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Sample records for chelonoidis carbonaria spix

  1. Site fidelity and movement of Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix, 1824 (Testudinidae in cocoa plantations in southeastern Brazil

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    JF Borini

    Full Text Available Red-footed Tortoises (Chelonoidis carbonariaSpix, 1824 raised as pets and voluntarily handed over to environmental officers by their owners or apprehended by officers represent a large contingent of animals that overfill triage centres in Brazil. There is no consensus on the fate of these animals, and their numbers continue growing. In this study, we evaluated the movement patterns of C. carbonaria originating from triage centres in areas of cocoa plantations and forest remnants to define their home range and dispersion. After 120 days of quarantine and acclimatisation, eight C. carbonaria adults were released and monitored via radio telemetry for 10 months. The radio transmitters of two individuals presented problems, and consequently, it was not possible to track these individuals. Five individuals remained in an area of 7.75 ha 10 months after release, avoiding contact with humans after the first three months. The greatest problems were the proximity of individuals to inhabited areas in the first three months after release, the death of two individuals, and the escape of one individual. After the experiment, the animals were sent back to the triage centre. Our results suggest that a proportion of the animals in the triage centres are able to survive in natural conditions. Considering their survival and fidelity to the release site, the translocation of animals described herein should be considered partially successful. However, if this measure is adopted, it must be preceded by studies of the animals' origins and by a rigorous genetic, sanitary and behavioural analysis of each individual.

  2. A role for histamine in cardiovascular regulation in late stage embryos of the red-footed tortoise, Chelonoidis carbonaria Spix, 1824.

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    Crossley, Dane A; Sartori, Marina R; Abe, Augusto S; Taylor, Edwin W

    2013-08-01

    A chorioallantoic membrane artery in embryos of the red-footed tortoise, Chelonoidis carbonaria was occlusively cannulated for measurement of blood pressure and injection of drugs. Two age groups of embryos in the final 10 % of incubation were categorized by the ratio of embryonic body to yolk mass. All embryos first received cholinergic and β-adrenergic blockade. This revealed that β-adrenergic control was established in both groups whereas cholinergic control was only established in the older group immediately prior to hatching. The study then progressed as two series. Series one was conducted in a subset of embryos treated with histamine before or after injection of ranitidine, the antagonist of H2 receptors. Injection of histamine caused an initial phasic hypertension which recovered, followed by a longer lasting hypertensive response accompanied by a tachycardia. Injection of the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine itself caused a hypotensive tachycardia with subsequent recovery of heart rate. Ranitidine also abolished the cardiac effects of histamine injection while leaving the initial hypertensive response intact. In series, two embryos were injected with histamine after injection of diphenhydramine, the antagonist to H1 receptors. This abolished the whole of the pressor response to histamine injection but left the tachycardic response intact. These data indicate that histamine acts as a non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic factor, regulating the cardiovascular system of developing reptilian embryos and that its overall effects are mediated via both H1 and H2 receptor types.

  3. Aspectos fisiopatológicos da retenção de ovos em Jabutipiranga (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824 Fisiopathological aspects of egg retention in South American Red-footed Tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824

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    Carlos Alexandre Rey Matias

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Das enfermidades que acometem o sistema genital de répteis, a retenção de ovos tem grande prevalência em quelônios. Neste trabalho, são analisados quatorze casos de retenção de ovos na espécie jabutipiranga (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824, mantidos como animais de companhia, os quais foram atendidos na Policlínica Veterinária da Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF entre os anos de 1999 e 2003. Dos fatores que provocam ou favorecem a ocorrência dessa distocia, foram avaliados: em relação aos ovos retidos, a presença de ovos com alterações de formato e de tamanho aumentado e hipercalcificação das cascas; em relação aos fatores predisponentes, foram analisados fatores ambientais, sinais nos pacientes relacionados à ocorrência de doença osteometabólica, presença de corpo estranho ou fezes ressecadas no trato gastrintestinal, bem como a associação da retenção de ovos com prolapso de oviduto. A utilização de técnicas radiográficas no diagnóstico definitivo da retenção de ovos e no direcionamento da sua resolução mostrou-se indispensável nos casos estudados. Quanto ao tratamento, duas condutas foram consideradas: a utilização de ocitócinos e a intervenção cirúrgica. Da análise dos fatores que favorecem a ocorrência da distocia, conclui-se que a manutenção dos animais em ambientes com substrato rígido foi decisiva.Egg retention is a disorder that affects the genital system of reptiles, with a great prevalence in chelonians. These work analyses fourteen cases of egg retention in South American Red-footed Tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824 maintained as pets that had been attended in the Veterinary Clinic of Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF between 1999 and 2003. Among the factors that contribute to the occurrence of this dystocia are aspects of the retained eggs such as shape abnormalities, size enlargement and thickened shells were analyzed, as well as poor environmental condition

  4. Pneumonia bacteriana em jabuti-piranga (Chelonoidis carbonaria: aspectos clínicos, microbiológicos, radiológicos e terapêutica

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    Marcelo M. Silveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A pneumonia é uma doença respiratória comum na clínica de répteis. Agentes infecciosos são capazes de causar pneumonia primária em répteis mantidos em cativeiro, porém na maioria dos casos, são secundárias a problemas de manejo, higiene e nutricionais. O objetivo desse trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência de pneumonia bacteriana em jabuti-piranga (Chelonoidis carbonaria, e descrever o diagnóstico clínico, microbiológico, radiográfico e a conduta terapêutica. O animal apresentava sinais de distúrbios respiratórios e foi descrito durante a anamnese que houve um diagnostico anterior de pneumonia. Os achados radiográficos foram sugestivos de pneumonia/edema pulmonar. Baseado nos exames radiográficos e sinais clínicos apresentados iniciou-se o tratamento com administração de Cloranfenicol (40mg/kg/SID/IM por 10 dias. Foram isoladas Klebsiella spp. e Citrobacter spp. da cultura bacteriana realizada da coleta de lavado endotraqueal. Ambas com perfil de resistência múltipla aos antibióticos testados. Instituiu-se protocolo terapêutico utilizando Gentamicina (5mg/kg/IM, em sete aplicações com intervalos de 72h. Após o segundo protocolo terapêutico notou-se melhora dos sinais clínicos do animal, porém foi observada a persistência de secreção nasal. Foi realizado novo exame radiográfico, demonstrando discreta diminuição na opacidade do campo pulmonar direito e nenhuma alteração significativa no campo pulmonar esquerdo na projeção craniocaudal. Devido à permanência do sinal clínico apresentado, nova coleta de material endotraqueal foi realizada, e houve isolamento de Citrobacter spp. e Enterobacter spp. A partir dos resultados obtidos no antibiograma, instituiu-se novo protocolo com uso de amicacina (2,5mg/kg/IM, em sete aplicações com intervalos de 72h. Após antibioticoterapia, outro exame radiológico foi realizado, e demonstrou redução satisfatória do quadro pulmonar, e sinais clínicos.

  5. RETENCIÓN DE HUEVOS EN HEMBRA DE JABOTÍ-PIRANGA (Geochelone carbonaria - Spix, 1824 EN CAUTIVERIO

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    Fabiana Rodrigues da Silbeira, M.V

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Un Jabotí-Piranga adulto (Geochelone carbonaria, hembra, con peso de 3.5 kg ingresó por consulta en la escuela clínica “Dr. Cataldi Luiz de Souza”, del “Centro Universitário Serra dos Órgãos - Teresopolis, Río de Janeiro”, con historia de retención de huevos. En la evaluación clínica y radiológica, se encontró tres huevos en posiciones normales. Teniendo en cuenta la temporada de reproducción, se aconsejó la observación del animal. Después de un año, dicho animal regresó a la clínica por no haber todavía expulsado los huevos. Tras nuevo examen radiográfico se observó que los 3 huevos continuaban en la misma posición. A continuación, se aplicó 0.03 ml de oxitocina por vía subcutanea (10 UI x ml, en el apéndice anterior del animal. Tres horas después de la aplicación de la hormona, el animal expulsó los huevos naturalmente, sin la necesidad de una intervención quirúrgica, con lo que se puede sospechar de la eficacia de la aplicación de oxitocina para este procedimiento en jabotí Piranga.

  6. Chapiniella variabilis (Nematoda) parasitizing Chelonoidis carbonarius and C. denticulatus (Testudinidae) in the state of Piauí.

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    Freire, Simone Mousinho; Leal, Anangela Ravena da Silva; Knoff, Marcelo; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Silva, Reinaldo José da; Mendonça, Ivete Lopes

    2017-03-16

    Chapiniella variabilis (Chapin, 1924), a strongylid nematode, was collected parasitizing the large intestine of the tortoises Chelonoidis carbonarius (Spix, 1824) (Cc) and C. denticulatus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Cd) in the Zoobotanical Park of the municipality of Teresina, state of Piauí, Brazil. The taxonomic identification was based on morphological and morphometric features, using bright-field and scanning electron microscopy. The present study adds new observations on the morphology, mainly relating to the mouth papillae, external and internal leaf-crown elements, excretory pore, deirids and male and female posterior end. The parasitic indices of prevalence (P), mean intensity (MI), mean abundance (MA) and range of infection (RI) of C. variabilis in these two tortoise species were: P = 100%, MI = 833.3, MA = 833.3, RI = 500-1,500 (Cc); P = 100%, MI = 472.2, MA = 472.2, RI = 333-500 (Cd). This record expands occurrences of C. variabilis to a new host, C. carbonarius, and to another state in Brazil, in the Neotropical region of South America. Adjustment to host management with the aim of improving hygiene and health conditions is suggested.

  7. THE BIOCLUB AS A STRATEGY FOR THE CONSERVATION OF THE MORROCOY TORTOISE, GEOCHELONE CARBONARIA (SPIX 1824 IN CURUMANÍ-CESAR.

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    Mary Lorena Moyano Acevedo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the pedagogical implications generated from the implementation of educational strategy named Bioclub with respect to practices that have the population of the municipality of Curumaní in the department of Cesar (Colombia are presented regarding the Tortuga Morrocoy. Through the collection of information on the socioeconomic conditions of the community education strategy was designed on the premise of contextualized learning. In a second step Bioclub meetings where the community participated directly represented by students of San José College, to obtain data related practices concerning species and their biological and ecological survey were applied. Lastly, the practices of the community in relation to the turtle, the implications concerning the development of an educational strategy emphasizing the benefits that science club in the teaching-learning process in the construction of knowledge are characterized, and how this may generate a positive change in the attitudes of children in environmental stewardship and conservation of biodiversity in Colombia. Finally we developed a Conservation Primer built as a result of Bioclub involving aspects of their biology and ecology, as well as a guide aimed at sustainable farming, in order to try to minimize the negative impact of the practices of the community to species.

  8. Descriptions of three new carbonaria-group species of Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy from China, with a key to the carbonaria-group species (Diptera, Fanniidae)

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    Wang, Ming-fu; Li, Wei; Zhao, Yu-wan; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A historical review of the Fannia carbonaria-group is provided and three new species are described from China: Fannia fani Wang & Wu, sp. n., Fannia nitidiventris Wang & Zhang, sp. n. and Fannia submaculata Wang & Zhao, sp. n.. One species, Fannia norvegica Ringdahl, 1934, is recorded for the first time from China. Illustrations of male terminalia of these four species and a taxonomic key to the males of known species in the group are given. The Fannia carbonaria-group now includes 30 species distributed in the Holarctic Region and northern part of the Oriental Region. PMID:28331411

  9. First record of epibionts peritrichids and suctorians (Protozoa, Ciliophora) on Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827)

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    Roberto Júnio Pedroso Dias; Sthefane D'ávila; Marta D'Agosto

    2006-01-01

    This study made a survey on the ciliate protozoans from Peritrichid and Suctorian taxa, epibionts of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827) (Ampullariidae). Fifty mollusks were collected in places of irrigation ditches and shell was scraped with a scalpel and the extracted material was analyzed in vivo by light microscopy. All examined mollusks presented epibiont ciliates on their shells. For the first time epibiont ciliates in P. lineata was record. Seven genera of ciliates: five peritrichids and two ...

  10. Molecular detection of Rickettsia bellii in Amblyomma rotundatum from imported red-footed tortoise (Chelonoides carbonaria).

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    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; Avni, Zvi; King, Rony; Shkap, Varda

    2015-06-01

    Introduction of exotic ticks and pathogens through international animal trade (farm animals and pets) is a serious threat to public health and local fauna. Rapid and correct identification of potential threats is an important step on the way to conduct an efficient control of imported pests. In this report we describe the molecular identification of the neotropic tick Amblyomma rotundatum intercepted from red-footed tortoise (Chelonoides carbonaria), imported to Israel from Florida, USA. Molecular analysis of the ticks conducted upon their identification, revealed that they were infected with Rickettsia bellii. Following their collection, the ticks were examined morphologically and five molecular markers were used to determine their taxonomic identity: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), cytochrome b (CytB), 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA and internal transcribed sequence 2 (ITS-2). Molecular analysis indicated that all of the collected ticks were Amblyomma rotundatum. Using rickettsial gltA (citrate synthase) gene in real-time PCR analysis we found that approximately 25% of the intercepted ticks (8 of 33) were infected with Rickettsia bellii. It is concluded that accurate and timely identification of imported exotic ticks prevented their introduction to Israel, and that use of molecular tools may further improve the response to such potential threats.

  11. No evidence of contagious yawning in the red-footed tortoise Geochelone carbonaria

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    Anna WILKINSON, Natalie SEBANZ, Isabella MANDL, Ludwig HUBER

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Three hypotheses have attempted to explain the phenomenon of contagious yawning. It has been hypothesized that it is a fixed action pattern for which the releasing stimulus is the observation of another yawn, that it is the result of non-conscious mimicry emerging through close links between perception and action or that it is the result of empathy, involving the ability to engage in mental state attribution. This set of experiments sought to distinguish between these hypotheses by examining contagious yawning in a species that is unlikely to show nonconscious mimicry and empathy but does respond to social stimuli: the red-footed tortoise Geochelone carbonaria. A demonstrator tortoise was conditioned to yawn when presented with a red square-shaped stimulus. Observer tortoises were exposed to three conditions: observation of conditioned yawn, non demonstration control, and stimulus only control. We measured the number of yawns for each observer animal in each condition. There was no difference between conditions. Experiment 2 therefore increased the number of conditioned yawns presented. Again, there was no significant difference between conditions. It seemed plausible that the tortoises did not view the conditioned yawn as a real yawn and therefore a final experiment was run using video recorded stimuli. The observer tortoises were presented with three conditions: real yawn, conditioned yawns and empty background. Again there was no significant difference between conditions. We therefore conclude that the red-footed tortoise does not yawn in response to observing a conspecific yawn. This suggests that contagious yawning is not the result of a fixed action pattern but may involve more complex social processes [Current Zoology 57 (4: 477–484, 2011].

  12. Effect of Australian propolis from stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria) on pre-contracted human and porcine isolated arteries.

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    Massaro, Flavia C; Brooks, Peter R; Wallace, Helen M; Nsengiyumva, Vianne; Narokai, Lorraine; Russell, Fraser D

    2013-01-01

    Bee propolis is a mixture of plant resins and bee secretions. While bioactivity of honeybee propolis has been reported previously, information is limited on propolis from Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria). The aim of this study was to investigate possible vasomodulatory effects of propolis in KCl-precontracted porcine coronary arteries using an ex vivo tissue bath assay. Polar extracts of propolis produced a dose-dependent relaxant response (EC50=44.7±7.0 μg/ml), which was unaffected by endothelial denudation, suggesting a direct effect on smooth muscle. Propolis markedly attenuated a contractile response to Ca(2+) in vessels that were depolarised with 60 mM KCl, in Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution. Propolis (160 µg/ml) reduced vascular tone in KCl pre-contracted vessels to near-baseline levels over 90 min, and this effect was partially reversible with 6 h washout. Some loss in membrane integrity, but no loss in mitochondrial function was detected after 90 min exposure of human cultured umbilical vein endothelial cells to 160 µg/ml propolis. We conclude that Australian stingless bee (T. carbonaria) propolis relaxes porcine coronary artery in an endothelial-independent manner that involves inhibition of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. This effect is partially and slowly reversible upon washout. Further studies are required to determine the therapeutic potential of Australian stingless bee propolis for conditions in which vascular supply is compromised.

  13. Effect of Australian propolis from stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria on pre-contracted human and porcine isolated arteries.

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    Flavia C Massaro

    Full Text Available Bee propolis is a mixture of plant resins and bee secretions. While bioactivity of honeybee propolis has been reported previously, information is limited on propolis from Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria. The aim of this study was to investigate possible vasomodulatory effects of propolis in KCl-precontracted porcine coronary arteries using an ex vivo tissue bath assay. Polar extracts of propolis produced a dose-dependent relaxant response (EC50=44.7±7.0 μg/ml, which was unaffected by endothelial denudation, suggesting a direct effect on smooth muscle. Propolis markedly attenuated a contractile response to Ca(2+ in vessels that were depolarised with 60 mM KCl, in Ca(2+-free Krebs solution. Propolis (160 µg/ml reduced vascular tone in KCl pre-contracted vessels to near-baseline levels over 90 min, and this effect was partially reversible with 6 h washout. Some loss in membrane integrity, but no loss in mitochondrial function was detected after 90 min exposure of human cultured umbilical vein endothelial cells to 160 µg/ml propolis. We conclude that Australian stingless bee (T. carbonaria propolis relaxes porcine coronary artery in an endothelial-independent manner that involves inhibition of voltage-gated Ca(2+ channels. This effect is partially and slowly reversible upon washout. Further studies are required to determine the therapeutic potential of Australian stingless bee propolis for conditions in which vascular supply is compromised.

  14. First record of epibionts peritrichids and suctorians (Protozoa, Ciliophora on Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827

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    Roberto Júnio Pedroso Dias

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study made a survey on the ciliate protozoans from Peritrichid and Suctorian taxa, epibionts of Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Ampullariidae. Fifty mollusks were collected in places of irrigation ditches and shell was scraped with a scalpel and the extracted material was analyzed in vivo by light microscopy. All examined mollusks presented epibiont ciliates on their shells. For the first time epibiont ciliates in P. lineata was record. Seven genera of ciliates: five peritrichids and two suctorians, were identified and classified within the subclass Peritrichia: Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1838 (Vorticellidae, Epistylis Ehrenberg, 1830 (Epistylidae, Opercularia Stein, 1854 (Operculariidae, Vaginicola Lamarck, 1816 (Vaginicolidae and Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 (Vorticellidae; and Suctoria: Acineta Ehrenberg,1834 (Acinetidae and Tokophrya Bütschli,1889 (Tokophrydae. The results showed that P. lineata constitute the microenvironment of a ciliate protozoan community that presents complex trophic interactions.O objetivo do presente estudo foi realizar um levantamento dos protozoários ciliados dos táxons Peritrichia e Suctoria, epibiontes de Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 (Ampullariidae. Cinqüenta moluscos foram coletados em ambientes de vala de irrigação, em Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais. As conchas dos moluscos foram raspadas com bisturi e o material extraído analisado in vivo sob o microscópio de luz. Todos os moluscos examinados apresentaram ciliados epibiontes em suas conchas. Registra-se pela primeira vez ciliados epibiontes em P. lineata. Sete gêneros de ciliados: cinco peritríquios e dois suctórios foram identificados e classificados nas subclasses Peritrichia : Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1838 (Vorticellidae, Epistylis Ehrenberg, 1830 (Epistylidae, Opercularia Stein, 1854 (Operculariidae, Vaginicola Lamarck, 1816 (Vaginicolidae e Vorticella Lìnnaeus, 1767 (Vorticellidae; e Suctoria: Acineta Ehrenberg, 1834 (Acinetidae e Tokophrya Bütschli, 1889

  15. Cerumen of Australian stingless bees ( Tetragonula carbonaria): gas chromatography-mass spectrometry fingerprints and potential anti-inflammatory properties

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    Massaro, Flavia Carmelina; Brooks, Peter Richard; Wallace, Helen Margaret; Russell, Fraser Donald

    2011-04-01

    Cerumen, or propolis, is a mixture of plant resins enriched with bee secretions. In Australia, stingless bees are important pollinators that use cerumen for nest construction and possibly for colony's health. While extensive research attests to the therapeutic properties of honeybee ( Apis mellifera) propolis, the biological and medicinal properties of Australian stingless bee cerumen are largely unknown. In this study, the chemical and biological properties of polar extracts of cerumen from Tetragonula carbonaria in South East Queensland, Australia were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses and in vitro 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) cell-free assays. Extracts were tested against comparative (commercial tincture of A. mellifera propolis) and positive controls (Trolox and gallic acid). Distinct GC-MS fingerprints of a mixed diterpenic profile typical of native bee cerumen were obtained with pimaric acid (6.31 ± 0.97%, w/w), isopimaric acid (12.23 ± 3.03%, w/w), and gallic acid (5.79 ± 0.81%, w/w) tentatively identified as useful chemical markers. Characteristic flavonoids and prenylated phenolics found in honeybee propolis were absent. Cerumen extracts from T. carbonaria inhibited activity of 5-LOX, an enzyme known to catalyse production of proinflammatory mediators (IC50 19.97 ± 2.67 μg/ml, mean ± SEM, n = 4). Extracts had similar potency to Trolox (IC50 12.78 ± 1.82 μg/ml), but were less potent than honeybee propolis (IC50 5.90 ± 0.62 μg/ml) or gallic acid (IC50 5.62 ± 0.35 μg/ml, P medicinal properties of this stingless bee cerumen, which may herald a commercial potential for the Australian beekeeping industry.

  16. Resources or landmarks: which factors drive homing success in Tetragonula carbonaria foraging in natural and disturbed landscapes?

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    Leonhardt, Sara D; Kaluza, Benjamin F; Wallace, Helen; Heard, Tim A

    2016-10-01

    To date, no study has investigated how landscape structural (visual) alterations affect navigation and thus homing success in stingless bees. We addressed this question in the Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria by performing marking, release and re-capture experiments in landscapes differing in habitat homogeneity (i.e., the proportion of elongated ground features typically considered prominent visual landmarks). We investigated how landscape affected the proportion of bees and nectar foragers returning to their hives as well as the earliest time bees and foragers returned. Undisturbed landscapes with few landmarks (that are conspicuous to the human eye) and large proportions of vegetation cover (natural forests) were classified visually/structurally homogeneous, and disturbed landscapes with many landmarks and fragmented or no extensive vegetation cover (gardens and plantations) visually/structurally heterogeneous. We found that proportions of successfully returning nectar foragers and earliest times first bees and foragers returned did not differ between landscapes. However, most bees returned in the visually/structurally most (forest) and least (garden) homogeneous landscape, suggesting that they use other than elongated ground features for navigation and that return speed is primarily driven by resource availability in a landscape.

