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Sample records for chelonoidis carbonaria spix

  1. Association of 3D reconstruction and conventional radiography for the description of the appendicular skeleton of Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix, 1824).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolini, Z; Lehmkuhl, R C; Ozeki, L M; Tranquilim, M V; Sesoko, N F; Teixeira, C R; Vulcano, L C

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we associated imaging modalities, such as computed tomography (CT) and standard radiography, with anatomical specimens to describe the anatomy of the appendicular skeleton of red-footed tortoises (Chelonoidis carbonaria), using animals of different sizes, ages, sexes and weights. Manus and pes bones were described from conventional radiography and osteological specimens, because they have small structures that could not be reconstructed. The main anatomical feature that differentiates C. carbonaria from others Testudines is the ischial-pubic tuberculum. The pectoral girdle is formed by the union of two bones, the scapula and the coracoid, showing no bone connection with the shell. Carpal and tarsal bones can be fused or not and include: carporadial and central carpus, carpoulnar and V carpal, central tarsal and fibular tarsal, distal tarsal I and II. The phalangeal formula is 2:2:2:2:2 in the forelimb and 2:2:2:2:1 in the hind limb. Imaging examinations are important tools in anatomical description and can be used in living individuals, replacing or aiding the study with anatomical specimens. PMID:22515213

  2. A role for histamine in cardiovascular regulation in late stage embryos of the red-footed tortoise, Chelonoidis carbonaria Spix, 1824.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Dane A; Sartori, Marina R; Abe, Augusto S; Taylor, Edwin W

    2013-08-01

    A chorioallantoic membrane artery in embryos of the red-footed tortoise, Chelonoidis carbonaria was occlusively cannulated for measurement of blood pressure and injection of drugs. Two age groups of embryos in the final 10 % of incubation were categorized by the ratio of embryonic body to yolk mass. All embryos first received cholinergic and β-adrenergic blockade. This revealed that β-adrenergic control was established in both groups whereas cholinergic control was only established in the older group immediately prior to hatching. The study then progressed as two series. Series one was conducted in a subset of embryos treated with histamine before or after injection of ranitidine, the antagonist of H2 receptors. Injection of histamine caused an initial phasic hypertension which recovered, followed by a longer lasting hypertensive response accompanied by a tachycardia. Injection of the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine itself caused a hypotensive tachycardia with subsequent recovery of heart rate. Ranitidine also abolished the cardiac effects of histamine injection while leaving the initial hypertensive response intact. In series, two embryos were injected with histamine after injection of diphenhydramine, the antagonist to H1 receptors. This abolished the whole of the pressor response to histamine injection but left the tachycardic response intact. These data indicate that histamine acts as a non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic factor, regulating the cardiovascular system of developing reptilian embryos and that its overall effects are mediated via both H1 and H2 receptor types.

  3. Aspectos fisiopatológicos da retenção de ovos em Jabutipiranga (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824) Fisiopathological aspects of egg retention in South American Red-footed Tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alexandre Rey Matias; Mário Antônio Pinto Romão; Rogério Tortelly; Sávio Freire Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Das enfermidades que acometem o sistema genital de répteis, a retenção de ovos tem grande prevalência em quelônios. Neste trabalho, são analisados quatorze casos de retenção de ovos na espécie jabutipiranga (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824), mantidos como animais de companhia, os quais foram atendidos na Policlínica Veterinária da Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) entre os anos de 1999 e 2003. Dos fatores que provocam ou favorecem a ocorrência dessa distocia, foram avaliados: em relação ...

  4. Aspectos fisiopatológicos da retenção de ovos em Jabutipiranga (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824 Fisiopathological aspects of egg retention in South American Red-footed Tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824

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    Carlos Alexandre Rey Matias

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Das enfermidades que acometem o sistema genital de répteis, a retenção de ovos tem grande prevalência em quelônios. Neste trabalho, são analisados quatorze casos de retenção de ovos na espécie jabutipiranga (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824, mantidos como animais de companhia, os quais foram atendidos na Policlínica Veterinária da Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF entre os anos de 1999 e 2003. Dos fatores que provocam ou favorecem a ocorrência dessa distocia, foram avaliados: em relação aos ovos retidos, a presença de ovos com alterações de formato e de tamanho aumentado e hipercalcificação das cascas; em relação aos fatores predisponentes, foram analisados fatores ambientais, sinais nos pacientes relacionados à ocorrência de doença osteometabólica, presença de corpo estranho ou fezes ressecadas no trato gastrintestinal, bem como a associação da retenção de ovos com prolapso de oviduto. A utilização de técnicas radiográficas no diagnóstico definitivo da retenção de ovos e no direcionamento da sua resolução mostrou-se indispensável nos casos estudados. Quanto ao tratamento, duas condutas foram consideradas: a utilização de ocitócinos e a intervenção cirúrgica. Da análise dos fatores que favorecem a ocorrência da distocia, conclui-se que a manutenção dos animais em ambientes com substrato rígido foi decisiva.Egg retention is a disorder that affects the genital system of reptiles, with a great prevalence in chelonians. These work analyses fourteen cases of egg retention in South American Red-footed Tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824 maintained as pets that had been attended in the Veterinary Clinic of Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF between 1999 and 2003. Among the factors that contribute to the occurrence of this dystocia are aspects of the retained eggs such as shape abnormalities, size enlargement and thickened shells were analyzed, as well as poor environmental condition

