WorldWideScience

Sample records for chemical engineering

  1. Nanotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Salaheldeen Elnashaie, Said; Hashemipour Rafsanjani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic principles of transforming nano-technology into nano-engineering with a particular focus on chemical engineering fundamentals. This book provides vital information about differences between descriptive technology and quantitative engineering for students as well as working professionals in various fields of nanotechnology. Besides chemical engineering principles, the fundamentals of nanotechnology are also covered along with detailed explanation of several specific nanoscale processes from chemical engineering point of view. This information is presented in form of practical examples and case studies that help the engineers and researchers to integrate the processes which can meet the commercial production. It is worth mentioning here that, the main challenge in nanostructure and nanodevices production is nowadays related to the economic point of view. The uniqueness of this book is a balance between important insights into the synthetic methods of nano-structures and nanomaterial...

  2. Chemical Engineering at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a review of the career paths for chemicals engineer at NASA (specifically NASA Johnson Space Center.) The author uses his personal experience and history as an example of the possible career options.

  3. Applied chemical engineering thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tassios, Dimitrios P

    1993-01-01

    Applied Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics provides the undergraduate and graduate student of chemical engineering with the basic knowledge, the methodology and the references he needs to apply it in industrial practice. Thus, in addition to the classical topics of the laws of thermodynamics,pure component and mixture thermodynamic properties as well as phase and chemical equilibria the reader will find: - history of thermodynamics - energy conservation - internmolecular forces and molecular thermodynamics - cubic equations of state - statistical mechanics. A great number of calculated problems with solutions and an appendix with numerous tables of numbers of practical importance are extremely helpful for applied calculations. The computer programs on the included disk help the student to become familiar with the typical methods used in industry for volumetric and vapor-liquid equilibria calculations.

  4. Chemical Engineering in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmeyer, Dennis A.; Meneghelli, Barry; Steinrock, Todd (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The aerospace industry has long been perceived as the domain of both physicists and mechanical engineers. This perception has endured even though the primary method of providing the thrust necessary to launch a rocket into space is chemical in nature. The chemical engineering and chemistry personnel behind the systems that provide access to space have labored in the shadows of the physicists and mechanical engineers. As exploration into the cosmos moves farther away from Earth, there is a very distinct need for new chemical processes to help provide the means for advanced space exploration. The state of the art in launch systems uses chemical propulsion systems, primarily liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, to provide the energy necessary to achieve orbit. As we move away from Earth, there are additional options for propulsion. Unfortunately, few of these options can compare to the speed or ease of use provided by the chemical propulsion agents. It is with great care and significant cost that gaseous compounds such as hydrogen and oxygen are liquefied and become dense enough to use for rocket fuel. These low-temperature liquids fall within a specialty area known as cryogenics. Cryogenics, the science and art of producing cold operating conditions for use on Earth, in orbit, or on some other nonterrestrial body, has become increasingly important to our ability to travel within our solar system. The production of cryogenic fuels and the long-term storage of these fluids are necessary for travel. As our explorations move farther away from Earth, we need to address how to produce the necessary fuels to make a round-trip. The cost and the size of these expeditions are extreme at best. If we take everything necessary for our survival for the round-trip, we invalidate any chance of travel in the near future. As with the early explorers on Earth, we need to harvest much of our energy and our life support from the celestial bodies. The in situ production of these energy

  5. Fundamentals of chemical reaction engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate for a one-semester undergraduate or first-year graduate course, this text introduces the quantitative treatment of chemical reaction engineering. It covers both homogeneous and heterogeneous reacting systems and examines chemical reaction engineering as well as chemical reactor engineering. The authors take a chemical approach, helping students develop an intuitive feeling for concepts, rather than an engineering approach, which tends to overlook the inner workings of systems and objects.Each chapter contains numerous worked-out problems and real-world vignettes involving commercia

  6. Job Prospects for Chemical Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    The job situation for new chemical engineers with bachelor's degrees is continuing to reflect the gradual improvement that began in 1983. However, companies are looking for graduates with technical expertise as well as marketing, sales, or communications skills. Smaller classes may lead to shortages of chemical engineering graduates in the future.…

  7. Teaching Chemical Engineers about Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Daniel E.; Hoy, Mary; Rathman, James F.; Rohdieck, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department at The Ohio State University in collaboration with the University Center for the Advancement of Teaching developed the Chemical Engineering Mentored Teaching Experience. The Mentored Teaching Experience is an elective for Ph.D. students interested in pursuing faculty careers. Participants are…

  8. Sustainability in Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassey, Jarka; Haile, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a concentrated strategy to embed sustainability teaching into a (chemical) engineering undergraduate curriculum throughout the whole programme. Innovative teaching approaches in subject-specific context are described and their efficiency investigated. Design/methodology/approach: The activities in…

  9. Monitoring advances in chemical engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, H.P.F.; Hartmann, D; Van Raan, A.F.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to monitoring scientific progress in chemical engineering in order to operationalize concepts such as 'research performance' which can be used in the retrospective evaluation and the future anticipation of scientific research activities. We focus on various quantitative methods. Bibliometric methods form an important, but not the only, part of the work. The use of bibliometric approaches and measures is plagued by many problems. This is es...

  10. Chemical engineering of molecular qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedge, C J; Timco, G A; Spielberg, E T; George, R E; Tuna, F; Rigby, S; McInnes, E J L; Winpenny, R E P; Blundell, S J; Ardavan, A

    2012-03-09

    We show that the electron spin phase memory time, the most important property of a molecular nanomagnet from the perspective of quantum information processing, can be improved dramatically by chemically engineering the molecular structure to optimize the environment of the spin. We vary systematically each structural component of the class of antiferromagnetic Cr(7)Ni rings to identify the sources of decoherence. The optimal structure exhibits a phase memory time exceeding 15  μs.

  11. Chemical Engineering Students: A Distinct Group among Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Allison; Potvin, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores differences between chemical engineering students and students of other engineering disciplines, as identified by their intended college major. The data used in this analysis was taken from the nationally representative Sustainability and Gender in Engineering (SaGE) survey. Chemical engineering students differ significantly…

  12. A New Paradigm for Chemical Engineering?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    businesses has been observed. There is an increasing trend within the chemical industry to focus on products and the sustainable processes that can make them. Do these changes point to a paradigm shift in chemical engineering as a discipline? Historically, two previous paradigm shifts in chemical engineering...... corresponded to major shifts in chemical engineering as a discipline, which affected not only the education of chemical engineers, but also the development of chemical engineering as a discipline. Has the time come for a new paradigm shift that will prepare the current and future chemical engineering graduates...... to tackle the complex problems facing the chemicals based industries and serve the modern society more efficiently? The lecture will review the current status of chemical engineering as a discipline, the proposals for the third paradigm, the need for such a paradigm shift and related educational issues....

  13. Optimal control for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Upreti, Simant Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control for Chemical Engineers gives a detailed treatment of optimal control theory that enables readers to formulate and solve optimal control problems. With a strong emphasis on problem solving, the book provides all the necessary mathematical analyses and derivations of important results, including multiplier theorems and Pontryagin's principle.The text begins by introducing various examples of optimal control, such as batch distillation and chemotherapy, and the basic concepts of optimal control, including functionals and differentials. It then analyzes the notion of optimality, de

  14. Chemical Engineering in the "BIO" world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiarappa, Gianluca; Grassi, Mario; Abrami, Michela

    2017-01-01

    Modern Chemical Engineering was born around the end of the 19th century in Great Britain, Germany, and the USA, the most industrialized countries at that time. Milton C. Whitaker, in 1914, affirmed that the difference between Chemistry and Chemical Engineering lies in the capability of chemical e...

  15. Protein engineering approaches to chemical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Zeng, An-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Protein engineering for the improvement of properties of biocatalysts and for the generation of novel metabolic pathways plays more and more important roles in chemical biotechnology aiming at the production of chemicals from biomass. Although widely used in single-enzyme catalysis process, protein engineering is only being increasingly explored in recent years to achieve more complex in vitro and in vivo biocatalytic processes. This review focuses on major contributions of protein engineering to chemical biotechnology in the field of multi-enzymatic cascade catalysis and metabolic engineering. Especially, we discuss and highlight recent strategies for combining pathway design and protein engineering for the production of novel products.

  16. Chemical Engineering in the "BIO" world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarappa, Gianluca; Grassi, Mario; Abrami, Michela; Abbiati, Roberto Andrea; Barba, Anna Angela; Boisen, Anja; Brucato, Valerio; Ghersi, Giulio; Caccavo, Diego; Cascone, Sara; Caserta, Sergio; Elvassore, Nicola; Giomo, Monica; Guido, Stefano; Lamberti, Gaetano; Larobina, Domenico; Manca, Davide; Marizza, Paolo; Tomaiuolo, Giovanna; Grassi, Gabriele

    2016-06-02

    Modern Chemical Engineering was born around the end of the 19th century in Great Britain, Germany, and the USA, the most industrialized countries at that time. Milton C. Whitaker, in 1914, affirmed that the difference between Chemistry and Chemical Engineering lies in the capability of chemical engineers to transfer laboratory findings to the industrial level. Since then, Chemical Engineering underwent huge transformations determining the detachment from the original Chemistry nest. The beginning of the sixties of the 20th century saw the development of a new branch of Chemical Engineering baptized Biomedical Engineering by Peppas and Langer and that now we can name Biological Engineering. Interestingly, although Biological Engineering focused on completely different topics from Chemical Engineering ones, it resorted to the same theoretical tools such as, for instance, mass, energy and momentum balances. Thus, the birth of Biological Engineering may be considered as a Darwinian evolution of Chemical Engineering similar to that experienced by mammals which, returning to water, used legs and arms to swim. From 1960 on, Biological Engineering underwent a considerable evolution as witnessed by the great variety of topics covered such as hemodialysis, release of synthetic drugs, artificial organs and, more recently, delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNA). This review, based on the activities developed in the frame of our PRIN 2010-11 (20109PLMH2) project, tries to recount origins and evolution of Chemical Engineering illustrating several examples of recent and successful applications in the biological field. This, in turn, may stimulate the discussion about the Chemical Engineering students curriculum studiorum update.

  17. Heat Exchanger Lab for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Jonathan W.; Evans, Edward A.; Chase, George G.

    2015-01-01

    Third year chemical engineering undergraduate students at The University of Akron designed and fabricated a heat exchanger for a stirred tank as part of a Chemical Engineering Laboratory course. The heat exchanger portion of this course was three weeks of the fifteen week long semester. Students applied concepts of scale-up and dimensional…

  18. Ecological optimization of endoreversible chemical engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Xia, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Optimal ecological performances of endoreversible chemical engine cycles with both linear and diffusive mass transfer laws are derived by taking an ecological optimization criterion as the objective, which consists of maximizing a function representing the best compromise between the power output and entropy production rate of the chemical engines. Numerical examples are given to show the effects of mass-reservoir chemical potential ratio and mass-transfer coefficient ratio on the ecological function versus the efficiency characteristic of the cycles. The results can provide some theoretical guidelines for the design of practical chemical engines.

  19. Progress in reforming chemical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankat, Phillip C

    2013-01-01

    Three successful historical reforms of chemical engineering education were the triumph of chemical engineering over industrial chemistry, the engineering science revolution, and Engineering Criteria 2000. Current attempts to change teaching methods have relied heavily on dissemination of the results of engineering-education research that show superior student learning with active learning methods. Although slow dissemination of education research results is probably a contributing cause to the slowness of reform, two other causes are likely much more significant. First, teaching is the primary interest of only approximately one-half of engineering faculty. Second, the vast majority of engineering faculty have no training in teaching, but trained professors are on average better teachers. Significant progress in reform will occur if organizations with leverage-National Science Foundation, through CAREER grants, and the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET-use that leverage to require faculty to be trained in pedagogy.

  20. Systems metabolic engineering for chemicals and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Wook; Kim, Tae Yong; Jang, Yu-Sin; Choi, Sol; Lee, Sang Yup

    2011-08-01

    Metabolic engineering has contributed significantly to the enhanced production of various value-added and commodity chemicals and materials from renewable resources in the past two decades. Recently, metabolic engineering has been upgraded to the systems level (thus, systems metabolic engineering) by the integrated use of global technologies of systems biology, fine design capabilities of synthetic biology, and rational-random mutagenesis through evolutionary engineering. By systems metabolic engineering, production of natural and unnatural chemicals and materials can be better optimized in a multiplexed way on a genome scale, with reduced time and effort. Here, we review the recent trends in systems metabolic engineering for the production of chemicals and materials by presenting general strategies and showcasing representative examples.

  1. Teaching and Learning in Chemical Product Engineering - an Evolving par of the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigild, Martin Etchells; Kiil, Søren; Wesselingh, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    and preparing a text book on the subject. [1] Chemical Product Engineering is solidly based on chemical technical and engineering knowledge. Furthermore, the subject naturally calls for a holistic approach to teaching and learning and introduces elements which target transferable and professional engineering......Over the last decade Chemical Product Engineering has evolved as part of the Chemical Engineering Curriculum at several universities in Europe and America. At the DTU Chemical Product Engineering was introduced in 2000. This presentation will report on the experiences gained from teaching classes...... skills. Such skills are important in Chemical Product Engineering when dealing with open-ended problems, creative problem solutions, operating in a team working environment and exercising project management. In our course we emphasise team activites, formative feed back to the students as well as helping...

  2. Electrochemical energy engineering: a new frontier of chemical engineering innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuang; Xu, Bingjun; Yan, Yushan

    2014-01-01

    One of the grand challenges facing humanity today is a safe, clean, and sustainable energy system where combustion no longer dominates. This review proposes that electrochemical energy conversion could set the foundation for such an energy system. It further suggests that a simple switch from an acid to a base membrane coupled with innovative cell designs may lead to a new era of affordable electrochemical devices, including fuel cells, electrolyzers, solar hydrogen generators, and redox flow batteries, for which recent progress is discussed using the authors' work as examples. It also notes that electrochemical energy engineering will likely become a vibrant subdiscipline of chemical engineering and a fertile ground for chemical engineering innovation. To realize this vision, it is necessary to incorporate fundamental electrochemistry and electrochemical engineering principles into the chemical engineering curriculum.

  3. Green chemical engineering aspects of reactive distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Michael F; Huss, Robert S; Doherty, Michael F

    2003-12-01

    Reactive or catalytic distillation technology combines chemical synthesis steps with separations by distillation. This combination can lead to intensified, high-efficiency process systems with significant green engineering attributes. New applications and understanding have prompted growth in the use of reactive distillation for a variety of chemical syntheses, especially esterifications and etherifications involving oxygenated hydrocarbons. We describe several applications and the potential and tradeoffs for reactive distillation technology in the context of green engineering principles.

  4. The role of chemical engineering in pharmaceutical chemical process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, R N; Blacklock, T J; Girgis, M J; Tedesco, A

    1998-11-01

    The task of chemical process development in the pharmaceutical industry has grown into a multidisciplinary endeavor requiring years to complete. Increased competition in the pharmaceutical Additionally, the ever-tightening regulatory environment further compromises the business objective (ultimately, profits). This has required careful analysis of the activities within development. This work discusses the results of this analysis, which shows how a balance between minimal resource utilization and phased development achievements can be reached. The cycle of development, from inception to completion, is examined. Special emphasis is placed upon the role of chemical engineering and its appropriate deployment. Simple examples of the synergies that are possible between chemistry and chemical engineering are also given.

  5. Ionic liquids in chemical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Sebastian; Haumann, Marco; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The development of engineering applications with ionic liquids stretches back to the mid-1990s when the first examples of continuous catalytic processes using ionic liquids and the first studies of ionic liquid-based extractions were published. Ever since, the use of ionic liquids has seen tremendous progress in many fields of chemistry and engineering, and the first commercial applications have been reported. The main driver for ionic liquid engineering applications is to make practical use of their unique property profiles, which are the result of a complex interplay of coulombic, hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. Remarkably, many ionic liquid properties can be tuned in a wide range by structural modifications at their cation and anion. This review highlights specific examples of ionic liquid applications in catalysis and in separation technologies. Additionally, the application of ionic liquids as working fluids in process machines is introduced.

  6. Functional Analysis for Chemical Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkrishna, D.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate level engineering course on functional analysis offered at Purdue University. The course restricts itself to linear problems, specifically analysis of linear operators on vector spaces. Key applications in the course demonstrating the utility of abstract formulations are presented. (BT)

  7. Engineering microbes for efficient production of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Wei; Dole, Sudhanshu; Grabar, Tammy; Collard, Andrew Christopher; Pero, Janice G; Yocum, R Rogers

    2015-04-28

    This present invention relates to production of chemicals from microorganisms that have been genetically engineered and metabolically evolved. Improvements in chemical production have been established, and particular mutations that lead to those improvements have been identified. Specific examples are given in the identification of mutations that occurred during the metabolic evolution of a bacterial strain genetically engineered to produce succinic acid. This present invention also provides a method for evaluating the industrial applicability of mutations that were selected during the metabolic evolution for increased succinic acid production. This present invention further provides microorganisms engineered to have mutations that are selected during metabolic evolution and contribute to improved production of succinic acid, other organic acids and other chemicals of commercial interest.

  8. Chemical Engineering Education - Current and Future Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    The chemical industry today is changed from the chemical industry of twenty-five years ago. Clear evidence of this change comes from the jobs taken by graduating chemical professionals in North America, Europe, and some of the Asian countries. Twenty-five years ago, eighty percent of these gradua......The chemical industry today is changed from the chemical industry of twenty-five years ago. Clear evidence of this change comes from the jobs taken by graduating chemical professionals in North America, Europe, and some of the Asian countries. Twenty-five years ago, eighty percent...... should be measured on their level of knowledge and the understanding they develop, rather than the amount of time they spend with the tutors. According to the Bologna Process, the first and the second cycle degrees should have different orientations and various profiles in order to accommodate...... completion of the first cycle, students can continue their study with a second cycle program of chemical engineering with 90-120 credits for a further 18-24 months. For the first and second cycles, the EFCE recommend a set of programme outcomes (knowledge and understanding, engineering analysis, engineering...

  9. Chemical Kinetic Models for Advanced Engine Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mehl, Marco [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-10-22

    The objectives for this project are as follows: Develop detailed chemical kinetic models for fuel components used in surrogate fuels for compression ignition (CI), homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and reactivity-controlled compression-ignition (RCCI) engines; and Combine component models into surrogate fuel models to represent real transportation fuels. Use them to model low-temperature combustion strategies in HCCI, RCCI, and CI engines that lead to low emissions and high efficiency.

  10. Mini-projects in Chemical Engineering Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeles Cancela

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical engineering laboratory practices based in mini-projects were design and applied the students of forestry engineering in chemical subject. This way of practice reveals a more cooperative learning and a different style of experimentation. The stated goal was to design practices that motivate students and to enable them to develop different skills, including cross teamwork and communication. This paper describes how these practices were developed and the advantages and disadvantages of using this methodology of teaching.

  11. Mathematical modeling a chemical engineer's perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Aris

    1999-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is the art and craft of building a system of equations that is both sufficiently complex to do justice to physical reality and sufficiently simple to give real insight into the situation. Mathematical Modeling: A Chemical Engineer's Perspective provides an elementary introduction to the craft by one of the century's most distinguished practitioners.Though the book is written from a chemical engineering viewpoint, the principles and pitfalls are common to all mathematical modeling of physical systems. Seventeen of the author's frequently cited papers are reprinted to illus

  12. Milestones of Chemical Engineering Development in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hraste, M.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Solving important problems of chemical and process industries stimulated the creation of a new scientific discipline, chemical engineering, which apart from other disciplines includes firm theoretical foundations, core subjects taught to entering students, widely adopted textbooks and journals. The new discipline, at the beginning of the 20th century, provided a way of analyzing the wide variety of processes in terms of small "unit operations". Later, the largely empirical approach of the unit operations was broadened by molecular explanations of macroscopic phenomena. It was not long before chemical engineering extended the operation approach to chemical reaction engineering. At the same time, process optimization prompted the system approach. Instead of looking for details, higher levels of organization were recognized by synthesis. The use of computers has become the key element in process modeling and control. The methods of chemical engineering have extended to other fields, while the discipline keeps the same basis and characteristics.The changes on the global market stimulate new trends in research and education. Product development has become an important segment of the discipline, which presumes an integrated approach to the phenomena and processes at different time and length levels following the possible transfer from molecule to product at process level.This paper mainly deals with the development of this discipline in Croatia, with a preview of the persons that contributed to the acceptance and propagation of the new concepts.

  13. Drug Transport and Pharmacokinetics for Chemical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Laurent; Kanneganti, Kumud; Kim, Kwang Seok

    2010-01-01

    Experiments in continuous-stirred vessels were proposed to introduce methods in pharmacokinetics and drug transport to chemical engineering students. The activities can be incorporated into the curriculum to illustrate fundamentals learned in the classroom. An appreciation for the role of pharmacokinetics in drug discovery will also be gained…

  14. Centrifugal Pump Experiment for Chemical Engineering Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderslice, Nicholas; Oberto, Richard; Marrero, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a Centrifugal Pump Experiment that provided an experiential learning experience to chemical engineering undergraduates at the University of Missouri in the spring of 2010 in the Unit Operations Laboratory course. Lab equipment was used by senior students with computer-based data and control technology. In…

  15. Chemical engineering education: a gallimaufry of thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R Byron

    2010-01-01

    To discuss various facets of chemical engineering education, I proceed step by step through my own education and career. In this way, I touch on various points concerning the operation of the educational system that may be of interest to others.

  16. Interactive Mathematica Simulations in Chemical Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John L.; Nicodemus, Garret D.

    2014-01-01

    Interactive Mathematica simulations with graphical displays of system behavior are an excellent addition to chemical engineering courses. The Manipulate command in Mathematica creates on-screen controls that allow users to change system variables and see the graphical output almost instantaneously. They can be used both in and outside class. More…

  17. Conceptests for a Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, John L.

    2007-01-01

    Examples of conceptests and suggestions for preparing them for use in an undergraduate, chemical engineering thermodynamics course are presented. Conceptests, combined with hand-held transmitters (clickers), is an effective method to engage students in class. This method motivates students, improves their functional understanding of…

  18. Chemical engineering of Mycobacterium tuberculosis dodecin hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinzenz, Xenia; Grosse, Wolfgang; Linne, Uwe; Meissner, Britta; Essen, Lars-Oliver

    2011-10-21

    The suitability for chemical engineering of the highly symmetrical Mycobacterium tuberculosis dodecin was investigated, its inner cavity providing a large compartment shields introduced compounds from bulk solvent. Hybrids were obtained by S-alkylation of cysteine mutants and characterized by spectroscopic methods, including the crystal structures of wild type and biohybrid dodecins.

  19. Chemical-text hybrid search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingyao; Zhou, Bin; Jiang, Shumei; King, Frederick J

    2010-01-01

    As the amount of chemical literature increases, it is critical that researchers be enabled to accurately locate documents related to a particular aspect of a given compound. Existing solutions, based on text and chemical search engines alone, suffer from the inclusion of "false negative" and "false positive" results, and cannot accommodate diverse repertoire of formats currently available for chemical documents. To address these concerns, we developed an approach called Entity-Canonical Keyword Indexing (ECKI), which converts a chemical entity embedded in a data source into its canonical keyword representation prior to being indexed by text search engines. We implemented ECKI using Microsoft Office SharePoint Server Search, and the resultant hybrid search engine not only supported complex mixed chemical and keyword queries but also was applied to both intranet and Internet environments. We envision that the adoption of ECKI will empower researchers to pose more complex search questions that were not readily attainable previously and to obtain answers at much improved speed and accuracy.

  20. Big Data Analytics in Chemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Leo; Lu, Bo; Castillo, Ivan

    2017-02-27

    Big data analytics is the journey to turn data into insights for more informed business and operational decisions. As the chemical engineering community is collecting more data (volume) from different sources (variety), this journey becomes more challenging in terms of using the right data and the right tools (analytics) to make the right decisions in real time (velocity). This article highlights recent big data advancements in five industries, including chemicals, energy, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, and food, and then discusses technical, platform, and culture challenges. To reach the next milestone in multiplying successes to the enterprise level, government, academia, and industry need to collaboratively focus on workforce development and innovation. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Volume 8 is June 7, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  1. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Dixon

    2004-04-26

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  2. Engineering electrical properties of graphene: chemical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Yuna; Novoselov, Konstantin; Hong, Byung Hee

    2015-12-01

    To ensure the high performance of graphene-based devices, it is necessary to engineer the electrical properties of graphene with enhanced conductivity, controlled work function, opened or closed bandgaps, etc. This can be performed by various non-covalent chemical approaches, including molecular adsorption, substrate-induced doping, polymerization on graphene, deposition of metallic thin films or nanoparticles, etc. In addition, covalent approaches such as the substitution of carbon atoms with boron or nitrogen and the functionalization with hydrogen or fluorine are useful to tune the bandgaps more efficiently, with better uniformity and stability. In this review, representative examples of chemically engineered graphene and its device applications will be reviewed, and remaining challenges will be discussed.

  3. The hierarchical structure of chemical engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mooson KWAUK

    2007-01-01

    Around the turn of the present century, scholars began to recognize chemical engineering as a complex system, and have been searching for a convenient point of entry for refreshing its knowledge base. From our study of the dynamic structures of dispersed particles in fluidization and the resulting multi-scale method, we have been attempting to extend our findings to structures prevailing in other multiphase systems as well as in the burgeoning industries producing functional materials. Chemical engineering itself is hierarchically structured. Besides structures based on space and time, such hierarchy could be built from ChE history scaled according to science content, or from ChE operation according to the expenditure of manpower and capital investment.

  4. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2004-11-23

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  5. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.H. Nieder-Westermann

    2005-04-07

    The purpose of this report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The abstraction model is used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of these abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports.

  6. Engineering cyanobacteria for fuels and chemicals production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Li, Yin

    2010-03-01

    The world's energy and global warming crises call for sustainable, renewable, carbon-neutral alternatives to replace fossil fuel resources. Currently, most biofuels are produced from agricultural crops and residues, which lead to concerns about food security and land shortage. Compared to the current biofuel production system, cyanobacteria, as autotrophic prokaryotes, do not require arable land and can grow to high densities by efficiently using solar energy, CO(2), water, and inorganic nutrients. Moreover, powerful genetic techniques of cyanobacteria have been developed. For these reasons, cyanobacteria, which carry out oxygenic photosynthesis, are attractive hosts for production of fuels and chemicals. Recently, several chemicals including ethanol, isobutanol and isoprene have been produced by engineered cyanobacteria directly using solar energy, CO(2), and water. Cyanobacterium is therefore a potential novel cell factory for fuels and chemicals production to address global energy security and climate change issues.

  7. Fluid flow for chemical and process engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, F

    1995-01-01

    This major new edition of a popular undergraduate text covers topics of interest to chemical engineers taking courses on fluid flow. These topics include non-Newtonian flow, gas-liquid two-phase flow, pumping and mixing. It expands on the explanations of principles given in the first edition and is more self-contained. Two strong features of the first edition were the extensive derivation of equations and worked examples to illustrate calculation procedures. These have been retained. A new extended introductory chapter has been provided to give the student a thorough basis to understand the methods covered in subsequent chapters.

  8. EXTENDING THE KNOWLEDGE BASE OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mooson Kwauk

    2005-01-01

    The obvious current reversion to micro-scale investigations in basic chemical engineering, combined with the need, of a quite different nature, in the rapid growth of high added-value and small-lot functional materials, have been pointing to an area not yet sufficiently covered by the unit operations, transport phenomena and chemical reaction engineering. Although it is difficult to define accurately this area, a cursory scan of the activities already in progress has revealed a few common attributes: multi-phased (structured), multi-scaled, multi-disciplined, nonlinear, needs for resolution to reductionism-solvable subsystems, and pervasive in the process industry. From these activities, the present paper drafts a tentative scheme for studying the related problems: first to dissect a problem into various scales - spatial, temporal or otherwise as best suits the case in hand- in order to identify pertinent parameters which are then organized into model formulations. Together with inter-scale model formulations, a zoom-in/zoom-out process is carried out between the scales, by trial-and-error and through reasoning, to arrive at a global formulation of a quantitative solution, in order to derive, eventually, the general from the particular.

  9. ENGINEERED BARRIER SYSTEM: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Jarek

    2005-08-29

    The purpose of this model report is to describe the evolution of the physical and chemical environmental conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository, including the drip shield and waste package surfaces. The resulting seepage evaporation and gas abstraction models are used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. This report develops and documents a set of abstraction-level models that describe the engineered barrier system physical and chemical environment. Where possible, these models use information directly from other reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for TSPA-LA. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782], Section 1.2.2). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system reports. To be consistent with other project documents that address features, events, and processes (FEPs), Table 6.14.1 of the current report includes updates to FEP numbers and FEP subjects for two FEPs identified in the technical work plan (TWP) governing this report (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]). FEP 2.1.09.06.0A (Reduction-oxidation potential in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.06.0B (Reduction-oxidation potential in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). FEP 2.1.09.07.0A (Reaction kinetics in EBS), as listed in Table 2 of the TWP (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173782]), has been updated in the current report to FEP 2.1.09.07.0B (Reaction kinetics in Drifts; see Table 6.14-1). These deviations from the TWP are justified because they improve integration with FEPs

  10. The hierarchical structure of chemical engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mooson; KWAUK

    2007-01-01

    Around the turn of the present century,scholars began to recognize chemical engineering as a com-plex system,and have been searching for a convenient point of entry for refreshing its knowledge base.From our study of the dynamic structures of dispersed particles in fluidization and the resultingmulti-scale method,we have been attempting to extend our findings to structures prevailing in othermultiphase systems as well as in the burgeoning industries producing functional materials.Chemicalengineering itself is hierarchically structured.Besides structures based on space and time,such hier-archy could be built from ChE history scaled according to science content,or from ChE operation ac-cording to the expenditure of manpower and capital investment.

  11. Ethical Standards for Publication in Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering is a publication of the Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China (CIESC) dedicated to present the original contributions of knowledge with permanent value from chemical engineering researcher and technical staff in processing industries in China and the world. The Editors-in-Chief, Associate Editors-in-Chief and Editorial Staff of the journal share the responsibility to maintain the CJChE ethical standards for paper reviewing and handling process.

  12. Ethical Standards for Publication in Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering (CJChE) is a publication of the Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China (CIESC) dedicated to present the original contributions of knowledge with permanent value from chemical engineering researchers and technical staff of process industries in China and the world. The editors-in-chief, associate editors-in-chief and editorial staff of the journal share the responsibility to maintain the CJChE ethical standards for paper reviewing and handling process. The following ethical standards are thought important to the contributors from Chinese and international chemical engineering communities.

  13. Using Simulation to Increase Yields in Chemical Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    William C. Conley

    2003-01-01

    Trying to increase the yields or profit or efficiency (less pollution) of chemical processes is a central goal of the chemical engineer in theory and practice. Certainly sound training in chemistry, business and pollution control help the engineer to set up optimal chemical processes. However, the ever changing demands of customers and business conditions, plus the multivariate complexity of the chemical business can make optimization challenging. Mathematical tools such as statistics and lin...

  14. A Case Study of Search Engine on World Wide Web for Chemical Fiber Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利; 邵世煌; 曾献辉; 尹美华

    2001-01-01

    Search engine is an effective approach to promote the service quality of the World Wide Web. On terms of the analysis of search engines at home and abroad, the developing principle of search engines is given according to the requirement of Web information for chemical fiber engineering. The implementation method for the communication and dynamic refreshment of information on home page of the search engines are elaborated by using programming technology of Active Server Page 3.0 (ASP3.0). The query of chemical fiber information and automatic linking of chemical fiber Web sites can be easily realized by the developed search engine under Internet environment according to users' requirement.

  15. Chemical Engineering Data Analysis Made Easy with DataFit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, James R.

    2006-01-01

    The outline for half of a one-credit-hour course in analysis of chemical engineering data is presented, along with a range of typical problems encountered later on in the chemical engineering curriculum that can be used to reinforce the data analysis skills learned in the course. This mini course allows students to be exposed to a variety of ChE…

  16. Enhancing the Undergraduate Computing Experience in Chemical Engineering CACHE Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Thomas F.

    2006-01-01

    This white paper focuses on the integration and enhancement of the computing experience for undergraduates throughout the chemical engineering curriculum. The computing experience for undergraduates in chemical engineering should have continuity and be coordinated from course to course, because a single software solution is difficult to achieve in…

  17. Introducing DAE Systems in Undergraduate and Graduate Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandela, Ravi Kumar; Sridhar, L. N.; Rengaswamy, Raghunathan

    2010-01-01

    Models play an important role in understanding chemical engineering systems. While differential equation models are taught in standard modeling and control courses, Differential Algebraic Equation (DAE) system models are not usually introduced. These models appear naturally in several chemical engineering problems. In this paper, the introduction…

  18. Results of the 2010 Survey on Teaching Chemical Reaction Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, David L.; Vigeant, Margot A. S.

    2012-01-01

    A survey of faculty teaching the chemical reaction engineering course or sequence during the 2009-2010 academic year at chemical engineering programs in the United States and Canada reveals change in terms of content, timing, and approaches to teaching. The report consists of two parts: first, a statistical and demographic characterization of the…

  19. Brewing as a Comprehensive Learning Platform in Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rudi P.; Sørensen, Jens L.; Simonsen, Morten E.; Madsen, Henrik T.; Muff, Jens; Strandgaard, Morten; Søgaard, Erik G.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical engineering is mostly taught using traditional classroom teaching and laboratory experiments when possible. Being a wide discipline encompassing topics such as analytical chemistry, process design, and microbiology, it may be argued that brewing of beer has many relations to chemical engineering topic-wise. This work illustrates how…

  20. Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and Photovoltaic Unit Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, T. W. F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the nature of semiconductor chemical reactor engineering, illustrating the application of this engineering with research in physical vapor deposition of cadmium sulfide at both the laboratory and unit operations scale and chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon at the laboratory scale. (JN)

  1. Frontiers in Chemical Engineering. Research Needs and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

    Chemical engineers play a key role in industries such as petroleum, food, artificial fibers, petrochemicals, plastics and many others. They are needed to tailor manufacturing technology to the requirements of products and to integrate product and process design. This report discusses how chemical engineers are continuing to address technological…

  2. THEORETICAL CHEMICAL ENGINEERING - Modeling and Simulation by Christo Boyadjiev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Oka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Book Title: THEORETICAL CHEMICAL ENGINEERING - Modeling and Simulation Author(s: Christo Boyadjiev Institute of Chemical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia Publisher: Springer, 2010 ISBN: 978-3-642-10777-1 Review by: Prof. Simeon Oka, Ph. D., Scientific advisor - retired

  3. Chemical engineering design of CO oxidation catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Richard K.

    1987-01-01

    How a chemical reaction engineer would approach the challenge of designing a CO oxidation catalyst for pulsed CO2 lasers is described. CO oxidation catalysts have a long history of application, of course, so it is instructive to first consider the special requirements of the laser application and then to compare them to the characteristics of existing processes which utilize CO oxidation catalysts. All CO2 laser applications require a CO oxidation catalyst with the following characteristics: (1) active at stoichiometric ratios of O2 and CO, (2) no inhibition by CO2 or other components of the laser environment, (3) releases no particulates during vibration or thermal cycling, and (4) long lifetime with a stable activity. In all applications, low consumption of power is desirable, a characteristic especially critical in aerospace applications and, thus, catalyst activity at low temperatures is highly desirable. High power lasers with high pulse repetition rates inherently require circulation of the gas mixture and this forced circulation is available for moving gas past the catalyst. Low repetition rate lasers, however, do not inherently require gas circulation, so a catalyst that did not require such circulation would be favorable from the standpoint of minimum power consumption. Lasers designed for atmospheric penetration of their infrared radiation utilize CO2 formed from rare isotopes of oxygen and this application has the additional constraint that normal abundance oxygen isotopes in the catalyst must not exchange with rare isotopes in the gas mixture.

  4. Multiscale computation from a chemical engineering perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jinghai

    2014-01-01

    This-paper-mainly-discusses-the-multiscale-computation-from-a-chemical-engineering-perspective.-From-the-application-designer’s-perspective,we-propose-a-new-approach-to-investigate-and-develop-both-flexi-ble-and-efficient-computer-architectures.-Based-on-the-requirements-of-applications-within-one-category,we-first-induce-and-extract-some-inherent-computing-patterns-or-core-computing-kernels-from-the-applications.-Some-computing-models-and-innovative-computing-architectures-will-then-be-developed-for-these-patterns-or-kernels,as-well-as-the-software-mapping-techniques.-Finally-those-applications-which-can-share-and-utilize-those-computing-patterns-or-kernels-can-be-executed-very-efficiently-on-those-novel-computing-architectures.-We-think-that-the-proposed-approach-may-not-be-achievable-within-the-existing-technology.-However,we-believe-that-it-will-be-available-in-the-near-future.-Hence,we-will-describe-this-approach-from-the-following-four-as-pects:multiscale-environment-in-the-world,-mesoscale-as-a-key-scale,-energy-minimization-multiscale-(EMMS)paradigm-and-our-perspective.

  5. Thermodynamics an advanced textbook for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Astarita, Gianni

    1989-01-01

    If a Writer would know how to behave himself with relation to Posterity; let him consider in old Books, what he finds, that he is glad to know; and what Omissions he most laments. Jonathan Swift This book emerges from a long story of teaching. I taught chemical engineering thermodynamics for about ten years at the University of Naples in the 1960s, and I still remember the awkwardness that I felt about any textbook I chose to consider-all of them seemed to be vague at best, and the standard of logical rigor seemed immensely inferior to what I could find in books on such other of the students in my first class subjects as calculus and fluid mechanics. One (who is now Prof. F. Gioia of the University of Naples) once asked me a question which I have used here as Example 4. 2-more than 20 years have gone by, and I am still waiting for a more intelligent question from one of my students. At the time, that question compelled me to answer in a way I didn't like, namely "I'll think about it, and I hope I'll have the ...

  6. Experiences on dynamic simulation software in chemical engineering education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komulainen, Tiina M.; Enemark-rasmussen, Rasmus; Sin, Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    Commercial process simulators are increasing interest in the chemical engineer education. In this paper, the use of commercial dynamic simulation software, D-SPICE® and K-Spice®, for three different chemical engineering courses is described and discussed. The courses cover the following topics......: basic chemical engineering, operability and safety analysis and process control. User experiences from both teachers and students are presented. The benefits of dynamic simulation as an additional teaching tool are discussed and summarized. The experiences confirm that commercial dynamic simulators...

  7. Maximum work configurations of finite potential capacity reservoir chemical engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    An isothermal endoreversible chemical engine operating between the finite potential capacity high-chemical-potential reservoir and the infinite potential capacity low-chemical-potential reservoir has been studied in this work.Optimal control theory was applied to determine the optimal cycle configurations corresponding to the maximum work output per cycle for the fixed total cycle time and a universal mass transfer law.Analyses of special examples showed that the optimal cycle configuration with the mass transfer law g∝△μ,where△μis the chemical potential difference,is an isothermal endoreversible chemical engine cycle,in which the chemical potential(or the concentration) of the key component in the working substance of low-chemical-potential side is a constant,while the chemical potentials(or the concentrations) of the key component in the finite potential capacity high-chemical-potential reservoir and the corresponding side working substance change nonlinearly with time,and the difference of the chemical potentials(or the ratio of the concentrations) of the key component between the high-chemical-potential reservoir and the working substance is a constant.While the optimal cycle configuration with the mass transfer law g∝△μc,where △μc is the concentration difference,is different from that with the mass transfer law g∝△μ significantly.When the high-chemical-potential reservoir is also an infinite potential capacity chemical potential reservoir,the optimal cycle configuration of the isothermal endoreversible chemical engine consists of two constant chemical potential branches and two instantaneous constant mass-flux branches,which is independent of the mass transfer law.The object studied in this paper is general,and the results can provide some guidelines for optimal design and operation of real chemical engines.

  8. Microbial chemical factories: recent advances in pathway engineering for synthesis of value added chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamankar, Himanshu; Prather, Kristala L J

    2011-08-01

    The dwindling nature of petroleum and other fossil reserves has provided impetus towards microbial synthesis of fuels and value added chemicals from biomass-derived sugars as a renewable resource. Microbes have naturally evolved enzymes and pathways that can convert biomass into hundreds of unique chemical structures, a property that can be effectively exploited for their engineering into Microbial Chemical Factories (MCFs). De novo pathway engineering facilitates expansion of the repertoire of microbially synthesized compounds beyond natural products. In this review, we visit some recent successes in such novel pathway engineering and optimization, with particular emphasis on the selection and engineering of pathway enzymes and balancing of their accessory cofactors.

  9. Chemical Engineering Education in a Bologna Three Cycle Degree System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    with a second cycle program of ChE with 90-120 credits for a further 18-24 months. For the first and second cycles, the WPE of the EFCE adopt the European Accreditation of Engineering Programmes (EUR-ACE) framework and recommend a set of programme outcomes (knowledge and understanding, engineering analysis......, engineering design, investigations, engineering practice and transferable skills) and a set guidelines (core curriculum, teaching and learning, industrial experience, review of the education process and student assessment) to achieve them. They also propose a minimum set of subjects required to define...... in Europe. To date, many European universities have adopted this degree structure. The Working Party on Education (WPE) of the European Federation of Chemical Engineering (EFCE) carried out research to determine the contents of higher education in chemical engineering (ChE) and related disciplines...

  10. Incorporating Six Sigma Methodology Training into Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lenore L.

    2007-01-01

    Six Sigma is a buzz term in today's technology and business world and there has been increasing interest to initiate Six Sigma training in college education. We have successfully incorporated Six Sigma methodology training into a traditional chemical engineering course, Engineering Experimentation, at Texas Tech University. The students have…

  11. Chemical Information in Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendig, Regina B.

    2009-01-01

    The author sought to determine to what extent the two search engines, Scirus and BASE (Bielefeld Academic Search Engines), would be useful to first-year university students as the first point of searching for chemical information. Five topics were searched and the first ten records of each search result were evaluated with regard to the type of…

  12. New Laboratory Course for Senior-Level Chemical Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Mark T.; Deitcher, Robert W.; Xi, Yuanzhou; Davis, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    A new laboratory course has been developed at the University of Virginia for senior- level chemical engineering students. The new course is based on three 4-week long experiments in bioprocess engineering, energy conversion and catalysis, and polymer synthesis and characterization. The emphasis is on the integration of process steps and the…

  13. Chemical Stimulation of Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Peter, E.

    2008-08-08

    The objective of this project is to design, develop and demonstrate methods for the chemical stimulation of candidate EGS reservoirs as well as the chemical treatment of mineral-scaled wellbores. First, a set of candidate chemical compounds capable of dissolving calcite was identified. A series of tests was then performed on each candidate in order to screen it for thermal stability and reactivity towards calcite. A detailed analysis was then performed on each compound that emerged from the screening tests in order to characterize its decay kinetics and reaction kinetics as functions of temperature and chemical composition. From among the compounds emerging from the laboratory studies, one compounds was chosen for a field experiment in order to verify the laboratory predictions.

  14. 48th Canadian Chemical Engineering conference: technical program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    This is the official CD-ROM for the Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering annual conference. The documents on the disk can be navigated in the same way as a Web site on the Internet. Web pages are located on the disk. A Web browser is required to view most of the files. The conference program contains abstracts of the more than 300 papers presented at 78 sessions covering all aspects of chemical engineering: fluidized bed, reaction catalysis, environment, new developments, biotechnology, process control, polymers, fluid mechanics, pulp and paper, thermodynamics, multiphase reactors, reaction catalysis, rheology, chemical engineering fundamentals, chemical technology, oil and gas, education, and industrial issues. Five of the abstracts have been abstracted separately.

  15. Chemical engineering: Measurements for a competitive age

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) activities supporting chemical research, environmental research, combustion and fuel research, and related industries are described in this video. Highlights include private sector involvement in the research and associated and guest scientist programs, the calibration of customers' instruments, and the direct funding for the NIST research projects by outside industries.

  16. The applicability of chemical alternatives assessment for engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Jacobs, Molly;

    2017-01-01

    The use of alternatives assessment to substitute hazardous chemicals with inherently safer options is gaining momentum worldwide as a legislative and corporate strategy to minimize consumer, occupational, and environmental risks. Engineered nanomaterials represent an interesting case for alternat......The use of alternatives assessment to substitute hazardous chemicals with inherently safer options is gaining momentum worldwide as a legislative and corporate strategy to minimize consumer, occupational, and environmental risks. Engineered nanomaterials represent an interesting case...... for alternatives assessment approaches as they can be considered both emerging “chemicals” of concern, as well as potentially safer alternatives to hazardous chemicals. However, comparing the hazards of nanomaterials to traditional chemicals or to other nanomaterials is challenging and critical elements...... in chemical hazard and exposure assessment may have to be fundamentally altered to sufficiently address nanomaterials. The aim of this paper is to assess the overall applicability of alternatives assessment methods for nanomaterials and outline recommendations to enhance their use in this context. This paper...

  17. Chemically engineered persistent luminescence nanoprobes for bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lécuyer, Thomas; Teston, Eliott; Ramirez-Garcia, Gonzalo; Maldiney, Thomas; Viana, Bruno; Seguin, Johanne; Mignet, Nathalie; Scherman, Daniel; Richard, Cyrille

    2016-01-01

    Imaging nanoprobes are a group of nanosized agents developed for providing improved contrast for bioimaging. Among various imaging probes, optical sensors capable of following biological events or progresses at the cellular and molecular levels are actually actively developed for early detection, accurate diagnosis, and monitoring of the treatment of diseases. The optical activities of nanoprobes can be tuned on demand by chemists by engineering their composition, size and surface nature. This review will focus on researches devoted to the conception of nanoprobes with particular optical properties, called persistent luminescence, and their use as new powerful bioimaging agents in preclinical assays. PMID:27877248

  18. Carbon cycle in advanced coal chemical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Qun; Li, Wenying; Feng, Jie; Xie, Kechang

    2015-08-07

    This review summarizes how the carbon cycle occurs and how to reduce CO2 emissions in highly efficient carbon utilization from the most abundant carbon source, coal. Nowadays, more and more attention has been paid to CO2 emissions and its myriad of sources. Much research has been undertaken on fossil energy and renewable energy and current existing problems, challenges and opportunities in controlling and reducing CO2 emission with technologies of CO2 capture, utilization, and storage. The coal chemical industry is a crucial area in the (CO2 value chain) Carbon Cycle. The realization of clean and effective conversion of coal resources, improving the utilization and efficiency of resources, whilst reducing CO2 emissions is a key area for further development and investigation by the coal chemical industry. Under a weak carbon mitigation policy, the value and price of products from coal conversion are suggested in the carbon cycle.

  19. The role of chemical engineering in process development and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienemann, E; Osifchin, R

    2000-11-01

    This review focuses on the roles that chemical engineers can play in the development, scale-up and optimization of synthetic processes for the production of active pharmaceutical ingredients. This multidisciplinary endeavor involves close collaboration among chemists and chemical engineers, and, for successful products, involves bridging the R&D and manufacturing enterprises. Balancing these disparate elements in the face of ever-mounting competitive pressures to shorten development timelines and ever-tightening regulatory, safety and environmental constraints, has become a critical business objective for all pharmaceutical companies. The concept of focusing development resources on selected critical process features as a function of phase within the development cycle will be discussed. In addition, several examples of chemical engineering- focused process development and optimization will be presented.

  20. Cofactor engineering for advancing chemical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yipeng; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N

    2013-12-01

    Cofactors provide redox carriers for biosynthetic reactions, catabolic reactions and act as important agents in transfer of energy for the cell. Recent advances in manipulating cofactors include culture conditions or additive alterations, genetic modification of host pathways for increased availability of desired cofactor, changes in enzyme cofactor specificity, and introduction of novel redox partners to form effective circuits for biochemical processes and biocatalysts. Genetic strategies to employ ferredoxin, NADH and NADPH most effectively in natural or novel pathways have improved yield and efficiency of large-scale processes for fuels and chemicals and have been demonstrated with a variety of microbial organisms.

  1. Methods in industrial biotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha

    2008-01-01

    In keeping with the definition that biotechnology is really no more than a name given to a set of techniques and processes, the authors apply some set of fuzzy techniques to chemical industry problems such as finding the proper proportion of raw mix to control pollution, to study flow rates, to find out the better quality of products. We use fuzzy control theory, fuzzy neural networks, fuzzy relational equations, genetic algorithms to these problems for solutions. When the solution to the problem can have certain concepts or attributes as indeterminate, the only model that can tackle such a situation is the neutrosophic model. The authors have also used these models in this book to study the use of biotechnology in chemical industries. This book has six chapters. First chapter gives a brief description of biotechnology. Second chapter deals will proper proportion of mix of raw materials in cement industries to minimize pollution using fuzzy control theory. Chapter three gives the method of determination of te...

  2. My contribution to broadening the base of chemical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Roger W H

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a short account, from a personal viewpoint, of the various contributions I have made to expand the academic basis of chemical engineering from its origin in the unifying concept of unit operations, focussed on process design, to encompassing all the professional activities of industrial chemical engineers. This includes all aspects of planning and scheduling the operations as well as designing and controlling the process plant. The span of my career also happens to include the birth of the age of computing, with all the consequential implications.

