improve the quality. [Conclusion] The production of strawberry increased and the quality improved by application of inorganic fertilizer and organic: fertilizer.%【目的】研究施肥对大棚草莓的生长和果实品质的影响。【方法】在大棚草莓上应用有机肥、生物有机肥和无机肥不同组合的肥料运筹,分析大棚草莓的生长情况和果实品质。【结果】施用无机肥能促进苹莓的分枝和开花,提高产量。配合施用无机肥与有机肥可促进草莓的分枝和叶片生长,增加草莓的座果数,提高单果重,增加果实的糖含量,改善草莓的品质。【结论】有机肥无机肥配施才能在增加草莓产量的同时提高品质。

  16. Chemicals agents and human male fertility: Review of the past thirty years literature; Sostanze chimiche e infertilita` maschile: Rassegna degli studi condotti negli ultimi trenta anni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traina, Maria Elsa; Urbani, Elisabetta [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale; Petrelli, Grazia; Pasquali, Massimo; Pace, Francesca [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica

    1997-03-01

    The effects of several industrial and environmental pollutants on the male reproductive system are known from animal studies, but to date the impact on human fertility is still scarcely documented by epidemiological studies. The literature of the past thirty years on the adverse effects of occupational chemical factors on human male fertility is reviewed. Eighty-nine studies have been analysed with the purpose to identify the substances and/or the working categories investigated and to evaluate the methods used. Since 1977 the interest has been focused on the human exposures to 1,2-dibromochloropropane, a powerful spermatotoxic agent, but a consistent number of studies was also related to other active ingredients of pesticides (lindane, carbaryl, 2,4-dichlorofenoxiacetic acid), solvents (glycol ethers, carbon disulfide) and heavy metals (lead, cadmium). Among the indicators used in these studies to evaluate the effects on male fertility, the seminal parameters are analysed in 67 % of the reports; blood hormonal tests are done in 54 % of the cases. The literature suggests that further epidemiological studies need to be conducted in other working categories; more attention should be paid to the sensitivity and biological significance of the male reproductive parameters used in human studies.

  17. A study of effect of fertilizer application methods on uptake of N and P by rape using tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of application method of urea and placement of phosphates on uptake and utilization of N and P from fertilizer by rape. 15N-urea was applied at bolting and flowering stages by surface broadcast (B), 1% solution (J) and surface broadcast followed by watering (BJ). Recoveries of applied N from mature plants were 24.44%, 32.15% and 27.38% respectively, and utilization of urea-N by seeds were 13.11%, 21.77% and 15.94% respectively. 32P-Ca(H2PO4)2 was applied at seedling stage and the labelled fertilizer was placed in band with 2 cm and 4 cm depth and hole with 4 cm depth, respectively. 32P absorbed by plants 83 days after labelling were 7.04%, 8.24% and 6.56 respectively

  18. The applications of chemical thermodynamics and chemical kinetics to planetary atmospheres research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the applications of chemical thermodynamics and chemical kinetics to planetary atmospheres research during the past four decades is presented with an emphasis on chemical equilibrium models and thermochemical kinetics. Several current problems in planetary atmospheres research such as the origin of the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets, atmosphere-surface interactions on Venus and Mars, deep mixing in the atmospheres of the gas giant planets, and the origin of the atmospheres of outer planet satellites all require laboratory data on the kinetics of thermochemical reactions for their solution.

  19. Application of waterborne acrylic emulsions in coated controlled release fertilizer using reacted layer technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yazhen Shen; Cong Zhao; Jianmin Zhou; Changwen Du

    2015-01-01

    Waterborne acrylic emulsions modified with organic siloxanes and aziridine crosslinker were synthesized and applied as coating of controlled release fertilizer. The free films were characterized and the nutrient release pro-files of the coated fertilizers were determined. The results show that methyl silicone oil and methylsilanolate so-dium could not improve water resistance performance and glass transition temperature Tg of coatings, while the firmness is enhanced. Aziridine crosslinker improves the water resistance performance, firmness and Tg. Incorpo-ration of methyl silicone oil and aziridine crosslinker gives an excellent aqueous acrylic emulsion for coated con-trol ed release fertilizer, with the 30-day cumulative nutrient release reduced to 16%and an estimated nutrient release duration over 190 days. Therefore, this waterborne coating is promising to meet the requirements for controlled release of nutrient and environmental protection.

  20. 深施型液态施肥机扎穴机构研究进展%Research progress on pricking hole mechanism of deep-fertilization liquid fertilizer applicator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金峰; 王金武; 鞠金艳; 何剑南

    2013-01-01

    扎穴机构是深施型液态施肥机重要的工作部件,其性能影响施肥质量、工作可靠性和作业速度.本文阐述了曲柄摇杆式、椭圆齿轮行星系和全椭圆齿轮行星系三种扎穴机构的组成及工作原理,对各自的结构特点、研究方法和存在问题进行比较与分析,并提出进一步研究方向,可为加快深施型液态施肥机的改进设计提供参考.%Pricking hole mechanism is the important working components of deep-fertilization liquid fertilizer applicator,its performances impact fertilization quality,reliability and operating speed.This paper described the compositions and working principle of three kinds pricking hole mechanism,which were respectively based on crank-rocker style,elliptic gear planetary galaxy and the whole elliptic gear planetary galaxy,their structural characteristics,research methods and the existing problems were analyzed and compared,and the further reseamh direction was put forward.The research findings can provide the important reference for accelerating the improvement design on deep-fertilization liquid fertilizer applicator.

  1. Use of organic fertilizer and bio fertilizer in a modern planting system to increase the productivity of vanilla plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanilla is a plant belonging to the orchid family and native to Mexico. In Malaysia, research and cultivation of vanilla plants are becoming more popular and intensive because the plant has a high commercial value. Fertilizing of vanilla plants is important to enhance the nutrients needed by the plants for growth and vanilla pod production. In 1999, research in MARDI showed that the use of chemical fertilizer NPK (15:15:15) was suitable for vanilla plants. For plants that have not produced vanilla pods foliar fertilizer must be sprayed and foliar fertilizer application must be reduced at pod production stage. The fertilizer programme is almost similar to those of other vanilla producing countries such as Indonesia and Mexico. In Indonesia, studies on organic farming of vanilla have been conducted. They have produced chemical-free vanilla fertilizer products such as Bio-Fob, Bio-TRIBA and Organo TRIBA Compost. We in Malaysian Nuclear Agency conducted a study on the effects of organic and bio fertilizers on vanilla at the vanilla experimental plot. This plot adopts the modern system of vanilla planting. The study involved the use of organic and bio fertilizer products produced in Nuclear Malaysia such as Organik NF, plant growth promoter and phosphate solubiliser and imported commercial orchid mycorrhizal bio fertilizer from Korea. The application of these fertilizers is by placing the fertilizers on the planting media in poly bags with replications according to the treatments. Observations were made weekly for 15 weeks by measuring of parameters including the bud growth and leaf number. These data are plotted in graphical form for evaluation.(author)

  2. Reducing rice field algae and cyanobacteria abundance by altering phosphorus fertilizer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    In California’s water seeded rice systems algal/cyanobacterial biomass can be a problem during rice establishment. Algal/cyanobacterial growth may be stimulated by phosphorus (P) additions in freshwater habitats, so we set up experiments to evaluate the effects of fertilizer P management on algal/cy...

  3. MiniCSS: a software application to optimize crop irrigation and nitrogen fertilization strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Rocca

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Water resources are limited and agricultural input costs are steadily increasing; moreover, precipitation seems to be decreasing in amount or, at least, received in a more irregular manner. Correctly deciding irrigation and fertilization amount and time implies to simultaneously consider phenological and nutritional crop status, weather pattern during the irrigation season and taking into account the economic and energy budgets. To treat all these complexities, the use of crop simulation models is particularly indicated. Models are strictly connected to academic and research contexts and have not wide-melted farmers and agricultural technicians, despite they are strongly encouraged to optimize the use of water and fertilizer. MiniCSS, a software for the optimization of irrigation and nitrogen (N fertilization by simulation is here presented. Its primary aim is to be easy to use, thanks to a reduced number of input parameters and a user-friendly dialog window. MiniCSS can perform i annual/multiannual simulations, ii simulation experiments by varying irrigation and fertilization intensity, iii calibration of the model parameters and iv optimization of other cultural practices. Textual and graphical results are reported as daily values, annual averages, cumulative probability and dose-response curves.

  4. Inverse Problems and Data Fusion for crop production applications targeting optimal growth - Fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Bipjeet; Owusu, Robert K. A.

    2015-01-01

    of the crop growth process based on information on soil quality, field seeding, spraying/fertilization and environmental information in general. Finally, references to software tools, which could form the basis for an open source platform for a planning and monitoring system for optimal crop growth...

  5. Soil fertility and upland rice yield after biochar application in the Cerrado

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petter, F.A.; Madari, B.E.; Silva, da M.A.S.; Carneiro, M.A.C.; Melo Carvalho, de M.T.; Marimon, B.; Pacheco, L.P.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of biochar made from Eucalyptus on soil fertility, and on the yield and development of upland rice. The experiment was performed during two years in a randomized block design with four replicates, in a sandy loam Dystric Plinthosol. Four doses of

  6. A comparison between fertigation and granular fertilizer applications on yield and leaf nitrogen in red raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in 2011-2012 to compare the effects of applying N by fertigation or as granular fertilizer on yield and leaf N in ‘Meeker’ red raspberry. The planting was established in Apr. 2006 at site located in western Oregon. Plants were irrigated by drip or sprinklers and grown with or w...

  7. 有机肥部分替代化肥对滴灌棉田氮素转化及不同形态氮含量的影响%Effects of using organic fertilizer as partial substitution for chemical fertilizer on soil nitrogen transformation and a-mount of different nitrogen forms in drip irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶瑞; 唐诚; 李锐; 谭亮; 褚贵新

    2015-01-01

    In order to elucidate the effects of organic fertilizer amendment on soil nitrogen transformation and the amounts of dif-ferent form of soil N, a three-year location trail was fulfilled in calcareous soil under dip irrigated cotton field, soil mineral N concentration ( NH+4 , NO3-) , soil microbial N biomass as well as soil total N content were determined. The treatments con-tain CK, CF ( N 300 kg·hm-2 , P2 O5 90 kg·hm-2 , K2 O 60 kg·hm-2 ) and different types ( cattle manure and Bio-or-ganic fertilizer ) and levels (3 000 kg·hm-2and 6 000 kg·hm-2) of organic material combined with 60% (N 180 kg· hm-2 , P2 O5 54 kg·hm-2 , K2 O 36 kg · hm-2 ) or 80% ( N 240 kg · hm-2 , P2 O5 72 kg · hm-2 , K2 O 48 kg · hm-2 ) NPK chemical fertilizer. There was a significant influence of organic fertilizer amendment on improving soil NH+4 -N and NO3- -N concentration (P<0. 05) as well as increasing the ratio of soil NH+4 to soil total N. The highest soil mineral N was obtained in 60% CF+BF2 treatment. Soil total N and soil microbial N were significantly increased after the continuous 3-year organic fertilizer application. Compared with CK and CF, soil TN content increased by 24. 7% ~37. 1% and 13. 3% ~24. 5%, meanwhile, soil MBN increased by 53. 8% ~98. 5% and 32. 2% ~70. 5% respectively, with different treatments of organic fertilize supply. Moreover, bio-organic fertilizer treatment ( CF+BF) had an obvious role on enhancing the proportion of MBN/TN, and organic fertilizer combined with chemical fertilizer improved soil nitrification potential and soil mineralization capacity. In conclusion, there was an significant effect of 3 000~6 000 kg·hm-2 organic fertilizer application on promoting soil nitrogen transformation, improving soil N fertility and optimizing the ratio of different forms of soil N under drip irrigated cotton field.%在滴灌条件下,采用连续3年定位增施有机肥小区试验,研究了不同有机无机肥配比对滴灌棉田土壤铵态氮

  8. Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Application Timing Affects Wheat and Inter-Seeded Red Clover Yields on Claypan Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Nelson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release N fertilizer, such as polymer-coated urea (PCU, may be a fall N management option for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in poorly-drained claypan soils. Field research evaluated (1 urea release from fall-applied PCU in 2006 and 2007; (2 broadcast fall-spring split (25%:75% of N sources; and (3 a single fall (100% application of PCU, urea, urea plus NBPT (N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide] (U + NBPT, ammonium nitrate (AN, or urea ammonium nitrate (UAN at 0, 56, 84, and 112 kg·N·ha−1 on wheat yield, wheat biomass, N uptake by wheat, and frost-seeded red clover (FSC (Trifolium pratense L. forage yield (2004–2007. PCU applied in fall released less than 30% urea by February. Urea released from PCU by harvest was 60% and 85% in 2006 and 2007, respectively. In poorly-drained soils, wheat yields ranked PCU > AN > U + NBPT > urea ≥ UAN over the rates evaluated for fall-only application. PCU was a viable fall-applied N source, with yields similar to or greater than urea or U + NBPT split-applied. Split-N applications of AN, urea, UAN, and U + NBPT generally resulted in greater wheat yields than a fall application. Enhanced efficiency fertilizers provide farmers with flexible options for maintaining high yielding production systems.

  9. Effects of foliar application of nano-fertile fertilizer containing humic acid on growth, yield and nutrient concentration of mint (Mentha sativa) in aquaponic system

    OpenAIRE

    H. R. Roosta; M. Hosseinkhani; M.A. Vakili Shahrbabaki

    2016-01-01

    Due to recent droughts in Iran and other parts of the world and consequently limited water resources, tending to aquaponic system, in which fish and plants grow together, is a logical and practical method. For this reason, in the current experiment, possibility of mint planting in aquaponic system and the effects of applying nano-fertile fertilizer containing 60% humic acid on its growth was investigated. Mint rhizomes were planted in pure-perlite-contained pots and after reaching trnsferable...

  10. Research Progress in the Effect and Mechanism of Fertilization Measures on Soil Fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongfeng; HUANG; Limin; WANG; Weihua; LI; Xiaoxuan; QIU

    2015-01-01

    This paper firstly summarized the domestic and foreign research progress in the relationship between fertilization measures and soil fertility. It elaborated the relationship between fertilization measures and basic physical and chemical properties,soil enzyme activity,soil microorganism fertility index,and soil animal fertility index. It pointed out future researches about the relationship between fertilization measures and soil fertility include:( i) the relationship between fine and high efficient input of organic fertilizer and soil fertility,( ii) in-depth research of soil zoology fertility index,( iii) soil biology about long-term fertilization,and( iv) soil fertilization and agricultural diffused pollution. It is intended to provide scientific reference for improving farmland soil fertility and maintaining excellent ecological environment of farmland through proper fertilization measures.

  11. Fertility Preservation for Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Huang; Seang Lin Tan; Ri-Cheng Chian

    2006-01-01

    Preservation of female fertility is an important issue today. However, there are few effective clinical options for preserving female fertility. Firstly, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an accepted procedure but is not applicable to all women. Embryo freezing is suitable only for women with a male partner and may not be acceptable to some patients due to moral and religious reasons. Ovarian tissue freezing is another option of female fertility preservation but is an invasive procedure and the efficacy of this technique remains to be determined.Oocyte cryopreservation is also method for fertility preservation. Egg freezing is minimally invasive and can avoid the ethical and moral concerns related to cryopreservation of embryos. However, conventional slow freezing/rapid thawing methods are associated with low survival of oocytes. Recent development in vitrification of oocytes appears promising. Therefore, vitrification of unfertilized eggs may be a novel method to preserve female fertility.