  17. Spix and Wagler type specimens of reptiles and amphibians in the Natural History Musea in Munich (Germany) and Leiden (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Gruber, U.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation of the existing SPIX/WAGLER type material in the museums in Munich and Leiden is given. It transpired that a considerable part of the type material, which was thought to have been destroyed during the second world war, is still extant. The material is described briefly, its presenttaxo

  18. Agricultural crops in the diet of bearded capuchin monkeys, Cebus libidinosus Spix (Primates: Cebidae, in forest fragments in southeast Brazil Cultivares na dieta de macacos-prego barbados, Cebus libidinosus Spix (Primates: Cebidae, em fragmentos florestais no sudeste do Brasil

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    Carlos Henrique de Freitas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Capuchin monkeys occupy a wide range of habitats where they feed on fruits, arthropods, and vertebrates. Their large home ranges (80-900 ha suggest that living in forest fragments may challenge their adaptability. We identified and quantified the main food items of Cebus libidinosus Spix, 1823 in forests fragments (100 ha in southeastern Brazil. We recorded the feeding activities of two groups using scan sampling over a 13-month period. The diet was composed of fruits, crops, animal prey, seeds, plant matter and undetermined. Fruit was eaten more in the wet season than in the dry season, and maize and sugar cane consumption peaked in the early dry season. The proportion of fruit in the diet was positively correlated with fruiting intensity of zoochorous trees. The plant diet included 54 species, with maize, Rhamnidium elaeocarpus, Acrocomia aculeata, Guazuma ulmifolia and Cariniana, being most important. Although dietary composition and diversity were similar to capuchins in larger forest fragments, feeding on crops attained higher percentages at times when zoochorous fruit production was low in fragments.Macacos-prego ocupam uma vasta gama de ambientes onde alimentam-se de frutos, artrópodes e vertebrados. Suas grandes áreas de vida (80-900 ha sugerem que viver em fragmentos florestais pode ser um desafio a sua adaptabilidade. Foram identificados e quantificados os principais itens alimentares de Cebus libidinosus Spix, 1823 em fragmentos florestais (100 ha no sudeste do Brasil. Registraram-se as atividades alimentares de dois grupos usando a varredura instantânea durante um período de 13 meses. A dieta compôs-se de frutos, presas animais, cultivares, sementes, material vegetal e indeterminado. Os frutos foram consumidos mais na estação chuvosa do que na estação seca e o consumo de milho e cana atingiu um pico no início da estação seca. A proporção de frutos na dieta foi positivamente correlacionada com a intensidade de frutifica

  19. Sound amplification by means of a horn-like roosting structure in Spix's disc-winged bat.

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    Chaverri, Gloriana; Gillam, Erin H

    2013-12-07

    While sound is a signal modality widely used by many animals, it is very susceptible to attenuation, hampering effective long-distance communication. A strategy to minimize sound attenuation that has been historically used by humans is to use acoustic horns; to date, no other animal is known to use a similar structure to increase sound intensity. Here, we describe how the use of a roosting structure that resembles an acoustic horn (the tapered tubes that form when new leaves of plants such as Heliconia or Calathea species start to unfurl) increases sound amplification of the incoming and outgoing social calls used by Spix's disc-winged bat (Thyroptera tricolor) to locate roosts and group members. Our results indicate that incoming calls are significantly amplified as a result of sound waves being increasingly compressed as they move into the narrow end of the leaf. Outgoing calls were faintly amplified, probably as a result of increased sound directionality. Both types of call, however, experienced significant sound distortion, which might explain the patterns of signal recognition previously observed in behavioural experiments. Our study provides the first evidence of the potential role that a roost can play in facilitating acoustic communication in bats.

  20. Biologia reprodutiva de Rhinelepis aspera Spix & Agassiz,1829 (Osteichthyes,Loricariidae) no submédio São Francisco,Petrolina-PE

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    Elizângela Maria de Souza

    2006-01-01

    Visando investigar a biologia reprodutiva do cascudo-preto Rhinelepis aspera Spix & Agassiz, 1829, estudos foram realizados num trecho do submédio do rio São Francisco, próximo à cidade de Petrolina-PE (09 09 de Latitude Sul e 40 22 de Longitude Oeste). Foram capturados por meio de tarrafa e rede de espera (malhas de 8 a 14 cm entre nós) 248 exemplares no período de fevereiro de 2005 a janeiro de 2006. Para cada indivíduo foi determinado o sexo, comprimento total (Ct-cm), peso total (Pt-g) e ...

  1. Anti-staphylococcal activity of C-methyl flavanones from propolis of Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria) and fruit resins of Corymbia torelliana (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, C F; Katouli, M; Grkovic, T; Vu, H; Quinn, R J; Heard, T A; Carvalho, C; Manley-Harris, M; Wallace, H M; Brooks, P

    2014-06-01

    Propolis of Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria, Meliponini) originating from Corymbia torelliana (Myrtaceae) fruit resins was tested for its antimicrobial activities as well as its flavonoid contents. This study aimed at the isolation, structural elucidation and antibacterial testing of flavanones of C. torelliana fruit resins that are incorporated into stingless bee propolis. Flavanones of this study were elucidated by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods including UV, 1D and 2D NMR, EI-MS, ESI-MS and HR-MS. The results indicated known C-methylated flavanones namely, 1 (2S)-cryptostrobin, its regioisomer 2 (2S)- stroboponin, 3 (2S)- cryptostrobin 7-methyl ether, and 6 (2S)- desmethoxymatteucinol, and known flavanones 4 (2S)- pinostrobin and 5 (2S)- pinocembrin as markers for C. torelliana fruit resins and one propolis type. Ethanolic preparations of propolis were shown to be active against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and to a lesser extent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853). C. torelliana flavanones inhibited the growth of S. aureus therefore contributing to the antibacterial effects observed for Australian stingless bee propolis extracts.

  2. Construction of Aspergillus niger integrated with cellulase gene from Ampullaria gigas Spix for improved enzyme production and saccharification of alkaline-pretreated rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peizhou; Zhang, Haifeng; Cao, Lili; Zheng, Zhi; Jiang, Shaotong

    2016-12-01

    Aspergillus niger is an important microorganism that has been used for decades to produce extracellular enzymes. In this study, a novel Aspergillus niger strain integrated with a eukaryotic expression vector harboring the gpd-Shi promoter of shiitake mushrooms and cellulase gene of Ampullaria gigas Spix was engineered to improve cellulase production for the achievement of highly efficient saccharification of agricultural residues. In one strain, designated ACShi27, which exhibited the highest total cellulase expression, total cellulase, endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and xylanase expression levels were 1.73, 16.23, 17.73, and 150.83 U ml(-1), respectively; these values were 14.5, 22.3, 24.6, and 17.3% higher than those of the wild-type Aspergillus niger M85 using wheat bran as an induction substrate. Production of cellulases and xylanase by solid-state fermentation followed by in situ saccharification of ACShi27 was investigated with alkaline-pretreated rice straw as a substrate. After 2 days of enzyme induction at 30 °C, followed by 48 h of saccharification at 50 °C, the conversion rate of carbon polymers into reducing sugar reached 293.2 mg g(-1), which was 1.23-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. The expression of sestc in Aspergillus niger can improve the total cellulase and xylanase activity and synergism, thereby enhancing the lignocellulose in situ saccharification.

  3. Inferencia filogeográfica aplicada a la conservación de hembras partenogenéticas del género Aylacostoma Spix, 1827: especies amenazadas del río Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Vogler, Roberto Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    En el presente trabajo de Tesis se realizó un estudio filogeográfico sobre las especies endémicas y amenazadas del género Aylacostoma Spix, 1827 de la región del Alto Paraná (Argentina-Paraguay) enfocado en comprender la estructura genética e historia de sus poblaciones, con el fin último de aportar información fundamental para el desarrollo de estrategias de conservación y manejo de las especies. En la década de 1950 fueron formalmente descriptas tres especies para esta región, las que habit...

  4. NOTES ON CARBONARIA SPECIES GROUP OF GENUS FANNIA ROBINEAU-DESVOIDY (DIPTERA:FANNIIDAE), IN CHINA%中国厕蝇属炭色厕蝇种团记述(双翅目:厕蝇科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明福; 薛万琦; 苏立新

    2004-01-01

    炭色厕蝇种团Fannia carbonaria group是厕蝇属Fannia中的12个种团之一.该种团全世界已知20种,主要分布于全北界.报道了产自中国的该种团8个种的名录及分布,编制了该种团分种检索表,对其中2个新种 F.antilocera sp.nov.,F.tauricornis sp.nov.和1个国内新记录种F.imperatoria Nishina,2002分别予以记述.新种F. antilocera sp.nov.同小须厕蝇F.minutipalpis(Stein,1895)相近缘,但后者触角第三节长为宽的3倍,盾片具灰色粉被,后足股节后腹鬃列分布到基部2/3处,尾器明显不同等可予以区别.新种F.tauricornis sp.nov.同羊角厕蝇F.capricornis Xue,1996相近缘,但新种触角第三节长为宽的3倍,前缘基鳞黄色,足暗棕色;第一腹板具毛,侧尾叶后缘中部无角形突出,杆状突分为两个短突等即可区别;另与本亚种团的F.trigonfera Chillcott,1961,F.japonica japonica Nishida,1974,F.japonica amamiensis Nishida,1975亦相近,但新种肛尾叶外侧突横臂较长,侧尾叶后缘中部无角形突出,杆状突分为2个短突等亦可区别.新种模式标本和其它研究标本均保存于沈阳师范大学昆虫研究所昆虫标本室.%The present paper deals with the Fannia carbonaria species group (Diptera:Fannidae) in China. Eight species are recorded, 2 of them are described as new to science,i.e. F. antilocera sp. nov. and F. tauricornis sp. nov., and F. imperatoria Nishina 2002 is recorded for the first time in China. Fannia antilocera sp. nov. is most closely related to F.minutipalpis (Stein, 1895), but can be identified by the third antennal segment 2.5 times as long as broad, scutum with brownish-grey, hind femur with a row of pv setae only at basal half. F. tauricornis sp. nov. is very close to F. capricornis Xue, 1996, but is separated on the third antennal segment 3 times as long as wide, basicosta yellow, legs dark brown, the first sternite with hairs, surstylus without expansion on median dorsal; bacilliform process with 2short

  5. 福寿螺肉提取液抗氧化活性初步研究%Preliminary Study on Antioxidant Activity of Ampullaria gigas Spix Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽宏; 朱丽霞; 胡俊西; 章家恩

    2014-01-01

    Objective]To evaluate the antioxidant capacity of water extracts,60% ethanol ex-tracts and anhydrous ethanol extracts from Ampullaria gigas Spix.[Method]Total antioxidant capacity (A-TOC)assay kits,hydroxyl radical assay kits,resistance to the ultra oxygen anion free radical and superoxide anion free radical assay kits,and the method of determination of reduc-tion ability were used.[Results]The results showed that 60% ethanol extracts were stronger than anhydrous ethanol extracts in inhibition of hydroxyl radical,and water extracts were the strongest.Water extracts were stronger than ethanol extracts in resistance to superoxide anion free radical.Water extracts were stronger than anhydrous ethanol extracts in total antioxidant ca-pacity,and 60% ethanol extracts were the strongest.Water extracts were stronger than anhy-drous ethanol extracts in reduction ability,and 60% ethanol extracts were the strongest.[Con-clusion]Antioxidant ability of the three kinds of extracts showed dose-effect relationship within 15-35 g/L.The antioxidant activity of Ampullaria gigas Spix was obviously well,and the low concentration of ethanol solvent was better than anhydrous ethanol.%【目的】研究福寿螺肉的水提液、无水乙醇提取液、60%乙醇提取液的抗氧化能力。【方法】利用总抗氧化能力(A-TOC)测定试剂盒,羟自由基测定试剂盒,抗超氧阴离子自由基及产生超氧阴离子自由基测试盒,以及测定还原力的方法。【结果】表明:抑制羟基自由基能力60%乙醇提取液比无水乙醇提取液强,水提液抑制羟基自由基能力最强;抗超氧阴离子活性,水提液比乙醇提取液强;总抗氧化能力水提液比无水乙醇提取液强,60%乙醇提取液总抗氧化能力最强;水提液比无水乙醇提取液具有较强的还原力,且60%乙醇提取液还原力最强。【结论】在所选取提取液梯度(15~35 g/L)的范围内,提取液的抗氧化能力

  6. Influence of the flood pulse on the reproduction of Tocantinsia piresi (Miranda Ribeiro and Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix & Agassiz (Auchenipteridae of the middle Xingu River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TMS. Freitas

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigates the influence of the flood pulse on the reproductive biology of the auchenipterids Tocantisia piresi (Miranda Ribeiro, 1920 and Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 from the middle Xingu River in the Brazilian state of Pará. The specimens were collected every three months between April, 2012, and January, 2014, covering four distinct periods (flood, ebb, dry, and filling. The sex ratio, size at first maturity, gonadosomatic index, and condition factor were analysed in the two species, and evaluated in the context of the different hydrological periods. A total of 897 specimens of T. piresi were collected, of which 467 were female, and 430 males, and 383 A. nuchalis (286 females and 97 males. In T. piresi, the sex ratio was biased only in the filling and ebb periods, whereas in A. nuchalis, it departed significantly from the expected ratio of 1:1 in all periods, with a predominance of females. The female T. piresi mature at a smaller size than the males, with the opposite of the pattern being recorded in A. nuchalis. In T. piresi, the breeding peak was observed during the low water periods, whereas in A. nuchalis, the peak was recorded in the flood periods. Male and female T. piresi presented similar positively allometric growth rates, whereas in A. nuchalis, growth was negatively allometric, but rates were different between genders. A higher condition factor was recorded in the females of both species during the ebb period. Overall, the results of this study reveals distinct flood pulse effects on the reproductive parameters of the two auchenipterid species studied; for A. nuchalis the spawning seems to happen at the flood period and for T. piresi at the dry season of the middle Xingu River.

  7. The expulsive and attractive effects of 16 species of plants on Golden Apple Snails(Ampullaria gigas Spix)%16种植物对福寿螺的趋避效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐武兵; 钟秋华; 李林峰; 郭荣荣; 章家恩; 罗明珠

    2010-01-01

    于实验室内通过自制的八边形分室趋避试验装置观察研究了16种植物对福寿螺(A mpullaria gigas Spix)的趋避效果.结果表明:福寿螺具有沿壁爬行的偏好性,沿壁爬行的福寿螺数量平均为非沿壁爬行福寿螺数的3.77倍.同时发现,在所选的16种植物中,白千层(Melaleuca leucadendra L)、扶桑(Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.)2种植物对福寿螺有较大的吸引作用;金叶假连翘(Duranta repens cv.Dwarf Yellow)、木麻黄(Casuarina equisetifolia L)、红龙草(A lternanthera dentata cv.Ruliginosa)、鸭脚木[Schefflera octophylla(Lour.)Harms]、剑麻(Agave Sisalana Perrine)5种植物对福寿螺有一定的驱赶作用.

  8. Distribution of Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles of the Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Camilo Montes Corea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research reviews the Colombian Caribbean distribution of the species Kinosternon scorpioides, Trachemys callirostris,Mesoclemmys dahli and Chelonoidis carbonaria, and to present new records for the region. The species K. scorpioides is reported for the first time in the Manzanares River drainage, Santa Marta, department of Magdalena. Trachemys callirostris was recorded inthe Cañas River, department of La Guajira, being the first record for this species in a small river on the north side of the SierraNevada de Santa Marta. Chelonoidis carbonaria was recorded in a wetland in Santa Marta. We recorded a female M. dahli in thevillage of Monterrubio, municipality of Sabanas de San Angel, department of Magdalena. Three of the four species includedin this account are listed in some category of threat. The lack of knowledge of the biology and distribution of these species could be considered a threat to them because ignorance precludes the establishment of their true conservation status and hinders the development of management plans required for their protection.DISTRIBUCIÓN DE TORTUGAS CONTINENTALESDEL CARIBE COLOMBIANOEste estudio revisa la distribución para el Caribe colombiano de las especies Kinosternon scorpioides, Trachemys callirostris,Mesoclemmys dahli y Chelonoidis carbonaria y nuevas localidades en la distribución de dichas especies para la región. La especie K. scorpioides es registrada por primera vez en la cuenca del río Manzanares, en Santa Marta, Magdalena. Trachemys callirostris fue registrada en el río Cañas, La Guajira, constituyéndose en el primer registro para la especie en un riachuelo de la cara norte de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Chelonoidis carbonaria fue registrada en un humedal ubicado en la ciudad de Santa Marta. Se registró una hembra de M. dahli en el corregimiento Monterrubio, municipio Sabana de San Ángel, Magdalena. Tres de las cuatro especies incluidas en esta revisión se encuentran en alguna

  9. A microestrutura e o desenvolvimento dos órgãos genitais masculinos de preás (Galea spixii criados em cativeiro The microstructure and development of male genital organs of Spix's yellow-toothed cavy (Galea spixii bred in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R.S. Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O preá do semiárido nordestino (Galea spixii é um roedor pertencente à família Caviidae. São encontrados nas regiões da Caatinga e do Cerrado Brasileiro e se reproduz ao longo do ano, apresentando um período de gestação de 48 dias e uma ninhada de 2 a 4 crias. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar histologicamente os componentes estruturais dos órgãos genitais de preás machos relacionando com a evolução cronológica destes órgãos na espécie. Foram utilizados para análise animais ao nascimento e aos 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120 e aos 150 dias de idade. Fragmentos do epidídimo, ducto deferente, pênis e glândulas sexuais acessórias foram coletados, fixados e processados para descrição em microscopia de luz. O epidídimo apresentou epitélio colunar simples e em cada fase sexual notou-se diferença quanto ao tamanho do lúmen tubular e à presença de espermatozóides no lúmen aos 45 dias de idade. O epitélio do ducto deferente no preá mostrou-se pseudo-estratificado colunar com crescente presença de estereocilios com o avanço da idade. A glândula vesicular no preá apresentou uma mucosa com pregueamento variado, de acordo com a fase do desenvolvimento sexual. A próstata mostrou-se pouco desenvolvida, com lúmen pequeno nos preás ao nascimento e aos 15 dias de idade; aos 45 dias mostrou-se com um pregueamento do epitélio variável. Os órgãos genitais masculinos do preá passaram por transformações morfológicas no decorrer da idade e com o desenvolvimento sexual, isso colaborou para a determinação do início da fase da puberdade, que na espécie em estudo foi aos 45 dias de idade.The Spix's yellow-toothed cavy (Galea spixii from the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid is a rodent that does belong to the family Caviidae. They are found in regions of the Caatinga and Cerrado, and reproduces throughout the year, with a gestation period of 48 days and a litter of 2 to 4 pups. The aim of this study was to

  10. Embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus (SPIX & AGASSIZ, 1829

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. S. Sampaio Nakauth

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to describe the embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus, featuring the main events up to 50 hours after fertilization (AF. The material was provided by the Aquaculture Training, Technology and Production Center, Presidente Figueiredo (AM. The characterization was based on stereomicroscopic examination of the morphology of eggs, embryos and larvae and comparison with the literature. Matrinxã eggs are free, transparent, and spherical, with a perivitelline space of 0.56 ± 0.3 mm. The successive divisions give rise to cells with 64 blastomeres during the first hour AF. The gastrula stage, beginning 02 h 40 min AF, was characterized by progressive regression cells and the formation of the embryonic axis, leading to differentiation of the head and tail 05 h 30 min AF. From 06 to 09 h AF the somites, notochord, otic and optic vesicles and otoliths were observed, in addition to heart rate and the release of the tail. The larvae hatched at 10 h 30 min AF (29.9 °C, with a total length of 3.56 ± 0.46 mm. Between 19 and 30 h AF, we observed 1 pigmentation and gut formation, 2 branchial arches, 3 pectoral fins, 4 a mouth opening and 5 teeth. Cannibalism was initiated earlier (34 h AF which was associated with rapid yolk absorption (more than 90% until 50 h AF, signaling the need for an exogenous nutritional source. The environmental conditions (especially temperature influenced the time course of some events throughout the embryonic and larval development, suggesting the need for further studies on this subject.

  11. No evidence of contagious yawning in the red-footed tortoise Geochelone carbonaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, A.; Sebanz, N.; Mandl, I.; Huber, L.

    2011-01-01

    Three hypotheses have attempted to explain the phenomenon of contagious yawning. It has been hypothesized that it is a fixed action pattern for which the releasing stimulus is the observation of another yawn, that it is the result of non-conscious mimicry emerging through close links between percept

  12. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Oil from Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel J. M. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropidurus hispidus has been used in traditional medicine in several regions of Northeastern Region of Brazil. Its medicinal use involves the treatment of diseases such as warts, sore throat, tonsillitis, chicken pox, varicella, measles, asthma, alcoholism, and dermatomycosis. The present study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory activity of Tropidurus hispidus fat in treating ear edema in an animal model. Oil from T. hispidus (OTH was evaluated on its effect against experimental inflammation in mice. OTH was extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of Tropidurus hispidus using hexane as a solvent. We used the model of mouse ear edema induced by phlogistic agents, croton oil (single and multiple applications, arachidonic acid, phenol, capsaicin, and histamine, applied into the right ears of animals pretreated with acetone (control, dexamethasone, or OTH. OTH inhibited the dermatitis induced by all noxious agents, except capsaicin. This effect may be related to the fatty acids present in OTH.

  13. Redescription of the advertisement call of Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederassi, Jonas; Lima, Mauro Sérgio Cruz Souza; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Souza, Patrícia Dos Santos; Santos, Mayra Caroliny De Oliveira; Silva, Islaíane Costa

    2015-08-03

    The genus Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 is composed by 46 species occurring from north to southern South America, east of the Andes (Frost 2015). Physalaemus albifrons is morphologically differentiated from the other species mainly due to the presence of a second tarsal tubercle located nearly the tibio-tarsal articulation (Bokermann 1966). Physalaemus albifrons occurs in Brazil from north of the State of Maranhão through the states of Piauí, Ceará, Bahia, Paraíba, Pernambuco, and Alagoas, being its more austral occurrence in the State of Minas Gerais (Frost 2015). The advertisement call of P. albifrons was described by Bokermann (1966); however, the description needs improvement by applying new technologies, which we provide herein.