  3. The role of chemical engineering in medicinal research including Alzheimer's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M

    2015-01-01

    Various disciplines of chemical engineering, especially thermodynamics and kinetics, play an important role in medicinal research and this has been particularly recognized during the last 10-15 years (von Stockar and van der Wielen, J Biotechnol 59:25, 1997; Prausnitz, Fluid Phase Equilib 53:439, 1989; Prausnitz, Pure Appl Chem 79:1435, 2007; Dey and Prausnitz, Ind Eng Chem Res 50:3, 2011; Prausnitz, J Chem Thermodynamics 35:21, 2003; Tsivintzelis et al. AIChE J 55:756, 2009). It is expected that during the twenty-first century chemical engineering and especially thermodynamics can contribute as significantly to the life sciences development as it has been done with the oil and gas and chemical sectors in the twentieth century. Moreover, it has during the recent years recognized that thermodynamics can help in understanding diseases like human cataract, sickle-cell anemia, Creuzfeldt-Jacob ("mad cow" disease), and Alzheimer's which are connected to "protein aggregation." Several articles in the Perspectives section of prominent chemical engineering journals have addressed this issue (Hall, AIChE J 54:1956, 2008; Vekilov, AIChE J 54:2508, 2008). This work reviews recent applications of thermodynamics (and other areas of chemical engineering) first in drug development and then in the understanding of the mechanism of Alzheimer's and similar diseases.

  4. Cyanobacterial metabolic engineering for biofuel and chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Neal J; Rabinovitch-Deere, Christine A; Carroll, Austin L; Nozzi, Nicole E; Case, Anna E; Atsumi, Shota

    2016-12-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 are contributing to the global greenhouse effect. Large scale use of atmospheric CO2 may be a sustainable and renewable means of chemical and liquid fuel production to mitigate global climate change. Photosynthetic organisms are an ideal platform for efficient, natural CO2 conversion to a broad range of chemicals. Cyanobacteria are especially attractive for these purposes, due to their genetic malleability and relatively fast growth rate. Recent years have yielded a range of work in the metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria and have led to greater knowledge of the host metabolism. Understanding of endogenous and heterologous carbon regulation mechanisms leads to the expansion of productive capacity and chemical variety. This review discusses the recent progress in metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria for biofuel and bulk chemical production since 2014.

  5. Efficiency at maximum power of a chemical engine

    CERN Document Server

    Hooyberghs, Hans; Salazar, Alberto; Indekeu, Joseph O; Broeck, Christian Van den

    2013-01-01

    A cyclically operating chemical engine is considered that converts chemical energy into mechanical work. The working fluid is a gas of finite-sized spherical particles interacting through elastic hard collisions. For a generic transport law for particle uptake and release, the efficiency at maximum power $\\eta$ takes the form 1/2+c\\Delta \\mu + O(\\Delta \\mu^2), with 1/2 a universal constant and $\\Delta \\mu$ the chemical potential difference between the particle reservoirs. The linear coefficient c is zero for engines featuring a so-called left/right symmetry or particle fluxes that are antisymmetric in the applied chemical potential difference. Remarkably, the leading constant in $\\eta$ is non-universal with respect to an exceptional modification of the transport law. For a nonlinear transport model we obtain \\eta = 1/(\\theta +1), with \\theta >0 the power of $\\Delta \\mu$ in the transport equation

  6. Cyanobacterial chassis engineering for enhancing production of biofuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinyan; Sun, Tao; Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-04-01

    To reduce dependence on fossil fuels and curb greenhouse effect, cyanobacteria have emerged as an important chassis candidate for producing biofuels and chemicals due to their capability to directly utilize sunlight and CO2 as the sole energy and carbon sources, respectively. Recent progresses in developing and applying various synthetic biology tools have led to the successful constructions of novel pathways of several dozen green fuels and chemicals utilizing cyanobacterial chassis. Meanwhile, it is increasingly recognized that in order to enhance productivity of the synthetic cyanobacterial systems, optimizing and engineering more robust and high-efficient cyanobacterial chassis should not be omitted. In recent years, numerous research studies have been conducted to enhance production of green fuels and chemicals through cyanobacterial chassis modifications involving photosynthesis, CO2 uptake and fixation, products exporting, tolerance, and cellular regulation. In this article, we critically reviewed recent progresses and universal strategies in cyanobacterial chassis engineering to make it more robust and effective for bio-chemicals production.

  7. Integrating chemical engineering fundamentals in the capstone process design project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Woodley, John; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2010-01-01

    to each other. Similarly, in process design, steady state is always assumed for processes (i.e. production of a given chemical occurs at a constant rate, temperature, pressure and composition; feeds enter the plant at constant rates, etc.). However, in practice, chemical plants need to be carefully......, Process Design provides an opportunity for a comprehensive implementation of CDIO principles in a single course. Already the traditional chemical engineering “capstone” design course has for decades embodied many of the essential features of CDIO (for example the focus on group work, development......All B.Eng. courses offered at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) must now follow CDIO standards. The final “capstone” course in the B.Eng. education is Process Design, which for many years has been typical of chemical engineering curricula worldwide. The course at DTU typically has about 30...

  8. Efficiency at maximum power of a chemical engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooyberghs, Hans; Cleuren, Bart; Salazar, Alberto; Indekeu, Joseph O; Van den Broeck, Christian

    2013-10-01

    A cyclically operating chemical engine is considered that converts chemical energy into mechanical work. The working fluid is a gas of finite-sized spherical particles interacting through elastic hard collisions. For a generic transport law for particle uptake and release, the efficiency at maximum power η(mp) [corrected] takes the form 1/2+cΔμ+O(Δμ(2)), with 1∕2 a universal constant and Δμ the chemical potential difference between the particle reservoirs. The linear coefficient c is zero for engines featuring a so-called left/right symmetry or particle fluxes that are antisymmetric in the applied chemical potential difference. Remarkably, the leading constant in η(mp) [corrected] is non-universal with respect to an exceptional modification of the transport law. For a nonlinear transport model, we obtain η(mp) = 1/(θ + 1) [corrected], with θ > 0 the power of Δμ in the transport equation.

  9. Problem-based learning biotechnology courses in chemical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Charles E; Gonzalez, Ramon; Huba, Mary E; Mallapragada, Surya K; Narasimhan, Balaji; Reilly, Peter J; Saunders, Kevin P; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a series of upper undergraduate/graduate lecture and laboratory courses on biotechnological topics to supplement existing biochemical engineering, bioseparations, and biomedical engineering lecture courses. The laboratory courses are based on problem-based learning techniques, featuring two- and three-person teams, journaling, and performance rubrics for guidance and assessment. Participants initially have found them to be difficult, since they had little experience with problem-based learning. To increase enrollment, we are combining the laboratory courses into 2-credit groupings and allowing students to substitute one of them for the second of our 2-credit chemical engineering unit operations laboratory courses.

  10. A Chemical Engineer's Perspective on Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2014-12-04

    Chemical process systems engineering considers complex supply chains which are coupled networks of dynamically interacting systems. The quest to optimize the supply chain while meeting robustness and flexibility constraints in the face of ever changing environments necessitated the development of theoretical and computational tools for the analysis, synthesis and design of such complex engineered architectures. However, it was realized early on that optimality is a complex characteristic required to achieve proper balance between multiple, often competing, objectives. As we begin to unravel life's intricate complexities, we realize that that living systems share similar structural and dynamic characteristics; hence much can be learned about biological complexity from engineered systems. In this article, we draw analogies between concepts in process systems engineering and conceptual models of health and disease; establish connections between these concepts and physiologic modeling; and describe how these mirror onto the physiological counterparts of engineered systems.

  11. Chemical Engineering Division research highlights, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, L.; Webster, D. S.; Barney, D. L.; Cafasso, F. A.; Steindler, M. J.

    1980-06-01

    In 1979, CEN conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) high-temperature, rechargeable lithium/iron sulfide batteries for electric vehicles and electric utility load leveling; (2) ambient-temperature batteries - improved lead-acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron - for electric vehicles; (3) molten carbonate fuel cells for use by electric utilities; (4) coal technology - mainly fluidized-bed combustion of coal in the presence of SO/sub 2/ sorbent of limestone; (5) heat- and seed- recovery technology for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic systems; (6) solar energy collectors and thermal energy storage; (7) fast breeder reactor chemistry research - chemical support of reactor safety studies, chemistry of irradiated fuels, and sodium technology; (8) fuel cycle technology - reprocessing of nuclear fuels, management of nuclear wastes, geologic migration studies, and proof-of-breeding studies for the Light Water Breeder Reactor; (9) magnetic fusion research - lithium processing technology and materials research; and (10) basic energy sciences - homogeneous catalysis, thermodynamics of inorganic and organic materials, environmental chemistry, electrochemistry, and physical properties of salt vapors. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of these areas.

  12. Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis.

  13. Introducing Water-Treatment Subjects into Chemical Engineering Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Proposes that inclusion of waste water treatment subjects within the chemical engineering curriculum can provide students with direct access to environmental issues from both a biotechnological and an ethical perspective. The descriptive details of water recycling at a copper plant and waste water stabilization ponds exemplify this approach from…

  14. Sign control of magnetoresistance through chemically engineered interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, David; Gobbi, Marco; Kinane, Christy J; Eich, Marius; Moodera, Jagadeesh S; Hueso, Luis E

    2014-12-01

    Chemically engineered interfaces are shown to produce inversions of the magnetoresistance in spintronic devices including lithium fluoride interlayers. This behavior is explained by the formation of anti-ferromagnetic difluoride layers. By changing the order of deposition of the different materials, the sign of the magnetoresistance can be deterministically controlled both in organic spin valves and in inorganic magnetic tunnel junctions.

  15. Teaching Technical Writing in a Lab Course in Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Techniques are presented for improving the technical writing of chemical engineering students enrolled in an undergraduate laboratory course. The principles of writing covered are adopted from the book, Style: Lessons in Clarity and Grace, by Joseph M. Williams: General examples of writing are taken from this book and then are recast into examples…

  16. Group Projects in Chemical Engineering Using a Wiki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heys, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    Group projects are common in undergraduate chemical engineering course. Wikis are a new medium for group projects because they are Webpages that are edited using the same software used to view the Webpage. Advantages include the ability to record changes made by each individual (helpful for grading), ability to continuously monitor progress, and a…

  17. Topological engineering of glass for modulating chemical state of dopants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shifeng; Guo, Qiangbing; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Ye, Qun; Masuno, Atsunobu; Zheng, Binbin; Yu, Yongze; Qiu, Jianrong

    2014-12-17

    A novel approach to modulating the chemical state of dopants by engineering the topological features of a glass matrix is presented. The method allows selective stabilization of dopants on a wide range of length scales, from dispersed ions to aggregated clusters to nanoparticles, leading to various intriguing optical phenomena, such as great emission enhancement and ultra-broadband optical amplification.

  18. Incorporating Computational Chemistry into the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    A graduate-level computational chemistry course was designed and developed and carried out in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Worcester Polytechnic Institute in the Fall of 2005. The thrust of the course was a reaction assignment that led students through a series of steps, beginning with energetic predictions based upon fundamental…

  19. Application of Plagiarism Screening Software in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Matthew E.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is an area of increasing concern for written ChE assignments, such as laboratory and design reports, due to ease of access to text and other materials via the internet. This study examines the application of plagiarism screening software to four courses in a university chemical engineering curriculum. The effectiveness of plagiarism…

  20. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

  1. Curriculum Assessment as a Direct Tool in ABET Outcomes Assessment in a Chemical Engineering Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Al-Attar, Hazim

    2010-01-01

    The chemical engineering programme at the United Arab Emirates University is designed to fulfil the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) (A-K) EC2000 criteria. The Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering has established a well-defined process for outcomes assessment for the chemical engineering programme in order to…

  2. The History of Chemical Engineering and Pedagogy: The Paradox of Tradition and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankat, Phillip C.

    2009-01-01

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology started the first US chemical engineering program six score years ago. Since that time, the chemical engineering curriculum has evolved. The latest versions of the curriculum are attempts to broaden chemical engineering to add product engineering, biology and nanotechnology to the traditional process…

  3. A Chemical Engineering Perspective on the Origins of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Grover

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Atoms and molecules assemble into materials, with the material structure determining the properties and ultimate function. Human-made materials and systems have achieved great complexity, such as the integrated circuit and the modern airplane. However, they still do not rival the adaptivity and robustness of biological systems. Understanding the reaction and assembly of molecules on the early Earth is a scientific grand challenge, and also can elucidate the design principles underlying biological materials and systems. This research requires understanding of chemical reactions, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer, optimization, and control. Thus, the discipline of chemical engineering can play a central role in advancing the field. In this paper, an overview of research in the origins field is given, with particular emphasis on the origin of biopolymers and the role of chemical engineering phenomena. A case study is presented to highlight the importance of the environment and its coupling to the chemistry.

  4. Genetic engineering and chemical conjugation of potato virus X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karin L; Uhde-Holzem, Kerstin; Fischer, Rainer; Commandeur, Ulrich; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the genetic engineering and chemical modification of potato virus X (PVX) for the presentation of various peptides, proteins, and fluorescent dyes, or other chemical modifiers. Three different ways of genetic engineering are described and by these means, peptides are successfully expressed not only when the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A sequence or a flexible glycine-serine linker is included, but also when the peptide is fused directly to the PVX coat protein. When larger proteins or unfavorable peptide sequences are presented, a partial fusion via the FMDV 2A sequence is preferable. When these PVX chimeras retain the ability to assemble into viral particles and are thus able to infect plants systemically, they can be utilized to inoculate susceptible plants for isolation of sufficient amounts of virus particles for subsequent chemical modification. Chemical modification is required for the display of nonbiological ligands such as fluorophores, polymers, and small drug compounds. We present three methods of chemical bioconjugation. For direct conjugation of small chemical modifiers to solvent exposed lysines, N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry can be applied. Bio-orthogonal reactions such as copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition or hydrazone ligation are alternatives to achieve more efficient conjugation (e.g., when working with high molecular weight or insoluble ligands). Furthermore, hydrazone ligation offers an attractive route for the introduction of pH-cleavable cargos (e.g., therapeutic molecules).

  5. Chemical engineering challenges and investment opportunities in sustainable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Adam

    2008-01-01

    The chemical and energy industries are transforming as they adjust to the new era of high-priced petroleum and severe global warming. As a result of the transformation, engineering challenges and investment opportunities abound. Rapid evolution and fast growth are expected in cathode and anode materials as well as polymeric electrolytes for vehicular batteries and in high-performance polymer-ceramic composites for wind turbines, fuel-efficient aircraft, and lighter and safer cars. Unique process-engineering opportunities exist in sand-oil, coal, and possibly also shale liquefaction to produce transportation fuel; and also in genetic engineering of photosynthesizing plants and other organisms for their processing into high-performance biodegradable polymers and high-value-added environmentally friendly chemicals. Also, research on the feasibility of mitigation of global warming through enhancement of CO(2) uptake by the southern oceans by fertilization with trace amounts of iron is progressing. Because chemical engineers are uniquely well trained in mathematical modeling of mass transport, flow, and mixing, and also in cost analysis, they are likely to join the oceanographers and marine biologists in this important endeavor.

  6. MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROJECTS FOR SECOND YEAR CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARWAN M. SHAMEL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the second semester of the second year of a Mechanical Engineering course, students are supposed to take a Module Outside the Main Discipline (MOMD. This module is chosen to be “Product Design Exercise” a module that is offered to Chemical Engineering students at the same stage. The aim was to expose students from both disciplines to an environment in which they are encouraged to interact with and engage team members with a relatively different background. The students were divided into eight groups all comprised of Chemical and Mechanical Engineering students, and they were offered different open-ended projects that were selected to exploit the knowledge developed by the students thus far and they were slightly skewed towards Chemical Engineering. The students demonstrated a high level of cooperation and motivation throughout the period of the project. Effective communication and closing of knowledge gaps were prevalent. At the end of the project period, students produced a journal paper in lieu of the project report.

  7. Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Jolley; R. Jarek; P. Mariner

    2004-02-09

    The conceptual and predictive models documented in this Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model report describe the evolution of the physical and chemical conditions within the waste emplacement drifts of the repository. The modeling approaches and model output data will be used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA-LA) to assess the performance of the engineered barrier system and the waste form. These models evaluate the range of potential water compositions within the emplacement drifts, resulting from the interaction of introduced materials and minerals in dust with water seeping into the drifts and with aqueous solutions forming by deliquescence of dust (as influenced by atmospheric conditions), and from thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes in the drift. These models also consider the uncertainty and variability in water chemistry inside the drift and the compositions of introduced materials within the drift. This report develops and documents a set of process- and abstraction-level models that constitute the engineered barrier system: physical and chemical environment model. Where possible, these models use information directly from other process model reports as input, which promotes integration among process models used for total system performance assessment. Specific tasks and activities of modeling the physical and chemical environment are included in the technical work plan ''Technical Work Plan for: In-Drift Geochemistry Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166519]). As described in the technical work plan, the development of this report is coordinated with the development of other engineered barrier system analysis model reports.

  8. Introduction to computational mass transfer with applications to chemical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Kuo-Tsong

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a new computational methodology called Computational Mass Transfer (CMT). It offers an approach to rigorously simulating the mass, heat and momentum transfer under turbulent flow conditions with the help of two newly published models, namely the C’2—εC’ model and the Reynolds  mass flux model, especially with regard to predictions of concentration, temperature and velocity distributions in chemical and related processes. The book will also allow readers to understand the interfacial phenomena accompanying the mass transfer process and methods for modeling the interfacial effect, such as the influences of Marangoni convection and Rayleigh convection. The CMT methodology is demonstrated by means of its applications to typical separation and chemical reaction processes and equipment, including distillation, absorption, adsorption and chemical reactors. Professor Kuo-Tsong Yu is a Member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Dr. Xigang Yuan is a Professor at the School of Chemical Engine...

  9. The applicability of chemical alternatives assessment for engineered nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Rune; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Jacobs, Molly; Tickner, Joel; Ellenbecker, Michael; Baun, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The use of alternatives assessment to substitute hazardous chemicals with inherently safer options is gaining momentum worldwide as a legislative and corporate strategy to minimize consumer, occupational, and environmental risks. Engineered nanomaterials represent an interesting case for alternatives assessment approaches, because they can be considered both emerging "chemicals" of concern, as well as potentially safer alternatives to hazardous chemicals. However, comparing the hazards of nanomaterials to traditional chemicals or to other nanomaterials is challenging, and critical elements in chemical hazard and exposure assessment may have to be fundamentally altered to sufficiently address nanomaterials. The aim of this paper is to assess the overall applicability of alternatives assessment methods for nanomaterials and to outline recommendations to enhance their use in this context. The present paper focuses on the adaptability of existing hazard and exposure assessment approaches to engineered nanomaterials as well as strategies to design inherently safer nanomaterials. We argue that alternatives assessment for nanomaterials is complicated by the sheer number of nanomaterials possible. As a result, the inclusion of new data tools that can efficiently and effectively evaluate nanomaterials as substitutes is needed to strengthen the alternatives assessment process. However, we conclude that with additional tools to enhance traditional hazard and exposure assessment modules of alternatives assessment, such as the use of mechanistic toxicity screens and control banding tools, alternatives assessment can be adapted to evaluate engineered nanomaterials as potential substitutes for chemicals of concern and to ensure safer nanomaterials are incorporated in the design of new products. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:177-187. © 2016 SETAC.

  10. A paradigm-based evolution of chemical engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandru Woinaroschy

    2016-01-01

    A short presentation of chemical engineering evolution, as guided by its paradigms, is exposed. The first paradigm–unit operations–has emerged as a necessity of systematization due to the explosion of chemical industrial applica-tions at the end of 19th century. The birth in the late 1950s of the second paradigm–transport phenomena–was the consequence of the need for a deep, scientific knowledge of the phenomena that explain what happens inside of unit operations. In the second part of 20th century, the importance of chemical product properties and qualities has become essential y in the market fights. Accordingly, it was required with additional and even new fundamen-tal approaches, and product engineering was recognized as the third paradigm. Nowadays chemical industry, as a huge materials and energy consumer, and with a strong ecological impact, couldn't remain outside of sustainability requirements. The basics of the fourth paradigm–sustainable chemical engineering–are now formulated.

  11. Chemically induced electric field: flat band potential engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, T.; Guo, Z.; Li, W.; Atanacio, A. J.; Nowotny, J.

    2012-10-01

    The present work considers engineering of the flat band potential, FBP, of metal oxides in a controlled manner. The aim is to minimise the energy losses related to recombination. The related experimental approaches include imposition of a chemically-induced electric field using the phenomena of segregation, diffusion and the formation of multilayer systems. This paper considers several basic phenomena that allow the modification of the surface charge and the space charge at the gas/solid and solid/liquid interfaces.

  12. Abstracts of the 48. Canadian chemical engineering conference : technical program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The conference was organized into six concurrent sessions devoted to fluidized bed technology, multi-phase reactors, catalysis, environmental technology, new developments, and biotechnology. A total of 491 papers were presented. Papers of particular interest to energy technology emphasized new technologies and chemical engineering techniques involved in processing petroleum products. Fluidized beds for hydro-treatment and biochemical processing, conversion of biomass to bio-oils and strategies for reducing emissions from Canadian energy facilities were some of the topics addressed.

  13. Transferring Knowledge: A Parallel between Teaching Chemical Engineering and Developing Expert Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, P. R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are expert systems development and teaching, the representation and processing of knowledge, knowledge representation in chemical engineering, and expert systems in chemical engineering. The seven phases of expert system development are illustrated. (CW)

  14. A New Venture in Graduate Education: Co-Op Ph.D. Programme in Chemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahidy, Thomas Z.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a cooperative Ph.D. program at the University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, in which industrial and governmental employers participate with the Department of Chemical Engineering in training chemical engineers. (CS)

  15. Engineering Education: Environmental and Chemical Engineering or Technology Curricula--A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavic, Peter; Lukman, Rebeka; Lozano, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Over recent years, universities have been incorporating sustainable development (SD) into their systems, including their curricula. This article analyses the incorporation of SD into the curricula of chemical and environmental engineering or technology bachelor degrees at universities in the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association…

  16. Improving the Practical Education of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Engineering Majors in Chinese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng-qing; Yu, Yi-feng; Ren, Shao-feng; Liu, Shao-jie; Rong, Xin-yu

    2014-01-01

    Practical education in chemical engineering has drawn increasing attention in recent years. This paper discusses two approaches to teaching and learning about experiments among upper-level chemical and pharmaceutical engineering majors in China. On the basis of years of experience in teaching chemical and pharmaceutical engineering, we propose the…

  17. Future of Chemical Engineering: Integrating Biology into the Undergraduate ChE Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosto, Patricia; Savelski, Mariano; Farrell, Stephanie H.; Hecht, Gregory B.

    2007-01-01

    Integrating biology in the chemical engineering curriculum seems to be the future for chemical engineering programs nation and worldwide. Rowan University's efforts to address this need include a unique chemical engineering curriculum with an intensive biology component integrated throughout from freshman to senior years. Freshman and Sophomore…

  18. Showcasing Chemical Engineering Principles through the Production of Biodiesel from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendall, Sophie; Birdsall-Wilson, Max; Jenkins, Rhodri; Chew, Y. M. John; Chuck, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical engineering is rarely encountered before higher-level education in the U.S. or in Europe, leaving prospective students unaware of what an applied chemistry or chemical engineering degree entails. In this lab experiment, we report the implementation of a three-day course to showcase chemical engineering principles for 16-17 year olds…

  19. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering Programme in Ghana: Students' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering…

  20. Holographic black hole engineering at finite baryon chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Rougemont, Romulo

    2016-01-01

    This is a contribution for the Proceedings of the Conference Hot Quarks 2016, held at South Padre Island, Texas, USA, 12-17 September 2016. I briefly review some thermodynamic and baryon transport results obtained from a bottom-up Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton holographic model engineered to describe the physics of the quark-gluon plasma at finite temperature and baryon density. The results for the equation of state, baryon susceptibilities, and the curvature of the crossover band are in quantitative agreement with the corresponding lattice QCD results with $2+1$ flavors and physical quark masses. Baryon diffusion is predicted to be suppressed by increasing the baryon chemical potential.

  1. Immunologically driven chemical engineering of antibodies for catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Sonia; Jovic, Florence; Renard, Pierre-Yves; Taran, Fréderic; Créminon, Christophe; Mioskowski, Charles; Grassi, Jacques

    2002-11-01

    We describe a new strategy for the preparation of catalytic antibodies based on a two-step procedure. Firstly, monoclonal antibodies are selected only if displaying the following binding features: binding both the substrate and a reactive group in such a way that the two groups are in a reactive position towards each other. Secondly, the selected monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are chemically engineered by covalently binding the reactive group into the binding pocket of the antibody. Using previously isolated monoclonal antibodies, we have focused our studies on the control of this second step.

  2. Engineered Barrier Systems Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.E. Lowry

    2001-12-13

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M&O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01.

  3. Engineering Microbial Chemical Factories to Produce Renewable ‘Biomonomers’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake eAdkins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available By applying metabolic engineering tools and strategies to engineer synthetic enzyme pathways, the number and diversity of commodity and specialty chemicals that can be derived directly from renewable feedstocks is rapidly and continually expanding. This of course includes a number of monomer building-block chemicals that can be used to produce replacements to many conventional plastic materials. This review aims to highlight numerous recent and important advancements in the microbial production of these so-called ‘biomonomers’. Relative to naturally-occurring renewable bioplastics, biomonomers offer several important advantages, including improved control over the final polymer structure and purity, the ability to synthesize non-natural copolymers, and allowing products to be excreted from cells which ultimately streamlines downstream recovery and purification. To highlight these features, a handful of biomonomers have been selected as illustrative examples of recent works, including polyamide monomers, styrenic vinyls, hydroxyacids, and diols. Where appropriate, examples of their industrial penetration to date and end-product uses are also highlighted. Novel biomonomers such as these are ultimately paving the way towards new classes of renewable bioplastics that possess a broader diversity of properties than ever before possible.

  4. "Human Nature": Chemical Engineering Students' Ideas about Human Relationships with the Natural World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daphne; Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-01-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The study was…

  5. A view on chemical and biochemical engineering: Where are they going?

    OpenAIRE

    Veljković Vlada B.

    2002-01-01

    A short history of chemical and biochemical engineering is presented, both industrial and educational aspects being considered. The most important trend in the future development of bio/chemical engineering - biological engineering - is pointed out. The current state and near future of biotechnology are described.

  6. "Human Nature": Chemical Engineering Students' Ideas about Human Relationships with the Natural World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daphne; Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-01-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The…

  7. Development of Natural Gas Chemical Engineering in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Qingmin

    1996-01-01

    @@ The equivalent ratio of natural gas to oil has reached 0.73:1 worldwide by 1994. The Chinese output of natural gas and oil ranks the 22nd and 5th respectively in the world's oil and gas production. The quantity equivalent ratio of gas to oil in China is only 0.11:1, which can not meet the needs of future economic development. Since the beginning of the 1990s, the discovery and expansion of natural gas reserves in Sichuan, Shaanxi, Xinjiang and Hainan Provinces and offshore area have brought about a solid foundation for the rapid development of the country's natural gas industry. It is sure that a new era of the development of China's natural gas chemical engineering is coming.

  8. Recent advances in microbial production of fuels and chemicals using tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Changhee; Choi, So Young; Luo, Zi Wei;

    2015-01-01

    The advent of various systems metabolic engineering tools and strategies has enabled more sophisticated engineering of microorganisms for the production of industrially useful fuels and chemicals. Advances in systems metabolic engineering have been made in overproducing natural chemicals and prod......The advent of various systems metabolic engineering tools and strategies has enabled more sophisticated engineering of microorganisms for the production of industrially useful fuels and chemicals. Advances in systems metabolic engineering have been made in overproducing natural chemicals...

  9. Nanostructure Engineered Chemical Sensors for Hazardous Gas and Vapor Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang

    2005-01-01

    A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and metal oxides nanowires or nanobelts, on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to hazardous gases and vapors, such as acetone, benzene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing in our sensor platform can be understood by electron modulation between the nanostructure engineered device and gas molecules. As a result of the electron modulation, the conductance of nanodevice will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost.

  10. Biotechnology for a renewable resources chemicals and fuels industry, biochemical engineering R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villet, R.H.

    1980-04-01

    To establish an effective biotechnology of biomass processing for the production of fuels and chemicals, an integration of research in biochemical engineering, microbial genetics, and biochemistry is required. Reduction of the costs of producing chemicals and fuels from renewable resources will hinge on extensive research in biochemical engineering.

  11. Method of operating a thermal engine powered by a chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Escher, C.

    1988-06-07

    The invention involves a novel method of increasing the efficiency of a thermal engine. Heat is generated by a non-linear chemical reaction of reactants, said heat being transferred to a thermal engine such as Rankine cycle power plant. The novel method includes externally perturbing one or more of the thermodynamic variables of said non-linear chemical reaction. 7 figs.

  12. Peer-Assisted Tutoring in a Chemical Engineering Curriculum: Tutee and Tutor Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieran, Patricia; O'Neill, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Peer-Assisted Tutorials (PATs), a form of Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL), were introduced to a conventional 4-year honours degree programme in Chemical Engineering. PATs were designed to support students in becoming more self-directed in their learning, to develop student confidence in tackling Chemical Engineering problems and to promote effective…

  13. Teaching chemical product design to engineering students: course contents and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Kiil, Søren

    Chemical product design is not taught in the same way as traditional engineering courses like unit operations or transport phenomena. This paper gives an overview of the challenges that we, as teachers, have faced when teaching chemical product design to engineering students. Specific course...

  14. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  15. Method of operating a thermal engine powered by a chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John; Escher, Claus

    1988-01-01

    The invention involves a novel method of increasing the efficiency of a thermal engine. Heat is generated by a non-linear chemical reaction of reactants, said heat being transferred to a thermal engine such as Rankine cycle power plant. The novel method includes externally perturbing one or more of the thermodynamic variables of said non-linear chemical reaction.

  16. Engineering Characteristics of Chemically Treated Water-Repellent Kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngmin Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water-repellent soils have a potential as alternative construction materials that will improve conventional geotechnical structures. In this study, the potential of chemically treated water-repellent kaolin clay as a landfill cover material is explored by examining its characteristics including hydraulic and mechanical properties. In order to provide water repellency to the kaolin clay, the surface of clay particle is modified with organosilanes in concentrations (CO ranging from 0.5% to 10% by weight. As the CO increases, the specific gravity of treated clay tends to decrease, whereas the total organic carbon content of the treated clay tends to increase. The soil-water contact angle increases with an increase in CO until CO = 2.5%, and then maintains an almost constant value (≈134.0°. Resistance to water infiltration is improved by organosilane treatment under low hydrostatic pressure. However, water infiltration resistance under high hydrostatic pressure is reduced or exacerbated to the level of untreated clay. The maximum compacted dry weight density decreases with increasing CO. As the CO increases, the small strain shear modulus increases, whereas the effect of organosilane treatment on the constrained modulus is minimal. The results indicate that water-repellent kaolin clay possesses excellent engineering characteristics for a landfill cover material.

  17. Building an Evaluation Strategy for an Integrated Curriculum in Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Joseph J.; Parker, Robert S.; Abatan, Adetola; Besterfield-Sacre, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Increasing knowledge integration has gained wide-spread support as an important goal in engineering education. The Chemical Engineering Pillars curriculum at the University of Pittsburgh, unique for its use of block scheduling, is one of the first four-year, integrated curricula in engineering, and is specifically designed to facilitate knowledge…

  18. Online Data Resources in Chemical Engineering Education: Impact of the Uncertainty Concept for Thermophysical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Kang, Jeong Won; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Magee, Joseph W.; Diky, Vladimir; Muzny, Chris D.; Kazakov, Andrei F.; Chirico, Robert D.; Frenkel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We review the concept of uncertainty for thermophysical properties and its critical impact for engineering applications in the core courses of chemical engineering education. To facilitate the translation of developments to engineering education, we employ NIST Web Thermo Tables to furnish properties data with their associated expanded…

  19. The role of mathematical modelling in chemical and food engineering studies

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão, Teresa R. S.; Silva, Cristina L. M.

    2003-01-01

    The role of mathematical modelling in chemical and food engineering studies is briefly and consistently presented. The main goal was to give a short global overview of the relevant aspects involved in modelling processes. Food engineering problems are generally highlighted. It must be emphasised that the following matter should not be analysed in a narrow perspective. The mathematical modelling field, in chemical and food engineering subjects, is very wide and this paper just presents the ...

  20. A Summer Leadership Development Program for Chemical Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Annie E.; Evans, Greg J.; Reeve, Doug

    2012-01-01

    The Engineering Leaders of Tomorrow Program (LOT) is a comprehensive curricular, co-curricular, extra-curricular leadership development initiative for engineering students. LOT envisions: "an engineering education that is a life-long foundation for transformational leaders and outstanding citizens." Academic courses, co-curricular certificate…

  1. Assessing the Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering programme in Ghana: students' perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Cyril D.; Cudjoe Bensah, Edem; Ahiekpor, Julius C.

    2012-05-01

    Chemical engineers have played key roles in the growth of the chemical and allied industries in Ghana but indigenous industries that have traditionally been the domain of the informal sector need to be migrated to the formal sector through the entrepreneurship and innovation of chemical engineers. The Higher National Diploma Chemical Engineering programme is being migrated from a subject-based to a competency-based curriculum. This paper evaluates the programme from the point of view of students. Data were drawn from a survey conducted in the department and were analysed using SPSS. The survey involved administering questionnaires to students at all levels in the department. Analysis of the responses indicated that the majority of the students had decided to pursue chemical engineering due to the career opportunities available. Their knowledge of the programme learning outcomes was, however, poor. The study revealed that none of the students was interested in developing indigenous industries.

  2. Chemical compound navigator: a web-based chem-BLAST, chemical taxonomy-based search engine for browsing compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, M D; Vondrasek, Jiri; Wlodawer, Alexander; Rodriguez, H; Bhat, T N

    2006-06-01

    A novel technique to annotate, query, and analyze chemical compounds has been developed and is illustrated by using the inhibitor data on HIV protease-inhibitor complexes. In this method, all chemical compounds are annotated in terms of standard chemical structural fragments. These standard fragments are defined by using criteria, such as chemical classification; structural, chemical, or functional groups; and commercial, scientific or common names or synonyms. These fragments are then organized into a data tree based on their chemical substructures. Search engines have been developed to use this data tree to enable query on inhibitors of HIV protease (http://xpdb.nist.gov/hivsdb/hivsdb.html). These search engines use a new novel technique, Chemical Block Layered Alignment of Substructure Technique (Chem-BLAST) to search on the fragments of an inhibitor to look for its chemical structural neighbors. This novel technique to annotate and query compounds lays the foundation for the use of the Semantic Web concept on chemical compounds to allow end users to group, sort, and search structural neighbors accurately and efficiently. During annotation, it enables the attachment of "meaning" (i.e., semantics) to data in a manner that far exceeds the current practice of associating "metadata" with data by creating a knowledge base (or ontology) associated with compounds. Intended users of the technique are the research community and pharmaceutical industry, for which it will provide a new tool to better identify novel chemical structural neighbors to aid drug discovery.

  3. Engineering microbial electrocatalysis for chemical and fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Miriam A; Henrich, Alexander W

    2014-10-01

    In many biotechnological areas, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have become core technologies for biocatalyst development. Microbial electrocatalysis for biochemical and fuel production is still in its infancy and reactions rates and the product spectrum are currently very low. Therefore, molecular engineering strategies will be crucial for the advancement and realization of many new bioproduction routes using electroactive microorganisms. The complex and unresolved biochemistry and physiology of extracellular electron transfer and the lack of molecular tools for these new non-model hosts for genetic engineering constitute the major challenges for this effort. This review is providing an insight into the current status, challenges and promising approaches of pathway engineering for microbial electrocatalysis.

  4. Integrating the protein and metabolic engineering toolkits for next-generation chemical biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirie, Christopher M; De Mey, Marjan; Jones Prather, Kristala L; Ajikumar, Parayil Kumaran

    2013-04-19

    Through microbial engineering, biosynthesis has the potential to produce thousands of chemicals used in everyday life. Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology are fields driven by the manipulation of genes, genetic regulatory systems, and enzymatic pathways for developing highly productive microbial strains. Fundamentally, it is the biochemical characteristics of the enzymes themselves that dictate flux through a biosynthetic pathway toward the product of interest. As metabolic engineers target sophisticated secondary metabolites, there has been little recognition of the reduced catalytic activity and increased substrate/product promiscuity of the corresponding enzymes compared to those of central metabolism. Thus, fine-tuning these enzymatic characteristics through protein engineering is paramount for developing high-productivity microbial strains for secondary metabolites. Here, we describe the importance of protein engineering for advancing metabolic engineering of secondary metabolism pathways. This pathway integrated enzyme optimization can enhance the collective toolkit of microbial engineering to shape the future of chemical manufacturing.

  5. Transcriptional Engineering of Microalgae: Prospects for High-Value Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajhaiya, Amit K; Ziehe Moreira, Javiera; Pittman, Jon K

    2017-02-01

    Microalgae are diverse microorganisms that are of interest as novel sources of metabolites for various industrial, nutritional, and pharmaceutical applications. Recent studies have demonstrated transcriptional engineering of some metabolic pathways. We propose here that transcriptional engineering could be a viable means to manipulate the biosynthesis of specific high-value metabolic products.

  6. The Chemical Engineering behind How Carbonated Beverages Go Flat: A Hands-On Experiment for Freshmen Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, Keith L.

    2007-01-01

    A hands-on project was developed to educate new chemical engineering students about the types of problems chemical engineers solve and to improve student enthusiasm for studying chemical engineering. In this project, students studied the phenomenon of carbonated beverages going flat. The project was implemented in 2003 and 2004 at Kansas State…

  7. Metabolic Engineering for Production of Biorenewable Fuels and Chemicals: Contributions of Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Jarboe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of fuels and chemicals through microbial fermentation of plant material is a desirable alternative to petrochemical-based production. Fermentative production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals requires the engineering of biocatalysts that can quickly and efficiently convert sugars to target products at a cost that is competitive with existing petrochemical-based processes. It is also important that biocatalysts be robust to extreme fermentation conditions, biomass-derived inhibitors, and their target products. Traditional metabolic engineering has made great advances in this area, but synthetic biology has contributed and will continue to contribute to this field, particularly with next-generation biofuels. This work reviews the use of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology in biocatalyst engineering for biorenewable fuels and chemicals production, such as ethanol, butanol, acetate, lactate, succinate, alanine, and xylitol. We also examine the existing challenges in this area and discuss strategies for improving biocatalyst tolerance to chemical inhibitors.

  8. Toward systems metabolic engineering of Aspergillus and Pichia species for the production of chemicals and biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspeta, Luis; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    trends in systems biology of Aspergillus and Pichia species, highlighting the relevance of these developments for systems metabolic engineering of these organisms for the production of hydrolytic enzymes, biofuels and chemicals from biomass. Metabolic engineering is moving from traditional methods...... for the production of hydrolytic enzymes, biofuels and chemicals from biomass. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim....

  9. Process-oriented knowledge-sharing platform for chemical engineering design projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A process-oriented knowledge-sharing platform is studied to improve knowledge sharing and project management of chemical engineering design enterprises. First, problems and characteristics of knowledge sharing in multi-projects of chemical engineering design are analyzed. Then based on theories of project management, process management, and knowledge management, a process-oriented knowledge-sharing platform is proposed. The platform has three characteristics: knowledge is divided into professional knowledge...

  10. CURRICULUM: A Chemical Engineering Course for Liberal Arts Students--Indigo: A World of Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piergiovanni, Polly R.

    2012-01-01

    Sophomore liberal arts and engineering students enrolled in a course to learn and practice some basic chemical engineering side by side. The course was developed around the theme of indigo dyeing, which has an interesting history, fascinating chemistry and is accessible to all students. The students participated in a variety of active learning…

  11. Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source: An Illustration of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Marguerite A.; May, Nicole; Assaf-Anid, Nada M.; Castaldi, Marco J.

    2006-01-01

    The ever-increasing global demand for energy has sparked renewed interest within the engineering community in the study of sustainable alternative energy sources. This paper discusses a power generation system which uses biomass as "fuel" to illustrate the concepts taught to students taking a graduate level chemical engineering process…

  12. Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.…

  13. An Alternative Educational Approach for an Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course in Industrial and Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Andres; Sanchez-Barba, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    We describe an alternative educational approach for an inorganic chemistry laboratory module named "Experimentation in Chemistry", which is included in Industrial Engineering and Chemical Engineering courses. The main aims of the new approach were to reduce the high levels of failure and dropout on the module and to make the content match the…

  14. Analyzing the Function of Cartilage Replacements: A Laboratory Activity to Teach High School Students Chemical and Tissue Engineering Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Julie N.; Emady, Heather N.; Galas, Richards J., Jr.; Zhange, Rong; Baertsch, Chelsey D.; Liu, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    A cartilage tissue engineering laboratory activity was developed as part of the Exciting Discoveries for Girls in Engineering (EDGE) Summer Camp sponsored by the Women In Engineering Program (WIEP) at Purdue University. Our goal was to increase awareness of chemical engineering and tissue engineering in female high school students through a…

  15. Use of Research-Based Instructional Strategies in Core Chemical Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Michael; Borrego, Maura; Henderson, Charles; Cutler, Stephanie; Froyd, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Traditional lecturing remains the most prevalent mode of instruction despite overwhelming research showing the increased effectiveness of many alternate instructional strategies. This study examines chemical engineering instructors' awareness and use of 12 such instructional strategies. The study also examines how chemical engineering…

  16. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Reactor Analysis: A Web-Based Reactor Design Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbey, Nese; Clay, Molly; Russell, T.W. Fraser

    2014-01-01

    An approach to explain chemical engineering through a Web-based interactive game design was developed and used with college freshman and junior/senior high school students. The goal of this approach was to demonstrate how to model a lab-scale experiment, and use the results to design and operate a chemical reactor. The game incorporates both…

  17. From multiscale modeling to meso-science a chemical engineering perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jinghai; Wang, Wei; Yang, Ning; Liu, Xinhua; Wang, Limin; He, Xianfeng; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Junwu; Kwauk, Mooson

    2013-01-01

    Multiscale modeling is becoming essential for accurate, rapid simulation in science and engineering. This book presents the results of three decades of research on multiscale modeling in process engineering from principles to application, and its generalization for different fields. This book considers the universality of meso-scale phenomena for the first time, and provides insight into the emerging discipline that unifies them, meso-science, as well as new perspectives for virtual process engineering. Multiscale modeling is applied in areas including: multiphase flow and fluid dynamics chemical, biochemical and process engineering mineral processing and metallurgical engineering energy and resources materials science and engineering Jinghai Li is Vice-President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), a professor at the Institute of Process Engineering, CAS, and leader of the EMMS (Energy-minimization multiscale) Group. Wei Ge, Wei Wang, Ning Yang and Junwu Wang are professors at the EMMS Group, part of th...

  18. Engineering yeast metabolism for production of fuels and chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    of metabolic engineering designs, in particular for development of platform strains that can be used for production of a fatty acid derived products, e.g. fatty alcohols and alkanes. It will be argued that with advancement in genome-editing technologies and novel methods for rapid phenotypic screening...

  19. Butanol/diesel blends as a CI engine fuel. Physico-chemical and engine performance characteristics evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, M.K.; Thakre, G.D.; Saxena, R.C.; Sharma, Y.K.; Jain, A.K.; Singal, S.K. [CSIR - Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun, Uttrakhand (India)

    2013-06-01

    Recently, butanol produced by fermentation, known as bio-butanol has emerged as a new alternative fuel for CI engines. However, very little work has been carried out on its use in C.I. engine. In this context current paper deals with the characteristic properties and performance evaluation of butanol as a blending additive in diesel fuels. The butanol-diesel blends are prepared in varying concentrations of 5-l 0% and have been studied for their Corrosion, Tribology, distillation and Physico-chemical characteristics. These characteristics properties are then compared with those of diesel. The study reveals that the butanol-diesel blends offer better cetane number, improved corrosion behaviour and comparable distillation and tribological properties. The engine performance evaluation revealed comparable performance in terms of fuel economy as compared with diesel fuel. Hence, Butanol-diesel blends can be successfully used as an alternative fuel for CI engines. (orig.)

  20. An Extended Algorithm of Flexibility Analysis in Chemical Engineering Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An extended algorithm of flexibility analysis with a local adjusting method for flexibility region of chemical processes, which is based on the active constraint strategy, is proposed, which fully exploits the flexibility region of the process system operation. The hyperrectangular flexibility region determined by the extended algorithm is larger than that calculated by the previous algorithms. The limitation of the proposed algorithm due to imperfect convexity and its corresponding verification measure are also discussed. Both numerical and actual chemical process examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new algorithm.

  1. Combustion in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines: Experiments and Detailed Chemical Kinetic Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, D L

    2002-06-07

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines are being considered as an alternative to diesel engines. The HCCI concept involves premixing fuel and air prior to induction into the cylinder (as is done in current spark-ignition engine) then igniting the fuel-air mixture through the compression process (as is done in current diesel engines). The combustion occurring in an HCCI engine is fundamentally different from a spark-ignition or Diesel engine in that the heat release occurs as a global autoignition process, as opposed to the turbulent flame propagation or mixing controlled combustion used in current engines. The advantage of this global autoignition is that the temperatures within the cylinder are uniformly low, yielding very low emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}, the chief precursors to photochemical smog). The inherent features of HCCI combustion allows for design of engines with efficiency comparable to, or potentially higher than, diesel engines. While HCCI engines have great potential, several technical barriers exist which currently prevent widespread commercialization of this technology. The most significant challenge is that the combustion timing cannot be controlled by typical in-cylinder means. Means of controlling combustion have been demonstrated, but a robust control methodology that is applicable to the entire range of operation has yet to be developed. This research focuses on understanding basic characteristics of controlling and operating HCCI engines. Experiments and detailed chemical kinetic simulations have been applied to the characterize some of the fundamental operational and design characteristics of HCCI engines. Experiments have been conducted on single and multi-cylinder engines to investigate general features of how combustion timing affects the performance and emissions of HCCI engines. Single-zone modeling has been used to characterize and compare the implementation of different control strategies. Multi

  2. PREFACE: Selected papers from the Fourth Topical Conference on Nanoscale Science and Engineering of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael S.; Lee, Gil U.

    2005-07-01

    This special issue of Nanotechnology contains research papers contributed by the participants of the Fourth Topical Conference on Nanoscale Science and Engineering at the Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), which was held in Austin, Texas, USA, 7-12 November, 2004. This conference saw 284 oral presentations from institutions around the world, which is the highest number for this topical conference series to date. These presentations were organized into 64 sessions, covering the range of nanotechnology subject areas in which chemical engineers are currently engaged. These sessions included the following areas. • Fundamentals: thermodynamics at the nanoscale; applications of nanostructured fluids; transport properties in nanophase and nanoscale systems; molecular modelling methods; self and directed assembly at the nanoscale; nanofabrication and nanoscale processing; manipulation of nanophases by external fields; nanoscale systems; adsorption and transport in carbon nanotubes; nanotribology; making the transition from materials and phenomena to new technologies; operation of micro-and nano-systems. • Materials: nanoparticle synthesis and stabilization; nanoscale structure in polymers; nanotemplating of polymers; synthesis of carbon nanotubes and nanotube-based materials; nanowires; nanoparticle assemblies and superlattices; nanoelectronic materials; self-assembly of templated inorganic materials; nanostructured hybrid organic/inorganic materials; gas phase synthesis of nanoparticles; multicomponent structured particles; nano energetic materials; liquid-phase synthesis of nanoparticles. • Energy: synthesis and characterization of nanostructured catalytic materials; nanomaterials and devices for energy applications. • Biotechnology: nanobiotechnology; nanotechnology for the biotechnology and pharmaceuticals industries; nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology for sensors; advances in biomaterials, bionanotechnology, biomimetic

  3. Molecular and chemical engineering of bacteriophages for potential medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodyra, Katarzyna; Dąbrowska, Krystyna

    2015-04-01

    Recent progress in molecular engineering has contributed to the great progress of medicine. However, there are still difficult problems constituting a challenge for molecular biology and biotechnology, e.g. new generation of anticancer agents, alternative biosensors or vaccines. As a biotechnological tool, bacteriophages (phages) offer a promising alternative to traditional approaches. They can be applied as anticancer agents, novel platforms in vaccine design, or as target carriers in drug discovery. Phages also offer solutions for modern cell imaging, biosensor construction or food pathogen detection. Here we present a review of bacteriophage research as a dynamically developing field with promising prospects for further development of medicine and biotechnology.

  4. Engineering Characteristics of Chemically Treated Water-Repellent Kaolin

    OpenAIRE

    Youngmin Choi; Hyunwook Choo; Tae Sup Yun; Changho Lee; Woojin Lee

    2016-01-01

    Water-repellent soils have a potential as alternative construction materials that will improve conventional geotechnical structures. In this study, the potential of chemically treated water-repellent kaolin clay as a landfill cover material is explored by examining its characteristics including hydraulic and mechanical properties. In order to provide water repellency to the kaolin clay, the surface of clay particle is modified with organosilanes in concentrations (CO) ranging from 0.5% to 10%...