  12. Bioinspired greigite magnetic nanocrystals: chemical synthesis and biomedicine applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mei Feng; Yang Lu; Yuan Yang; Meng Zhang; Yun-Jun Xu; Huai-Ling Gao; Liang Dong; Wei-Ping Xu; Shu-Hong Yu

    2013-01-01

    Large scale greigite with uniform dimensions has stimulated significant demands for applications such as hyperthermia, photovoltaics, medicine and cell separation, etc. However, the inhomogeneity and hydrophobicity for most of the as prepared greigite crystals has limited their applications in biomedicine. Herein, we report a green chemical method utilizing β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to synthesize bioinspired greigite (Fe3S4) magnetic nanocrystals (GMNCs) with similar...

  13. Effect of liming, manure, and NPK fertilizer application on growth and yield performance of soybean in swamp land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A . Wijanarko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased productivity and the expansion of planting area to potential land are two strategies to increase soybean production. Swamp land is one of potential land. Acidic soil, poor fertility, and toxicity become limiting factors for soybean development in this area. Objective of this research was to determine effect of liming, organic and NPK fertilizer application on soybean yields in swamp land. On-farm trial had been conducted on swamp land of C type in South Kalimantan. Treatments consisted of two factors, laid out in randomized complete block design, replicated three times. The fist factor was three doses of manure (0, 2.5, and 5.0 t/ha. The second factor was four combinations of NPK fertilization dosage, (1 0-0-0, (2 22,5-36-30, (3 22,5-54-60, and (4 45-72-60 kg N-P2O5-K2O per hectare. Combinations of these two factors were tested on two environments, without and with liming. Results revealed that soil acidity, poor P, K, Ca, and Mg, and high aluminum saturation became limiting factors for soybean growth and yield in swamp land of type C in South Kalimantan. Amelioration using 2.5 t/ha manure, liming with dolomite equivalent to 20% of Al saturation, and NPK fertilizer at dose of 45 kg N - 72 kg K2O – 60 kg P2O5 /ha improved soil properties and soybean growth, and increase productivity to 2.4 t/ha.

  14. Chemical design of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Daishun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2013-05-27

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are one of the most versatile and safe nanomaterials used in medicine. Recent progress in nanochemistry enables fine control of the size, crystallinity, uniformity, and surface properties of iron oxide nanoparticles. In this review, the synthesis of chemically designed biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles with improved quality and reduced toxicity is discussed for use in diverse biomedical applications.

  15. MICROSTRUCTURE DEVICES FOR APPLICATIONS IN THERMAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESS ENGINEERING

    OpenAIRE

    Brandner, Juergen; Anurjew, E.; Henning, T.; Schygulla, U.; Schubert, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this publication, an overview of the work dealing with thermal and chemical micro process engineering performed at the Institute for Micro Process Engineering (IMVT) of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe will be given. The focus will be set on manufacturing of metallic microstructure devices and on microstructure heat exchangers. A brief outlook will describe possible future application fields.

  16. Application of Plagiarism Screening Software in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Matthew E.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is an area of increasing concern for written ChE assignments, such as laboratory and design reports, due to ease of access to text and other materials via the internet. This study examines the application of plagiarism screening software to four courses in a university chemical engineering curriculum. The effectiveness of plagiarism…

  17. Introduction to computational mass transfer with applications to chemical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Kuo-Tsong

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a new computational methodology called Computational Mass Transfer (CMT). It offers an approach to rigorously simulating the mass, heat and momentum transfer under turbulent flow conditions with the help of two newly published models, namely the C’2—εC’ model and the Reynolds  mass flux model, especially with regard to predictions of concentration, temperature and velocity distributions in chemical and related processes. The book will also allow readers to understand the interfacial phenomena accompanying the mass transfer process and methods for modeling the interfacial effect, such as the influences of Marangoni convection and Rayleigh convection. The CMT methodology is demonstrated by means of its applications to typical separation and chemical reaction processes and equipment, including distillation, absorption, adsorption and chemical reactors. Professor Kuo-Tsong Yu is a Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Dr. Xigang Yuan is a Professor at the School of Chemical Engine...

  18. Bacterial community structure and diversity in a black soil as affected by long-term fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Dan; YANG Qian; ZHANG Jun-Zheng; WANG Shuang; CHEN Xue-Li; ZHANG Xi-Lin; LI Wei-Qun

    2008-01-01

    Black soil (Mollisol) is one of the main soil types in northeastern China.Biolog and polymerase chain reactiondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) methods were used to examine the influence of various fertilizer combinations on the structure and function of the bacterial community in a black soil collected from Harbin,Heilongjiang Province.Biolog results showed that substrate richness and catabolic diversity of the soil bacterial community were the greatest in the chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer+manure treatments.The metabolic ability of the bacterial community in the manure treatment was similar to the control.DGGE fingerprinting indicated similarity in the distribution of most 16S rDNA bands among all treatments,suggesting that microorganisms with those bands were stable and not influenced by fertilization.However,chemical fertilizer increased the diversity of soil bacterial community.Principal component analysis of Biolog and DGGE data revealed that the structure and function of the bacterial community were similar in the control and manure treatments,suggesting that the application of manure increased the soil microbial population,but had no effect on the bacterial community structure.Catabolic function was similar in the chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer+manure treatments,but the composition structure of the soil microbes differed between them.The use of chemical fertilizers could result in a decline in the catabolic activity of fast-growing or eutrophic bacteria.

  19. Evaluations of properties and review applications of some chemical dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemical dosimeter is one of the most important methods used to measure radiation doses via a chemical reaction caused by the ionizing radiation. It is a system that measures the dose rate by chemical changes when it is exposed to ionizing radiation. This interaction produces changes in the chemical properties of the material that used as dosimeter as well as change in color. In all chemical dosimeters radiation induced chemical reaction produces new species, which its properties long lived enough to determine its quantity or the change in the initial system. This study discussed some different types of chemical dosimeters such as aqueous, gaseous and solid, the great consideration was given to aqueous systems because of their vital role in many applications. The dose rate of gamma cell was measured by using Fricke dosimeter found that dose rate about 0.909 Gy/sec while the theoretical dose rate was 0.910 Gy/sec, which confirms the suitability of Fricke dosimeter for this calibration. (Author)

  20. Effect of organic fertilizer on mudfiat soil improvement and its application techniques%有机肥对涂园土壤的改良效果及施用技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝档; 刘家明; 董作为; 蔡志坚

    2011-01-01

    通过农户调查、田间调查、取土分析和定位试验,认为涂园土壤退化主要是由农民不施有机肥、大量施用化肥、复种指数高和种植掠夺性作物等人为因素引起的;涂园土壤退化的本质是土壤结构差,土壤板结,通气性差,保肥供肥能力差,使作物根系生长困难,抑制作物生长;涂园土壤退化也与土壤酸化有关.针对涂园土壤退化原因采用增施有机肥、测土配方施肥、合理轮作、季节性休耕等措施,其中增施有机肥能明显提高作物产量,提高土壤肥力,主要表现在降低土壤容重,提高土壤有机质,提高土壤阳离子交换量;退化的涂园土壤第一茬施用商品有机肥的适宜用量是15.00t/hm2,后茬作物商品有机肥施用量可选择3.75~7.50t/hm2;涂园葱在施用商品有机肥15.00t/hm2的基础上,氮素的最佳施用量是0.32t/hm2,相当于施用尿素0.71 t/hm2.%Through investigation on farmers and fields, collection and analysis of soil samples as well as location test, the reason of shoal-field soil degeneration was analyzed in this paper and found that it was given to rise by nonuse of organic fertilizer, over use of chemical fertilizer, high index of multiple cropping, planting predatory crops and other human factors.The degeneration of shoal-field soil essentially was attributable to inferior soil construction, soil hardening, poor soil aeration, weak fertilizer preservation and falling short of fertilizer supply, which were unfavorable to roots growth, thereby thwarting crop growth. Additionally, degeneration of shoal-field soil was dealt with soil acidification which promoted shoalfield soil degeneration. Therefore, in order to improve the degenerated mudfiat soil, several measures were taken such as additional application of organic fertilizer, fertilizer application according to formulation based on soil test, efficiency rotation of crops, seasonal fallow and so forth, and among them the additional

  1. Effect of fertilizer application on Urtica dioica and its element concentrations in a cut grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllerová, Vladimíra; Hejcman, Michal; Hejcmanová, Pavla; Pavlů, Vilém

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of nutrient availability in cut grasslands on growth characteristics of Urtica dioica and its aboveground chemical composition (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn). The effects of N, P and K application on the growth of U. dioica were studied over five years in a Dactylis glomerata grassland cut twice per year under unfertilized control, P, N, NP and NPK treatments (300, 80 and 200 kg of N, P and K ha-1 per year). Nitrogen application in the form of NH4NO3 over five years decreased the soil pH, while P and K application increased P and K availability in the soil. Over five years, cover of U. dioica increased from 1% initially to 7, 9, 58, 83 and 99% in the control, P, N, NP and NPK treatments, respectively. Concentrations of N, P and Ca in the aboveground biomass of U. dioica were very high in comparison to other species and concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were comparable with other grassland species. N and P limitation of U. dioica growth was expected if concentrations of N and P in the aboveground biomass were lower than 25 g N kg-1 and 4 g P kg-1 in the phenological stage of flowering. We concluded that two cuts per year are not sufficient to suppress expansion of U. dioica under high N, P and K availability. This probably explains why U. dioica survive also in frequently cut intensive grasslands under adequately high nutrient supply.

  2. [Fertility and Environmental Impacts of Urban Scattered Human Feces Used as Organic Granular Fertilizer for Leaf Vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Wen-zhou; Qiao, Yu-xiang; Yu, Ning; Shi, Rong-hua; Wang, Guang-ming

    2015-09-01

    The disposal of urban scattered human feces has become a difficult problem for the management of modern city. In present study, the scattered human feces underwent the collection, scum removal, flocculation and dehydration, finally became the granular fertilizer; the effects of the ratio of fertilizer to soil on the growth of the pakchoi and the quality of soil and leaching water were evaluated, and the feasibility of granular fertilizer manuring the pakchoi was discussed by pot experiments. The results showed that the granular fertilizer significantly enhanced the production of the pakchoi which were not polluted by the intestinal microorganisms under the experiment conditions; meanwhile, at the proper ratio of fertilizer to soil, the concentration of these microorganisms in the leaching water was lower than that in the control check. Chemical analyses of soil revealed that the nutrient content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matters in soil became much richer in all treatments. In addition, the granular fertilizer improved the physical- chemical properties of soil, including raising the level of soil porosity and reducing the volume weight of soil. Application of granular fertilizer won't pollute the soil or leaching water; instead, it can also prevent nitrogen, potassium and intestinal microorganisms from leaching inio ground water at the proper ratio of granular fertilizer to soil. PMID:26717716

  3. Assessment of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants cultivated under a fertigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) has developed a series of multifunctional bio organic fertilizers, namely, MULTIFUNCTIONAL BIOFERT PG and PA and MF-BIOPELLET, in an effort to reduce dependency on chemical fertilizer for crop production. These products contain indigenous microorganisms that have desired characteristics, which include plant growth promoting, phosphate solubilising, antagonistic towards bacterial wilt disease and enhancing N2-fixing activity. These products were formulated as liquid inoculants, and introduced into a fertigation system in an effort to reduce usage of chemical fertilizers. A greenhouse trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants grown under a fertigation system. Multifunctional bio fertilizer products were applied singly and in combination with different rates of NPK in the fertigation system. Fresh and dry weights of tomato plants were determined. Application of multifunctional bio fertilizer combined with 20 g NPK resulted in significantly higher fresh and dry weights as compared to other treatments. (author)

  4. Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Application Timing Affects Wheat and Inter-Seeded Red Clover Yields on Claypan Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly A. Nelson; Motavalli, Peter P.; Manjula Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Controlled-release N fertilizer, such as polymer-coated urea (PCU), may be a fall N management option for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in poorly-drained claypan soils. Field research evaluated (1) urea release from fall-applied PCU in 2006 and 2007; (2) broadcast fall-spring split (25%:75%) of N sources; and (3) a single fall (100%) application of PCU, urea, urea plus NBPT (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide] (U + NBPT), ammonium nitrate (AN), or urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) at 0, 56, ...

  5. Accumulation, availability, and uptake of heavy metals in a red soil after 22-year fertilization and cropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Liu, Jing; Xu, Minggang; Lv, Jialong; Sun, Nan

    2015-10-01

    Fertilization is important to increase crop yields, but long-term application of fertilizers probably aggravated the risk of heavy metals in acidic soils. In this study, the effect of 22-year fertilization and cropping on accumulation, availability, and uptake of heavy metals in red soil was investigated. The results showed that pig manure promoted significantly cadmium (Cd) accumulation (average 1.1 mg kg(-1)), nearly three times higher than national soil standards and, thus, increased metal availability. But the enrichment of heavy metals decreased remarkably by 50.5 % under manure fertilization, compared with CK (control without fertilization). On the contrary, chemical fertilizers increased greatly lead (Pb) availability and Cd activity; in particular, exceeding 85 % of soil Cd became available to plant under N (nitrogen) treatment during 9-16 years of fertilization, which correspondingly increased their enrichment by 29.5 %. Long-term application of chemical fertilizers caused soil acidification and manure fertilization led to the increase in soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM), and available phosphorus (Olsen P), which influenced strongly metal behavior in red soil, and their effect had extended to deeper soil layer (20∼40 cm). It is advisable to increase application of manure alone with low content of heavy metals or in combination with chemical fertilizers to acidic soils in order to reduce toxic metal risk. PMID:26004564

  6. 纳米肥料制备技术及其应用前景%The preparation technology of nanometer fertilizer and its application prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷宪国

    2012-01-01

    The general situation of nanometer fertilizer, main preparation methods, application effect and prospects are introduced, some suggestions on nanometer fertilizer development and industrialization are proposed.%介绍了纳米肥料概况、主要制备方法、应用效果及前景,对纳米肥料开发与产业化提出了建议。

  7. Application of Rare Earth Phosphate Fertilizer in Western Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Rare earth phosphate fertilizer (REPF) as base fertilizer (750 kg per hm2) was applied in the western area of China during the "Tenth Five-Year Plan", and the results show as follows: compared with calcium superphosphate (CK), REPF increases crops yields for maize by 17.0%, for rice by 10.5%, for wheat by 24.2%, for potato by 18.5%, for cabbage by 16.3%, for Chinese cabbage by 16.4%, for beet by 6.5%; decreases the diseased plant rate for common smut of maize by 1.0%, for maize stalk rot by 1.2%, for wheat take-all disease by 7.8%, for wheat root rot by 3.2%, for potato blackleg disease by 1.4%, for potato late blight by 6.6%; increases the sugar content of beet by 0.9°S.

  8. Applications of Fertilizer Cations Affect Cadmium and Zinc Concentrations in Soil Solutions and Uptake by Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, S. E.; Hamon, R. E.; McGrath, S. P.;

    1994-01-01

    at intervals by displacement with water. The cumulative additions of small amounts of fertilizers were made equal to the plants' requirements at the final harvest but were found to exceed them during most of the experiment. Excess fertilizers caused substantial increases of major (K, Ca, Mg) and heavy......-metal (Cd, Zn) ions in soil solutions and a decrease in soil pH, probably due to ion-exchange mechanisms and the dissolution of carbonates. Uptake of Cd and Zn into leaves was correlated with the mass flow of Cd (adjusted r2 = 0.798) and Zn (adjusted r2=0.859). Uptake of K, Ca and Mg by the plants...