  14. Dieta de Hypophthalmus edentatus (Spix, 1829 (Osteichthyes, Hypophthalmidae e variações de seu estoque no reservatório de Itaipu Diet of Hypophthalmus edentatus (Spix, 1829, (Osteichthyes, Hypophythalmidae and variations in its stock in Itaipu Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a dieta do mapará Hypophthalmus edentatus (Osteichthyes, Hypophthalmidae no reservatório de Itaipu, durante o período de novembro/94 a outubro/97, e comparar os dados com a dieta dessa espécie nos primeiros anos de formação do reservatório, relacionando-os com a densidade de zooplâncton e fitoplâncton encontrados no ambiente e buscando possíveis relações com a depleção dos estoques que essa espécie vem apresentando nos últimos anos. Os conteúdos estomacais foram analisados pelos métodos de ocorrência e volumétrico, combinados no Índice Alimentar (IAi. A dieta do mapará no período de nov/94 a out/97 (149 estômagos mostrou um número restrito de itens alimentares, sendo composta por cladóceros, copépodos, algas e tecamebas, todos organismos planctônicos. Os resultados deste trabalho evidenciaram que o mapará utiliza, em sua dieta, principalmente zooplâncton, sendo cladóceros o zooplâncton mais ingerido (aproximadamente 63%. Não foram observadas alterações marcantes entre locais, anos e classes de tamanho estudados. Entretanto, comparações entre a dieta da espécie nos primeiros anos da formação do reservatório e aquelas do período deste estudo mostraram diferenças relevantes, com uma maior participação de cladóceros de maior tamanho (Daphnia gessneri e menor de algas cianofícias. A elevada concentração de nutrientes no período que se seguiu o represamento, com o aumento na biomassa fitoplanctônica no ambiente, e seu decréscimo com o passar dos anos, explicam essas variações. Dessa maneira, é esperado que flutuações na abundância do recurso conduzam a flutuações populacionais nesta espécie.The aim of this paper is to assess the diet of Hypophthalmus edentatus (Osteichthyes, Hypophthalmidae, also called mapará, at Itaipú Reservoir from November 1994 to October 1997 and also to compare data to the species’ diet during the first few years of the reservoir formation. The data analysis related to the density of zooplankton and phytoplankton in the environment and searched for possible relationship regarding to stock depletion shown by the species during the last few years. Stomach contents were analysed by the occurrence and volumetric methods, coupled to Food Index. Mapará diet showed an ingestion of a restricted number of feeding items consisting of plankton organisms such as cladocerans, copepods, algae and testacea amoebae in 149 stomachs from November 1994 to October 1997. Results showed that zooplankton is the chief item in mapará diet and the cladocerans are the most ingested (approximately 63.0%. No significant changes were found between sites, years and classes analysed. However, comparisons between the species’ diet in the first years of the reservoir formation and those of this study period showed significant differences, or rather a high prevalence of bigger sized cladocerans (Daphnia gessneri and a smaller amount of Cyanophyceae algae. High concentration of nutrients after impoundment, an increase in phytoplanktinic biomass of the species are expected according to the resource variation.

  15. Isolation and characterization of a new fungal genus and species, Aphanoascella galapagosensis, from carapace keratitis of a Galapagos tortoise (Chelonoidis nigra microphyes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, D A; Marín, Y; Thompson, E H; Wickes, B L; Fu, J; García, D; Swinford, A; de Maar, T; Guarro, J

    2013-02-01

    A new fungal genus and species, Aphanoascella galapagosensis, recovered from carapace keratitis in a Galapagos tortoise residing in a south Texas zoological collection, is characterized and described. The presence of a pale peridium composed of textura epidermoidea surrounded by scarce Hülle cell-like chlamydospores, and the characteristic reticulate ascospores with an equatorial rim separates it from other genera within the Onygenales. The phylogenetic tree inferred from the analysis of D1/D2 sequences demonstrates that this fungus represents a new lineage within that order. As D1/D2 and ITS sequence data also shows a further separation of Aphanoascus spp. into two monophyletic groups, we propose to retain the generic name Keratinophyton for species whose ascospores are pitted and display a conspicuous equatorial rim, and thereby propose new combinations in this genus for four Aphanoascus species.

  16. Translocation and radio-telemetry monitoring of pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea (Spix, 1823, in the Brazilian Amazon

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    CAR. Dias

    Full Text Available Two groups of pygmy marmoset (Cebuella pygmaea were rescued along the left bank of the Madeira River during the formation of Santo Antônio Hydroelectric Dam reservoir in the state of Rondônia, Northern Brazil. Reintroduction of both groups occurred in areas of open Tropical rainforest located within the project´s Permanent Preservation Area. A post-release monitoring was conducted for three months using radio-telemetry. Individuals of each group remained together and settled in stable home ranges near their respective release sites. The mortality rate of translocated animals was about 7%. This seems to be the first report documenting the complete group translocation of C. pygmaea and the first to successfully employ radio-telemetry techniques in monitoring this species. This study demonstrated the feasibility of translocation and the use of radio-telemetry in monitoring C. pygmaea.

  17. Influence of food restriction on the reproduction and larval performance of matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus (Spix and Agassiz, 1829

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACS. Camargo

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of food restriction and refeeding of matrinxã females, Brycon amazonicus, on their reproductive performance and on the growth and survival of the progeny. Broodstocks were distributed in 8 earthen tanks (15 fish/tank and fish from 4 tanks were fed daily (G1 while fish from the other 4 tanks were fed for 3 days and not fed for 2 days (G2 during 6 months prior to artificial spawning. Among the induced females, 57% in G1 group and 45% in G2 group spawned and the mean egg weights were 208.1 g (G1 and 131.6 g (G2. Oocytes of G2 fish were smaller (1.017 ± 0.003 mm than oocytes of G1 fish (1.048 ± 0.002 mm. Fertilization (71.91 ± 12.6% and 61.18 ± 13.7% and hatching (61.28 ± 33.9% and 67.50 ± 23.4% rates did not differ between G1 and G2 fish. Larvae were collected at hatching and at 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation and fixed for growth measurement. After incubation, fry were transferred to aquaria and sampled 1, 5, 9 and 15 days later. G1 and G2 larvae had similar weight (1.51 ± 0.15 and 1.46 ± 0.07 mg but the G2 length was significantly higher (6.26 ± 0.13 and 6.74 ± 0.14 mm. By the ninth day of rearing, G2 fry had higher weight (13.6 ± 0.26 and 18.9 ± 0.07 mg and length (11.8 ± 0.09 and 14.5 ± 0.04 mm but by the fifteenth day, G1 fry had higher weight (90.2 ± 1.19 and 68.6 ± 0.77 mg and length (18.8 ± 0.16 and 18.5 ± 0.04 mm than G2 fry. By the ninth day of rearing, when fry are recommended to be transferred to outdoor tanks, G2 fry were larger and after 15 days, fry produced by restricted-fed females showed higher survival. The survival rate of G2 progeny by the fifteenth day was significantly higher (24.7 ± 2.07% than that of G1 progeny (19.2 ± 1.91%. The ration restriction (35% reduction imposed on matrinxã broodstock during 6 months prior to spawning reduced the number of spawned females and the egg amount, but it did not affect fertilization and hatching rates. Otherwise restricted-female larvae were larger and presented higher survival.

  18. New distribution data for Podocnemis erythrocephala (Spix) with remarks on some other turtle taxa (Reptilia: Chelonia: Pelomedusidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Avila-Pires, de T.C.S.

    1990-01-01

    During fieldwork in the Lago de Faro, the lower reaches of the Rio Nhamundá, on the border of the Brazilian states of Pará and Amazonas, several species of pelomedusid turtles were observed. Podocnemis erythrocephala and P. unifilis occur in the area and breed there; P. expansa seems to be absent or

  19. Possible interspecific origin of the B chromosome of Hypsiboas albopunctatus (Spix, 1824 (Anura, Hylidae, revealed by microdissection, chromosome painting, and reverse hybridisation

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    Simone Gruber

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The B chromosome in the hylid Hypsiboas albopunctatus (2n = 22 + B is small, almost entirely composed of C-positive heterochromatin, and does not pair with any chromosome of the A complement. B probe, obtained by microdissection and DOP-PCR amplification, was used to search for homology between the B and regular chromosomes of H. albopunctatus and of the related species H. raniceps (Cope, 1862. Reverse hybridisation was also carried out in the investigation. The B probe exclusively painted the supernumerary, not hybridising any other chromosomes in H. albopunctatus, but all H. raniceps chromosomes showed small labelling signals. This result might be an indication that differences exist between the repetitive sequences of A and B chromosomes of H. albopunctatus, and that the chromosomes of H. raniceps and the heterochromatin of the B chromosome of H. albopunctatus are enriched with the same type of repetitive DNA. In meiotic preparations, the B labelled about 30% of scored spermatids, revealing a non-mendelian inheritance, and the painted B in micronucleus suggests that the supernumerary is eliminated from germ line cells. Although our results could suggest an interespecific origin of the B at first sight, further analysis on its repetitive sequences is still necessary. Nevertheless, the accumulation of repetitive sequences, detected in another species, even though closely related, remains an intriguing question.

  20. Revisión sobre la distribución geográfica de Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824 (Anura: Leptodactylidae

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    Langone, José A.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Existen con frecuencia en la literatura neotropical, confusiones respecto a la distribución geográfica de las especies de anuros. En el caso de las confusiones del género Physalaemus fueron y son debidas a identificaciones erradas, producto de descripciones originales vagas y del difícil acceso o inexistencia de material tipo. La presente nota trata sobre una de estas confusiones.

  1. El Ututo chaqueño Phyllopezus pollicaris (Spix 1825 (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae. Primer registro para la provincia de Jujuy (República Argentina

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    Burgos Gallardo, Freddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available República Argentina, Jujuy; Departamento Santa Bárbara, Paraje Finca Fachine (23º 35' 55.98" S; 64º 13' 46.09" O 324 m s.n.m. Colector: Freddy Burgos. Depositado en la colección herpetológica del Laboratorio de Genética Evolutiva, Instituto de Biología Subtropical, UNaM-CONICET, Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. Macho adulto (LGE 02633.

  2. Spawning season, recruitment and early life distribution of Anchoa tricolor (Spix and Agassiz, 1829 in a tropical bay in southeastern Brazil

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    FG. Araújo

    Full Text Available The pattern of the use of the Sepetiba Bay, a semi-closed 450 km² area in southeastern Brazil, by Anchoa tricolor was investigated to assess spawning period, recruitment and to detect spatial-temporal patterns of this major fishery resource. Fishes were sampled by seine nets, from spring, 1998 to winter, 1999 and by beach seine, from spring, 1998 to winter, 2000. Reproductive season, measured in terms of GSI, gonad development and appearance of recruits, indicate that reproduction occurs from August to March, when they reach the best condition. Recruitment peaks in winter/spring at sandy beaches where they stay until late summer, moving toward deeper bay areas during autumn. After that, they join adults and perform movements between the bay and the adjacent continental shelf to reproduce.

  3. Description of behavioral patterns of Podocnemis erythrocephala (Spix, 1824 (Testudines: Podocnemididae (Red-headed river turtle in captivity, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil Descrição de padrões comportamentais de Podocnemis erythrocephala (Spix, 1824 (Testudines: Podocnemididae (Irapuca em cativeiro, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil

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    Larissa Schineider

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The biology and ecology of South American turtles is still poorly known, particularly, for the Brazilian species. Laboratory studies are essential to understand the life cycles of aquatic turtles species and to help in formulating management plans for their conservation. As a contribution to the knowledge of Podocnemis erythrocephala species, we give a description of its species-typical behaviors, categorized as: maintenance, locomotion, feeding, agonistic and reproduction, based on captives observations of four pairs of turtles in an aquarium in Manaus, Brazil. Similarities and differences with the repertoires of other turtle species are discussed, concluding that turtles have much more complex adaptative strategies and social life than was believed.A biologia e ecologia dos quelônios da América do Sul é pouco conhecida, particularmente para as espécies brasileiras. Estudos em laboratório são essenciais para entender o ciclo de vida das espécies de tartarugas aquáticas e ajudar na formulação de planos de manejo para sua conservação. Como uma contribuição ao conhecimento da espécie Podocnemis erythrocephala, nós descrevemos os comportamentos típicos nas categorias manutenção, locomoção, alimentação, agonístico e reprodutivo, baseado em observações de quatro pares de tartarugas em um aquário na cidade de Manaus, Brasil. São discutidas similaridades e diferenças com repertórios de outras espécies de quelônios, concluindo que esses animais possuem estratégias adaptativas e vida social muito mais complexas do que tem sido ponderado.

  4. Comparative study on hematological parameters of farmed matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus Spix and Agassiz, 1829 (Characidae: Bryconinae with others Bryconinae species Estudo comparativo sobre parâmetros hematológicos de matrinxã Brycon amazonicus Spix e Agassiz, 1892(Characidae: Bryconinae criados em cativeiro, com outras espécies de Bryconinae

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    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was not only to determine the red blood cells parameters, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts in farmed Brycon amazonicus (matrinxã, to compare these parameters among Bryconinae species from literature, and also to investigate the presence of special granulocytic cells in these fish. The results of the blood cells parameters here established for farmed B. amazonicus, a species of great economic importance in Brazilian aquaculture, could help a better understanding of the blood features in natural populations of this Amazon species. Blood parameters varied between Bryconinae species investigated, mainly the red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume (MCV. The presence of the blood granulocytes, neutrophils and heterophils in matrinxã suggest that both leukocytes can be a characteristic for Bryconinae family. Furthermore, it indicates that the existence of special granulocytic cells in the blood of Bryconinae species from literature is an artifact, and this was herein discussed.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os parâmetros eritrocíticos, as contagens de trombócitos e de leucócitos de espécimes de Brycon amazonicus (matrinxã, criados em cativeiro e compará-los com aqueles descritos na literatura para outras espécies de Bryconinae. Além disso, foi ainda investigada a presença de células granulocíticas especiais nestes peixes. Os resultados dos parâmetros sangüíneos apresentados para B. amazonicus podem ajudar a entender melhor as características sangüíneas em população natural desta espécie de grande importância para a aqüicultura brasileira. Os parâmetros sangüíneos das espécies de Bryconinae investigadas apresentaram variação interespecíficas principalmente a contagem de eritrócitos, hemoglobina, hematócrito e volume corpuscular médio (VCM. A presença dos granulócitos sangüíneos, neutrófilos e heterófilos em matrinxã sugere que esta pode ser uma característica das espécies pertencentes à subfamília Bryconinae. Além disso, indica que a existência de células granulocíticas especiais no sangue de espécies de Bryconinae da literatura é um artefato, e isto foi aqui discutido.

  5. Identificación de Mycobacterium sp., en una población de tortugas morrocoy (Geochelone carbonaria en cautiverio y en su entorno, en un zoológico en la Sabana de Bogotá

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    Ángela Natalia Agudelo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En un Zoológico de la Sabana de Bogotá, se presentó alta mortalidad de aves por tuberculosis aviar, en un encierro en el cual habitaban dos clases de animales diferentes: reptiles y aves. Se buscó establecer la presencia del Mycobacterium sp, por medio de la identificación molecular (PCR-PRA, en una población de 19 tortugas Morrocoy en cautiverio en el Zoológico mencionado anteriormente. Se procedió a tuberculinizar a todas las tortugas, las cuales resultaron negativas y se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal y muestras ambientales (agua y suelo y se cultivaron en medios OK/MSTA, LJ y OK respectivamente realizando baciloscopia para cada una de las muestras. De la muestras de materia fecal sólo cuatro fueron positivas a baciloscopia y de nueve muestras ambientales (suelo (n=7, agua (n=2, cinco fueron positivas (suelo (n=4, agua (n=1; en cuanto al crecimiento fueron negativas todas las de materia fecal de las tortugas Morrocoy. De las muestras ambientales (suelo, agua crecieron cinco y una muestras respectivamente. Adicionalmente se obtuvo muestras de la necropsia de una tortuga Icotea, (tejido, orina y absceso y sólo hubo crecimiento de la muestra de absceso. De la muestra de absceso se identificó Mycobacterium gordonae tipo 3, de las de suelo se obtuvo Mycobacterium avium tipo 3 y en el de agua se obtuvo Mycobacterium fortuitum tipo 1. Los hallazgos sugieren la necesidad de una vigilancia continua, que permita la identificación de la presencia de micobacterias; por medio de pruebas de laboratorio apropiadas (baciloscopia, cultivo, pruebas bioquímicas y moleculares; ya que se debe evitar que las tortugas sigan siendo parte de un ciclo epidemiológico de transmisión como portadores sanos y el contacto con los humanos debe darse sólo cuando sea estrictamente necesario, aplicando normas de bioseguridad.

  6. 77 FR 51819 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... tortoise (Chelonoidis nigra) Radiated tortoise (Astrochelys radiata) Nile crocodile (Crocodiles niloticus... Sturnidae (does not include Aplonis pelzelni) Crocodylidae (does not include American crocodile) Applicant... period. Families: Felidae Lemuridae Species: Cuban crocodile (Crocodylus rhombifer)...

  7. Differences in Ca2+-management between the ventricle of two species of neotropical teleosts: the jeju, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829, and the acara, Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824

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    Monica Jones Costa

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the physiological role of the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR of two neotropical teleosts, the jeju, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Erythrinidae, and the acara, Geophagus brasiliensis (Cichlidae. While the in vivo heart frequency (fH - bpm of acara (79.6 ± 6.6 was higher than that of the jeju (50.3 ± 2.7, the opposite was observed for the ventricular inotropism (Fc - mN/mm² at 12 bpm (acara = 28.66 ± 1.86 vs. jeju = 36.09 ± 1.67. A 5 min diastolic pause resulted in a strong potentiation of Fc (≅ 90% of strips from jeju, which was completely abolished by ryanodine. Ryanodine also resulted in a ≅ 20% decrease in the Fc developed by strips from jeju at both subphysiological (12 bpm and physiological (in vivo frequencies. However, this effect of ryanodine reducing the Fc from jeju was completely compensated by adrenaline increments (10-9 and 10-6 M. In contrast, strips from acara were irresponsive to ryanodine, irrespective of the stimulation frequency, and increases in adrenaline concentration (to 10-9 and 10-6 M further increased Fc. These results reinforce the hypothesis of the functionality of the SR as a common trait in neotropical ostariophysian (as jeju, while in acanthopterygians (as acara it seems to be functional mainly in 'athletic' species.

  8. A further new species of Sarcofahrtiopsis Hall (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) associated with faeces of the disk-winged bat (Thyroptera Spix: Chiroptera) in Brazil and the redescription of the female terminalia of S. cuneata (Townsend).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Filho, Fernando Da Silva; Esposito, Maria Cristina; Silva, Amanda De Azevedo

    2014-11-28

    The male, female and puparium are described for Sarcofahrtiopsis cupendipe sp. nov., whose larvae live in the roosts of disk-winged bats (Thyroptera species). Sarcofahrtiopsis cupendipe and S. thyropteronthos Pape, Dechmann & Vonhof are both associated with the faeces of the disk-winged bat and are the only species of Sarcofahrtiopsis with wing vein R1 fully setose dorsally and a short parameral apodeme in the male terminalia. In addition, the female terminalia of S. cuneata (Townsend) is redescribed.

  9. The effects of stocking density, prey concentration and feeding on Rhinelepis aspera (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 (Pisces: Loricariidae larviculture - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i2.8541

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    Ronald Kennedy Luz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate three stocking densities (20, 40 and 60 larvae L-1, and two daily prey concentrations (400 and 700 Artemia nauplii larvae-1 during the first seven days of active feeding (first phase. In the second phase was evaluate the effect of the different feeding regimes: fasting, dry diet (55% crude protein, Artemia sp. and mixed feeding (Artemia sp. plus dry diet, after 17 days of active feeding on Rhinelepis aspera larviculture. In the first phase, growth was affected only by prey concentration. In the second phase, the dry diet induced higher growth rates than fasting, but lower growth rates than the other treatments. The acceptance of the dry diet was evidenced by an increase in the growth rate from 4.6% day-1 in the first five days to 10.7% day-1 in the following five days of feeding. Survival was similar among dry diet, mixed feeding and Artemia nauplii treatments. R. aspera larvae can be reared during the first seven days of active feeding at a density of 60 larvae L-1, after which they can be fed with a commercial dry diet.

  10. Differences in Ca2+-management between the ventricle of two species of neotropical teleosts: the jeju, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829, and the acara, Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Jones Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the physiological role of the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR of two neotropical teleosts, the jeju, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Erythrinidae, and the acara, Geophagus brasiliensis (Cichlidae. While the in vivo heart frequency (fH - bpm of acara (79.6 ± 6.6 was higher than that of the jeju (50.3 ± 2.7, the opposite was observed for the ventricular inotropism (Fc - mN/mm² at 12 bpm (acara = 28.66 ± 1.86 vs. jeju = 36.09 ± 1.67. A 5 min diastolic pause resulted in a strong potentiation of Fc (≅ 90% of strips from jeju, which was completely abolished by ryanodine. Ryanodine also resulted in a ≅ 20% decrease in the Fc developed by strips from jeju at both subphysiological (12 bpm and physiological (in vivo frequencies. However, this effect of ryanodine reducing the Fc from jeju was completely compensated by adrenaline increments (10-9 and 10-6 M. In contrast, strips from acara were irresponsive to ryanodine, irrespective of the stimulation frequency, and increases in adrenaline concentration (to 10-9 and 10-6 M further increased Fc. These results reinforce the hypothesis of the functionality of the SR as a common trait in neotropical ostariophysian (as jeju, while in acanthopterygians (as acara it seems to be functional mainly in 'athletic' species.O presente estudo analisou o papel fisiológico desempenhado pelo retículo sarcoplasmático (RS de duas espécies de teleósteos neotropicais, o jeju, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Erythrinidae, e o acará, Geophagus brasiliensis (Cichlidae. Enquanto a frequência cardíaca registrada in vivo (fH - bpm para o acará (79.6 ± 6.6 foi superior àquela observada para o jeju (50.3 ± 2.7, resposta inversa foi verificada para o inotropismo ventricular (Fc - mN/mm² na frequência de estimulação de 12 bpm (acará = 28.66 ± 1.86 vs. jeju = 36.09 ± 1.67. Uma pausa diastólica de 5 min resultou em uma expressiva potenciação da Fc (≅ 90% das tiras de jeju, a qual foi completamente abolida pela rianodina. A rianodina também resultou em um decréscimo de ≅ 20% na Fc desenvolvida pelas tiras de jeju tanto a frequências sub-fisiológicas (12 bpm quanto fisiológicas (in vivo. No entanto, o decréscimo da Fc promovido pela rianodina foi completamente compensado pela adição de adrenalina (10-9 e 10-6 M. Em contraste, as tiras de acará foram irresponsivas à rianodina, independentemente da frequência de estimulação utilizada, fazendo com que a adição de adrenalina (10-9 e 10-6 M resultasse em incrementos ainda maiores da Fc. Esses resultados reforçam a hipótese de que a funcionalidade do RS seja uma característica comum aos ostariofíseos neotropicais (como o jeju, enquanto nos acantopterígios (como o acará esta organela parece ser funcional principalmente em espécies ativas.

  11. Lesões pulmonares associadas ao parasitismo por Sebekia oxycephala (Pentastomida em jacarés-açu (Melanosuchus niger Spix, 1825 oriundos de vida livre na Amazônia brasileira

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    Adriana Maciel de C. Cardoso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou descrever as lesões pulmonares macro e microscópicas associadas ao parasitismo por Sebekia oxycephala em 100 espécimes de jacarés-açu (Melanosuchusniger, abatidos na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá, situada no Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Durante a avaliação macroscópica, exemplares dos parasitos encontrados no tecido pulmonar foram coletados individualmente em AFA (Álcool etílico - Formalina - Ácido acético glacial e formol a 5% para avaliação parasitológica e classificação taxonômica. Amostras de tecido pulmonar de todos os animais, independentemente da ocorrência de lesões macroscópicas, foram fixadas em formol 10% e incluídas em parafina. Secções histológicas coradas por Hematoxilina-Eosina destas amostras foram avaliadas por meio de microscopia óptica. Macroscopicamente, 4 dos 100 animais (4% apresentaram espécimes de pentastomídeos no parênquima pulmonar. Os parasitos foram classificados taxonomicamente como pertencentes à espécie Sebekia oxycephala. Nenhuma alteração macroscópicas foi observada, porém, microscopicamente, lesões pulmonares foram encontradas em 37% dos casos, sendo que, lesões inflamatórias associadas ao parasitismo corresponderam a 75,6% dos mesmos (28/37. Nestes, segmentos degenerados e ovos de S. oxycephala encontravam-se envolvidos por cápsula de tecido conjuntivo fibroso e infiltrado inflamatório predominantemente composto por células gigantes do tipo corpo estranho. Três espécimes apresentaram espessamento de septos alveolares e sete exemplares continham infiltrado inflamatório granulocítico multifocal no parênquima pulmonar. As lesões associadas ao parasitismo, de modo geral, apresentaram intensidade discreta e parecem não representar uma causa importante de doença pulmonar entre a população estudada. Esta é a primeira descrição de lesões pulmonares em M. niger associadas ao parasitismo por S. oxycephala na Amazônia brasileira.