  5. Medical chemical engineering the research; Iyo kagaku kogaku ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Kiyotaka [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-05

    He taking the chemical-engineering technique as a weapon, it participates in research and education over the perennial in the field of medical chemical engineering, medical engineering, bioengineering, and the excellent research result has been raised. Moreover, leading research result is raised in these research field which are the interdisciplinary field between medicine and chemical engineering, and the considerable contribution in these fields has been done. He enables the new development of the dialysis technology by advancing the research first of all from the viewpoint of hemodialysis film, hemodialyzer and three of the patient pharmacokinetics, in respect of dialysis technology in the artificial kidney, and developing the original dialysis system enables optimum dialysis treatment. Next, he on the oxygen which is the feed which is the most important for the organism, it originally crosses, and the gas is run in figuring hollow yarn lattice in the hollow yarn inside, and it is clarified that the system for washing the blood outside is advantageous, and it has succeeded in the development of the more efficient artificial lung. And, the artificial gill is examined from the original idea, which takes in the oxygen by using of a film in the oxygen carrier (the substitution blood), as intermediary. Next, he some of the phenomenon in the blood plasma viscosity of patient with renal failure or are measured and the relationship between blood plasma viscosity and disease state is clarified, and the knowledge which is useful for the diagnosis has been obtained. And, it is examined that the quantity that the hydrophobic drug is adsorbed in the albumin differs in normal subject and dialysis patient, and the system for deciding chemical administration quantity to the dialysis patient is being found. Next, in research progress of the above, various measuring technique are devised, and remarkably the research advances. For example, the considerable contribution for

  6. Solar photochemical process engineering for production of fuels and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, J. R.; Peterson, D. B.; Fujita, T.

    1985-01-01

    The engineering costs and performance of a nominal 25,000 scmd (883,000 scfd) photochemical plant to produce dihydrogen from water were studied. Two systems were considered, one based on flat-plate collector/reactors and the other on linear parabolic troughs. Engineering subsystems were specified including the collector/reactor, support hardware, field transport piping, gas compression equipment, and balance-of-plant (BOP) items. Overall plant efficiencies of 10.3 and 11.6 percent are estimated for the flat-plate and trough systems, respectively, based on assumed solar photochemical efficiencies of 12.9 and 14.6 percent. Because of the opposing effects of concentration ratio and operating temperature on efficiency, it was concluded that reactor cooling would be necessary with the trough system. Both active and passive cooling methods were considered. Capital costs and energy costs, for both concentrating and non-concentrating systems, were determined and their sensitivity to efficiency and economic parameters were analyzed. The overall plant efficiency is the single most important factor in determining the cost of the fuel.

  7. Chemistry of fossil fuels and biofuels (cambridge series in chemical engineering)

    CERN Document Server

    Schobert, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on today's major fuel resources - ethanol, biodiesel, wood, natural gas, petroleum products and coal - this book discusses the formation, composition and properties of the fuels, and the ways in which they are processed for commercial use. The book examines the origin of fuels through natural processes such as photosynthesis and the geological transformation of ancient plant material; the relationships between their composition, molecular structures, and physical properties; and the various processes by which they are converted or refined into the fuel products appearing on today's market. Fundamental chemical aspects such as catalysis and the behaviour of reactive intermediates are presented, and global warming and anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are also discussed. The book is suitable for graduate students in energy engineering, chemical engineering, mechanical engineering and chemistry, as well as professional scientists and engineers.

  8. Effectiveness of an Applied Microbiology Course Specifically Designed for Chemical Engineering Majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory B. Hecht

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the disciplines of microbiology and chemical engineering have developed an increasing convergence. To meet the needs of their future employers, today’s chemical engineering students must receive some background in microbiology. This report describes the development and content of “Biological Systems and Applications,” a novel course specifically designed to provide basic biology and applied microbiology knowledge, skills, and experience to sophomore chemical engineering majors. Data collected from entrance and exit surveys of the students demonstrated that the course is successful. The importance of the “project-base” learning technique and of interdisciplinary faculty-student and faculty-faculty collaborations are proposed as elements essential to the success of this particular course.

  9. Effectiveness of an applied microbiology course specifically designed for chemical engineering majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Gregory B; Mosto, Patricia; Slater, C Stewart

    2003-05-01

    In recent years, the disciplines of microbiology and chemical engineering have developed an increasing convergence. To meet the needs of their future employers, today's chemical engineering students must receive some background in microbiology. This report describes the development and content of "Biological Systems and Applications," a novel course specifically designed to provide basic biology and applied microbiology knowledge, skills, and experience to sophomore chemical engineering majors. Data collected from entrance and exit surveys of the students demonstrated that the course is successful. The importance of the "project-base" learning technique and of interdisciplinary faculty-student and faculty-faculty collaborations are proposed as elements essential to the success of this particular course.

  10. Paper-based chemical and biological sensors: Engineering aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Snober; Bui, Minh-Phuong Ngoc; Abbas, Abdennour

    2016-03-15

    Remarkable efforts have been dedicated to paper-based chemosensors and biosensors over the last few years, mainly driven by the promise of reaching the best trade-off between performance, affordability and simplicity. Because of the low-cost and rapid prototyping of these sensors, recent research has been focused on providing affordable diagnostic devices to the developing world. The recent progress in sensitivity, multi-functionality and integration of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs), increasingly suggests that this technology is not only attractive in resource-limited environments but it also represents a serious challenger to silicon, glass and polymer-based biosensors. This review discusses the design, chemistry and engineering aspects of these developments, with a focus on the past few years.

  11. Recent advances in microbial production of fuels and chemicals using tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Changhee; Choi, So Young; Luo, Zi Wei; Lee, Sang Yup

    2015-11-15

    The advent of various systems metabolic engineering tools and strategies has enabled more sophisticated engineering of microorganisms for the production of industrially useful fuels and chemicals. Advances in systems metabolic engineering have been made in overproducing natural chemicals and producing novel non-natural chemicals. In this paper, we review the tools and strategies of systems metabolic engineering employed for the development of microorganisms for the production of various industrially useful chemicals belonging to fuels, building block chemicals, and specialty chemicals, in particular focusing on those reported in the last three years. It was aimed at providing the current landscape of systems metabolic engineering and suggesting directions to address future challenges towards successfully establishing processes for the bio-based production of fuels and chemicals from renewable resources.

  12. `Human nature': Chemical engineering students' ideas about human relationships with the natural world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Daphne; Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Shemesh, Julia

    2014-05-01

    While importance of environmental ethics, as a component of sustainable development, in preparing engineers is widely acknowledged, little research has addressed chemical engineers' environmental concerns. This study aimed to address this void by exploring chemical engineering students' values regarding human-nature relationships. The study was conducted with 247 3rd-4th year chemical engineering students in Israeli Universities. It employed the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP)-questionnaire to which students added written explanations. Quantitative analysis of NEP-scale results shows that the students demonstrated moderately ecocentric orientation. Explanations to the NEP-items reveal diverse, ambivalent ideas regarding the notions embodied in the NEP, strong scientific orientation and reliance on technology for addressing environmental challenges. Endorsing sustainability implies that today's engineers be equipped with an ecological perspective. The capacity of Higher Education to enable engineers to develop dispositions about human-nature interrelationships requires adaptation of curricula towards multidisciplinary, integrative learning addressing social-political-economic-ethical perspectives, and implementing critical-thinking within the socio-scientific issues pedagogical approach.

  13. Design Hybrid Methods for Encoding Prior Knowledge in Feedforward Network with Application in Chemical Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENChongwei; CHENDezhao

    2002-01-01

    Three-layer feedforward networks have been widely used in modeling chemical engineering processes and prior-knowledge-based methods have been introduced to improve their performances.In this paper,we propose the methodology of designing better prior-knowledge-based hybrid methods by combining the existing ones. Then according to this methodology,two hybrid methods,interpolation-optimization (IO) method and interpolation penalty-function (IPF) method,are designed as examples.Finally,both methods are applied to modeling two cases in chemical engineering to investigate their effectiveness.Simulation results show that the performances of the hybrid methods are better than those of their parents.

  14. Artificial Metalloenzymes through Chemical Modification of Engineered Host Proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Zernickel, Anna

    2014-10-01

    With a few exceptions, all organisms are restricted to the 20 canonical amino acids for ribosomal protein biosynthesis. Addition of new amino acids to the genetic code can introduce novel functionalities to proteins, broadening the diversity of biochemical as well as chemical reactions and providing new tools to study protein structure, reactivity, dynamics and protein-protein-interactions. The site directed in vivo incorporation developed by P. G. SCHULTZ and coworkers, using an archeal orthogonal tRNA/aaRS (aminoacyl-tRNA synthase) pair, allows site-specifically insertion of a synthetic unnatural amino acid (UAA) by reprogramming the amber TAG stop codon. A variety of over 80 different UAAs can be introduced by this technique. However by now a very limited number can form kinetically stable bonds to late transition metals. This thesis aims to develop new catalytically active unnatural amino acids or strategies for a posttranslational modification of site-specific amino acids in order to achieve highly enantioselective metallorganic enzyme hybrids (MOEH). As a requirement a stable protein host has to be established, surviving the conditions for incorporation, posttranslational modification and the final catalytic reactions. mTFP* a fluorescent protein was genetically modified by excluding any exposed Cys, His and Met forming a variant mTFP*, which fulfills the required specifications. Posttranslational chemical modification of mTFP* allow the introduction of single site metal chelating moieties. For modification on exposed cysteines different maleiimid containing ligand structures were synthesized. In order to perform copper catalyzed click reactions, suitable unnatural amino acids (para-azido-(L)-phenylalanine, para-ethynyl-(L)-phenylalanine) were synthesized and a non-cytotoxic protocol was established. The triazole ring formed during this reaction may contribute as a moderate σ-donor/π-acceptor ligand to the metal binding site. Since the cell limits the

  15. Engineering and Functional Analysis of Mitotic Kinases Through Chemical Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mathew J K; Jallepalli, Prasad V

    2016-01-01

    During mitosis, multiple protein kinases transform the cytoskeleton and chromosomes into new and highly dynamic structures that mediate the faithful transmission of genetic information and cell division. However, the large number and strong conservation of mammalian kinases in general pose significant obstacles to interrogating them with small molecules, due to the difficulty in identifying and validating those which are truly selective. To overcome this problem, a steric complementation strategy has been developed, in which a bulky "gatekeeper" residue within the active site of the kinase of interest is replaced with a smaller amino acid, such as glycine or alanine. The enlarged catalytic pocket can then be targeted in an allele-specific manner with bulky purine analogs. This strategy provides a general framework for dissecting kinase function with high selectivity, rapid kinetics, and reversibility. In this chapter we discuss the principles and techniques needed to implement this chemical genetic approach in mammalian cells.

  16. Metabolic Engineering of TCA Cycle for Production of Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoristo, Kiira S; Mars, Astrid E; Sanders, Johan P M; Eggink, Gerrit; Weusthuis, Ruud A

    2016-03-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle has been used for decades in the microbial production of chemicals such as citrate, L-glutamate, and succinate. Maximizing yield is key for cost-competitive production. However, for most TCA cycle products, the maximum pathway yield is lower than the theoretical maximum yield (Y(E)). For succinate, this was solved by creating two pathways to the product, using both branches of the TCA cycle, connected by the glyoxylate shunt (GS). A similar solution cannot be applied directly for production of compounds from the oxidative branch of the TCA cycle because irreversible reactions are involved. Here, we describe how this can be overcome and what the impact is on the yield.

  17. Computer-Aided Multiscale Modelling for Chemical Process Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Gani, Rafiqul

    2007-01-01

    T) for model translation, analysis and solution. The integration of ModDev, MoT and ICAS or any other external software or process simulator (using COM-Objects) permits the generation of different models and/or process configurations for purposes of simulation, design and analysis. Consequently, it is possible......Chemical processes are generally modeled through monoscale approaches, which, while not adequate, satisfy a useful role in product-process design. In this case, use of a multi-dimensional and multi-scale model-based approach has importance in product-process development. A computer-aided framework...... for model generation, analysis, solution and implementation is necessary for the development and application of the desired model-based approach for product-centric process design/analysis. This goal is achieved through the combination of a system for model development (ModDev), and a modelling tool (Mo...

  18. The role of chemical engineering in space manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.; Erstfeld, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of factors involved in space manufacturing is presented. It is shown that it will be more economical to obtain the necessary raw materials from the moon than from earth due to earth's greater gravity and atmosphere. Discussion covers what resources can be mined and recovered from the moon and what ranges of industrial feedstock can be provided from lunar materials, noting that metallurgy will be different in space due to the lack of key elements such as H, C, Na, Cl, etc. Also covered are chemical plant design, space environmental factors such as vacuum and zero gravity, recycling requirments, reagent and equipment mass, and unit operations such as materials handling and phase separation. It is concluded that a pilot plant in space could be an economic boon to mankind.

  19. Systems metabolic engineering of microorganisms for natural and non-natural chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Wook; Na, Dokyun; Park, Jong Myoung; Lee, Joungmin; Choi, Sol; Lee, Sang Yup

    2012-05-17

    Growing concerns over limited fossil resources and associated environmental problems are motivating the development of sustainable processes for the production of chemicals, fuels and materials from renewable resources. Metabolic engineering is a key enabling technology for transforming microorganisms into efficient cell factories for these compounds. Systems metabolic engineering, which incorporates the concepts and techniques of systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering at the systems level, offers a conceptual and technological framework to speed the creation of new metabolic enzymes and pathways or the modification of existing pathways for the optimal production of desired products. Here we discuss the general strategies of systems metabolic engineering and examples of its application and offer insights as to when and how each of the different strategies should be used. Finally, we highlight the limitations and challenges to be overcome for the systems metabolic engineering of microorganisms at more advanced levels.

  20. The bioartificial pancreas (BAP): Biological, chemical and engineering challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Veronica; Ricotti, Leonardo; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2016-01-15

    The bioartificial pancreas (BAP) represents a viable solution for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). By encapsulating pancreatic cells in a semipermeable membrane to allow nutrient, insulin and glucose exchange, the side effects produced by islets and whole organ transplantation-related immunosuppressive therapy can be circumvented. Several factors, mainly related to materials properties, capsule morphology and biological environment, play a key role in optimizing BAP systems. The BAP is an extremely complex delivery system for insulin. Despite considerable efforts, in some instances meeting with limited degree of success, a BAP capable of restoring physiological pancreas functions without the need for immunosuppressive drugs and of controlling blood glucose levels especially in large animal models and a few clinical trials, does not exist. The state of the art in terms of materials, fabrication techniques and cell sources, as well as the current status of commercial devices and clinical trials, are described in this overview from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. In addition, challenges to the creation of effective BAP systems are highlighted including future perspectives in terms of component integration from both a biological and an engineering viewpoint.

  1. State estimation of chemical engineering systems tending to multiple solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. G. Salau

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A well-evaluated state covariance matrix avoids error propagation due to divergence issues and, thereby, it is crucial for a successful state estimator design. In this paper we investigate the performance of the state covariance matrices used in three unconstrained Extended Kalman Filter (EKF formulations and one constrained EKF formulation (CEKF. As benchmark case studies we have chosen: a a batch chemical reactor with reversible reactions whose system model and measurement are such that multiple states satisfy the equilibrium condition and b a CSTR with exothermic irreversible reactions and cooling jacket energy balance whose nonlinear behavior includes multiple steady-states and limit cycles. The results have shown that CEKF is in general the best choice of EKF formulations (even if they are constrained with an ad hoc clipping strategy which avoids undesired states for such case studies. Contrary to a clipped EKF formulation, CEKF incorporates constraints into an optimization problem, which minimizes the noise in a least square sense preventing a bad noise distribution. It is also shown that, although the Moving Horizon Estimation (MHE provides greater robustness to a poor guess of the initial state, converging in less steps to the actual states, it is not justified for our examples due to the high additional computational effort.

  2. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runguphan, Weerawat; Keasling, Jay D

    2014-01-01

    As the serious effects of global climate change become apparent and access to fossil fuels becomes more limited, metabolic engineers and synthetic biologists are looking towards greener sources for transportation fuels. In recent years, microbial production of high-energy fuels by economically efficient bioprocesses has emerged as an attractive alternative to the traditional production of transportation fuels. Here, we engineered the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce fatty acid-derived biofuels and chemicals from simple sugars. Specifically, we overexpressed all three fatty acid biosynthesis genes, namely acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC1), fatty acid synthase 1 (FAS1) and fatty acid synthase 2 (FAS2), in S. cerevisiae. When coupled to triacylglycerol (TAG) production, the engineered strain accumulated lipid to more than 17% of its dry cell weight, a four-fold improvement over the control strain. Understanding that TAG cannot be used directly as fuels, we also engineered S. cerevisiae to produce drop-in fuels and chemicals. Altering the terminal "converting enzyme" in the engineered strain led to the production of free fatty acids at a titer of approximately 400 mg/L, fatty alcohols at approximately 100mg/L and fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel) at approximately 5 mg/L directly from simple sugars. We envision that our approach will provide a scalable, controllable and economic route to this important class of chemicals.

  3. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography in the Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Douglas D.; Guo, Hui; Karnik, Nikhila

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the assembly of a simple, low-cost, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system and its use in the undergraduate chemical engineering laboratory course to perform simple experiments. By interpreting the results from these experiments students are able to gain significant experience in the general method of…

  4. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played...

  5. An adaptive moving grid method for solving convection dominated transport equations in chemical engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelling, R.; Bickel, J.; Nieken, U.; Zegeling, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    Convection dominated processes in chemical engineering are frequently accompanied by steep propagating fronts. Numerical simulation of corresponding models with uniform fixed grids requires an excessive amount of grid points along the expected range of the front movement. In this contribution the im

  6. Interdisciplinary Learning for Chemical Engineering Students from Organic Chemistry Synthesis Lab to Reactor Design to Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Matt; Comitz, Richard L.; Biaglow, Andrew; Lachance, Russ; Sloop, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach to the Chemical Engineering curriculum sequence of courses at West Point enabled our students to experience a much more realistic design process, which more closely replicated a real world scenario. Students conduct the synthesis in the organic chemistry lab, then conduct computer modeling of the reaction with ChemCad and…

  7. Integrating Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering Education: The Application of an Environmental Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanes, M. T.; Palomares, A. E.; Sanchez-Tovar, R.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of sustainable development have been integrated in chemical engineering education by means of an environmental management system. These principles have been introduced in the teaching laboratories where students perform their practical classes. In this paper, the implementation of the environmental management system, the problems…

  8. Finding Hidden Chemistry in Ancient Egyptian Artifacts: Pigment Degradation Taught in a Chemical Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gime´nez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to show the application of the study of ancient technology and science on teaching (and learning) chemistry in Chemical Engineering Undergraduate studies. Degradation patterns of pigments used in Ancient Egypt were incorporated in the syllabus of the course entitled "Technological and Scientific…

  9. Incorporating Risk Assessment and Inherently Safer Design Practices into Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Jeffrey R.; Eden, Mario R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces, via case study example, the benefit of including risk assessment methodology and inherently safer design practices into the curriculum for chemical engineering students. This work illustrates how these tools can be applied during the earliest stages of conceptual process design. The impacts of decisions made during…

  10. A Multi-Institution Study of Student Demographics and Outcomes in Chemical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Susan M.; Layton, Richard A.; Ohland, Matthew W.; Brawner, Catherine E.; Long, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    Using a large multi-institutional dataset, we describe demographics and outcomes for students starting in and transferring into chemical engineering (ChE). In this dataset, men outnumber women in ChE except among black students. While ChE starters graduate in ChE at rates comparable to or above their racial/ethnic population average for…

  11. Effect of Continuous Assessment on Learning Outcomes on Two Chemical Engineering Courses: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuunila, R.; Pulkkinen, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of continuous assessment on the learning outcomes of two chemical engineering courses is studied over a several-year period. Average grades and passing percentages of courses after the final examination are reported and also student feedback on the courses is collected. The results indicate significantly better learning…

  12. Incorporating Computer-Aided Software in the Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Core Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaizy, Raafat; Abdel-Jabbar, Nabil; Ibrahim, Taleb H.; Husseini, Ghaleb A.

    2014-01-01

    Introductions of computer-aided software and simulators are implemented during the sophomore-year of the chemical engineering (ChE) curriculum at the American University of Sharjah (AUS). Our faculty concurs that software integration within the curriculum is beneficial to our students, as evidenced by the positive feedback received from industry…

  13. Teaching Population Balances for Chemical Engineering Students: Application to Granulation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucala, Veronica; Pina, Juliana

    2007-01-01

    The population balance equation (PBE) is a useful tool to predict particle size distributions in granulation processes. When PBE is taught to advanced chemical engineering students, the internal coordinates (particle properties) are particularly hard to understand. In this paper, the flow of particles along different coordinates is carefully…

  14. Mitigating the Mathematical Knowledge Gap between High School and First Year University Chemical Engineering Mathematics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basitere, Moses; Ivala, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out at a University of Technology, South Africa, aimed at identifying the existence of the mathematical knowledge gap and evaluating the intervention designed to bridge the knowledge gap amongst students studying first year mathematics at the Chemical Engineering Extended Curriculum Program (ECP). In this…

  15. Ideas to Consider for New Chemical Engineering Educators: Part 1 (Courses Offered Earlier in the Curriculum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Jason M.; Silverstein, David L.; Visco, Donald P., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical engineering faculty members are often asked to teach a core course that they have not taught before. The immediate thought is to come up with some new ideas to revolutionize that core course in ways that will engage students and maximize learning. This paper summarizes the authors' selection of the most effective, innovative approaches…

  16. Development of Chemical Engineering Course Methods Using Action Research: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkki-Hatakka, Terhi; Tuunila, Ritva; Nurkka, Niina

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the systematic development of a teaching methodology for two chemical engineering courses. The aim was to improve the quality of teaching to achieve expected learning outcomes more effectively. The development was carried out over a period of several years based on an action research methodology with data systematically…

  17. Sustainability in the Design, Synthesis and Analysis of Chemical Engineering Processes 1st edition (Preface)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book preface explains the needs found by the book editors for assembling the state of the art of technical and scientific knowledge relevant to chemical engineering, sustainability, and sustainable uses of wastes and materials management, and to do so in an accessible and c...

  18. Using an On-Line Tool To Investigate Chemical Engineering Seniors' Concept of the Design Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streveler, Ruth A.; Miller, Ronald L.; Boyd, Thomas M.

    In this study, multidimensional scaling (MDS) was used to measure how 23 chemical engineering seniors categorized key design terms at the beginning and end of a capstone design course. An on-line method was developed to collect the MDS data. The results suggest that some important design concepts were not well understood, even at the end of the…

  19. Molecular Modeling as a Self-Taught Component of a Conventional Undergraduate Chemical Reaction Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Erhard W.; Zygmunt, William E.

    2016-01-01

    We inserted a self-taught molecular modeling project into an otherwise conventional undergraduate chemical-reaction-engineering course. Our objectives were that students should (a) learn with minimal instructor intervention, (b) gain an appreciation for the relationship between molecular structure and, first, macroscopic state functions in…

  20. Chemical Engineering Education in Japan and the United States: A Perspective (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Sigmund

    1988-01-01

    Compares graduate chemical engineering education practices of the U.S. and Japan. States that Japanese universities have set time limits on degrees due to industrial hiring practices. Concludes that Japanese graduates are highly trained and uniform. They tend to stay in the same job throughout their career. (MVL)

  1. Conceptual Framework to Help Promote Retention and Transfer in the Introductory Chemical Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanyak, Michael E., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In an introductory chemical engineering course, the conceptual framework of a holistic problem-solving methodology in conjunction with a problem-based learning approach has been shown to create a learning environment that nurtures deep learning rather than surface learning. Based on exam scores, student grades are either the same or better than…

  2. Design and analysis of questionnaires for survey skills in chemical engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Lucas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false CA X-NONE X-NONE The new reorganization of university education has involved relevant changes in teaching and learning methodologies in order to help students to learn more effectively and to develop important skills and competences demanded by the professional world. In this sense the new configuration of the degree in Chemical Engineering required the identification of the main general and transferable skills, the implementation of the new teaching and learning strategies necessary to achieve them and, in addition, an evaluation procedure for determining the importance and the degree of development of a student´s skills and competences. In this exercise, two obligatory chemical reactor engineering subjects of the still in effect Chemical Engineering degree were chosen as examples of competence-based learning disciplines. For each one, a significant group of transferable and specific skills were selected to be developed. The identification and selection of skills was made according to the recommendations of the European Federation of Chemical Engineering (EFCE together with the established requirements in the ministerial order for the new Chemical Engineering Degree (Ministerial order CIN/351/2009. In order to check the effectiveness of teaching strategies in helping students to acquire these abilities, specific questionnaires were designed. These tests allowed for the utility of the competences in question to be evaluated in terms of the students´ professional work as future chemical engineering graduates and also facilitated the perception of skill development acquired through the methodology implemented in these subjects. The results of the skill evaluation questionnaires revealed the importance that both university collectives (students and professors give to the development of transferable skills. These skills included the ability to communicate effectively (including in English, to work in

  3. Engineering the biological conversion of methanol to specialty chemicals in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, W Brian; Jones, J Andrew; Bennett, R Kyle; Gonzalez, Jacqueline E; Vernacchio, Victoria R; Collins, Shannon M; Palmer, Michael A; Schmidt, Samuel; Antoniewicz, Maciek R; Koffas, Mattheos A; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2017-01-01

    Methanol is an attractive substrate for biological production of chemicals and fuels. Engineering methylotrophic Escherichia coli as a platform organism for converting methanol to metabolites is desirable. Prior efforts to engineer methylotrophic E. coli were limited by methanol dehydrogenases (Mdhs) with unfavorable enzyme kinetics. We engineered E. coli to utilize methanol using a superior NAD-dependent Mdh from Bacillus stearothermophilus and ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway enzymes from B. methanolicus. Using (13)C-labeling, we demonstrate this E. coli strain converts methanol into biomass components. For example, the key TCA cycle intermediates, succinate and malate, exhibit labeling up to 39%, while the lower glycolytic intermediate, 3-phosphoglycerate, up to 53%. Multiple carbons are labeled for each compound, demonstrating a cycling RuMP pathway for methanol assimilation to support growth. By incorporating the pathway to synthesize the flavanone naringenin, we demonstrate the first example of in vivo conversion of methanol into a specialty chemical in E. coli.

  4. Progressively Fostering Students' Chemical Information Skills in a Three-Year Chemical Engineering Program in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzi, Christel; Arnoux, Marie-Jose´; Breuzard, Jere´my; Marchal, Claire; Nikitine, Clémence; Renaudat, Alice; Toulgoat, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Literature searches are essential for scientists. Thus, courses on how to do a good literature search have been integrated in studies at CPE Lyon for many years. Recently, we modified our pedagogical approach in order to initiate students progressively in the search for chemical information. In addition, this new teaching organization is now based…

  5. Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Lyon

    Full Text Available Assessment of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions is required by planners and policy makers. Seveal areas of concern are: 1. exposure of airport workers and urban residents to toxic chemicals emitted when the engines operate at low power (idle and taxi on the ground; 2. contributions to urban photochemical air pollution of aircraft volatile organic and nitrogen oxides emissions from operations around airports; and 3. emissions of nitrogen oxides and particles during high-altitude operation. The environmental impact of chemicals emitted from jet aircraft turbine engines has not been firmly established due to lack of data regarding emission rates and identities of the compounds emitted. This paper describes an experimental study of two different aircraft turbine engines designed to determine detailed organic emissions, as well as emissions of inorganic gases. Emissions were measured at several engine power settings. Measurements were made of detailed organic composition from C1 through C17, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements were made using a multi-port sampling pro be positioned directly behind the engine in the exhaust exit plane. The emission measurements have been used to determine the organic distribution by carbon number and the distribution by compound class at each engine power level. The sum of the organic species was compared with an independent measurement of total organic carbon to assess the carbon mass balance. A portion of the exhaust was captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers to assess the photochemical reactivity of the emissions with respect to ozone formation. The reactivity of emissions from the two engines was apportioned by chemical compound class.

  6. Optimization of a Reduced Chemical Kinetic Model for HCCI Engine Simulations by Micro-Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A reduced chemical kinetic model (44 species and 72 reactions) for the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion of n-heptane was optimized to improve its autoignition predictions under different engine operating conditions. The seven kinetic parameters of the optimized model were determined by using the combination of a micro-genetic algorithm optimization methodology and the SENKIN program of CHEMKIN chemical kinetics software package. The optimization was performed within the range of equivalence ratios 0.2-1.2, initial temperature 310-375 K and initial pressure 0.1-0.3 MPa. The engine simulations show that the optimized model agrees better with the detailed chemical kinetic model (544 species and 2 446 reactions) than the original model does.

  7. Metabolic engineering of strains: from industrial-scale to lab-scale chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Alper, Hal S

    2015-03-01

    A plethora of successful metabolic engineering case studies have been published over the past several decades. Here, we highlight a collection of microbially produced chemicals using a historical framework, starting with titers ranging from industrial scale (more than 50 g/L), to medium-scale (5-50 g/L), and lab-scale (0-5 g/L). Although engineered Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae emerge as prominent hosts in the literature as a result of well-developed genetic engineering tools, several novel native-producing strains are gaining attention. This review catalogs the current progress of metabolic engineering towards production of compounds such as acids, alcohols, amino acids, natural organic compounds, and others.

  8. Fueling Chemical Engineering Concepts with Biodiesel Production: A Professional Development Experience for High School Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anju

    2015-01-01

    This one-day workshop for pre-service teachers was aimed at implementing a uniquely designed and ready-to-implement chemical engineering curriculum in high school coursework. This educational and professional development opportunity introduced: 1) chemical engineering curriculum and career opportunities, 2) basic industrial processes and flow…

  9. Strategies and applications for incorporating physical and chemical signal gradients in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Milind; Berkland, Cory; Detamore, Michael S

    2008-12-01

    From embryonic development to wound repair, concentration gradients of bioactive signaling molecules guide tissue formation and regeneration. Moreover, gradients in cellular and extracellular architecture as well as in mechanical properties are readily apparent in native tissues. Perhaps tissue engineers can take a cue from nature in attempting to regenerate tissues by incorporating gradients into engineering design strategies. Indeed, gradient-based approaches are an emerging trend in tissue engineering, standing in contrast to traditional approaches of homogeneous delivery of cells and/or growth factors using isotropic scaffolds. Gradients in tissue engineering lie at the intersection of three major paradigms in the field-biomimetic, interfacial, and functional tissue engineering-by combining physical (via biomaterial design) and chemical (with growth/differentiation factors and cell adhesion molecules) signal delivery to achieve a continuous transition in both structure and function. This review consolidates several key methodologies to generate gradients, some of which have never been employed in a tissue engineering application, and discusses strategies for incorporating these methods into tissue engineering and implant design. A key finding of this review was that two-dimensional physicochemical gradient substrates, which serve as excellent high-throughput screening tools for optimizing desired biomaterial properties, can be enhanced in the future by transitioning from two dimensions to three dimensions, which would enable studies of cell-protein-biomaterial interactions in a more native tissue-like environment. In addition, biomimetic tissue regeneration via combined delivery of graded physical and chemical signals appears to be a promising strategy for the regeneration of heterogeneous tissues and tissue interfaces. In the future, in vivo applications will shed more light on the performance of gradient-based mechanical integrity and signal delivery

  10. Fungi as chemical industries and genetic engineering for the production of biologically active secondary metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid; Ali; Khan; Nafees; Bacha; Bashir; Ahmad; Ghosia; Lutfullah; Umar; Farooq; Russell; John; Cox

    2014-01-01

    Fungi is somewhere in between the micro and macro organisms which is a good source of producing biologically active secondary metabolites.Fungi have been used as tool for producing different types of secondary metabolites by providing different nutrients at different laboratory conditions.The fungi have been engineered for the desired secondary metabolites by using different laboratory techniques,for example,homologous and heterologous expressions.This review reported how the fungi are used as chemical industry for the production of secondary metabolites and how they are engineered in laboratory for the production of desirable metabolites:also the biosynthetic pathways of the bio-organic-molecules were reported.

  11. Fungi as chemical industries and genetic engineering for the production of biologically active secondary metabolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid Ali Khan; Nafees Bacha; Bashir Ahmad; Ghosia Lutfullah; Umar Farooq; Russell John Cox

    2014-01-01

    Fungi is somewhere in between the micro and macro organisms which is a good source of producing biologically active secondary metabolites. Fungi have been used as tool for producing different types of secondary metabolites by providing different nutrients at different laboratory conditions. The fungi have been engineered for the desired secondary metabolites by using different laboratory techniques, for example, homologous and heterologous expressions. This review reported how the fungi are used as chemical industry for the production of secondary metabolites and how they are engineered in laboratory for the production of desirable metabolites;also the biosynthetic pathways of the bio-organic-molecules were reported.

  12. Coagulation sensors based on magnetostrictive delay lines for biomedical and chemical engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maliaritsi, E. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, School of Mining and Metallurgy Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, Athens 15780 (Greece); Zoumpoulakis, L. [Laboratory of Materials Science and Technology, Inter-disciplinary Postgraduate Programme of NTUA, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 157 73 Athens (Greece); Simitzis, J. [Laboratory of Materials Science and Technology, Inter-disciplinary Postgraduate Programme of NTUA, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 157 73 Athens (Greece); Vassiliou, P. [Iaso General Hospital, Athens (Greece); Hristoforou, E. [Laboratory of Physical Metallurgy, School of Mining and Metallurgy Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, Athens 15780 (Greece)]. E-mail: eh@metal.ntua.gr

    2006-04-15

    Coagulation sensors based on the magnetostrictive delay line technique are presented in this paper. They are based on magnetostrictive ribbons and are used for measuring the coagulation, curing or solidification time of different liquids. Experimental results indicate that the presented sensing elements can determine the blood coagulation with remarkable repeatability, thus allowing their use as blood coagulation sensors. Additionally, results indicate that they can also measure curing time of resins, solidification of fluids and coagulation of chemical substances, therefore allowing their implementation in chemical engineering applications.

  13. Mimicking Neurotransmitter Release in Chemical Synapses via Hysteresis Engineering in MoS2 Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Andrew J; Razavieh, Ali; Nasr, Joseph R; Schulman, Daniel S; Eichfeld, Chad M; Das, Saptarshi

    2017-03-10

    Neurotransmitter release in chemical synapses is fundamental to diverse brain functions such as motor action, learning, cognition, emotion, perception, and consciousness. Moreover, improper functioning or abnormal release of neurotransmitter is associated with numerous neurological disorders such as epilepsy, sclerosis, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. We have utilized hysteresis engineering in a back-gated MoS2 field effect transistor (FET) in order to mimic such neurotransmitter release dynamics in chemical synapses. All three essential features, i.e., quantal, stochastic, and excitatory or inhibitory nature of neurotransmitter release, were accurately captured in our experimental demonstration. We also mimicked an important phenomenon called long-term potentiation (LTP), which forms the basis of human memory. Finally, we demonstrated how to engineer the LTP time by operating the MoS2 FET in different regimes. Our findings could provide a critical component toward the design of next-generation smart and intelligent human-like machines and human-machine interfaces.

  14. Top-cited Articles in Chemical Engineering in Science Citation Index Expanded: A Bibliometric Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuh-Shan Ho

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify and to analyze characteristics of top-cited articles published in the Web of Science chemical engineering subject category from 1899 to 2011. Articles that have been cited more than 100 times were assessed regarding publication outputs, and distribution of outputs in journals. Five bibliometric indica- tors were used to evaluate source countries, institution and authors. A new indicator, Y-index, was created to assess quantity and quality of contribution to articles. Results showed that 3828 articles, published between 1931 and 2010, had been cited at least 100 times. Among them 54% published before 1991, and 49% top-cited articles originated from US. The top eight productive institutions were all located in US. The top journals were Journal of Catalysis, AIChE Journal, Chemical Engineering Science and Journal of Membrane Science. Y-index was successfully ap- plied to evaluate publication character of authors, institutions, and countries/regions.

  15. Impact of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering on industrial production of fine chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullesson, David; David, Florian; Pfleger, Brian; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-11-15

    Industrial bio-processes for fine chemical production are increasingly relying on cell factories developed through metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. The use of high throughput techniques and automation for the design of cell factories, and especially platform strains, has played an important role in the transition from laboratory research to industrial production. Model organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli remain widely used host strains for industrial production due to their robust and desirable traits. This review describes some of the bio-based fine chemicals that have reached the market, key metabolic engineering tools that have allowed this to happen and some of the companies that are currently utilizing these technologies for developing industrial production processes.

  16. Primjena infracrvene termografije u kemijskom inženjerstvu (Application of Infrared Thermography in Chemical Engineering)

    OpenAIRE

    N. Bolf

    2004-01-01

    The infrared (IR) thermography has become a powerful tool for basic and applied research in various scientific fields, varying from heat transfer to non-destructive testing, fluids and solids mechanics, biomedical application, environmental protection, etc. This paper has the intention to familiarize researchers and industrial staff with possibilities of applying IR thermography in the field of chemical engineering and process industry aiming in safe operating, saving of energy and environme...

  17. Use of computer simulations for improving teaching in the Chemical Engineering laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Cuevas-Aranda; Diego G. Fernández-Valdivia; María Luisa Parra-Ruiz; Sofía Navarro-Nieto

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Virtual labs can be adopted as a complement of the university traditional teaching methodologies. This paper describes the results of a teaching pilot project which enabled the use of a commercial processsimulator (Hysys) in the implementation of five virtual labs related to three important unit operations in Chemical Engineering: liquid-liquid extraction, distillation, and heat exchange. The software provided a new approach to the analysis and interpretation of lab results b...

  18. Chemical and Biophysical Modulation of Cas9 for Tunable Genome Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, James K; Harrington, Lucas B; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2016-03-18

    The application of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for genome engineering has revolutionized the ability to interrogate genomes of mammalian cells. Programming the Cas9 endonuclease to induce DNA breaks at specified sites is achieved by simply modifying the sequence of its cognate guide RNA. Although Cas9-mediated genome editing has been shown to be highly specific, cleavage events at off-target sites have also been reported. Minimizing, and eventually abolishing, unwanted off-target cleavage remains a major goal of the CRISPR-Cas9 technology before its implementation for therapeutic use. Recent efforts have turned to chemical biology and biophysical approaches to engineer inducible genome editing systems for controlling Cas9 activity at the transcriptional and protein levels. Here, we review recent advancements to modulate Cas9-mediated genome editing by engineering split-Cas9 constructs, inteins, small molecules, protein-based dimerizing domains, and light-inducible systems.

  19. Quasi-Dimensional Modeling of a CNG Fueled HCCI Engine Combustion Using Detailed Chemical Kinetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Bakhshan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an in-house quasi dimensional code has been developed which simulates the intake, compression, combustion, expansion and exhaust strokes of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI engine. The compressed natural gas (CNG has been used as fuel. A detailed chemical kinetic scheme constituting of 310 and 1701 elementary equations developed by Bakhshan et al. has been applied for combustion modeling and heat release calculations. The zero-dimensional k-ε turbulence model has been used for calculation of heat transfer. The output results are the performance and pollutants emission and combustion characteristics in HCCI engines. Parametric studies have been conducted to discussing the effects of various parameters on performance and pollutants emission of these engines.

  20. Engineering and Evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Produce Biofuels and Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Timothy L; Kim, Heejin; Kong, In Iok; Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-12-03

    To mitigate global climate change caused partly by the use of fossil fuels, the production of fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass has been attempted. The conversion of various sugars from renewable biomass into biofuels by engineered baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is one major direction which has grown dramatically in recent years. As well as shifting away from fossil fuels, the production of commodity chemicals by engineered S. cerevisiae has also increased significantly. The traditional approaches of biochemical and metabolic engineering to develop economic bioconversion processes in laboratory and industrial settings have been accelerated by rapid advancements in the areas of yeast genomics, synthetic biology, and systems biology. Together, these innovations have resulted in rapid and efficient manipulation of S. cerevisiae to expand fermentable substrates and diversify value-added products. Here, we discuss recent and major advances in rational (relying on prior experimentally-derived knowledge) and combinatorial (relying on high-throughput screening and genomics) approaches to engineer S. cerevisiae for producing ethanol, butanol, 2,3-butanediol, fatty acid ethyl esters, isoprenoids, organic acids, rare sugars, antioxidants, and sugar alcohols from glucose, xylose, cellobiose, galactose, acetate, alginate, mannitol, arabinose, and lactose.

  1. Chemically engineering ligand selectivity at the free fatty acid receptor 2 based on pharmacological variation between species orthologs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Brian D; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Tikhonova, Irina G

    2012-01-01

    When it is difficult to develop selective ligands within a family of related G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), chemically engineered receptors activated solely by synthetic ligands (RASSLs) are useful alternatives for probing receptor function. In the present work, we explored whether a RASSL...... on this receptor and demonstrates that exploitation of pharmacological variation between species orthologs is a powerful method to generate novel chemically engineered GPCRs.-Hudson, B. D., Christiansen, E., Tikhonova, I. G., Grundmann, M., Kostenis, E., Adams, D. R., Ulven, T., Milligan, G. Chemically engineering...

  2. Engineering an Obligate Photoautotrophic Cyanobacterium to Utilize Glycerol for Growth and Chemical Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Masahiro; Atsumi, Shota

    2017-01-20

    Cyanobacteria have attracted much attention as a means to directly recycle carbon dioxide into valuable chemicals that are currently produced from petroleum. However, the titers and productivities achieved are still far below the level required in industry. To make a more industrially applicable production scheme, glycerol, a byproduct of biodiesel production, can be used as an additional carbon source for photomixotrophic chemical production. Glycerol is an ideal candidate due to its availability and low cost. In this study, we found that a heterologous glycerol respiratory pathway enabled Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to utilize extracellular glycerol. The engineered strain produced 761 mg/L of 2,3-butanediol in 48 h with a 290% increase over the control strain under continuous light conditions. Glycerol supplementation also allowed for continuous cell growth and 2,3-butanediol production in diurnal light conditions. These results highlight the potential of glycerol as an additional carbon source for photomixotrophic chemical production in cyanobacteria.

  3. World War I chemical weapons bunker engineering evaluation and cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, C.A.; Crotteau, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides a review of the US Army Corps of Engineers development and execution of a CERCLA chemical weapons and soil removal from two World War 1 underground test bunkers. The non-time critical removal action was completed from October 1994 to January 1995 in conjunction with Operation Safe Removal, Spring Valley, Washington, D.C. On January 5, 1993, a startled backhoe operator unearthed three 75mm artillery shells, exposing the legacy of a World War 1 (WWI) chemical weapons test facility in the midst of the nation`s capitol. That discovery, made in an exclusive residential neighborhood, prompted an intensive two year environmental cleanup. The Army immediately responded to the chemical ordnance threat, initiating Operation Safe Removal, a $20 million emergency response action and remedial investigation.

  4. Development of Therapeutic-Grade Small Interfering RNAs by Chemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramsen, Jesper B; Kjems, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Recent successes in clinical trials have provided important proof of concept that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) indeed constitute a new promising class of therapeutics. Although great efforts are still needed to ensure efficient means of delivery in vivo, the siRNA molecule itself has been successfully engineered by chemical modification to meet initial challenges regarding specificity, stability, and immunogenicity. To date, a great wealth of siRNA architectures and types of chemical modification are available for promoting safe siRNA-mediated gene silencing in vivo and, consequently, the choice of design and modification types can be challenging to individual experimenters. Here we review the literature and devise how to improve siRNA performance by structural design and specific chemical modification to ensure potent and specific gene silencing without unwarranted side-effects and hereby complement the ongoing efforts to improve cell targeting and delivery by other carrier molecules.

  5. Advances in metabolic pathway and strain engineering paving the way for sustainable production of chemical building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Bio-based production of chemical building blocks from renewable resources is an attractive alternative to petroleum-based platform chemicals. Metabolic pathway and strain engineering is the key element in constructing robust microbial chemical factories within the constraints of cost effective pr...... developments contribute to the development of novel cell factories for the production of the building block chemicals: adipic acid, succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid....

  6. Expanding the chemical palate of cells by combining systems biology and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Kathleen A; Alper, Hal S

    2012-07-01

    The field of Metabolic Engineering has recently undergone a transformation that has led to a rapid expansion of the chemical palate of cells. Now, it is conceivable to produce nearly any organic molecule of interest using a cellular host. Significant advances have been made in the production of biofuels, biopolymers and precursors, pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, and commodity and specialty chemicals. Much of this rapid expansion in the field has been, in part, due to synergies and advances in the area of systems biology. Specifically, the availability of functional genomics, metabolomics and transcriptomics data has resulted in the potential to produce a wealth of new products, both natural and non-natural, in cellular factories. The sheer amount and diversity of this data however, means that uncovering and unlocking novel chemistries and insights is a non-obvious exercise. To address this issue, a number of computational tools and experimental approaches have been developed to help expedite the design process to create new cellular factories. This review will highlight many of the systems biology enabling technologies that have reduced the design cycle for engineered hosts, highlight major advances in the expanded diversity of products that can be synthesized, and conclude with future prospects in the field of metabolic engineering.

  7. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli: a sustainable industrial platform for bio-based chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianzhong; Zhou, Li; Tian, Kangming; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Suren; Prior, Bernard A; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2013-12-01

    In order to decrease carbon emissions and negative environmental impacts of various pollutants, more bulk and/or fine chemicals are produced by bioprocesses, replacing the traditional energy and fossil based intensive route. The Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium, Escherichia coli has been studied extensively on a fundamental and applied level and has become a predominant host microorganism for industrial applications. Furthermore, metabolic engineering of E. coli for the enhanced biochemical production has been significantly promoted by the integrated use of recent developments in systems biology, synthetic biology and evolutionary engineering. In this review, we focus on recent efforts devoted to the use of genetically engineered E. coli as a sustainable platform for the production of industrially important biochemicals such as biofuels, organic acids, amino acids, sugar alcohols and biopolymers. In addition, representative secondary metabolites produced by E. coli will be systematically discussed and the successful strategies for strain improvements will be highlighted. Moreover, this review presents guidelines for future developments in the bio-based chemical production using E. coli as an industrial platform.

  8. Inquiry guided learning in a chemical engineering core curriculum: General instructional approach and specific application to the fluid mechanics case

    OpenAIRE

    Atilhan, Mert; Eljack, Fadwa; Alfadala, Hassan; Froyd, Jeffrey E.; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud; Mahalec, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from a preliminary study of the effectiveness of using inquiry-guided learning instructional strategies both in chemical engineering classrooms and laboratories. For readers unfamiliar with the instructional strategy, the paper describes the general approach and then reports on results of its application for the fluid mechanics course taken by undergraduate students in the Chemical Engineering Department at Qatar University. Inquiry-guided activities were developed...

  9. Chemical Reaction Route Selection Based on Green Chemical Engineering%基于绿色化工的化学反应路径选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何潮洪; 葛挺峰; S.H.Yang; D.W.Edwards

    2004-01-01

    In the preliminary stage of chemical process design, the choice of chemical reaction route is the key design decision, and the concepts of atom utilization and environmental quotient have become extremely useful tools. However, the waste quality such as chemical toxicity and other engineering factors have not been taken into account. Therefore, a synthetic route selection index, Iroute, is proposed to determine the suitability of a chemical route in this paper. Iroute considers the effects of "extended atom economy", material renewability, chemical characteristics and some engineering factors. The extended atom economy concept regards not only the value of the desired product but also the value of byproducts. The methodology by using Iroute to compare different routes is illustrated in case study of cyclohexanone oxime and acrylonitrile manufacture.

  10. Power optimization of chemically driven heat engine based on first and second order reaction kinetic theory and probability theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-03-01

    The finite-time thermodynamic method based on probability analysis can more accurately describe various performance parameters of thermodynamic systems. Based on the relation between optimal efficiency and power output of a generalized Carnot heat engine with a finite high-temperature heat reservoir (heat source) and an infinite low-temperature heat reservoir (heat sink) and with the only irreversibility of heat transfer, this paper studies the problem of power optimization of chemically driven heat engine based on first and second order reaction kinetic theory, puts forward a model of the coupling heat engine which can be run periodically and obtains the effects of the finite-time thermodynamic characteristics of the coupling relation between chemical reaction and heat engine on the power optimization. The results show that the first order reaction kinetics model can use fuel more effectively, and can provide heat engine with higher temperature heat source to increase the power output of the heat engine. Moreover, the power fluctuation bounds of the chemically driven heat engine are obtained by using the probability analysis method. The results may provide some guidelines for the character analysis and power optimization of the chemically driven heat engines.

  11. Implementing a Systematic Process for Rapidly Embedding Sustainability within Chemical Engineering Education: A Case Study of James Cook University, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Madoc; Schneider, Phil; Desha, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Sustainability has emerged as a primary context for engineering education in the 21st Century, particularly the sub-discipline of chemical engineering. However, there is confusion over how to go about integrating sustainability knowledge and skills systemically within bachelor degrees. This paper addresses this challenge, using a case study of an…

  12. Low Temperature Combustion with Thermo-Chemical Recuperation to Maximize In-Use Engine Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigel N. Clark; Francisco Posada; Clinton Bedick; John Pratapas; Aleksandr Kozlov; Martin Linck; Dmitri Boulanov

    2009-03-30

    The key to overcome Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) load range limitations in reciprocating engines is based on proper control over the thermo-chemical properties of the in-cylinder charge. The studied alternative to achieve the required control of LTC is the use of two separate fuel streams to regulate timing and heat release at specific operational points, where the secondary fuel is a reformed product of the primary fuel in the tank. It is proposed in this report that the secondary fuel can be produced using exhaust heat and Thermo-Chemical Recuperation (TCR). TCR for reciprocating engines is a system that employs high efficiency recovery of sensible heat from engine exhaust gas and uses this energy to transform fuel composition. The recuperated sensible heat is returned to the engine as chemical energy. Chemical conversions are accomplished through catalytic and endothermic reactions in a specially designed reforming reactor. An equilibrium model developed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI) for heptane steam reforming was applied to estimate reformed fuel composition at different reforming temperatures. Laboratory results, at a steam/heptane mole ratio less than 2:1, confirm that low temperature reforming reactions, in the range of 550 K to 650 K, can produce 10-30% hydrogen (by volume, wet) in the product stream. Also, the effect of trading low mean effective pressure for displacement to achieve power output and energy efficiency has been explored by WVU. A zerodimensional model of LTC using heptane as fuel and a diesel Compression Ignition (CI) combustion model were employed to estimate pressure, temperature and total heat release as inputs for a mechanical and thermal loss model. The model results show that the total cooling burden on an LTC engine with lower power density and higher displacement was 14.3% lower than the diesel engine for the same amount of energy addition in the case of high load (43.57mg fuel/cycle). These preliminary modeling and

  13. Wet chemical synthesis of chitosan hydrogel-hydroxyapatite composite membranes for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhumathi, K; Shalumon, K T; Rani, V V Divya; Tamura, H; Furuike, T; Selvamurugan, N; Nair, S V; Jayakumar, R

    2009-07-01

    Chitosan, a deacetylated derivative of chitin is a commonly studied biomaterial for tissue-engineering applications due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity, antibacterial activity, wound healing ability and haemostatic properties. However, chitosan has poor mechanical strength due to which its applications in orthopedics are limited. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a natural inorganic component of bone and teeth and has mechanical strength and osteoconductive property. In this work, HAp was deposited on the surface of chitosan hydrogel membranes by a wet chemical synthesis method by alternatively soaking the membranes in CaCl(2) (pH 7.4) and Na(2)HPO(4) solutions for different time intervals. These chitosan hydrogel-HAp membranes were characterized using SEM, AFM, EDS, FT-IR and XRD analyses. MTT assay was done to evaluate the biocompatibility of these membranes using MG-63 osteosarcoma cells. The biocompatibility studies suggest that chitosan hydrogel-HAp composite membranes can be useful for tissue-engineering applications.