  9. 金正大缓控释肥在晚稻上的应用研究%Application of Jinzhengda Slow-release Fertilizer on Late Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈恺林; 张玉烛; 刘洋; 刘功朋; 陈德华; 周学其; 蔡灿然

    2012-01-01

    为了探讨金正大缓控释肥在湘北环湖平丘区水稻生产上增产、增收的效果,2011年在益阳市赫山区毕架山乡中档村进行了晚稻缓控释肥与有机肥、常规化肥定位效应试验.结果表明,缓控释肥前期肥效释放较快,土壤中速效N、速效K含量分别为227.33和180 mg/kg,显著高于有机肥和无肥处理,为水稻前期分蘖生长提供更充足的营养物质,且能起到改善土壤营养的作用;湘晚籼17号在不同施肥处理下产量表现为缓控释肥>有机肥>常规施肥>无肥对照.%Fertilizer location experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of Jinzhengda slow-release fertilizer on increasing output and benefit of rice in plain and hilly area around lake of northern Hunan with slow release fertilizer, organic fertilizer and conventional chemical fertilizer in Bijiashan village of Heshan district, Yiyang city in 2011. The results showed that slow-release fertilizer could provide enough nutrition to plant and improve soil nutrition. The fertilizer released fast at early stage, the total content of N and K were 227.33 and 180 mg/kg in the soil. The yields of Xiangwanxian No.17 were different under different treatments: slow-release fertilizer > organic fertilizer > conventional fertilization > CK.

  10. Application of microbiological fertilizers in viticulture: Grape yield and quality of wine cv. Riesling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivčev Branislava

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The recommended cultivars for top quality wines Riesling in the vineyards of Grocka is in full crop. It was grafted on Kober 5 BB stock and planted on the soil type cambysoil. The content of total nitrogen is 0.1-0.15%. Supply of easily available potassium varies between 12.3-15 mg/100g a.d.s.2, i.e. phosphorus 0.4-3.6 mg/100g a.d.s. in layer up to 40 cm. Microbiological fertilizer was used in the study - biological preparation prepared with mixed natural populations Azotobacter chroococcum, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus circulons. The space in row is idle land and the space between rows was sown each year (March-April with a mixture of field pea and barley and ploughed in the inflorescence phase of legumes. Grape yield varied between 8772-6804 kg/ha. Microbiological fertilizer with Azotobacter had the highest yield and the control treatment had the lowest yield, where only grass mixture was sown. Extremely dry climatic conditions in the trial period caused the grape yield in cv. Riesling to be extremely low. In combination of fertilizers Bacillus megaterium + Bacillus circulons wine with the most ethanol, extracts and polyphenols was obtained. The wine obtained from the control treatment had a typical taste.

  11. 早熟梨不同肥料的研究%Study on the Application of Different Fertilizers on Precocity Pear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贤文; 雷登红; 付世军; 魏静萍

    2014-01-01

    通过研究不同肥料对早熟梨产量、果实品质及树体生长的影响表明:不同肥料对幼树生长、坐果率、单果重和品质都有较大的影响。施用氮、磷、钾配合的洋丰复合肥比单施其他肥料明显促进幼树的生长,果实纵径和横径增长较快;施用有机肥和洋丰复合肥的果实固形物、总糖和Vc含量最高。因此,生产早熟梨,施肥上应以有机肥为主,再施以适量的氮、磷、钾配合的复合肥,有利于全面提高产量和质量。%The effects of different fertilizers on growth, fruit quality and yield of early maturing pear were researched. The results show that there is a great influence on the growth of young trees, percentage of fertile fruit, fruit weight and quality. The application of Yangfeng compound fertilizer can obviously promote the growth of young trees, increase the transverse diameter and longitudinal diameter of fruitage compared to the other fertilizers. The soluble solids, total sugar and Vc content of the treatment applied organic fertilizer and Yangfeng compound fertilizer are higher than the other fertilizers. Therefore, in production of early maturing pear, application of organic fertilizer and compound fertilizer with proper amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium can comprehensively improve the yield and quality of early maturing pear.

  12. Nitrification and N2O production processes in soil incubations after ammonium fertilizer application at high concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Marianna; Well, Reinhard; Giesemann, Anette; Flessa, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    High concentrations of ammonium as they occur, e.g., after point-injection of ammonium fertilizer solution according to the CULTAN fertilization technique may retard nitrification. Potential advantages in comparison to conventional fertilization include a higher N efficiency of crops, reduced nitrate leaching, and lower N2O and N2 emissions. Dynamics of nitrification due to plant uptake and dilution processes, leading to decreasing ammonium concentrations in fertilizer depots, has only poorly been studied before. Furthermore, there is little information about the relative contribution of different N2O production processes under these conditions. To elucidate the process dynamics a laboratory incubation study was conducted. After fertilization with ammonium sulfate at 5 levels (from 0 to 5000 mg NH4+-N kg-1; 20mg NO3--N kg-1 each), sandy loam soil was incubated in dynamic soil microcosms for 21 days. N2O, CH4 and CO2 fluxes as well as isotope signatures of N2O and, at three dates, NO3- and NH4+ were measured. To identify N2O production processes, acetylene inhibition (0.01 vol.%), 15N tracer approaches, and isotopomer data (15N site preference and δ18O) were used. N2O emissions were highest at 450mg NH4+-N kg-1 and declined with further increasing concentrations. At 5000 mg NH4+-N kg-1 nitrification was completely inhibited. However, approximately 90% of N2O production was inhibited by acetylene application, and there was no change in the relative contribution of nitrification and denitrification to N2O production with N level. Applying the non-equilibrium technique to our 15N tracer data revealed heterogeneous distribution of denitrification in soil, with at least two distinct NO3- pools, and spatial separation of NO3- formation and consumption. In comparison with the acetylene inhibition and 15N tracer approaches the results of the isotopomer approach were reasonable and indicated substantial contribution of nitrifier-denitrification (10-40%) to total N2O

  13. Nanostructured conjugated polymers in chemical sensors: synthesis, properties and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, D S; Medeiros, E S; Oliveira, J E; Paterno, L G; Mattoso, Luiz C

    2014-09-01

    Conjugated polymers are organic materials endowed with a π-electron conjugation along the polymer backbone that present appealing electrical and optical properties for technological applications. By using conjugated polymeric materials in the nanoscale, such properties can be further enhanced. In addition, the use of nanostructured materials makes possible miniaturize devices at the micro/nano scale. The applications of conjugated nanostructured polymers include sensors, actuators, flexible displays, discrete electronic devices, and smart fabric, to name a few. In particular, the use of conjugated polymers in chemical and biological sensors is made feasible owning to their sensitivity to the physicochemical conditions of its surrounding environment, such as chemical composition, pH, dielectric constant, humidity or even temperature. Subtle changes in these conditions bring about variations on the electrical (resistivity and capacitance), optical (absorptivity, luminescence, etc.), and mechanical properties of the conjugated polymer, which can be precisely measured by different experimental methods and ultimately associated with a specific analyte and its concentration. The present review article highlights the main features of conjugated polymers that make them suitable for chemical sensors. An especial emphasis is given to nanostructured sensors systems, which present high sensitivity and selectivity, and find application in beverage and food quality control, pharmaceutical industries, medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, and homeland security, and other applications as discussed throughout this review.

  14. Heterosis and combining ability analysis for grain quality and physico-chemical traits involving fertility restorers with basmati background in Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K Sarial

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to explore possibility of developing hybrids and analyze them for heterosis and combining ability for basmati grain and physico-chemical attributes. Initially 45 improved germplasm lines of aromatic and non-aromatic genotypes were test crossed with four cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS lines viz; IR 58025A, IR62829A, PMS10A and PMS 3A of wild abortive cytosterile source to identify basmati pollen parents restoring fertility. Ninteen pollen restorers of basmati background were identified and crossed with 4 CMS lines in line x tester design and analysed for heterosis and combining ability. Observations were recorded for grain quality characteristics viz; hulling percentage, milling percentage and head rice recovery per cent and physico-chemical traits viz; aroma, grain length and breadth before and after cooking, grain length and breadth ratio, kernel elongation ratio, water uptake ratio, volume expansion ratio and gelatinization temperature. Analysis of variance indicated significant difference (p<0.05 among genotypes exhibiting wealth of variability. No heterosis for hulling and milling percentage, kernel length and length breadth ratio was observed. Hybrids were characterized as intermediate between the parents for grain quality and physico-chemical traits. Therefore both the parents need to possess aroma, long slender grains with intermediate gelatinization temperature ( GT to develop aromatic, long grain basmati hybrids. The restorers Basmati 385 was characterized as good general combiner for all grain quality and physico-chemical traits while Karnal Local for grain quality and HKR 241 for physico-chemical attributes. These restorers in combination with basmati CMS lines could be utilized for developing basmati hybrids. Heterotic hybrids for grain yield IR 58025A x Basmati 385 and IR 58025A x Karnal Local with significant SCA effects were identified as specific combinations for grain quality and physico-chemical traits

  15. Estimating NH3 emissions from agricultural fertilizer application in China using the bi-directional CMAQ model coupled to an agro-ecosystem model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric ammonia (NH3 plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. China is one of the largest NH3 emitting countries with the majority of NH3 emissions coming from the agricultural practices, such as fertilizer application and livestock. The current NH3 emission estimates in China are mainly based on pre-defined emission factors that lack the temporal or spatial details, which are needed to accurately predict NH3 emissions. In this study, we estimate, for the first time, the NH3 emission from the agricultural fertilizer application in China online using an agricultural fertilizer modeling system coupling a regional air quality model (the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality model, CMAQ and an agro-ecosystem model (the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model, EPIC, which improves the spatial and temporal resolution of NH3 emission from this sector. Cropland area data of 14 crops from 2710 counties and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS land use data are combined to determine the crop distribution. The fertilizer application rate and method for different crop are collected at provincial or agriculture-regional level. The EPIC outputs of daily fertilizer application and soil characteristics are inputed into the CMAQ model and the hourly NH3 emission are calculated online with CMAQ running. The estimated agricultural fertilizer NH3 emission in this study is about 3 Tg in 2011. The regions with the highest modeled emission rates are located in the North China Plain. Seasonally, the peak ammonia emissions occur from April to July.Compared with previous researches, this method considers more influencing factors, such as meteorological fields, soil and the fertilizer application, and provides improved NH3 emission with higher spatial and temporal resolution.

  16. Fertility Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Fertility Awareness KidsHealth > For Teens > Fertility Awareness Print A A A Text Size What's in ... español Monitoreo de fertilidad What Is It? Fertility awareness is a way to prevent pregnancy by not ...

  17. [Effects of long-term mixed application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on canopy apparent photosynthesis and yield of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Dong, Shu-ting; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Ji-wang; Zhao, Bin

    2015-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted using the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) variety Shimai 15. The source of organic nitrogen was cow manure, and four fertilization treatments were included, i.e., no N fertilizer application, single application of urea, single application of cow manure, and mixed application of urea and cow manure. The effects of different applications of inorganic and organic nitrogen on canopy apparent photosynthesis (CAP), photosynthetic rate of flag leaves (Pn), leaf area index (LAI), florescence parameters and grain yield of winter wheat were determined. The results showed that urea had the largest effect on the early growth period, as at this stage the CAP, Pn and LAI of the single application of urea were the highest, which was followed by the mixed application and the single application of cow manure. However, 10 days after anthesis, the single application of cow manure and the mixed application delayed the leaf senescence process when compared with the single application of urea. This could be due to the two treatments having higher anti-oxidant enzyme activity and promoting a longer green leaf duration, which could maintain a higher photosynthetic capability. What' s more, the mixed application had a better performance and got the highest grain yield. Consequently, the mixed application of organic and inorganic fertilizers could delay leaf senescence and maintain a better canopy structure and higher photosynthesis capability at the late grain filling stage, which resulted in a higher grain yield.

  18. Application of repetitive pulsed power technology to chemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerous sites of soil and water contaminated with organic chemicals present an urgent environmental concern that continues to grow. Electron and x-ray irradiation have been shown to be effective methods to destroy a wide spectrum of organic chemicals, nitrates, nitrites, and cyanide in water by breaking molecules to non-toxic products or entirely mineralizing the by-products to gas, water, and salts. Sandia National Laboratories is developing Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power (RHEPP) technology capable of producing high average power, broad area electron or x-ray beams. The 300 kW RHEPP-II facility accelerates electrons to 2.5 MeV at 25 kA over 1,000 cm2 in 60 ns pulses at repetition rates of over 100 Hz. Linking this modular treatment capability with the rapid optical-sensing diagnostics and neutral network characterization software algorithms will provide a Smart Waste Treatment (SWaT) system. Such a system would also be applicable for chemical manufacture and processing of industrial waste for reuse or disposal. This talk describes both the HREPP treatment capability and sensing technologies. Measurements of the propagated RHEPP-II beam and dose profiles are presented. Sensors and rapid detection software are discussed with application toward chemical treatment

  19. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautics and Space Applications III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L. Y.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Sawayda, M. S.; Jin, Z.; Hammond, J.; Makel, D.; Liu, M.; Rauch, W. A.; Hall, G.

    1999-01-01

    Aeronautic and space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Areas of interest include launch vehicle safety monitoring, emission monitoring, and fire detection. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this microfabricated gas sensor technology make this area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  20. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautic and Space Applications 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Chen, L. Y.; Neudeck, P. G.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Zhou, H. J.; Makel, D.; Liu, M.; Rauch, W. A.

    1998-01-01

    Aeronautic and Space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Areas of most interest include launch vehicle safety monitoring emission monitoring and fire detection. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensor is based on progress two types of technology: 1) Micro-machining and micro-fabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this micro-fabricated gas sensor technology make this area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  1. Solubilidade de micronutrientes contidos em formulações de fertilizantes, em extratores químicos Micronutrient solubility in fertilizer mixtures by chemical extractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Alcarde

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A legislação brasileira adota o teor total para a garantia dos micronutrientes em fertilizantes. Isso permite a utilização de subprodutos de várias origens, baratos, mas que nem sempre apresentam os micronutrientes em formas disponíveis às plantas. Estudou-se a solubilidade dos micronutrientes em formulações de fertilizantes, utilizando os extratores água e soluções de ácido cítrico 20 g L-1 e citrato neutro de amônio (1 + 9, já usados na avaliação de matérias-primas. Os resultados foram semelhantes, tanto na avaliação das formulações como de matérias-primas, isto é, a solução de ácido cítrico a 20 g L-1 possibilita avaliar, com mais segurança, o conteúdo de micronutrientes em formulações de fertilizantes, representando uma alternativa para o teor total, que não é um critério adequado, do ponto de vista agronômico, para avaliar os micronutrientes contidos em fertilizantes.In Brazilian legislation, the control for micronutrient concentrations in mineral fertilizers considers the total content. As a consequence, low-cost by-products and even industrial residues are generally used as a source for micronutrients, despite their low availability to plants. To evaluate fertilizer solubilities, water, citric acid 20 g L-1, and neutral ammonium citrate (1 + 9 extracting solutions were applied to mixtures containing micronutrients. The same study was realized for micronutrient sources. Results were similar for both sources and mixtures. Citric acid solution 20 g L-1 was the most promising option to evaluate micronutrient contents in fertilizer mixtures. From the agronomic point of view, the total content is an inadequate criterion for the determination of micronutrient contents in chemical fertilizers.

  2. Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Safety and Emission Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.-Y.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical sensor technology is being developed for leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire safety applications. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS)-based) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Using these technologies, sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed. A description is given of each sensor type and its present stage of development. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  3. Chemical vapour deposition synthetic diamond: materials, technology and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Balmer, R. S.; Brandon, J R; Clewes, S L; Dhillon, H. K.; Dodson, J M; Friel, I.; Inglis, P. N.; Madgwick, T D; Markham, M. L.; Mollart, T P; Perkins, N.; Scarsbrook, G. A.; Twitchen, D. J.; Whitehead, A J; Wilman, J J

    2009-01-01

    Substantial developments have been achieved in the synthesis of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond in recent years, providing engineers and designers with access to a large range of new diamond materials. CVD diamond has a number of outstanding material properties that can enable exceptional performance in applications as diverse as medical diagnostics, water treatment, radiation detection, high power electronics, consumer audio, magnetometry and novel lasers. Often the material is synt...