  12. The industrial melanism mutation in British peppered moths is a transposable element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Hof, Arjen E; Campagne, Pascal; Rigden, Daniel J; Yung, Carl J; Lingley, Jessica; Quail, Michael A; Hall, Neil; Darby, Alistair C; Saccheri, Ilik J

    2016-06-01

    Discovering the mutational events that fuel adaptation to environmental change remains an important challenge for evolutionary biology. The classroom example of a visible evolutionary response is industrial melanism in the peppered moth (Biston betularia): the replacement, during the Industrial Revolution, of the common pale typica form by a previously unknown black (carbonaria) form, driven by the interaction between bird predation and coal pollution. The carbonaria locus has been coarsely localized to a 200-kilobase region, but the specific identity and nature of the sequence difference controlling the carbonaria-typica polymorphism, and the gene it influences, are unknown. Here we show that the mutation event giving rise to industrial melanism in Britain was the insertion of a large, tandemly repeated, transposable element into the first intron of the gene cortex. Statistical inference based on the distribution of recombined carbonaria haplotypes indicates that this transposition event occurred around 1819, consistent with the historical record. We have begun to dissect the mode of action of the carbonaria transposable element by showing that it increases the abundance of a cortex transcript, the protein product of which plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, during early wing disc development. Our findings fill a substantial knowledge gap in the iconic example of microevolutionary change, adding a further layer of insight into the mechanism of adaptation in response to natural selection. The discovery that the mutation itself is a transposable element will stimulate further debate about the importance of 'jumping genes' as a source of major phenotypic novelty.

  13. Esqueleto pré-sacral e sacral dos lagartos teiêdeos (Squamata, Teiidae Pressacral and sacral skeleton of teiids lizards (Squamata, Teiidae

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    Lauren Betina Veronese

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the axial skeleton -pressacral and sacral regions - of the nine genera of Teiidae Boulenger, 1885 comprising Ameiva Meyer, 1795, Callopistes Gravenhorst, 1838, Cnemidophorus Wagler, 1830, Crocodilurus Spix, 1825, Dicrodon Duméril & Bibron, 1839, Dracaena Daudin, 1802, Kenlropyx Spix, 1825, Teius Merrem, 1820 and Tupinambis Daudin, 1803 is here analysed under a comparative approach. The study is in a generic levei, and the principal conclusions reter to differences on the total number of vertebrae and some aspects of the ribs, especially their insertion and presence.

  14. Lung infection rates in two sympatric Tropiduridae lizard species by pentastomids and nematodes in northeastern Brazil

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    WO. Almeida

    Full Text Available We present data on pulmonary infection rates by parasites in the lizards Tropidurus hispidus Spix, 1825 and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 living sympatrically in the Chapada do Araripe mountain Range, northeastern Brazil. We found no parasite pulmonary infection in T. semitaeniatus. However, two pulmonary parasite species were found in the T. hispidus hosts, the pentastomid Raillietiella mottae Almeida, Freire and Lopes, 2008 and the nematode Rhabdias sp. Overall prevalence was 5%. Prevalence of R. mottae was 2.5% and corresponded to only one parasite on each infected host. Prevalence of Rhabdias sp. was 2.5% and the range of infection was 1-2 parasites per host. This represents the first record of Rhabdias infecting lizards of the family Tropiduridae in the Neotropical region. Furthermore, we present a comparison of parameters of infection by pulmonary parasites including some recent studies in Brazil.

  15. Recharacterization of Strophocheilus miersi Da Costa (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Strophocheilidae

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    Meire Silva Pena

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Stropocheilus miersi Da Costa, 1904 is recharacterized by the conchology and morphology of the soft parts, the latter for the first time. Palial complex, reproductive and digestive systems provide important characteristics to enrich the knowledge of the genus Strophocheilus Spix, 1827. The presence of four arched folds in the posterior region of the pediose mass and the morphology of the suprapediose gland offered more data to identify and diagnose the species.Strophocheilus miersi Da Costa, 1904 é recaracterizado pela conquiologia e pela primeira vez a morfologia das partes moles. Complexo palial, sistemas reprodutor e digestivo forneceram importantes caracteres para enriquecer o conhecimento sobre Strophocheilus Spix, 1827. A presençca de quatro pregas arqueadas na região posterior da massa cefalopediosa e a morfologia da glândula suprapediosa acrescentaram dados para a diagnose da espécie.

  16. Cytogenetic analyses of five amazon lizard species of the subfamilies Teiinae and Tupinambinae and review of karyotyped diversity the family Teiidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Natália Dayane Moura; Arias, Federico José; da Silva, Francijara Araújo; Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Lizards of the family Teiidae (infraorder Scincomorpha) were formerly known as Macroteiidae. There are 13 species of such lizards in the Amazon, in the genera Ameiva (Meyer, 1795), Cnemidophorus (Wagler, 1830), Crocodilurus (Spix, 1825), Dracaena (Daudin, 1801), Kentropyx (Spix, 1825) and Tupinambis (Daudin, 1802). Cytogenetic studies of this group are restricted to karyotype macrostructure. Here we give a compilation of cytogenetic data of the family Teiidae, including classic and molecular cytogenetic analysis of Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758), Cnemidophorus sp.1, Kentropyx calcarata (Spix, 1825), Kentropyx pelviceps (Cope, 1868) and Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758) collected in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Ameiva ameiva, Kentropyx calcarata and Kentropyx pelviceps have 2n=50 chromosomes classified by a gradual series of acrocentric chromosomes. Cnemidophorus sp.1 has 2n=48 chromosomes with 2 biarmed chromosomes, 24 uniarmed chromosomes and 22 microchromosomes. Tupinambis teguixin has 2n=36 chromosomes, including 12 macrochromosomes and 24 microchromosomes. Constitutive heterochromatin was distributed in the centromeric and terminal regions in most chromosomes. The nucleolus organizer region was simple, varying in its position among the species, as evidenced both by AgNO3 impregnation and by hybridization with 18S rDNA probes. The data reveal a karyotype variation with respect to the diploid number, fundamental number and karyotype formula, which reinforces the importance of increasing chromosomal analyses in the Teiidae.

  17. 两种淡水腹足类动物对90Sr的浓集与分布的生物学特性%BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CONCENTRATION FACTORS AND DISTRIBUTION OF 90Sr IN TWO KINDS OF FRESH WATER GASTROPODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈舜华; 钟创光; 赵小奎; 张奕强

    2001-01-01

    本文报道了两种淡水腹足类动物对90Sr的浓集与分 布的过程,大瓶螺(Ampullaria gigas Spix)4h开始便迅速浓集90Sr并转至 螺体 各个部位,小个体各器官组织对90Sr的浓集系数大于大个体,刚孵化的幼螺在 15min内便对90Sr有浓集作用,并随时间的延长而增加。石螺(Bellarnya puri ficata)对90Sr于4h开始有吸收浓集作用,但其浓集系数低于大瓶螺,在各自 积累 高峰期大瓶螺的贝壳对90Sr的浓集系数为石螺的14倍。两种母螺的卵 和子螺的90Sr比活度均高于同时间两种螺贝壳的比活度,说明90Sr 通过母体迅速转移至子体。%The concentration factors(CFs) and the distribution of 90Sr in two kinds of fresh water gastropod, Ampullaria gigus Spix and Bellarnya purificata.A .Gigas were studied. Spix absorbs and transfers 90Sr rapidly withi n 4 hours. The CFs of the organs or tissues in smaller individuals are higher than those of the bigger ones. The newly hatched juveniles absorb 90Sr in a very short period of time (15min), and the 90Sr concentration increase s with time. B. purificata also accumulates 90Sr in 4h, but the CF sare lower than those of A. gigas Spix. The CF peak of 90Sr in the shell of A. gigas Spix is fourteen times higher than that of B. purificat a. It shows that the specific radioactivity of 90Sr in the juveniles of both gastropods is higher than that of the parents in the same period of time, demonstrating that 90Sr is transferred from the parents to their de scendants.

  18. Living in a caatinga-rocky field transitional habitat: ecological aspects of the whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae) in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderlaine A Menezes; Monique Van Sluys; Angélica F. Fontes; Carlos F. D Rocha

    2011-01-01

    The ecology of the active forager lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825) was studied to analyze food habits, thermal ecology and habitat use, in the Morro do Chapéu municipality (11º29'S, 41º07'W), state of Bahia, Brazil. Lizards (N = 34) were collected with rubber bands or with an air rifle and, for each individual, we recorded cloacal temperature (Tc), air temperature (Ta) (1 cm above the substrate) and substrate temperature (Ts) (to nearest 0.2ºC). We registered the microhabitat used ...

  19. O girino de Scinax nebulosus (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae

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    Marcia dos Reis Gomes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available É descrito e ilustrado o girino de Scinax nebulosus (Spix, 1824, proveniente do estado de Pernambuco, nordeste do Brasil. O girino apresenta braço labial no disco oral. A presença dessa estrutura associa claramente essa espécie ao grupo de Scinax rostratus. A identificação do girino anteriormente atribuído a Scinax nebulosus é considerada errônea e com base na literatura é feita a comparação com os demais girinos conhecidos do grupo.

  20. Una especie nueva de Cheiropteronema (Nematoda, Molineidae) en Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) en la Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Oviedo,Mirna C; Ramallo, Geraldine; Lucía E Claps

    2010-01-01

    Se describe a Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. parásita del murciélago Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823). Se caracteriza por presentar vesícula cefálica estriada, superficie de los huevos con puntuaciones, espículas iguales, nacimiento simétrico del ala espicular, particular disposición y número de crestas del synlophe y por carecer de diente esofágico. Es la segunda especie del género y la primera que se registra en quirópteros frugívoros de la Argentina.

  1. Germinação de sementes de Bothriospora corymbosa (Rubiaceae) recuperadas do trato digestório de Triportheus angulatus (sardinha) no Lago Camaleão, Amazônia Central Seed germination of Bothriospora corymbosa (Rubiaceae) recouped of digestive tract of Triportheus angulatus (sardine) in Camaleão Lake, Central Amazonian

    OpenAIRE

    Lúcia Alencar Maia; Leocinira M. dos Santos; Pia Parolin

    2007-01-01

    Na Amazônia as áreas inundáveis são cobertas por florestas com alta diversidade de espécies arbóreas que proporcionam a ictiofauna frutos e sementes indispensáveis a sua alimentação. Alguns estudos de alimentação têm mostrado que a estrutura tegumentar de sementes encontradas no trato digestório de peixes, se apresentavam intactas. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo verificar se Triportheus angulatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829) pode ser um agente dispersor de Bothriospora corymbosa (Bth) Hook. ...

  2. An unusual reproductive mode in Hypsiboas (Anura: Hylidae

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    Mário Ribeiro de Moura

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an unusual reproductive behavior of Hypsiboas pardalis (Spix, 1824. Species belonging to this genus usually are known to reproduce in lentic water bodies, with the development of exotrophic tadpoles. Herein, the bromeligenous behavior is reported for the first time in Hypsiboas Wagler, 1830. Although this reproductive behavior has been observed more than once here, we believe that it is not typical of Hypsiboas, being better characterized as an unusual reproductive mode for Hypsiboas, indicating the presence of plasticity in the reproductive modes of H. pardalis

  3. Trophic ecology and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil

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    Leonardo B. Ribeiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the seasonal variation in diet composition and foraging behavior of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825, as well as measurement of the foraging intensity (number of moves, time spent stationary, distance traveled and number of attacks on prey items in a caatinga patch on the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Hymenoptera/Formicidae and Isoptera predominated in the diet of both species during the dry season. Opportunistic predation on lepidopteran larvae, coleopteran larvae and adults, and orthopteran nymphs and adults occurred in the wet season; however, hymenopterans/Formicidae were the most important prey items. The number of food items was similar between lizard species in both seasons; however the overlap for number of prey was smaller in the wet season. Preys ingested by T. hispidus during the wet season were also larger than those consumed by T. semitaeniatus. Seasonal comparisons of foraging intensity between the two species differed, mainly in the wet season, when T. hispidus exhibited less movement and fewer attacks on prey, and more time spent stationary if compared to T. semitaeniatus. Although both lizards are sit-and-wait foragers, T. semitaeniatus is more active than T. hispidus. The diet and foraging behavior of T. hispidus and T. semitaeniatus overlap under limiting conditions during the dry season, and are segregative factors that may contribute to the coexistence of these species in the wet season.

  4. Una especie nueva de Cheiropteronema (Nematoda, Molineidae en Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae en la Argentina A new species of Cheiropteronema (Nematoda, Molineidae in Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae from Argentina

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    Mirna C Oviedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe a Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. parásita del murciélago Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823. Se caracteriza por presentar vesícula cefálica estriada, superficie de los huevos con puntuaciones, espículas iguales, nacimiento simétrico del ala espicular, particular disposición y número de crestas del synlophe y por carecer de diente esofágico. Es la segunda especie del género y la primera que se registra en quirópteros frugívoros de la Argentina.Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. is a parasite of the bat Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823. This species is characterized by cephalic vesicle striate, thick egg shell punctate, spicules equal, symmetrical development of spicule wings, particular arrangement and number the ridges of synlophe, and lack of esophageal tooth. Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. is the second species described for the genus and the first recorded in frugivorous bats of Argentina.

  5. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

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    Daniela Dias

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842; Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856; Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767; Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823; Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903; Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Glosso-phaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838; Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Artibeus obscuras Schinz, 1821; Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901; Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843; Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Diphylla ecaudata Von Spix, 1823; Eptesicus brasiliensis (DesMarest, 1819; Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Molossus molossus (Palas, 1766. One external (forearm length and 13 cranial meansurements were studied for 23 species. The meansurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Comments about some taxonomic respects for some species studied are also included.

  6. Marine organisms as source of extracts to disrupt bacterial communication: bioguided isolation and identification of quorum sensing inhibitors from Ircinia felix

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    Jairo Quintana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this study, 39 extracts from marine organisms were evaluated as quorum sensing inhibitors, collected in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and the Brazilian Coast including 26 sponges, seven soft corals, five algae and one zooanthid. The results showed that crude extracts from the soft coral Eunicea laciniata, and the sponges Svenzea tubulosa, Ircinia felix and Neopetrosia carbonaria were the most promising source of quorum sensing inhibitors compounds without affecting bacterial growth, unlike the raw extracts of Agelas citrina, Agelas tubulata, Iotrochota arenosa, Topsentia ophiraphidites, Niphates caycedoi, Cliona tenuis, Ptilocaulis walpersi, Petrosia pellasarca, and the algae Laurencia catarinensis and Laurencia obtusa, which displayed potent antibacterial activity against the biosensors employed. The crude extract from the sponge I. felix was fractionated, obtaining furanosesterterpenes which were identified and evaluated as quorum sensing inhibitors, showing a moderate activity without affecting the biosensor's growth.

  7. Giant fossil tortoise and freshwater chelid turtle remains from the middle Miocene, Quebrada Honda, Bolivia: Evidence for lower paleoelevations for the southern Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Edwin A.; Anaya, Federico; Croft, Darin A.

    2015-12-01

    We describe the first Miocene turtle remains from Bolivia, which were collected from the late middle Miocene (13.18-13.03 Ma) of Quebrada Honda, southern Bolivia. This material includes a large scapula-acromion and fragmentary shell elements conferred to the genus Chelonoidis (Testudinidae), and a left xiphiplastron from a pleurodire or side-necked turtle, conferred to Acanthochelys (Chelidae). The occurrence of a giant tortoise and a freshwater turtle suggests that the paleoelevation of the region when the fossils were deposited was lower than has been estimated by stable isotope proxies, with a maximum elevation probably less than 1000 m. At a greater elevation, cool temperatures would have been beyond the tolerable physiological limits for these turtles and other giant ectotherm reptiles.

  8. Exploring conservation discourses in the Galapagos Islands: A case study of the Galapagos giant tortoises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Capistros, Francisco; Hugé, Jean; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2016-10-01

    Conservation discourses change rapidly both at global and local scales. To be able to capture these shifts and the relationships between humans and nature, we focused on a local and iconic conservation case: the Galapagos giant tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.). We used the Q methodology to contextualize conservation for science and decision making and to explore the multidimensionality of the conservation concept in Galapagos. The results indicate four prevailing discourses: (1) Multi-actor governance; (2) giant tortoise and ecosystems conservation; (3) community governance; and (4) market and tourism centred. These findings allow us to identify foreseeable points of disagreement, as well as areas of consensus, and to discuss the implication of the findings to address socio-ecological conservation and sustainability challenges. This can help the different involved stakeholders (managers, scientists and local communities) to the design and apply contextualized conservation actions and policies to contribute to a better sustainable management of the archipelago.

  9. Reproductive and fat body cycles of Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil Ciclos reproductivos y de grasa corporal de Tropidurus hispidus y Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae en una área de caatinga del nordeste de Brasil

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    LEONARDO B. RIBEIRO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the reproductive and fat body cycles of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 in an area of caatinga in the Serido of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, from October 2006 to May 2008. In both species, the females were reproductively active from the middle of the dry season to the beginning of the rainy season. Female reproductive activity was influenced by precipitation, whereas males exhibited spermatozoa in their testes throughout the year, and their reproductive activity was not related to any of the climatic variables analyzed. Mean clutch size (± SD was 8.1 ± 2.0 and 2.1 ± 0.6 eggs in T. hispidus and T. semitaeniatus, respectively, and was significantly related to female body size only in T. hispidus. The fat stock varied inversely with reproductive activity in the two species, and there was no difference in fat body mass between females and males. The effects of precipitation on the length of the breeding season of these two Tropidurus species suggest that their reproductive cycles are related to the microclimatic conditions suitable for embryo development, as well as for the neonates' emergence and survival especially during the rainy season, which may offer greater food availability to the hatchlings.Este estudio evaluó los ciclos reproductivos y de grasa corporal de Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 y T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 en una área de caatinga en el Seridó de Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, de octubre de 2006 a mayo de 2008. En ambas especies, las hembras se encontraron reproductivamente activas a partir de mediados de la estación seca para el inicio de la temporada de lluvias. La actividad reproductiva de las hembras fue influenciada por las precipitaciones, mientras que los machos presentaron espermatozoides en los testículos durante todo el año, y su actividad reproductiva no fue relacionada con ninguna de las variables climáticas analizadas. El tamaño medio (± DE de la nidada

  10. Advertisement call of Dendropsophus studerae (Carvalho-e-Silva, Carvalho-e-Silva and Izecksohn, 2003) (Anura: Hylidae), with new record and geographic distribution extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras; De Abreu, Rafael Oliveira; Cruz, Deise; Herrera, Jocilene Brandão; Petersen, Emanuela; Klein, Wilfried

    2014-10-30

    The treefrog genus Dendropsophus Fitzinger comprises 95 species, with geographic distribution from northern Argentina and Uruguay north through tropical South and Central America to tropical southern Mexico (Frost 2014). Dendropsophus studerae was included in the D. microcephalus clade by Faivovich et al. (2005), which currently consists of 39 species (Frost 2014). The species that most resembles D. studerae is D. bipunctatus (Spix), as already stated in the original description of the former (Carvalho-e-Silva et al. 2003). Thus far, Dendropsophus studerae was only known from its type locality, in the municipality of Quebrangulo (09º19'08"S, 36º28'16"W), State of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The original description of the species also included data on its eggs, tadpole (oral disc and external morphology) and some natural history information of adults and larvae, but its advertisement call remains undescribed. 

  11. New tick records in Rondônia, Western Brazilian Amazon Novos relatos de carrapatos em Rondônia, Amazônia ocidental brasileira

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    Marcelo Bahia Labruna

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we provide new tick records from Vilhena Municipality, in the Southeast of the State of Rondônia, Northern Brazil. Ticks collected from a capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, were identified as Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli (1 female, and Amblyomma sp. (1 larva. Ticks collected from a harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, were identified as Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius (16 nymphs and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley (1 nymph. Ticks collected from a yellow-footed tortoise, Chelonoidis denticulada (Linnaeus, were identified as Amblyomma rotundatum Koch (10 females, 2 nymphs, and Amblyomma sp. (2 larvae. The present record of A. romitii is the first in the State of Rondônia, and represents the southernmost record for this tick species, indicating that its distribution area is much larger than currently recognized. Although both A. cajennense and H. juxtakochi have been reported parasitizing various bird species, we provide the first tick records on a harpy eagle. A. rotundatum is widespread in the State of Rondônia, and has been previously reported on the yellow-footed tortoise. The present records increase the tick fauna of Rondônia to 26 species.O presente estudo relata novos achados de carrapatos provenientes do Município de Vilhena, Sudeste do Estado de Rondônia, na região Norte do Brasil. Carrapatos colhidos de uma capivara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, foram identificados como Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli (1 fêmea e Amblyomma sp. (1 larva. Carrapatos colhidos de uma águia harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, foram identificados como Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius (16 ninfas e Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley (1 ninfa. Carrapatos colhidos de um jabuti, Chelonoidis denticulada (Linnaeus, foram identificados como Amblyomma rotundatum Koch (10 fêmeas, 2 ninfas e Amblyomma sp. (2 larvas. O presente achado de A. romitii é o primeiro no Estado de Rondônia, representando o achado mais

  12. Reactividad inmunoquímica de sueros anti- Caiman yacare y Caiman latirostris frente a sueros de diferentes especies

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    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la reactividad inmunoquímica entre los sueros de distintas especies de reptiles frente a sueros hiperinmunes experimentales anti-suero de Caiman yacare y anti-suero de Caiman latirostris. Los sueros que se probaron fueron los homólogos de Caiman yacare, Caiman latirostris y los heterólogos de Alligator missisipiensis, Tupinambis merinae, Tupinambis rufescens, Chelonoidis chilensis, Clelia rustica, Waglerophis merremii, Lystrophys dorbignyi, Phyton molurus, Boa constrictor occidentalis, Eunectes notaeus, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops diporus, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni, Pitangus sulphuratus y Gallus gallus. La reactividad inmunoquímica se determinó mediante las técnicas de doble inmunodifusión y ELISA, mostrándose importante entre los sueros de los crocodrílidos y baja entre estos y los de las otras especies de reptiles estudiadas. Se observó mayor reactividad entre los antisueros anti-Caiman respecto a los sueros de Caiman latirostris y Caiman yacare que frente al suero de Alligator missisipiensis. Además, se encontró una fuerte reactividad entre ambos sueros anti-Caiman y el de Gallus gallus poniendo en evidencia la fuerte reactividad entre los sueros de arcosaurios. In order to study the immunochemical reactivity among sera from different species of reptiles regarding sera from Caiman, the immunoreactivity of sera from reptiles against antisera to Caiman yacare or anti-Caiman latirostris sera was studied. These hiperimmune sera were tested against sera from Alligator missisipiensis, Tupinambis merinae, Tupinambis rufescens, Chelonoidis chilensis, Clelia rustica, Waglerophis merremii, Lystrophys dorbignyi, Phyton molurus, Boa constrictor occidentalis, Eunectes notaeus, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops neuwiedii, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni, Pitangus sulphuratus and Gallus gallus. The immunochemical

  13. Diversity of black Aspergilli isolated from raisins in Argentina: Polyphasic approach to species identification and development of SCAR markers for Aspergillus ibericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaj Merlera, G; Muñoz, S; Coelho, I; Cavaglieri, L R; Torres, A M; Reynoso, M M

    2015-10-01

    Aspergillus section Nigri is a heterogeneous fungal group including some ochratoxin A producer species that usually contaminate raisins. The section contains the Series Carbonaria which includes the toxigenic species Aspergillus carbonarius and nontoxigenic Aspergillus ibericus that are phenotypically undistinguishable. The aim of this study was to examine the diversity of black aspergilli isolated from raisins and to develop a specific genetic marker to distinguish A. ibericus from A. carbonarius. The species most frequently found in raisins in this study were Aspergillus tubingensis (35.4%) and A. carbonarius (32.3%), followed by Aspergillus luchuensis (10.7%), Aspergillus japonicus (7.7%), Aspergillus niger (6.2%), Aspergillus welwitschiae (4.6%) and A. ibericus (3.1%). Based on inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) fingerprinting profiles of major Aspergillus section Nigri members, a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was identified. Primers were designed based on the conserved regions of the SCAR marker and were utilized in a PCR for simultaneous identification of A. carbonarius and A. ibericus. The detection level of the SCAR-PCR was found to be 0.01 ng of purified DNA. The present SCAR-PCR is rapid and less cumbersome than conventional identification techniques and could be a supplementary strategy and a reliable tool for high-throughput sample analysis.