  14. Tolerance engineering in bacteria for the production of advanced biofuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2015-08-01

    During microbial production of solvent-like compounds, such as advanced biofuels and bulk chemicals, accumulation of the final product can negatively impact the cultivation of the host microbe and limit the production levels. Consequently, improving solvent tolerance is becoming an essential aspect of engineering microbial production strains. Mechanisms ranging from chaperones to transcriptional factors have been used to obtain solvent-tolerant strains. However, alleviating growth inhibition does not invariably result in increased production. Transporters specifically have emerged as a powerful category of proteins that bestow tolerance and often improve production but are difficult targets for cellular expression. Here we review strain engineering, primarily as it pertains to bacterial solvent tolerance, and the benefits and challenges associated with the expression of membrane-localized transporters in improving solvent tolerance and production.

  15. Fluctuation theory of solutions applications in chemistry, chemical engineering, and biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    There are essentially two theories of solutions that can be considered exact: the McMillan-Mayer theory and Fluctuation Solution Theory (FST). The first is mostly limited to solutes at low concentrations, while FST has no such issue. It is an exact theory that can be applied to any stable solution regardless of the number of components and their concentrations, and the types of molecules and their sizes. Fluctuation Theory of Solutions: Applications in Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, and Biophysics outlines the general concepts and theoretical basis of FST and provides a range of applications

  16. Complementary use of life cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: Lessons learned from chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara D.; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    Successful strategies to handle the potential health and environmental risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) often rely upon the well-established frameworks of life cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA). However, current research and specific guidance on how to actually apply these two...... scientific research efforts have taken into account some key lessons learned from past experiences with chemicals at the same time that many key challenges remain to applying these frameworks to ENM. In that setting, two main proposed approaches to use LCA and RA together for ENM are identified: i) LC...

  17. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of transuranic wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical and chemical characterization data for transuranic radioactive wastes and transuranic radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program (PSPI). Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 139 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 39,380{sup 3} corresponding to a total mass of approximately 19,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats Plant generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  18. Determination of Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solution using chemical engineering tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Oumar; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    2016-08-01

    Standard Gibbs energies of formation are of primary importance in the field of biothermodynamics. In the absence of any directly measured values, thermodynamic calculations are required to determine the missing data. For several biochemical species, this study shows that the knowledge of the standard Gibbs energy of formation of the pure compounds (in the gaseous, solid or liquid states) enables to determine the corresponding standard Gibbs energies of formation in aqueous solutions. To do so, using chemical engineering tools (thermodynamic tables and a model enabling to predict activity coefficients, solvation Gibbs energies and pKa data), it becomes possible to determine the partial chemical potential of neutral and charged components in real metabolic conditions, even in concentrated mixtures.

  19. Chemical engineering and structural and pharmacological characterization of the α-scorpion toxin OD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durek, Thomas; Vetter, Irina; Wang, Ching-I Anderson; Motin, Leonid; Knapp, Oliver; Adams, David J; Lewis, Richard J; Alewood, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    Scorpion α-toxins are invaluable pharmacological tools for studying voltage-gated sodium channels, but few structure-function studies have been undertaken due to their challenging synthesis. To address this deficiency, we report a chemical engineering strategy based upon native chemical ligation. The chemical synthesis of α-toxin OD1 was achieved by chemical ligation of three unprotected peptide segments. A high resolution X-ray structure (1.8 Å) of synthetic OD1 showed the typical βαββ α-toxin fold and revealed important conformational differences in the pharmacophore region when compared with other α-toxin structures. Pharmacological analysis of synthetic OD1 revealed potent α-toxin activity (inhibition of fast inactivation) at Nav1.7, as well as Nav1.4 and Nav1.6. In addition, OD1 also produced potent β-toxin activity at Nav1.4 and Nav1.6 (shift of channel activation in the hyperpolarizing direction), indicating that OD1 might interact at more than one site with Nav1.4 and Nav1.6. Investigation of nine OD1 mutants revealed that three residues in the reverse turn contributed significantly to selectivity, with the triple OD1 mutant (D9K, D10P, K11H) being 40-fold more selective for Nav1.7 over Nav1.6, while OD1 K11V was 5-fold more selective for Nav1.6 than Nav1.7. This switch in selectivity highlights the importance of the reverse turn for engineering α-toxins with altered selectivity at Nav subtypes.

  20. Modelling cycle to cycle variations in an SI engine with detailed chemical kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etheridge, Jonathan; Mosbach, Sebastian; Kraft, Markus [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Wu, Hao; Collings, Nick [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    This paper presents experimental results and a new computational model that investigate cycle to cycle variations (CCV) in a spark ignition (SI) engine. An established stochastic reactor model (SRM) previously used to examine homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion has been extended by spark initiation, flame propagation and flame termination sub-models in order to simulate combustion in SI engines. The model contains a detailed chemical mechanism but relatively short computation times are achieved. The flame front is assumed to be spherical and centred at the spark location, and a pent roof and piston bowl geometry are accounted for. The model is validated by simulating the pressure profile and emissions from an iso-octane fuelled single cylinder research engine that showed low CCV. The effects of key parameters are investigated. Experimental results that show cycle to cycle fluctuations in a four-cylinder naturally aspirated gasoline fuelled SI engine are presented. The model is then coupled with GT-Power, a one-dimensional engine simulation tool, which is used to simulate the breathing events during a multi-cycle simulation. This allows an investigation of the cyclic fluctuations in peak pressure. The source and magnitude of nitric oxide (NO) emissions produced by different cycles are then investigated. It was found that faster burning cycles result in increased NO emissions compared with cycles that have a slower rate of combustion and that more is produced in the early stages of combustion compared with later in the cycle. The majority of NO was produced via the thermal mechanism just after combustion begins. (author)

  1. A review of engineering aspects of intensification of chemical synthesis using ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancheti, Sonam V; Gogate, Parag R

    2017-05-01

    Cavitation generated using ultrasound can enhance the rates of several chemical reactions giving better selectivity based on the physical and chemical effects. The present review focuses on overview of the different reactions that can be intensified using ultrasound followed by the discussion on the chemical kinetics for ultrasound assisted reactions, engineering aspects related to reactor designs and effect of operating parameters on the degree of intensification obtained for chemical synthesis. The cavitational effects in terms of magnitudes of collapse temperatures and collapse pressure, number of free radicals generated and extent of turbulence are strongly dependent on the operating parameters such as ultrasonic power, frequency, duty cycle, temperature as well as physicochemical parameters of liquid medium which controls the inception of cavitation. Guidelines have been presented for the optimum selection based on the critical analysis of the existing literature so that maximum process intensification benefits can be obtained. Different reactor designs have also been analyzed with guidelines for efficient scale up of the sonochemical reactor, which would be dependent on the type of reaction, controlling mechanism of reaction, catalyst and activation energy requirements. Overall, it has been established that sonochemistry offers considerable potential for green and sustainable processing and efficient scale up procedures are required so as to harness the effects at actual commercial level.

  2. Non-Natural Sugar Analogues: Chemical Probes for Metabolic Oligosaccharide Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Udayanath; Yarema, Kevin J.

    Metabolic oligosaccharide engineering (MOE) is a rapidly growing technology emerging from the field of chemical biology that allows novel chemical functionalities to be biosynthetically installed into the carbohydrates of living cells and animals. Since pioneering efforts to modulate sialic acid display through the use of non-natural N-acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc) analogues were reported 15 years ago, monosaccharide probes have been developed to manipulate N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc), N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc), and fucose-containing glycans. The 'first generation' of analogues, comprised of a series of ManNAc derivatives with elongated N-acyl chains, demonstrated pathway permissivity and the ability of this methodology to impinge on biological processes ranging from pathogen binding to gene expression and cell adhesion. Later analogues have incorporated chemical function groups including ketones, azides, thiols, and alkyne not normally found in carbohydrates. These groups serve as 'tags' for the subsequent use of chemoselective ligation reactions to further elaborate the chemical properties of the cell surface and thereby greatly expand the potential of MOE technology to offer control over biological processes.

  3. ["Two professions for a single task". The introduction of chemical engineering in Spain during the first Francoism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toca, Angel

    2006-01-01

    Through the first half of the 20th century, chemical engineering was established as an academic option in the training of specialists for the North-American and European chemical industry, whereas it was not a special field of study in Spain until the 1990s. The reason for this delay was a battle of interests between chemist and industrial engineers to control this career during the first Francoism. This article will try to show the development and professionalization of specialists for the Spanish chemical industry.

  4. Aplication of the Simulation Process During the Working Practice of Chemical Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jesús Muñoz Batista

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The success of chemical engineering graduates depends on their aptitude and the skills received during the academic formation. Employers not only require that graduates have the knowledge of basic chemical engineering principles but knowing how to apply this knowledge in solving practical problems. In this paper, one form to obtain important skills is presented. The working practice is one of the most important subjects in the curriculum. HYSYS simulator which can realize the energetic evaluation was introduced. A simulation model of the preheat train of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit was obtained. The model was built using prebuilt models in HYSYS, however a fired heater to steady state doesn’t exist. In this case, a spreadsheet was utilized in programming the energetic evaluation. Sometimes it is useful because it is necessary to use our models for specific equipment. Finally, the model was utilized to predict the system efficiency when changes on the operation variables occur. The use of simulation inside of core subjects helps to improve the level and quality of students’ formation.

  5. Automatic differentiation tools in the dynamic simulation of chemical engineering processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Differentiation is a relatively recent technique developed for the differentiation of functions applicable directly to the source code to compute the function written in standard programming languages. That technique permits the automatization of the differentiation step, crucial for dynamic simulation and optimization of processes. The values for the derivatives obtained with AD are exact (to roundoff. The theoretical exactness of the AD comes from the fact that it uses the same rules of differentiation as in differential calculus, but these rules are applied to an algorithmic specification of the function rather than to a formula. The main purpose of this contribution is to discuss the impact of Automatic Differentiation in the field of dynamic simulation of chemical engineering processes. The influence of the differentiation technique on the behavior of the integration code, the performance of the generated code and the incorporation of AD tools in consistent initialization tools are discussed from the viewpoint of dynamic simulation of typical models in chemical engineering.

  6. Prevention of Preharvest Sprouting through Hormone Engineering and Germination Recovery by Chemical Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, Mariko; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Vivipary, germination of seeds on the maternal plant, is observed in nature and provides ecological advantages in certain wild species, such as mangroves. However, precocious seed germination in agricultural species, such as preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals, is a serious issue for food security. PHS reduces grain quality and causes economical losses to farmers. PHS can be prevented by translating the basic knowledge of hormone biology in seeds into technologies. Biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an essential hormone for seed dormancy, can be engineered to enhance dormancy and prevent PHS. Enhancing nine-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a rate-limiting enzyme of ABA biosynthesis, through a chemically induced gene expression system, has successfully been used to suppress germination of Arabidopsis seeds. The more advanced system NCED positive-feedback system, which amplifies ABA biosynthesis in a seed-specific manner without chemical induction, has also been developed. The proofs of concept established in the model species are now ready to be applied to crops. A potential problem is recovery of germination from hyperdormant crop grains. Hyperdormancy induced by the NCED systems can be reversed by inducing counteracting genes, such as NCED RNA interference or gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis genes. Alternatively, seed sensitivity to ABA can be modified to rescue germination using the knowledge of chemical biology. ABA antagonists, which were developed recently, have great potential to recover germination from the hyperdormant seeds. Combination of the dormancy-imposing and -releasing approaches will establish a comprehensive technology for PHS prevention and germination recovery.

  7. Band Gap Engineering in a 2D Material for Solar-to-Chemical Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Guo, Zhenkun; Mcwilliams, Peter E; Darges, John E; Druffel, Daniel L; Moran, Andrew M; Warren, Scott C

    2016-01-13

    The electronic structure of 2D semiconductors depends on their thickness, providing new opportunities to engineer semiconductors for energy conversion, electronics, and catalysis. Here we show how a 3D semiconductor, black phosphorus, becomes active for solar-to-chemical energy conversion when it is thinned to a 2D material. The increase in its band gap, from 0.3 eV (3D) to 2.1 eV (2D monolayer), is accompanied by a 40-fold enhancement in the formation of chemical products. Despite this enhancement, smaller flakes also have shorter excited state lifetimes. We deduce a mechanism in which recombination occurs at flake edges, while the "van der Waals" surface of black phosphorus bonds to chemical intermediates and facilitates electron transfer. The unique properties of black phosphorus highlight its potential as a customizable material for solar energy conversion and catalysis, while also allowing us to identify design rules for 2D photocatalysts that will enable further improvements in these materials.

  8. Prevention of Preharvest Sprouting through Hormone Engineering and Germination Recovery by Chemical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, Mariko; Nonogaki, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Vivipary, germination of seeds on the maternal plant, is observed in nature and provides ecological advantages in certain wild species, such as mangroves. However, precocious seed germination in agricultural species, such as preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals, is a serious issue for food security. PHS reduces grain quality and causes economical losses to farmers. PHS can be prevented by translating the basic knowledge of hormone biology in seeds into technologies. Biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), which is an essential hormone for seed dormancy, can be engineered to enhance dormancy and prevent PHS. Enhancing nine-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a rate-limiting enzyme of ABA biosynthesis, through a chemically induced gene expression system, has successfully been used to suppress germination of Arabidopsis seeds. The more advanced system NCED positive-feedback system, which amplifies ABA biosynthesis in a seed-specific manner without chemical induction, has also been developed. The proofs of concept established in the model species are now ready to be applied to crops. A potential problem is recovery of germination from hyperdormant crop grains. Hyperdormancy induced by the NCED systems can be reversed by inducing counteracting genes, such as NCED RNA interference or gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis genes. Alternatively, seed sensitivity to ABA can be modified to rescue germination using the knowledge of chemical biology. ABA antagonists, which were developed recently, have great potential to recover germination from the hyperdormant seeds. Combination of the dormancy-imposing and -releasing approaches will establish a comprehensive technology for PHS prevention and germination recovery.

  9. Using an operator training simulator in the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    An operator training simulator (OTS) is to the chemical engineer what a flight simulator is to the aerospace engineer. The basis of an OTS is a high-fidelity dynamic model of a chemical process that allows an engineer to simulate start-up, shut-down, and normal operation. It can also be used to test the skill and ability of an engineer or operator to respond and control some unforeseen situation(s) through the use of programmed malfunctions. West Virginia University (WVU) is a member of the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Regional University Alliance (NETL-RUA). Working through the NETL-RUA, the authors have spent the last four years collaborating on the development of a high-fidelity OTS for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture that is the cornerstone of the AVESTARTM (Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training And Research) Center with sister facilities at NETL and WVU in Morgantown, WV. This OTS is capable of real-time dynamic simulation of IGCC plant operation, including start-up, shut-down, and power demand load following. The dynamic simulator and its human machine interfaces (HMIs) are based on the DYNSIM and InTouch software, respectively, from Invensys Operations Management. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the authors’ experiences in using this sophisticated dynamic simulation-based OTS as a hands-on teaching tool in the undergraduate chemical engineering curriculum. At present, the OTS has been used in two separate courses: a new process simulation course and a traditional process control course. In the process simulation course, concepts of steady-state and dynamic simulations were covered prior to exposing the students to the OTS. Moreover, digital logic and the concept of equipment requiring one or more permissive states to be enabled prior to successful operation were also covered. Students were briefed about start-up procedures and the importance of following a predetermined

  10. Advances in metabolic pathway and strain engineering paving the way for sustainable production of chemical building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Bio-based production of chemical building blocks from renewable resources is an attractive alternative to petroleum-based platform chemicals. Metabolic pathway and strain engineering is the key element in constructing robust microbial chemical factories within the constraints of cost effective production. Here we discuss how the development of computational algorithms, novel modules and methods, omics-based techniques combined with modeling refinement are enabling reduction in development time and thus advance the field of industrial biotechnology. We further discuss how recent technological developments contribute to the development of novel cell factories for the production of the building block chemicals: adipic acid, succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid.

  11. Band gap engineering in polymers through chemical doping and applied mechanical strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzillo, Nicholas A.; Breneman, Curt M.

    2016-08-01

    We report simulations based on density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory exploring the band gaps of common crystalline polymers including polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene. Our reported band gaps of 8.6 eV for single-chain polyethylene and 9.1 eV for bulk crystalline polyethylene are in excellent agreement with experiment. The effects of chemical doping along the polymer backbone and side-groups are explored, and the use mechanical strain as a means to modify the band gaps of these polymers over a range of several eV while leaving the dielectric constant unchanged is discussed. This work highlights some of the opportunities available to engineer the electronic properties of polymers with wide-reaching implications for polymeric dielectric materials used for capacitive energy storage.

  12. Econophysics and bio-chemical engineering thermodynamics: The exergetic analysis of a municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2016-11-01

    Exergy is a fundamental quantity because it allows us to obtain information on the useful work obtainable in a process. The analyses of irreversibility are important not only in the design and development of the industrial devices, but also in fundamental thermodynamics and in the socio-economic analysis of municipality. Consequently, the link between entropy and exergy is discussed in order to link econophysics to the bio-chemical engineering thermodynamics. Last, this link holds to the fundamental role of fluxes and to the exergy exchanged in the interaction between the system and its environment. The result consists in a thermodynamic approach to the analysis of the unavailability of the economic, productive or social systems. The unavailability is what the system cannot use in relation to its internal processes. This quantity result is interesting also as a support to public manager for economic decisions. Here, the Alessandria Municipality is analyzed in order to highlight the application of the theoretical results.

  13. Use of the Distance Transform for Integration of Local Measurements: Principle and Application in Chemical Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbier, Loïc; Bazer-Bachi, Frédéric; Blouët, Yannick; Moreaud, Maxime; Moizan-Basle, Virginie

    2016-04-01

    We propose an original methodology to integrate local measurement for nontrivial object shape. The method employs the distance transform of the object and least-square fitting of numerically computed weighting functions extracted from it. The method is exemplified in the field of chemical engineering by calculating the global metal concentration in catalyst grains from uneven metal distribution profiles. Applying the methodology on synthetic profiles with the help of a very simple deposition model allows us to evaluate the accuracy of the method. For high symmetry objects such as an infinite cylinder, relative errors on global concentration are lower than 1% for well-resolved profiles. For a less symmetrical object, a tetralobe, the best estimator gives a relative error below 5% at the cost of increased measurement time. Applicability on a real case is demonstrated on an aged hydrodemetallation catalyst. Sampling of catalyst grains at the inlet and outlet of the reactor allowed conclusions concerning different reactivity for the trapped metals.

  14. Implementation and student perceptions of e-assessment in a Chemical Engineering module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Eva

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes work carried out at the Department of Chemical Engineering at UCL into the use of e-assessment in a second year module and, in particular, the student perceptions of this mode of assessment. Three quizzes were implemented in Moodle, the first two as formative assessment and the final quiz as summative assessment. The results were very encouraging and practically all students engaged with the process. An online survey was delivered to all students after the module, which showed that the students felt that e-assessment added value to their learning and they would like to see it implemented in other modules. The quizzes were intended to be mainly beneficial to the weaker students as it gave them an opportunity to go over key aspects of the material in their own time. Interestingly, the stronger students were even more in favour of e-learning than the weaker students, for whom the quizzes were originally designed.

  15. Innovating in a 4th course of Chemical Engineering: A Bolognese Recipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara García Sastre

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze a case study conducted within a pilot innovation experience in an undergraduate course on Chemical Engineering. The study was developed during three years, 2005/06, 2006/07 y 2007/08, at the University of Valladolid (Spain. The main goal of this work is to show evidence to better understand the methodological changes promoted by the aforementioned pilot experience, as well as to reflect on whether or not this sort of innovations help to reach EHEA thorny demands. The methodological innovation carried out in the course was based on active learning methods, such as Project-based Learning, and the study of real cases from multiple perspectives and subjects.

  16. ThermoData engine (TDE): software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept. 4. Chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diky, Vladimir; Chirico, Robert D; Kazakov, Andrei F; Muzny, Chris D; Frenkel, Michael

    2009-12-01

    ThermoData Engine (TDE) is the first full-scale software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept, as reported recently in this journal. This paper describes the first application of this concept to the evaluation of thermodynamic properties for chemical reactions. Reaction properties evaluated are the enthalpies, entropies, Gibbs energies, and thermodynamic equilibrium constants. Details of key considerations in the critical evaluation of enthalpies of formation and of standard entropies for organic compounds are discussed in relation to their application in the calculation of reaction properties. Extensions to the class structure of the program are described that allow close linkage between the derived reaction properties and the underlying pure-component properties. Derivation of pure-component enthalpies of formation and of standard entropies through the use of directly measured reaction properties (enthalpies of reaction and equilibrium constants) is described. Directions for future enhancements are outlined.

  17. Diesel Surrogate Fuels for Engine Testing and Chemical-Kinetic Modeling: Compositions and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles J.; Cannella, William J.; Bays, J. Timothy; Bruno, Thomas J.; DeFabio, Kathy; Dettman, Heather D.; Gieleciak, Rafal M.; Huber, Marcia L.; Kweon, Chol-Bum; McConnell, Steven S.; Pitz, William J.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    The primary objectives of this work were to formulate, blend, and characterize a set of four ultralow-sulfur diesel surrogate fuels in quantities sufficient to enable their study in single-cylinder-engine and combustion-vessel experiments. The surrogate fuels feature increasing levels of compositional accuracy (i.e., increasing exactness in matching hydrocarbon structural characteristics) relative to the single target diesel fuel upon which the surrogate fuels are based. This approach was taken to assist in determining the minimum level of surrogate-fuel compositional accuracy that is required to adequately emulate the performance characteristics of the target fuel under different combustion modes. For each of the four surrogate fuels, an approximately 30 L batch was blended, and a number of the physical and chemical properties were measured. This work documents the surrogate-fuel creation process and the results of the property measurements. PMID:27330248

  18. Chemical engineering of the single-walled carbon nanotube-nylon 6 interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junbo; Zhao, Bin; Itkis, Mikhail E; Bekyarova, Elena; Hu, Hui; Kranak, Verina; Yu, Aiping; Haddon, Robert C

    2006-06-14

    We report an approach to the chemical engineering of the single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer interfacial interaction in a nylon 6 graft copolymer composite which is based on the degree of SWNT functionality. Continuous fibers are drawn from composites fabricated from the in situ polymerization of caprolactam with SWNTs possessing a range of carboxylic acid (SWNT-COOH) and amide (SWNT-CONH(2)) functionalities. Mechanical performance evaluation of the composite fibers shows that a high concentration of the carboxylic acid functional groups leads to a stronger SWNT-nylon interfacial interaction, as reflected in greater values of the Young's modulus and mechanical strength. Replacement of the COOH group by CONH(2) in the SWNT starting material changes the grafting polymerization chemistry, thereby leading to the covalent attachment of longer graft copolymer chains to the SWNTs, and alters the composite morphology while increasing the composite flexibility and toughness.

  19. Total synthesis approaches to natural product derivatives based on the combination of chemical synthesis and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschning, Andreas; Taft, Florian; Knobloch, Tobias

    2007-10-21

    Secondary metabolites are an extremely diverse and important group of natural products with industrial and biomedical implications. Advances in metabolic engineering of both native and heterologous secondary metabolite producing organisms have allowed the directed synthesis of desired novel products by exploiting their biosynthetic potentials. Metabolic engineering utilises knowledge of cellular metabolism to alter biosynthetic pathways. An important technique that combines chemical synthesis with metabolic engineering is mutasynthesis (mutational biosynthesis; MBS), which advanced from precursor-directed biosynthesis (PDB). Both techniques are based on the cellular uptake of modified biosynthetic intermediates and their incorporation into complex secondary metabolites. Mutasynthesis utilises genetically engineered organisms in conjunction with feeding of chemically modified intermediates. From a synthetic chemist's point of view the concept of mutasynthesis is highly attractive, as the method combines chemical expertise with Nature's synthetic machinery and thus can be exploited to rapidly create small libraries of secondary metabolites. However, in each case, the method has to be critically compared with semi- and total synthesis in terms of practicability and efficiency. Recent developments in metabolic engineering promise to further broaden the scope of outsourcing chemically demanding steps to biological systems.

  20. ChemEngine: harvesting 3D chemical structures of supplementary data from PDF files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Vyas, Renu

    2016-01-01

    Digital access to chemical journals resulted in a vast array of molecular information that is now available in the supplementary material files in PDF format. However, extracting this molecular information, generally from a PDF document format is a daunting task. Here we present an approach to harvest 3D molecular data from the supporting information of scientific research articles that are normally available from publisher's resources. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of extracting truly computable molecules from PDF file formats in a fast and efficient manner, we have developed a Java based application, namely ChemEngine. This program recognizes textual patterns from the supplementary data and generates standard molecular structure data (bond matrix, atomic coordinates) that can be subjected to a multitude of computational processes automatically. The methodology has been demonstrated via several case studies on different formats of coordinates data stored in supplementary information files, wherein ChemEngine selectively harvested the atomic coordinates and interpreted them as molecules with high accuracy. The reusability of extracted molecular coordinate data was demonstrated by computing Single Point Energies that were in close agreement with the original computed data provided with the articles. It is envisaged that the methodology will enable large scale conversion of molecular information from supplementary files available in the PDF format into a collection of ready- to- compute molecular data to create an automated workflow for advanced computational processes. Software along with source codes and instructions available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/chemengine/files/?source=navbar.Graphical abstract.

  1. Extremely Thermophilic Microorganisms as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Production of Fuels and Industrial Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Zeldes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye towards potential technological

  2. Extremely thermophilic microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms for production of fuels and industrial chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldes, Benjamin M; Keller, Matthew W; Loder, Andrew J; Straub, Christopher T; Adams, Michael W W; Kelly, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes from extremely thermophilic microorganisms have been of technological interest for some time because of their ability to catalyze reactions of industrial significance at elevated temperatures. Thermophilic enzymes are now routinely produced in recombinant mesophilic hosts for use as discrete biocatalysts. Genome and metagenome sequence data for extreme thermophiles provide useful information for putative biocatalysts for a wide range of biotransformations, albeit involving at most a few enzymatic steps. However, in the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in establishing molecular genetics tools for extreme thermophiles to the point that the use of these microorganisms as metabolic engineering platforms has become possible. While in its early days, complex metabolic pathways have been altered or engineered into recombinant extreme thermophiles, such that the production of fuels and chemicals at elevated temperatures has become possible. Not only does this expand the thermal range for industrial biotechnology, it also potentially provides biodiverse options for specific biotransformations unique to these microorganisms. The list of extreme thermophiles growing optimally between 70 and 100°C with genetic toolkits currently available includes archaea and bacteria, aerobes and anaerobes, coming from genera such as Caldicellulosiruptor, Sulfolobus, Thermotoga, Thermococcus, and Pyrococcus. These organisms exhibit unusual and potentially useful native metabolic capabilities, including cellulose degradation, metal solubilization, and RuBisCO-free carbon fixation. Those looking to design a thermal bioprocess now have a host of potential candidates to choose from, each with its own advantages and challenges that will influence its appropriateness for specific applications. Here, the issues and opportunities for extremely thermophilic metabolic engineering platforms are considered with an eye toward potential technological advantages for high

  3. The role of the chemist/chemical engineer for the trouble-free operation of thermal plants with heat recovery steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addison, David; Weir, Judy [Thermal Chemistry Limited, Horsham Downs, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2012-06-15

    The importance of a chemist/chemical engineer for the reliable and efficient operation of combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plants is discussed along with the key differences between routine and strategic chemistry and how these potentially impact on CCGT plant operation. Potential risks and issues with the full outsourcing of cycle chemistry services for a CCGT plant to chemical service providers are outlined. Also discussed are the interactions between a chemist/chemical engineer and plant management, operations, engineering and maintenance personnel. Proposed chemist/chemical engineer staffing levels for a number of hypothetical CCGT plants are also discussed. (orig.)

  4. Surface chemical immobilization of bioactive peptides on synthetic polymers for cardiac tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, Elisabetta; Cristallini, Caterina; Guerra, Giulio D; Barbani, Niccoletta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was the development of new synthetic polymeric systems, functionalized by surface chemical modification with bioactive peptides, for myocardial tissue engineering. Polycaprolactone and a poly(ester-ether-ester) block copolymer synthesized in our lab, polycaprolactone-poly(ethylene oxide)-polycaprolactone (PCL-PEO-PCL), were used as the substrates to be modified. Two pentapeptides, H-Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-OH (GRGDS) from fibronectin and H-Tyr-Ile-Gly-Ser-Arg-OH (YIGSR) from laminin, were used for the functionalization. Polymeric membranes were obtained by casting from solutions and then functionalized by means of alkaline hydrolysis and subsequent coupling of the bioactive molecules through 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry. The hydrolysis conditions, in terms of hydrolysis time, temperature, and sodium hydroxide concentration, were optimized for the two materials. The occurrence of the coupling reaction was demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy, as the presence on the functionalized materials of the absorption peaks typical of the two peptides. The peptide surface density was determined by chromatographic analysis and the distribution was studied by infrared chemical imaging. The results showed a nearly homogeneous peptide distribution, with a density above the minimum value necessary to promote cell adhesion. Preliminary in vitro cell culture studies demonstrated that the introduction of the bioactive molecules had a positive effect on improving C2C12 myoblasts growth on the synthetic materials.

  5. Strategies for the chemical and biological functionalization of scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallawi, Marwa; Rosellini, Elisabetta; Barbani, Niccoletta; Cascone, Maria Grazia; Rai, Ranjana; Saint-Pierre, Guillaume; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-07-06

    The development of biomaterials for cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) is challenging, primarily owing to the requirement of achieving a surface with favourable characteristics that enhances cell attachment and maturation. The biomaterial surface plays a crucial role as it forms the interface between the scaffold (or cardiac patch) and the cells. In the field of CTE, synthetic polymers (polyglycerol sebacate, polyethylene glycol, polyglycolic acid, poly-l-lactide, polyvinyl alcohol, polycaprolactone, polyurethanes and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)) have been proven to exhibit suitable biodegradable and mechanical properties. Despite the fact that they show the required biocompatible behaviour, most synthetic polymers exhibit poor cell attachment capability. These synthetic polymers are mostly hydrophobic and lack cell recognition sites, limiting their application. Therefore, biofunctionalization of these biomaterials to enhance cell attachment and cell material interaction is being widely investigated. There are numerous approaches for functionalizing a material, which can be classified as mechanical, physical, chemical and biological. In this review, recent studies reported in the literature to functionalize scaffolds in the context of CTE, are discussed. Surface, morphological, chemical and biological modifications are introduced and the results of novel promising strategies and techniques are discussed.

  6. Programming chemical kinetics: engineering dynamic reaction networks with DNA strand displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Niranjan

    Over the last century, the silicon revolution has enabled us to build faster, smaller and more sophisticated computers. Today, these computers control phones, cars, satellites, assembly lines, and other electromechanical devices. Just as electrical wiring controls electromechanical devices, living organisms employ "chemical wiring" to make decisions about their environment and control physical processes. Currently, the big difference between these two substrates is that while we have the abstractions, design principles, verification and fabrication techniques in place for programming with silicon, we have no comparable understanding or expertise for programming chemistry. In this thesis we take a small step towards the goal of learning how to systematically engineer prescribed non-equilibrium dynamical behaviors in chemical systems. We use the formalism of chemical reaction networks (CRNs), combined with mass-action kinetics, as our programming language for specifying dynamical behaviors. Leveraging the tools of nucleic acid nanotechnology (introduced in Chapter 1), we employ synthetic DNA molecules as our molecular architecture and toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement as our reaction primitive. Abstraction, modular design and systematic fabrication can work only with well-understood and quantitatively characterized tools. Therefore, we embark on a detailed study of the "device physics" of DNA strand displacement (Chapter 2). We present a unified view of strand displacement biophysics and kinetics by studying the process at multiple levels of detail, using an intuitive model of a random walk on a 1-dimensional energy landscape, a secondary structure kinetics model with single base-pair steps, and a coarse-grained molecular model that incorporates three-dimensional geometric and steric effects. Further, we experimentally investigate the thermodynamics of three-way branch migration. Our findings are consistent with previously measured or inferred rates for

  7. Chemical Engineering of China Three Gorges University Materials and Chemical Engineering College%三峡大学材料与化工学院化工专业谈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张争光; 李德莹

    2014-01-01

    本文从三峡大学材料与化工学院的化工专业的培养目标、课程设置及简介以及该专业毕业生的就业出路三个方面进行了阐述,为化工专业的入学新生尽快适应学校新环境、明确学习目的等起到一定的作用。%This paper discussed from three aspects of training target, material and Chemical Engineering College of China Three Gorges University chemical professional courses and introduction and the graduates employment, clear learning ob-jective to play a certain role for Chemical Engineering Freshmen to adapt to the new school environment.

  8. Chemical Engineering of China Three Gorges University Materials and Chemical Engineering College%浅谈三峡大学材料与化工学院化工专业

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张争光; 李德莹

    2014-01-01

    本文从三峡大学材料与化工学院的化工专业的培养目标、课程设置及简介以及该专业毕业生的就业出路三个方面进行了阐述,为化工专业的入学新生尽快适应学校新环境、明确学习目的等起到一定的作用。%This paper discussed from three aspects of training target, material and Chemical Engineering College of China Three Gorges University chemical professional courses and introduction and the graduates employment, clear learning ob-jective to play a certain role for Chemical Engineering Freshmen to adapt to the new school environment.

  9. Integrating Environmental Management in Chemical Engineering Education by Introducing an Environmental Management System in the Student's Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanes, Maria T.; Palomares, Antonio E.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we show how specific challenges related to sustainable development can be integrated into chemical engineering education by introducing an environmental management system in the laboratory where the students perform their experimental lessons. It is shown how the system has been developed and implemented in the laboratory, what role…

  10. Integrating Academic and Mentoring Support for the Development of First-Year Chemical Engineering Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Edmond I.; Chau, Ying

    2010-01-01

    An academic and professional development course has been introduced to help first-year chemical engineering students to deal proactively with the transition from secondary school to university and to develop professional skills. The course uses the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a personality model to facilitate skills development and many…

  11. Pilot-Scale Laboratory Instruction for Chemical Engineering: The Specific Case of the Pilot-Unit Leading Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billet, Anne-Marie; Camy, Severine; Coufort-Saudejaud, Carole

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an original approach for Chemical Engineering laboratory teaching that is currently applied at INP-ENSIACET (France). This approach, referred to as "pilot-unit leading group" is based on a partial management of the laboratories by the students themselves who become temporarily in charge of one specific laboratory. In…

  12. Specific and Optional Curriculum: An Experience in the Undergraduate Program of Chemical Engineering in Cienfuegos University, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Yolanda García; Velázquez, Claudia Alvarado; Castillo, Rolando Delgado

    2016-01-01

    This paper pursues to define the pillars for designing the specific (SC) and optional curricula (OC) of Unit Operations and Processes (UOP) Discipline in the Chemical Engineering Program. To achieve this objective a methodology was developed, which was characterized by the participation of every member in the educational process: professors,…

  13. Converting STEM Doctoral Dissertations into Patent Applications: A Study of Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, and Chemical Engineering Dissertations from CIC Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkovich, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral candidates may request short-term embargoes on the release of their dissertations in order to apply for patents. This study examines how often inventions described in dissertations in chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, and mathematics are converted into U.S. patent applications, as well as the relationship between dissertation…

  14. Bio-based targeted chemical engineering education : Role and impact of bio-based energy and resourcedevelopment projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Márquez Luzardoa, N.M.; Venselaar, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Avans University of Applied Sciences is redrafting its courses and curricula in view of sustainability. For chemical engineering in particular that implies a focus on 'green' and bio-based processes, products and energy. Avans is situated in the Southwest region of the Netherlands and specifically i

  15. A Survey of the Role of Thermodynamics and Transport Properties in Chemical Engineering University Education in Europe and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Peter; Aim, Karel; Dohrn, Ralf; Elliott, J. Richard; Jackson, George; Jaubert, Jean-Noel; Macedo, Eugenia A.; Pokki, Juha-Pekka; Reczey, Kati; Victorov, Alexey; Zilnik, Ljudmila Fele; Economou, Ioannis G.

    2010-01-01

    A survey on the teaching of thermodynamics and transport phenomena in chemical engineering curricula in European and US Universities was performed and results are presented here. Overall, 136 universities and colleges responded to the survey, out of which 81 from Europe and 55 from the USA. In most of the institutions responding at least two…

  16. Summaries of the 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry; Streszczenia 40. Zjazdu Naukowego Polskiego Towarzystwa Chemicznego i Stowarzyszenia Inzynierow i Technikow Przemyslu Chemicznego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Annual 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry has been held in Gdansk on 22-26 September 1997. The most valuable scientific results obtained in Polish Laboratories have been presented in 22 main sections and 7 symposia directed especially at following subjects: analytical chemistry, biochemistry, solid state chemistry and material science, physical chemistry, heteroorganic and coordination chemistry, medical and pharmaceutical chemistry, metalorganic chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry, polymers chemistry, chemistry and environment protection, theoretical chemistry, chemical didactics, photochemistry, radiation chemistry and chemical kinetics, chemical engineering, catalysis, crystallochemistry, chemical technology, electrochemistry, and instrumental methods.

  17. Macedonian journal of chemistry and chemical engineering: open journal systems--editor's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdravkovski, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    The development and availability of personal computers and software as well as printing techniques in the last twenty years have made a profound change in the publication of scientific journals. Additionally, the Internet in the last decade has revolutionized the publication process to the point of changing the basic paradigm of printed journals. The Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering in its 40-year history has adopted and adapted to all these transformations. In order to keep up with the inevitable changes, as editor-in-chief I felt my responsibility was to introduce an electronic editorial managing of the journal. The choice was between commercial and open source platforms, and because of the limited funding of the journal we chose the latter. We decided on Open Journal Systems, which provided online submission and management of all content, had flexible configuration--requirements, sections, review process, etc., had options for comprehensive indexing, offered various reading tools, had email notification and commenting ability for readers, had an option for thesis abstracts and was installed locally. However, since there is limited support it requires a moderate computer knowledge/skills and effort in order to set up. Overall, it is an excellent editorial platform and a convenient solution for journals with a low budget or journals that do not want to spend their resources on commercial platforms or simply support the idea of open source software.

  18. Manipulation of Optoelectronic Properties and Band Structure Engineering of Ultrathin Te Nanowires by Chemical Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ahin; Amin, Kazi Rafsanjani; Tripathi, Shalini; Biswas, Sangram; Singh, Abhishek K; Bid, Aveek; Ravishankar, N

    2017-01-13

    Band structure engineering is a powerful technique both for the design of new semiconductor materials and for imparting new functionalities to existing ones. In this article, we present a novel and versatile technique to achieve this by surface adsorption on low dimensional systems. As a specific example, we demonstrate, through detailed experiments and ab initio simulations, the controlled modification of band structure in ultrathin Te nanowires due to NO2 adsorption. Measurements of the temperature dependence of resistivity of single ultrathin Te nanowire field-effect transistor (FET) devices exposed to increasing amounts of NO2 reveal a gradual transition from a semiconducting to a metallic state. Gradual quenching of vibrational Raman modes of Te with increasing concentration of NO2 supports the appearance of a metallic state in NO2 adsorbed Te. Ab initio simulations attribute these observations to the appearance of midgap states in NO2 adsorbed Te nanowires. Our results provide fundamental insights into the effects of ambient on the electronic structures of low-dimensional materials and can be exploited for designing novel chemical sensors.

  19. Structure-property evaluation of thermally and chemically gelling injectable hydrogels for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenseair, Adam K; Boere, Kristel W M; Tzouanas, Stephanie N; Vo, Tiffany N; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

    2012-09-10

    The impact of synthesis and solution formulation parameters on the swelling and mechanical properties of a novel class of thermally and chemically gelling hydrogels combining poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based thermogelling macromers containing pendant epoxy rings with polyamidoamine-based hydrophilic and degradable diamine cross-linking macromers was evaluated. Through variation of network hydrophilicity and capacity for chain rearrangement, the often problematic tendency of thermogelling hydrogels to undergo significant syneresis was addressed. The demonstrated ability to tune postformation dimensional stability easily at both the synthesis and formulation stages represents a significant novel contribution toward efforts to utilize poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-based polymers as injectable biomaterials. Furthermore, the cytocompatibility of the hydrogel system under relevant conditions was established while demonstrating time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity at high solution osmolality. Such injectable in situ forming degradable hydrogels with tunable water content are promising candidates for many tissue-engineering applications, particularly for cell delivery to promote rapid tissue regeneration in non-load-bearing defects.

  20. Materials Engineering and Scale Up of Fluid Phase Chemical Hydrogen Storage for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, Matthew P.; Chun, Jaehun; Choi, Young Joon; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2016-01-25

    Among candidates for chemical hydrogen storage in PEM fuel cell automotive applications, ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) is considered to be one of the most promising materials due to its high hydrogen content of 14-16 wt% below 200°C and high volumetric density. In our previous paper, we selected AB in silicone oil as a role model for a slurry hydrogen storage system. Materials engineering properties were optimized by increasing solid loading by using an ultra-sonic process. In this paper, we proceeded to scale up to liter size batches with solid loadings up to 50 wt% (8 wt% H2) with dynamic viscosities less than 1000cP at 25°C. The use of a non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-15, shows significant promise in controlling the level of foaming produced during the thermal dehydrogenation of the AB. Through the development of new and efficient processing techniques and the ability to adequately control the foaming, stable homogenous slurries of high solid loading have been demonstrated as a viable hydrogen delivery source.

  1. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Chemical Instabilities : Applications in Chemistry, Engineering, Geology, and Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    Baras, F

    1984-01-01

    On March 14-18, 1983 a workshop on "Chemical Instabilities: Applications in Chemistry, Engineering, Geology, and Materials Science" was held in Austin, Texas, U.S.A. It was organized jointly by the University of Texas at Austin and the Universite Libre de Bruxelles and sponsored qy NATO, NSF, the University of Texas at Austin, the International Solvay Institutes and the Ex­ xon Corporation. The present Volume includes most of the material of the in­ vited lectures delivered in the workshop as well as material from some posters, whose content was directly related to the themes of the invited lectures. In ,recent years, problems related to the stability and the nonlinear dynamics of nonequilibrium systems invaded a great num­ ber of fields ranging from abstract mathematics to biology. One of the most striking aspects of this development is that subjects reputed to be "classical" and "well-established" like chemistry, turned out to give rise to a rich variety of phenomena leading to multiple steady states and...

  2. A critical Action Research approach to curriculum development in a laboratory-based chemical engineering course

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Scott R.

    This dissertation is a report of an attempt to critically evaluate a novel laboratory course from within the context of a chemical engineering curriculum. The research was done in a college classroom-laboratory setting, entrenched in the everydayness of classroom activities. All of the students, instructors, and educational researchers were knowing participants in this Action Research study. The students, a mixture of juniors, seniors, & graduate students, worked together on semester-long projects in groups that were mixed by age, gender and academic level. Qualitative techniques were used to gather different forms of representations of the students and instructors' experiences. Emergent patterns from the data gave strength to emergent knowledge claims that informed the instructors and the researcher about what the students were learning about performing experimental work and communicating results with their peers and instructor. The course challenged and in some cases changed the conceptions of instruction previously held by the students and the instructors. The course did not proceed without problems, yet the majority of these problems were overcome by the design of the course. Assertions and recommendations for improvement and application to other educational contexts are suggested.

  3. Terminal alkenes as versatile chemical reporter groups for metabolic oligosaccharide engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Späte, Anne-Katrin; Schart, Verena F; Schöllkopf, Sophie; Niederwieser, Andrea; Wittmann, Valentin

    2014-12-08

    The Diels-Alder reaction with inverse electron demand (DAinv reaction) of 1,2,4,5-tetrazines with electron rich or strained alkenes was proven to be a bioorthogonal ligation reaction that proceeds fast and with high yields. An important application of the DAinv reaction is metabolic oligosaccharide engineering (MOE) which allows the visualization of glycoconjugates in living cells. In this approach, a sugar derivative bearing a chemical reporter group is metabolically incorporated into cellular glycoconjugates and subsequently derivatized with a probe by means of a bioorthogonal ligation reaction. Here, we investigated a series of new mannosamine and glucosamine derivatives with carbamate-linked side chains of varying length terminated by alkene groups and their suitability for labeling cell-surface glycans. Kinetic investigations showed that the reactivity of the alkenes in DAinv reactions increases with growing chain length. When applied to MOE, one of the compounds, peracetylated N-butenyloxycarbonylmannosamine, was especially well suited for labeling cell-surface glycans. Obviously, the length of its side chain represents the optimal balance between incorporation efficiency and speed of the labeling reaction. Sialidase treatment of the cells before the bioorthogonal labeling reaction showed that this sugar derivative is attached to the glycans in form of the corresponding sialic acid derivative and not epimerized to another hexosamine derivative to a considerable extent.

  4. Adsorption laboratory experiment for undergraduate chemical engineering: Introducing kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryanto, S.; Djatmiko Hadi, S.

    2016-11-01

    Adsorption laboratory experiment for undergraduate chemical engineering program is discussed. The experiment demonstrated adsorption of copper ions commonly found in wastewater using bio-sorbent, i.e. agricultural wastes. The adsorption was performed in a batch mode under various parameters: adsorption time (up to 120 min), initial pH (2 to 6), adsorbent dose (2.0 to 12.0 g L-1), adsorbent size (50 to 170 mesh), initial Cu2+ concentration (25 to 100 ppm) and temperatures (room temp to 40°C). The equilibrium and kinetic data of the experiments were calculated using the two commonly used isotherms: Langmuir and Lagergren pseudo-first-order kinetics. The maximum adsorption capacity for Cu2+ was found as 94.34 mg g-1. Thermodynamically, the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The calculated activation energy for the adsorption was observed as high as 127.94 kJ mol-1. Pedagogically, the experiment was assumed to be important in increasing student understanding of kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic concepts.

  5. Load-Dependent Emission Factors and Chemical Characteristics of IVOCs from a Medium-Duty Diesel Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Eben S; Sappok, Alexander G; Wong, Victor W; Kroll, Jesse H

    2015-11-17

    A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of mobile-source emissions requires the characterization of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs), relatively-low-vapor-pressure gas-phase species that may generate secondary organic aerosol with high yields. Due to challenges associated with IVOC detection and quantification, IVOC emissions remain poorly understood at present. Here, we describe measurements of the magnitude and composition of IVOC emissions from a medium-duty diesel engine. Measurements are made on an engine dynamometer and utilize a new mass-spectrometric instrument to characterize the load dependence of the emissions in near-real-time. Results from steady-state engine operation indicate that IVOC emissions are highly dependent on engine power, with highest emissions at engine idle and low-load operation (≤25% maximum rated power) with a chemical composition dominated by saturated hydrocarbon species. Results suggest that unburned fuel components are the dominant IVOCs emitted at low loads. As engine load increases, IVOC emissions decline rapidly and become increasingly characterized by unsaturated hydrocarbons and oxygenated organics, newly formed from incomplete combustion processes at elevated engine temperatures and pressures. Engine transients, including a cold-start ignition and engine acceleration, show IVOC emission profiles that are different in amount or composition compared to steady-state combustion, underscoring the utility of characterizing IVOC emissions with high time resolution across realistic engine operating conditions. We find possible evidence for IVOC losses on unheated dilution and sampling surfaces, which need to be carefully accounted for in IVOC emission studies.