  4. BIOMASS AS A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF CHEMICALS FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, M. Murtala

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide demand for cleaner burning fuels and ‘clean’ chemicals has been increasing from the global issues of environmental concern. This lead to a greater utilization of renewable resources to replace the old and existing fossil based feedstock for liquid fuels and chemicals. The ability to re-grow harvested biomass and recapture the carbon emitted to the atmosphere through photosynthesis allows the possibility of carbon neutrality encouraged the use of biomass. Moreso, the unstable rise of oil prices, the negative effects of petroleum on the environment and the advantages of biomass towards sustainability of resources accelerated the development and utilization of unused biomass. This paper reviewed some of the potentials of biomass as a source of chemicals for industrial applications. Pyrolysis is considered to be one of the most employed technologies for the conversion of biomass into bio-oil, char and gases. The utilization of biomass for chemical manufacture can significantly eliminate the harmful effects of fossil based chemicals on the environment.

  5. Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in chemical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Gary M; Ferrence, Gregory M; Allen, Frank H

    2010-10-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is a vast and ever growing compendium of accurate three-dimensional structures that has massive chemical diversity across organic and metal-organic compounds. For these reasons, the CSD is finding significant uses in chemical education, and these applications are reviewed. As part of the teaching initiative of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a teaching subset of more than 500 CSD structures has been created that illustrate key chemical concepts, and a number of teaching modules have been devised that make use of this subset in a teaching environment. All of this material is freely available from the CCDC website, and the subset can be freely viewed and interrogated using WebCSD, an internet application for searching and displaying CSD information content. In some cases, however, the complete CSD System is required for specific educational applications, and some examples of these more extensive teaching modules are also discussed. The educational value of visualizing real three-dimensional structures, and of handling real experimental results, is stressed throughout.

  6. Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in chemical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Gary M; Ferrence, Gregory M; Allen, Frank H

    2010-10-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is a vast and ever growing compendium of accurate three-dimensional structures that has massive chemical diversity across organic and metal-organic compounds. For these reasons, the CSD is finding significant uses in chemical education, and these applications are reviewed. As part of the teaching initiative of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a teaching subset of more than 500 CSD structures has been created that illustrate key chemical concepts, and a number of teaching modules have been devised that make use of this subset in a teaching environment. All of this material is freely available from the CCDC website, and the subset can be freely viewed and interrogated using WebCSD, an internet application for searching and displaying CSD information content. In some cases, however, the complete CSD System is required for specific educational applications, and some examples of these more extensive teaching modules are also discussed. The educational value of visualizing real three-dimensional structures, and of handling real experimental results, is stressed throughout. PMID:20877495

  7. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  8. Commercial-scale out-of-season cryopreservation of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) sperm and its application for fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernáth, G; Bokor, Z; Żarski, D; Várkonyi, L; Hegyi, Á; Staszny, Á; Urbányi, B; Radóczi Ifj, J; Horváth, Á

    2016-07-01

    The quality and fertilizing capacity of perch (Perca fluviatilis) sperm collected outside of the spawning season (off-season) and cryopreserved at a commercial scale, were tested. Basic parameters (equilibration time, dilution ratio, sperm concentration, post-thaw motility duration) which can have a significant effect on cryopreservation success were systematically investigated for effects on sperm quality using computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA). No significant decrease in progressive motility (pMOT) and straightness (STR) of fresh-diluted sperm was recorded among groups equilibrated for 0, 30 or 60min in an extender with cryoprotectants. Curvilinear velocity (VCL) was reduced significantly after 30min (30min: 146±15μm/s, 60min: 124±18μm/s) of equilibration compared to the control (174±9μm/s). After thawing, no decrease in pMOT or VCL was observed at different equilibration times in any of the analyzed groups. No correlation was observed among progressive motility, dilution ratios (p=0.7) and cell concentrations (p=0.1). The use of different activating solutions resulted in similar pMOT and VCL in the first 120s post-thaw. Nevertheless, post-thaw sperm motility was reduced after 30s using all activators. Motility parameters with low variation were recorded after thawing of 57 straws (pMOT: 37±7%, VCL: 92±10μm/s, STR: 89±3%). Ten randomly selected straws from commercial-scale cryopreservation resulted in a high fertilization rate (cryopreserved sperm: 72±14%, fresh control: 94±2%). An optimized commercial-scale cryopreservation protocol was successfully developed for Eurasian perch. The applicability of the off-season collected perch sperm for cryopreservation and fertilization was demonstrated. PMID:27236377

  9. Effect of Long-Term Application of K Fertilizer and Wheat Straw to Soil on Crop Yield and Soil K Under Different Planting Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN De-shui; JIN Ji-yun; HUANG Shao-wen; LI Shu-tian; HE Ping

    2007-01-01

    Effect of application of K fertilizer and wheat straw to soil on crop yield and status of soil K in the plough layer under different planting systems was studied. The experiments on long-term application of K fertilizer and wheat straw to soil in Hebei fluvo aquic soil and Shanxi brown soil in northern China were begun in 1992. The results showed that K fertilizer and straw could improve the yields of wheat and maize with the order of NPK + St > NPK > NP + St > NP, and treatment of K fertilizer made a significant difference to NP, and the efficiency of K fertilizer in maize was higher than in wheat under rotation system of Hebei. In contrast with Shanxi, the wastage of soil potassium was a more serious issue in the rotation system in Hebei, only treatment of NPK + St showed a surplus of potassium and the others showed a wane. K fertilizer and straw could improve the content of water-soluble K, nonspecifically adsorbed K, non-exchangeable K, mineral K, and total K in contrast to NP; however, K fertilizer and straw reduce the proportion of mineral K and improve proportion of other forms of potassium in the two locating sites. Compared with the beginning of orientation, temporal variability character of soil K content and proportion showed a difference between the two soil types; furthermore, there was a decrease in the content of mineral K and total K simultaneously in the two locating sites. As a whole, the effect of K fertilizer applied to soil directly excelled to wheat straw to soil. Wheat straw to soil was an effective measure to complement potassium to increase crop yield and retard the decrease of soil K.

  10. Application Effect of Controlled-Release BB Fertilizers on Wheat%控失BB肥在小麦上的应用效果∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙克刚; 李玉顺; 和爱玲; 张运红; 顾朝晖; 岳艳军; 冯梦喜

    2016-01-01

    In order to verify the superiority of controlled-release BB fertilizer and to find problems existing in application, and to make suggestions for further improving controlled-release urea products, the field experiment and treatment demonstration of controlled-release BB fertilizer application effect on wheat are carried out. Experimental results show that controlled-release BB fertilizer can improve utilization ratio of nitrogen fertilizer effectively, but nitrogen fertilizer utilization ratio decreases with the increase in amount of nitrogen fertilizer used. Treatment demonstration results show that with controlled-release BB fertilizer the wheat yield increases by 372. 0 kg/hm2 than that of common BB fertilizer, the rate of growth is 4. 7%.%为了验证控失BB肥的优越性并发现其在施用过程中存在的问题,为进一步改进控失尿素产品提出建议,对控失BB肥在小麦上的应用效果进行了大田试验和示范处理。试验结果表明,控失BB肥能有效提高氮肥利用率,但氮肥利用率随氮肥使用量的增加而下降。示范结果表明,控失BB肥比普通BB肥处理小麦增产372.0 kg/hm2,增产率4.7%。

  11. Application Effect of Controlled-Release BB Fertilizers on Wheat%控失BB肥在小麦上的应用效果∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙克刚; 李玉顺; 和爱玲; 张运红; 顾朝晖; 岳艳军; 冯梦喜

    2016-01-01

    为了验证控失BB肥的优越性并发现其在施用过程中存在的问题,为进一步改进控失尿素产品提出建议,对控失BB肥在小麦上的应用效果进行了大田试验和示范处理。试验结果表明,控失BB肥能有效提高氮肥利用率,但氮肥利用率随氮肥使用量的增加而下降。示范结果表明,控失BB肥比普通BB肥处理小麦增产372.0 kg/hm2,增产率4.7%。%In order to verify the superiority of controlled-release BB fertilizer and to find problems existing in application, and to make suggestions for further improving controlled-release urea products, the field experiment and treatment demonstration of controlled-release BB fertilizer application effect on wheat are carried out. Experimental results show that controlled-release BB fertilizer can improve utilization ratio of nitrogen fertilizer effectively, but nitrogen fertilizer utilization ratio decreases with the increase in amount of nitrogen fertilizer used. Treatment demonstration results show that with controlled-release BB fertilizer the wheat yield increases by 372. 0 kg/hm2 than that of common BB fertilizer, the rate of growth is 4. 7%.

  12. Evaluation of methods to test chemicals suitability for umbilical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenson, S. J.; Lindeman, O. E.; Cenegy, L. M.

    2006-03-15

    Offshore deep-water projects are increasingly deploying chemicals to sub-sea wellheads through umbilical lines. There is no margin for error in umbilical chemical treatment programs since any flow blockage in a sub-sea line would result in a multi-million dollar problem. Chemicals for umbilical delivery must also meet strict requirements in their performance and especially their handling properties. Umbilical delivery must be effective at low concentrations in preventing corrosion, scale, hydrates, asphaltenes, paraffin and a host of other problems. Chemical transiting an umbilical can experience pressures as high as 15,000 psi and temperatures ranging from near 0 deg C to greater than 120 deg C. Since some umbilicals are as long as 80 km, a week or more can elapse from the time the chemical is injected at the platform until it reaches the sub-sea well. Therefore, the chemical must not only be stable under all temperature and pressure conditions that it may experience in the umbilical line, it must also be stable under these conditions for a long period of time. Since many umbilical lines actually terminate into sub-sea valves and connectors that are only a few hundred microns in diameter, it is critical that the injected chemical have a low viscosity at sub-sea temperatures and pressures and that it be completely free of particles. These issues present substantial challenges in formulating and manufacturing chemicals for umbilical applications that must be addressed prior to approval of a product for use. Each of these challenges was taken into consideration and a series of tests were developed to assure reliable chemical pump ability through an umbilical line. The tests developed included enhanced formulation stability tests under umbilical temperature and pressure conditions, NAS Class rating, extensive material compatibility testing to include all metals and elastomers that may be used in umbilical injection systems and comprehensive physical property testing

  13. Studies on the Mechanism of Single Basal Application of Controlled-Release Fertilizers for Increasing Yield of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Shuan-hu; YANG Shao-hai; CHEN Jian-sheng; XU Pei-zhi; ZHANG Fa-bao; AI Shao-ying; HUANG Xu

    2007-01-01

    This paper was to explore the mechanism of single basal application of controlled-release fertilizers for increasing yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Pot trials and cylinder trials were carried out from 2002 to 2005 to study the influences of single basal application of 3 controlled-release fertilizers on the changes of soil available N, root development, senescence and lodging resistance at late growth stages. Results showed that at 30 days after fertilization, single basal application of controlled-release fertilizers coated with vegetal-substance (CRF1) and polymer materials (CRF3) increased soil available N to 12.0 and 147.9%, respectively, in comparison to split fertilization of rice-specific fertilizer (RSF1). Treatments of the two CRFs obviously benefited the development of root system, resulting in greater rice root weights with extensive distribution and higher root activity. In addition, the two CRF treatments, in comparison to RSF1, enhanced chlorophyll consents of the flag leaves to 9.5 and 15.5%, and soluble protein up to 89.7 and 108.0% respectively. Application of the two CRFs also made the base of rice stems strong and large, declined the proportion of shoot and root, increased root depth index. Though relatively low K rate, single basal application of the CRF3 coated with NH4MgPO4 could also promote the development of root system, enhance root activity and some physiological functions of flag leaves. Based on these results, it was concluded that major mechanisms for increasing rice yield by single basal application of the CRFs should be attributed to grater soil available N supply, superior development of root systems, better nutrient absorption capacity, slower senescence and enhancement of lodging resistance at late stages.

  14. 基于生命周期分析方法的化肥与有机肥对比评价%Comparative Evaluation of Chemical and Organic Fertilizer on the Base of Life Cycle Analysis Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    籍春蕾; 丁美; 王彬鑫; 王春梅; 赵言文

    2012-01-01

    利用生命周期评价方法,对化肥和有机肥进行生命周期资源消耗与污染物排放清单分析,在此基础上进行了生命周期对比评价。结果表明,化肥的环境影响主要是施肥过程中NH3挥发引起的环境酸化,其次是能源耗竭、全球变暖;有机肥的环境影响主要集中在堆肥过程中引起的环境酸化,其次是全球变暖、富营养化。综合比较,在整个生命周期内,有机肥的资源耗竭、全球变暖潜值、环境酸化潜值、富营养化潜值均较化肥小。若用有机肥替代化肥使用,生命周期环境影响综合指数将由化肥的1.4141变为0.5058,将会减少能耗59.22GJ,全球变暖潜力、环境酸化潜力、富营养化潜力分别比化肥降低17.54%,62.64%,52.86%。所以,从平衡生命周期能源消耗、环境排放角度出发,有机肥具有替代化肥的潜力。%In this study,life cycle assessment methodology is used to establish the inventory of resources' consumption and pollutant discharge.Then the comparative assessment of the life cycle was analyzed.The results showed that the significant environmental impact factor of chemical fertilizer was acidification which caused by NH3 volatilization during the process of fertilization,and the next factors were global warming and energy depletion.The environmental impact of organic manure on the environment ordered as acidification,global warming and eutrophication.For the whole life cycle resource depletion,global warming potential,acidification potential value of the environment and eutrophication potential value of organic fertilizer were all lower than chemical fertilizer.The aggregate life cycle environmental impact index of fertilizer was 1.4141 in comparison with 0.5058 for organic fertilizer.If chemical fertilizer were replaced by organic fertilizer,the integrative index of life cycle on the environment would reduce from 1.4141(chemical fertilizer) to 0.5058 and the energy consumption would

  15. Organic inorganic compound fertilizer application in Wheat Fertilizer Efficiency Experiment of%有机-无机复混肥料在小麦上的应用肥效试验初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费秀华

    2012-01-01

      根据观察:在小麦上应用有机无机-复混肥料对小麦生长有促进作用,且无副作用,对小麦生长是安全的。%  according to the observation in wheat: application of organic-inorganic compound fertilizer on wheat growth, promote, and no negative effects on the growth of wheat, is safe.