  14. Characterization of resistance to adult spittlebugs (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in Brachiaria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Lina M; Cardona, César; Miles, John W; Sotelo, Guillermo

    2013-08-01

    Nymphs and adults of several spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) species are key pests of forage brachiariagrasses (Brachiaria spp.) in tropical America. To support current breeding programs, a series of experiments aimed at characterizing the mechanisms of resistance to adult feeding damage were carried out. Five genotypes were used: two susceptible checks (CIAT 0606 and CIAT 0654) and three nymph-resistant genotypes (CIAT 36087, CIAT 6294, and SX01NO/0102). Test insects were Aeneolamia varia (F.), A. reducta (Lallemand), and Zulia carbonaria (Lallemand). The nymph-resistant genotypes showed tolerance to all spittlebug species tested. Tolerance in these genotypes can be classified as only moderate given the extent of losses (60-80%) caused by both female and male adults. None of the nymph-resistant genotypes had antibiotic effects on adults feeding on foliage. The results also indicated that antixenosis for feeding is not a plausible explanation for lower damage scores and less biomass losses in resistant genotypes. The fact that adult longevity (usually 8 d) was not affected when the adults were forced to feed on roots of a genotype with strong antibiotic resistance to nymphs is regarded as additional evidence that resistances to nymphs and to adults in Brachiaria are largely independent.

  15. Seven new species of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera from South America with the proposal of three new genera

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    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The following new species are described - Cerambycinae, Sydacini: Sydax flechtmanni sp. nov. from Brazil (São Paulo; Eburiini: Ebrodacrys biffipradorum sp. nov. from Brazil (Roraima; - Lamiinae, Pteropliini: Ataxia piauiensis sp. nov. from Brazil (Piuaí; Calliini: Amucallia carbonaria sp. nov. from French Guiana; A. citrina sp. nov. from Guiana. Also in Lamiinae, two new genera of Onciderini are proposed. Ubytyra gen. nov., type species U. tuberosa sp. nov. from Peru (Junin e Japi gen. nov., type species J. duartei sp. nov., from Brazil (São Paulo; Ubytyra gen. nov. can be distinguished by the sides of prothorax with long central spine rounded at apex, and this new feature among Onciderini is discussed. Japi gen. nov., is characterized by a fringe of long hairs on the inner side of antennomere III, present only in species from North and Central America, and gender comparison of these species is done and discussed. In Hemilophini, Pseudotacocha gen. nov., type species P. magnifica sp. nov. from Peru (Cuzco, are described. The new genera can be distinguished by eyes well developed, elytra with two carinae and the apices outer with short spine; a comparison with related genera is done.

  16. NUEVOS APORTES AL CONOCIMIENTO DE LA HERPETOFAUNA DE LA FORMACIÓN CERRO AZUL (MIOCENO SUPERIOR, PROVINCIA DE LA PAMPA, ARGENTINA

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    AGUSTÍN SCANFERLA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENSe describen nuevos materiales fósiles de anfibios y reptiles hallados en sedimentos referidos a la Formación Cerro Azul (Mioceno Superior, procedentes de numerosas localidades de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina. Los nuevos registros se basan en un resto craneano de anuro asignado al géneroCeratophrys, restos de caparazón de tortugas terrestres del géneroChelonoidis, vértebras asignables al lagarto de la familia TeiidaeTupinambis, y una vértebra troncal de serpiente comparable al género de colubroideos actualesPhilodryas. Tanto los registros terciarios previos de géneros actuales de anfibios y reptiles en América del Sur, como así también la asociación recuperada en el Mioceno Superior de La Pampa sugieren que la mayoría de los géneros que componen la herpetofauna Neotropical estaban presentes en el Mioceno, patrón similar al observado en otras regiones del mundo.

  17. Cytochemical characteristics of blood cells from Brazilian tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, G S; Alevi, K C C; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2016-03-18

    The hematology of wild and captive animals is essential for obtaining details about species and represents a simple method of diagnosing disease and determining prognosis. Few studies have described the morphology of chelonian blood cells, which are more common in sea and freshwater turtle species. Thus, in order to further our understanding and recognition of different chelonian cells types, the present study aimed to describe blood cells from the two species of Brazilian tortoises, Chelonoidis carbonarius and C. denticulatus. Cytochemical analysis of tortoise blood tissue with Panótico®, made it possible to describe all the of the chelonian cell types (with the exception of thrombocytes): erythrocytes, agranular leukocytes (monocytes and lymphocytes), and granular leukocytes (eosinophils, heterophils, basophils, and azurophils). These data are of high importance for establishing hematological profiles of Brazilian tortoises and reptiles. Therefore, based on our results and on comparative analyses with data from the literature for other reptile species, we can conclude that the blood cells described for Brazilian tortoises are found in all species of reptiles that have been analyzed thus far, and may be characterized and used as a comparative parameter between different groups to evaluate the health status of these animals.

  18. Fission and fusion in island taxa--serendipity, or something to be expected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Brent C; Faria, Christiana M A

    2014-11-01

    A well-used metaphor for oceanic islands is that they act as 'natural laboratories' for the study of evolution. But how can islands or archipelagos be considered analogues of laboratories for understanding the evolutionary process itself? It is not necessarily the case that just because two or more related species occur on an island or archipelago, somehow, this can help us understand more about their evolutionary history. But in some cases, it can. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Garrick et al. () use population-level sampling within closely related taxa of Galapagos giant tortoises to reveal a complex demographic history of the species Chelonoidis becki - a species endemic to Isabela Island, and geographically restricted to Wolf Volcano. Using microsatellite genotyping and mitochondrial DNA sequencing, they provide a strong case for C. becki being derived from C. darwini from the neighbouring island of Santiago. But the interest here is that colonization did not happen only once. Garrick et al. () reveal C. becki to be the product of a double colonization event, and their data reveal these two founding lineages to be now fusing back into one. Their results are compelling and add to a limited literature describing the evolutionary consequences of double colonization events. Here, we look at the broader implications of the findings of Garrick et al. () and suggest genomic admixture among multiple founding populations may be a characteristic feature within insular taxa.

  19. Evidence of Fluconazole-Resistant Candida Species in Tortoises and Sea Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rodrigues, Pedro Henrique de Aragão; de Alencar, Lucas Pereira; Riello, Giovanna Barbosa; Ribeiro, Joyce Fonteles; de Oliveira, Jonathas Sales; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Monteiro, André Jalles; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. recovered from tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) and sea turtles (Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta, Lepidochelys olivacea, Eretmochelys imbricata). For this purpose, material from the oral cavity and cloaca of 77 animals (60 tortoises and 17 sea turtles) was collected. The collected specimens were seeded on 2% Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, and the identification was carried out by morphological and biochemical methods. Sixty-six isolates were recovered from tortoises, out of which 27 were C. tropicalis, 27 C. famata, 7 C. albicans, 4 C. guilliermondii and 1 C. intermedia, whereas 12 strains were obtained from sea turtles, which were identified as Candida parapsilosis (n = 4), Candida guilliermondii (n = 4), Candida tropicalis (n = 2), Candida albicans (n = 1) and Candida intermedia (n = 1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations for amphotericin B, itraconazole and fluconazole ranged from 0.03125 to 0.5, 0.03125 to >16 and 0.125 to >64, respectively. Overall, 19 azole-resistant strains (14 C. tropicalis and 5 C. albicans) were found. Thus, this study shows that Testudines carry azole-resistant Candida spp.

  20. Two new species of Creptotrema (Digenea: Allocreadiidae from South America Dos especies nuevas de Creptotrema (Digenea: Allocreadiidae de América del Sur

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    Stephen S. Curran

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new digenean species belonging in Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928 are described from specimens stored in the invertebrate collection at the Museum of Natural History, Geneva, Switzerland. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. is described from Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix and Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, and Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae in the Paraguay River, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. is described from Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae in Río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei differs from its congeners by having testes with irregular rather than entire outlines. Creptotrema sucumbiosa differs from its congeners by having a bilobed rather than entire ovary. Both C. lamothei and C. sucumbiosa differ from their other congeners by having relatively longer posttesticular spaces in their bodies, representing 25-30% and 24-28% of body length respectively, compared with approximately 6-19% in other species.Dos especies nuevas de digéneos pertenecientes a Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas y Pereira, 1928 fueron descritas de ejemplares depositados en la colección de invertebrados del Museo de Historia Natural de Ginebra, Suiza. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. fue descrita en Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier y Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix y Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, y Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Paraguay, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. fue descrita de Tetragonopterus argenteus, Cuvier 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei difiere de sus congéneres por tener testículos con contornos irregulares en contraste con los que presentan contornos enteros. Creptotrema sucumbiosa difiere de

  1. Feeding overlap in two sympatric species of Rhinella (Anura: Bufonidae of the Atlantic Rain Forest Sobreposição alimentar em duas espécies simpátricas de Rhinella (Anura: Bufonidae da Mata Atlântica

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    Leandro T. Sabagh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A clear understanding of the relationships between overlapping, similarity, and competition is necessary to understand many of the questions about the structure and operation of a community. Rhinella icterica (Spix, 1824 and Rhinella crucifer (Wied Neuwied, 1821 are sympatric species of toads occurring in the National Park of Serra dos Órgãos in southeastern Brazil. The aim of the present study was to assess the dietary overlap of these two species. Ninety-four stomachs were analyzed, and 2245 prey items were found. Common prey were Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera larvae, Blattaria, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Opiliones, and Aranaea. Ants were the most important prey in both diets, followed by beetles and cockroaches. The niche breadth of R. icterica was 1.76 and of R. crucifer was 1.28. The dietary overlap between the species was 98.62%. A positive correlation was observed between jaw width and prey size consumed by R. icterica.Um claro entendimento das relações entre sobreposição, similaridade e competição é necessário para entender muitas questões sobre a estrutura e o funcionamento de uma comunidade. Rhinella icterica (Spix, 1824 e Rhinella crucifer (Wied Neuwied, 1821 são espécies simpátricas que ocorrem no Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos, região sudeste do Brasil. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a sobreposição alimentar dessas duas espécies. Foram analisados 94 estômagos e encontradas 2245 presas. Os grupos comuns foram: Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, larva de Lepidoptera, Blattaria, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Opiliones e Aranaea. Formigas foram as presas mais importantes na dieta, seguidas por besouros e baratas. A amplitude de nicho de R. icterica foi de 1,76 e a de R. cruicifer 1,28. A sobreposição de nicho alimentar entre as espécies foi de 98,62%. Houve relação positiva entre a largura da mandíbula e a dimensão das presas consumidas em R. icterica.

  2. Crescimento alométrico, morfologia e uso do habitat em cinco espécies de Mabuya Fitzinger (Reptilia, Scincidae Allometric growth, morphology and habitat use in five species of Mabuya Fitzinger (Reptilia, Scincidae

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    Gabriel Silva Pinto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas a variação ontogenética da forma do corpo nos lagartos sul-americanos Mabuya agilis, M. bistriata, M. guaporicola, M. macrorhyncha e M. nigropunctata, assim como as diferenças interespecíficas nas proporções do corpo, como resultados de um possível crescimento alométrico. As trajetórias das tendências ontogenéticas foram significativamente diferentes somente entre M. guaporicola e M. nigropunctata; todos os pares de espécies, exceto M. agilis e M. macrorhyncha, M. bistriata e M. nigropunctata, demonstraram diferenças significativas em relação ao intercepto Y. A Análise de Componentes Principais aplicada sobre uma série de caracteres morfométricos demonstrou sinais opostos para as variáveis do corpo e dos membros, corroborando estudos anteriores. Contudo, quando as espécies foram analisadas individualmente, as mãos e dígitos apresentaram alometria negativa, enquanto os demais segmentos apresentaram variação em suas alometrias. Algumas hipóteses levantadas nesse estudo, relacionadas à forma do corpo e ao uso do hábitat nessas espécies, necessitam ser testadas.The ontogenetic variation of body shape in the South American skinks Mabuya agilis Boulenger, 1887, M. bistriata (Spix, 1825, M. guaporicola Dunn, 1936, M. macrorhyncha Hoge, 1946, and M. nigropunctata (Spix, 1825 were analyzed. Interspecific differences in body proportions as a possible result of allometric growth in these species are also examined. Ontogenetic trend lines were significantly different only between M. guaporicola and M. nigropunctata; all other species pairs, except M. agilis and M. macrorhyncha, M. bistriata and M. nigropunctata, showed significantly different Y intercepts. A PCA analysis on a series of morphometric characters showed opposite signals for body and limb variables, corroborating previous studies. However, when the species were analyzed separately, hand and digits were the most likely segments to present negative

  3. Triplodon chodo, a new species of pearly fresh water mussel from the Amazon Basin (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionoida: Hyriidae Triplodon chodo, uma nova espécie de bivalve de água doce da bacia Amazônica (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionoida: Hyriidae

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    Maria C. D. Mansur

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Triplodon Spix, 1827 is described based on shell samples collected on Rivers Jamari (Rondônia State and Aripuanã (Amazonas State from the Madeira River Basin; on the Amazon at Oriximiná and on the mouth of Tapajós River at Alter do Chão (Pará State. Triplodon chodo is a new species considered closely related to T. stevensi Lea, 1871, (described from the part of the River Essequibo which borders the Guianas. Triplodon chodo is distinguished from the latter by its smaller, lighter shell, the absence of a wing in the anterior region and by the delicate shape of the external sculpture, which is composed of minuscule nodules organized in rows that converge and crosses on the centre of the valves. The straight and vertical posterior margin forms a right or slightly obtuse angle with the shell's dorsal and ventral margins. The anterior region is short, low and slightly tapering, with the distal extremity situated on the half of the shell height. The dorsal and ventral margins are equally curved.Descreve-se uma nova espécie do gênero Triplodon Spix, 1827 com base em conchas coletadas nos rios Jamari (estado de Rondônia e Aripuanã (estado do Amazonas da bacia do rio Madeira; no rio Amazonas, em Oriximiná e na desembocadura do rio Tapajós, junto a Alter do Chão (estado do Pará. Triplodon chodo é uma nova espécie, considerada como muito afim à T. stevensi Lea, 1871 (descrita para a parte do rio Essequibo que faz fronteira com as Guianas, que se distingue dessa última pela concha menor, mais frágil, pela ausência de expansão alada na região anterior e pela forma delicada da escultura externa, composta por numerosos e minúsculos nódulos organizados em fileiras que convergem e se cruzam na parte central das valvas. A margem posterior é reta e vertical formando um ângulo reto ou levemente obtuso com as margens dorsal e ventral da concha. A região anterior é curta, baixa e levemente descendente apresentando

  4. Seasonal variation in the leaf-litter frog community (Amphibia: Anura from an Atlantic Forest Area in the Salto Morato Natural Reserve, southern Brazil

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    Manuela Santos-Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we provide the first data regarding community parameters of leaf-litter anurans inhabiting a forest floor in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil, including information on community species richness, composition, specific density and biomass. Our study was conducted at Salto Morato Natural Reserve using forty plots of 4 x 4 m for each one of the four seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn, totaling 2.560 m² of forest floor sampled. We sampled a total of 96 frogs inhabiting the forest floor, belonging to seven species: Brachycephalus hermogenesi (Giaretta & Sawaya, 1998, Ischnocnema guentheri (Steindachner, 1864, Haddadus binotatus (Spix, 1824, Leptodactylus gr. marmoratus, Physalaemus spiniger (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Proceratophrys boiei (Wied-Neuwied, 1824, and Rhinella abei (Baldissera, Caramaschi & Haddad, 2004. The overall frog density in the forest floor was 3.73 ind/100m², with I. guentheri (1.37 ind/100 m² being the most common species and R. abei (0.19 ind/100 m², the rarest. The estimated overall frog mass in the community was 3.29 g. The abundance, richness and density varied consistently among the four seasons sampled, with the highest values occurring in the spring and summer seasons.

  5. On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae

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    Silvana C. Thiengo

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.78-0.96 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.68-0.77 (mean 0.72. Radula similar to other congeneric species. Testis and spermiduct as in P. lineata and P. sordida; prostate cylindric and short, cream in color as the testis. Penial sheath straight bearing a central outer gland deeply embedded in the tissue of its basal portion and a large wrinkled gland occupying 2/3 of the distal tip of its inner surface; the rigth margin of the sheath overlaps the left one until 2/3 of its proximal end. Female reproductive apparatus similar to that P. lineata; vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.

  6. Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: I - metropolitan mesoregion

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    Thiengo Silvana C

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to elaborate a planorbid chart of the State of Rio de Janeiro a survey of freshwater gastropods in the Metropolitan Mesoregion of this State was performed and revealed the occurrence of 20 species: Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954; Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818; Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864; Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848; Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835; Burnupia sp.; Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835; Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1839; Drepanotrema lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962; Heleobia davisi Silva & Thomé, 1985; Lymnaea columella Say, 1817; Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774; Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839; Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828; Pomacea sp.; Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822; Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. Among the planorbid species B. tenagophila was the most frequent, occurring in all municipalities surveyed. The present study extends the distribution of B. straminea in the State of Rio de Janeiro and reports new records for A. nordestensis, B. schrammi, G. ticaga, H. davisi and the genera Burnupia and Ferrissia. An account about the current transmission areas of schistosomiasis mansoni in this Mesoregion is presented as well.

  7. Two new species of Brueelia Kéler, 1936 (Ischnocera, Philopteridae parasitic on Neotropical trogons (Aves, Trogoniformes

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    Michel Valim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Brueelia are described and illustrated. These new species and their type hosts are: Brueelia sueta ex Pharomachrus pavoninus (Spix, 1824, the Pavonine Quetzal and Brueelia cicchinoi ex Trogon viridis Linnaeus, the White-tailed Trogon. Both new species differ from the only Brueelia described on Trogon mexicanus by many morphological features, including those present in the male genitalia and female vulvar margin. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene for these two new species differ from one another by 13.6% uncorrected p-distance. Whereas B. cicchinoi is only 0.3% divergent from previously published COI sequences identified as Brueelia sp. from the Mexican T. melanocephalus Gould, 1936 and T. massena Gould, 1938. We also found B. cicchinoi on T. melanurus, T. collaris and Pharomachrus pavoninus. Thus B. cicchinoi is found on multiple trogoniform hosts across an extremely large geographic distribution and has one of the largest number of host associations among Brueelia species.

  8. Two new species of Brueelia Kéler, 1936 (Ischnocera, Philopteridae) parasitic on Neotropical trogons (Aves, Trogoniformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Michel P; Weckstein, Jason D

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of Brueelia are described and illustrated. These new species and their type hosts are: Brueelia sueta ex Pharomachrus pavoninus (Spix, 1824), the Pavonine Quetzal and Brueelia cicchinoi ex Trogon viridis Linnaeus, the White-tailed Trogon. Both new species differ from the only Brueelia described on Trogon mexicanus by many morphological features, including those present in the male genitalia and female vulvar margin. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene for these two new species differ from one another by 13.6% uncorrected p-distance. Whereas Brueelia cicchinoi is only 0.3% divergent from previously published COI sequences identified as Brueelia sp. from the Mexican Trogon melanocephalus Gould, 1936 and Trogon massena Gould, 1938. We also found Brueelia cicchinoi on Trogon melanurus, Trogon collaris and Pharomachrus pavoninus. Thus Brueelia cicchinoi is found on multiple trogoniform hosts across an extremely large geographic distribution and has one of the largest number of host associations among Brueelia species.

  9. Chromosomal similarity between the Scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani, the Short-tailed parrot (Graydidascalus brachyurus and the Yellow-faced parrot (Salvatoria xanthops (Psittaciformes: Aves: a cytotaxonomic analysis

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    Renato Caparroz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavior, morphology, allozyme studies and DNA hybridization and sequencing data all suggest the independent evolution of the Old and New World parrots and support tribe status for the American species, although the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe are still poorly understood. A previous study has shown that the Yellow-faced parrot (Amazona xanthops Spix 1824 exhibits large karyotypic differences compared to the other Amazona species and suggested that this species should be renamed Salvatoria xanthops, although the relationships between S. xanthops and the other New World parrots remain unclear. In the present work, we describe the karyotype of the Scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani, Kuhl 1820 and the karyotype and C-banding pattern of the Short-tailed parrot (Graydidascalus brachyurus, Kuhl 1820 and compare them to the karyotype and C-banding pattern of S. xanthops, as well as to the karyotypes of other New World parrots. The chromosomal similarity between these three species and the karyotypic differences between them and other New World parrots suggest that G. brachyurus and S. xanthops are sister species and are most closely related to members of the genus Pionus.