  6. Thermodynamic Modeling of the Chemical Composition of Calcine at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Frazee; J. D. Christian

    2004-02-01

    To send calcine produced at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Yucca Mountain Project for disposal, characterization information will be required. To sample calcine from its existing storage location would require extensive personnel exposure. Sufficient analyses of the chemical composition of the calcine would be extremely difficult and very expensive. In support of characterization development, the chemical composition of calcine from Bin 3 of Calcine Solid Storage Facility II was thermodynamic modeled. This calcine was produced in the Waste Calcination Facility during its second processing campaign, operating with indirect heating at 400 C and 0.744 bar (0.734 atm) during processing of aluminum high-level liquid waste (first cycle extraction raffinate from reprocessing aluminum-clad fuels) from tanks WM-180 and -182 from December 27, 1966 through August 26, 1967. The current modeling effort documents the input compositional data (liquid feed and calciner off-gas) for Batches 300 - 620 and a methodology for estimating the calcine chemical composition. The results, along with assumptions and limitations of the thermodynamic calculations, will serve as a basis for benchmarking subsequent calculations. This will be done by comparing the predictions against extensive analytical results that are currently being obtained on representative samples of the modeled calcine. A commercial free-energy minimization program and database, HSC 5.1, was used to perform the thermodynamic calculations. Currently available experimental data and process information on the calcine were used to make judgments about specific phases and compounds to include and eliminate in the thermodynamic calculations. Some off-gas species were eliminated based on kinetics restrictions evidenced by experimental data and other estimates, and some calcine components and off-gas compounds were eliminated as improbable species (unreliable thermodynamic data). The current Yucca

  7. Analysis of the Engineering Restoration Effect of Abandoned Yongledian Quarry in Beijing City Based on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liwei; CAI

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of the soil physical and chemical properties is the most important foundation for mine ecological restoration.The experiment is aimed at undisturbed area,restored area,and damaged area of abandoned Yongledian Quarry in Beijing.Through determination and analysis of soil physical and chemical properties,it shows that there are significant differences in the composite effects of soil physical and chemical properties between restored area,and undisturbed area,damaged area,and engineering restoration effectively improves the composite effects of soil physical and chemical properties in the restored area.The single factor hypothesis test shows that soil pH value,organic matter,alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen,and total nitrogen traits are the key targets to be restored in this mining area.

  8. Chemical and engineering approaches to enable organic field-effect transistors for electronic skin applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Anatoliy N; Tee, Benjamin C-K; Bettinger, Christopher J; Tok, Jeffrey B-H; Bao, Zhenan

    2012-03-20

    Skin is the body's largest organ and is responsible for the transduction of a vast amount of information. This conformable material simultaneously collects signals from external stimuli that translate into information such as pressure, pain, and temperature. The development of an electronic material, inspired by the complexity of this organ is a tremendous, unrealized engineering challenge. However, the advent of carbon-based electronics may offer a potential solution to this long-standing problem. In this Account, we describe the use of an organic field-effect transistor (OFET) architecture to transduce mechanical and chemical stimuli into electrical signals. In developing this mimic of human skin, we thought of the sensory elements of the OFET as analogous to the various layers and constituents of skin. In this fashion, each layer of the OFET can be optimized to carry out a specific recognition function. The separation of multimodal sensing among the components of the OFET may be considered a "divide and conquer" approach, where the electronic skin (e-skin) can take advantage of the optimized chemistry and materials properties of each layer. This design of a novel microstructured gate dielectric has led to unprecedented sensitivity for tactile pressure events. Typically, pressure-sensitive components within electronic configurations have suffered from a lack of sensitivity or long mechanical relaxation times often associated with elastomeric materials. Within our method, these components are directly compatible with OFETs and have achieved the highest reported sensitivity to date. Moreover, the tactile sensors operate on a time scale comparable with human skin, making them ideal candidates for integration as synthetic skin devices. The methodology is compatible with large-scale fabrication and employs simple, commercially available elastomers. The design of materials within the semiconductor layer has led to the incorporation of selectivity and sensitivity within

  9. Multi-criteria optimisation problems for chemical engineering systems and algorithms for their solution based on fuzzy mathematical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazbayev, B B; Orazbayeva, K N; Kurmangaziyeva, L T; Makhatova, V E

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical equations for the multi-criteria task of the optimisation of chemical engineering systems, for example for the optimisation of working regimes for industrial installations for benzene production, have been formulated and developed, and based on fuzzy mathematical methods, algorithms for their solution have been developed. Since the chemical engineering system, which is being researched, is characterised by multiple criteria and often functions in conditions of uncertainty, the presenting problem is formulated in the form of multi-criteria equations for fuzzy mathematical programming. New mathematical formulations for the problems being solved in a fuzzy environment and heuristic algorithms for their solution have been developed by the modification of various optimisation principles based on fuzzy mathematical methods.

  10. Multi-criteria optimisation problems for chemical engineering systems and algorithms for their solution based on fuzzy mathematical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazbayev, B. B.; Orazbayeva, K. N.; Kurmangaziyeva, L. T.; Makhatova, V.E.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical equations for the multi-criteria task of the optimisation of chemical engineering systems, for example for the optimisation of working regimes for industrial installations for benzene production, have been formulated and developed, and based on fuzzy mathematical methods, algorithms for their solution have been developed. Since the chemical engineering system, which is being researched, is characterised by multiple criteria and often functions in conditions of uncertainty, the presenting problem is formulated in the form of multi-criteria equations for fuzzy mathematical programming. New mathematical formulations for the problems being solved in a fuzzy environment and heuristic algorithms for their solution have been developed by the modification of various optimisation principles based on fuzzy mathematical methods.

  11. Emissions from diesel versus biodiesel fuel used in a CRDI SUV engine: PM mass and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Jitendra; Gupta, Tarun; Gupta, Sudhir; Agarwal, Avinash K

    2011-07-01

    The diesel tailpipe emissions typically undergo substantial physical and chemical transformations while traveling through the tailpipe, which tend to modify the original characteristics of the diesel exhaust. Most of the health-related attention for diesel exhaust has focused on the carcinogenic potential of inhaled exhaust components, particularly the highly respirable diesel particulate matter (DPM). In the current study, parametric investigations were made using a modern automotive common rail direct injection (CRDI) sports utility vehicle (SUV) diesel engine operated at different loads at constant engine speed (2400 rpm), employing diesel and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) produced from karanja oil. A partial flow dilution tunnel was employed to measure the mass of the primary particulates from diesel and biodiesel blend on a 47-mm quartz substrate. This was followed by chemical analysis of the particulates collected on the substrate for benzene-soluble organic fraction (BSOF) (marker of toxicity). BSOF results showed decrease in its level with increasing engine load for both diesel and biodiesel. In addition, real-time measurements for organic carbon/elemental carbon (OC/EC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (marker of toxicity) were carried out on the diluted primary exhaust coming out of the partial flow dilution tunnel. PAH concentrations were found to be the maximum at 20% rated engine load for both the fuels. The collected particulates from diesel and biodiesel-blend exhaust were also analyzed for concentration of trace metals (marker of toxicity), which revealed some interesting results.

  12. Engineering propionibacteria as versatile cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals: advances, challenges, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ningzi; Zhuge, Xin; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Wu, Jing; Shi, Zhongping; Liu, Long

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacteria are actinobacteria consisting of two principal groups: cutaneous and dairy. Cutaneous propionibacteria are considered primary pathogens to humans, whereas dairy propionibacteria are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Increasing attention has been focused on improving the performance of dairy propionibacteria for the production of industrially important chemicals, and significant advances have been made through strain engineering and process optimization in the production of flavor compounds, nutraceuticals, and antimicrobial compounds. In addition, genome sequencing of several propionibacteria species has been completed, deepening understanding of the metabolic and physiological features of these organisms. However, the metabolic engineering of propionibacteria still faces several challenges owing to the lack of efficient genome manipulation tools and the existence of various types of strong restriction-modification systems. The emergence of systems and synthetic biology provides new opportunities to overcome these bottlenecks. In this review, we first introduce the major species of propionibacteria and their properties and provide an overview of their functions and applications. We then discuss advances in the genome sequencing and metabolic engineering of these bacteria. Finally, we discuss systems and synthetic biology approaches for engineering propionibacteria as efficient and robust cell factories for the production of industrially important chemicals.

  13. Vicher: A Virtual Reality Based Educational Module for Chemical Reaction Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, John T.; Fogler, H. Scott

    1996-01-01

    A virtual reality application for undergraduate chemical kinetics and reactor design education, Vicher (Virtual Chemical Reaction Model) was originally designed to simulate a portion of a modern chemical plant. Vicher now consists of two programs: Vicher I that models catalyst deactivation and Vicher II that models nonisothermal effects in…

  14. Carbon Dioxide Extraction from the Atmosphere Through Engineered Chemical Sinkage: Enabling Energy and Environmental Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, M. K.; Ziock, H.; Rueff, G.; Smith, W. S.; Colman, J.; Elliott, S.; Lackner, K.; Johnston, N. A.

    2002-05-01

    We present the case for carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction from air using engineered chemical sinks as a means of sustaining fossil energy use by avoiding climate change. Existing carbon sequestration strategies such as CO2 injection into geologic formations or the deep ocean and mineral carbonation, require a pure stream of concentrated CO2 to be viable. Furthermore, current emphasis on reducing the global CO2 emissions is on large centralized power plants. However, more than half of all emissions are from the transportation sector and small, distributed sources such as home heating, etc. Most solutions for dealing with these sources explicitly or implicitly entail completely overhauling the existing infrastructure. To solve these problems, Los Alamos National Laboratory has conceived a novel approach for directly extracting CO2 from the atmosphere. Direct extraction converts the dilute CO2 (370 parts per million) in the atmosphere into a pure CO2 stream ready for permanent sequestration. It provides the following advantages: (1) Preserves our existing energy use and fuel distribution systems, which represent a large investment, (2) Indirectly captures CO2 from the myriad of small, distributed, and mobile sources that otherwise are not accessible to sequestration, (3) Allows atmospheric CO2 levels to be restored to their pre-industrial age value, (4) Provides free transport of CO2 to suitable sequestration sites by using natural atmospheric circulation, and (5) Is relatively compact and therefore inexpensive when compared to renewable concepts. Our concept harnesses atmospheric circulation to transport CO2 to sites where the CO2 is extracted by binding it to an adsorbent. The bound CO2 is then recovered as pure gas by heating together with the solid adsorbent that is recycled. As a proof of concept, we show that an aqueous Ca(OH)2 solution efficiently converts CO2 to a CaCO3 solid that can be heated to obtain pure CO2 and recover the CaO. Even with recycling costs

  15. Models of Non-Stationary Thermodynamic Processes in Rocket Engines Taking into Account a Chemical Equilibrium of Combustion Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Aliev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the two approach-based techniques for calculating the non-stationary intra-chamber processes in solid-propellant rocket engine (SPRE. The first approach assumes that the combustion products are a mechanical mix while the other one supposes it to be the mix, which is in chemical equilibrium. To enhance reliability of solution of the intra ballistic tasks, which assume a chemical equilibrium of combustion products, the computing algorithms to calculate a structure of the combustion products are changed. The algorithm for solving a system of the nonlinear equations of chemical equilibrium, when determining the iterative amendments, uses the orthogonal QR method instead of a method of Gauss. Besides, a possibility to apply genetic algorithms in a task about a structure of combustion products is considered.It is shown that in the tasks concerning the prediction of non-stationary intra ballistic characteristics in a solid propellant rocket engine, application of models of mechanical mix and chemically equilibrium structure of combustion products leads to qualitatively and quantitatively coinciding results. The maximum difference in parameters is 5-10%, at most. In tasks concerning the starting operation of a solid sustainer engine with high-temperature products of combustion difference in results is more essential, and can reach 20% and more.A technique to calculate the intra ballistic parameters, in which flotation of combustion products is considered in the light of a spatial statement, requires using the high-performance computer facilities. For these tasks it is offered to define structure of products of combustion and its thermo-physical characteristics, using the polynoms coefficients of which should be predefined.

  16. Modeling of coupled differential equations for cellular chemical signaling pathways: Implications for assay protocols utilized in cellular engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Clock, George D

    2016-08-01

    Cellular engineering involves modification and control of cell properties, and requires an understanding of fundamentals and mechanisms of action for cellular derived product development. One of the keys to success in cellular engineering involves the quality and validity of results obtained from cell chemical signaling pathway assays. The accuracy of the assay data cannot be verified or assured if the effect of positive feedback, nonlinearities, and interrelationships between cell chemical signaling pathway elements are not understood, modeled, and simulated. Nonlinearities and positive feedback in the cell chemical signaling pathway can produce significant aberrations in assay data collection. Simulating the pathway can reveal potential instability problems that will affect assay results. A simulation, using an electrical analog for the coupled differential equations representing each segment of the pathway, provides an excellent tool for assay validation purposes. With this approach, voltages represent pathway enzyme concentrations and operational amplifier feedback resistance and input resistance values determine pathway gain and rate constants. The understanding provided by pathway modeling and simulation is strategically important in order to establish experimental controls for assay protocol structure, time frames specified between assays, and assay concentration variation limits; to ensure accuracy and reproducibility of results.

  17. Isolation, characterization and engineering of Bacillus smithii : a novel thermophilic platform organism for green chemical production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, E.F.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the globally increasing demand for chemicals and fuels and the high environmental impact and limited amount of fossil resources, there is a growing interest in green chemicals and fuels derived from renewable resources. As described in Chapter 1, one of the most feasible alte

  18. Numerical Techniques for Chemical and Biological Engineers Using MATLAB A Simple Bifurcation Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Elnashaie, Said SEH; Affane, Chadia

    2007-01-01

    All reactive chemical and biological processes are highly nonlinear allowing for multiple steady states. This book addresses the bifurcation characteristics of chemical and biological processes as the general case and treats systems with a unique steady state as special cases. It includes a CD-ROM which contains nearly 100 MATLAB programs.

  19. Chemical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper addresses the need for detailed chemical information on the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) generated by commercial aviation engines. The exhaust plumes of nine engine models were sampled during the three test campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (AP...

  20. PARTICLE METHODS FOR COMPLEX FLOWS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING--THE PSEUDO-PARTICLE APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei GE; Jinghai LI

    2005-01-01

    The multi-scale structures of complex flows in chemical engineering have been great challenges to the design and scaling of such systems, and multi-scale modeling is the natural way in response. Particle methods (PMs) are ideal constituents and powerful tools of multi-scale models, owing to their physical fidelity and computational simplicity. Especially,pseudo-particle modeling (PPM, Ge & Li, 1996; Ge & Li, 2003) is most suitable for molecular scale flow prediction and exploration of the origin of multi-scale structures; macro-scale PPM (MaPPM, Ge & Li, 2001) and similar models are advantageous for meso-scale simulations of flows with complex and dynamic discontinuity, while the lattice Boltzmann model is more competent for homogeneous media in complex geometries; and meso-scale methods such as dissipative particle dynamics are unique tools for complex fluids of uncertain properties or flows with strong thermal fluctuations. All these methods are favorable for seamless interconnection of models for different scales.However, as PMs are not originally designed as either tools for complexity or constituents of multi-scale models, further improvements are expected. PPM is proposed for microscopic simulation of particle-fluid systems as a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC). The collision dynamics in PPM is identical to that of hard-sphere MD, so that mass, momentum and energy are conserved to machine accuracy. However, the collision detection procedure, which is most time-consuming and difficult to be parallelized for hard-sphere MD, has been greatly simplified to a procedure identical to that of soft-sphere MD. Actually, the physical model behind such a treatment is essentially different from MD and is more similar to DSMC, but an intrinsic difference is that in DSMC the collisions follow designed statistical rules that are reflection of the real physical processes only in very limited cases such as dilute gas.PPM is ideal

  1. Four Engineers...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There are four engineers traveling in a car;a mechanical engineer,a chemical engi-neer,an electrical engineer and a comput-er engineer.The car breaks down.“Sounds to me as if the pistons have seized.We ll have to strip down the engine before we canget the car working again,”says the mechanical

  2. Chemically engineering ligand selectivity at the free fatty acid receptor 2 based on pharmacological variation between species orthologs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Brian D.; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Tikhonova, Irina G.; Grundmann, Manuel; Kostenis, Evi; Adams, David R.; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    When it is difficult to develop selective ligands within a family of related G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), chemically engineered receptors activated solely by synthetic ligands (RASSLs) are useful alternatives for probing receptor function. In the present work, we explored whether a RASSL of the free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) could be developed on the basis of pharmacological variation between species orthologs. For this, bovine FFA2 was characterized, revealing distinct ligand selectivity compared with human FFA2. Homology modeling and mutational analysis demonstrated a single mutation in human FFA2 of C4.57G resulted in a human FFA2 receptor with ligand selectivity similar to the bovine receptor. This was exploited to generate human FFA2-RASSL by the addition of a second mutation at a known orthosteric ligand interaction site, H6.55Q. The resulting FFA2-RASSL displayed a >100-fold loss of activity to endogenous ligands, while responding to the distinct ligand sorbic acid with pEC50 values for inhibition of cAMP, 5.83 ± 0.11; Ca2+ mobilization, 4.63 ± 0.05; ERK phosphorylation, 5.61 ± 0.06; and dynamic mass redistribution, 5.35 ± 0.06. This FFA2-RASSL will be useful in future studies on this receptor and demonstrates that exploitation of pharmacological variation between species orthologs is a powerful method to generate novel chemically engineered GPCRs.—Hudson, B. D., Christiansen, E., Tikhonova, I. G., Grundmann, M., Kostenis, E., Adams, D. R., Ulven, T., Milligan, G. Chemically engineering ligand selectivity at the free fatty acid receptor 2 based on pharmacological variation between species orthologs. PMID:22919070

  3. A photochemical crosslinking technology for tissue engineering: enhancement of the physico-chemical properties of collagen-based scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Barbara P.

    2005-04-01

    Collagen gel is a natural biomaterial commonly used in tissue engineering because of its close resemblance to nature, negligible immunogenecity and excellent biocompatibility. However, unprocessed collagen gel is mechanically weak, highly water binding and vulnerable to chemical and enzymatic attacks that limits its use in tissue engineering in particular tissues for weight-bearing purposes. The current project aimed to strengthen and stabilize collagen scaffolds using a photochemical crosslinking technique. Photochemical crosslinking is rapid, efficient, non-thermal and does not involve toxic chemicals, comparing with other crosslinking methods such as glutaraldehyde and gamma irradiation. Collagen scaffolds were fabricated using rat-tail tendon collagen. An argon laser was used to process the collagen gel after equilibrating with a photosensitizing reagent. Scanning electronic microscope was used to characterize the surface and cross-sectional morphology of the membranes. Physico-chemical properties of the collagen scaffolds such as water-binding capacity, mechanical properties and thermostability were studied. Photochemical crosslinking significantly reduced the water-binding capacity, a parameter inversely proportional to the extent of crosslinking, of collagen scaffolds. Photochemical crosslinking also significantly increased the ultimate stress and tangent modulus at 90% of the rupture strain of the collagen scaffolds. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed a significantly higher shrinkage temperature and absence of the denaturation peak during the thermoscan comparing with the controls. This means greater thermostability in the photochemically crosslinked collagen scaffolds. This study demonstrates that the photochemical crosslinking technology is able to enhance the physicochemical propterties of collagen scaffolds by strengthening, stabilizing and controlling the swelling ratio of the collagen scaffolds so as to enable their use for tissue

  4. Crystal Engineering of an nbo Topology Metal-Organic Framework for Chemical Fixation of CO₂ under Ambient Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Chen, Yao; Niu, Youhong; Williams, Kia; Cash, Lindsay; Perez, Pastor J.; Wojtas, Lukasz; Cai, Jianfeng; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Ma, Shengqian [UC; (USF)

    2015-02-20

    Crystal engineering of the nbo metal–organic framework (MOF) platform MOF-505 with a custom-designed azamacrocycle ligand (1,4,7,10-tetrazazcyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetra-p-methylbenzoic acid) leads to a high density of well-oriented Lewis active sites within the cuboctahedral cage in MMCF-2, [Cu₂(Cu-tactmb)(H₂O)₃(NO₃)₂]. This MOF demonstrates high catalytic activity for the chemical fixation of CO₂ into cyclic carbonates at room temperature under 1 atm pressure.

  5. Crystal engineering of an nbo topology metal-organic framework for chemical fixation of CO2 under ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Chen, Yao; Niu, Youhong; Williams, Kia; Cash, Lindsay; Perez, Pastor J; Wojtas, Lukasz; Cai, Jianfeng; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Ma, Shengqian

    2014-03-03

    Crystal engineering of the nbo metal-organic framework (MOF) platform MOF-505 with a custom-designed azamacrocycle ligand (1,4,7,10-tetrazazcyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetra-p-methylbenzoic acid) leads to a high density of well-oriented Lewis active sites within the cuboctahedral cage in MMCF-2, [Cu2(Cu-tactmb)(H2O)3(NO3)2]. This MOF demonstrates high catalytic activity for the chemical fixation of CO2 into cyclic carbonates at room temperature under 1 atm pressure.

  6. A systems engineering approach to manage the complexity in sustainable chemical product-process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    This paper provides a perspective on model-data based solution approaches for chemical product-process design, which consists of finding the identity of the candidate chemical product, designing the process that can sustainably manufacture it and verifying the performance of the product during...... application. The chemical product tree is potentially very large and a wide range of options exist for selecting the product to make, the raw material to use as well as the processing route to employ. It is shown that systematic computer-aided methods and tools integrated within a model-data based design...

  7. Planejamento participativo no subprograma QEQ do PADCT Joint strategic planning in the chemistry and chemical engineering subprogram of PADCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eucler B. Paniago

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Brazilian chemistry sector, during the last 30 years, is nowadays being attributed to PADCT (Science and Technology Development Program. Since the seventies, the Government took notice of the importance of research in chemistry for the Brazilian economy, therefore creating PADCT to support chemistry and chemical engineering among other areas of science and technology. Planning and implementation of the second phase of this program represented a real joint strategic planning. Since then, academic research and human resources education have experienced significant improvements. However, in the chemical trade, the deficit continues to grow, in spite of an almost constant ratio between importation costs and export revenues. Continued investments for research in the area remain necessary.

  8. Radiological, physical, and chemical characterization of low-level alpha contaminated wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, M.L.; Becker, G.K.; Ragan, Z.K.; Frasure, J.; Raivo, B.D.; Gale, L.G.; Pace, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides radiological, physical, and chemical characterization data for low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and low-level alpha-contaminated radioactive and hazardous (i.e., mixed) wastes stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and considered for treatment under the Private Sector Participation Initiative Program. Waste characterization data are provided in the form of INEL Waste Profile Sheets. These documents provide, for each content code, information on waste identification, waste description, waste storage configuration, physical/chemical waste composition, radionuclide and associated alpha activity waste characterization data, and hazardous constituents present in the waste. Information is provided for 97 waste streams which represent an estimated total volume of 25,450 m 3 corresponding to a total mass of approximately 12,000,000 kg. In addition, considerable information concerning alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron source term data specific to Rocky Flats-generated waste forms stored at the INEL are provided to assist in facility design specification.

  9. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  10. Differential and differential-algebraic systems for the chemical engineer solving numerical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Buzzi-Ferraris, Guido

    2014-01-01

    This fourth in a suite of four practical guides is an engineer''s companion to using numerical methods for the solution of complex mathematical problems. It explains the theory behind current numerical methods and shows in a step-by-step fashion how to use them.The volume focuses on differential and differential-algebraic systems, providing numerous real-life industrial case studies to illustrate this complex topic. It describes the methods, innovative techniques and strategies that are all implemented in a freely available toolbox called BzzMath, which is developed and maintained by the autho

  11. The 5th World Congress of chemical engineering: Technologies critical to a changing World. Volume II: Agriculture, food biotechnology biomedical electric power process safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Volume 2 of the proceedings from the 5th World Congress of Chemical Engineering covers four major topic areas from which papers were selected for the database: Agriculture, Food; Biotechnology; Electric Power, and Process Safety. Pertinent subtopics include: Renewable Resource Engineering; Special Processes in the Food Industry; Advances in Metabolite Production; Advances in Fermentation and Cell Culture Engineering; Coal and Nuclear Central Station Power Plants; Large Natural Gas Fired Power Stations; Distributed Generation; Potential Impact of Biomass Energy; and Chemical Hazards in Plant Design. 29 papers were selected from Volume 1 for the database.

  12. Projects elaboration, a didactics approach for the chemical engineering final course students; Elaboracao de projetos, uma abordagem didatica para alunos de final de curso de engenharia quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Marco Antonio Gaya de; Ricardo Izidoro [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Operacoes e Projetos Industriais]. E-mail: mgaya@uerj.br; Costa, Joao Manuel da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the adopted approach by the Department of Industrial Operations and Projects of the Institute of Chemistry in the graduation course Design II, where a group of chemical engineering students elaborates a project to finish their graduation. The differential of our proposal consists in the integration of the previous chemical engineering courses (e.g. heat transfer, unit operations, etc.) and to take the student to an activity with a structure similar to those found in the engineering companies, with large application in the oil and gas industries, especially in the petroleum processing and refining. (author)

  13. Structure-mechanism-based engineering of chemical regulators targeting distinct pathological factors in Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Michael W.; Derrick, Jeffrey S.; Kerr, Richard A.; Oh, Shin Bi; Cho, Woo Jong; Lee, Shin Jung C.; Ji, Yonghwan; Han, Jiyeon; Tehrani, Zahra Aliakbar; Suh, Nayoung; Kim, Sujeong; Larsen, Scott D.; Kim, Kwang S.; Lee, Joo-Yong; Ruotolo, Brandon T.; Lim, Mi Hee

    2016-10-01

    The absence of effective therapeutics against Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a result of the limited understanding of its multifaceted aetiology. Because of the lack of chemical tools to identify pathological factors, investigations into AD pathogenesis have also been insubstantial. Here we report chemical regulators that demonstrate distinct specificity towards targets linked to AD pathology, including metals, amyloid-β (Aβ), metal-Aβ, reactive oxygen species, and free organic radicals. We obtained these chemical regulators through a rational structure-mechanism-based design strategy. We performed structural variations of small molecules for fine-tuning their electronic properties, such as ionization potentials and mechanistic pathways for reactivity towards different targets. We established in vitro and/or in vivo efficacies of the regulators for modulating their targets' reactivities, ameliorating toxicity, reducing amyloid pathology, and improving cognitive deficits. Our chemical tools show promise for deciphering AD pathogenesis and discovering effective drugs.

  14. Structure-mechanism-based engineering of chemical regulators targeting distinct pathological factors in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Michael W; Derrick, Jeffrey S; Kerr, Richard A; Oh, Shin Bi; Cho, Woo Jong; Lee, Shin Jung C; Ji, Yonghwan; Han, Jiyeon; Tehrani, Zahra Aliakbar; Suh, Nayoung; Kim, Sujeong; Larsen, Scott D; Kim, Kwang S; Lee, Joo-Yong; Ruotolo, Brandon T; Lim, Mi Hee

    2016-10-13

    The absence of effective therapeutics against Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a result of the limited understanding of its multifaceted aetiology. Because of the lack of chemical tools to identify pathological factors, investigations into AD pathogenesis have also been insubstantial. Here we report chemical regulators that demonstrate distinct specificity towards targets linked to AD pathology, including metals, amyloid-β (Aβ), metal-Aβ, reactive oxygen species, and free organic radicals. We obtained these chemical regulators through a rational structure-mechanism-based design strategy. We performed structural variations of small molecules for fine-tuning their electronic properties, such as ionization potentials and mechanistic pathways for reactivity towards different targets. We established in vitro and/or in vivo efficacies of the regulators for modulating their targets' reactivities, ameliorating toxicity, reducing amyloid pathology, and improving cognitive deficits. Our chemical tools show promise for deciphering AD pathogenesis and discovering effective drugs.

  15. Using an APK-051 analyzer in a chemical engineering monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiet, S. V.; Voronov, V. N.; Bushuev, E. N.

    2009-07-01

    The capabilities of an APK-051 automatic analyzer for directly measuring the standardized indicators used for automatic chemical monitoring and indirectly determining the concentration of ammonia in water coolant are described.

  16. Template Route to Chemically Engineering Cavities at Nanoscale: A Case Study of Zn(OH2 Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Junshu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A size-controlled Zn(OH2 template is used as a case study to explain the chemical strategy that can be executed to chemically engineering various nanoscale cavities. Zn(OH2 octahedron with 8 vertices and 14 edges is fabricated via a low temperature solution route. The size can be tuned from 1 to 30 μm by changing the reaction conditions. Two methods can be selected for the hollow process without loss of the original shape of Zn(OH2 template. Ion-replacement reaction is suitable for fabrication of hollow sulfides based on the solubility difference between Zn(OH2 and products. Controlled chemical deposition is utilized to coat an oxide layer on the surface of Zn(OH2 template. The abundant hydroxyl groups on Zn(OH2 afford strong coordination ability with cations and help to the coating of a shell layer. The rudimental Zn(OH2 core is eliminated with ammonia solution. In addition, ZnO-based heterostructures possessing better chemical or physical properties can also be prepared via this unique templating process. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra of the heterostructures and hollow structures are also shown to study their optical properties.

  17. Process/Engineering Co-Simulation of Oxy-Combustion and Chemical Looping Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloan, David [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Over the past several years, the DOE has sponsored various funded programs, collectively referred to as Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) programs, which have targeted the development of a steady-state simulator for advanced power plants. The simulator allows the DOE and its contractors to systematically evaluate various power plant concepts, either for preliminary conceptual design or detailed final design.

  18. Advances in metabolic engineering of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    the development of yeast cell factories. We also present an overview of metabolic engineering strategies for developing yeast strains for production of polymer monomers: lactic, succinic, and cis,cis-muconic acids. S. cerevisiae has already firmly established itself as a cell factory in industrial biotechnology...

  19. The Chemical Engineer's Toolbox: A Glass Box Approach to Numerical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronell, Daniel G.; Hariri, M. Hossein

    2009-01-01

    Computer programming in undergraduate engineering education all too often begins and ends with the freshman programming course. Improvements in computer technology and curriculum revision have improved this situation, but often at the expense of the students' learning due to the use of commercial "black box" software. This paper describes the…

  20. Chemical Engineers Go to the Movies (Stimulating Problems for the Contemporary Undergraduate Student)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Jimmy L.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents five problems that are representative of some of the "movie problems" that he has used on tests in various courses, including reactor design, heat transfer, mass transfer, engineering economics, and fluid mechanics. These problems tend to be open-ended. They can be challenging and can often be worked a variety…

  1. Chemical Science and Technology I. A Study Guide of the Science and Engineering Technician Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Jack T.; Wolf, Lawrence J.

    This study guide is part of an interdisciplinary program of studies entitled the Science and Engineering Technician (SET) Curriculum. This curriculum integrates elements from the disciplines of chemistry, physics, mathematics, mechanical technology, and electronic technology with the objective of training technicians in the use of electronic…

  2. Chemical Science and Technology II. A Study Guide of the Science and Engineering Technician Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Jack T.; Wolf, Lawrence J.

    This study guide is part of a program of studies entitled the Science and Engineering Technician (SET) Curriculum developed to provide a framework for training technicians in the use of electronic instruments and their applications. This interdisciplinary course of study integrates elements from the disciplines of chemistry, physics, mathematics,…

  3. Building an Understanding of Heat Transfer Concepts in Undergraduate Chemical Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottis, Katharyn E. K.; Prince, Michael J.; Vigeant, Margot A.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the distinctions among heat, energy and temperature can be difficult for students at all levels of instruction, including those in engineering. Misconceptions about heat transfer have been found to persist, even after students successfully complete relevant coursework. New instructional methods are needed to address these…

  4. Breaking the Chemical and Engineering Barriers to Lignocellulosic Biofuels: Next Generation Hydroccarbon Biorefineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2008-03-01

    This roadmap to “Next Generation Hydrocarbon Biorefineries” outlines a number of novel process pathways for biofuels production based on sound scientific and engineering proofs of concept demonstrated in laboratories around the world. This report was based on the workshop of the same name held June 25-26, 2007 in Washington, DC.

  5. Recent advances in the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid as C3 platform chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdehuesa, Kris Niño G; Liu, Huaiwei; Nisola, Grace M; Chung, Wook-Jin; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Si Jae

    2013-04-01

    Development of sustainable technologies for the production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) as a platform chemical has recently been gaining much attention owing to its versatility in applications for the synthesis of other specialty chemicals. Several proposed biological synthesis routes and strategies for producing 3HP from glucose and glycerol are reviewed presently. Ten proposed routes for 3HP production from glucose are described and one of which was recently constructed successfully in Escherichia coli with malonyl-Coenzyme A as a precursor. This resulted in a yield still far from the required level for industrial application. On the other hand, strategies employing engineered E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae capable of producing 3HP from glycerol are also evaluated. The titers produced by these recombinant strains reached around 3 %. At its current state, it is evident that a bulk of engineering works is yet to be done to acquire a biosynthesis route for 3HP that is acceptable for industrial-scale production.

  6. Biosynthetic hydrogels--studies on chemical and physical characteristics on long-term cellular response for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thankam, Finosh Gnanaprakasam; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2014-07-01

    Biosynthetic hydrogels can meet the drawbacks caused by natural and synthetic ones for biomedical applications. In the current article we present a novel biosynthetic alginate-poly(propylene fumarate) copolymer based chemically crosslinked hydrogel scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering applications. Partially crosslinked PA hydrogel and fully cross linked PA-A hydrogel scaffolds were prepared. The influence of chemical and physical (morphology and architecture of hydrogel) characteristics on the long term cellular response was studied. Both these hydrogels were cytocompatible and showed no genotoxicity upon contact with fibroblast cells. Both PA and PA-A were able to resist deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species and sustain the viability of L929 cells. The hydrogel incubated oxidative stress induced cells were capable of maintaining the intra cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) expression to the normal level confirmed their protective effect. Relatively the PA hydrogel was found to be unstable in the cell culture medium. The PA-A hydrogel was able to withstand appreciable cyclic stretching. The cyclic stretching introduced complex macro and microarchitectural features with interconnected pores and more structured bound water which would provide long-term viability of around 250% after the 24th day of culture. All these qualities make PA-A hydrogel form a potent candidate for cardiac tissue engineering.

  7. Expanding the chemical diversity of natural esters by engineering a polyketide-derived pathway into Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Bravo, Simón; Comba, Santiago; Sabatini, Martín; Arabolaza, Ana; Gramajo, Hugo

    2014-07-01

    Microbial fatty acid (FA)-derived molecules have emerged as promising alternatives to petroleum-based chemicals for reducing dependence on fossil hydrocarbons. However, native FA biosynthetic pathways often yield limited structural diversity, and therefore restricted physicochemical properties, of the end products by providing only a limited variety of usually linear hydrocarbons. Here we have engineered into Escherichia coli a mycocerosic polyketide synthase-based biosynthetic pathway from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and redefined its biological role towards the production of multi-methyl-branched-esters (MBEs) with novel chemical structures. Expression of FadD28, Mas and PapA5 enzymes enabled the biosynthesis of multi-methyl-branched-FA and their further esterification to an alcohol. The high substrate tolerance of these enzymes towards different FA and alcohol moieties resulted in the biosynthesis of a broad range of MBE. Further metabolic engineering of the MBE producer strain coupled this system to long-chain-alcohol biosynthetic pathways resulting in de novo production of branched wax esters following addition of only propionate.

  8. The bacterial nanorecorder: engineering E. coli to function as a chemical recording device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhomkar, Prasanna; Materi, Wayne; Wishart, David S

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging branch of molecular biology that uses synthetic genetic constructs to create man-made cells or organisms that are capable of performing novel and/or useful applications. Using a synthetic chemically sensitive genetic toggle switch to activate appropriate fluorescent protein indicators (GFP, RFP) and a cell division inhibitor (minC), we have created a novel E. coli strain that can be used as a highly specific, yet simple and inexpensive chemical recording device. This biological "nanorecorder" can be used to determine both the type and the time at which a brief chemical exposure event has occurred. In particular, we show that the short-term exposure (15-30 min) of cells harboring this synthetic genetic circuit to small molecule signals (anhydrotetracycline or IPTG) triggered long-term and uniform cell elongation, with cell length being directly proportional to the time elapsed following a brief chemical exposure. This work demonstrates that facile modification of an existing genetic toggle switch can be exploited to generate a robust, biologically-based "nanorecorder" that could potentially be adapted to detect, respond and record a wide range of chemical stimuli that may vary over time and space.

  9. Miniature free-piston homogeneous charge compression ignition engine-compressor concept - Part II: modeling HCCI combustion in small scales with detailed homogeneous gas phase chemical kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aichlmayr, H.T.; Kittelson, D.B.; Zachariah, M.R. [The University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States). Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Chemistry

    2002-10-01

    Operational maps for crankshaft-equipped miniature homogeneous charge compression ignition engines are established using performance estimation, detailed chemical kinetics, and diffusion models for heat transfer and radical loss. In this study, radical loss was found to be insignificant. In contrast, heat transfer was found to be increasingly significant for 10, 1, and 0.1 W engines, respectively. Also, temperature-pressure trajectories and ignition delay time maps are used to explore relationships between engine operational parameters and HCCI. Lastly, effects of engine operating conditions and design on the indicated fuel conversion efficiency are investigated. (author)

  10. Reverse engineering life: physical and chemical mimetics for controlled stem cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuse, Gary R; Lamkin-Kennard, Kathleen A

    2013-01-01

    Our ability to manipulate stem cells in order to induce differentiation along a desired developmental pathway has improved immeasurably in recent years. That is in part because we have a better understanding of the intracellular and extracellular signals that regulate differentiation. However, there has also been a realization that stem cell differentiation is not regulated only by chemical signals but also by the physical milieu in which a particular stem cell exists. In this regard we are challenged to mimic both chemical and physical environments. Herein we describe a method to induce stem cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes using a combination of chemical and physical cues. This method can be applied to produce differentiated cells for research and potentially for cell-based therapy of cardiomyopathies.

  11. From Steam Engines to Chemical Reactions: Gibbs’ Contribution to the Extension of the Second Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Marco Pellegrino

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzes the foundations of Gibbs’ thermodynamic equilibrium theory, with the general aim of understanding how the Second Law—as formulated by Clausius in 1865—has been embodied into Gibbs’ formal system and extended to processes involving chemical reactions. We show that Gibbs’ principle of maximal entropy (and minimal energy is the implicit expression of Clausius’ Second Law. In addition, by making explicit some implicit passages of Gibbs logical path, we provide an original formal justification of Gibbs’ principle. Finally we provide an analysis of how Gibbs’ principle—conceived for homogeneous isolated systems with fixed chemical composition—has come to be applied to systems entailing chemical transformations.

  12. Chemical engineering of a three-fingered toxin with anti-alpha7 neuronal acetylcholine receptor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourier, G; Servent, D; Zinn-Justin, S; Ménez, A

    2000-03-01

    Though it possesses four disulfide bonds the three-fingered fold is amenable to chemical synthesis, using a Fmoc-based method. Thus, we synthesized a three-fingered curaremimetic toxin from snake with high yield and showed that the synthetic and native toxins have the same structural and biological properties. Both were characterized by the same 2D NMR spectra, identical high binding affinity (K(d) = 22 +/- 5 pM) for the muscular acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and identical low affinity (K(d) = 2.0 +/- 0.4 microM) for alpha7 neuronal AchR. Then, we engineered an additional loop cyclized by a fifth disulfide bond at the tip of the central finger. This loop is normally present in longer snake toxins that bind with high affinity (K(d) = 1-5 nM) to alpha7 neuronal AchR. Not only did the chimera toxin still bind with the same high affinity to the muscular AchR but also it displayed a 20-fold higher affinity (K(d) = 100 nM) for the neuronal alpha7 AchR, as compared with the parental short-chain toxin. This result demonstrates that the engineered loop contributes, at least in part, to the high affinity of long-chain toxins for alpha7 neuronal receptors. That three-fingered proteins with four or five disulfide bonds are amenable to chemical synthesis opens new perspectives for engineering new activities on this fold.

  13. KCN Chemical Etch for Interface Engineering in Cu2ZnSnSe4 Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Buffiere, Marie; Brammertz, Guy; Sahayaraj, Sylvester; Batuk, Maria; KHELIFI, SAMIRA; Mangin, Denis; El Mel, Abdel-Aziz; Arzel, Ludovic; Hadermann, Joke; Meuris, Marc; Poortmans, Jef

    2015-01-01

    The removal of secondary phases from the surface of the kesterite crystals is one of the major challenges to improve the performances of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)(4) (CZTSSe) thin film solar cells. In this Contribution, the KCN/KOH Chemical etching approach, originally developed for the removal of CuxSe phases in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)(2) thin films) is applied to CZTSe absorbers exhibiting various chemical compositions. Two distinct electrical behaviors were observed on CZTSe/CdS solar cells after treatment: (...

  14. Chemical Kinetics in the expansion flow field of a rotating detonation-wave engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Schwer, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    Rotating detonation-wave engines (RDE) are a form of continuous detonation-wave engines. They potentially provide further gains in performance than an intermittent or pulsed detonation-wave engine (PDE). The overall flow field in an idealized RDE, primarily consisting of two concentric cylinders, has been discussed in previous meetings. Because of the high pressures involved and the lack of adequate reaction mechanisms for this regime, previous simulations have typically used simplified chemistry models. However, understanding the exhaust species concentrations in propulsion devices is important for both performance considerations as well as estimating pollutant emissions. A key step towards addressing this need will be discussed in this talk. In this approach, an induction parameter model is used for simulating the detonation but a more detailed finite-chemistry model is used in the expansion flow region, where the pressures are lower and the uncertainties in the chemistry model are greatly reduced. Results show that overall radical concentrations in the exhaust flow are substantially lower than from earlier predictions with simplified models. The performance of a baseline hydrogen/air RDE increased from 4940 s to 5000 s with the expansion flow chemistry, due to recombination of radicals and more production of H2O, resulting in additional heat release.

  15. Carbonaceous aerosol in jet engine exhaust: emission characteristics and implications for heterogeneous chemical reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, A.; Schroeder, F.P.; Kaercher, B. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Wessling (Germany). Institut fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Stroem, J. [Stockholm University (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1999-08-01

    Characteristic parameters of black carbon aerosol (BC) emitted from jet engine were measured during ground tests and in-flight behind the same aircraft. Size distribution features were a primary BC mode at a model diameter D {approx} 0.045 {mu}m, and a BC agglomeration mode at D < 0.2 {mu}m. The total BC number concentration at the engine exit was 2.9 x 10{sup 7} cm{sup -3} with good agreement between model results and in-flight measured number concentrations of non-volatile particles with D {>=} 0.014 {mu}m. A comparison between total number concentration of BC particles and the non-volatile fraction of the total aerosol at the exit plane suggests that the non-volatile fraction of jet engine exhaust aerosol consists almost completely of BC. In-flight BC mass emission indices ranged from 0.11 to 0.15 g BC (kg fuel){sup -1}. The measured in-flight particle emission value was 1.75 {+-} 0.15 x 10{sup 15} kg{sup -1} with corresponding ground test values of 1.0-8.7 x 10{sup 14} kg{sup -1}. Both size distribution properties and mass emission indices can be scaled from ground test to in-flight conditions. Implications for atmosphere BC loading, BC and cirrus interaction and the potential of BC for perturbation of atmospheric chemistry are briefly outlined. (author)

  16. Chemical characterisation of dredged sediments in relation to their potential use in civil engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, Tea; Mladenovič, Ana; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila

    2016-04-01

    During capital and/or maintenance dredging operations, large amounts of material are produced. Instead of their discharge, dredged sediments may be a valuable natural resource if not contaminated. One of the possible areas of application is civil engineering. In the present work, the environmental status of seaport dredged sediment was evaluated in order to investigate its potential applicability as a secondary raw material. Sediments were analysed for element concentrations in digested samples, aqueous extracts and fractions from sequential extraction; for fluoride, chloride and sulphate concentrations in aqueous extracts; and for tributyltin (TBT). Granulometric and mineralogical compositions were also analysed. The elemental impact was evaluated by calculation of the enrichment factors. The total element concentrations determined showed moderate contamination of the dredged sediments as was confirmed also by their moderate enrichment factors, presumably as a result of industrial and port activities. Elemental concentrations in the aqueous extract were very low and therefore do not represent any hazard for the environment. The water-soluble element concentrations were under the threshold levels set by the EU Directive on the landfill of waste, on the basis of which the applicability of dredged sediments in civil engineering is evaluated, while the content of chloride and sulphate were above the threshold levels. It was found out that due to the large amounts of sediment available, civil engineering applications such as the construction of embankments and backfilling is the most beneficial recycling solution at present.

  17. The role of chemical engineering in medicinal research including Alzheimer’s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.

    2015-01-01

    as significantly to the life sciences development as it has been done with the oil and gas and chemical sectors in the twentieth century. Moreover, it has during the recent years recognized that thermodynamics can help in understanding diseases like human cataract, sickle-cell anemia, Creuzfeldt- Jacob (“mad cow...

  18. Grand Challenges and Chemical Engineering Curriculum--Developments at TU Dortmund University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockmann, Norbert; Lutze, Philip; Gorak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Chemical processing industry is progressively focusing their research activities and product placements in the areas of Grand Challenges (or Global Megatrends) such as mobility, energy, communication, or health care and food. Innovation in all these fields requires solving high complex problems, rapid product development as well as dealing with…

  19. On the Use of Interactive Texts in Undergraduate Chemical Reaction Engineering Courses: A Pedagogical Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Daniela A.; Barassi, Francisca J.; Zambon, Mariana T.; Mazza, Germán D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a pedagogical experience carried out at the University of Comahue, Argentina, with an interactive text (IT) concerning Homogeneous Chemical Reactors Analysis. The IT was built on the frame of the "Mathematica" software with the aim of providing students with a robust computational tool. Students'…

  20. Parameter estimation in chemical engineering ; a case study for resin production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stortelder, W.J.H.

    1996-01-01

    In this report we present a study on parameter estimation in the field of resin production. The mathematical model of the chemical process contains a set of 12 differential algebraic equations (DAEs) and 16 unknown parameters; 8 series of measurements are available, performed under different initial

  1. Metabolic engineering of Rhizopus oryzae for the production of platform chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meussen, B.J.; Graaff, de L.H.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Rhizopus oryzae is a filamentous fungus belonging to the Zygomycetes. It is among others known for its ability to produce the sustainable platform chemicals L-(+)-lactic acid, fumaric acid, and ethanol. During glycolysis, all fermentable carbon sources are metabolized to pyruvate and subsequently di

  2. Chemical engineering of self-assembled Alzheimer's peptide on a silanized silicon surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Mehdi; Smadja, Claire; Ly, Giang Thi Phuong; Tandjigora, Diénaba; Vigneron, Jackie; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Taverna, Myriam; Dufour-Gergam, Elisabeth

    2014-05-27

    The aim of this work is to develop a sensitive and specific immune-sensing platform dedicated to the detection of potential biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in biological fluids. Accordingly, a controlled and adaptive surface functionalization of a silicon wafer with 7-octenyltrichlorosilane has been performed. The surface has extensively been characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM; morphology) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS; chemical composition) and contact angle measurements. The wettability of the grafted chemical groups demonstrated the gradual trend from hydrophilic to hydrophobic surface during functionalization. XPS evidenced the presence of silanes on the surface after silanization, and even carboxylic groups as products from the oxidation step of the functionalization process. The characterization results permitted us to define an optimal protocol to reach a high-quality grafting yield. The issue of the quality of controlled chemical preparation on bioreceiving surfaces was also investigated by the recognition of one AD biomarker, the amyloid peptide Aβ 1-42. We have therefore evaluated the biological activity of the grafted anti Aβ antibodies onto this silanized surface by fluorescent microscopy. In conclusion, we have shown, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the uniformity of the optimized functionalization on slightly oxidized silicon surfaces, providing a reliable and chemically stable procedure to determine specific biomarkers of Alzheimer disease. This work opens the route to the integration of controlled immune-sensing applications on lab-on-chip systems.

  3. Cryo-chemical decellularization of the whole liver for mesenchymal stem cells-based functional hepatic tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Cheng; Cheng, Yu-Hao; Yen, Meng-Hua; Chang, Yin; Yang, Vincent W; Lee, Oscar K

    2014-04-01

    Liver transplantation is the ultimate treatment for severe hepatic failure to date. However, the limited supply of donor organs has severely hampered this treatment. So far, great potentials of using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to replenish the hepatic cell population have been shown; nevertheless, there still is a lack of an optimal three-dimensional scaffold for generation of well-transplantable hepatic tissues. In this study, we utilized a cryo-chemical decellularization method which combines physical and chemical approach to generate acellular liver scaffolds (ALS) from the whole liver. The produced ALS provides a biomimetic three-dimensional environment to support hepatic differentiation of MSCs, evidenced by expression of hepatic-associated genes and marker protein, glycogen storage, albumin secretion, and urea production. It is also found that hepatic differentiation of MSCs within the ALS is much more efficient than two-dimensional culture in vitro. Importantly, the hepatic-like tissues (HLT) generated by repopulating ALS with MSCs are able to act as functional grafts and rescue lethal hepatic failure after transplantation in vivo. In summary, the cryo-chemical method used in this study is suitable for decellularization of liver and create acellular scaffolds that can support hepatic differentiation of MSCs and be used to fabricate functional tissue-engineered liver constructs.

  4. Single and two-phase flows on chemical and biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Antonio, Martins; Rui, Lima

    2012-01-01

    ""Single or two-phase flows are ubiquitous in most natural process and engineering systems. Examples of systems or process include, packed bed reactors, either single phase or multiphase, absorber and adsorber separation columns, filter beds, plate heat exchangers, flow of viscoelastic fluids in polymer systems, or the enhanced recovery of oil, among others. In each case the flow plays a central role in determining the system or process behaviour and performance. A better understanding of the underlying physical phenomena and the ability to describe the phenomena properly are both crucial to

  5. Surface morphology engineering of metal-oxide films by chemical spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.; Solis, J.L.; Estrada, W. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470, San Borja, Lima (Peru); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, P.O. Box 31-139, Lima (Peru); Gomez, M. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, P.O. Box 31-139, Lima (Peru)

    2007-07-01

    The Chemical Spray Pyrolysis technique and a combination of sol-gel and spray pyrolysis techniques have been used in order to monitor the morphology of metal-oxide-based thin films to be used as functional materials. We can obtain surfaces from specular to rough-porous according to the physico-chemical conditions of the precursor/spraying solution. We have produced coatings of ZnO-based and NiO{sub x}-based coatings from alcoholic and aqueous solutions. A single glass, ITO-precoated glass or alumina was used as the substrate. Porous materials of WO{sub 3}, WO{sub 3}-SnO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} have been produced by spraying either inorganic or metal alkoxide gels over a hot substrate. The morphologies of coatings were evaluated by either SEM or optical measurements. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. EXPLORING ENGINEERING CONTROL THROUGH PROCESS MANIPULATION OF RADIOACTIVE LIQUID WASTE TANK CHEMICAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.