  16. Mineralization and humification of the organic matter in soil under conditions of simultaneous application of straw and mineral fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transformation of the organic matter in soil, depending on C(straw):N(mineral fertilizer) ratio and the moisture content has been studied under conditions of a laboratory modelled experiment on a gray forest soil. The results show that different C:N ratios exerted different influence on N-immobilization and N-mineralization processes in soil. The amount of mineral N-compounds decreases while that of immobilized nitrogen increases, when C:N ratio rises. In the first 15 days a complete transformation of the nitrate nitrogen in organically bounded compounds takes place at ratio C:N=30. During this period the amount of C in the fraction related to monovalent cations becomes greater, at C:N=20 and C:N=30. In the first year the major part of straw is mineralized and humidified, the most favourable ratio is C:N=10 and moisture content 80%. The losses of nitrogen, issued from the applied mineral fertilizers are reduced to 9-4.5% while in the case of Ca(15NO3)2 treatment without straw application they are 17.5-43%. The straw proves to be an important preserving tool, used against N-losses, caused by denitrification. 10 refs., 2 tabs. (author)

  17. Thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge ash with sodium salt additives for phosphorus fertilizer production--Analysis of underlying chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemann, Jan; Peplinski, Burkhard; Adam, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Stocks of high grade phosphate rock are becoming scarce, and there is growing concern about potentially harmful impurities in conventional phosphorus fertilizers. Sewage sludge ash is a promising secondary phosphorus source. However, to remove heavy metals and convert the phosphorus contained in sewage sludge ash into mineral phases available to plants, an after-treatment is required. Laboratory-scale calcination experiments of sewage sludge ash blended with sodium salts using dried sewage sludge as a reducing agent were carried out at 1000°C. Thus, the Ca3(PO4)2 or whitlockite component of raw sewage sludge ash, which is not readily plant available, was converted to CaNaPO4 (buchwaldite). Consequently, nearly complete phosphorus solubility in ammonium citrate (a well-established indicator for plant availability) was achieved. Moreover, it was shown that Na2CO3 may be replaced by moderately priced Na2SO4. However, molar ratios of Na/P>2 were required to achieve >80% phosphorus solubility. Such over-stoichiometric Na consumption is largely caused by side reactions with the SiO2 component of the sewage sludge ash - an explanation for which clear evidence is provided for the first time. PMID:26219587

  18. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautic and Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Knight, Dak; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Quing-Hai; Zhou, Huan-Jun

    1997-01-01

    Aeronautic and space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Two areas of particular interest are safety monitoring and emission monitoring. In safety monitoring, detection of low concentrations of hydrogen at potentially low temperatures is important while for emission monitoring the detection of nitrogen oxides, hydrogen, hydrocarbons and oxygen is of interest. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: (1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. (2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. The detection of each type of gas involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this microfabricated gas sensor technology make this general area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  19. Chemical vapour deposition synthetic diamond: materials, technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, R. S.; Brandon, J. R.; Clewes, S. L.; Dhillon, H. K.; Dodson, J. M.; Friel, I.; Inglis, P. N.; Madgwick, T. D.; Markham, M. L.; Mollart, T. P.; Perkins, N.; Scarsbrook, G. A.; Twitchen, D. J.; Whitehead, A. J.; Wilman, J. J.; Woollard, S. M.

    2009-09-01

    Substantial developments have been achieved in the synthesis of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond in recent years, providing engineers and designers with access to a large range of new diamond materials. CVD diamond has a number of outstanding material properties that can enable exceptional performance in applications as diverse as medical diagnostics, water treatment, radiation detection, high power electronics, consumer audio, magnetometry and novel lasers. Often the material is synthesized in planar form; however, non-planar geometries are also possible and enable a number of key applications. This paper reviews the material properties and characteristics of single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond, and how these can be utilized, focusing particularly on optics, electronics and electrochemistry. It also summarizes how CVD diamond can be tailored for specific applications, on the basis of the ability to synthesize a consistent and engineered high performance product.

  20. Study of interfacial phenomena for bio/chemical sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hwall

    This work presents the fundamental study of biological and chemical interfacial phenomena and (bio)chemical sensing applications using high frequency resonator arrays. To realize a versatile (bio)chemical sensing system for the fundamental study as well as their practical applications, the following three distinct components were studied and developed: i) detection platforms with high sensitivity, ii) novel innovative sensing materials with high selectivity, iii) analytical model for data interpretation. 8-pixel micromachined quartz crystal resonator (muQCR) arrays with a fundamental resonance frequency of 60 ¡V 90 MHz have been used to provide a reliable detection platform with high sensitivity. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) has been explored and integrated into the sensing system as a smart chemical sensing material. The use of nanoporous gold (np-Au) enables the combination of the resonator and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for both quantitative and qualitative measurement. A statistical model for the characterization of resonator behavior to study the protein adsorption kinetics is developed by random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach with the integration of an effective surface depletion theory. The investigation of the adsorption kinetics of blood proteins is reported as the fundamental study of biological phenomena using the proposed sensing system. The aim of this work is to study different aspects of protein adsorption and kinetics of adsorption process with blood proteins on different surfaces. We specifically focus on surface depletion effect in conjunction with the RSA model to explain the observed adsorption isotherm characteristics. A number of case studies on protein adsorption conducted using the proposed sensing system has been discussed. Effort is specifically made to understand adsorption kinetics, and the effect of surface on the adsorption process as well as the properties of the adsorbed protein layer. The second half of the

  1. Comparative response of varied irrigated maize to organic and inorganic fertilizer application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandika, I. R.; Kadyampakeni, D.; Bottomani, C.; Kakhiwa, H.

    The response of varied irrigated maize (Zea mays) to organic and inorganic fertilizer N, was evaluated at Kasinthula Agricultural Station (2003-2006), Malawi to determine the optimum nutrient and irrigation frequency combinations for soil-water and nutrient management which will address water stress and low soil fertility problem. Hybrid maize variety (DK 8031) was planted on ridges spaced at 0.75 × 0.25 m in a split-plot design replicated three times, with four irrigation frequencies as main plots and fertilizer sources as subplots. Irrigation frequencies comprised: water balance scheduling at 40% depletion, and irrigating 40 mm every 3-4 days, 7 days and 14 days. The nitrogen sources were compost (C), farmyard manure (FYM), urea (U) and their mixtures [(2U:C); (U:2C); (2U:FYM); and (U:2FYM)]. Organic manure was banded three weeks before planting. Data on grain yield was collected and subjected to ANOVA using the Genstat and LSD 0.05 test separating statistical significant means. There was positive ( P maize grain yield, crop water productivity (CWP) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). The water balance scheduling at 40% soil moisture depletion had highest grain yields, CWP and NUE among the four irrigation frequencies that was not significantly different to 40 mm every 3-4 days and every 7 days obtained with nitrogen sourced from sole Urea which were not significantly different to mean grain yields, CWP and NUE from (2U:C) and (2U:FYM). CWP was optimally maximised in sole urea (9.8, 8.8 kg mm -1 ha -1) and mixed treatments of 2U:C (8.2, 7.2 kg mm -1 ha -1) or 2U:FYM (8.2-8.9 kg mm -1 ha -1) for maize irrigated every 7 days and at 40% depletion using soil water balance schedule respectively. The greatest NUE of 53.5 kg kg N -1 under (2U:FYM) treatments was experienced at 40% depletion irrigation schedule and was also not significantly different to sole urea and (2U:FYM) treatments (52.8 and 51.6 kg kg N -1) irrigated at 40% depletion and every 3-4 days irrigation

  2. Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis

  3. Application of human growth hormone to patients with polycystic ovary syndrome during in vitro fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Jin-xia; Liu Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of applying human growth hormone during in vitro fertilization to patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)Methods:One hundred and twenty-one cycles of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in PCOS patients with anovulation from Dec.2008 to Nov.2010 were studied retrospectively.Of these 121 cycles,48 were with treatment of growth hormone (GH group),73 without GH treatment (control group).The dose of gonadotropin (Gn),the number of retrieved oocytes,good-quality embryo rate,implantation rate,frozen embryo rate,and pregnancy rate were compared.Results:The dosage of Gn was slightly higher in GH group than that in control group (29.18±8.33 vs.23.43±8.68 ampoullas,4U/ampoulla) and the number of retrieved oocytes in GH group were slightly less than that in control group (10.73±6.0vs.14.0±8.57),but there were no significant differences (P>0.05).The good-quality embryo rate (59.1% vs.33.3%),frozen embryo rate (87.5% vs.58.9%),pregnancy rate (56.5% vs.35.3 % ) and implantation rate (35.3 % vs.20.4 % ) in GH group were all significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05).Conclusion:Early usage of GH in the ovarian hyperstimulation in PCOS patients could significantly improve good-quality embryo rate,implantation rate and pregnancy rate.

  4. [Effects of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-li; Meng, Lin; Wang, Qiu-jun; Luo, Jia; Huang, Qi-wei; Xu, Yang-chun; Yang, Xing-ming; Shen, Qi-rong

    2009-03-01

    A field experiment was carried to study the effects of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers on rice yield, nitrogen (N) use efficiency, soil N supply, and soil microbial diversity. Rapeseed cake compost (RCC), pig manure compost (PMC), and Chinese medicine residue compost (MRC) were mixed with chemical N, P and K fertilizers. All the treatments except CK received the same rate of N. The results showed that all N fertilizer application treatments had higher rice yield (7918.8-9449.2 kg x hm(-2)) than the control (6947.9 kg x hm(-2)). Compared with that of chemical fertilizers (CF) treatment (7918.8 kg x hm(-2)), the yield of the three organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers treatments ranged in 8532.0-9449.2 kg x hm(-2), and the increment was 7.7%-19.3%. Compared with treatment CF, the treatments of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers were significantly higher in N accumulation, N transportation efficiency, N recovery rate, agronomic N use efficiency, and physiological N use efficiency. These mixed fertilizers treatments promoted rice N uptake and improved soil N supply, and thus, increased N use efficiency, compared with treatments CF and CK. Neighbor joining analysis indicated that soil bacterial communities in the five treatments could be classified into three categories, i.e., CF and CK, PMC and MRC, and RCC, implying that the application of exogenous organic materials could affect soil bacterial communities, while applying chemical fertilizers had little effect on them.

  5. Multifunctional liquid bio fertilizer as an innovative agronomic input for modern agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid bio fertilizer is increasingly available in the market as one of the alternatives to chemical and organic fertilizers as well as solid substrate-based bio fertilizers. One of the benefits from bio fertilizer is the contribution from population of microorganisms available. These microorganisms may enhance the plant growth and create healthy rhizosphere. The advantage of a liquid bio fertilizer is that no solid carrier is needed. These products are also developed for potential application in modern agriculture such as soil less farming systems, viz. fertigation and hydroponics. Traditionally, liquid bio fertilizer is produced from fermentation of effective microorganisms which was recommended to be used within three months. Therefore, the development of low-cost and long shelf-life liquid bio fertilizers was conducted at Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia). Three bio fertilizer inoculum (phosphate solubilising bacteria and plant growth promoting bacteria) were developed into four formulations of liquid bio fertilizers. The liquid bio fertilizers were kept at low temperatures (9 ± 2 degree Celsius) and room temperatures (28 ± 2 degree Celsius) for shelf-life study. Nutrient broth liquid bio fertilizer kept at low temperatures showed significantly high survival rates after storage for six months as compared to other formulations and treatments. (author)

  6. Phenolics, Flavonoids, Antioxidant Activity and Cyanogenic Glycosides of Organic and Mineral-base Fertilized Cassava Tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puteri Edaroyati Megat Wahab

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted to determine the effect of organic and mineral-based fertilizers on phytochemical contents in the tubers of two cassava varieties. Treatments were arranged in a split plot design with three replicates. The main plot was fertilizer source (vermicompost, empty fruit bunch compost and inorganic fertilizer and sub-plot was cassava variety (Medan and Sri Pontian. The amount of fertilizer applied was based on 180 kg K2O ha−1. The tubers were harvested and analyzed for total flavonoids, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and cyanogenic glucoside content. Total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. Different sources of fertilizer, varieties and their interactions were found to have a significant effect on phytochemical content. The phenolic and flavonoid content were significantly higher (p < 0.01 in the vermicompost treatment compared to mineral fertilizer and EFB compost. The total flavonoids and phenolics content of vermicompost treated plants were 39% and 38% higher, respectively, than those chemically fertilized. The antioxidant activity determined using the DPPH and FRAP assays were high with application of organic fertilizer. Cyanogenic glycoside levels were decreased with the application of organic fertilizer. Among the two types of compost, vermicompost resulted in higher nutritional value of cassava tubers. Medan variety with application of vermicompost showed the most promising nutritional quality. Since the nutritional quality of cassava can be improved by organic fertilization, organic fertilizer should be used in place of chemical fertilizer for environmentally sustainable production of better quality cassava.

  7. Understanding emissions of ammonia from buildings and application of fertilizers: an example from Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, M.; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Kryza, M.; Dore, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    A Europe-wide dynamic ammonia (NH3) emissions model has been applied for one of the large agricultural countries in Europe, and its sensitivity on the distribution of emissions among different agricultural functions was analysed by comparing with observed ammonia concentrations and by implementing all scenarios in a chemical transport model (CTM). The results suggest that the dynamic emission model is most sensitive to emission from animal manure, in particular how animal manure and its application on fields is connected to national regulations. In contrast, the model is most robust with respect to emission from buildings and storage. To incorporate the national regulations, we obtained activity information on agricultural operations at the sub-national level for Poland, information about infrastructure on storages, and current regulations on manure practice from Polish authorities. The information was implemented in the existing emission model and was connected directly with the NWP calculations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-ARW). The model was used to calculate four emission scenarios with high spatial (5 km × 5 km) and temporal resolution (3 h) for the entire year 2010. In the four scenarios, we have compared the Europe-wide default model settings against (1) a scenario that focuses on emission from agricultural buildings, (2) the existing emission method used in WRF-Chem in Poland, and (3) a scenario that takes into account Polish infrastructure and agricultural regulations. The ammonia emission was implemented into the CTM FRAME and modelled ammonia concentrations was compared with measurements. The results suggest that the default setting in the dynamic model is an improvement compared to a non-dynamical emission profile. The results also show that further improvements can be obtained on the national scale by replacing the default information on manure practice with information that is connected with local practice and national

  8. Proceedings of the 1. Arabic conference on chemical applications (Chemia 2). Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference of chemical application was held on 1-5 Nov 1997 in Cairo, This vol.2 contains of chemical application on nuclear materials. Studies on these vol.This second volume covers papers presented on the subjects

  9. Adubação do milho: III - Adubação mineral quantitativa Fertilizer experiments with corn: III - Quantitative applications of mineral fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Viégas

    1955-01-01

    , and K2O, applied respectively as Chilean nitrate, superphosphate, and potassium chloride. The fertilizers were placed in the furrow at planting time and mixed with the soil direct under the seed. Injury to the germinating seed resulting from salt concentration was noted only in 1949, when germination was substantially affected, especially in plots that received high nitrogen and potash. The number of plants per plot after thinning was, however, comparable for all treatments. Phosphorus promoted a considerable increase in yield. A study of the adjusted means showed that a single dose of phosphorus increased the yield in 521 kg/ha when compared with plots receiving only NK. Double rates of phosphorus increased the yield in 806 kg/ha (44%, but higher rates of this element did not promote any further increase. No gain in yield due to the application of nitrogen or potash was noticed in these experiments.

  10. 我国缓/控释肥料的应用进展%Application Development of Slow/Controlled Released Fertilizer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱明旭

    2012-01-01

    Slow/controlled released fertilizer has become a hot research topic in recent years. The effects on crop yield, traits, quality and fertilizer utilization were the main direction of its application research. The application progress of slow/controlled released fertilizer in China in recent years was summarized.%缓/控释肥料是近年来的一个研究热点.它对作物产量、性状、品质以及肥料利用率等的影响是其应用研究的主要方向.笔者总结了近年来我国缓/控释肥料的应用进展.