  10. Intestinal Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae of Brazilian Lizards. Eimeria carmelinoi n.sp., from Kentropyx calcarata and Acroeimeria paraensis n.sp. from Cnemidophorus lemniscatus lemniscatus (Lacertilia: Teiidae

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    Lainson Ralph

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Eimeria carmelinoi n.sp., is described in the teiid lizard Kentropyx calcarata Spix, 1825 from north Brazil. Oocysts subspherical to spherical, averaging 21.25 x 20.15 µm. Oocyst wall smooth, colourless and devoid of striae or micropyle. No polar body or conspicuous oocystic residuum, but frequently a small number of fine granules in Brownian movement. Sporocysts, averaging 10.1 x 9 µm, are without a Stieda body. Endogenous stages characteristic of the genus: intra-cytoplasmic, within the epithelial cells of the ileum and above the host cell nucleus. A re-description is given of a parasite previously described as Eimeria cnemidophori, in the teiid lizard Cnemidophorus lemniscatus lemniscatus. A study of the endogenous stages in the ileum necessitates renaming this coccidian as Acroeimeria cnemidophori (Carini, 1941 nov.comb., and suggests that Acroeimeria pintoi Lainson & Paperna, 1999 in the teiid Ameiva ameiva is a synonym of A. cnemidophori. A further intestinal coccidian, Acroeimeria paraensis n.sp. is described in C. l. lemniscatus, frequently as a mixed infection with A. cnemidophori. Mature oocysts, averaging 24.4 x 21.8 µm, have a single-layered, smooth, colourless wall with no micropyle or striae. No polar body, but the frequent presence of a small number of fine granules exhibiting Brownian movements. Sporocysts 9 x 8, without a Stieda body. Endogenous stages epicytoplasmic, characteristic of the genus, in the upper ileum. The importance of a study of the endogenous stages of eimeriid coccidia is discussed.

  11. A taxonomic review of the Dark-winged Trumpeter Psophia viridis (Aves: Gruiformes: Psophiidae

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    Marina Oppenheimer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dark-winged Trumpeter, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae is a Brazilian endemic species and includes three subspecies: Psophia viridis viridis Spix, 1825; Psophia v. dextralis Conover, 1934, and Psophia v. obscura Pelzeln, 1857, as well as P. v. interjecta Griscom & Greenway, 1937, whose validity has been questioned by several authors. These taxa are allopatric in distribution along the south of the Amazon River, although the precise limits of their distribution still remain unknown. This complex has never been taxonomically reviewed and this work aims to test the validity of its taxa based on the Phylogenetic Species Concept. Morphometrical characters and plumage colour patterns were analyzed, and the distribution of the taxa was also revised. In this study, 108 specimens from 41 localities were examined (all types included, with each reliable literature-based locality being included in order to delimit the geographical distribution of the complex. Morphometrical data did not point out significant differences between the taxa, also showing no sexual dimorphism among them. Meanwhile, plumage characters showed consistent and distinct patterns for each of the taxa, except for P. v. interjecta, whose features indicated by authors as diagnosable are the result of individual variation. No clinal variation or intergradation were observed, even at regions close to the rivers headwaters, where supposedly populations could be in contact. It is suggested that the currently accepted subspecies be elevated to the species level, such as: Psophia viridis Spix, 1825, distributed in the Madeira-Tapajós interfluvium, P. dextralis, found in the Tapajós-Tocantins interfluvium, and P. obscura, which occurs from the right bank of the Tocantins River to the west of the State of Maranhão.Os jacamins-de-costas-verdes, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae são endêmicos da Amazônia brasileira e contam, atualmente, com três subespécies reconhecidas

  12. Ecological parameters of the endohelminths in relation to size and sex of Prochilodus argenteus (Actinopterygii: Prochilodontidae from the Upper São Francisco River, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Cassandra M. Monteiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the ecological indexes of the helminths of the digestive system and coelom of Prochilodus argenteus Spix & Agassiz, 1829. A total of 150 specimens (53 males and 97 females taken from the upper reaches of the São Francisco River in the municipality of Três Marias (18º12'32"S, 45º15'41"W, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were examined. The specimens were collected in July, 2003 and January, 2004. Ninety-eight fish (65.3% were infected by at least one species of helminth. Five helminth species were found: one digenean, Saccocoelioides nanii Szidat, 1954; two Eucestoda, Valipora sp., and one undetermined metacestode; one nematode, Spinitectus asperus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928; and one acanthocephalan, Neoechinorhynchus prochilodorum Nickol & Thatcher, 1971. The sex of the host did not influence parasite indexes. The total length of the hosts influenced the abundance of S. nanii (r s = -0.21, p = 0.01 and the prevalence of the metacestode (r = -0.91, p = 0.01. Saccocoelioides nanii was the dominant species in the parasite fauna of P. argenteus. Saccocoelioides nanii, Valipora sp., S. asperus and N. prochilodorum are reported here for the first time in P. argenteus and their known distribution is expanded to the São Francisco River.

  13. Intestinal coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of Brazilian lizards. Eimeria carmelinoi n.sp., from Kentropyx calcarata and Acroeimeria paraensis n.sp. from Cnemidophorus lemniscatus lemniscatus (Lacertilia: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainson, Ralph

    2002-03-01

    Eimeria carmelinoi n.sp., is described in the teiid lizard Kentropyx calcarata Spix, 1825 from north Brazil. Oocysts subspherical to spherical, averaging 21.25 x 20.15 micro m. Oocyst wall smooth, colourless and devoid of striae or micropyle. No polar body or conspicuous oocystic residuum, but frequently a small number of fine granules in Brownian movement. Sporocysts, averaging 10.1 x 9 microm, are without a Stieda body. Endogenous stages characteristic of the genus: intra-cytoplasmic, within the epithelial cells of the ileum and above the host cell nucleus. A re-description is given of a parasite previously described as Eimeria cnemidophori, in the teiid lizard Cnemidophorus lemniscatus lemniscatus. A study of the endogenous stages in the ileum necessitates renaming this coccidian as Acroeimeria cnemidophori (Carini, 1941) nov.comb., and suggests that Acroeimeria pintoi Lainson & Paperna, 1999 in the teiid Ameiva ameiva is a synonym of A. cnemidophori. A further intestinal coccidian, Acroeimeria paraensis n.sp. is described in C. l. lemniscatus, frequently as a mixed infection with A. cnemidophori. Mature oocysts, averaging 24.4 x 21.8 microm, have a single-layered, smooth, colourless wall with no micropyle or striae. No polar body, but the frequent presence of a small number of fine granules exhibiting Brownian movements. Sporocysts 9 x 8, without a Stieda body. Endogenous stages epicytoplasmic, characteristic of the genus, in the upper ileum. The importance of a study of the endogenous stages of eimeriid coccidia is discussed.

  14. Time and seasonal patterns of activity of phyllostomid in fragments of a stational semidecidual forest from the Upper Paraná River, Southern Brazil

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    H. Ortêncio Filho

    Full Text Available Bats may exhibit different patterns of activity, considering aspects concerning niche dynamics as well as the establishment and permanence of the communities in the ecosystems. In this way, the present study analyzed the time and seasonal patterns of activity in different species of frequent phyllostomid bats in remnants of the stational semidecidual forest from the Upper Paraná River, Southern Brazil. Captures were performed between January and December, 2006, using 32 mist nets set above the soil along the nocturnal period during the four seasons of the year. The daily and seasonal patterns of activity of each species was modeled using generalized linear models with Poisson error. The best model was selected using Akaike's Information Criterion (AICc. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 did not exhibit a conspicuous time pattern, whereas A. lituratus (Olfers, 1818 was more frequent after the sixth hour and A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838 had an activity increase along the night. Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 was registered during all sampling hours. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 were the most active during the first four hours. Concerning seasonal pattern, the highest activity of these species was verified during the summer. These data contribute to the information about the ecology of bats in the region, highlighting the high adaptive potential of the species studied in relation to the use of space throughout the night and in to variations in environmental conditions.

  15. Combate ao Desmodus rotundus rotundus (E. Geoffroy,1810 na região cárstica de Cordisburgo e Curvelo, Minas Gerais Combat of Desmodus rotundus rotundus (E. Geofroy, 1810 in the Cordisburgo and Curvelo carstic region, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    E.O. Almeida

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar em uma região cárstica o tipo de refúgio, as espécies de morcegos, a população de animais domésticos, as associações interespecíficas nas coabitações com outros mamíferos silvestres suscetíveis à raiva e a eficácia da warfarina aplicada no dorso do Desmodus rotundus rotundus foi realizada uma pesquisa de maio de 1998 a março de 2000, nos municípios de Cordisburgo e Curvelo, Minas Gerais. Em 49 refúgios vistoriados, 29 naturais e 20 artificiais, localizados em 14 propriedades, encontrou-se o Desmodus rotundus rotundus em 18 abrigos naturais. Destes, 17 eram cavernas formadas pela dissolução ou abatimento de rocha calcária, típica do carste, e um era túnel escavado na terra pela ação das águas de um rio. As características geomorfológicas e de localização espacial foram registradas com base nas coordenadas geográficas, obtidas com auxílio de um sensor geográfico de posição. Nesses abrigos foram capturados e identificados 1457 morcegos de 14 espécies, sendo 640 Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, 566 Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, 73 Anoura geoffroyi (Gray 1838, 58 Trachops cirrhosus (Spix, 1823, 38 Diphylla ecaudata ecaudata (Spix, 1823, 23 Platyhrrinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, 16 Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856, 14 Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, 13 Phyllostomus hastatus hastatus (Pallas, 1767, 9 Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, 3 Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838, 2 Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821, 1 Eptesicus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819 e 1 Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843. Não se conseguiu isolar ou detectar o vírus rábico no cérebro de 25 hematófagos selecionados e em 52 de outras espécies. A maioria desses abrigos também era usada por pacas (Agouti paca Linnaues, 1766, capivaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, Linnaues, 1766, guaxinins (Procyon cancrivorus, G. Cuvier, 1798 e raposas (Lycalopex vetulus, Lund, 1842 que são suscetíveis à raiva. Em 546 Desmodus

  16. Cytotaxonomy of the subgenus Artibeus (Phyllostomidae, Chiroptera by characterization of species-specific markers

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    Marcela de Lemos Pinto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Artibeus represents a highly diverse group of bats from the Neotropical region, with four large species occurring in Brazil. In this paper, a comparative cytogenetic study was carried out on the species Artibeus obscurus Schinz, 1821, A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838, A. lituratus Olfers, 1818 and A. planirostris Spix, 1823 that live sympatrically in the northeast of Brazil, through C-banding, silver staining and DNA-specific fluorochromes (CMA3 and DAPI. All the species had karyotypes with 2n=30,XX and 2n=31,XY1Y2, and FN=56. C-banding showed constitutive heterochromatin (CH blocks in the pericentromeric regions of all the chromosomes and small CH blocks at the terminal region of pairs 5, 6, and 7 for all species. Notably, our C-banding data revealed species-specific autosomic CH blocks for each taxon, as well as different heterochromatic constitution of Y2 chromosomes of A. planirostris. Ag-NORs were observed in the short arms of chromosomes 5, 6 and 7 in all species. The sequential staining AgNO3/CMA3/DA/DAPI indicated a positive association of CH with Ag-NORs and positive CMA3 signals, thus reflecting GC-richness in these regions in A. obscurus and A. fimbriatus. In this work it was possible to identify interespecific divergences in the Brazilian large Artibeus species using C-banding it was possible provided a suitable tool in the cytotaxonomic differentiation of this genus.

  17. Reconsidering the taxonomy of the Black-Faced Uacaris, Cacajao melanocephalus group (Mammalia: Pitheciidae), from the northern Amazon Basin.

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    Ferrari, Stephen F; Guedes, Patrícia G; Figueiredo-Ready, Wilsea M B; Barnett, Adrian A

    2014-09-24

    The black-faced uacaris are a poorly known group of platyrrhine monkeys from the Rio Negro basin in northwestern Amazonia. Originally described as two distinct species-Cacajao melanocephalus (Humboldt 1812) and Cacajao ouakary (Spix 1823)-from opposite banks of the Negro, they were treated as a single species until the end of the twentieth century, when molecular studies reconfirmed their status as true species. One of these studies not only nominated a third (northern) species, Cacajao ayresi Boubli et al. 2008, but also identified C. ouakary as a junior synonym of C. melanocephalus, resulting in the introduction of a new nomen, Cacajao hosomi Boubli et al. 2008. In the present study, additional evidence on morphological and zoogeographic variables is analyzed, which indicates that C. ouakary should be reinstated, and supports the nomination of a neotype of C. melanocephalus. The molecular and zoogeographic data on the species status of the ayresi form are also re-assessed, leading to the conclusion that, on the basis of the evidence available at the present time, this form should be considered a subspecies of C. melanocephalus. A new taxonomic arrangement is proposed, which recognizes two species, C. ouakary and C. melanocephalus, the latter with two subspecies, C. m. melanocephalus and C. m. ayresi.

  18. Cytogenetics and DNA barcoding of the Round-eared bats, Tonatia (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: a new karyotype for Tonatia bidens

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    Jaqueline R. Tavares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There are two species of Neotropical Round-eared bats, Tonatia bidens Spix, 1823 and Tonatia saurophila Koopman & Williams, 1951, which present highly similar morphological characteristics that can lead to errors of identification. Specimens originally identified as T. bidens have recently been reclassified as T. saurophila, and the only karyotype documented previously for these species was 2n = 16, FN = 20. In the present study, specimens of Tonatia collected in the municipality of Barra do Garças, in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, were analyzed morphologically, using conventional cytogenetic techniques (C-banding, Ag-NOR, and CMA3, and through sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene. In the specimens morphologically identified as T. bidens, the diploid number (2n was 26, and the fundamental number (FN, 38, while in T. saurophila, 2n = 16 and FN = 20, which is the karyotype also described previously for T. bidens. The dendograms obtained with sequences of the COI marker resulted in the formation of two distinct groups between T. bidens and T. saurophila, consistent with the two species, with a high sequence divergence value (14.22%. Distinct clades were also observed between T. bidens and the other phyllostomines analyzed in this study, with T. bidens also close to Phyllostomus hastatus (14.18% of sequence divergence.

  19. First gonadal maturation of Pinirampus pirinampu (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

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    J. Peixer

    Full Text Available Information regarding the reproductive cycle of commercially exploited fish species is extremely important for their appropriate management. The reproductive size of Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix, 1829 was determined for a population studied in the Pantanal wetlands of western Brazil. Samples were taken in September, October, and December 1997, and in February and March 1998. Gonadal stages were macroscopically determined and a monthly gonadossomatic index (GSI was used to determine the breeding period. The length of the first gonadal maturation was determined by classifying male and female adults and immature fish into length classes. The data on the adult individuals were plotted on graphs and the median values estimated to find the length at which 50% of the individuals reached maturity (L50. L100 was also determined. Males and females in the gonadal maturation process were recorded from October on, and the highest frequency was found to occur in February. Individuals with empty gonads occurred from February onwards. The GSI showed that gonadal development began in September and reached its peak in February. The L50 was 574 mm for females and 536 mm for males, while the L100 was 590 mm for females and 580 mm for males.

  20. New species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 and Cosmetocleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) infecting the gills of catfishes (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia.

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    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Scholz, Tomáš

    2016-11-01

    During a research on gill ectoparasites of siluriform fishes from the Peruvian Amazonia, the following monogeneans were found: Ameloblastella edentensis n. sp. from Hypophthalmus edentatus Spix & Agassiz; Ameloblastella peruensis n. sp. from Hypophthalmus sp.; Ameloblastella formatrium n. sp. from Pimelodidae gen. sp. (type-host) and Duopalatinus cf. peruanus Eigenmann & Allen; Ameloblastella unapioides n. sp. from Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider) (type-host) and Pimelodus sp; Cosmetocleithrum tortum n. sp. from Nemadoras hemipeltis (Eigenmann); and Cosmetocleithrum bifurcum n. sp. from Hassar orestis (Steindachner) (both Doradidae). All new species described herein are mainly differentiated from their congeners based on the morphology of the copulatory complex. The pimelodids H. edentatus and S. lima, and the doradids N. hemipeltis and H. orestis represent new hosts species for species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 and Cosmetocleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986, respectively. The morphological diagnosis of the present species of Ameloblastella and Cosmetocleithrum also supported by a previous molecular analysis of these species is briefly discusssed herein.

  1. Diversidade e distribuição espaço-temporal de anuros em região com pronunciada estação seca no sudeste do Brasil Temporal and spatial distribution and diversity of anurans in a region with pronounced dry season in southeastern Brazil

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    Tiago Gomes dos Santos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available As atividades antrópicas têm alterado profundamente os ambientes naturais e muitas vezes afetado a diversidade e distribuição dos anuros. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as seguintes questões: (1 qual a composição da anurofauna em uma região de pastagem com clima marcadamente sazonal no extremo noroeste paulista? (2 como adultos e girinos das espécies se distribuem temporal e espacialmente? (3 a riqueza de espécies está correlacionada com descritores da heterogeneidade dos hábitats de reprodução? Na área estudada foram registradas 20 espécies de anuros, distribuídas em 11 gêneros de quatro famílias: Leptodactylidae (9, Hylidae (8, Microhylidae (2 e Bufonidae (1. Destas, Chaunus schneideri (Werner, 1894, Physalaemus centralis Bokermann, 1962 e Physalaemus fuscomaculatus (Steindachner, 1864 foram registradas apenas por coleta de girinos, enquanto Dendropsophus minutus (Peters, 1872 e Leptodactylus labyrinthicus (Spix, 1824 ocorreram somente em corpos d'água próximos aos selecionados. As espécies registradas são conhecidas por sua ampla distribuição geográfica e por colonizarem áreas alteradas em outras localidades. Não houve correlação entre a riqueza de espécies e a complexidade estrutural dos corpos d'água. Entretanto, a maior riqueza de espécies foi registrada nos corpos d'água de longa duração. As poças temporárias de hidroperíodo instável foram colonizadas inicialmente por leptodactilídeos, enquanto que as poças permanentes ou temporárias estáveis foram colonizadas por hilídeos. A atividade de vocalização e de reprodução da maioria das espécies foi restrita ao período quente e chuvoso do ano, um padrão típico de ambientes tropicais sazonais. Cinco espécies [Chaunus schneideri, Dendropsophus nanus (Boulenger, 1889, Hypsiboas albopunctatus Spix, 1824, Leptodactylus podicipinus (Cope, 1862 e Pseudopaludicola aff. saltica (Cope, 1887] vocalizaram durante a estação seca e chuvosa, mas

  2. Illegal Trade of Tortoises (Testudinata in Colombia: A Network Analysis Approach

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    Felber Jair Arroyave

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of wildlife is important for supporting the economic and demographic growth in emerging countries. Nevertheless, the products of wildlife usually come from illegal trade to supply fur, wild meat and pet markets. Illegal trade puts great pressure over wild populations and threats some endangered species. In Colombia, the trade of wildlife is important because of thevolumes traded and the cultural and economic connotation of some products. We describe the spatial structure of illegal trade of wildlife at departmental level for the five most traded genera of Colombian tortoises (Trachemys, Chelonoidis, Kinosternon, Podocnemis and Rhinoclemmys. This study is based on thereports of seizures between 2005 and 2009 compiled by the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo of Colombia. Weapply Network Analysis to study and evidence that the illegal trade network of tortoises includes international markets and supplies the Andean region. The Caribbean, Pacific and Orinoquia regions are the principal suppliers. Quindio, Santander, Antioquia and Putumayo are the biggest jobbers and consumers of wild tortoises. We propose sociocultural and cohercitive actions to fragment the trade network andtheir illegal market as well as promoting the conservation and sustainable use of tortoises.TRÁFICO ILEGAL DE TORTUGAS CONTINENTALES (TESTUDINATA EN COLOMBIA: UNA APROXIMACIÓN DESDEEL ANÁLISIS DE REDESEl uso de productos extraídos o provenientes de la fauna silvestre es relevante para el desarrollo económico y el bienestar social en muchos lugares del mundo. Sin embargo, frecuentemente la fauna silvestre entra en los circuitos de tráfico ilegal para abastecer los mercados de mascotas y productos como pieles, plumas, “carne de monte”, entre otros. El tráfico ilegal genera enormes presiones sobre las especies sujetas a extracción y es una de las principales amenazas para estas. En Colombia, el tráfico de tortugas es de importancia debido a los vol

  3. Urban gardens promote bee foraging over natural habitats and plantations.

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    Kaluza, Benjamin F; Wallace, Helen; Heard, Tim A; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Leonhardt, Sara D

    2016-03-01

    Increasing human land use for agriculture and housing leads to the loss of natural habitat and to widespread declines in wild bees. Bee foraging dynamics and fitness depend on the availability of resources in the surrounding landscape, but how precisely landscape related resource differences affect bee foraging patterns remains unclear. To investigate how landscape and its interaction with season and weather drive foraging and resource intake in social bees, we experimentally compared foraging activity, the allocation of foragers to different resources (pollen, nectar, and resin) and overall resource intake in the Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria (Apidae, Meliponini). Bee colonies were monitored in different seasons over two years. We compared foraging patterns and resource intake between the bees' natural habitat (forests) and two landscapes differently altered by humans (suburban gardens and agricultural macadamia plantations). We found foraging activity as well as pollen and nectar forager numbers to be highest in suburban gardens, intermediate in forests and low in plantations. Foraging patterns further differed between seasons, but seasonal variations strongly differed between landscapes. Sugar and pollen intake was low in plantations, but contrary with our predictions, it was even higher in gardens than in forests. In contrast, resin intake was similar across landscapes. Consequently, differences in resource availability between natural and altered landscapes strongly affect foraging patterns and thus resource intake in social bees. While agricultural monocultures largely reduce foraging success, suburban gardens can increase resource intake well above rates found in natural habitats of bees, indicating that human activities can both decrease and increase the availability of resources in a landscape and thus reduce or enhance bee fitness.

  4. Fourteen new generic and ten new specific synonymies in Pholcidae (Araneae), and transfer of Mystes Bristowe to Filistatidae.