    2014-04-27

    One method of remediating legacy liquid radioactive waste produced during the cold war, is aggressive in-tank chemical cleaning. Chemical cleaning has successfully reduced the curie content of residual waste heels in large underground storage tanks; however this process generates significant chemical hazards. Mercury is often the bounding hazard due to its extensive use in the separations process that produced the waste. This paper explores how variations in controllable process factors, tank level and temperature, may be manipulated to reduce the hazard potential related to mercury vapor generation. When compared using a multivariate regression analysis, findings indicated that there was a significant relationship between both tank level (p value of 1.65x10{sup -23}) and temperature (p value of 6.39x10{sup -6}) to the mercury vapor concentration in the tank ventilation system. Tank temperature showed the most promise as a controllable parameter for future tank cleaning endeavors. Despite statistically significant relationships, there may not be confidence in the ability to control accident scenarios to below mercury’s IDLH or PAC-III levels for future cleaning initiatives.

  7. Predictive Synthesis of Freeform Carbon Nanotube Microarchitectures by Strain-Engineered Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sei Jin; Zhao, Hangbo; Kim, Sanha; De Volder, Michael; John Hart, A

    2016-08-01

    High-throughput fabrication of microstructured surfaces with multi-directional, re-entrant, or otherwise curved features is becoming increasingly important for applications such as phase change heat transfer, adhesive gripping, and control of electromagnetic waves. Toward this goal, curved microstructures of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be fabricated by engineered variation of the CNT growth rate within each microstructure, for example by patterning of the CNT growth catalyst partially upon a layer which retards the CNT growth rate. This study develops a finite-element simulation framework for predictive synthesis of complex CNT microarchitectures by this strain-engineered growth process. The simulation is informed by parametric measurements of the CNT growth kinetics, and the anisotropic mechanical properties of the CNTs, and predicts the shape of CNT microstructures with impressive fidelity. Moreover, the simulation calculates the internal stress distribution that results from extreme deformation of the CNT structures during growth, and shows that delamination of the interface between the differentially growing segments occurs at a critical shear stress. Guided by these insights, experiments are performed to study the time- and geometry-depended stress development, and it is demonstrated that corrugating the interface between the segments of each microstructure mitigates the interface failure. This study presents a methodology for 3D microstructure design based on "pixels" that prescribe directionality to the resulting microstructure, and show that this framework enables the predictive synthesis of more complex architectures including twisted and truss-like forms.

  8. Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from CNG transit buses equipped with three-way catalysts compared to lean-burn engines and oxidation catalyst technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seungju; Hu, Shaohua; Kado, Norman Y.; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Collins, John F.; Gautam, Mridul; Herner, Jorn D.; Ayala, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled transit buses with stoichiometric combustion engines and three-way catalyst (TWC) exhaust control systems were measured using a chassis dynamometer testing facility and compared to the data from earlier CNG engine and exhaust control technologies. Gaseous and particulate matter emissions from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were lower by more than 99% compared to buses with lean-burn engines. Elemental and organic carbons (EC and OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trace elements from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were effectively controlled and significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Potential mutagenicity measured using a microsuspension modification of the Salmonella/microsome assay was lower by more than 99% for buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC, compared to buses with lean-burn engines and OxC.

  9. A Chemical Kinetic Modeling Study of the Effects of Oxygenated Hydrocarbons on Soot Emissions from Diesel Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J

    2005-11-14

    A detailed chemical kinetic modeling approach is used to examine the phenomenon of suppression of sooting in diesel engines by addition of oxygenated hydrocarbon species to the fuel. This suppression, which has been observed experimentally for a few years, is explained kinetically as a reduction in concentrations of soot precursors present in the hot products of a fuel-rich diesel ignition zone when oxygenates are included. Oxygenates decrease the overall equivalence ratio of the igniting mixture, producing higher ignition temperatures and more radical species to consume more soot precursor species, leading to lower soot production. The kinetic model is also used to show how different oxygenates, ester structures in particular, can have different soot-suppression efficiencies due to differences in molecular structure of the oxygenated species.

  10. MSE-THERMO: Integrated computer system for application of chemical thermodynamics in materials science and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, J.; Chuchvalec, P.; Vonka, P. [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1995-08-01

    MSE-THERMO is an integrated computer system embodying thermochemical databases with sophisticated computational software for diverse thermodynamic calculations. It consists of a database MSE-DATA, where thermodynamic data for pure substances are stored, as well as programs for the calculation of thermodynamic functions of pure substances, changes of thermodynamic functions for chemical reactions, ternary phase diagrams in a subsolidus region, phase stability diagrams, and equilibrium composition of multicomponents and multiphases systems. Datafiles as well as computational software tools are at present intensively extended.

  11. Enzyme and metabolic engineering for the production of novel biopolymers: crossover of biological and chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Taguchi, Seiichi

    2013-12-01

    The development of synthetic biology has transformed microbes into useful factories for producing valuable polymers and/or their precursors from renewable biomass. Recent progress at the interface of chemistry and biology has enabled the production of a variety of new biopolymers with properties that substantially differ from their petroleum-derived counterparts. This review touches on recent trials and achievements in the field of biopolymer synthesis, including chemo-enzymatically synthesized aliphatic polyesters, wholly biosynthesized lactate-based polyesters, polyhydroxyalkanoates and other unusual bacterially synthesized polyesters. The expanding diversities in structure and the material properties of biopolymers are key for exploring practical applications. The enzyme and metabolic engineering approaches toward this goal are discussed by shedding light on the successful case studies.

  12. Engineering specific chemical modification sites into a collagen-like protein from Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoichevska, Violet; Peng, Yong Y; Vashi, Aditya V; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Dumsday, Geoff J; Ramshaw, John A M

    2017-03-01

    Recombinant bacterial collagens provide a new opportunity for safe biomedical materials. They are readily expressed in Escherichia coli in good yield and can be readily purified by simple approaches. However, recombinant proteins are limited in that direct secondary modification during expression is generally not easily achieved. Thus, inclusion of unusual amino acids, cyclic peptides, sugars, lipids, and other complex functions generally needs to be achieved chemically after synthesis and extraction. In the present study, we have illustrated that bacterial collagens that have had their sequences modified to include cysteine residue(s), which are not normally present in bacterial collagen-like sequences, enable a range of specific chemical modification reactions to be produced. Various model reactions were shown to be effective for modifying the collagens. The ability to include alkyne (or azide) functions allows the extensive range of substitutions that are available via "click" chemistry to be accessed. When bifunctional reagents were used, some crosslinking occurred to give higher molecular weight polymeric proteins, but gels were not formed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 806-813, 2017.

  13. Evaluation of social competencies in chemical engineering: Application and results of the pilot test (academic year 2012-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Suñé Grande

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Escola Tècnica Superior d’Enginyeria Química has a long tradition in the deployment of social competencies in engineering curricula through Integrated Projects (IP carried out in structured teams. Social competencies are taught and practiced during the development of the IPs. We conceptually introduce a methodology for a 360o assessment of the students’ social competencies, as a tool to foster the improvement of their competency levels. In this article we analyze the results of the pilot test where the aforementioned methodology has been implemented in the Bachelor studies of Chemical Engineering. The results indicate that it is possible to objectively obtain the student’s competency level discriminating among different social competencies, as well as among different students in the same team. The application of this tool fosters the development of specific educative actions to help the students with low competency profile, to reach acceptable levels for a successful insertion in the labor market.

  14. Chemical hydrogels based on a hyaluronic acid-graft-α-elastin derivative as potential scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore; Pitarresi, Giovanna; Fiorica, Calogero; Rigogliuso, Salvatrice; Ghersi, Giulio; Giammona, Gaetano

    2013-07-01

    In this work hyaluronic acid (HA) functionalized with ethylenediamine (EDA) has been employed to graft α-elastin. In particular a HA-EDA derivative bearing 50 mol% of pendant amino groups has been successfully employed to produce the copolymer HA-EDA-g-α-elastin containing 32% w/w of protein. After grafting with α-elastin, remaining free amino groups reacted with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDGE) for producing chemical hydrogels, proposed as scaffolds for tissue engineering. Swelling degree, resistance to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis, as well as preliminary biological properties of HA-EDA-g-α-elastin/EGDGE scaffold have been evaluated and compared with a HA-EDA/EGDGE scaffold. The presence of α-elastin grafted to HA-EDA improves attachment, viability and proliferation of primary rat dermal fibroblasts and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells. Biological performance of HA-EDA-g-α-elastin/EGDGE scaffold resulted comparable to that of a commercial collagen type I sponge (Antema®), chosen as a positive control.

  15. Enhancing Chemical Stability of Electroplated Cu Films by Engineering Electrolyte Chemistry and Twinning Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Jie; Huang, Chun-Lung; Liao, Chien-Neng

    2015-07-01

    The effects of an electrolyte additive and twinning structure on the corrosion characteristics of electroplated Cu films have been investigated. Four different Cu films were individually deposited with and without benzotriazole (BTA) in the electrolyte using the direct-current (DC) and pulsed-current (PC) plating techniques. The Cu films plated with BTA additive showed improved corrosion resistance according to electrochemical polarization testing and postetching morphological inspection. Moreover, the PC-plated films that had dense nanoscale twin boundaries appeared to have higher chemical stability than the DC-plated ones. It is proposed that the presence of twin-modified grain boundary segments suppresses corrosion along the grain boundary network and improves the corrosion resistance of electroplated Cu films.

  16. Annette Bunge: developing the principles in percutaneous absorption using chemical engineering principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcomb, A L

    2013-01-01

    Annette Bunge and her research group have had the central theme of mathematically modeling the dermal absorption process. Most of the research focus has been on estimating dermal absorption for the purpose of risk assessment, for exposure scenarios in the environment and in the occupational setting. Her work is the basis for the United States Environmental Protection Agency's estimations for dermal absorption from contaminated water. It is also the basis of the dermal absorption estimates used in determining if chemicals should be assigned a 'skin notation' for potential systemic toxicity following occupational skin exposure. The work is truly translational in that it started with mathematical theory, is validated with preclinical and human experiments, and then is used in guidelines to protect human health. Her valued research has also extended into the topical drug bioavailability and bioequivalence assessment field.

  17. Fiber Optic Chemical Nanosensors Based on Engineered Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Consales

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, a review of the development of high-performance optochemical nanosensors based on the integration of carbon nanotubes with the optical fiber technology is presented. The paper first provide an overview of the amazing features of carbon nanotubes and their exploitation as highly adsorbent nanoscale materials for gas sensing applications. Successively, the attention is focused on the operating principle, fabrication, and characterization of fiber optic chemosensors in the Fabry-Perot type reflectometric configuration, realized by means of the deposition of a thin layer of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs upon the distal end of standard silica optical fibers. This is followed by an extensive review of the excellent sensing capabilities of the realized SWCNTs-based chemical nanosensors against volatile organic compounds and other pollutants in different environments (air and water and operating conditions (room temperature and cryogenic temperatures. The experimental results reported here reveal that ppm and sub-ppm chemical detection limits, low response times, as well as fast and complete recovery of the sensor responses have been obtained in most of the investigated cases. This evidences the great potentialities of the proposed photonic nanosensors based on SWCNTs to be successfully employed for practical environmental monitoring applications both in liquid and vapor phase as well as for space. Furthermore, the use of novel SWCNTs-based composites as sensitive fiber coatings is proposed to enhance the sensing performance and to improve the adhesion of carbon nanotubes to the fiber surface. Finally, new advanced sensing configurations based on the use of hollow-core optical fibers coated and partially filled by carbon nanotubes are also presented.

  18. Chemical functionalization of surfaces for building three-dimensional engineered biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marco E.; Mansur, Alexandra A. P.; Mansur, Herman S.

    2013-06-01

    This study presents a new approach for developing biosensors based on enzymatic systems with designed three-dimensional structures. Silica glass slides were chemically functionalized at surfaces by reacting with organosilanes, 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (MPTES), and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), using sol-gel process at room temperature. The functionalization of the supports was characterized by contact angle measurements and FTIR spectroscopy. The first enzyme layer was covalently immobilized to the support by a bi-functional linker (glutaraldehyde). The second enzyme layer was deposited using the protein conjugation method based on the high affinity "avidin-biotin" interactions. Each enzyme was biotinylated before being added to the nanostructured system and avidin was used as the binder between consecutive enzyme layers. The biochemical response was assayed at all stages to certify that the enzymatic bioactivity was retained throughout the entire layer-by-layer (LBL) process. The model of building 3D-enzymatic systems was evaluated using the enzymatic structure with glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). It was verified that the amino-modified support presented the highest bioactivity response compared to the other chemical functionalities. Moreover, the bienzyme nanostructure demonstrated relevant biochemical activity upon injecting the glucose substrate into the system. Finally, as a proof of concept, the bienzyme systems were assayed using real samples of regular and sugar-free soft drinks where they effectively behaved as structured biosensor for glucose with the built-in 3D hybrid architecture. Based on the results, it can be foreseen the development of promising new nanomaterials for several analytical applications such as monitoring the quality of food and beverages for nutrition purposes.

  19. A chemical engineering model for predicting NO emissions and burnout from pulverised coal flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, L.S.; Glarborg, P.; Dam-Johansen, K.; Hepburn, P.W.; Hesselmann, G. [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-07-01

    This work is concerned with the applicability of modelling swirling pulverised coal flames with ideal chemical reactors. The objectives were to predict the emissions of NO and CO, and the burnout of char. The fluid dynamics were simplified by use of a system of ideal chemical reactors. The near burner zone was modelled as a well-stirred reactor, the jet expansion as a plug flow reactor, the external recirculation zone as a well-stirred reactor, and the down stream zone as a number of well-stirred reactors in series. A reduced model of a detailed reaction mechanism was applied to model gas phase chemistry and a novel model was developed for soot oxidation. A population balance was used to keep track of size and density changes for the char combustion. Individual particle temperatures were calculated for each size fraction. The model includes only one burner specific calibration parameter which is related to the mixing of air and fuel. The model was validated against experimental results from a 160 kH{sub th} pulverised coal burner. For single staged combustion at varying stoichiometries, for two stage combustion, and for different coals good agreement between model and experiment was obtained for NO emissions and carbon in ash. This work also indicates that the interaction between the homogeneous gas phase chemistry and the heterogeneous chemistry (soot and char), due to recombination of radicals on the surfaces, is of importance for the nitrogen chemistry in coal flames, especially for ammonia formation. 84 refs., 31 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. KCN Chemical Etch for Interface Engineering in Cu2ZnSnSe4 Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffière, Marie; Brammertz, Guy; Sahayaraj, Sylvester; Batuk, Maria; Khelifi, Samira; Mangin, Denis; El Mel, Abdel-Aziz; Arzel, Ludovic; Hadermann, Joke; Meuris, Marc; Poortmans, Jef

    2015-07-15

    The removal of secondary phases from the surface of the kesterite crystals is one of the major challenges to improve the performances of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) thin film solar cells. In this contribution, the KCN/KOH chemical etching approach, originally developed for the removal of CuxSe phases in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin films, is applied to CZTSe absorbers exhibiting various chemical compositions. Two distinct electrical behaviors were observed on CZTSe/CdS solar cells after treatment: (i) the improvement of the fill factor (FF) after 30 s of etching for the CZTSe absorbers showing initially a distortion of the electrical characteristic; (ii) the progressive degradation of the FF after long treatment time for all Cu-poor CZTSe solar cell samples. The first effect can be attributed to the action of KCN on the absorber, that is found to clean the absorber free surface from most of the secondary phases surrounding the kesterite grains (e.g., Se0, CuxSe, SnSex, SnO2, Cu2SnSe3 phases, excepting the ZnSe-based phases). The second observation was identified as a consequence of the preferential etching of Se, Sn, and Zn from the CZTSe surface by the KOH solution, combined with the modification of the alkali content of the absorber. The formation of a Cu-rich shell at the absorber/buffer layer interface, leading to the increase of the recombination rate at the interface, and the increase in the doping of the absorber layer after etching are found to be at the origin of the deterioration of the FF of the solar cells.

  1. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  2. Prediction of engine and near-field plume reacting flows in low-thrust chemical rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan M.; Merkle, Charles L.

    1993-01-01

    A computational model is employed to study the reacting flow within the engine and near-field plumes of several small gaseous hydrogen-oxygen thrusters. The model solves the full Navier-Stokes equations coupled with species diffusion equations for a hydrogen-oxygen reaction kinetics system and includes a two-equation q-omega model for turbulence. Predictions of global performance parameters and localized flowfield variables are compared with experimental data in order to assess the accuracy with which these flowfields are modeled and to identify aspects of the model which require improvement. Predicted axial and radial velocities 3 mm downstream of the exit plane show reasonable agreement with the measurements. The predicted peak in axial velocity in the hydrogen film coolant along the nozzle wall shows the best agreement; however, predictions within the core region are roughly 15 percent below measured values, indicating an underprediction of the extent to which the hydrogen diffuses and mixes with the core flow. There is evidence that this is due to three-dimensional mixing processes which are not included in the axisymmetric model.

  3. Dopant's chemical coordination: a path for engineering high performance thermoelectric sodium cobaltate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, M. Hussein N.; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Engineered Na0.75CoO2 is considered a prime candidate to achieve high efficiency thermoelectric systems to generate electricity from waste heat. Our recent experiments on Mg doped Na0.75CoO2 demonstrated 50% enhancement in power factor at ambient. This motivated us to theoretically analyze the mechanisms behind simultaneous improvement of interdependent Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity. For this, we comprehensively studied the electronic and crystallographic structure of Na0.75CoO2 doped with 5 elements Mg, Sb, Zn, Ni and Eu. These elements represent wide variety of electronic configurations such as open d and f shells, closed d and s shells, combined with great variation in atomic mass. Systematic density functional calculations showed that the Ni and Zn were more stable when substituting Co with formation energy 2.35 eV, 2.08 eV. While Eu and Mg and Sb are more stable when it substitutes Na. In the case of Mg these results are consistent with Raman scattering measurement. This suggests that the doped Mg ions immobilize Na ions, reducing the resistivity by improving the mobility of carriers and thus enhancing the thermo-power. This work was supported by JSPS and Intersect.

  4. Chemical hydrogels based on a hyaluronic acid-graft-α-elastin derivative as potential scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palumbo, Fabio Salvatore [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari e Biomolecolari, Sezione di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi 32, 90123, Palermo (Italy); Pitarresi, Giovanna, E-mail: giovanna.pitarresi@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari e Biomolecolari, Sezione di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi 32, 90123, Palermo (Italy); Institute of Biophysics at Palermo, Italian National Research Council, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Fiorica, Calogero [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari e Biomolecolari, Sezione di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi 32, 90123, Palermo (Italy); Rigogliuso, Salvatrice; Ghersi, Giulio [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari e Biomolecolari, Sezione di Biologia Cellulare, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze ed. 16, 90128, Palermo (Italy); Giammona, Gaetano [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari e Biomolecolari, Sezione di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi 32, 90123, Palermo (Italy); IBIM-CNR, Via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    In this work hyaluronic acid (HA) functionalized with ethylenediamine (EDA) has been employed to graft α-elastin. In particular a HA-EDA derivative bearing 50 mol% of pendant amino groups has been successfully employed to produce the copolymer HA-EDA-g-α-elastin containing 32% w/w of protein. After grafting with α-elastin, remaining free amino groups reacted with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDGE) for producing chemical hydrogels, proposed as scaffolds for tissue engineering. Swelling degree, resistance to chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis, as well as preliminary biological properties of HA-EDA-g-α-elastin/EGDGE scaffold have been evaluated and compared with a HA-EDA/EGDGE scaffold. The presence of α-elastin grafted to HA-EDA improves attachment, viability and proliferation of primary rat dermal fibroblasts and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells. Biological performance of HA-EDA-g-α-elastin/EGDGE scaffold resulted comparable to that of a commercial collagen type I sponge (Antema®), chosen as a positive control. - Highlights: ► Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been functionalized with ethylenediamine (EDA). ► Amino groups of HA-EDA allow the reaction with α-elastin and ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDGE). ► Chemical scaffolds of HA-EDA-graft-α-elastin/EGDGE have been characterized. ► The presence of α-elastin affects porosity, swelling and enzymatic degradation of scaffolds. ► The presence of α-elastin improves attachment, viability and proliferation of fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells.

  5. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of thermoresponsive poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) thin films for cell sheet engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bora; Jiao, Alex; Yu, Seungjung; You, Jae Bem; Kim, Deok-Ho; Im, Sung Gap

    2013-08-01

    Poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) is a thermoresponsive polymer known to be nontoxic, water soluble and biocompatible. Here, PNVCL homopolymer was successfully synthesized for the first time by use of a one-step vapor-phase process, termed initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed that radical polymerization took place from N-vinylcaprolactam monomers without damaging the functional caprolactam ring. A sharp lower critical solution temperature transition was observed at 31°C from the iCVD poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PNVCL) film. The thermoresponsive PNVCL surface exhibited a hydrophilic/hydrophobic alteration with external temperature change, which enabled the thermally modulated attachment and detachment of cells. The conformal coverage of PNVCL film on various substrates with complex topography, including fabrics and nanopatterns, was successfully demonstrated, which can further be utilized to fabricate cell sheets with aligned cell morphology. The advantage of this system is that cells cultured on such thermoresponsive surfaces could be recovered as an intact cell sheet by simply lowering the temperature, eliminating the need for conventional enzymatic treatments.

  6. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Progress report, January--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1979-04-01

    Fuel cycle studies reported for this period include studies of advanced solvent extraction techniques focussed on the development of centrifugal contactors for use in Purex processes. Miniature single-stage and eight-stage centrifugal contactors are being employed in studies of contactor performance and the kinetics of extraction. A 9-cm-ID centrifugal contactor has been completed, and fabrication drawings are being prepared for a plant-scale contactor. In other work, tricaprylmethyl-ammonium nitrate and di-n-amyl n-amylphosphonate are being evaluated as extractants in the Thorex process. Literature on the dispersion of liquids by explosions is being reviewed. A process was developed for extracting TBP degradation products from TBP-Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ scrub solutions while the actinides remain with the raffinate. In the program on pyrochemical and dry processing of nuclear fuel, the literature is being reviewed for acceptable materials for containment vessels, decladding methods are being evaluated, salt transport processes are being studied, a candidate flow sheet (based upon the Dow Aluminum Pyrometallurgical process) for reprocessing spent uranium metal fuel was prepared, work was begun on the use of molten salts for reprocessing actinide oxides, and the reprocessing of (Th,U)O/sub 2/ solid solution in a KCl-LiCl salt containing ThCl/sub 4/ and thorium chips was studied. Work on the encapsulation of solidified radioactive waste in a metal matrix includes study of (1) chemical interactions between simulated waste forms and matrix metals, (2) the leach rates of simulated encapsulated waste forms, and (3) the corrosion of candidate matrix metals and canister materials in brine solutions.Work to establish criteria for the handling of waste cladding hulls is continuing. The transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media are being studied to estimate leaching of radionuclides from deep repositories by groundwater.

  7. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M J; Ader, M; Barletta, R E

    1980-01-01

    In the program on pyrochemical and dry processing methods (PDPM) for nuclear fuel, tungsten crucibles were successfully spun for use in laboratory-scale experiments. Corrosion testing of refractory metals and alloys in PDPM environments was done. Ceramic substrates were successfully coated with tungsten. Solubility measurements were made to determine Cd/Mg alloy composition and temperature at which dissolved Th will precipitate. Experiments were started to study the reduction of high-fired ThO/sub 2/ with Ca in a molten metal-molten salt system. Work on the fused salt electrolysis of CaO was started. Equipment for determining phase diagrams for U-Cu-Mg system was set up. The reaction of UO/sub 2/ with molten equimolar NaNO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ was studied as part of a project to identify chemically feasible nonaqueous fuel reprocessing methods. Work was continued on development of a flowsheet for reprocessing actinide oxides by extracting actinides into ammonium chloro-aluminate (and alternative salts) from a bismuth solution. Preparation of Th, U, and Pu nitrides after dissolution of spent fuel elements in molten tin is being studied. Leach rates of glass beads, pulverized beads, and beads encapsulated in a lead matrix with no protective envelope were studied. A method (employing no pressure or vacuum systems) of encapsulating various solid wastes in a lead metal matrix was developed and tested. A preliminary integration was made of earlier data on effects of impacts on metal-matrix waste forms.Leach migration experiments were compared with conventional infiltration experiments as methods of evaluating geologic formations as barriers to nuclide migration. The effect of the streaming potential on the rates of transport of radioactive I/sup -/ and Na/sup +/ through kaolinite columns was measured, as well as adsorption of iodide and iodate by several compounds; implications of the results upon the disposal of radioactive iodine are discussed.

  8. Surface engineering of biaxial Gd2Zr2O7 thin films deposited on Ni–5at%W substrates by a chemical solution method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Zhao; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Liu, Min;

    2012-01-01

    crystal structure along the film thickness observed by a transmission electron microscope. On the basis of the enhanced understanding of the crystallization processes, we demonstrate a possibility of engineering the surface morphology and texture in the film deposited on technical substrates using...... a chemical solution deposition route....

  9. Identification of volatile and semivolatile compounds in chemical ionization GC-MS using a mass-to-structure (MTS) Search Engine with integral isotope pattern ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wenta; Draper, William M

    2013-02-21

    The mass-to-structure or MTS Search Engine is an Access 2010 database containing theoretical molecular mass information for 19,438 compounds assembled from common sources such as the Merck Index, pesticide and pharmaceutical compilations, and chemical catalogues. This database, which contains no experimental mass spectral data, was developed as an aid to identification of compounds in atmospheric pressure ionization (API)-LC-MS. This paper describes a powerful upgrade to this database, a fully integrated utility for filtering or ranking candidates based on isotope ratios and patterns. The new MTS Search Engine is applied here to the identification of volatile and semivolatile compounds including pesticides, nitrosoamines and other pollutants. Methane and isobutane chemical ionization (CI) GC-MS spectra were obtained from unit mass resolution mass spectrometers to determine MH(+) masses and isotope ratios. Isotopes were measured accurately with errors of Search Engine and details performance testing with over 50 model compounds.

  10. Engineering ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Bengisu, Murat

    2001-01-01

    This is a comprehensive book applying especially to junior and senior engineering students pursuing Materials Science/ Engineering, Ceramic Engineering and Mechanical Engineering degrees. It is also a reference book for other disciplines such as Chemical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Nuclear Engineering and Environmental Engineering. Important properties of most engineering ceramics are given in detailed tables. Many current and possible applications of engineering ceramics are described, which can be used as a guide for materials selection and for potential future research. While covering all relevant information regarding raw materials, processing properties, characterization and applications of engineering ceramics, the book also summarizes most recent innovations and developments in this field as a result of extensive literature search.

  11. Chemical Synthesis, Characterization, and Biocompatibility Study of Hydroxyapatite/Chitosan Phosphate Nanocomposite for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabakumar Pramanik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel bioanalogue hydroxyapatite (HAp/chitosan phosphate (CSP nanocomposite has been synthesized by a solution-based chemical methodology with varying HAp contents from 10 to 60% (w/w. The interfacial bonding interaction between HAp and CSP has been investigated through Fourier transform infrared absorption spectra (FTIR and x-ray diffraction (XRD. The surface morphology of the composite and the homogeneous dispersion of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix have been investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, respectively. The mechanical properties of the composite are found to be improved significantly with increase in nanoparticle contents. Cytotoxicity test using murine L929 fibroblast confirms that the nanocomposite is cytocompatible. Primary murine osteoblast cell culture study proves that the nanocomposite is osteocompatible and highly in vitro osteogenic. The use of CSP promotes the homogeneous distribution of particles in the polymer matrix through its pendant phosphate groups along with particle-polymer interfacial interactions. The prepared HAp/CSP nanocomposite with uniform microstructure may be used in bone tissue engineering applications.

  12. Chemical engineering of the peptidyl transferase center reveals an important role of the 2'-hydroxyl group of A2451.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlacher, Matthias D; Lang, Kathrin; Shankaran, Nisha; Wotzel, Brigitte; Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Micura, Ronald; Mankin, Alexander S; Polacek, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    The main enzymatic reaction of the large ribosomal subunit is peptide bond formation. Ribosome crystallography showed that A2451 of 23S rRNA makes the closest approach to the attacking amino group of aminoacyl-tRNA. Mutations of A2451 had relatively small effects on transpeptidation and failed to unequivocally identify the crucial functional group(s). Here, we employed an in vitro reconstitution system for chemical engineering the peptidyl transferase center by introducing non-natural nucleosides at position A2451. This allowed us to investigate the peptidyl transfer reaction performed by a ribosome that contained a modified nucleoside at the active site. The main finding is that ribosomes carrying a 2'-deoxyribose at A2451 showed a compromised peptidyl transferase activity. In variance, adenine base modifications and even the removal of the entire nucleobase at A2451 had only little impact on peptide bond formation, as long as the 2'-hydroxyl was present. This implicates a functional or structural role of the 2'-hydroxyl group at A2451 for transpeptidation.

  13. Aspen Plus 在化工热力学教学中的应用%Applications of Aspen Plus in the Teaching of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁雪; 刘熠斌; 宋春敏; 乔柯

    2014-01-01

    化工热力学是一门理论性强、逻辑性强、概念抽象、公式繁多的专业基础课。本文介绍了在化工热力学教学过程中引入Aspen Plus软件进行辅助教学,在优化教学内容、改善教学方法、提高学习效率、强化课程基础等方面进行有益的探索,认为引入Aspen Plus软件可以提高学生的学习兴趣,加深学生对课程内容的理解,提高学生的工程实践能力。%Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics was a professional basic course with strong theory , logicality , abstract concept and lots of formula.The citation of Aspen Plus to the teaching of chemical engineering thermodynamics was introduced.How to improve teaching content , teaching method , study efficiency and course base were investigated.When used Aspen Plus in the teaching of chemical engineering hemodynamics , the study interest , comprehension and engineering practice ability of students could be enhanced.

  14. The Application of Aspen Plus 7.3 in Chemical Engineering Design%Aspen Plus 7.3在化工设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛科创

    2014-01-01

    Chemical engineering design is the calculation process of the related parameters by computer. Because of the large amount of calculation, it must through the corresponding chemical simulation software to achieve. Aspen Plus 7.3 because the precise calculating, fast running speed, become the preferred software in chemical engineering design. This paper show the steps and methods of chemical engineering design by computer thought the flash condition is determined by Aspen Plus 7.3.%由于化工设计计算量大,必须通过相应的化工模拟软件来实现。Aspen Plus 7.3计算精确,运行速度快,成为化工设计者的首选软件。通过介绍利用Aspen Plus 7.3进行闪蒸条件的确定,说明利用计算机进行化工设计的步骤和方法。

  15. Metrology for Chemical Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2001-01-01

    of Measurement Methods and Results. The main purpose of the course was, however. to familiarize PhD students with the BIPM philosophy, using the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Guide to Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement, which was accepted by IUPAC and other international scientific...... of the analytical method. The paper presents the detailed structure of this first course. as well as improvements in the next course scheduled for the year 2000....

  16. Nitric oxide and nitrous oxide turnover in natural and engineered microbial communities: biological pathways, chemical reactions and novel technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eSchreiber

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is an environmentally important atmospheric trace gas because it is an effective greenhouse gas and it leads to ozone depletion through photo-chemical nitric oxide (NO production in the stratosphere. Mitigating its steady increase in atmospheric concentration requires an understanding of the mechanisms that lead to its formation in natural and engineered microbial communities. N2O is formed biologically from the oxidation of hydroxylamine (NH2OH or the reduction of nitrite (NO2- to NO and further to N2O. Our review of the biological pathways for N2O production shows that apparently all organisms and pathways known to be involved in the catabolic branch of microbial N-cycle have the potential to catalyze the reduction of NO2- to NO and the further reduction of NO to N2O, while N2O formation from NH2OH is only performed by ammonia oxidizing bacteria. In addition to biological pathways, we review important chemical reactions that can lead to NO and N2O formation due to the reactivity of NO2-, NH2OH and nitroxyl (HNO. Moreover, biological N2O formation is highly dynamic in response to N-imbalance imposed on a system. Thus, understanding NO formation and capturing the dynamics of NO and N2O build-up are key to understand mechanisms of N2O release. Here, we discuss novel technologies that allow experiments on NO and N2O formation at high temporal resolution, namely NO and N2O microelectrodes and the dynamic analysis of the isotopic signature of N2O with quantum cascade laser based absorption spectroscopy. In addition, we introduce other techniques that use the isotopic composition of N2O to distinguish production pathways and findings that were made with emerging molecular techniques in complex environments. Finally, we discuss how a combination of the presented tools might help to address important open questions on pathways and controls of nitrogen flow through complex microbial communities that eventually lead to N2O build-up.

  17. Systematic metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for high-yield production of fuel bio-chemical 2,3-butanediol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Youqiang; Chu, Haipei; Gao, Chao; Tao, Fei; Zhou, Zikang; Li, Kun; Li, Lixiang; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2014-05-01

    The production of biofuels by recombinant Escherichia coli is restricted by the toxicity of the products. 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD), a platform and fuel bio-chemical with low toxicity to microbes, could be a promising alternative for biofuel production. However, the yield and productivity of 2,3-BD produced by recombinant E. coli strains are not sufficient for industrial scale fermentation. In this work, the production of 2,3-BD by recombinant E. coli strains was optimized by applying a systematic approach. 2,3-BD biosynthesis gene clusters were cloned from several native 2,3-BD producers, including Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Enterobacter cloacae, inserted into the expression vector pET28a, and compared for 2,3-BD synthesis. The recombinant strain E. coli BL21/pETPT7-EcABC, carrying the 2,3-BD pathway gene cluster from Enterobacter cloacae, showed the best ability to synthesize 2,3-BD. Thereafter, expression of the most efficient gene cluster was optimized by using different promoters, including PT7, Ptac, Pc, and Pabc. E. coli BL21/pET-RABC with Pabc as promoter was superior in 2,3-BD synthesis. On the basis of the results of biomass and extracellular metabolite profiling analyses, fermentation conditions, including pH, agitation speed, and aeration rate, were optimized for the efficient production of 2,3-BD. After fed-batch fermentation under the optimized conditions, 73.8g/L of 2,3-BD was produced by using E. coli BL21/pET-RABC within 62h. The values of both yield and productivity of 2,3-BD obtained with the optimized biological system are the highest ever achieved with an engineered E. coli strain. In addition to the 2,3-BD production, the systematic approach might also be used in the production of other important chemicals through recombinant E. coli strains.

  18. Some Physical, Chemical, and Biological Parameters of Samples of Scleractinium Coral Aquaculture Skeleton Used for Reconstruction/Engineering of the Bone Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A A; Sergeeva, N S; Britaev, T A; Komlev, V S; Sviridova, I K; Kirsanova, V A; Akhmedova, S A; Dgebuadze, P Yu; Teterina, A Yu; Kuvshinova, E A; Schanskii, Ya D

    2015-08-01

    Physical and chemical (phase and chemical composition, dynamics of resorption, and strength properties), and biological (cytological compatibility and scaffold properties of the surface) properties of samples of scleractinium coral skeletons from aquacultures of three types and corresponding samples of natural coral skeletons (Pocillopora verrucosa, Acropora formosa, and Acropora nobilis) were studied. Samples of scleractinium coral aquaculture skeleton of A. nobilis, A. formosa, and P. verrucosa met the requirements (all study parameters) to materials for osteoplasty and 3D-scaffolds for engineering of bone tissue.

  19. Engineering Chemically Exfoliated Large-Area Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanolayers with Porphyrins for Improved Light Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanyu; Choi, Jungwook; Ramani, Arjun; Voiry, Damien; Natoli, Sean N; Chhowalla, Manish; McMillin, David R; Choi, Jong Hyun

    2016-09-19

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) is a promising candidate for electronic and optoelectronic applications. However, its application in light harvesting has been limited in part due to crystal defects, often related to small crystallite sizes, which diminish charge separation and transfer. Here we demonstrate a surface-engineering strategy for 2D MoS2 to improve its photoelectrochemical properties. Chemically exfoliated large-area MoS2 thin films were interfaced with eight molecules from three porphyrin families: zinc(II)-, gallium(III)-, iron(III)-centered, and metal-free protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP, GaPP, FePP, H2 PP); metal-free and zinc(II) tetra-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (H2 T4, ZnT4); and metal-free and zinc(II) tetraphenylporphyrin (H2 TPP, ZnTPP). We found that the photocurrents from MoS2 films under visible-light illumination are strongly dependent on the interfacial molecules and that the photocurrent enhancement is closely correlated with the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) levels of the porphyrins, which suppress the recombination of electron-hole pairs in the photoexcited MoS2 films. A maximum tenfold increase was observed for MoS2 functionalized with ZnPP compared with pristine MoS2 films, whereas ZnT4-functionalized MoS2 demonstrated small increases in photocurrent. The application of bias voltage on MoS2 films can further promote photocurrent enhancements and control current directions. Our results suggest a facile route to render 2D MoS2 films useful for potential high-performance light-harvesting applications.

  20. Review on the intensification of chemical engineering processes by microwave%微波强化化工过程技术进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王笃政; 孙永杰; 孙彬峰; 贾兴龙; 张红富; 向阳

    2012-01-01

    The intensification of chemical engineering processes is the main way of energy saving and emission reduction in enterprises. There are several methods of intensificatio in chemical engineering processes. In this paper, the enhancement intensification by microwave in the processes of catalysis, synthesis, extraction, degradation and demulsification are briefly introduced. The intensification effect and application progress are also recommended.%化工过程强化是企业节能减排的主要途径,化工过程强化手段有多种,简要介绍了微波在催化、合成、萃取、降解及破乳过程的强化作用机理,并介绍了微波在这些过程中的强化效果与应用进展。

  1. Advanced biotechnology: metabolically engineered cells for the bio-based production of chemicals and fuels, materials, and health-care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph

    2015-03-09

    Corynebacterium glutamicum, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in particular, have become established as important industrial workhorses in biotechnology. Recent years have seen tremendous progress in their advance into tailor-made producers, driven by the upcoming demand for sustainable processes and renewable raw materials. Here, the diversity and complexity of nature is simultaneously a challenge and a benefit. Harnessing biodiversity in the right manner through synergistic progress in systems metabolic engineering and chemical synthesis promises a future innovative bio-economy.

  2. Application of Matlab on Teaching and Learning Principles of Chemical Engineering%Matlab在化工原理教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金杯; 余美琼; 陈文韬; 邱挺

    2011-01-01

    在化工原理理论教学过程中,各单元操作的操作型问题计算较困难,经常需要迭代试差计算,手算费时费力。本文探讨了工程计算软件Matlab用于化工原理操作型问题的计算,结果表明,Matlab易学易用,可有效解决化工原理计算问题。%In the process of teaching and learning principles of chemical engineering,it is difficult to solve the problem of operating calculation of unit operations,which is frequently required iterative try and error calculation.It is a time-consuming and laborious work by manual.This paper introduces the application of matlab in the operating calculation of principles of chemical engineering,the results show that matlab can effectively improve the calculation of principles of chemical engineering.

  3. Systematic engineering of TCA cycle for optimal production of a four-carbon platform chemical 4-hydroxybutyric acid in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sol; Kim, Hyun Uk; Kim, Tae Yong; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-11-01

    To address climate change and environmental problems, it is becoming increasingly important to establish biorefineries for the production of chemicals from renewable non-food biomass. Here we report the development of Escherichia coli strains capable of overproducing a four-carbon platform chemical 4-hybroxybutyric acid (4-HB). Because 4-HB production is significantly affected by aeration level, genome-scale metabolic model-based engineering strategies were designed under aerobic and microaerobic conditions with emphasis on oxidative/reductive TCA branches and glyoxylate shunt. Several different metabolic engineering strategies were employed to develop strains suitable for fermentation both under aerobic and microaerobic conditions. It was found that microaerobic condition was more efficient than aerobic condition in achieving higher titer and productivity of 4-HB. The final engineered strain produced 103.4g/L of 4-HB by microaerobic fed-batch fermentation using glycerol. The aeration-dependent optimization strategy of TCA cycle will be useful for developing microbial strains producing other reduced derivative chemicals of TCA cycle intermediates.

  4. 《化工原理》教学中加强学生工程思维能力的培养%On fostering the students' engineering thinking ability in teaching Principles of Chemical Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福胜

    2011-01-01

    化工原理是化工类相关专业开设的一门技术基础课程,它利用自然科学的基本原理研究化工生产过程中的客观规律。在《化工原理》理论教学、实验教学、课程设计等环节中,使学生尽早建立起工程意识和工程观念,培养学生的工程思维能力。%Principles of Chemical Industry is a technique foundation course opened chemical-related majors;it utilizes the basic principles of natural science and the objective law of chemical production process. In the the- oretical, experimental teaching and course should strengthen the students' engineering design process of Principles of Chemical Industry, the teachers awareness and cultivate the students'engineering ability.

  5. Festschrift in Honor of Prof. Gordon McKay -On occasion of his retirement from Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Professor Gordon McKay has a long, exciting and distinguished professional career as a chemical engineer. From his early days in industry through to his most recent appointment as professor and Acting Head of Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), he has made a substantial contribution to the profession. Professor McKay has authored over 300 research publications and 5 books in areas of chemical engineering, mainly in adsorption but also in energy and other areas.

  6. Student Chemical Engineering Reflective ePortfolios--ChE Student Perceptions of Learning from Reflective ePortfolio Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrstrom, Catherine A.; Raisor, Cindy; Fowler, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Engineering educators and employers value and prioritize communication skills, but developing and assessing such skills in engineering programs is challenging. Reflective ePortfolios provide opportunities to enhance communication skills. The purpose of this three-­year qualitative case study was to investigate the use of reflective ePortfolios in…

  7. Reform and Practice of Strengthening Engineering Design Training in the Chemical Reaction Engineering Courses%化学反应工程教学中加强工程设计训练的改革与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵启文; 张兴儒; 成春春; 许新乐

    2012-01-01

    我们以培养学生的工程设计能力、提高解决实际工程问题的水平为目的,采取理论教学中围绕工程问题讲解,开设反应器、精馏塔、换热器等化工单元装置设计,典型化工产品工艺流程设计,综合设计型实验,鼓励学生结合实际工程项目完成毕业设计、组建化工设计课程群等系列教学改革措施,取得了良好的教学效果。%For the purpose of training students' ability of engineering design and upgrading their ability in solving practical problems, a new teaching approach is adopted, that is, more practical engineering problems are explained when teaching theory. A series engineering design courses are set up: chemical unit design such as reactor, rectifying tower, heat exchanger, process design of typical chemical products and the integrated design experiments are established. Meanwhile, the students are encouraged to complete graduate design combining the practical project. Good teaching effects are obtained after the reform.

  8. Application of a Genetic Algorithm to the Optimization of Rate Constants in Chemical Kinetic Models for Combustion Simulation of HCCI Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Kyu; Ito, Kazuma; Yoshihara, Daisuke; Wakisaka, Tomoyuki

    For numerically predicting the combustion processes in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines, practical chemical kinetic models have been explored. A genetic algorithm (GA) has been applied to the optimization of the rate constants in detailed chemical kinetic models, and a detailed kinetic model (592 reactions) for gasoline reference fuels with arbitrary octane number between 60 and 100 has been obtained from the detailed reaction schemes for iso-octane and n-heptane proposed by Golovitchev. The ignition timing in a gasoline HCCI engine has been predicted reasonably well by zero-dimensional simulation using the CHEMKIN code with this detailed kinetic model. An original reduced reaction scheme (45 reactions) for dimethyl ether (DME) has been derived from Curran’s detailed scheme, and the combustion process in a DME HCCI engine has been predicted reasonably well in a practical computation time by three-dimensional simulation using the authors’ GTT code, which has been linked to the CHEMKIN subroutines with the proposed reaction scheme and also has adopted a modified eddy dissipation combustion model.

  9. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  10. 化学反应工程课程的逻辑结构及工程思维方式%Logical structure and thinking mode of engineering in discipline of chemical reaction engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良佺; 张蕴贤

    2016-01-01

    For a detailed and rigorous expression of the inherent logical structure of chemical reaction engineering discipline ,the author firstly uses classification method to divide chemical reactor depending on different principles .And for homogeneous reactor ,dendritical structure is applied to hierarchically show each knowledge point and the relationship between them ;and then for the establishing process of the chemical reaction kinetics model ,block diagrams are applied to illustrate the contact between each key points ;finally ,for the training of scientific and rigorous thinking mode of engineering ,block diagrams are used to visually described the effect system of different engineering factors and chemical factors on the reaction results ,w hich provides scientific ways to learn and firmly grasp the knowledge hierarchy of this discipline and the subsequent development and innovation of chemical process .%为了详细且严谨地表达化学反应工程课程内在的逻辑结构,首先应用分类的方法,根据不同的划分原则对化学反应器进行了划分,同时针对均相反应器,采用树状结构分层次地显示了各知识点及其相互关系;其次对化学反应动力学模型建立过程,应用框图形式表示了各关键点之间的联系;最后为培养科学严谨的工程思维方式,应用框图形式形象地表达了不同的工程因素与化学因素对反应结果的作用机制,从而为学生学习并牢固地掌握该课程知识体系及后续的化工过程开发创新提供了科学的方法。

  11. Revising REACH guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment for engineered nanomaterials for aquatic ecotoxicity endpoints: recommendations from the EnvNano project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Skjolding, Lars Michael

    2017-01-01

    in solution”. The aim of this paper is to present the findings of the EnvNano project and through these provide the scientific background for specific recommendations on how ECHA guidance could be further improved. Key EnvNano findings such as the need to characterize dispersion and dissolution rates in stock...... be made applicable to nanomaterials. European Research Council project EnvNano—Environmental Effects and Risk Evaluation of Engineered, which ran from 2011 to 2016, took another outset by assuming that: “The behaviour of nanoparticles in suspension is fundamentally different from that of chemicals...

  12. Radiochemical and chemical constituents in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M. [Geological Survey, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Campbell, L.J. [Idaho Dept. of Water Resources, Boise, ID (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake river Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from nine irrigation wells, three domestic wells, two dairy wells, two springs, one commercial well, one stock well, and one observation well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. Additional sampling at six sites was done to complete the third round of sampling. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

  13. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance...... on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis...... of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key ‘‘lessons learned’’ from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches...

  14. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  15. Exploration and Practice on Teaching of Unit Operation of Chemical Engineering%化工单元操作课程教学探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄兆琴; 韩承辉; 程婷

    2011-01-01

    根据环境监测与治理技术专业的特点及学生学习中存在的问题,对化工单元操作课程的教学工作进行探索,发现结合专业行业背景对化工单元操作教学内容整合,形成由基础理论与实践训练项目组成的模块化教学,将理论知识贯穿于学习情境和实践项目中,配合工程实际案例和多媒体教学,有利于学生对知识的理解掌握及实践动手能力的增强,同时在教学过程中注重培养学生的经济观念和工程观念,使学生树立工程意识。%The teaching of unit operation of chemical engineering was explored according the characteristics of the environmental monitoring and treatment technology major and problems the students had during study.It was helpful for students to master the theoretical knowledge and practical skills by teaching as modules and combining with engineering cases and multimedia teaching.During the teaching,the modules were composed of knowledge items and practice items,theoretical knowledge must be run through all practice items and engineering cases.Moreover,it was very important to pay attention to developing the student's economic and engineering conception and make the student set up the engineering sense in this course.