  11. Efeito de adubações minerais exclusivas e contínuas sôbre a fertilidade do solo Effect of exclusive and continuous application of mineral fertilizers on the fertility of a soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coaracy M. Franco

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar se o uso contínuo de adubações minerais pesadas, desacompanhadas de adubações orgânicas, poderia prejudicar o solo, foi executado um experimento em vasos "Mitcherlich", com capacidade para 6 kg de terra, nos quais se empregou solo do tipo Podzolizado de Lins e Marília, variação Marília. Nesses vasos foram feitas 10 culturas sucessivas de milho, cujas plantas foram cortadas e pesadas ao atingirem cerca de 80 cm de altura. Os resultados demonstraram que as plantas dos vasos, através dos quais haviam passado quantidades exageradas de adubos minerais, se desenvolveram melhor do que aquelas dos vasos testemunhas.Although largerly employed for economical reasons, it has been suggested that a continuous and exclusive application of mineral fertilizers is deleterious to coffee plantation. To investigate such a possibility, an experiment was carried out in Mitcherlich pots filled with Podzolized soil on Calcareous Sandstone, Marilia variation, which is one of the most commonly used soil for coffee. Ten plantings of corn, used as indicator plants, were made successively in these pots. Plants were harvested when about 80 cm high, and after each harvesting the soil of individual pot was removed, sifted, replaced and heavily fertilized. Prior to new planting, the soil was well watered, dried, then excess o salts being removed by a generous supply of water. A balanced mixture of fertilizer was applied to the plants, as done normally in field cultures. At the end of the experiment, each pot has received a maximum of 440 g of mineral fertilizer which is equivalent to ca. 880 kg of fertilizer applied to an individual coffee plant, under field conditions, in a period of 10 years. Such amount represents roughly a hundredfold dose usually recommended for coffee crop. Nevertheless, corn planted in soils treated with such heavy excess of mineral fertilizer, grew better than those cultivated in control pots. These received only

  12. Numerical simulation of mixing process of fertilizer particles in continuous mixer of variable rate fertilizer applicator%变量施肥机连续混合装置中肥料颗粒运动的数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金丽丽; 姬长英; 方会敏; 谈英

    2015-01-01

    Continuous mixer is an important part of variable rate fertilizer applicator.The mixing process of fertilizer particle is an important factor for the precision ratio of various fertilizer compositions.To investigate the mixing char-acteristic of particles, the discrete element model was adopted to track the movement of each fertilizer particle.The mathematical model was established based on Hertz theory and Newton's second law.Variation coefficients were taken as mixing index to analyze the degree of mixing.The internal structure of mixing device and the speed of spin-dle were put emphasis upon to discuss the mixing characteristics of fertilizer particle.It is found that with the in-crease of the number of spreading plate and blocking material barrel, the fertilizer particle tended to uniform mixing. With the increase of spindle speed, the fertilizer particle mixing uniformity was improved obviously.The simulation results provided a reference for the design of mixing device.%连续混合装置是混合变量施肥机的重要组成部分,混合装置中肥料颗粒的运动是影响各种肥料成分精确混合配比的重要因素。为了研究混合装置中肥料颗粒的混合特性,采用离散单元法跟踪每一个颗粒,仿真混合装置内颗粒的混合过程。在Hertz接触理论和牛顿第二定律基础上建立了肥料颗粒运动的数学模型,以变异系数作为反映颗粒混合程度的指标,着重探讨了混合装置内部结构、主轴转速对肥料颗粒混合特性的影响。数值仿真结果表明:增加装置内分洒盘、拦料筒数目可以改善肥料颗粒的混合效果;随着主轴转速的增加,肥料颗粒混合均匀程度得到明显改善。仿真结果可为混合装置设计提供参考。

  13. Chemical and physical fertility indicators of a weakly-structured Ultisol after liming and mulching Indicadores de fertilidade de um Argissolo estruturalmente frágil sob efeito da calagem e da cobertura morta

    OpenAIRE

    Emanoel Gomes de Moura; Kátia Pereira Coelho; Idelfonso Colares de Freitas; Alana das Chagas Ferreira Aguiar

    2009-01-01

    In the humid tropic, chemical and physical soil properties that decrease soil's nutrient availability and increase oxygen deficiency are important as restrictions to crop growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relations between plant growth and chemical and physical fertility indicators of an Ultisol developed from sediments of the Itapecuru Formation in Central-Northern state of Maranhão, Brazil. An experiment was established with randomized block design, four replicates, an...

  14. The Application of Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Evans, Laura J.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been developing miniature chemical sensors for a variety of applications including fire detection, emissions monitoring, fuel leak detection, and environmental monitoring. Smart Lick and Stick sensor technology which integrates a sensor array, electronics, telemetry, and power into one microsystem are being developed. These microsystems require low power consumption for long-term aerospace applications. One approach to decreasing power consumption is the use of nanotechnology. Nanocrystalline tin oxide (SnO2) carbon monoxide (CO) sensors developed previously by this group have been successfully used for fire detection and emissions monitoring. This presentation will briefly review the overall NASA GRC chemical sensor program and discuss our further effort in nanotechnology applications. New carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing material using doped nanocrystalline SnO2 will be discussed. Nanocrystalline SnO2 coated solid electrolyte CO2 sensors and SnO2 nanorod and nanofiber hydrogen (H2) sensors operated at reduced or room temperatures will also be discussed.

  15. Peptide protected gold clusters: chemical synthesis and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing; Wang, Yaling; Zhao, Lina; Liu, Ru; Gao, Fuping; Gao, Liang; Gao, Xueyun

    2016-06-01

    Bridging the gap between atoms and nanoparticles, noble metal clusters with atomic precision continue to attract considerable attention due to their important applications in catalysis, energy transformation, biosensing and biomedicine. Greatly different to common chemical synthesis, a one-step biomimetic synthesis of peptide-conjugated metal clusters has been developed to meet the demand of emerging bioapplications. Under mild conditions, multifunctional peptides containing metal capturing, reactive and targeting groups are rationally designed and elaborately synthesized to fabricate atomically precise peptide protected metal clusters. Among them, peptide-protected Au Cs (peptide-Au Cs) possess a great deal of exceptional advantages such as nanometer dimensions, high photostability, good biocompatibility, accurate chemical formula and specific protein targeting capacity. In this review article, we focus on the recent advances in potential theranostic fields by introducing the rising progress of peptide-Au Cs for biological imaging, biological analysis and therapeutic applications. The interactions between Au Cs and biological systems as well as potential mechanisms are also our concerned theme. We expect that the rapidly growing interest in Au Cs-based theranostic applications will attract broader concerns across various disciplines.

  16. Steam Generator Chemical Cleaning Application: Korean Experience in PWR NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) performed an EPRI/SGOG chemical cleaning of the secondary side of the steam generators at Ulchin Unit 3 (UCN3) in March 2011 and at Ulchin Unit 4 (UCN4) in September 2011. The steam generator chemical cleaning (SGCC) was performed with venting at the top-of-tube sheet (TTS) and at tube support plates (TSPs) 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10. A primary objective of this SGCC was to address outer diameter stress corrosion cracking (ODSCC), which has been observed at the TTS and TSPs in the UCN3 SGs. The EPRI/SGOG process has been shown to effectively reduce prevailing ODSCC rates at the TTS and TSPs, particularly when applied with periodic venting in this application. This was the first full-length SGCC campaign with venting performed in Korea. Ulchin Unit 3 commenced commercial operation in August 1998 and Ulchin Unit 4 commenced commercial operation in December 1999. UCN3 and UCN4 are a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) of the Korea Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP) design. The SGs contain high-temperature mill annealed (HTMA) Alloy 600 tubing and are similar in design to the Combustion Engineering CE-80. The KSNP SGs have been susceptible to outer diameter stress corrosion cracking (ODSCC), which is consistent with operating experience for other SGs containing Alloy 600HTMA tubing material. The UCN3/4 SGs have recently begun to experience ODSCC. Hankook Jungsoo Industries Co., Ltd (HaJI) was selected as the cleaning vendor by KHNP. To date, HaJI has completed five Advanced Scale Conditioning Agent (ASCA) cleaning applications and two EPRI/SGOG Steam Generator Chemical Cleaning (SGCC) campaigns for KHNP. The goal of total deposit removal of the applications were successfully achieved and the amounts are 3,579 kg at UCN3 and 3,786 kg at UCN4 which values were estimated before each cleaning by analysing ECT signal and liquid samples from the SGs. The deposits from the SGs were primarily composed of magnetite. There were no chemical

  17. Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2005-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors; 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity; 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. This presentation discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  18. Handbook of chemical vapor deposition principles, technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pierson, Hugh O

    1999-01-01

    Turn to this new second edition for an understanding of the latest advances in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. CVD technology has recently grown at a rapid rate, and the number and scope of its applications and their impact on the market have increased considerably. The market is now estimated to be at least double that of a mere seven years ago when the first edition of this book was published. The second edition is an update with a considerably expanded and revised scope. Plasma CVD and metallo-organic CVD are two major factors in this rapid growth. Readers will find the latest

  19. 秸秆与缓释肥配施对水稻产量及氮素吸收利用率的影响%Effects of Application of Controlled-release Fertilizer Combined with Wheat Straw on Rice Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙会峰; 周胜; 付子轼; 陈桂发; 邹国燕; 宋祥甫

    2015-01-01

    The effects of application of controlled-release fertilizer combined with wheat straw on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency were studied in this paper ,with Huayou 14(Oryza sativa L.) as material. The results showed that application of controlled-release fer-tilizer combined with wheat straw clearly increased rice yield by 13.4%~17.8%, mainly due to the increases of effective panicles and 1000-grain weight compared to common chemical fertilizer application. Application of controlled-release fertilizer combined with wheat straw could also enhance rice straw biomass, nitrogen content in grain and straw, which led to a significantly higher nitrogen use efficiency(71.6%~77.6%) compared to common chemical fertilizer application(28.7%~40.2%). Controlled-release fertilizer was ap-plied only once, and as base fertilizer, would effectively save labor costs. Application of controlled-release fertilizer combined with wheat straw increased rice yield, enhanced nitrogen use efficiency, saved labor costs, may have a promising future.%以花优14为材料,研究了秸秆与缓释尿素配施对水稻产量及氮素吸收利用率的影响。结果表明,秸秆与缓释肥配施处理较常规施肥处理有效穗数和千粒重明显增加,从而显著提高水稻产量,增幅达到13.4%~17.8%。秸秆与缓释肥配施能明显提高秸秆生物量、籽粒及秸秆含氮量,将氮素吸收利用率从28.7%~40.2%(常规施肥处理)提高到71.6%~77.6%。缓释肥作基肥一次性施入,可有效节省人力成本。秸秆与缓释肥配施能增加水稻产量,提高氮素吸收利用率,减少人力成本,具有很大的应用前景。

  20. Effects of Application of Controlled-release Fertilizer Combined with Wheat Straw on Rice Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency%秸秆与缓释肥配施对水稻产量及氮素吸收利用率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙会峰; 周胜; 付子轼; 陈桂发; 邹国燕; 宋祥甫

    2015-01-01

    The effects of application of controlled-release fertilizer combined with wheat straw on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency were studied in this paper ,with Huayou 14(Oryza sativa L.) as material. The results showed that application of controlled-release fer-tilizer combined with wheat straw clearly increased rice yield by 13.4%~17.8%, mainly due to the increases of effective panicles and 1000-grain weight compared to common chemical fertilizer application. Application of controlled-release fertilizer combined with wheat straw could also enhance rice straw biomass, nitrogen content in grain and straw, which led to a significantly higher nitrogen use efficiency(71.6%~77.6%) compared to common chemical fertilizer application(28.7%~40.2%). Controlled-release fertilizer was ap-plied only once, and as base fertilizer, would effectively save labor costs. Application of controlled-release fertilizer combined with wheat straw increased rice yield, enhanced nitrogen use efficiency, saved labor costs, may have a promising future.%以花优14为材料,研究了秸秆与缓释尿素配施对水稻产量及氮素吸收利用率的影响。结果表明,秸秆与缓释肥配施处理较常规施肥处理有效穗数和千粒重明显增加,从而显著提高水稻产量,增幅达到13.4%~17.8%。秸秆与缓释肥配施能明显提高秸秆生物量、籽粒及秸秆含氮量,将氮素吸收利用率从28.7%~40.2%(常规施肥处理)提高到71.6%~77.6%。缓释肥作基肥一次性施入,可有效节省人力成本。秸秆与缓释肥配施能增加水稻产量,提高氮素吸收利用率,减少人力成本,具有很大的应用前景。

  1. Energy Demand And Corn Yield With Fertilizer Application Before Sowing In Two Soil Tillage Systems; Demanda energetica e produtividade da cultura do milho com adubacao de pre-semeadura em dois sistemas de manejo do solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Erick Vinicius [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia], E-mail: erickbertolini@yahoo.com.br; Gamero, Carlos Antonio [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: gamero@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the corn yield with fertilizer application before sowing and provide of the energy demand results involved in the fertilizer application before sowing and sowing in two soil tillage systems. The experiment was carried out at Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas (FCA), Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu-SP campus, from November 2006 to April 2007, in a Dystric Nitosol. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with split-plots and four repetitions. The main plots consisted in two soil tillage systems (no-tillage and reduced tillage with chisel plow) and the split-plots of fertilizer application methods (surface fertilizer application before corn sowing and fertilizer application conventional). Obtained results were analyzed by Tukey test at 5% of probability for comparing averages. Statistical analysis showed that fertilizer application before corn sowing the soil tillage systems did not influence the traction force, bar power demanded, effective field capacity, demanded time, energy specific consumption and hourly fuel consumption; the reduced tillage showed higher area fuel consumption. For corn sowing it was observed that no-tillage system showed lower traction force, bar power demanded, energy specific consumption, hourly and area consumption of fuel. Fertilizer application before corn sowing did not affect corn yield in relation to the fertilizer application conventional. (author)

  2. Utilization of solar energy in sewage sludge composting: Fertilizer effect and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yiqun; Yu, Fang; Liang, Shengwen; Wang, Zongping, E-mail: zongpingw@hust.edu.cn; Liu, Zizheng; Xiong, Ya

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Solar energy technologies were utilized in aerobic sewage sludge composting. • Greenhouse and solar reactors were constructed to compare impacts on the composting. • Impatiens balsamina was planted in pot experiments to evaluate fertilizer effect. - Abstract: Three reactors, ordinary, greenhouse, and solar, were constructed and tested to compare their impacts on the composting of municipal sewage sludge. Greenhouse and solar reactors were designed to evaluate the use of solar energy in sludge composting, including their effects on temperature and compost quality. After 40 days of composting, it was found that the solar reactor could provide more stable heat for the composting process. The average temperature of the solar reactor was higher than that of the other two systems, and only the solar reactor could maintain the temperature above 55 °C for more than 3 days. Composting with the solar reactor resulted in 31.3% decrease in the total organic carbon, increased the germination index to 91%, decreased the total nitrogen loss, and produced a good effect on pot experiments.

  3. The proximate determinants of fertility and birth intervals in Egypt: An application of calendar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hinde

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use calendar data from the 2000 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS to assess the determinants of birth interval length among women who are in union. We make use of the well-known model of the proximate determinants of fertility, and take advantage of the fact that the DHS calendar data provide month-by-month data on contraceptive use, breastfeeding and post-partum amenorrhoea, which are the most important proximate determinants among women in union. One aim of the analysis is to see whether the calendar data are sufficiently detailed to account for all variation among individual women in birth interval duration, in that once they are controlled, the effect of background social, economic and cultural variables is not statistically significant. The results suggest that this is indeed the case, especially after a random effect term to account for the unobserved proximate determinants is included in the model. Birth intervals are determined mainly by the use of modern methods of contraception (the IUD being more effective than the pill. Breastfeeding and post-partum amenorrhoea both inhibit conception, and the effect of breastfeeding remains even after the period of amenorrhoea has ended.