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    Huber, Bernhard A; Colmenares, Pío A; Ramirez, Martin J

    2014-08-08

    Between 1998 and 2011, the Venezuelan arachnologist Manuel Ángel González-Sponga (GS) published a series of taxonomic papers devoted to the Pholcidae of Venezuela. Of his 22 new genera, 20 were monotypic when described, suggesting a high percentage of synonyms. We studied his descriptions and as far as accessible his type specimens and propose the following new generic synonymies: Autana GS, 2011 = Mesabolivar GS, 1998; Ayomania GS, 2005 and Venezuela Koçak & Kemal, 2008 (new replacement names for Falconia GS, 2003) = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Carbonaria GS, 2009 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Caruaya GS, 2011 = Mesabolivar GS, 1998; Coroia GS, 2005 = Artema Walckenaer, 1837; Maimire GS, 2009 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Moraia GS, 2011 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Nasuta GS, 2009 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Portena GS, 2011 = Metagonia Simon, 1893; Rioparaguanus GS, 2005 = Mesabolivar GS, 1998; Tonoro GS, 2009 = Litoporus Simon, 1893; Sanluisi GS, 2003 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893. Three of the type species are also specific synonyms: Autana autanensis GS, 2011 = Mesabolivar aurantiacus (Mello-Leitão, 1930); Coroia magna GS, 2005 = Artema atlanta Walckenaer, 1837; Tonoro multispinae GS, 2009 = Litoporus uncatus (Simon, 1893). Six species that González-Sponga described under Blechroscelis (a genus previously synonymized with Priscula Simon, 1893) are all synonyms of Mesabolivar eberhardi Huber, 2000 (B. acuoso GS, 2011; B. araguanus GS, 2011; B. blechroscelis GS, 2011; B. copeyensis GS, 2011; B. cordillerano GS, 2011; B. andinensis GS, 2011). In addition, and unrelated to González-Sponga's work, we synonymize the Central Asian monotypic genus Ceratopholcus Spassky, 1934 with Crossopriza Simon, 1893; we synonymize the Chinese species Pholcus acerosus Peng & Zhang, 2011 with Pholcus fragillimus Strand, 1907 and remove the Malaysian monotypic genus Mystes Bristowe, 1938, previously thought to be the only East Asian representative of the subfamily Ninetinae, to the

  5. Allometric and temporal scaling of movement characteristics in Galapagos tortoises.

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    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Yackulic, Charles B; Frair, Jacqueline L; Cabrera, Freddy; Blake, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how individual movement scales with body size is of fundamental importance in predicting ecological relationships for diverse species. One-dimensional movement metrics scale consistently with body size yet vary over different temporal scales. Knowing how temporal scale influences the relationship between animal body size and movement would better inform hypotheses about the efficiency of foraging behaviour, the ontogeny of energy budgets, and numerous life-history trade-offs. We investigated how the temporal scaling of allometric patterns in movement varies over the course of a year, specifically during periods of motivated (directional and fast movement) and unmotivated (stationary and tortuous movement) behaviour. We focused on a recently diverged group of species that displays wide variation in movement behaviour - giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) - to test how movement metrics estimated on a monthly basis scaled with body size. We used state-space modelling to estimate seven different movement metrics of Galapagos tortoises. We used log-log regression of the power law to evaluate allometric scaling for these movement metrics and contrasted relationships by species and sex. Allometric scaling of movement was more apparent during motivated periods of movement. During this period, allometry was revealed at multiple temporal intervals (hourly, daily and monthly), with values observed at daily and monthly intervals corresponding most closely to the expected one-fourth scaling coefficient, albeit with wide credible intervals. We further detected differences in the magnitude of scaling among taxa uncoupled from observed differences in the temporal structuring of their movement rates. Our results indicate that the definition of temporal scales is fundamental to the detection of allometry of movement and should be given more attention in movement studies. Our approach not only provides new conceptual insights into temporal attributes in one

  6. Social, biological, and environmental drivers of the hunting and trade of the endangered yellow-footed tortoise in the Amazon

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    Thaís Q. Morcatty

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chelonians constitute an important source of food and income for the inhabitants of tropical forests. We assessed the social, biological, and environmental factors affecting the hunting and trade of the endangered yellow-footed tortoise (Chelonoidis denticulata in rural and urban areas in the Amazon and estimated the sustainability of tortoise use. We also discuss possible conservation alternatives that are compatible with the needs of local inhabitants. We monitored tortoise hunting and trade for 12 years in 10 traditional communities that exploit different habitat types in the Brazilian Amazon and collected data on the tortoise trade in two urban markets for six years. In upland forests, tortoise hunting mainly occurred during the dry season; in whitewater flooded forests, hunting mainly occurred during the flood season. The tortoise trade was carried out nearly entirely by whitewater flooded forest users and was intimately related to fishing, the main economic activity in these communities. Furthermore, the tortoise trade was encouraged in whitewater flooded forests because this environment yielded significantly heavier tortoises than upland forests, and we observed a strong relationship between trade probability and tortoise size. The tortoise trade was found to primarily supply nearby urban centers, generating high monetary gain. Female tortoises suffered greater hunting pressure and were more valued in the bushmeat market. The productivity of tortoise hunting in the monitored communities severely decreased with time. In addition, the price per kilogram of tortoise greatly increased in the urban market. Given this unsustainable scenario, policies regulating tortoise hunting in the Amazon are needed. These policies must be adapted to the different patterns of tortoise use by rural communities while maintaining the culture and food sovereignty of the local inhabitants.

  7. TRÁFICO ILEGAL DE TORTUGAS CONTINENTALES (TESTUDINATA EN COLOMBIA: UNA APROXIMACIÓN DESDE EL ANÁLISIS DE REDES

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    FELBER JAIR ARROYAVE BERMUDEZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de productos extraídos o provenientes de la fauna silvestre es relevante para el desarrollo económico y el bienestar social en muchos lugares del mundo. Sin embargo, frecuentemente la fauna silvestre entra en los circuitos de tráfico ilegal para abastecer los mercados de mascotas y productos como pieles, plumas, “carne de monte”, entre otros. El tráfico ilegal genera enormes presiones sobre las especies sujetas a extracción y es una de las principales amenazas para estas. En Colombia, el tráfico de tortugas es de importancia debido a los volúmenes explotados y al significado que tienen sus productos para las comunidades. Mediante el Análisis de Redes se caracterizó espacialmente, a nivel de Departamento, el tráfico de los cinco géneros de testudíneos continentales de Colombia más traficados (Trachemys, Chelonoidis, Kinosternon, Podocnemis y Rhinoclemmys, tomando como base los registros de incautación y decomiso recopilados por el Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible entre los años 2005 y 2009. Se encontró que la red de tráfico ilegal de testudíneos está articulada con mercados internacionales y propende por abastecer mercados del interior del país (región Andina, siendo los Departamentos de las costas Caribe y Pacífica, y de la Orinoquía, los principales extractores de especímenes. Se identificaron los Departamentos de Quindío, Santander, Antioquia y Putumayo como intermediarios y consumidores. Finalmente, se proponen medidas socioculturales y coercitivas como mecanismos de desarticulación de las redes de tráfico ilegal, siendo dichas acciones un soporte para la conservación y el uso sostenible de los recursos naturales.

  8. Animal movement in the absence of predation: environmental drivers of movement strategies in a partial migration system

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    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Gibbs, James P.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Frair, Jacqueline L.; Cabrera, Fredy; Rousseau, Louis-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Animal movement strategies including migration, dispersal, nomadism, and residency are shaped by broad-scale spatial-temporal structuring of the environment, including factors such as the degrees of spatial variation, seasonality and inter-annual predictability. Animal movement strategies, in turn, interact with the characteristics of individuals and the local distribution of resources to determine local patterns of resource selection with complex and poorly understood implications for animal fitness. Here we present a multi-scale investigation of animal movement strategies and resource selection. We consider the degree to which spatial variation, seasonality, and inter-annual predictability in resources drive migration patterns among different taxa and how movement strategies in turn shape local resource selection patterns. We focus on adult Galapagos giant tortoises Chelonoidis spp. as a model system since they display many movement strategies and evolved in the absence of predators of adults. Specifically, our analysis is based on 63 individuals among four taxa tracked on three islands over six years and almost 106 tortoise re-locations. Tortoises displayed a continuum of movement strategies from migration to sedentarism that were linked to the spatio-temporal scale and predictability of resource distributions. Movement strategies shaped patterns of resource selection. Specifically, migratory individuals displayed stronger selection toward areas where resources were more predictable among years than did non-migratory individuals, which indicates a selective advantage for migrants in seasonally structured, more predictable environments. Our analytical framework combines large-scale predictions for movement strategies, based on environmental structuring, with finer-scale analysis of space-use. Integrating different organizational levels of analysis provides a deeper understanding of the eco-evolutionary dynamics at play in the emergence and maintenance of

  9. Allometric and temporal scaling of movement characteristics in Galapagos tortoises

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    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Yackulic, Charles B.; Frair, Jacqueline L.; Cabrera, Freddy; Blake, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how individual movement scales with body size is of fundamental importance in predicting ecological relationships for diverse species. One-dimensional movement metrics scale consistently with body size yet vary over different temporal scales. Knowing how temporal scale influences the relationship between animal body size and movement would better inform hypotheses about the efficiency of foraging behaviour, the ontogeny of energy budgets, and numerous life-history trade-offs.We investigated how the temporal scaling of allometric patterns in movement varies over the course of a year, specifically during periods of motivated (directional and fast movement) and unmotivated (stationary and tortuous movement) behaviour. We focused on a recently diverged group of species that displays wide variation in movement behaviour – giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) – to test how movement metrics estimated on a monthly basis scaled with body size.We used state-space modelling to estimate seven different movement metrics of Galapagos tortoises. We used log-log regression of the power law to evaluate allometric scaling for these movement metrics and contrasted relationships by species and sex.Allometric scaling of movement was more apparent during motivated periods of movement. During this period, allometry was revealed at multiple temporal intervals (hourly, daily and monthly), with values observed at daily and monthly intervals corresponding most closely to the expected one-fourth scaling coefficient, albeit with wide credible intervals. We further detected differences in the magnitude of scaling among taxa uncoupled from observed differences in the temporal structuring of their movement rates.Our results indicate that the definition of temporal scales is fundamental to the detection of allometry of movement and should be given more attention in movement studies. Our approach not only provides new conceptual insights into temporal attributes in one

  10. On Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae Sobre Pomacea sordida (Swaison, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae

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    Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available A description of Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 collected in Caxias and Nova Iguaçu, state of Rio de Janeiro, is presented. The shell is globose, heavy, whith greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spinal bands; apex subelevated, 4-5 moderately shoudered whorls, increasing rather rapidly and separated by deep suture. Aperture large, moderately round, yellowish or violaceous; lip thick and sometimes dark brown; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous and heavy, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.81-0.91 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.66-0.75 (mean 0.70. Testis, spermiduct and penis pouch as in Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827. Seminal vesicle whitish and bean-shaped. Prostate cylindric and narrow, cream in coloar as the testis. Penis whiplike whith a closed circular spermiduct. Penial sheath elongated and tapered, with its distal tip turned to the right; outer basal gland situated on the left; inner median gland rounded; apical gland elongated and wrinkled. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules lying superficially on the digestive gland; oviduct and seminal receptacle as in P. lineata; albumen gland yellowish - orange. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.Nesse trabalho é apresentada a descrição de Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823, coletada em Caxias e Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Concha globosa, espessa, com perióstraco esverdeado ou castanho e com faixas espirais escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros moderadamente arredondados, crescendo relativamente rápido, separados por suturas profundas. Abertura grande, moderadamente arredondada, amarelada ou violácea; lábio espesso e algumas vezes marrom escuro; umbílico grande e profundo; opérculo córneo e espesso, fechando completamente a abertura. Razões: largura da concha/comprimento da concha=0.81-0.91 (média 0.86; comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha=0

  11. PERSPECTIVAS DE SUSTENTABILIDADE ECOLÓGICA DO TURISMO EM XINGÓ, SE/AL / TOURISM ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY PERSPECTIVES IN XINGÓ, SERGIPE AND ALAGOAS, BRAZIL

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    Cláudio Roberto Braghini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A busca da sustentabilidade em várias dimensões implica olhar para o desenvolvimento local nos territórios em que o turismo ocorre. Este estudo analisou de forma sistêmica a relação entre turismo, gastronomia local e os recursos extraídos do rio São Francisco pela pesca artesanal, na região de Xingó, Nordeste do Brasil. A área de estudo abrangeu três municípios, Poço Redondo/SE, Canindé de São Francisco/SE e Piranhas/AL. Tratou-se de uma pesquisa exploratória, descritiva, intencional e não probabilística, utilizando entrevistas com roteiro estruturado e aberto, junto aos restaurantes, pescadores artesanais e gestores públicos, visitas locais de reconhecimento, construção de mapa coletivo com pescadores e elaboração de diagramas de alças causais, visando selecionar indicadores de sustentabilidade. Os resultados indicaram o Surubim Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix e Agassiz, 1829, Pitu Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 e Tubarana Salminus hilarii (Valenciennes, 1850, os pescados típicos mais vendidos, no entanto, dependem de distribuidores e de estoques externos. Observou-se que a redução do pescado na região deveu-se à barragem da UHE de Xingó e a sobrepesca. O fluxo turístico crescente tem forte influência sobre o camarão Pitu. Os indicadores ambientais selecionados apontam necessidade de sistematização de informações sobre a produção pesqueira e o consumo nos restaurantes.Palavras-chaves: Sustentabilidade; Turismo; Xingó; Rio São Francisco; CaatingaABSTRACTThe carrying support and the development of the local tourism involve different looks on its dimensions in the area where it occurs. This study examined in a systematic way the sustainability of tourism in the Northeast - Brazil, region of Xingó: the resources tourist and local gastronomy. The study area covers three districts: Poço Redondo and Canindé do São Francisco at Sergipe and in the state of Alagoas at Piranhas. This research

  12. Redescription of Temnocephala iheringi (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida based on specimens from Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: the possible type host and type locality

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    Samantha A. Seixas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The original description of Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893 was based on specimens collected by Hermann von Ihering from undetermined ampullariid apple snails, which at that time were identified as Ampullaria sp., and sent to William H. Haswell, with the type locality simply indicated as Brazil. The type specimens studied by Haswell were not found in the scientific collections of Brazil, Europe or Australia, and should be considered lost. In 1941, Pereira & Cuocolo collected specimens from apple snails, identified as Pomacea lineata (Spix in Wagner, 1827, at two localities (Guaicurús and Salobra in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central Brazil. These specimens could not be located either and should, thus, be considered lost as well. Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822, the main host of T. iheringi in southern Brazil, is known to have a geographical distribution that reaches Uruguay and 400 km beyond the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Three hundred and one mollusks were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity presented a greenish body pigmentation (adults and lacked eye pigment of any color, including the red-eye pigment, typical of Neotropical species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849; straight cirrus, with a thick band at base of the introvert' swelling; and a single, circular, asymmetric vaginal sphincter, wider in diameter in the posterior portion. As the species occurs concurrently with two other species, at least in P. canaliculata from Rio Grande do Sul, the eggs of T. iheringi could not be reliably distinguished. A redescription of the species is provided. A comparison of data from the present work with those of earlier papers published on T. iheringi from Argentina showed that the Argentinean specimens had the smallest measurements.

  13. Avaliação de risco e plasticidade comportamental limitada em girinos de Rhinella ornata (Anura, Bufonidae

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    Renan N. Costa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Os girinos de anuros são elementos importantes das redes tróficas de ambientes aquáticos, sendo recurso alimentar de diversos tipos de predadores. Desta maneira, os girinos apresentam uma grande variedade de mecanismos de defesa que podem ser morfológicos, comportamentais e/ou fisiológicos. A impalatabilidade, produzida pelo acúmulo de substâncias tóxicas na pele, é um mecanismo comum em muitas linhagens de anfíbios. No entanto, alguns predadores não são afetados por estas substâncias tóxicas, o que pode favorecer o desenvolvimento de mecanismos alternativos de defesa contra predação. Neste contexto, nosso objetivo foi avaliar se girinos impalatáveis de Rhinella ornata (Spix, 1824, podem apresentar mecanismos comportamentais de defesa contra predação na presença de predadores que não são afetados pelas substâncias tóxicas em sua pele. Para testar nossa hipótese, utilizamos dois tipos de predadores aquáticos: um heteróptero aquático do gênero Belostoma e uma larva de libélula do gênero Aeshna. Os girinos foram colocados em aquários com pistas visuais e químicas dos predadores (experimento de risco direto, somente pistas químicas (experimento de risco indireto e ausência completa de sinais de predadores (controle. Em ambos os casos, o comportamento de natação foi observado durante 5 minutos. Durante os experimentos não houve alteração no comportamento de natação dos girinos.

  14. Evaluación y valorización económica de la fauna silvestre en el río Algodón, Amazonía peruana

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    Rolando Aquino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo informa sobre los hábitats, abundancia cuantitativa y valorización económica de la fauna silvestre que habitan en la cuenca del río Algodón. El estudio está basado en la diferenciación de hábitats, entrevistas a cazadores y censos por transecto. En 7 de los 10 tipos de hábitats diferenciados fueron realizados censos, donde ocurrieron en total 327 avistamientos directos de mamíferos, aves y reptiles. Entre los mamíferos, el pecarí labiado (Tayassu pecari Link y el choro (Lagothrix lagotricha Humboldt fueron los más abundantes con 9,8 individuos/km2, equivalente a 323,4 kg/km2 de biomasa, y 18,4 individuos/km2 equivalente a 202,4 kg/km2 de biomasa, respectivamente. En aves, la mayor densidad correspondió a la pucacunga (Penelope jacquacu Spix con 5,4 individuos/km2, equivalente a 6,9 kg/km2 de biomasa. Sin considerar las especies nocturnas y algunas diurnas, en el área de estudio se estiman alrededor de 31891 animales de caza entre mamíferos y aves, cuyo valor económico fue estimado en US$ 349374. De ellos, 3479 individuos tienen el valor de comercial y pertenecen a cuatro especies de ungulados y uno de aves, el resto tienen el valor de subsistencia.

  15. Factors determining the structure of fish assemblages in an Amazonian river near to oil and gas exploration areas in the Amazon basin (Brazil: establishing the baseline for environmental evaluation

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    Igor David Costa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Determining the significance of biotic and abiotic factors in the structuring of fish assemblages in freshwater environments is an important question in ecology, particularly in view of environmental changes caused by man. In this paper we sought to identify the factors responsible for the composition and abundance of fish species collected with gill nets in six locations near ports in forest clearance areas opened up for oil and natural gas exploration (Petrobras Pedro Moura Base in the Urucu River, during drought and flood cycles. In all, 923 individuals from 23 families and 82 species were collected, totalling a biomass of 182,244 g. The most abundant species during the flood season were Bryconops alburnoides (Kner, 1858 and Dianema urostriatum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1912; in the drought season, the predominant species were Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (Cuvier, 1829 and Serrasalmus rhombeus (Linnaeus, 1766. The species with the greatest biomass during the flood season were Pellona castelnaeana (Valenciennes, 1847, S. rhombeus and Pellona flavipinis (Valenciennes, 1847. During the drought season, the predominant species was O. bicirrhosum. When both periods were analysed together, electrical conductivity, water transparency and dissolved oxygen were the most important factors. The species Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840, O. bicirrhosum, Chaetobranchus flavenscens Heckel, 1840, Geophagus proximus (Castelnau, 1855 were strongly related to high values of conductivity, pH and water current velocity during the drought season, as well as Serrasalmus altispinis Merckx, Jégu & Santos, 2000, Triportheus albus Cope, 1872, Triportheus angulatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 and Brycon melanopterus (Cope, 1872 that were associated with less depth and width in the drought season whereas P. castelnaeana, D. urostriatum, Rhytiodus argenteofuscus Kner, 1858 and Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 were mainly associated with high transparency and

  16. IMPORTÂNCIA E A CONTRIBUIÇÃO DE VON MARTIUS PARA O CONHECIMENTO DA FLORA ARBÓREA DO CERRADO

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    Ramon Cleomar de Jesus Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Os naturalistas viajantes podem ser definidos como pessoas que durante os séculos XVIII e XIX dedicavam seu tempo ao estudo da história natural. Partindo deste pressuposto, o presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar as contribuições do naturalista alemão Carl Friederich Philipp von Martius para a flora arbórea do Cerrado. Martius veio ao Brasil no ano de 1817 acompanhado do zoólogo Johann Baptiste von Spix. Os dois cientistas passaram três anos viajando pelo Brasil e percorreram territórios dos futuros estados de São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Bahia, Pernambuco, Piauí, Maranhão, Pará e Amazonas. Nesse contexto, Martius teve contato com várias fisionomias naturais presentes nos diversos ecossistemas brasileiros, percorreu e estudou territórios do Cerrado e suas contribuições foram importantes para a flora deste Bioma. O trabalho de Martius é diverso e de acordo com a APG III 161 espécies arbóreas foram descritas por ele ou contou com a sua colaboração, distribuídas em 39 famílias e 92 gêneros. Martius, ao longo de sua viagem, descreveu várias espécies arbóreas típicas do cerrado, a saber: Araticum (Annona crassiflora, Guatambu (Aspidosperma macrocarpon, A. tomentosum, Ingá (Inga edulis e Pau Terra (Qualea grandiflora, Q. multiflora, Q. parviflora, além de tantas outras ainda pouco conhecidas pela população, mas que do ponto de vista ecológico são extremamente importantes para o funcionamento dos ecossistemas.

  17. Taxonomic status of Woodland's enigmatic tapeworms (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) from Amazonian catfishes: back to museum collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Poorly known proteocephalidean cestodes of peculiar morphology, described by Woodland (1934) from pimelodid catfishes in Amazonia, Brazil, were studied. Re-examination of their type-specimens and evaluation of newly-collected material from Brazil and Peru made it possible to clarify their taxonomic status. Brayela karuatayi (Woodland, 1934), the type-species of the monotypic Brayela Rego, 1984, which has never been recorded since its original description, is redescribed and its scolex morphology, which has been misinterpreted in the original description, was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The actual definitive host of B. karuatayi is not a species of Glanidium Lütken (Auchenipteridae), but coroatá, Platynematichthys notatus (Jardine) (Pimelodidae). Peru is a new geographical record for B. karuatayi. The definitive host of other two proteocephalidean cestodes, Megathylacus jandia Woodland, 1934 and Proteocephalus jandia Woodland, 1934, is not a species of Rhamdia Bleeker (family Heptapteridae), but the pimelodid Zungaro zungaro (Humboldt) [syn. Paulicea luetkeni (Steindachner)]. Proteocephalus jandia is in fact conspecific with Travassiella avitellina Rego & Pavanelli, 1987, type-species of Travassiella Rego & Pavanelli, 1987. As a result, a new combination, Travassiella jandia (Woodland, 1934), is proposed. Megathylacus jandia Woodland, 1934 is considered conspecific with M. brooksi Rego & Pavanelli, 1985 described from the congeneric host [Zungaro jahu (Ihering)] from the Paraná River in Brazil; the latter species becomes its new junior synonym. The validity of M. travassosi Pavanelli & Rego, 1992, a parasite of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz) in the Paraná River basin in Brazil, is confirmed by a study of its type- and voucher specimens. The present account provides strong arguments to always study museum specimens in taxonomic studies; it also represents an evidence of the importance of depositing types and vouchers in

  18. Diel vertical migration of predators (planktivorous fish larvae and prey (zooplankton in a tropical lagoon

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    Marcos Marques Mendonça

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Based on the hypothesis that diel vertical migration (DVM is a mechanism of predator avoidance, the objective of the present study was to test for the occurrence of DVM in planktivorous fish larvae of Hypophthalmus edentatus (Spix, 1829 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae and Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Perciformes, Sciaenidae, and zooplankton (rotifers, cladocerans and copepods in an isolated tropical lagoon in the floodplain of the Upper Paraná River, Brazil (region of Parque Nacional de Ilha Grande. We investigated spatial overlap between predators (planktivorous fish larvae and prey (zooplankton, and tested which physical and chemical variables of the water are related to the DVM of the studied communities. We performed nocturnal (8:00 pm and 4:00 am and diurnal sampling (8:00 am and 4:00 pm in the limnetic region of the lagoon for six consecutive months, from October 2010 to March 2011, which comprises the reproductive period of the fish species analyzed. During the day the larvae tried to remain aggregated in the bottom of the lagoon, whereas at night they tried to disperse in the water column. Especially for cladocerans, the diel vertical migration is an important behavior to avoid predation larvae of H. edentatus and P. squamosissimus once decreased spatial overlap between secured and its potential predators, which corroborates the hypothesis that DVM is a mechanism of predator avoidance. Although significant correlations were observed between the abiotic factors and WMD of microcrustaceans at certain times of day, the effect of predation of fish larvae on zooplankton showed more important in this environment, because the small depth and isolation not allow great variation of abiotic factors seasonally and between strata the lagoon.