  16. Three-stage autoignition of gasoline in an HCCI engine: An experimental and chemical kinetic modeling investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon [UPMC Universite Paris 06, LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris (France); UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert (France)

    2008-12-15

    The alternative HCCI combustion mode presents a possible means for decreasing the pollution with respect to conventional gasoline or diesel engines, while maintaining the efficiency of a diesel engine or even increasing it. This paper investigates the possibility of using gasoline in an HCCI engine and analyzes the autoignition of gasoline in such an engine. The compression ratio that has been used is 13.5, keeping the inlet temperature at 70 C, varying the equivalence ratio from 0.3 to 0.54, and the EGR (represented by N{sub 2}) ratio from 0 to 37 vol%. For comparison, a PRF95 and a surrogate containing 11 vol% n-heptane, 59 vol% iso-octane, and 30 vol% toluene are used. A previously validated kinetic surrogate mechanism is used to analyze the experiments and to yield possible explanations to kinetic phenomena. From this work, it seems quite possible to use the high octane-rated gasoline for autoignition purposes, even under lean inlet conditions. Furthermore, it appeared that gasoline and its surrogate, unlike PRF95, show a three-stage autoignition. Since the PRF95 does not contain toluene, it is suggested by the kinetic mechanism that the benzyl radical, issued from toluene, causes this so-defined ''obstructed preignition'' and delaying thereby the final ignition for gasoline and its surrogate. The results of the kinetic mechanism supporting this explanation are shown in this paper. (author)

  17. 化学品数据信息搜索引擎ChemDB Portal%ChemDB Portal,A Search Engine for Chemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓霞; 袁小龙; 夏诏杰; 聂峰光; 陶晓芳; 唐武成; 郭力

    2011-01-01

    化学品的性质、用途、安全使用等相关的知识是专业人员、特别是工业界的从业人员最大程度地降低健康和环境风险,合理地合成新化学品以及利用已有化学品的基础,也是公众消除对化学的误解、客观认识化学品在日常生活中功用和使用限度的前提。利用网络化、可公开访问的化学数据库资源获取化学品数据信息日益成为首选的途径,但目前对这些数据库的检索仍然是分散的单库检索,利用通用的文本搜索引擎如Google、百度还不能对这些库进行统一、有效的检索。最近几年来为解决网络化学数据库的统一检索问题出现了两种策略,一种基于information repository,另一种基于化学深层网的数据提取。本文简要介绍基于化学深层网的数据提取实现网络上多来源化学数据库统一检索的方法以及在此基础上建立的化学品数据信息搜索引擎ChemDB Portal(http://www.chemdb-portal.cn)。%The properties,uses and safety knowledge on chemicals are essential for professional healthy and environmental risk assessment when academic and industrial professional synthesize new chemicals and make proper use of existing chemicals,which is also a necessity for public to avoid misunderstanding of chemistry and chemicals in daily life.Internet is becoming the first choice for professional and public to find data on chemicals from web based chemical databases.However,there is still no single entry to access the data in distributed chemical databases on Internet,even with the general text search engine like Google and Baidu.There are two approaches to create search engine specific for chemicals in the past 5 to 6 years,one is based on information repository and another is based on the data extraction for Chemistry Deep Web.This paper briefly introduces the data extraction approach and presents ChemDB Portal(http://www.chemdb-portal.cn),a search engine prototype for

  18. Matlab在《化工热力学》教学中的应用%Application of Matlab on Teaching and Learning Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱挺; 黄智贤; 王红星; 李晓

    2012-01-01

    The properties of fluid thermodynamic and calculations of phase equilibria are difficult in the process of teaching and learning, which are frequently required iterative try and error calculation and time-con- suming and laborious by manual. Engineering calculation software Matlab applied in the calculation of chemical engineering thermodynamics is introduced in this paper. The results show that Matlab can solve problems of chemical thermodynamic calculation and improve ability ofengineering calculating of students.%在化工热力学理论教学过程中,流体热力学性质、相平衡等计算较困难,经常需要迭代试差计算,手算费时费力.本文探讨了工程计算软件Matlab用于化工热力学的计算,结果表明:Matlab易学易用,可有效解决化工热力学计算问题,提高学生的工程计算能力.

  19. Learning in style: Investigation of factors impacting student success in chemical engineering at individual and team-levels with a focus on student learning styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskioglu, Elif Eda

    Our three studies examine the factors of learning styles, student self-efficacy, collective (team) efficacy, attitudes, perceptions, and performance at individual and team levels. Each study addresses a different environment: (i) Individual Level-we are interested in how variability in learning styles engaged by specific exam problems may correlate with student learning styles, self-efficacy, and performance in our introductory chemical engineering course, Process Fundamentals (i.e., mass and energy or material balances); (ii) Team Level-we are interested in understanding how team composition with respect to learning styles (homogeneous vs. heterogeneous teams) may influence these factors in the upper level Unit Operations course; (iii) Combinatorial Level-we are interested in understanding how collective efficacy may influence individual self-efficacy and again if there are any correlations with learning styles and performance in the senior level Process Design and Development course. Some of the most interesting results of these studies have stemmed from the study on individual students, which has shown correlations between learning style preferences and performance in specific instances. Even more interesting, evaluating and characterizing the learning styles that exam problems engage has shown strong variations in problem types by instructor. This presents new questions regarding how these variations may affect student understanding and subsequent performance. Also included are details regarding a course developed in Technical and Professional Communication (for Chemical Engineers) that was offered Spring 2014 and Spring 2015.

  20. Investigation of Spark Ignition and Autoignition in Methane and Air Using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Chemical Reaction Kinetics. A numerical Study of Ignition Processes in Internal Combustion Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordrik, R.

    1993-12-01

    The processes in the combustion chamber of internal combustion engines have received increased attention in recent years because their efficiencies are important both economically and environmentally. This doctoral thesis studies the ignition phenomena by means of numerical simulation methods. The fundamental physical relations include flow field conservation equations, thermodynamics, chemical reaction kinetics, transport properties and spark modelling. Special attention is given to the inclusion of chemical kinetics in the flow field equations. Using his No Transport of Radicals Concept method, the author reduces the computational efforts by neglecting the transport of selected intermediate species. The method is validated by comparison with flame propagation data. A computational method is described and used to simulate spark ignition in laminar premixed methane-air mixtures and the autoignition process of a methane bubble surrounded by hot air. The spark ignition simulation agrees well with experimental results from the literature. The autoignition simulation identifies the importance of diffusive and chemical processes acting together. The ignition delay times exceed the experimental values found in the literature for premixed ignition delay, presumably because of the mixing process and lack of information on low temperature reactions in the skeletal kinetic mechanism. Transient turbulent methane jet autoignition is simulated by means of the KIVA-II code. Turbulent combustion is modelled by the Eddy Dissipation Concept. 90 refs., 81 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Chemical Composition of Aerosol Particles Emitted by a Passenger Car Engine Fueled by Ethanol/Gasoline Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, J. M.; Gross, D. S.; Dutcher, D. D.; Drayton, M.; Kittelson, D.; McMurry, P.

    2007-12-01

    With concerns of national security, climate change, and human health, many people have called for oil independence for the United States and for the creation of alternative fuels. Ethanol has been widely praised as a viable alternative to petroleum-based fuels, due to the fact that it can be produced locally. A great deal of work has been done to characterize the energy balance of ethanol production versus consumption, but there have been fewer studies of the environmental and health impacts of emissions from combustion of ethanol/gasoline mixtures such as those burned in the modern vehicle fleet. To study the particulate emissions from such fuels, different ethanol/gasoline fuel mixtures with 0, 20, 40, and 85% ethanol were burned in a dynamometer-mounted automobile engine. The engine exhaust was diluted and sampled with two aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometers (TSI 3800 ATOFMS), sampling different particle size ranges (50-500 nm and 150-3000 nm, respectively), to measure size and composition of the emitted aerosol particles. A variety of other aerosol characterization techniques were also employed to determine the size distribution of the aerosol particles, the mass emission rate from the engine, and the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and elemental carbon (EC) in the particle emissions. Here we will focus on results from the ATOFMS, which provides us with a particle size and mass spectra - for both negative and positive ions - for each particle that is sampled. Particles being emitted were found to contain primarily PAHs, elemental carbon (EC), nitrates, and sulfates. Particles were analyzed to investigate trends in particle composition as a function of fuel ethanol content, particle size, and for the types of particles emitted. A trend in particle type as a function of fuel ethanol content was evident in smaller particles, and trends in composition as a function of particle size were visible across the entire size range sampled.

  2. 美国化学工程师学会与化学工程学科的形成%AIChE and Its Role in the Early Shaping of Chemical Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑康妮

    2012-01-01

      In the 20 years from the late 19th century to early 20th century, industry developed rapidly in Europe and the U.S. During this period new branches of engineering science came into being. In order to have deep understanding of engineering science, the author chooses American Institute of Chemical Engineers as her case study target. On the basis of important sources and literatures, the paper made a study on the history of the formulation of chemical engineering as a new discipline from the perspectives of historiography and sociology of science. The paper shows that in the rapid growth of the chemical industry in the U.S, chemical engineers has become a new profession, and chemical engineering as a discipline is gradually shaped by the interaction and intersection of chemistry and mechanical engineering. In 1888, Boston Institute of Technology (the predecessor of MIT) started to design chemical engineering courses and to train engineers needed in chemical industry. Chemical engineers paid more attention to the connection of their work with pure chemistry and mechanical engineering. They tried to find out their own professional and knowledge boundaries in industry. The chemical industry grew along with the formation of chemical engineer groups and institutionalization of chemical engineering education. In such a context, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers was established in 1908. The AIChE was a distinguished mark of the institutionalization of chemical engineering. It played an important role in the shaping and promoting of the new discipline: defining the professional identity of the chemical engineer; constructing a platform of academic communication; clarifying the boundary of chemical engineering and the relationship among chemical engineering, chemistry, mechanical engineering and other disciplines; reforming the education of chemical engineering at American universities, standardizing the curriculum of chemical engineering;promoting the

  3. Engineering a Chemical Switch into the Light-driven Proton Pump Proteorhodopsin by Cysteine Mutagenesis and Thiol Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Daniel; Hirschi, Stephan; Ucurum, Zöhre; Goers, Roland; Meier, Wolfgang; Müller, Daniel J; Fotiadis, Dimitrios

    2016-07-25

    For applications in synthetic biology, for example, the bottom-up assembly of biomolecular nanofactories, modules of specific and controllable functionalities are essential. Of fundamental importance in such systems are energizing modules, which are able to establish an electrochemical gradient across a vesicular membrane as an energy source for powering other modules. Light-driven proton pumps like proteorhodopsin (PR) are excellent candidates for efficient energy conversion. We have extended the versatility of PR by implementing an on/off switch based on reversible chemical modification of a site-specifically introduced cysteine residue. The position of this cysteine residue in PR was identified by structure-based cysteine mutagenesis combined with a proton-pumping assay using E. coli cells overexpressing PR and PR proteoliposomes. The identified PR mutant represents the first light-driven proton pump that can be chemically switched on/off depending on the requirements of the molecular system.

  4. Reduced chemical reaction mechanisms: experimental and HCCI modelling investigations of autoignition processes of iso-octane in internal combustion engines

    OpenAIRE

    Machrafi, Hatim; Lombaert, K.; Cavadias, S; Guibert, P.; Amouroux, J

    2005-01-01

    A semi-reduced (70 species, 210 reactions) and a skeletal (27 species, 29 reactions) chemical reaction mechanism for iso-octane are constructed from a semi-detailed iso-octane mechanism (84 species, 412 reactions) of the Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. The construction of the reduced mechanisms is performed by using reduction methods such as the quasi-steady-state assumption and the partial equilibrium assumption. The obtained reduced iso-octane mechanisms show, at the mentioned ...

  5. 化工原理教学中的几点体会%Experience Achieved in the Teaching of Chemical Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王韵芳; 李双志; 樊彩梅; 郝晓刚

    2012-01-01

    化工原理课程是一门关于化学加工过程的专业技术基础课程,它是化工及相近学科学生由自然科学领域的基础课向工程科学的专业课过渡的入门课程。本文针对化工原理课程的教材内容,结合笔者多年的授课经验,详细介绍了教学中的几点体会,从基本原理出发,以基本方程为基准,深入浅出定性定量地描述了单元操作过程涉及的概念和现象,让学生用自己学过的知识来解决出现的新问题,充分发挥了学生的主观能动性,激发了学生的学习兴趣,从而培养了学生思考问题、解决问题的能力,并树立了科学和工程观念。%The course of Principles of Chemical Engineering is a basic technical course in the process of chemical processing. And it is also an introductory course for the students majoring chemistry subject and the like. In this paper, ideas obtained in years of teaching are explained. According to the teaching materials of chemical engineering principles, the concept and the phenomena involved in the unit operation process are described by qualitative and quantitative simple terms from basic principles and with the basic equation, which helps students to solve problems by themselves. That fully arouses the students' interest and cultivates the students' initiative. In the end, student's capability in considering and solving problems is upgraded and their scientific and engineering concept is set up.

  6. Applications of microreactor in chemistry and chemical engineering%微反应器在化学化工领域中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兆利; 张鹏飞

    2016-01-01

    微反应器是微型化学反应系统,具有换热和传质效率高、严格控制反应时间、易于放大、安全性能好等特点。和传统搅拌反应器相比,这些特点使得微反应器在缩短反应时间、大幅度提高化学反应的转化率和产品收率等方面展现出一定的优势。但微反应器也存在易堵塞,催化剂负载、微通道的设计与制造难度大等问题。本文介绍了近年来快速发展的微反应器技术,回顾了微反应器的特点,重点探讨微反应器在化学化工领域的应用以及微反应器在精细化工和制药工业、生物化工领域的应用实例,讨论了微反应器目前存在的诸多挑战。微反应器目前是化学和化工学科的前沿和热点方向,分析表明微反应器仍然有很大的发展空间,有潜力改变化学化工前景。提出应进一步深入系统地认识微反应器内化学反应以及微通道设计的基本规律和机理,将微反应器技术引入更广泛的反应体系中,加强微反应器的集成化水平。%Microreactor belongs to the miniature chemical reaction system,which has some characteristics of high heat- and mass- transfer rates,strictly-controlled reaction time,easy scale-up, excellent safety performance,and so on. Comparing with the common batch reactors,advantages of microreactors are reducing reaction time,greatly promoting conversion and yields. On the other hand, there are some existing challenges,such as the clogging problem,catalyst loading,design and fabrication of microchannels,and so on. This paper aims to introduce the microreactor technology, which has been growing rapidly in recent years. Some of the basic characteristics of microreactor are summarized focusing on applications of microreactor in chemistry and chemical engineering as well as some of typical examples of existing in fine chemical and pharmaceutical industry. A variety of challenges are also discussed. Microreactor is a

  7. Re-engineering nalidixic acid's chemical scaffold: A step towards the development of novel anti-tubercular and anti-bacterial leads for resistant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraman, Ramalingam; Varma, Raghu Veer; Reddy, Y Padmanabha

    2015-10-01

    Occurrence of antibacterial and antimycobacterial resistance stimulated a thrust to discover new drugs for infectious diseases. Herein we report the work on re-engineering nalidixic acid's chemical scaffold for newer leads. Stepwise clubbing of quinoxaline, 1,2,4-triazole/1,3,4-oxadiazole with nalidixic acid yielded better compounds. Compounds were screened against ciprofloxacin resistant bacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv species. Results were obtained as minimum inhibitory concentration, it was evident that molecule with quinoxaline linked azide as side chain served as antitubercular lead (<6.25 μg/ml) whilst molecule with oxadiazole or triazole linked quinoxaline side chain served as anti-bacterial lead. Few compounds were significantly active against Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris with MIC less than 0.06 μg/ml and relatively potent than ciprofloxacin. No true compound was potentially active against Salmonella species as compared to amoxicillin.

  8. Chemical Processes with Supercritical CO2 in Engineered Geologic Systems: Significance, Previous Study, and Path Forward (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T.; Pruess, K.

    2009-12-01

    Chemical reactions with dissolved CO2 in the aqueous phase have long been considered in fundamental geosciences and practical applications. Recently, studies on geologic carbon sequestration and enhanced geothermal systems using CO2 as heat transmission fluid have brought new interests in chemical reaction processes directly with supercritical CO2 (scCO2, or gas phase). In the vicinity of a CO2 injection well, the aqueous fluid initially present in a geological formation would be quickly removed by dissolution (evaporation) into the flowing gas stream and by immiscible displacement by the scCO2, creating a gas phase dominant zone. In this zone, the water evaporation could cause formation dry-out and precipitation of salt near the injection well, reducing formation porosity, permeability, and injectivity. The scCO2 may directly attack well construction materials such as cement. Over time, the gas phase will tend to migrate upwards towards the caprock because the density of the scCO2 is lower than that of the aqueous phase. In the upper portions of the reservoir, the scCO2 will directly react with caprock minerals and alter the hydrological properties and mechanical strength. On the other hand, the scCO2 phase will maintain the dissolution into the aqueous phase, lowering pH, inducing mineral dissolution, complexing with dissolved cations, increasing CO2 solubility, increasing the density of the aqueous phase, and promoting “convective mixing”. Chemical processes are quite different in the scCO2 dominant geologic systems. The absence of an aqueous phase poses unique questions, as little is presently known about the chemistry of non-aqueous systems. Additional issues arise from the reactivity of water that is dissolved in the ScCO2 phase. In this presentation, the author will discuss the importance, state of the studies performed, and future research directions.

  9. Analysis of nonequilibrium chemical processes in the plume of subsonic and supersonic aircraft with hydrogen and hydrocarbon combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starik, A.M.; Lebedev, A.B.; Titova, N.S. [Central Inst. of Aviation Motors, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    On the basic of quasi one dimensional mixing model the numerical analysis of nonequilibrium chemical processes in the plume of subsonic and hypersonic aircraft is presented. It was found that species HNO, HNO{sub 3}, HNO{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O{sub 5}, ClO{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2} could be formed as a result of nonequilibrium processes in the plume and their concentrations can essentially exceed both background values in free stream of atmosphere and their values at the nozzle exit plane. (author) 10 refs.

  10. 《化工工艺学》课程教学改革与实践%Reform and Practice in Teaching Process of Chemical Engineering Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晋黄; 吴宇琼

    2013-01-01

    In the course of chemical engineering technology teaching,in order to stimulate stu-dents' interest and potential,so as to gradually develop their engineering quality and innovation ca-pacity,based on the nature and characteristics of the course,make full use of ammonia model,pro-fessional experimental apparatus,chemical simulation software and other teaching resources,utilize a variety of teaching methods such as heuristic,discussion,research type,case type and so on. Us-es lectures,self-study,group discussions and speeches,visits,design and simulation operation,to carry out teaching activities. With comprehensive examination model to comprehensively evaluate the students' quality and ability,it is generally favored by majority of students.%在《化工工艺学》课程教学中,为激发学生学习的兴趣和潜能,从而逐步培养其工程素质和创新能力,根据该课程的性质和特点,充分利用合成氨模型、专业实验装置和化工仿真软件等教学资源,灵活运用启发式、讨论式、研究式、案例式等多种教学方法,采用讲授、自学、小组讨论、参观、设计型作业和仿真操作等方式开展教学活动,采用综合性全程考试的模式全面评价学生的素质和能力,获得了良好的教学效果。

  11. Teaching Practice and Method of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics%《化工热力学》教学实践与方法交流

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡江涛; 周安宁; 杨志远; 王丽娜

    2015-01-01

    结合多年从事化工热力学教学的经验,提出几点体会:本着突出应用的教学目的,注意培养学生解决实际问题的能力;采用设问、启发、讨论、多媒体教学与传统板书结合、适度运用英语与软件工具等多种教学手段,以提高教学效果;推荐了建立理想模型的热力学研究方法;强调了讲述好绪论的重要性。从而进一步提高我校化工热力学课程的教学质量。%According to our teaching practice for many years engaged in Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, some experience was put forward. To achieve the purpose of application, cultivating students ' ability to solve practical problems should be focused on. By using a variety of teaching methods, such as rhetorical questions, inspire, discussion, combining multimedia teaching with writing on blackboard, appropriate using of English and software as tools, the teaching effect were improved. Thermodynamic study method on constructing an ideal model was recommended. The importance of good introduction on the course was stressed. Then teaching quality of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics course in our university was improved.

  12. New Directions for Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonsey, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the definition of "biomedical engineering" and the development of educational programs in the field. Includes detailed descriptions of the roles of bioengineers, medical engineers, and chemical engineers. (CC)

  13. Crystal engineering of energetic materials: co-crystals of Ethylenedinitramine (EDNA) with modified performance and improved chemical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakeröy, Christer B; Wijethunga, Tharanga K; Desper, John

    2015-07-27

    In the area of energetic materials, co-crystallization is emerging as a new technology for modifying or enhancing the properties of existing energetic substances. Ethylenedinitramine (EDNA) is a known energetic material which requires attention partly due to its chemical instability originating with its two highly acidic protons. In order to stabilize EDNA, a co-crystallization approach targeting the acidic protons using a series of co-crystallizing agents with suitable hydrogen-bond acceptors was employed. Fifteen attempted co-crystallizations resulted in eight successful outcomes and six of these were crystallographically characterized and all showed evidence of hydrogen bonds to the intended protons. Calculated detonation properties and experimental thermal and impact data for the co-crystals were obtained and compared with those of pure EDNA. The co-crystal of EDNA and 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene was recognized as a more thermally stable alternative to EDNA while the co-crystal of EDNA and pyrazine N,N'-dioxide showed comparable detonation strengths (and much improved chemical stability) compared with that of EDNA. The co-crystals EDNA:4,4'-bipyridine and EDNA:pyrazine N,N'-dioxide were found to be about 50 % less impact sensitive than EDNA, all of which illustrate how co-crystallizations can be utilized for successfully modifying specific aspects of energetic materials.

  14. 化学镀镍废水处理工程实例%Chemical Nickel Plating Wastewater Treatment Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁杰; 王丽亚

    2012-01-01

    Considering the chemical nickel plating process and the characteristics of wastewater, the operation reliability and economy of the technology shall be taken into account in the design. The paper, based on the complexing agents added in the chemical plating solution and the effect of additives on the wastewater treat- ment, proposes such methods as chemical oxidation, precipitation and added heavy metal capture agent in combination for treating electroless nickel plating wastewater and comes up with the result of stable effluent quality. The study indicates that the ammonia nitrogen, related water quality standard CJ343 - 2010, the total phosphate nanotubes concentration conforms with the nickel with the related execution emission standard GB21900 - 2008 in Table 2 and the other contaminants with the related standard GB8978 - 1996%根据化学镀镍工艺及废水的特点,在设计上主要应考虑工艺的运行可靠性和经济性。根据化学镀液中添加的各种络合剂及其助剂对废水处理的影响,提出了采用化学氧化、沉淀以及添加重金属捕捉剂联合处理化学镀镍废水的方法,出水水质稳定。氨氮、磷酸盐纳管浓度达到《污水排入城市下水道水质标准》(CJ343—2010)的要求,总镍含量满足《电镀污染物排放标准》(GB21900—2008)中表2新建企业水污染物排放限值,其他污染物达到《污水综合排放标准》(GB8978—1996)的三级标准。

  15. Curriculum System Construction and Teaching Practice of Chemical Engineering Technology Based on Program for Educating and Training Outstanding Engineers%基于卓越计划的《化工工艺学》课程体系构建与教学实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱玉娥; 张秀玲; 商书波; 沙沙

    2015-01-01

    根据“卓越工程师教育培养计划”人才培养目标,结合德州学院化学工程与工艺专业的教学实际和《化工工艺学》课程的特点,确立了以培养后备工程师为目标的课程改革思路,构建了突出工程实践能力培养的《化工工艺学》课程体系并付诸教学实践,为化工类应用型卓越工程师的成功培养奠定了良好基础。%According to the talents’cultivation goals of Program for Educating and Training Outstanding Engineers,taking consideration of the teaching reality of the Chemical Engineering and Technology major of Dezhou University and the characteristics of chemical technology course,we have established the course reform methodologies with the goals of cultivation of backup engineers;construct and put into practice of chemical engineering technology curriculum system emphasizing engineering practice ability,which pro-vides excellent foundations for successful cultivation of applied excellent chemical engineer.

  16. Engineering chemically exfoliated dispersions of two-dimensional graphite and molybdenum disulphide for ink-jet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Monica; Desai, Jay A.; Biswas, Chandan; Kaul, Anupama B.

    2016-12-01

    Stable ink dispersions of two-dimensional-layered-materials (2DLMs) MoS2 and graphite are successfully obtained in organic solvents exhibiting a wide range of polarities and surface energies. The role of sonication time, ink viscosity and surface tension is explored in the context of dispersion stability using these solvents, which include N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMA), dimethylformamide (DMF), Cyclohexanone (C), as well as less-toxic and more environmentally friendly Isopropanol (IPA) and Terpineol (T). The ink viscosity is engineered through the addition of Ethyl-Cellulose (EC) which has been shown to optimize the jettability of the dispersions. In contrast to prior work, the addition of EC after sonication—instead of prior to it—is noted to be effective in generating a high-density dispersion, yielding a uniform film morphology. High-quality inks are obtained using C/T and NMP as solvents for MoS2 and graphite, respectively, as gauged through optical absorption spectroscopy. Electronic transport data on the solution-cast inks is gathered at room temperature. Arrays of 2D graphite-rod based inks are printed on rigid Si, as well as flexible and transparent polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. The results clearly show the promise of ink-jet printing for casting 2DLMs into hierarchically assembled structures over a range of substrates for flexible and printed-electronics applications.

  17. Engineering of a Synthetic Metabolic Pathway for the Assimilation of (d)-Xylose into Value-Added Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, Yvan; Alkim, Ceren; Trichez, Debora; Trebosc, Vincent; Vax, Amélie; Bartolo, François; Besse, Philippe; François, Jean Marie; Walther, Thomas

    2016-07-15

    A synthetic pathway for (d)-xylose assimilation was stoichiometrically evaluated and implemented in Escherichia coli strains. The pathway proceeds via isomerization of (d)-xylose to (d)-xylulose, phosphorylation of (d)-xylulose to obtain (d)-xylulose-1-phosphate (X1P), and aldolytic cleavage of the latter to yield glycolaldehyde and DHAP. Stoichiometric analyses showed that this pathway provides access to ethylene glycol with a theoretical molar yield of 1. Alternatively, both glycolaldehyde and DHAP can be converted to glycolic acid with a theoretical yield that is 20% higher than for the exclusive production of this acid via the glyoxylate shunt. Simultaneous expression of xylulose-1 kinase and X1P aldolase activities, provided by human ketohexokinase-C and human aldolase-B, respectively, restored growth of a (d)-xylulose-5-kinase mutant on xylose. This strain produced ethylene glycol as the major metabolic endproduct. Metabolic engineering provided strains that assimilated the entire C2 fraction into the central metabolism or that produced 4.3 g/L glycolic acid at a molar yield of 0.9 in shake flasks.

  18. An experimental and numerical investigation on the influence of external gas recirculation on the HCCI autoignition process in an engine: Thermal, diluting, and chemical effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon [UPMC Universite Paris 06, LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); UPMC Universite Paris 06, FRT, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert, 2, place de la Gare de Ceinture, 78210 St Cyr l' Ecole (France); Guibert, Philippe [UPMC Universite Paris 06, FRT, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert, 2, place de la Gare de Ceinture, 78210 St Cyr l' Ecole (France)

    2008-11-15

    In order to contribute to the solution of controlling the autoignition in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine, parameters linked to external gas recirculation (EGR) seem to be of particular interest. Experiments performed with EGR present some difficulties in interpreting results using only the diluting and thermal aspect of EGR. Lately, the chemical aspect of EGR is taken more into consideration, because this aspect causes a complex interaction with the dilution and thermal aspects of EGR. This paper studies the influence of EGR on the autoignition process and particularly the chemical aspect of EGR. The diluents present in EGR are simulated by N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, with dilution factors going from 0 to 46 vol%. For the chemically active species that could be present in EGR, the species CO, NO, and CH{sub 2}O are used. The initial concentration in the inlet mixture of CO and NO is varied between 0 and 170 ppm, while that of CH{sub 2}O alters between 0 and 1400 ppm. For the investigation of the effect of the chemical species on the autoignition, a fixed dilution factor of 23 vol% and a fixed EGR temperature of 70 C are maintained. The inlet temperature is held at 70 C, the equivalence ratios between 0.29 and 0.41, and the compression ratio at 10.2. The fuels used for the autoignition are n-heptane and PRF40. It appeared that CO, in the investigated domain, did not influence the ignition delays, while NO had two different effects. At concentrations up until 45 ppm, NO advanced the ignition delays for the PRF40 and at higher concentrations, the ignition delayed. The influence of NO on the autoignition of n-heptane seemed to be insignificant, probably due to the higher burn rate of n-heptane. CH{sub 2}O seemed to delay the ignition. The results suggested that especially the formation of OH radicals or their consumption by the chemical additives determines how the reactivity of the autoignition changed. (author)

  19. Contemporary engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chan S

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Engineering Economics, 5/e, is intended for undergraduate engineering students taking introductory engineering economics while appealing to the full range of engineering disciplines for which this course is often required: industrial, civil, mechanical, electrical, computer, aerospace, chemical, and manufacturing engineering, as well as engineering technology. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated while continuing to adopt a contemporary approach to the subject, and teaching, of engineering economics. This text aims not only to build a sound and comprehensive coverage of engineering economics, but also to address key educational challenges, such as student difficulty in developing the analytical skills required to make informed financial decisions.

  20. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieger, Khara D., E-mail: kgrieger@rti.org [RTI International (United States); Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Management Engineering (Denmark); Christensen, Frans [Sustainability and Risk Management, COWI A/S, Department for Pollution Prevention (Denmark); Baun, Anders [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering (Denmark); Olsen, Stig I. [Technical University of Denmark, Department of Management Engineering (Denmark)

    2012-07-15

    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key 'lessons learned' from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches for using these methods together for NM: 'LC-based RA' (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and 'RA-complemented LCA' (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods for NM-risk research efforts to date as the former is rather a continuation of normal RA according to standard assessment procedures (e.g., REACH). Both these approaches along with recommendations for using LCA and RA together for NM are similar to those made previously for chemicals, and thus, there does not appear to be much progress made specific for NM. We have identified one issue in particular that may be specific for NM when applying LCA and RA at this time: the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods.

  1. Crystal Engineering for Low Defect Density and High Efficiency Hybrid Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Annie; Ren, Zhiwei; Shen, Qian; Cheung, Sin Hang; Gokkaya, Huseyin Cem; So, Shu Kong; Djurišić, Aleksandra B; Wan, Yangyang; Wu, Xiaojun; Surya, Charles

    2016-12-07

    Synthesis of high quality perovskite absorber is a key factor in determining the performance of the solar cells. We demonstrate that hybrid chemical vapor deposition (HCVD) growth technique can provide high level of versatility and repeatability to ensure the optimal conditions for the growth of the perovskite films as well as potential for batch processing. It is found that the growth ambient and degree of crystallization of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPI) have strong impact on the defect density of MAPI. We demonstrate that HCVD process with slow postdeposition cooling rate can significantly reduce the density of shallow and deep traps in the MAPI due to enhanced material crystallization, while a mixed O2/N2 carrier gas is effective in passivating both shallow and deep traps. By careful control of the perovskite growth process, a champion device with power conversion efficiency of 17.6% is achieved. Our work complements the existing theoretical studies on different types of trap states in MAPI and fills the gap on the theoretical analysis of the interaction between deep levels and oxygen. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical predictions.

  2. Plant-symbiotic fungi as chemical engineers: multi-genome analysis of the clavicipitaceae reveals dynamics of alkaloid loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Schardl

    Full Text Available The fungal family Clavicipitaceae includes plant symbionts and parasites that produce several psychoactive and bioprotective alkaloids. The family includes grass symbionts in the epichloae clade (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species, which are extraordinarily diverse both in their host interactions and in their alkaloid profiles. Epichloae produce alkaloids of four distinct classes, all of which deter insects, and some-including the infamous ergot alkaloids-have potent effects on mammals. The exceptional chemotypic diversity of the epichloae may relate to their broad range of host interactions, whereby some are pathogenic and contagious, others are mutualistic and vertically transmitted (seed-borne, and still others vary in pathogenic or mutualistic behavior. We profiled the alkaloids and sequenced the genomes of 10 epichloae, three ergot fungi (Claviceps species, a morning-glory symbiont (Periglandula ipomoeae, and a bamboo pathogen (Aciculosporium take, and compared the gene clusters for four classes of alkaloids. Results indicated a strong tendency for alkaloid loci to have conserved cores that specify the skeleton structures and peripheral genes that determine chemical variations that are known to affect their pharmacological specificities. Generally, gene locations in cluster peripheries positioned them near to transposon-derived, AT-rich repeat blocks, which were probably involved in gene losses, duplications, and neofunctionalizations. The alkaloid loci in the epichloae had unusual structures riddled with large, complex, and dynamic repeat blocks. This feature was not reflective of overall differences in repeat contents in the genomes, nor was it characteristic of most other specialized metabolism loci. The organization and dynamics of alkaloid loci and abundant repeat blocks in the epichloae suggested that these fungi are under selection for alkaloid diversification. We suggest that such selection is related to the variable life histories

  3. Plant-symbiotic fungi as chemical engineers: multi-genome analysis of the clavicipitaceae reveals dynamics of alkaloid loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardl, Christopher L; Young, Carolyn A; Hesse, Uljana; Amyotte, Stefan G; Andreeva, Kalina; Calie, Patrick J; Fleetwood, Damien J; Haws, David C; Moore, Neil; Oeser, Birgitt; Panaccione, Daniel G; Schweri, Kathryn K; Voisey, Christine R; Farman, Mark L; Jaromczyk, Jerzy W; Roe, Bruce A; O'Sullivan, Donal M; Scott, Barry; Tudzynski, Paul; An, Zhiqiang; Arnaoudova, Elissaveta G; Bullock, Charles T; Charlton, Nikki D; Chen, Li; Cox, Murray; Dinkins, Randy D; Florea, Simona; Glenn, Anthony E; Gordon, Anna; Güldener, Ulrich; Harris, Daniel R; Hollin, Walter; Jaromczyk, Jolanta; Johnson, Richard D; Khan, Anar K; Leistner, Eckhard; Leuchtmann, Adrian; Li, Chunjie; Liu, JinGe; Liu, Jinze; Liu, Miao; Mace, Wade; Machado, Caroline; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Pan, Juan; Schmid, Jan; Sugawara, Koya; Steiner, Ulrike; Takach, Johanna E; Tanaka, Eiji; Webb, Jennifer S; Wilson, Ella V; Wiseman, Jennifer L; Yoshida, Ruriko; Zeng, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The fungal family Clavicipitaceae includes plant symbionts and parasites that produce several psychoactive and bioprotective alkaloids. The family includes grass symbionts in the epichloae clade (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), which are extraordinarily diverse both in their host interactions and in their alkaloid profiles. Epichloae produce alkaloids of four distinct classes, all of which deter insects, and some-including the infamous ergot alkaloids-have potent effects on mammals. The exceptional chemotypic diversity of the epichloae may relate to their broad range of host interactions, whereby some are pathogenic and contagious, others are mutualistic and vertically transmitted (seed-borne), and still others vary in pathogenic or mutualistic behavior. We profiled the alkaloids and sequenced the genomes of 10 epichloae, three ergot fungi (Claviceps species), a morning-glory symbiont (Periglandula ipomoeae), and a bamboo pathogen (Aciculosporium take), and compared the gene clusters for four classes of alkaloids. Results indicated a strong tendency for alkaloid loci to have conserved cores that specify the skeleton structures and peripheral genes that determine chemical variations that are known to affect their pharmacological specificities. Generally, gene locations in cluster peripheries positioned them near to transposon-derived, AT-rich repeat blocks, which were probably involved in gene losses, duplications, and neofunctionalizations. The alkaloid loci in the epichloae had unusual structures riddled with large, complex, and dynamic repeat blocks. This feature was not reflective of overall differences in repeat contents in the genomes, nor was it characteristic of most other specialized metabolism loci. The organization and dynamics of alkaloid loci and abundant repeat blocks in the epichloae suggested that these fungi are under selection for alkaloid diversification. We suggest that such selection is related to the variable life histories of the

  4. Using the peptide BP100 as a cell-penetrating tool for the chemical engineering of actin filaments within living plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenberger, Kai; Mink, Christian; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Ulrich, Anne S; Nick, Peter

    2011-01-03

    The delivery of externally applied macromolecules or nanoparticles into living cells still represents a critically limiting step before the full capabilities of chemical engineering can be explored. Molecular transporters such as cell-penetrating peptides, peptoids, and other mimetics can be used to carry cargo across the cellular membrane, but it is still difficult to find suitable sequences that operate efficiently for any particular type of cell. Here we report that BP100 (KKLFKKILKYL-amide), originally designed as an antimicrobial peptide against plant pathogens, can be employed as a fast and efficient cell-penetrating agent to transport fluorescent test cargoes into the cytosol of walled plant cells. The uptake of BP100 proceeds slightly more slowly than the endocytosis of fluorescent dextranes, but BP100 accumulates more efficiently and to much higher levels (by an order of magnitude). The entry of BP100 can be efficiently blocked by latrunculin B; this suggests that actin filaments are essential to the uptake mechanism. To test whether this novel transporter can also be used to deliver functional cargoes, we designed a fusion construct of BP100 with the actin-binding Lifeact peptide (MGVADLIKKFESISKEE). We demonstrated that the short BP100 could transport the attached 17-residue sequence quickly and efficiently into tobacco cells. The Lifeact construct retained its functionality as it successfully labeled the actin bundles that tether the nucleus in the cell center.

  5. 面向石化行业的化工原理教学改革探%Teaching Reformation on Petrochemical-oriented Chemical Engineering Principles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄贵秋; 陈艳辉; 熊拯; 陈敏娥

    2011-01-01

    在面向石油化工行业的《化工原理》课程教学中,教师应该注重实践,尤其要注重理论与石油化工行业实践的结合,使理论教学工作与时俱进、不断创新;要找准教学切入点,认真设计教学环节,合理分解教学难点;要充分调动学生学习积极性,运用各种教学方法与手段调整学生学习状态。%In the teaching of petrochemical-oriented Chemical Engineering Principles, the teacher ought to focus the following points. Great importance should be attached to practice, in particular to the integration of theory with the practice of petrochemical industry, so teaching activity can be innovated and updated as the times proceed ; with starting point being pinpointed by teachers, the teaching procedures ought to be carefully designed, so that difficult points can be rationally handled; students' motivation need stimulating while various teaching methods and strategies need to be used to adjust students' learning state.

  6. Review of the impact of the Ukraine-EU free trade agreement on manufacturing industries (mechanical engineering, chemical and light industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Usenko

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a definition to the concept of ‘deep integration’ taken by the Ukrainian Government as a framework concept for the establishment of a Ukraine-EU free trade area. The paper uses the term ‘deep free trade’ or ‘free trade area +’. It offers a review of the Ukrainian economy and its readiness to open such industries as mechanical engineering, chemical and light industry to free trade with the EU. It examines which cooperative steps might be taken in the sectors in question in the framework of a free trade area by identifying specific features of those sectors in Ukraine and the EU through SWOT analysis and review of certain provisions in relevant agreements between the EU and other countries. It proposes to forecast the possible impact of a free trade area on stakeholders’ position regarding the agreement by using the ‘stakeholder approach’ (identifying and classifying interest groups and the European Commission’s method of ‘impact assessment’. Based on the results of this research, conclusions are made concerning the fundamental negotiation principles for talks between Ukraine and the EU as to the economic and trade component of the new ‘enhanced agreement.

  7. Chemical constituents in water from wells in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho, 1991--93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, B.J.; Knobel, L.L.; Bartholomay, R.C.

    1995-11-01

    The US Geological Survey, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office, Idaho Branch Office, sampled 14 wells during 1991--93 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. Water samples were analyzed for manmade contaminants and naturally occurring constituents. One hundred sixty-one samples were collected from 10 ground-water monitoring wells and 4 production wells. Twenty-one quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed; 2 were blank samples and 19 were replicate samples. The two blank samples contained concentrations of six inorganic constituents that were slightly greater than the laboratory reporting levels (the smallest measured concentration of a constituent that can be reported using a given analytical method). Concentrations of other constituents in the blank samples were less than their respective reporting levels. The 19 replicate samples and their respective primary samples generated 614 pairs of analytical results for a variety of chemical and radiochemical constituents. Of the 614 data pairs, 588 were statistically equivalent at the 95% confidence level; about 96% of the analytical results were in agreement. Two pairs of turbidity measurements were not evaluated because of insufficient information and one primary sample collected in January 1992 contained tentatively identified organic compounds when the replicate sample did not.

  8. Chemical and Radiochemical Constituents in Water from Wells in the Vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. L. Knobel; R. C. Bartholomay; B. J. Tucker; L. M. Williams (USGS)

    1999-10-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office, Idaho Branch Office (IBO), samples water from 13 wells during 1996 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality to the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho. The IBO requires information about the mobility of radionuclide- and chemical-waste constituents in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Waste-constituent mobility is determined principally by (1) the rate and direction of ground-water flow; (2) the locations, quantities, and methods of waste disposal; (3) waste-constituents chemistry; and (4) the geochemical processes taking place in the aquifer. The purpose of the data-collection program is to provide IBO with water-chemistry data to evaluate the effect of NRF activities on the water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer. Water samples were analyzed for naturally occurring constituents and man-made contaminants.

  9. 基于CDIO工程教育理念的化工原理实践教学改革探索%Exploration on the Reform of Chemical Engineering Practice Teaching Based on the CDIO Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵薇; 王建雅; 李凤华

    2012-01-01

    在化工原理实践教学中,存在内容设置不合理、与理论教学及工程实践严重脱节等问题。将CDIO工程教育理念引入教学环节,构建基于CDIO工程教育理念的实践教学体系,并提出开展课前认识实习、开设设计性实验课、加强实践课与理论课的联系、强化课程设计环节以及开放化工生产过程实训实施方案。%There are some deficiencies in chemical engineering practice teaching, such as the irrationality of curriculum content and alienation from theory teaching and engineering practice. By introducing CDIO engineering education concept into teaching, the practice teaching system is constructed based on CDIO. Implementation schemes of chemical engineering practice teaching are also proposed, that is, to recognize practice before class, have designing experimental course, strengthen the connection between practice and theory courses, reinforce curse design and open chemical production process practice.

  10. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, L. R. P. de Andrade

    2007-01-01

    p. 623 - 635 Carbon-in-leach and carbon-in-pulp are continuous processes that use activated carbon in a cascade of large agitated tanks, which have been widely used to recover or concentrate precious metals in gold extraction plants. In the carbon-in-pulp process adsorption occurs after the leaching cascade section of the plant, and in the carbon-in-leach process leaching and adsorption occur simultaneously. In both processes the activated carbon is moved from one tank to anoth...

  11. Teaching Reform and Practice of Biochemistry for Chemical Engineering Specialty%化工类专业生物化学教学改革与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国元

    2014-01-01

    通过分析化工类专业生物化学教学过程中存在的主要问题,提出了加强教材选择,优化内容配置,建立合理教学体系;制作精良的多媒体课件,控制讲授节奏,提高课堂教学效率;合理设置问题,启发学生联想与推理,多角度提高学生学习兴趣;注重培养学生自学能力,加强理论联系实际,提高课堂教学效果等教学改革措施。这些改革措施在实际教学中应用效果较好。%The main problems in the teaching process of biochemistry for chemical engineering specialty were analyzed.Four teaching reform measures were put forward and applied , which were founding reasonable teaching system by strengthening the teaching material choice and optimizing teaching content , improving teaching efficiency by making excellent multimedia courseware and controlling lecturing rhythm , multiple perspectives to promote the students'interest by setting up reasonable question and inspiring the students association and reasoning , and improving the effect of classroom teaching by paying attention to training students'self-study ability and strengthening the theory with practice.The application effect of these reform measures in the actual teaching was good.

  12. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Three - Appendix F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix F. Appendix F is essentially a photocopy of the ORNL researchers' laboratory notebooks from the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) and the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL).

  13. 林业院校《化工原理实验》特色教学的探讨%Discussion on the Characteristic Experiment Teaching of Chemical Engineering Principles for Forestry Colleges and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李力成

    2016-01-01

    在倡导多学科交叉和特色教学的大背景下,在林业院校开展建设《化工原理实验》课程特色教学对于林业院校学生学习化工专业知识显得尤为重要,本文主要叙述和分析了《化工原理实验》的教学现状,列举了目前林业院校与之相关学科的主要研究方向,并且在此基础上探讨、分析林业院校学科专业对化工原理以及实验知识的需求,最终对《化工原理实验》面向林业院校的特色教学给出几条建议。%Under the background of interdisciplinarity and characteristic teaching, the characteristic experiment teaching of chemical engineering principles was important for the students of the forestry colleges and universities to learn the knowledge of chemical engineering. The present manuscript mainly narrated and analyzed the current station of experiment teaching of chemical engineering principles, the main research directions of discipline of forestry colleges and universities and their demands. Finally, some suggestions on characteristic experiment teaching of chemical engineering principles for forestry colleges and universities were proposed.

  14. 高职化工类专业学生职业素质培养研究与实践%Study and Practice on Professional Quality Cultivation for Students in Higher Vocational Chemical Engineering Specialties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董相军; 张彩霞

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of chemical engineering enterprises in the professional quality of staff ,Qingdao Technical College has taken a series of measures .It improved the non‐spe‐cialty quality education system to cultivate the public quality of the students in chemical engineering specialties .It took practical teaching in campus ,professional skills competitions ,internship in enter‐prises and campus culture as the significant methods to cultivate the profession quality of the students .And it built the chemical engineering museum and the enterprises in campus for the students'internship by means of school‐enterprise cooperation so as to improve the practical effect of high quali‐ty talents cultivation of chemical engineering specialties .%为适应化工企业对员工职业素质的要求,青岛职业技术学院健全非专业素质教育体系,培育化工专业学生的公共素质;以校内实践教学、职业技能大赛、企业顶岗实习和校园文化作为培养学生专业素质的重要手段;通过校企合作,搭建化工博物馆、校中企作为学生实习、实训的平台,从而提高化工专业高素质人才的培养实效。

  15. 化工原理课程教学与应用型创新人才的培养%Teaching on the Principle of Chemical Engineering and Cultivation of Innovative Talents in Application-oriented Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭雨; 陈君华; 丁志杰

    2012-01-01

    The course of Chemical Engineering Principles plays an intermediate role from science to engineering technology in cultivating project of engineering students,and is one of the important technical and basic courses.It is therefore very significant for teachers to optimize the course system for chemical engineering principles to cultivate applied,innovated and professional personnel.In this paper,the effective way to promote students' abilities for innovation is to establish a cultivation system were discussed,which conclude arranging for didactical course logically,theoretical teaching innovation and practical teaching innovation.%化工原理课程是重要技术基础课,在工科学生的培养计划中起着由理及工的"桥梁"作用;优化化工原理课程体系对于培养面向基层和生产的应用型高级专门人才具有重要意义。本文探讨了应用型创新人才的培养,改革理论教学和加强实践性教学是培养应用型创新人才培养的有效途径。

  16. Teaching Reform Direction of Improving the Ability of Chemical Engineering Design%提高化工专业学生工程设计能力的改革思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑辉东; 赵素英; 林诚; 李晓

    2012-01-01

    工程设计能力是化工专业学生一项非常重要的能力。本文针对高校对化工专业学生工程设计能力培养上的不足提出了几点措施:强化学生工程意识、提高计算机设计水平、整合相关专业课程、借助外部力量提高实际工程设计能力等等。%The ability of chemical engineering design was one of the most important capacities of students who majored in chemical engineering.Aimed at solving the problems exiting in the teaching system for cultivating the student's engineering design ability,several teaching reform measures were put forward,such as the intensification of engineering consciousness,the improvement for computer aided process design,the integration of related professional courses,and the additional help from professional design institutes.

  17. 现代新型煤化工工程建设项目管理模式探讨%Discussion of project management pattern of modern new coal chemical engineering construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武祥东

    2012-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the strengths and weeknesses of the traditional self-supporting management mode, international PMC and IPMT pattern, the speciality of the modern new coal chemical engineering construction and the fact of China Coal Group' s coal chemical engineering construction, the effective management mode for China Coal Group' s coal chemical engineering contruction is dicussed and a proposal for project management is suggested.%笔者分析了传统的自营管理模式、国际PMC(project management contractor,项目管理承包商)模式和IPMT( integrated project management team,联合管理团队)模式3种现行项目管理模式的优缺点,结合现代新型煤化工项目建设特点和建设业主的实际,探讨了现代煤化工项目建设的有效管理模式,提出了项目管理建议.

  18. Effect of Organic Chemistry on Innovative Experiment of Chemical Engineering Principle in University of Southern Xinjiang%南疆高校有机化学对化工原理创新实验的促进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小燕; 张红喜; 陈新萍; 田维亮

    2014-01-01

    The combination of organic chemistry and innovative experiment of chemical engineering principle were discussed in university of southern Xinjiang to establish a characteristic innovation experiment of chemical engineering principle, such as emphasizing characteristic industry , enhancing territorial application , and highlighting cross -disciplines.It set about to investigate characteristic industry , consider territorial development , design applied innovation experiment , emphasis using the knowledge to practice during their studies , regard linking theory to practice , combination of organic chemistry and innovative experiment of chemical engineering principle.On the basis of that , the future development orientation was put forward.%探讨南疆地区高校有机化学与化工原理创新实验的有机结合。建立适应南疆地区特色的化工原理创新实验,着重特色产业,强化地区应用,突出学科交叉。调研特色产业,充分考虑地区发展。设计应用型创新实验,做到学以致用。注重理论促进实践,将有机化学与化工原理创新实验结合。同时,指出发展的方向。

  19. Some Experience of Compiling the Textbook for the Course of Computer Applications in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering%化工计算机应用课程教材编写心得

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方利国

    2009-01-01

    化学化工专业需要利用计算机解决许多问题,在该专业的本科生中开设化学化工计算机应用课程已是新世纪的基本要求,而有一本适合实际的好教材是学好该课程的基础.文章就化学化工计算机应用课程教材第一版和第二版编写过程中关于课程定位、教材内容、编写风格等问题的一些心得进行了讨论和阐述,并提出了教材进一步完善的思路和方向.%The computer is used to solve a lot of problems in chemistry and chemical engineering. It is basic need for the students in chemistry and chemical engineering to study the course of computer applications in chemistry and chemical engineering, and a good textbook is base for learning this course. Some experience of the problems about the position of course, the contents of textbook and the style of compiling the textbook and so on were discussed and explained. Further improving ideas and direction of textbook were put out.