  4. Utilization of solar energy in sewage sludge composting: Fertilizer effect and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Solar energy technologies were utilized in aerobic sewage sludge composting. • Greenhouse and solar reactors were constructed to compare impacts on the composting. • Impatiens balsamina was planted in pot experiments to evaluate fertilizer effect. - Abstract: Three reactors, ordinary, greenhouse, and solar, were constructed and tested to compare their impacts on the composting of municipal sewage sludge. Greenhouse and solar reactors were designed to evaluate the use of solar energy in sludge composting, including their effects on temperature and compost quality. After 40 days of composting, it was found that the solar reactor could provide more stable heat for the composting process. The average temperature of the solar reactor was higher than that of the other two systems, and only the solar reactor could maintain the temperature above 55 °C for more than 3 days. Composting with the solar reactor resulted in 31.3% decrease in the total organic carbon, increased the germination index to 91%, decreased the total nitrogen loss, and produced a good effect on pot experiments

  5. Use of sewage sludge as a fertilizer for increasing soil fertility and crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high nutrient and organic-matter contents of sewage sludge make it a useful soil amendment for farmers. In this study at four locations in Bavaria, the application of sewage sludge produced com yields that were similar to or better than those produced by an equal application (in terms of N) of chemical fertilizer. High rates of sludge (800 m3/ha) further improved crop yields, although such are impractical for farmers' fields. Residual beneficial effects of sewage-sludge application were seen also in terms of subsequent yields of barley. Application of sludge also improved biological and physical properties of the soils. More long-term studies are needed to better understand how sewage sludge contributes to the improvement of soil fertility and crop yields. (author)

  6. LWIR hyperspectral imaging application and detection of chemical precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Hugo; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Bouffard, François; Puckrin, Eldon; Dubé, Denis

    2012-10-01

    Detection and identification of Toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) represent a major challenge to protect and sustain first responder and public security. In this context, passive Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) is a promising technology for the standoff detection and identification of chemical vapors emanating from a distant location. To investigate this method, the Department of National Defense and Public Safety Canada have mandated Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC) - Valcartier to develop and test Very Long Wave Infrared (VLWIR) HSI sensors for standoff detection. The initial effort was focused to address the standoff detection and identification of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), surrogates and precursors. Sensors such as the Improved Compact ATmospheric Sounding Interferometer (iCATSI) and the Multi-option Differential Detection and Imaging Fourier Spectrometer (MoDDIFS) were developed for this application. This paper presents the sensor developments and preliminary results of standoff detection and identification of TICs and precursors. The iCATSI and MoDDIFS sensors are based on the optical differential Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) radiometric technology and are able to detect, spectrally resolve and identify small leak at ranges in excess of 1 km. Results from a series of trials in asymmetric threat type scenarios are reported. These results serve to establish the potential of passive standoff HSI detection of TICs, precursors and surrogates.

  7. Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Aerospace Fire Detection Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Fralick, Gustave; Thomas, Valarie; Makel, D.; Liu, C. C.; Ward, B.; Wu, Q. H.

    2001-01-01

    The detection of fires on-board commercial aircraft is extremely important for safety reasons. Although dependable fire detection equipment presently exists within the cabin, detection of fire within the cargo hold has been less reliable and susceptible to false alarms. A second, independent method of fire detection to complement the conventional smoke detection techniques, such as the measurement of chemical species indicative of a fire, will help reduce false alarms and improve aircraft safety. Although many chemical species are indicative of a fire, two species of particular interest are CO and CO2. This paper discusses microfabricated chemical sensor development tailored to meet the needs of fire safety applications. This development is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. The individual sensor being developed and their level of maturity will be presented.

  8. Marine derived polysaccharides for biomedical applications: chemical modification approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ayala, Giovanna Gomez; Malinconico, Mario; Laurienzo, Paola

    2008-09-03

    Polysaccharide-based biomaterials are an emerging class in several biomedical fields such as tissue regeneration, particularly for cartilage, drug delivery devices and gelentrapment systems for the immobilization of cells. Important properties of the polysaccharides include controllable biological activity, biodegradability, and their ability to form hydrogels. Most of the polysaccharides used derive from natural sources; particularly, alginate and chitin, two polysaccharides which have an extensive history of use in medicine, pharmacy and basic sciences, and can be easily extracted from marine plants (algae kelp) and crab shells, respectively. The recent rediscovery of poly-saccharidebased materials is also attributable to new synthetic routes for their chemical modification, with the aim of promoting new biological activities and/or to modify the final properties of the biomaterials for specific purposes. These synthetic strategies also involve the combination of polysaccharides with other polymers. A review of the more recent research in the field of chemical modification of alginate, chitin and its derivative chitosan is presented. Moreover, we report as case studies the results of our recent work concerning various different approaches and applications of polysaccharide-based biomaterials, such as the realization of novel composites based on calcium sulphate blended with alginate and with a chemically modified chitosan, the synthesis of novel alginate-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers and the development of a family of materials based on alginate and acrylic polymers of potential interest as drug delivery systems.

  9. Marine Derived Polysaccharides for Biomedical Applications: Chemical Modification Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Laurienzo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide-based biomaterials are an emerging class in several biomedical fields such as tissue regeneration, particularly for cartilage, drug delivery devices and gelentrapment systems for the immobilization of cells. Important properties of the polysaccharides include controllable biological activity, biodegradability, and their ability to form hydrogels. Most of the polysaccharides used derive from natural sources; particularly, alginate and chitin, two polysaccharides which have an extensive history of use in medicine, pharmacy and basic sciences, and can be easily extracted from marine plants (algae kelp and crab shells, respectively. The recent rediscovery of poly-saccharidebased materials is also attributable to new synthetic routes for their chemical modification, with the aim of promoting new biological activities and/or to modify the final properties of the biomaterials for specific purposes. These synthetic strategies also involve the combination of polysaccharides with other polymers. A review of the more recent research in the field of chemical modification of alginate, chitin and its derivative chitosan is presented. Moreover, we report as case studies the results of our recent work concerning various different approaches and applications of polysaccharide-based biomaterials, such as the realization of novel composites based on calcium sulphate blended with alginate and with a chemically modified chitosan, the synthesis of novel alginate-poly(ethylene glycol copolymers and the development of a family of materials based on alginate and acrylic polymers of potential interest as drug delivery systems.

  10. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

  11. 深施型液态施肥机扎穴机构动力学优化%Dynamics optimization for pricking hole mechanism of deep-fertilization liquid fertilizer applicator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金武; 王金峰; 鞠金艳

    2011-01-01

    In order to assure good reliability for liquid fertilizer applicator in high working speed, the pricking hole mechanism of liquid fertilizer applicator was taken as research object, and the maximum force and undulation force ofx and y directions of sun gear were taken as objective function. Optimization results of kinematics was used as constraint conditions of objective function, and the dynamics optimization software was developed based on the improved "interspecies competition" genetic algorithm by using Visual Basic 6.0 software. Optimized parameters were obtained by this software, where the initial angle between the line connecting spraying-fertilizer needle-tip or planet wheel axle and planet flame is -42°, and the initial angular of planet frame is 45°, and the distance between spraying-fertilizer needle-tip and the planetary gear axle center is 285 mm. According to the dynamic optimization results, the pricking hole mechanism of liquid fertilizer applicator was designed and simulated by using Pro/E and ADAMS. The simulation results showed that the pricking hole mechanism with the optimized parameters can satisfy the operation requirements and has good mechanical properties.%为保证液态施肥机在高速作业下仍具有良好的可靠性,以液态施肥机扎穴机构为研究对象,将太阳轮x、y方向峰值力和波动力作为目标函数,运动学优化结果作为目标函数的约束条件,应用Visual Basic 6.0软件开发出基于"种间竞争"改进遗传算法动力学优化软件.软件得到优化参数为:喷肥针尖和行星轮轴连线与行星架的初始夹角-42°、行星架初始角位移45°、喷肥针尖与行星轮轴心距离285mm.根据动力学优化结果,应用Pro/E和ADAMS对扎穴机构进行设计与仿真验证.结果表明,根据优化参数设计的扎穴机构既能满足工作要求,又具有较好的力学特性.

  12. Effects of different organic manure application rate on mango fruit quality and soil fertility%不同用量有机肥对芒果果实品质及土壤肥力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧小平; 周兆禧; 林兴娥; 戴敏洁; 葛宇; 刘永霞; 马蔚红

    2016-01-01

    通过田间小区试验,研究了不同用量有机肥处理对芒果果实品质及果园土壤肥力的影响,旨在为生产上芒果科学施肥提供技术支持。结果表明:与不施有机肥处理( CK)比较,增施有机肥处理使果实可溶性固形物含量提高10.1%~21.6%、 Vc含量提高3.1%~38.4%、可滴定酸含量下降6.6%~16.0%、固酸比提高17.9%~44.9%。增施有机肥提高了土壤有机质、全N、有效P、速效K、交换性Ca、交换性Mg、电导率及pH值,促进土壤肥力水平的提升。综合比较,以T2处理(有机肥7.5 kg/株+尿素400 g/株+高钾复合肥1.25 kg/株)对改善果实品质和改良土壤性状效果最好。%Abatract: A field plot experiment was carried out to study the effects of different organic manure application rate on mango fruit quality and soil fertility. The result showed that compared with chemical fertilizer (CK), the applications of organic manure increased the fruit total soluble solid, Vc, ratio of tss and acid, by 10. 1% ~21. 6%, 3. 1% ~38. 4%, 17. 9% ~44. 9%, total titration acid decreased by 6. 6% ~16. 0%. Meanwhile, different organic manure application rates increased soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, exchangeable calcium, exchangeable mag-nesium, electrical conductivity and pH, then soil fertility was improved significantly. Applying 7. 5 kg organic manure with 400 g urea and 1. 25 kg high potassium compound fertilizer to each plant was the best, which improved the fruit quality and soil fertility effectively.

  13. Effects of Controlled-release Fertilizer Application with Cow Manure on Yield (Brassica napa L), Drainage Water Quality and N2O Emission

    OpenAIRE

    AMKHA, Suphachai; Inubushi, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) supply is a major factor controlling the yield and quality of vegetables. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of different rates of controlled-release N fertilizers (CRFs) and urea applications with cow manure on a) yield (Brassica napa L.), b) nitrate leaching from soil, and c) N2O flux in surface soil. The fertilizers were applied according to the following 6 type-rate combinations: 1) CM-CDU 450 (kg ha-1), 2) LP 450, 3) urea 450, 4) CM-CDU 360, and 5)...

  14. Effects of integrated fertilization with bio-ash and chemical fertilizers on soil properties and growth of rape%生物质灰渣与化肥配施对土壤性质及油菜生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙; 王敏; 王硕; 胡红青

    2011-01-01

    first and then decrease. In middle level of fertilizer, the ash enhances the capacity of K absorption of rape plants,and the maximum increase of the content of total K in rape is up to 44. 43%. In high level of fertilizer, the ash does not affect the capacity of K absorption of rape plants. The manifestation of antagonism between K and Ca,Mg in rape can be changed by the ash application. With the increase of ash application amount, the content of Ca and Mg absorption of rape emerges the trend of increase first and then decrease. All in all,a reasonable proportion of integrated fertilization with bio-ash and chemical fertilizers can promote the migration and transformation of nutrient elements in soil-plant system and the seedlings growth of rape.

  15. ECONOMIC CONSIDERATION OF PRODUCING FERTILIZER FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS: APPLICATION OF BULGARIAN EXPERIENCE TO CASE STUDY OF PORTUGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryunosuke KIKUCHI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A Bulgarian project at Maritsa East power station demonstrated the proper transformation of air pollutants (SOx and NOx into nitrogen fertilizer. Although this technology has not been put into practice in Bulgaria, it seems feasible on an industrial scale and so it may help to ease Portugal’s reliance on imports of nitrogen fertilizer and thereby contain the outfl ow of Portuguese funds. The data collected from the Maritsa East project are therefore applied to discuss a case study of Amarante thermal power station in Portugal, which annually imports 27 million Euro of nitrogen fertilizer. The agricultural sector indicates it is willing to support 20% of the plant installation cost and 100% of the operating cost at a thermal power station. Thus, a Portuguese farmer can obtain by-product fertilizer that is cheaper than commercial fertilizer at current prices as compensation for fi nancial support of fertilizer production at a thermal power station.

  16. Soil Warming and Fertilization Effects on Growth Ring Widths of Arctic Shrubs - Application of a Novel Dendroecological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrate Garcia, M.; Heijmans, M.; Schweingruber, F. H.; Niklaus, P. A.; Schaepman-Strub, G.

    2015-12-01

    Climate warming is suggested as the main driver of shrub expansion in arctic tundra regions. Shrub expansion may have consequences on biodiversity and climate, especially through its feedbacks with the energy budget. A better understanding of shrub expansion mechanisms, including growth rate patterns and stem anatomy changes, and their sensitivity to climate is needed in order to quantify related feedbacks. We present a novel dendroecological approach to determine the response of three arctic shrub species to increased soil temperature and nutrients. A full factorial block-design experiment was run for four years with a total of thirty plots. Six individuals of each species were sampled from each plot to test for treatment effects on growth rate and stem anatomy. We compared the ring width of the four years of experiment with the one of the four previous years. The preliminary results for Betula nana and Salix pulchra suggest a significant effect of the treatments on the growth ring width. The response is stronger in Salix pulchra than in Betula nana individuals. And, while Salix pulchra is more sensitive to the combined soil warming and fertilization treatment, Betula nana is to the fertilization treatment. We could not observe an effect of treatment on the stem anatomy, likely because bark thickness co-varies with age. We found significant positive correlations of cork, cortex and phloem thickness with xylem thickness (used as a proxy of age), and a significant difference in stem anatomy between species. The results suggest species-specific growth sensitivity to soil warming and nutrient enhancement. The use of experimental dendroecology by manipulating environmental conditions according to future climate scenarios and testing effects on shrub anatomy and annual growth will increase our understanding on shrub expansion mechanisms. Ongoing plant trait analysis and consecutive application in a 3D radiative transfer model will allow to quantify the feedback of

  17. The effect of application of organic fertilizers on the dynamics of occurence of Carabid species (Carabidae, Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Porhajasova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of application of organic fertilizers in defined doses on structure of Carabid communities was studied. The Carabids were pitfall trapped, in 2004 2006 on experimental plots in the university farm in Kolioany District of Nitra, S N Slovakia, in 5 variants 1st unfertilized; 2nd 25 t ha-1 farmyard manure, 3rd 50 t ha 1 bio sludge; 4th 50 t ha 1 farmyard manure; 5th 100 t ha 1 bio sludge to the selected rotatio 2004 Helianthus annuus, 2005 Beta vulgaris, 2006 Zea mays. The area of each variant was 1,800 m2. During the three-year period were obtained 16,172 individuals of Carabids belonging to 32 species. The distribution within the individual variants fluctuated as follows 1st variant 10 13 sp. and 612 1,904 ind. 2nd variant 12 15 sp. and 1,147 1,516 ind., 3rd variant 8 13 sp. and 360 3,127 ind.; 4th variant 7 9 sp. and 371 832 ind.; 5th variant 8 10 sp. and 404 1,072 ind. The dominant species in all variants were Pseudoophonus rufipes and Poecilus cupreus, while Calathus fuscipes, Anchomenus dorsalis, Carabus scheidleri, Brachinus crepitans were subdominant or recedent. However in individual varities and years they also reached dominant position. The high dominance of Pseudoophonus rufipes caused low values of the Shannon Wiever s diversity index ranging from 0.59 to 1.18. Based on maximum numbers of species and individuals, the most suitable were the 2. and 3. variants, 25 t ha 1 farmyard manure and 50 t ha 1 bio sludge. Out of the applied organic fertilizers, the climatic factors also played an important role.

  18. The Application of Billings for Fertility Regulation Method during the Period of Breastfeeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金碧华; 姜国珠; 潘琢如; 颜洁敏; 彭守静; 陆仁康

    1999-01-01

    In order to adopt Billings Method for fertility regulation during the period of breast-feeding,cervical mucus was observed and monitored in 61 breast-feeding mothers.Urine estrogen and/or pregnanediol were/was measured in 15 breast feeding mothers.Observations on cervical mucus during 244 months were collected.The type of dry or no mucus was observed in 75.27% fully breast-feeding mothers.Constant unchanging mucus was ob-served in 69.39% partially breast-feeding mothers.Developmental changing mucus was observed in 79.25% of mothers bottle-feeding their infants.According to the record on cervical mucus within 6months postpartum,97.14% of the cervical mucus was consistent with normal menstrual cycles.Urine estrogen and /or pregnanediol were/was measured in 15 breast-feeding mothers.The level of estrogen in urine averaged 0.08 μmol/24 h in fully breast feeding mothers and 0.14 μmol/24 h in partially breast-feeding mothers.The peak level averaged 0.21 pmol/24 h in bottle-feeding mothers.The pregnanediol level was determined to confirm ovulation in bottle-feeding mothers.The average levels of cut off and the period of ovutation in 6bottle feeding mother were 7 μmol/24 h and 9 μmol/24 h respectively.Measurement of urine estrogen and pregnanediot level all matched with cervical mucus appearances.Conclusion: Billings Method is a simple,scientific method for contraception without side-effects during breast-feeding period.