  19. Differential repetitive DNA composition in the centromeric region of chromosomes of Amazonian lizard species in the family Teiidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Natalia D M; Carmo, Edson; Neves, Rogerio O; Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Differences in heterochromatin distribution patterns and its composition were observed in Amazonian teiid species. Studies have shown repetitive DNA harbors heterochromatic blocks which are located in centromeric and telomeric regions in Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758), Kentropyx calcarata (Spix, 1825), Kentropyx pelviceps (Cope, 1868), and Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758). In Cnemidophorus sp.1, repetitive DNA has multiple signals along all chromosomes. The aim of this study was to characterize moderately and highly repetitive DNA sequences by C ot1-DNA from Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 genomes through cloning and DNA sequencing, as well as mapping them chromosomally to better understand its organization and genome dynamics. The results of sequencing of DNA libraries obtained by C ot1-DNA showed that different microsatellites, transposons, retrotransposons, and some gene families also comprise the fraction of repetitive DNA in the teiid species. FISH using C ot1-DNA probes isolated from both Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 showed these sequences mainly located in heterochromatic centromeric, and telomeric regions in Ameiva ameiva, Kentropyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin chromosomes, indicating they play structural and functional roles in the genome of these species. In Cnemidophorus sp.1, C ot1-DNA probe isolated from Ameiva ameiva had multiple interstitial signals on chromosomes, whereas mapping of C ot1-DNA isolated from the Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 highlighted centromeric regions of some chromosomes. Thus, the data obtained showed that many repetitive DNA classes are part of the genome of Ameiva ameiva, Cnemidophorus sp.1, Kentroyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin, and these sequences are shared among the analyzed teiid species, but they were not always allocated at the same chromosome position.

  20. Living in a caatinga-rocky field transitional habitat: ecological aspects of the whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae in northeastern Brazil

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    Vanderlaine A Menezes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The ecology of the active forager lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825 was studied to analyze food habits, thermal ecology and habitat use, in the Morro do Chapéu municipality (11º29'S, 41º07'W, state of Bahia, Brazil. Lizards (N = 34 were collected with rubber bands or with an air rifle and, for each individual, we recorded cloacal temperature (Tc, air temperature (Ta (1 cm above the substrate and substrate temperature (Ts (to nearest 0.2ºC. We registered the microhabitat used by each animal at the moment of first sight and measured its morphological variables (nearest 0.1 mm. In the laboratory, we registered the number of items of each prey category to the taxonomic level of Order, its dimensions and frequencies. Data showed that, numerically, the category most consumed was Isoptera (84.4%. Volumetrically, the diet was composed predominantly by Orthoptera (27.5% and Isoptera (21.5%. Prey items that occur aggregated in the environment (termites were important in the diet of C. ocellifer, a characteristic of active foragers. Males and females did not differ in the types of prey consumed. Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a mean Tc in activity of 37.6 ± 1.6ºC and the relationship between Tc and ambient temperatures (Ts and Ta was positive and significant (F2,28 = 4.814; R² = 0.256; p < 0.05. Most lizards were first sighted on leaf litter inside shrubs (45.5% and on leaf litter at shrub edge (42.4%. Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a relatively high mean Tc during activity, with Ts explaining most of the variation in lizard Tc.

  1. O que é melhor para manter a riqueza de espécies de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera: um fragmento florestal grande ou vários fragmentos de pequeno tamanho? What is better for maintaining the richness of bat (Mammalia, Chiroptera species: a large forest fragment or many small fragments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelio Roberto dos Reis

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating if the size of forest fragments affects the diversity of bat species. In order to do that, seven fragments were studied in Londrina, Paraná: five small fragments, whose areas varied between 1 and 10 ha; a fragment which is considered medium-sized (Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas - 85,47 ha.; and a large fragment (Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy - 680 ha.. Thirty three species were collected. Ten species were common to all three types of fragments: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843, Eptesicus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821. Eight species were only found in the large fragment: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Uroderma bilobatum Peters, 1866, Diaemus youngi (Jentink,1893, Diphylla ecaudata Spix, 1823, Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847, Histiotus velatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 and Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824. Five were only found in the small fragments: Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843, Chiroderma villosum Peters, 1860, Eptesicus sp. e Rogheessa tumida H. Allen, 1866. Chiroderma doriae, which is threatened by extinction, was captured in the large fragment and in one of the small fragments; M. ruber, also threatened by extinction, was captured in the medium-sized and large fragments. We believe that the major cause for the loss of organic diversity is not rational exploitation, but the destruction of habitats, a result of the expansion of irrational human activities.

  2. Potenciais efeitos das mudanças climáticas futuras sobre a distribuiçãode um anuro da Caatinga Rhinella granulosa (Anura, Bufonidae

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    Hauanny Rodrigues Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, usamos dois tipos de modelagem de distribuição de espécies (correlativo e mecanístico, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito das mudanças climáticas sob a distribuição geográfica de Rhinella granulosa (Spix, 1824, espécie inserida principalmente no bioma Caatinga. Avaliamos a predição, levantada por outros autores, de que espécies de anfíbios distribuídos em climas quentes terão suas distribuições espaciais restringidas por aumento da temperatura considerando cenários futuros. Na abordagem correlativa, os resultados mostraram que as distribuições espaciais geradas pelo modelo de distância Euclidiana foram mais conservativas, ou seja, as áreas que apresentaram menor distância do nicho ótimo se restringiram às áreas de distribuição real da espécie (Caatinga e às pequenas regiões que abrangem o bioma Cerrado. A abordagem mecanística apresentou resultados menos conservativos, onde o habitat indicado como adequado para R. granulosa está contido em grande parte da América do Sul, formando uma extensa área contínua. No geral, verificou-se que R. granulosa não sofrerá forte influência climática sobre sua distribuição geográfica no futuro, pelo menos até 2080, provavelmente por apresentar uma fisiologia extremamente tolerante às altas temperaturas e por possuir adaptações para suportar clima quente e seco.

  3. Caza y estado de conservación de primates en la cuenca del río Itaya, Loreto, Perú

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    Rolando Aquino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este reporte contiene información relacionada a la diversidad e impacto de la caza de los primates, así como las amenazas potenciales para sus poblaciones que habitan en la cuenca del río Alto Itaya. Está basado en censos por transectos y registros de caza llevados a cabo en seis comunidades. Como resultado de los censos, fueron registrados 384 grupos pertenecientes a 9 de las 11 especies que habitan en el área de estudio, correspondiendo los mayores registros al pichico pardo (Saguinus fuscicollis Spix con 25,3%, huapo negro (Pithecia aequatorialis Hershkovitz con 20,6% y mono choro (Lagothrix poeppigii Humboldt con 15,9%. La densidad poblacional fue estimada para nueve especies, siendo Saimiri sciureus Linnaeus la más abundante con 18,2 individuos/km2, seguido por L. poeppigii con 15,5 individuos/km2 y S. fuscicollis con 10,5 individuos/ km2; lo contrario ocurrió en Alouatta seniculus Linnaeus, cuya densidad fue estimada en 0,15 individuos/ km2. Del área de caza estimada en 600 km2 fueron extraídos un promedio anual de 262 ejemplares y cuya biomasa fue calculada en 1677,9. kg. Del total, 119 individuos equivalente al 45% correspondió a L. poeppigii, cuya presión de caza fue calculada en 0,19 individuos/km2. La aplicación del modelo de cosecha sugiere sobrecaza en poblaciones de A. seniculus, L. poeppigii y C. apella. La caza y la deforestación con fines agrícolas son las amenazas potenciales para las poblaciones de primates.

  4. 华南泥盆纪遗迹化石及遗迹相%The Devonian trace fossils and ichnofacies from South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立军; 龚一鸣; 马会珍

    2011-01-01

    通过对华南泥盆系6条剖面(四川北川甘溪、广西横县六景、广西桂林杨堤、贵州独山大河口—白虎坡、贵州贵阳乌当、四川广元后高坪)的遗迹沉积学系统研究,鉴定和描述遗迹化石15属24种,包括Arenicolites carbonaria,Arenicolites isp.,Chondrites cf.intricatus,Chondrites fenxiangensis,Chondrites filifalx,Chondrites isp.,Chondrites maqianensis,Circulichnis isp.,Dushanichnus dahekouensis,Diplocraterion parallelum,Rusophycus lungrmenshanensis,?Helminthopsis isp.,Palaeophycus tubularis,Palaeophycus curvatus,Phycodes palmatus,Planolites beverleyensis,Planolites isp.,Planolites kwangsiensis,Rosselia socialis,Rhizocorallium jenense,Rhizocorallium isp.,Skolithos linearis,Thalassinoides isp.,Zoophycos isp..根据遗迹化石之间的共生组合关系、实体化石特征和其他相标志,识别出4种遗迹相:Skolithos,Rhizocorallium,Cruziana和Zoophycos遗迹相.Skolithos遗迹相主要发育于浪控型海岸体系、潮控型海岸体系和障壁岛—潟湖沉积体系的高能沉积区;Rhizocorallium遗迹相主要发育于潮控型海岸体系和障壁岛—潟湖沉积体系的低能沉积区;Cruziana遗迹相发育在浅海陆棚、具有丰富的生物及食物的砂泥岩和灰岩为主的低能沉积区;Zoophycos遗迹相沿泥岩和泥灰岩发育的滨外沉积区分布.华南泥盆纪遗迹相从早泥盆世到晚泥盆世的演替规律是从Skolithos遗迹相→Rhizocorallium遗迹相→Cruziana遗迹相→Zoophycos遗迹相→Rhizocorallium遗迹相.早泥盆世晚期以后华南泥盆纪同时期的遗迹相自西南向东北的空间变化规律则表现为Zoophycos遗迹相→Cruziana遗迹相→Rhizocorallium遗迹相→Skolithos遗迹相.

  5. Invasive vertebrate species in Chile and their control and monitoring by governmental agencies Especies de vertebrados invasores en Chile y su control y monitoreo por agencias gubernamentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. AGUSTÍN IRIARTE

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of the current status of vertebrate invasive species throughout Chile, updating information on terrestrial exotics and reporting for the first time the situation of exotic freshwater fishes. In addition, we document the legislation and programs that the Chilean government has implemented to limit the entry of exotics to the country or minimize their impact on native wild flora and fauna and on natural ecosystems. We document what is known about the introduction of 26 exotic fish species to continental waters of the country, discussing the distribution and putative effects of those 11 species that may be considered invasive. From a previous list of 24 terrestrial vertebrate invaders, we withdraw the Argentine tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis, reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and mouflon (Ovis ammon because there are no data on their subsistence in the wild. On the other hand, we add three new species: red-eared freshwater turtle (Trachemys scripta, monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus, and red-crested cardinal (Paroaria coronata, thus keeping the total number of terrestrial invaders unchanged at 24 species. The chief agency in charge of existing laws and regulations regarding the import of exotic freshwater species is the National Fisheries Service (SERNAPESCA, in Spanish, a dependency of the Ministry of Economy. The main agency in charge of enforcing existing laws and regulations regarding the import of exotic terrestrial species to Chile is the Agriculture and Livestock Service (SAG, in Spanish, a dependency of the Ministry of Agriculture. Currently, SAG is not only controlling major border passes, seaports and airports, but also is funding studies to monitor and control already existing invaders. In addition, the Chilean Forest Service (CONAF, in Spanish is also concerned about invasive species, but only if they enter national parks and reserves within the National System of Protected Wildlife Areas (SNASPE, in Spanish

  6. Natureza ou Deus: afinidades panteístas entre Goethe e o "brasileiro" Martius Nature or God: pantheistic affinities between Goethe and Martius, "the Brazilian"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus V. Mazzari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Na segunda parte do romance As afinidades eletivas, a jovem Ottilie registra em seu diário as seguintes palavras: "Digno de veneração é apenas o naturalista que sabe descrever e expor o mais estranho, o mais insólito, com sua cor local, com todo o seu entorno e sempre em seu elemento mais próprio. Como eu gostaria de ver-me um dia na presença de Humboldt, ouvindo suas narrações!". A passagem revela, ao lado da admiração de Goethe por Humboldt, o seu interesse pelas ciências naturais, o qual experimenta significativa intensificação em setembro de 1824, quando estabelece contato pessoal com o botânico Carl F. P. von Martius. Em seu jovem interlocutor Goethe logo reconhece as qualidades de naturalista que no romance são atribuídas a Humboldt. Passa então a acompanhar com máximo interesse as publicações em que Martius elabora as pesquisas, observações e experiências realizadas ao longo dos três anos e meio em que percorreu, junto com o zoólogo Spix, mais de dez mil quilômetros de território brasileiro. Nasce assim um intercâmbio científico e cultural dos mais fecundos, o qual se enraíza especialmente nas concepções panteístas de que partilhavam o velho poeta de Weimar e o jovem botânico. Além de enfocar alguns aspectos das viagens brasileiras de Martius, este ensaio tem por objetivo expor a sua recepção por Goethe e discutir ainda eventuais influxos sobre sua produção literária. A reelaboração, em 1825, de uma das canções que Goethe, 43 anos antes, havia redigido com o subtítulo Brasilianisch deve-se seguramente a esse intercâmbio. Pretende-se discutir também a hipótese de que determinados textos e concepções de Martius tenham deixado vestígios em passagens da segunda parte do Fausto.In the second part of the novel Elective Affinities, young Ottilie registered the following words in her diary: "The only inquirers into nature whom we care to respect, are such as know how to describe and to represent

  7. Thesis Abstract Morphological and phylogeographic analysis of Brazilian tortoises (Testudinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T L; Venancio, L P R; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2015-12-29

    The discriminative potentials of biogeography, vocalization, morphology, cytogenetics, hemoglobin, and molecular profiling of cytochrome b as taxonomic techniques for differentiating Brazilian tortoises were evaluated in this study. In Brazil, two species of tortoises are described, Chelonoidis carbonarius and Chelonoidis denticulatus. However, in the present study, some animals that were initially recognized based on morphological characters and coloring did not correspond to the typical pattern of C. carbonarius; these animals were classified as morphotypes 1 and 2. It was proposed that these morphotypes are differentiated species, and they should not be considered as a single taxonomic unit with C. carbonarius. Tortoises analyzed were provided by the National Institute for Amazonian Research (INPA); the Emilio Goeldi Museum, PA; municipal zoos in São José do Rio Preto, SP, and Araçatuba, SP; and the Reginaldo Uvo Leone breeding farm for Wild and Exotic Animals, Tabapuã, SP. Based on the data obtained using biogeographic evaluation of specimens in the literature, it was found that C. carbonarius is distributed in the Northeast Region of Brazil, and no animal of this pattern was observed in the investigated collections. On the other hand, C. denticulatus is found in all the states of the Legal Amazonia. In addition, isolated individual records of this species exist in the Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro and in the Midwest Region composed of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, and Mato Grosso do Sul. In the Northeast Region, C. denticulatus occurs in the State of Bahia. Morphotype 1 has a wider geographical distribution than C. carbonarius, possibly because of several distribution reports associated with C. carbonarius, indicating erroneous association of morphotype 1 as a single taxonomic unit with C. carbonarius. Morphotype 2 is found only in the states of Pará, Maranhão, and Piauí. These biogeographic data indicate that the

  8. Occurrence, local extinction and conservation of Primates in the corridor of the Upper Paraná River, with notes on other mammals Ocorrência, extinção local e conservação dos primatas do corredor do Alto Rio Paraná, com notas sobre outros mamíferos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas M. Aguiar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The region of Porto Rico, on the Upper Paraná River, is a contact zone between the Atlantic Rainforest and the Cerrado, with elements of the Pantanal wetlands. During surveys from September 2003 to September to 2005, we recorded the presence of non-volant mammals on 14 islands and the adjacent riverbanks. Surveys were by foot and by boat, and we also interviewed local people about the mammals of the region. Sightings of three primate species - Cebus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809 (left margin of the river, C. libidinosus Spix, 1823 (right margin and Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812 (both margins and 12 islands - were plotted on a satellite image. Alouatta clamitans Cabrera, 1940 was not recorded. However, interviews indicated that this species has occurred in this region in the past. The survey of mammals revealed the occurrence of 32 native species, a native genus with one or more unidentified species, and two introduced species [Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778 and Sus scrofa (Linnaeus, 1758]. The study discusses the permeability of the Paraná River to dispersal, as well as its potential as a geographical barrier to some species. Hypothesis on the local extinction of A. clamitans is also addressed. This study provides information that can be useful for promoting the conservation of this region.A região de Porto Rico, Alto Rio Paraná, é zona de contato entre a Mata Atlântica e o Cerrado, com influências do Pantanal. Este estudo levantou as espécies de primatas da região para a confecção de um mapa de ocorrências. Listou-se as ocorrências de mamíferos não-voadores, discriminando os registros entre os ambientes de ilhas e margens opostas. Para tanto, além do auxílio de entrevistas, as matas de 14 ilhas e das margens foram percorridas por terra e de barco durante setembro de 2003 a setembro de 2005. Pontos de avistamento dos primatas foram plotados em imagem de satélite. Três espécies de primatas foram registradas: Cebus nigritus somente

  9. 白背黄花稔Sida rhombifolia的生物活性及化学成分研究%Study on bioactivity and chemical constituents of Sida rhombifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈维权; 张恒; 徐汉虹

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol extract of the aerial part of Sida rhombifolia L. was extracted with petroleum ether and ethyl acetate to give the petroleum ether extract,ethyl acetate extract and water phase. Toxic activity of the ethanol extract and three crude extracts against the 4th-instars larva of Aedes albopictus Skuse and Ampullaria gigas Spix was tested. It showed that the ethanol extract and ethyl acetate extract had obvious insecticidal activity against the 4th-instars larva of A. albopictus, while petroleum ether extract and the ethanol extract showed higher molluscicidal activity against A. gigas. Eleven known compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract through further phytochemical investigation, their structures were identified as m-hydroxybenzoic acid (1), glyceroyl monopalmitate (2), syringic acid (3), gallic acid (4), /3-sitosterol (5), stigmasterol (6), scopoletin (7), kaempferol (8), 5 -hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavanone (9), tiliroside (10) and β-sitosterol-3-0-glucoside (11), respectively, by 'H NMR and 13C NMR. Compound 2 exhibited potent insecticidal activity against the 4th-instars larva of A. albopictus, with LC50 value of 28.66 μg/mL and 13.50 μg/mL after treatment in 24 h and 48 h, respectively.%用石油醚和乙酸乙酯分别对白背黄花稔Sida rhombifoliaL.地上部分的乙醇提取物进行萃取,得不同萃取相;测定了乙醇提取物及不同萃取相对白纹伊蚊Aedes albopictus Skuse 4龄幼虫和福寿螺Ampullaria gigas Spix的毒杀活性.结果表明,乙醇提取物和乙酸乙酯相对白纹伊蚊4龄幼虫的杀虫活性明显,而石油醚相和乙醇提取物对福寿螺的杀螺活性较好.对乙酸乙酯相进一步分离得到11个化合物,经核磁共振氢谱(1H NMR)和碳谱(13C NMR)鉴定其分别为已知化合物:间-羟基苯甲酸(1)、棕榈酸1-甘油酯(2)、丁香酸(3)、没食子酸(4)、β-谷甾醇(5)、豆甾醇(6)、东莨菪内酯(7)、山奈酚(8)、5-羟基-7,4 ′-二甲氧基二氢黄酮(9)

  10. Gopherus Agassizii (Desert Tortoise). Predation/Mountain Lions (Pre-Print)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul D. Greger and Philip A. Medica

    2009-01-01

    sized Mountain Lion. By comparison, a 2 year old male Mountain Lion salvaged on NTS had an upper intercanine bite width of 45 mm, and a 6 month old kitten measured 35mm respectively. The Mountain Lion (Puma concolor) is the only predator that exists in southern Nevada that could possibly have a bite with a gap between its upper canine teeth that large (Murmann et al. 2006. J. Forensic Sci. 51:846-860). The appearance of the shell remains in Figure 1A is similar to that depicting Jaguar (Panthera onca) predation, on the Amazonian Tortoise (Geochelone denticulata) as illustrated by Emmons (1989. J. Herpetol. 23:311-314) with the majority of the carapace broken open and the plastron still intact. Predation of Desert Tortoises by Mountain Lions was also documented in 1993 in southern Arizona (Little Shipp Wash Plot), where 7 of 8 carcasses found were attributed to Mountain Lion predation (Averill-Murray et al. 2002. In. T.R.Van Devender [ed.], The Sonoran Desert Tortoise: Natural History, Biology, and Conservation, pp.109-134. University of Arizona Press and Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona). Similarly, predation by a Mountain Lion has been reported on the Argentine Tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis) in Argentina (Acosta et al. 2004. Herpetol. Review 35:53-54), and a Mountain Lion kitten was observed to kill and consume a portion of the carapace of a Texas Tortoise (Gopherus berlandieri) in west Texas (Adams et al. 2006. Southwestern Nat. 51:581-581). Over the past 45 years this Desert Tortoise population has been monitored yearly, with no prior evidence of predation to tortoises within the fenced enclosures. On several occasions other predators such as Bobcats (Lynx rufus) have been observed within the study enclosures for as long as a week. Evidence of Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotus) sign has been observed on numerous occasions, and a Spotted Skunk (Spilogale putorius) and Longtail Weasels (Mustela frenata) have been captured and released (B.G. Maza, pers. comm

  11. Estudos sobre a Esquistosomose em Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggeu Magalhães

    1940-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores referem os resultados dos estudos sobre esquistosomose realisados, em Pernambuco, de Novembro de 1938 a Dezembro de 1939. Não se extendem em discussão, nem comentarios, tampouco, relacionam suas verificações com o que já foi relatado sobre o assunto em trabalhos nacionais e estrangeiros, pelo fato de que, não se trata de um resultado definitivo e sim de atividades que irão proseguir. Os estudos sistematicos em torno da endemia esquistosomica foram executados em duas localidades diversas pela população e pela situação geografica e ecologica. Pontezinha é uma povoação de 1200 habitantes localizada proximo a um conjunto de charcos e lagõas de agua dôce onde pululam caramujos do tipo olivaceus de Spix, e apresenta uma taxa de infestação de 21,4% para individuos do sexo masculino, e de 14,7% para os do sexo feminino. A distribuição por grupos de idade mostra que a incidencia cresce até o grupo de 16 a 20 anos de idade, quando atinge a percentagem de 37,8%, para decrescer em seguida. Em Vitoria a incidencia foi maior nos indivíduos do sexo feminino, atingindo a taxa de 41,4%, dando o sexo masculino a taxa de 36,9%. Por idade a percentagem maxima é atingida pelo grupo de 11 a 15 anos. Vitoria é uma cidade de 1500 habitantes, construida á margem do rio Tapacurá, onde se encontram numerosos caramujos do tipo centimetralis Lutz. A divergencia de incidencia corre por conta dos habitos da população e pela utilização que ela faz do rio, sendo maior em Vitoria porque a proximidade do rio facilita o uso de suas aguas para banho e serviços domesticos, condicionando este ultimo fato, a maior infestação das mulheres. O estudo da frequencia da infestação dos caramujos por cercarias de diversos trematodios, permite suspeitar uma relação inversa entre a taxa de infestação e o diametro maximo atingido pelos caramujos, parecendo este fato confirmar os trabalhos de Vianna Martins sobre a identidade dos hospedeiros