  20. 对化学化工专业英语教学策略的几点探讨%Some Discussions on English Teaching Strategies of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗婷

    2016-01-01

    化学化工专业英语作为大学化学教学中的重要组成部分之一,随着社会和国际贸易发展,已然成为大学生走入社会,提升就业能力的敲门砖,更有利于一部分想继续深造的同学的学术研究。化学化工专业英语是在原有基础英语学习基础上的延伸,将基础英语与化学专业知识有机结合,让化工专业的同学们第一时间接触世界前沿化学化工技术,并在继续深造中对西方相关专业知识取其精华去其糟粕,为学生自身同时也为我国化学化工专业朝着高、精、尖方向发展创造更多的机遇。%Professional English in chemistry and chemical engineering as an important part of Chemistry Teaching in Univer-sity, along with the social development and international trade has already become a college students into the community, en-hance the employability astepping stone to success, is more advantageous to the part you want to continue their studies the stu-dents academic research. Professional English in chemistry and chemical engineering is based on the original English learning based on extension, basic English and professional knowledge of chemical combination and chemical engineering students for the first time contact the world frontier of chemistry and chemical engineering technology, and in the further study of the west-ern professional knowledge related to take its essence to its dregs, the students themselves but also for China's chemical indus-try professional toward high, fine, sharp direction create more opportunities.

  1. Time scales of change in chemical and biological parameters after engineered levee breaches adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Wood, Tamara M.; Parcheso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Carlson, Rick A.; Fend, Steven V.

    2012-01-01

    Eight sampling trips were coordinated after engineered levee breaches hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. The reconnection, by a series of explosive blasts, was coordinated by The Nature Conservancy to reclaim wetlands that had for approximately seven decades been leveed for crop production. Sets of nonmetallic porewater profilers (U.S. Patent 8,051,727 B1; November 8, 2011; http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/patog/ week45/OG/html/1372-2/US08051727-20111108.html.) were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, July 2009, May 2010, August 2010, June 2011, and July 2011 (table 1). Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Spatial and temporal variation in solute benthic flux was determined by the field team, using the profilers, over an approximately 4-year period beginning 3 days after the levee breaches. The highest flux to the water column of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was detected in the newly flooded wetland, contrasting negative or insignificant DOC fluxes at adjacent lake sites. Over the multiyear study, DOC benthic fluxes dissipated in the reconnected wetlands, converging to values similar to those for established wetlands and to the adjacent lake (table 2). In contrast to DOC, benthic sources of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium, dissolved iron and manganese from within the reconnected wetlands were consistently elevated (that is, significant in magnitude relative to riverine and established-wetland sources) indicating a multi-year time scale for certain chemical changes after the levee breaches (table 2). Colonization of the reconnected wetlands by aquatic benthic invertebrates during the study trended toward the assemblages in established wetlands, providing further evidence of a multiyear transition of this area to permanent aquatic habitat (table 3). Both the

  2. Chemical Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights for a class of chemical products, the design process, their design with respect to the important issues, the need for appropriate tools and finally, lists some of the challenges and opportunities for the process systems engineering (PSE)/computer-aided process engineering...

  3. Chemically Reacting Turbulent Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-14

    two stages of gen I tubes equipped with P-47 phosphor screens The detector chosen for the camera was a Reticon RL128S* line detectoI- .,hich consists...the Stud’, of Turbulent Mixing," William M. Pitts, Nuclear Engineering Seminar of the Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of

  4. Spark ignition engine control: estimation and prediction of the in-cylinder mass and chemical species; Controle moteur a allumage commande: estimation / prediction de la masse et de la composition du melange enferme dans le cylindre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giansetti, P.

    2005-09-15

    Spark ignition engine control has become a major issue regarding compliance with emissions legislation while ensuring driving comfort. The objective of this thesis was to estimate the mass and composition of gases inside the cylinder of an engine based on physics in order to insure better control of transient phases taking into account residual gases as well as exhaust gas recirculation. Residual gas fraction has been characterized using two experiments and one CFD code. A model has been validated experimentally and integrated into an observer which predicts pressure and temperature inside the manifold. The predictions of the different gas flows and the chemical species inside the cylinder are deduced. A closed loop observer has been validated experimentally and in simulation. Moreover, an algorithm estimating the fresh and burned gas mass from the cylinder pressure has been proposed in order to obtain the information cycle by cycle and cylinder by cylinder. (author)

  5. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  6. Cultivation of Students' Creative Thinking Skills in the Teaching of Principles of Chemical Engineering%浅谈“化工原理”教学中学生创造性思维的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 卢其明; 陈明洁; 刘海峰

    2012-01-01

    从创新欲望、发散思维、批判性思维及想象能力四个方面对化工原理教学过程创造性思维的培养进行了详细的分析与说明。%Four diathesises innovative desire, divergent thinking, critical thinking and the ability to imagine, were proposed which can effectively improve the creative thinking skills of high school students in the teaching of Principles of Chemical Engineering, And the above four aspects were further analyzed and described detailedly with specific examples.

  7. Development of Sustainable Solutions for Zebra Mussel Control Through Chemical Product Engineering%通过化工产品工程开发可持续的技术来控制斑纹蚌种群

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Costa; P.Elliott; P M.Saraiva; D.Aldridge; G D.Moggridge

    2008-01-01

    The zebra mussel is an important aquatic pest that causes great damage to freshwater-dependent industries, due to biofouling. The main goal of the project discussed here is to develop improved solutions to control this species. Three approaches have been explored in an attempt to design innovative application strategies for existing biocides: (i) encapsulation of toxins; (ii) combination of toxins; (iii) investigation of the seasonal variation of the species' tolerance to toxins. In this paper, the principles behind these approaches and the major results on each topic are presented. The benefits of adopting a chemical product engineering approach in conducting this project are also discussed.

  8. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. Bartholomay; B. V. Twining (USGS); L. J. Campbell (Idaho Department of Water Resources)

    1999-06-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from 2 domestic wells, 12 irrigation wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public supply well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the reported radiochemical or chemical constituent concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the respective reporting levels. Most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels.

  9. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. Bartholomay (USGS); L. M. Williams (USGS); L. J. Campbell (Idaho Department of Water Resources)

    1998-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of the fourth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. The samples were collected from seven domestic wells, six irrigation wells, two springs, one dairy well, one observation well, and one stock well. Two quality-assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radiochemical or chemical constituents exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide- and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels.

  10. Product engineering and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, L. P. B. M.; Janssen, C. H. C.

    2016-11-01

    Chemical engineering has made a substantial contribution to the improvement of the environment during the last decades. Many processes have become more sustainable and harmful waste streams are minimised. However, considerable improvement of sustainability can still be obtained in product engineering and design. Especially the aspects that are important at the end of the life cycle of the product can be improved considerably. A priority list for the design of more sustainable products is presented and illustrated with examples of daily chemical engineering practice.

  11. Construction of collagen II/hyaluronate/chondroitin-6-sulfate tri-copolymer scaffold for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering and preliminary analysis of its physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Qing; Huang, Bo; Luo, Gang; Zhang, Chuan-Zhi; Zhuang, Ying; Zhou, Yue

    2010-02-01

    To construct a novel scaffold for nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue engineering, The porous type II collagen (CII)/hyaluronate (HyA)-chondroitin-6-sulfate (6-CS) scaffold was prepared using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) cross-linking system. The physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility of CII/HyA-CS scaffolds were evaluated. The results suggested CII/HyA-CS scaffolds have a highly porous structure (porosity: 94.8 +/- 1.5%), high water-binding capacity (79.2 +/- 2.8%) and significantly improved mechanical stability by EDC/NHS crosslinking (denaturation temperature: 74.6 +/- 1.8 and 58.1 +/- 2.6 degrees C, respectively, for the crosslinked scaffolds and the non-crosslinked; collagenase degradation rate: 39.5 +/- 3.4 and 63.5 +/- 2.0%, respectively, for the crosslinked scaffolds and the non-crosslinked). The CII/HyA-CS scaffolds also showed satisfactory cytocompatibility and histocompatibility as well as low immunogenicity. These results indicate CII/HyA-CS scaffolds may be an alternative material for NP tissue engineering due to the similarity of its composition and physico-chemical properties to those of the extracellular matrices (ECM) of native NP.

  12. Reforming Talent Training Mode to Cultivate High Quality Chemical Engineering Talents%改革人才培养模式,培养化工专业高素质人才

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐绍红

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of original personnel training of Chemical Engineering and Technology, the modes of training by updating conception with the demand of society development integrated, and intensifying reform of teaching system with practical training highlighted were elaborated, and such multiple training systems as school -to -school and school -to - enterprise were established with the purpose of constructing a training mode of open system, flexible mechanism, unimpeded communication and diverse choice, so as to foster high quality chemical engineering personnel and reform training mode.%在化学工程与工艺专业原有人才培养方案的基础上,结合社会发展需要,更新了人才培养观念,突出实践育人特色,深化了教学体制改革,构建了校校之间、校企之间等多种联合培养方式,形成体系开放、机制灵活、渠道互通、选择多样的人才培养模式。

  13. Scaffold of chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) blend chemically crosslinked by glutaraldehyde for tissue engineering applications;Constructos de blendas de quitosana/poli(alcool vinilico) reticulados quimicamente com glutaraldeido para aplicacao em engenharia de tecido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Junior, Ezequiel de S., E-mail: escjr50@deii.cefetmg.b [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (DEM/CEFET/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Laguardia-Nascimento, Mateus; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel F. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (ICB/UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Microbiologia; Mansur, Herman S., E-mail: hmansur@demet.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEM/UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica

    2009-07-01

    Chitosan/PVA based films were chemically crosslinked by glutaraldehyde (GA) in order to achieve scaffolds for potential tissue engineering application. Both precursors and developed films were characterized by FTIR and XRD in order to determine the presence of chemicals groups and nanostructural order, respectively. The results have showed that the GA crosslinking have altered the crystallinity of the chitosan and the increase on the C=N bands and decreasing of NH{sub 2} bands suggest that Chitosan/GA crosslinking has preference to occur in the carbon 2 by Schiff's base. The mechanical properties, swelling behavior, degradation rate in vitro and cellular viability were compatible with the characteristic of an epithelial tissue. The material presented a toughness range from 1.4 to 34MJ/m3, swelling from 150% to 700% in 24h, degradation rate from 20% to 75% (wt%) in 24h and cellular viability in vitro above 60% compared to the cellular control. The developed scaffolds from the films have also showed swelling and degradation in vitro properties well-matched for biomedical applications in tissue engineering (author)

  14. An Analysis of Cultivation of Safety Consciousness in Teaching Engineering Chemical Experiment%浅谈工科化学实验教学中安全意识的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石振武

    2012-01-01

    根据工科化学实验教学的特点,在实验教学过程中采用实验前安全意识的教育、实验中安全制度的检查以及实验后安全防范的复查等措施,以此着重培养工科本科生的安全意识。在保证化学实验教学顺利进行和提高化学实验教学质量的同时,也有助于工科本科生综合素质的全面提高。%According to the characteristics of the experimental teaching of engineering chemistry,the education of safety consciousness before the experiment,inspection of safety regulation in conduction of experiment and safety measures after the completion of experiment were adopted to cultivate the engineering undergraduate safety consciousness.When the smooth conduction of chemical experiment teaching is ensured and the quality of chemistry experiment teaching improved,the engineering undergraduate all-round comprehensive quality can be improved.

  15. Proceedings of the U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center Scientific Conference on Chemical Defense Research Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on 14-17 November 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    Thermochemistry of High Energy Reactions ................ .......... 339 Eugene S. Domalski and Thomas L. Jobe, Jr. V. DETECTIO...Sharon A. Reutter, Nida Q. Legaspi, Robert D. Armstrong, and Robert J. Mioduszewski The Evaluation of a Synthetic Opiate Aerosol in Inducing Narcotic...HIGH ENERGY REACTIONS Eugene S. Domalski and Thomas L. Jobe, Jr. Chemical Thermodynamics Division National Institute of Standards and Technology

  16. The Application of Aspen Energy Analyzer in Analysis and Synthesis for Chemical Engineering Process%Aspen Energy Analyzer在化工过程分析与合成课程教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄守石

    2015-01-01

    化工过程分析与合成是化工类实践性非常强的专业基础课。在过程工业中,能量是通过换热网络进行传递的,换热网络设计是此课程教学过程中的重要内容之一。本文应用夹点技术,采用Aspen Energy Analyzer软件对简单的换热网络进行分析、综合和优化,使学生更加容易理解和掌握夹点的基础理论,同时使学生熟悉该软件的使用,为后续化工设计和毕业设计的相关换热网络研究打下基础,也可为日后的科研开发、工程设计和生产管理提供了一种有力的技术手段。%Analysis and Synthesis for Chemical Engineering Process is one of the important courses in chemical engineering subject with strong practice.The energy transfer occurs in heat exchanger network in process industry, and the design of heat exchanger network is the important part for this course teaching.Pinch technology was used to analyze the heat exchanger network, this network with the help of Aspen Energy Analyzer software was optimized.Students were helped to use this software skillfully and prepare for the chemical design.At the same time, the software was a powerful means in scientific developing, process design and production management.

  17. Numerical investigation of soot formation and oxidation processes under large two-stroke marine diesel engine-like conditions using integrated CFD-chemical kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Karvounis, Nikolas; Walther, Jens Honore

    2016-01-01

    skeletal model are close to those produced by the larger and more comprehensive chemical mechanisms, apart from those at the low pressure condition. The current study also demonstrates that the variation of averaged soot volume fraction with respect to the change of combustion chamber pressure captured...

  18. Applications of Aspen Plus in the Teaching of the Analysis and Synthesis for Chemical Engineering Process%Aspen plus在化工过程分析与合成课程教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 李书珍; 刘卫民

    2012-01-01

    Analysis and Synthesis for Chemical Engineering Process was an important professional course for chemical majors,which was also a strong practical course.In the paper,dimethyl ether distillation column of the actual process of methanol to dimethyl ether was simulated and analyzed by Aspen Plus software.Students were familiarized with the use of Aspen Plus software in the process of simulation and analysis.In addition,the application of aspen Plus could help the following teaching of Chemical Process design.%化工过程分析与合成是化工类实践性非常强的专业基础课,精馏塔的实践教学是教学的重点和难点。文章采用Aspen Plus软件,以甲醇制二甲醚的实际工艺为案例,对二甲醚精馏塔进行模拟、分析,同时使学生熟悉Aspen Plus软件的使用,为后续化工设计打下基础。

  19. Introduction to chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Soustelle, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This book is a progressive presentation of kinetics of the chemical reactions. It provides complete coverage of the domain of chemical kinetics, which is necessary for the various future users in the fields of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, Macromolecular Chemistry and Combustion. It will help them to understand the most sophisticated knowledge of their future job area. Over 15 chapters, this book present the fundamentals of chemical kinetics, its relations with reaction mechanisms and kinetic properties. Two chapters are then devoted to experimental re

  20. Chitosan-gelatin scaffolds for tissue engineering: physico-chemical properties and biological response of buffalo embryonic stem cells and transfectant of GFP-buffalo embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Han, W W; Saikhun, J; Pholpramoo, C; Misra, R D K; Kitiyanant, Y

    2009-11-01

    The favorable cellular response of newly developed cell line, buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells to three-dimensional biodegradable chitosan-gelatin composite scaffolds with regard to stem-cell-based tissue engineering is described. Chitosan-gelatin composites were characterized by a highly porous structure with interconnected pores, and the mechanical properties were significantly enhanced. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction study indicated increased amorphous content in the scaffold on the addition of gelatin to chitosan. To develop a transfectant of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-buffalo ES cell, transfection of GFP plasmid to the cell was carried out via the electroporation procedure. In comparison with pure chitosan, cell spreading and proliferation were greater in highly visualized GFP-expressing cell-chitosan-gelatin scaffold constructs. The relative comparison of biological response involving cell proliferation and viability on the scaffolds suggests that blending of gelatin in chitosan improved cellular efficiency. Studies involving scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy, histological observations and flow cytometer analysis of the constructs implied that the polygonal cells attached to and penetrated the pores, and proliferated well, while maintaining their pluripotency during the culture period for 28days. Chitosan-gelatin scaffolds were cytocompatible with respect to buffalo ES cells. The study underscores for the first time that chitosan-gelatin scaffolds are promising candidates for ES-cell-based tissue engineering.

  1. Automatic sorting of toxicological information into the IUCLID (International Uniform Chemical Information Database) endpoint-categories making use of the semantic search engine Go3R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ursula G; Wächter, Thomas; Hareng, Lars; Wareing, Britta; Langsch, Angelika; Zschunke, Matthias; Alvers, Michael R; Landsiedel, Robert

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge-based search engine Go3R, www.Go3R.org, has been developed to assist scientists from industry and regulatory authorities in collecting comprehensive toxicological information with a special focus on identifying available alternatives to animal testing. The semantic search paradigm of Go3R makes use of expert knowledge on 3Rs methods and regulatory toxicology, laid down in the ontology, a network of concepts, terms, and synonyms, to recognize the contents of documents. Search results are automatically sorted into a dynamic table of contents presented alongside the list of documents retrieved. This table of contents allows the user to quickly filter the set of documents by topics of interest. Documents containing hazard information are automatically assigned to a user interface following the endpoint-specific IUCLID5 categorization scheme required, e.g. for REACH registration dossiers. For this purpose, complex endpoint-specific search queries were compiled and integrated into the search engine (based upon a gold standard of 310 references that had been assigned manually to the different endpoint categories). Go3R sorts 87% of the references concordantly into the respective IUCLID5 categories. Currently, Go3R searches in the 22 million documents available in the PubMed and TOXNET databases. However, it can be customized to search in other databases including in-house databanks.

  2. Layered Systems Engineering Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Overman, Marvin J.

    2009-01-01

    A notation is described for depicting the relationships between multiple, contemporaneous systems engineering efforts undertaken within a multi-layer system-of-systems hierarchy. We combined the concepts of remoteness of activity from the end customer, depiction of activity on a timeline, and data flow to create a new kind of diagram which we call a "Layered Vee Diagram." This notation is an advance over previous notations because it is able to be simultaneously precise about activity, level of granularity, product exchanges, and timing; these advances provide systems engineering managers a significantly improved ability to express and understand the relationships between many systems engineering efforts. Using the new notation, we obtain a key insight into the relationship between project duration and the strategy selected for chaining the systems engineering effort between layers, as well as insights into the costs, opportunities, and risks associated with alternate chaining strategies.

  3. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume One - Main Text and Appendices A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    The laboratory investigation was performed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing in situ chemical oxidation for remediating the secondary source of groundwater contaminants at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) Site. The study involved trichloroethene (TCE) contaminated media (groundwater, soil, and sludge) from TAN. The effectiveness of the selected oxidant, potassium permanganate (KMn0(sub4)), was evaluated at multiple oxidant and contaminant concentrations. Experiments were performed to determine the oxidant demand of each medium and the rate of TCE oxidation. The experiments were performed under highly controlled conditions (gas-tight reactors, constant 12C temperature). Multiple parameter were monitored over time including MN0(sub 4) and TCE concentrations and pH.

  4. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Two, Appendices C, D, and E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    These appendices support the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-1371 l/Vol. This volume contains Appendices C-E. Appendix C is a compilation of all recorded data and mathematical calculations made to interpret the data. For the Task 3 and Task 4 work, the spreadsheet column definitions are included immediately before the actual spreadsheet pages and are listed as ''Sample Calculations/Column Definitions'' in the table of contents. Appendix D includes the chronological order in which the experiments were conducted and the final project costs through October 1998. Appendix E is a compilation of the monthly progress reports submitted to INEEL during the course of the project.

  5. 高职制药技术《化工制图》课程的教学探索%Research on Teaching Exploration on Chemical Engineering Drawing of Pharmaceutical Technology Specialty in Higher Vocational College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华燕青

    2015-01-01

    Chemical Engineering Drawing is a specialized basic course of pharmaceutical technology .Aiming at the problems in the teaching practice of this course ,some teaching measures are put forward to arouse students'interest in learning and improve teaching quality by optimizing teaching content and improving teaching methods .%化工制图是制药技术类专业的一门专业基础课。在课程教学实践中,针对存在问题,提出通过优化整合教学内容和改进教学方法等教学改革措施,能有效地激发学生的学习兴趣,提高教学质量。

  6. Engineer Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-15

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  7. 化工热力学教学过程中熵的统计物理解释%Entropy is Described by Statistical Physics in the Course of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾勇平

    2015-01-01

    At present, the entropy is mainly defined with the basis of Carnot cycle during the course of the chemical engineering thermodynamics. Unfortunately, the equation with Carnot cycles is difficult to shed light on some direction of process. Also, the physical picture is still not clear. In this paper, statistical physics is used to describe the entropy in the chemical engineering ther-modynamics. The microcosmic of physics is more clear than that of Carnot cycle,it makes students' insight much better, and trains logical thinking and deepens their understanding of concepts and the formula. It is helpful to improve the effectiveness and quality of the course.%目前,在教学过程中,化工热力学中的熵很大程度上仍以熟知的卡诺循环为基础,但遗憾的是,对于其过程方向的判断仍然较为含糊,物理情形不够清晰.本文采用统计物理的简单公式解释熵,这种方法能够辅助经典定义,使得更加清晰,让学生能够更好地理解讲解第二定律的教学思路,并加深对熵概念和公式的理解,同时能够培养学生严密的逻辑思维,达到提高课堂热力学教学效果和质量目的.

  8. Teaching Practice and Explorations of Environmental Chemistry in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Specialties%化学化工专业开设《环境化学》课程的教学实践与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武占省; 李炳奇; 鲁建江

    2012-01-01

    保护环境是我国的基本国策,环境教育是解决环境问题的重要途径,环境化学课程肩负着化学化工专业学生的环境教育重任。通过本门课的学习,使学生在从事化学化工相关专业过程中,从思想上增强环境保护意识,从根源上防治和解决环境污染问题。作者结合化学化工专业的特点和实际需求,努力开展了四个方面的教学实践和探索,逐渐形成了自己的课程内容体系和教学实践经验,收到了良好的教学效果。%Environmental protection was China's basic national policy,and Environmental education was an important way to solve environmental problems.Environmental Chemistry courses was the main task for students of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering specialties.Through studying,environmental awareness of students engaging in the relevant professional process were enhanced from thinking,and environmental pollution problems were solved from original.The four aspects teaching practice and explorations of Environmental Chemistry based on Chemistry and Chemical Engineering specialties characteristics and practice need,were investigated.The system of curriculum and teaching practices were gradually formed,and good teaching results were got.

  9. Hydrogels Constructed from Engineered Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbin; Kong, Na; Laver, Bryce; Liu, Junqiu

    2016-02-24

    Due to their various potential biomedical applications, hydrogels based on engineered proteins have attracted considerable interest. Benefitting from significant progress in recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering/design techniques, the field of protein hydrogels has made amazing progress. The latest progress of hydrogels constructed from engineered recombinant proteins are presented, mainly focused on biorecognition-driven physical hydrogels as well as chemically crosslinked hydrogels. The various bio-recognition based physical crosslinking strategies are discussed, as well as chemical crosslinking chemistries used to engineer protein hydrogels, and protein hydrogels' various biomedical applications. The future perspectives of this fast evolving field of biomaterials are also discussed.

  10. Phase equilibrium engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brignole, Esteban Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, the teaching of phase equilibria emphasizes the relationships between the thermodynamic variables of each phase in equilibrium rather than its engineering applications. This book changes the focus from the use of thermodynamics relationships to compute phase equilibria to the design and control of the phase conditions that a process needs. Phase Equilibrium Engineering presents a systematic study and application of phase equilibrium tools to the development of chemical processes. The thermodynamic modeling of mixtures for process development, synthesis, simulation, design and

  11. Allyl/propenyl phenol synthases from the creosote bush and engineering production of specialty/commodity chemicals, eugenol/isoeugenol, in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Vassão, Daniel G; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Bedgar, Diana L; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2014-01-01

    The creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) harbors members of the monolignol acyltransferase, allylphenol synthase, and propenylphenol synthase gene families, whose products together are able to catalyze distinct regiospecific conversions of various monolignols into their corresponding allyl- and propenyl-phenols, respectively. In this study, co-expression of a monolignol acyltransferase with either substrate versatile allylphenol or propenylphenol synthases in Escherichia coli established that various monolignol substrates were efficiently converted into their corresponding allyl/propenyl phenols, as well as providing proof of concept for efficacious conversion in a bacterial platform. This capability thus potentially provides an alternate source to these important plant phytochemicals, whether for flavor/fragrance and fine chemicals, or ultimately as commodities, e.g., for renewable energy or other intermediate chemical purposes. Previous reports had indicated that specific and highly conserved amino acid residues 84 (Phe or Val) and 87 (Ile or Tyr) of two highly homologous allyl/propenyl phenol synthases (circa 96% identity) from a Clarkia species mainly dictate their distinct regiospecific catalyzed conversions to afford either allyl- or propenyl-phenols, respectively. However, several other allyl/propenyl phenol synthase homologs isolated by us have established that the two corresponding amino acid 84 and 87 residues are not, in fact, conserved.

  12. 基于先验知识的杂交方法的设计及其在化工问题中的应用%Design Hybrid Methods for Encoding Prior Knowledge in Feedforward Network with Application in Chemical Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翀伟; 陈德钊

    2002-01-01

    Three-layer feedforward networks have been widely used in modeling chemical engineering processes and prior-knowledge-based methods have been introduced to improve their performances. In this paper, we propose the methodology of designing better prior-knowledge-based hybrid methods by combining the existing ones. Then according to this methodology, two hybrid methods, interpolation-optimization (IO) method and interpolationpenalty-function (IPF) method, are designed as examples. Finally, both methods are applied to modeling two cases in chemical engineering to investigate their effectiveness. Simulation results show that the performances of the hybrid methods are better than those of their parents.

  13. Fuel cell engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sundmacher

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cells are attractive electrochemical energy converters featuring potentially very high thermodynamic efficiency factors. The focus of this volume of Advances in Chemical Engineering is on quantitative approaches, particularly based on chemical engineering principles, to analyze, control and optimize the steady state and dynamic behavior of low and high temperature fuel cells (PEMFC, DMFC, SOFC) to be applied in mobile and stationary systems. * Updates and informs the reader on the latest research findings using original reviews * Written by leading industry experts and scholars * Review

  14. MATLAB辅助下化工原理精馏单元计算探讨%Discussion Calculation of the MATLAB-assisted Chemical Engineering Principles for Distillation Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师海雄; 张伏龙; 牛腾; 姜立萍; 王克太; 张兴辉

    2012-01-01

    Distillation is an important unit of the Chemical Engineering Principles, and is an important unit operation in the petroleum and chemical industry. Among them, continuous distillation of separating of high purity liquid mixture is the most important and most commonly used one of the unit operation. Distillation process calculation has a large amount of calculation algorithm. Using MATLAB platform,a two-component distillation calculation procedures was developed. The application results show that this program has some versatility, can be applied for the two-component mixtures of ideal and non ideal.%精馏是化工原理课程的重要单元,也是石油和化学工业中的重要单元操作.其中,连续精馏是分离高纯度液体混合物最重要、最常用的单元操作之一.精馏过程计算具有计算量大、算法复杂等特点.本文利用MATLAB平台,开发了双组分精馏计算程序.应用结果表明,此程序具有一定的通用性,对于双组分理想和非理想物系均可适用.

  15. Radiochemical and Chemical Constituents in Water from Selected Wells and Springs from the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Gordon W.; Campbell, Linford J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho Department of Water Resources, and the State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled water from 17 sites as part of the sixth round of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area. The samples were collected from eight irrigation wells, three domestic wells, one stock well, one dairy well, one commercial well, one observation well, and two springs and analyzed for selected radiochemical and chemical constituents. One quality-assurance sample, a sequential replicate, also was collected and analyzed. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic-constituent concentrations were greater than the reporting levels and most of the organic-constituent concentrations were less than the reporting levels. However, none of the reported radiochemical- or chemical-constituent concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant levels for drinking water established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical evaluation of the replicate sample pair indicated that, with 95 percent confidence, 132 of the 135 constituent concentrations of the replicate pair were equivalent.

  16. Practical Exploration on Curriculum Integration of Chemical Engineering Drawing and CAD Auxiliary Design%《化工制图》与《CAD 辅助设计》课程整合的实践探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马其坤

    2014-01-01

    For the problems existing in the two separate creating courses of chemical engineering drawing and CAD auxiliary design, starting from the teaching practice, the reform scheme is proposed to integrate the teaching content of two courses. In the teaching process, the reform measures are taken, such as project teaching, integrated use of various teaching methods, manual drawing combined with CAD, strengthening practice. In the meanwhile, the inspection way is reformed. In order to make the students meet the needs of chemical industry jobs.%针对《化工制图》和《CAD 辅助设计》两门课程分开开设存在的问题,从教学实践出发,提出将两门课程的教学内容进行整合的改革方案。在教学过程中,采用项目化教学、多种教学方法综合运用、手工绘图与 CAD 相结合、加强实践环节等措施,并改革考核方式,使培养的学生更能满足化工岗位的需求。

  17. 钚在某处置工程屏障水环境中化学形态及影响因素%Chemical Forms and Influence Factors of Plutonium in Environmental Water of a Disposal Engineering Barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马应明; 何艺峰; 李哲; 刘莉; 刘艳; 石建芳

    2013-01-01

    Aimed at backfill structure in the engineering barrier of a certain disposal project,the geochemical modeling software,EQ3/6,was applied to simulate chemical forms of plutonium based on results of barrier samples leaching by the fracture water and chemical analysis of leaching samples.Results showed that the form of plutonium was Pu(OH)5-in Pu(Ⅳ)valence state.Changes of pH and Eh values in environmental water will affect the forms and valence state of plutonium.%针对某放射性废物包装容器回填处置工程屏障结构特征,采用岩体裂隙水浸泡工程屏障样品的方式,在对各平衡水样化学成分分析的基础上,利用地球化学模拟软件EQ3/6对钚在回填工程屏障水环境中的存在化学形态进行了模拟计算,得出钚在回填工程屏障水环境中主要以Pu(Ⅳ)价态Pu(OH)5形式存在,同时水环境中pH值和Eh值的变化皆会影响钚的存在化学形态和价态.

  18. New natural products isolated from Metarhizium robertsii ARSEF 23 by chemical screening and identification of the gene cluster through engineered biosynthesis in Aspergillus nidulans A1145.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroki; Tsunematsu, Yuta; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Namiki, Takuya; Kishimoto, Shinji; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    To rapidly identify novel natural products and their associated biosynthetic genes from underutilized and genetically difficult-to-manipulate microbes, we developed a method that uses (1) chemical screening to isolate novel microbial secondary metabolites, (2) bioinformatic analyses to identify a potential biosynthetic gene cluster and (3) heterologous expression of the genes in a convenient host to confirm the identity of the gene cluster and the proposed biosynthetic mechanism. The chemical screen was achieved by searching known natural product databases with data from liquid chromatographic and high-resolution mass spectrometric analyses collected on the extract from a target microbe culture. Using this method, we were able to isolate two new meroterpenes, subglutinols C (1) and D (2), from an entomopathogenic filamentous fungus Metarhizium robertsii ARSEF 23. Bioinformatics analysis of the genome allowed us to identify a gene cluster likely to be responsible for the formation of subglutinols. Heterologous expression of three genes from the gene cluster encoding a polyketide synthase, a prenyltransferase and a geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase in Aspergillus nidulans A1145 afforded an α-pyrone-fused uncyclized diterpene, the expected intermediate of the subglutinol biosynthesis, thereby confirming the gene cluster to be responsible for the subglutinol biosynthesis. These results indicate the usefulness of our methodology in isolating new natural products and identifying their associated biosynthetic gene cluster from microbes that are not amenable to genetic manipulation. Our method should facilitate the natural product discovery efforts by expediting the identification of new secondary metabolites and their associated biosynthetic genes from a wider source of microbes.

  19. Engineering Cellular Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Keasling, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic engineering is the science of rewiring the metabolism of cells to enhance production of native metabolites or to endow cells with the ability to produce new products. The potential applications of such efforts are wide ranging, including the generation of fuels, chemicals, foods, feeds...... of metabolic engineering and will discuss how new technologies can enable metabolic engineering to be scaled up to the industrial level, either by cutting off the lines of control for endogenous metabolism or by infiltrating the system with disruptive, heterologous pathways that overcome cellular regulation....

  20. An Introduction to Thermal-Fluid Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhaft, Zellman

    1998-01-01

    This text is the first to provide an integrated introduction to basic engineering topics and the social implications of engineering practice. Aimed at beginning engineering students, the book presents the basic ideas of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and combustion through a real-world engineering situation. It relates the engine to the atmosphere in which it moves and exhausts its waste products. The book also discusses the greenhouse effect and atmospheric inversions, and the social implications of engineering in a crowded world with increasing energy demands. Students in mechanical, civil, agricultural, environmental, aerospace, and chemical engineering will welcome this engaging, well-illustrated introduction to thermal-fluid engineering.

  1. Metabolic Engineering VII Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Korpics

    2012-12-04

    The aims of this Metabolic Engineering conference are to provide a forum for academic and industrial researchers in the field; to bring together the different scientific disciplines that contribute to the design, analysis and optimization of metabolic pathways; and to explore the role of Metabolic Engineering in the areas of health and sustainability. Presentations, both written and oral, panel discussions, and workshops will focus on both applications and techniques used for pathway engineering. Various applications including bioenergy, industrial chemicals and materials, drug targets, health, agriculture, and nutrition will be discussed. Workshops focused on technology development for mathematical and experimental techniques important for metabolic engineering applications will be held for more in depth discussion. This 2008 meeting will celebrate our conference tradition of high quality and relevance to both industrial and academic participants, with topics ranging from the frontiers of fundamental science to the practical aspects of metabolic engineering.

  2. Chemical and radiochemical constituents in water from wells in the vicinity of the naval reactors facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1997-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Knobel, LeRoy L.; Tucker, Betty J.; Twining, Brian V.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy?s Phtsburgh Naval Reactors Ofilce, Idaho Branch Office, sampled water from 13 wells during 1997?98 as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer in the vicinity of the Naval Reactors Facility, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho. Water samples were analyzed for naturally occurring constituents and man-made contaminants. A totalof91 samples were collected from the 13 monitoring wells. The routine samples contained detectable concentrations of total cations and dissolved anions, and nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen. Most of the samples also had detectable concentrations of gross alpha- and gross beta-particle radioactivity and tritium. Fourteen qualityassurance samples also were collected and analyze~ seven were field-blank samples, and seven were replicate samples. Most of the field blank samples contained less than detectable concentrations of target constituents; however, some blank samples did contain detectable concentrations of calcium, magnesium, barium, copper, manganese, nickel, zinc, nitrite plus nitrate, total organic halogens, tritium, and selected volatile organic compounds.

  3. Towards the regulation of aerosol emissions by their potential health impact: Assessing adverse effects of aerosols from wood combustion and ship diesel engine emissions by combining comprehensive data on the chemical composition and their toxicological effects on human lung cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R.; Streibel, T.; Dittmar, G.; Kanashova, T.; Buters, J.; Öder, S.; Paur, H. R.; Dilger, M.; Weiss, C.; Harndorf, H.; Stengel, B.; Hirvonen, M. R.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hiller, K.; Sapcariu, S.; Sippula, O.; Orasche, J.; Müller, L.; Rheda, A.; Passig, J.; Radischat, C.; Czech, H.; Tiita, P.; Jalava, P.; Kasurinen, S.; Schwemer, T.; Yli-Prilä, P.; Tissari, J.; Lamberg, H.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.

    2014-12-01

    Ship engine emissions are important regarding lung and cardiovascular diseases in coastal regions worldwide. Bio mass burning is made responsible for adverse health effects in many cities and rural regions. The Virtual Helmholtz Institute-HICE (www.hice-vi.eu) addresses chemical & physical properties and health effects of anthropogenic combustion emissions. Typical lung cell responses to combustion aerosols include inflammation and apoptosis, but a molecular link with the specific chemical composition in particular of ship emissions has not been established. Through an air-liquid interface exposure system (ALI), we exposed human lung cells at-site to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on common heavy fuel oil (HFO) and cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF) as well as to emissions of wood combustion compliances. A special field deployable ALI-exposition system and a mobile S2-biological laboratory were developed for this study. Human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549 etc.) are ALI-exposed to fresh, diluted (1:40-1:100) combustion aerosols and subsequently were toxicologically and molecular-biologically characterized. Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling to characterise the cellular responses. The HFO ship emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds (transition metals, organic toxicants) and particle masses. The cellular responses included inflammation and oxidative stress. Surprisingly, the DF ship emissions, which predominantly contain rather "pure" carbonaceous soot and much less known toxicants, induced significantly broader biological effects, affecting essential cellular pathways (e.g., mitochondrial function and intracellular transport). Therefore the use of distillate fuels for shipping (this is the current emission reduction strategy of the IMO) appears insufficient for diminishing health effects. The study suggests rather reducing the particle emissions

  4. Research and Practice on Class Teaching of Introduc-tion to Green Chemical Engineering%绿色化工概论课堂教学研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡久平

    2012-01-01

      绿色化工是我国一项基本国策,也是社会经济可持续发展的根本保障。化工类专业开设绿色化工概论课程,对保护生态环境、资源利用的最佳化、拓宽学生就业渠道、提升学生转岗能力和促进经济发展有着重大的意义。本文分析了绿色化工概论的课程内容特点和教学内容体系,探讨了开设本课程的必要性和课堂教学对策。目的在于提高学生的绿色意识,协调环境与经济发展的关系,有效促进经济的可持续发展%  Green chemical industry is one of basic state poli-cies and it is also the fundamental guarantee of social and ec-onomic sustainable development.Chemical majors have opened"Introduction to Green Chemical Engineering",which is of great significance to the protection of the ecological environment, the optimization of resources use and the broadening of students' employment channels,the improvement of students' employment ability and the promotion of economic development.This paper analyzes the characteristics of this course ant the system of its teaching content. Besides, this paper discusses the necessity of opening this course demand its class teaching approach. The main purpose is to improve students' green consciousness and coordinate the relationship between environment and economic developments. Meanwhile, it effectively promotes economic development.

  5. Vision 2020. Reaction Engineering Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klipstein, David H. [Reaction Design, San Diego, CA (United States); Robinson, Sharon [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Reaction Engineering Roadmap is a part of an industry- wide effort to create a blueprint of the research and technology milestones that are necessary to achieve longterm industry goals. This report documents the results of a workshop focused on the research needs, technology barriers, and priorities of the chemical industry as they relate to reaction engineering viewed first by industrial use (basic chemicals; specialty chemicals; pharmaceuticals; and polymers) and then by technology segment (reactor system selection, design, and scale-up; chemical mechanism development and property estimation; dealing with catalysis; and new, nonstandard reactor types).

  6. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  7. [Development of domain specific search engines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, T; Tokunaga, M; Maeda, K; Kaminuma, T

    2000-01-01

    As cyber space exploding in a pace that nobody has ever imagined, it becomes very important to search cyber space efficiently and effectively. One solution to this problem is search engines. Already a lot of commercial search engines have been put on the market. However these search engines respond with such cumbersome results that domain specific experts can not tolerate. Using a dedicate hardware and a commercial software called OpenText, we have tried to develop several domain specific search engines. These engines are for our institute's Web contents, drugs, chemical safety, endocrine disruptors, and emergent response for chemical hazard. These engines have been on our Web site for testing.

  8. Surface engineering of artificial heart valve disks using nanostructured thin films deposited by chemical vapour deposition and sol-gel methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M J; Robinson, G M; Ali, N; Kousar, Y; Mei, S; Gracio, J; Taylor, H; Ahmed, W

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolytic carbon (PyC) is widely used in manufacturing commercial artificial heart valve disks (HVD). Although PyC is commonly used in HVD, it is not the best material for this application since its blood compatibility is not ideal for prolonged clinical use. As a result thrombosis often occurs and the patients are required to take anti-coagulation drugs on a regular basis in order to minimize the formation of thrombosis. However, anti-coagulation therapy gives rise to some detrimental side effects in patients. Therefore, it is extremely urgent that newer and more technically advanced materials with better surface and bulk properties are developed. In this paper, we report the mechanical properties of PyC-HVD, i.e. strength, wear resistance and coefficient of friction. The strength of the material was assessed using Brinell indentation tests. Furthermore, wear resistance and coefficient of friction values were obtained from pin-on-disk testing. The micro-structural properties of PyC were characterized using XRD, Raman spectroscopy and SEM analysis. Also in this paper we report the preparation of freestanding nanocrystalline diamond films (FSND) using the time-modulated chemical vapour deposition (TMCVD) process. Furthermore, the sol-gel technique was used to uniformly coat PyC-HVD with dense, nanocrystalline-titanium oxide (nc-TiO2) coatings. The as-grown nc-TiO2 coatings were characterized for microstructure using SEM and XRD analysis.

  9. Engineering and Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael

    The phrase ‘software engineering' has many meanings. One central meaning is the reliable development of dependable computer-based systems, especially those for critical applications. This is not a solved problem. Failures in software development have played a large part in many fatalities and in huge economic losses. While some of these failures may be attributable to programming errors in the narrowest sense—a program's failure to satisfy a given formal specification—there is good reason to think that most of them have other roots. These roots are located in the problem of software engineering rather than in the problem of program correctness. The famous 1968 conference was motivated by the belief that software development should be based on “the types of theoretical foundations and practical disciplines that are traditional in the established branches of engineering.” Yet after forty years of currency the phrase ‘software engineering' still denotes no more than a vague and largely unfulfilled aspiration. Two major causes of this disappointment are immediately clear. First, too many areas of software development are inadequately specialised, and consequently have not developed the repertoires of normal designs that are the indispensable basis of reliable engineering success. Second, the relationship between structural design and formal analytical techniques for software has rarely been one of fruitful synergy: too often it has defined a boundary between competing dogmas, at which mutual distrust and incomprehension deprive both sides of advantages that should be within their grasp. This paper discusses these causes and their effects. Whether the common practice of software development will eventually satisfy the broad aspiration of 1968 is hard to predict; but an understanding of past failure is surely a prerequisite of future success.

  10. Teaching of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics Based on Aspen-Plus ( Ⅱ )Saturated Property Calculation of Pure Substance%基于Aspen-Plus的化工热力学教学(Ⅱ)纯物质饱和性质计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新志; 赵倩; 钱超

    2011-01-01

    化工热力学作为化学工程的基础学科,是化学工程与工艺专业的一门核心课程,在化学工程的教学过程中占有极其重要的地位。我们借助专业化工模拟软件Aspen-Plus完成化工热力学教学中的纯物质饱和性质计算,得到了较为理想的结果,为用Aspen-Plus辅助化工热力学教学提高教学效率,加强应用能力培养夯实了基础。%As the basic subject, chemical engineering thermodynamics is a main course for process of chemical engineering. Aspen-Plus software which is widely used in chemical engineering and industry has been adopted to calculate the saturated thermodynamic properties of pure substance, and satisfactory re- suits are given. It has provided better basis for teaching of chemical engineering thermodynamics and training of its application ability with the help of Aspen-Plus.

  11. Engineering synergy in biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Fussenegger, Martin; Keasling, Jay

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on approaches in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for the creation of efficient cell factories, which can be bused to convert biomass and other feedstocks for the generation of chemicals. Topics discussed include development of restriction enzymes, e...

  12. Next Generation Prokaryotic Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mougiakos, Ioannis; Bosma, Elleke F.; Vos, de Willem M.; Kranenburg, van Richard; Oost, van der John

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for environmentally friendly production processes of green chemicals and fuels has stimulated research in microbial metabolic engineering. CRISPR-Cas-based tools for genome editing and expression control have enabled fast, easy, and accurate strain development for establishe

  13. THERMODYNAMICS USED IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermodynamics is a science in which energy transformations are studied as well as their relationships to the changes in the chemical properties of a system. It is the fundamental basis of many engineering fields. The profession of environmental engineering is no exception. In pa...

  14. Progress Toward a Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical-Biological (THMCB) Experiment in the Homestake Mine Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenthal, E. L.; Maher, K.; Elsworth, D.; Lowell, R. P.; Uzunlar, N.; Mailloux, B. J.; Conrad, M. E.; Olsen, N. J.; Jones, T. L.; Cruz, M. F.; Torchinsky, A.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of performing a long-term hydrothermal experiment in a deep mine is to gain a scientific understanding of the coupled physical, chemical, and biological processes taking place in fractured rock under the influence of mechanical stress, thermal effects, and fluid flow. Only in a controlled experiment in a well-characterized rock mass, can a fractured rock be probed in 3-D through geophysical imaging, in situ measurements, geochemical/biological sampling, and numerical modeling. Our project is focused on the feasibility of a THMCB experiment in the Homestake Mine, South Dakota to study the long-term evolution (10+ years) of a perturbed heterogeneous rock mass. In addition to the experiment as a laboratory for studying crustal processes, it has direct application to Enhanced Geothermal Systems, carbon sequestration, and contaminant transport. Field activities have focused on fracture and feature mapping, flux measurements from flowing fractures, and collection of water and rock samples for geochemical, biological, and isotopic analyses. Fracture mapping and seepage measurements are being used to develop estimates of permeability and fluxes at different length scales and design the location and orientation of the heater array. Fluxes measured up to several liters/minute indicate localized regions of very high fracture permeability, likely in excess of 10-10 m2. Isotopic measurements indicate heterogeneity in the fracture network on the scale of tens of meters in addition to the large-scale geochemical heterogeneity observed in the mine. New methods for sampling and filtering water samples were developed and tested with the goal of performing radiocarbon analyses in DNA and phospholipid fatty acids. Analytical and numerical models of the thermal perturbation have been used to design the heater orientation and spacing. Reaction path and THC simulations were performed to assess geochemical and porosity/permeability changes as a function of the heat input

  15. Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1979. [Pyrochemical/dry processing; waste encapsulation in metal; transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    For pyrochemical and dry processing materials development included exposure to molten metal and salt of Mo-0.5% Ti-0.07% Ti-0.01% C, Mo-30% W, SiC, Si/sub 2/ON/sub 2/, ZrB/sub 2/-SiC, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, HfB/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, nickel nitrate-infiltrated W, W-coated Mo, and W-metallized alumina-yttria. Work on Th-U salt transport processing included solubility of Th in liquid Cd, defining the Cd-Th and Cd-Mg-Th phase diagrams, ThO/sub 2/ reduction experiments, and electrolysis of CaO in molten salt. Work on pyrochemical processes and associated hardware for coprocessing U and Pu in spent FBR fuels included a second-generation computer model of the transport process, turntable transport process design, work on the U-Cu-Mg system, and U and Pu distribution coefficients between molten salt and metal. Refractory metal vessels are being service-life tested. The chloride volatility processing of Th-based fuel was evaluated for its proliferation resistance, and a preliminary ternary phase diagram for the Zn-U-Pu system was computed. Material characterization and process analysis were conducted on the Exportable Pyrochemical process (Pyro-Civex process). Literature data on oxidation of fissile metals to oxides were reviewed. Work was done on chemical bases for the reprocessing of actinide oxides in molten salts. Flowsheets are being developed for the processing of fuel in molten tin. Work on encapsulation of solidified radioactive waste in metal matrix included studies of leach rate of crystalline waste materials and of the impact resistance of metal-matrix waste forms. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, adsorption of Sr on oolitic limestone was studied, as well as the migration of Cs in basalt. Fitting of data on the adsorption of iodate by hematite to a mathematical model was attempted.

  16. World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Amouzegar, Mahyar; Ao, Sio-long

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains thirty-nine revised and extended research articles, written by prominent researchers participating in the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2014, held in San Francisco, October 22-24 2014. Topics covered include engineering mathematics, electrical engineering, circuit design, communications systems, computer science, chemical engineering, systems engineering, and applications of engineering science in industry. This book describes some significant advances in engineering technologies, and also serves as an excellent source of reference for researchers and graduate students.

  17. World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Ao, Sio-Iong; Amouzegar, Mahyar

    2014-01-01

    This volume contains fifty-six revised and extended research articles, written by prominent researchers participating in the congress. Topics covered include electrical engineering, chemical engineering, circuits, computer science, communications systems, engineering mathematics, systems engineering, manufacture engineering, and industrial applications. This book offers theoretical advances in engineering technologies, and presents state of the art applications. It also serves as an excellent source of reference for researchers and graduate students working with/on engineering technologies.

  18. Mechanical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Darbyshire, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Alan Darbyshire's best-selling text book provides five-star high quality content to a potential audience of 13,000 engineering students. It explains the most popular specialist units of the Mechanical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering and Operations & Maintenance Engineering pathways of the new 2010 BTEC National Engineering syllabus. This challenging textbook also features contributions from specialist lecturers, ensuring that no stone is left unturned.

  19. Artificial organ engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Annesini, Maria Cristina; Piemonte, Vincenzo; Turchetti, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Artificial organs may be considered as small-scale process plants, in which heat, mass and momentum transfer operations and, possibly, chemical transformations are carried out. This book proposes a novel analysis of artificial organs based on the typical bottom-up approach used in process engineering. Starting from a description of the fundamental physico-chemical phenomena involved in the process, the whole system is rebuilt as an interconnected ensemble of elemental unit operations. Each artificial organ is presented with a short introduction provided by expert clinicians. Devices commonly used in clinical practice are reviewed and their performance is assessed and compared by using a mathematical model based approach. Whilst mathematical modelling is a fundamental tool for quantitative descriptions of clinical devices, models are kept simple to remain focused on the essential features of each process. Postgraduate students and researchers in the field of chemical and biomedical engineering will find that t...

  20. Chemists, Engineers Probe Mutual Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes recommendations made in a workshop sponsored by the American Chemical Society concerning issues involving the diverging viewpoints of chemistry and chemical engineering. Includes recommendations regarding curricula, salary differences, and the need to change attitudes of chemistry faculty toward industry and industrial chemistry. (CS)