  19. 百色烟区烤烟合理种植密度及施肥量研究%Studies on Planting Density and Fertilizer Application Rate of Flue-cured Tobacco in Baise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文亮; 赖洪敏; 黄瑾; 林北森; 高华军

    2012-01-01

    [目的]为了掌握百色烟区合理的种植密度及施肥量,为烤烟生产提供科学指导和应用依据.[方法]研究了不同种植密度和施肥水平对烟株生长、烟叶产量和质量的影响.[结果]烤烟生育前期受种植密度和施肥量影响不大,但腰叶、顶叶成熟的时间随着施氮量的增大而变晚.不同种植密度和施肥量对烤烟农艺性状的影响较大,在种植密度相同时,随施肥量的增加,烟株株高、茎围、节距、有效叶片数和叶片长度呈递增趋势;减小种植密度有利于顶叶的开片生长及有效叶片数的增加.综合各经济性状及烟叶主要内在化学成分和评吸质量,A2B3处理(行株距120 cm×50 cm,施氮量112.5 kg/hm2,氮、磷、钾比例1∶1∶3)能够得到较好的经济效益和烟叶质量.[结论]在百色特定的气候、中等土壤肥力条件下,烤烟种植密度以行距120 cm,株距50 cm,纯氮用量112.5 kg/hm2(氮、磷、钾比例1∶1∶3)为宜.%[Objective] To explore the suitable planting density and fertilizer application rate of flue-cured tobacco and to provide the scientific basis and reference applications for guiding its production in Baise. [Method] The effects of different planting density and fertilizer application rate on the growth of tobacco plants, the yield and quality of tobacco leaves were studied. [ Result ] Planting density and fertilizer application rate had a little effects on the growth period of tobacco plants at early growth stage, but the mature stage of central and top leaves delayed with the increasing of fertilizer application rate. Different planting density and fertilizer application rate had significant effect on the agronomic characters, with the increasing fertilizer application rate, the plant height, stem diameter, node distance, effecttive number of leaves and length of leaf increased at the same planting density; when planting density was decreased, top leaves advantageous to growing and

  20. Understanding emissions of ammonia from buildings and application of fertilizers: an example from Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, M.; C. Ambelas Skjøth; M. Kryza; Dore, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    A Europe-wide dynamic ammonia (NH3) emissions model has been applied for one of the large agricultural countries in Europe, and its sensitivity on the distribution of emissions among different agricultural functions was analysed by comparing with observed ammonia concentrations and by implementing all scenarios in a chemical transport model (CTM). The results suggest that the dynamic emission model is most sensitive to emission from animal manure, in particular h...

  1. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    Forests of northern ecosystems respond slowly to management activities and the possibilities to increase the growth in a short-term perspective and meet swift increases in society's demand for biomass are small. An exception among the silvicultural measures is fertilization which can be applied...... in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different...... fertilization regimens, environmental constraints and possibilities in northern forests on mineral soils. Further on we discuss the implications of both extensive and more intensive fertilization in relation to the developing bioeconomy, which encompasses the production and conversion of renewable biological...

  2. Fertilization influence on the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr uptake by crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdevitch, I.; Tarasuk, S.; Shmigelskaya, I.; Putyatin, Y. [Belarussian Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry (BRISSA), Kazintsa 62, Minsk 220108 (Belarus)

    2003-07-01

    Reducing the risk of people internal irradiation based on decreasing of radionuclide concentration in consumed food stuff is a main objective for justified application of the countermeasures on contaminated agricultural land at the last period after Chernobyl radioactive fallout. Liming, fertilizers and manure application are the most widespread, applicable and effective countermeasures to restrict the soil-to-plant radionuclide transfer. Efficiency of the fertilization depends on radionuclide deposition, texture and chemical properties of the soils, biological characteristics of plants and type of the fertilizers. The selection of the types of agro-chemical treatments should be considered with combined economical and radiological justification. Countermeasures treatments have to lead to the profitable or self-sufficient production of extra yield with low radionuclide contamination. As objective of this work, mentioned is the assessment of the different types of agro-chemical countermeasures on agricultural land contaminated by {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr based on radiological economical justification. The efficiency of K fertilizer on different K supply soils, the efficiency of balanced fertilization at the different rates of manure utilization and the efficiency of liming and K fertilizer rates are presented. In conclusion, the soil fertility improvement based on balanced fertilization and liming to achieve the optimal agro-chemical properties allow significantly (up to 2-4 times) reduce the concentration of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in crop production with the simultaneous yield increase. The agro-chemical countermeasures targeted for balanced plant nutrition should have priority, on the assumption of providing the profitable or self-sufficient production of extra yield to pay for expenses. The profitability of agricultural production is a main criterion for justification of countermeasure application in long-term period after Chernobyl accident.

  3. Discussion of reasonable use and implementation of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer zero growth in Xilingol League%锡林郭勒盟马铃薯有机肥合理利用与实现化肥零增长问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玉敏

    2016-01-01

    喷灌圈马铃薯种植区存在盲目过量施肥现象,农民只注重用地,而忽略养地,造成种植区土壤理化性状逐年恶化,生产效益降低。有机肥对改良土壤、培肥地力具有不可替代的重要作用。通过政策引导、宣传培训及物化补贴的形式,鼓励农民积造和增施有机肥,减少化肥用量,改变重用地轻养地的观念。充分发挥锡林郭勒盟有机肥丰富的资源优势,在保证作物种植效益不减的前提下,通过优化施肥结构,减少不合理投入,提高马铃薯品质,实现控肥增效,走有机-无机相结合的可持续发展道路,实现化肥零增长目标[1]。%Farmers blind and excessive use fertilizer in sprinkler irrigation circle of potato growing areas, only pay attention to use ignoring the protection, which causing the soil physical and chemical properties worsening year by year and making production efficiency lower. Organic fertilizer has an irreplaceable role on soil improvement, soil fertility. Through policy guidance, publicity and training, and materialized in the form of subsidies to encourage farmers to collecting , composting and increasing organic fertilizer to reduce the dosage of chemical fertilizer, change the concept of reuse to ground. We should make full use of organic fertilizer under the premise of ensuring crops benefit, which is the rich resources in Xilingol League, through optimizing fertilization structure, reduce the unreasonable investment, improve the quality of potato to achieve a fertilizer efficiency, and combination of organic-inorganic sustainable development road to reach fertilizer zero growth targets.

  4. Effect of Excess Fertilizer Phosphorus on Some Chemical Properties of Paddy Soil Drived from Red Soil and Its Relation to Rice Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIWUZHONG; HENIANZU

    1997-01-01

    A filed experiment with an early rice-late rice rotation was carried out on a paddy soil derived from red soil in the southern part of Zhejing Province to elucidate the effect of excess P application on some important characteristics of soil properies and its relation to nutrient status and grain yields of rice crops.The experimental results indicated that adequate fertilizer P(15 kg P hm-2)could increase the content of soil available P at the tillering stage of early rice,the contents of N,P and K in the shoots of early rice at primary growth stages,and the grain yield of early rice by increasing valid ears per hectare and weight per thousand grains,which,was mainly related to the higher contents of reduced,non-reduced and total sugar in the shoot at the heading stage, And early rice supplied with excessive P could not yield more than that applied with adequate, P de to the reduction in the valid grain percentage and weight per thousead grains. In addition,one-time excess P supply at a rate as high as 90 kg P hm-2 could not improve the soil P fertility in case the soil available P content was lower than the initial(3.74mg kg-1 soil) after an early rice-late rice rotaion,and made a decline in the grain yield increased by per kilogram fertilzer P.Thus,one-time excess P supply should not be adopted for soils with a large P fixation capacity like the paddy soils derived from red soils.

  5. Agronomic performance and chemical response of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) to some organic nitrogen sources and conventional nitrogen fertilizers under sandy soil conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmy, A. M.; Fawzy Ramadan, M. F.

    2009-07-01

    Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) is an option for oilseed production, particularly in dry land areas due to good root system development. In this study, two field experiments were performed in the El-Khattara region (Sharkia Governorate, Egypt) during the 2005 season. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of organic nitrogen (ON) sources and their combinations as well as to compare the effect of ON and ammonium sulfate (AS) as a conventional fertilizer added individually or in combination on growth, yield components, oil percentage and the uptake of some macro nutrients by sunflowers grown on sandy soil.The treatments of chicken manure (CM) and a mixture of farmyard manure (FYM) with CM were superior to the other treatments and gave the highest yield, dry matter yield, NPK uptake by plants at all growth stages along with seed yield at the mature stage. The effect of the different ON on crop yield and its components may follow the order; CM> palma residues (PR)> FYM. This was more emphasized when the materials were mixed with AS at a ratio of 3:1 and 1:1. The uptake of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) by plants was affected by the addition of different N sources and treatments. The highest nutrient content and uptake by straw were obtained when treated with CM followed by PR at all growth stages, while it was PR followed by CM for seeds. Oil recovery was shown to respond to the N supply and the changes in individual fatty acids were not statistically different. However, it seems that the application of organic fertilizers resulted in an increase in total unsaturated fatty acids compared to the control. (Author) 58 refs.

  6. Effects of Corn Stover Incorporated in Dry Farmland on Soil Fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-bin; Cai Dian-xiong; ZHANG Jing-qing; GAO Xu-ke

    2001-01-01

    Seven years' field experiments on application of corn stover and/or cattle manure combined with chemical fertilizers were carried out in Shouyang Dryland Farming Experimental Station. Results showed that the increased available N in the plough layer was mainly influenced by the application of cattle manure; the available P was mainly influenced by the application of chemical fertilizer; the available K was mainly influenced by the incorporation of corn stover. The organic matter contents in the soils treated with corn stover or cattle manure were kept in balance under the experimental conditions. Corn yield and water use efficiency were influenced significantly not only by fertilizer N but also by incorporated corn stover. The results suggested that the highest N uptake, yield and water use efficiency could be obtained at rates of 105 kg fertilizer N, 6000 kg corn stover, and 1500 kg cattle manure per hectare. The experiments supplied information on nutrient recycling and use of corn stover as sources of fodder and organic fertilizer for balancing application of organic and inorganic fertilizer, improving soil fertility and increasing crop yield with incorporation of corn stover in soil.

  7. Impact of Organic Amendments with and Without Mineral Fertilizers on Soil Microbial Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, S. S.; Bahmanyar, M. A.

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of Sewage Sludge (SS), Municipal Waste Compost (MWC) and Vermicompost (VC) with and without chemical fertilizer (Urea, 50 kg ha-1 + Potassium sulfate, 100 kg ha-1 + Triple super phosphate, 127.5 kg ha-1) on Soil Microbial Respiration (SMR) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in a soil cropped to soybean. Experiment was arranged in a complete block design with three replications. Organic amendments were added to soil at rate of 0 (control treatment), 20 and 40 Mg ha-1. Furthermore each level of organic fertilizers with ½ normal of chemical fertilizer was also enriched. Soil samples were taken after one year of fertilization. Results illustrated that application of organic amendments increased TOC and SMR and soybean yield compared to control and chemical fertilizer treatments. Sewage sludge amended soils showed higher SMR, TOC and soybean yield than that of other organic amendment treatments. An increasing trend was observed in all studied parameters, as rates of application increased. All parameters were greater in treatments receiving a combination of chemical fertilizers and organic amendments (enriched treatments) compared to soils receiving organic amendments alone. Results obtained by discriminate analysis indicated that rates of application were more effective to create discriminating among treatments. This study showed that TOC was significantly correlated with SMR. Significant correlation was also observed between SMR and soybean yield.

  8. 不同钾肥对陕西典型生态区烤烟化学成分和经济性状的影响%Effect of Different Types of Potassium Fertilizers on Chemical Components and Economic Values of Flue-cured Tobacco in Typical Ecological Zones of Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦成才; 张立新; 高梅; 张喜峰; 马英明; 王平平

    2014-01-01

    本试验选取陕西2个典型生态烟区,通过田间小区试验,研究了4种类型钾肥对烤烟农艺性状、化学成分及经济性状的影响。结果表明,施钾对烤烟叶面积产生显著影响,陇县施硝酸钾效果最好,腐殖酸钾次之;洛南施腐殖酸钾效果最好,混合钾肥次之。施钾能提高烟叶总糖、还原糖、烟碱、氮和钾含量,增加钾氯比,降低氯含量,且效果因地区而异。施用腐殖酸钾或混合钾肥处理的烟叶化学成分较为协调。施钾可显著提高烤烟主要经济性状,陇县的混合钾肥表现较好;洛南的腐植酸钾、混合钾肥表现较好。综合分析,陇县适合的钾肥为混合钾肥,洛南为腐殖酸钾肥或混合钾肥。因此,施钾肥可促进烤烟生长发育,协调化学物质,改善烟叶质量,提高烤烟产量,且钾肥选择因地区而异。%A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different kinds of potassium (K) fertilizers on agronomic attributes, chemical components and economic values of flue-cured tobacco in two typical ecological zones in Shaanxi province. The results showed that K fertilizer had significant effect on leaf area. The effect of potassium nitrate was better than that of potassium humate in Longxian;the effect of potassium humate was the best, followed by mixed k fertilizer. K application increased contents of total sugar, reducing sugar, nitrogen, nicotine and potassium, and decreased the content of chlorine, and these effects varied with ecological zones. Leaf chemical composition was more harmonious with potassium humate or mixed K fertilizer treatment. In addition, main economic values increased significantly with K fertilizer treatment, and better effect was observed with treatment of mixed K fertilizer in Longxian, but potassium humate and mixed K fertilizer in Luonan. Overall, mixed K fertilizer was preferred in Longxian, and potassium humate or mixed K fertilizer

  9. Does fertilizer application alter the effects of elevated CO 2 on Carex leaf litter quality and in situ decomposition in an alpine grassland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, John A.; Hirschel, Gunnar

    The purpose of our investigation was to determine: (1) whether fertilization with NPK would result in an improvement in leaf litter quality of the dominant species ( Carex curvula) in a high alpine grassland in Switzerland; and especially (2) if fertilization improves the quality of leaf litter produced under elevated atmospheric CO 2 and compensates for the suppressive effects of high CO 2 on the in situ decomposition rates of C. curvula litter, observed at this site in an earlier study. Fertilizer application (40 kg N ha -1 yr -1) resulted in 34% higher leaf litter [N] but did not change C:N or lignin:N ratios, when viewed across both CO 2 treatments. Improvement in the mean N quality of litter produced under elevated CO 2 resulting from fertilization appeared to lead to a significantly faster mean decomposition rate (+60%), but fertilization had no significant effect on decomposition of litter produced under ambient CO 2. We conclude that the potential stimulatory effect of an increase in atmospheric N deposition on litter quality and decomposition rates may partially compensate for the inhibitory effects of rising atmospheric CO 2 in these high alpine grassland ecosystems.

  10. Implementation and application of a method for quantifying metals and non-metals in drainage water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogypsum is a waste generated in phosphoric acid production by the 'wet process'. The immense amount of phosphogypsum yearly produced (around 150 million tons) is receiving attention from environmental protection agencies all over the word, given its potential of contamination. In Brazil, this material has been used for many decades, especially for agricultural application on cropland. Although the phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of impurities, such as metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb), non-metals (As and Se) and radioactive elements from natural series of 232Th and 238U. Therefore, its continuous application as an agricultural agent can result not just in soil contamination, but also contamination of the surface and groundwater due