  5. Pneumonia bacteriana em jabuti-piranga (Chelonoidis carbonaria: aspectos clínicos, microbiológicos, radiológicos e terapêutica

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    Marcelo M. Silveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A pneumonia é uma doença respiratória comum na clínica de répteis. Agentes infecciosos são capazes de causar pneumonia primária em répteis mantidos em cativeiro, porém na maioria dos casos, são secundárias a problemas de manejo, higiene e nutricionais. O objetivo desse trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência de pneumonia bacteriana em jabuti-piranga (Chelonoidis carbonaria, e descrever o diagnóstico clínico, microbiológico, radiográfico e a conduta terapêutica. O animal apresentava sinais de distúrbios respiratórios e foi descrito durante a anamnese que houve um diagnostico anterior de pneumonia. Os achados radiográficos foram sugestivos de pneumonia/edema pulmonar. Baseado nos exames radiográficos e sinais clínicos apresentados iniciou-se o tratamento com administração de Cloranfenicol (40mg/kg/SID/IM por 10 dias. Foram isoladas Klebsiella spp. e Citrobacter spp. da cultura bacteriana realizada da coleta de lavado endotraqueal. Ambas com perfil de resistência múltipla aos antibióticos testados. Instituiu-se protocolo terapêutico utilizando Gentamicina (5mg/kg/IM, em sete aplicações com intervalos de 72h. Após o segundo protocolo terapêutico notou-se melhora dos sinais clínicos do animal, porém foi observada a persistência de secreção nasal. Foi realizado novo exame radiográfico, demonstrando discreta diminuição na opacidade do campo pulmonar direito e nenhuma alteração significativa no campo pulmonar esquerdo na projeção craniocaudal. Devido à permanência do sinal clínico apresentado, nova coleta de material endotraqueal foi realizada, e houve isolamento de Citrobacter spp. e Enterobacter spp. A partir dos resultados obtidos no antibiograma, instituiu-se novo protocolo com uso de amicacina (2,5mg/kg/IM, em sete aplicações com intervalos de 72h. Após antibioticoterapia, outro exame radiológico foi realizado, e demonstrou redução satisfatória do quadro pulmonar, e sinais clínicos.

  6. RETENCIÓN DE HUEVOS EN HEMBRA DE JABOTÍ-PIRANGA (Geochelone carbonaria - Spix, 1824) EN CAUTIVERIO

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Rodrigues da Silbeira, M.V; Eduardo Cárdenas Nogueira Rubião, M.Sc; Igor Mansur Muniz, M.Sc; Denise de Mello Bobány, M.Sc

    2009-01-01

    Un Jabotí-Piranga adulto (Geochelone carbonaria), hembra, con peso de 3.5 kg ingresó por consulta en la escuela clínica “Dr. Cataldi Luiz de Souza”, del “Centro Universitário Serra dos Órgãos - Teresopolis, Río de Janeiro”, con historia de retención de huevos. En la evaluación clínica y radiológica, se encontró tres huevos en posiciones normales. Teniendo en cuenta la temporada de reproducción, se aconsejó la observación del animal. Después de un año, dicho animal regresó a la clínica por no ...

  7. Morphology and topographic anatomy of the spinal cord of the red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824

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    Rafael C Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the topography of the spinal cord of the red-footed tortoise to establish a morphological basis for applied research in anesthesiology and morphology. Six tortoises from the state of Maranhão (Brazil that had died of natural causes were used. The common carotid artery was used to perfuse the arterial system with saline solution (heated to 37ºC and to fix the material with a 20% formaldehyde solution. The specimens were then placed in a modified decalcifying solution for 72 hours to allow dorsal opening of the carapace with a chisel and an orthopedic hammer. Dissection of the dorsal musculature and sectioning of the vertebral arches were performed to access the spinal cord. The results revealed the spinal cord of G. carbonaria to be an elongated, whitish mass that reached the articulation between the penultimate and last caudal vertebrae. The cervical intumescence (Intumescentia cervicalis was located between vertebral segments C5 and T1, whereas the lumbosacral intumescence (Intumescentia lumbalis was located between T6 and Ca1.

  8. RETENCIÓN DE HUEVOS EN HEMBRA DE JABOTÍ-PIRANGA (Geochelone carbonaria - Spix, 1824 EN CAUTIVERIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rodrigues da Silbeira, M.V

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Un Jabotí-Piranga adulto (Geochelone carbonaria, hembra, con peso de 3.5 kg ingresó por consulta en la escuela clínica “Dr. Cataldi Luiz de Souza”, del “Centro Universitário Serra dos Órgãos - Teresopolis, Río de Janeiro”, con historia de retención de huevos. En la evaluación clínica y radiológica, se encontró tres huevos en posiciones normales. Teniendo en cuenta la temporada de reproducción, se aconsejó la observación del animal. Después de un año, dicho animal regresó a la clínica por no haber todavía expulsado los huevos. Tras nuevo examen radiográfico se observó que los 3 huevos continuaban en la misma posición. A continuación, se aplicó 0.03 ml de oxitocina por vía subcutanea (10 UI x ml, en el apéndice anterior del animal. Tres horas después de la aplicación de la hormona, el animal expulsó los huevos naturalmente, sin la necesidad de una intervención quirúrgica, con lo que se puede sospechar de la eficacia de la aplicación de oxitocina para este procedimiento en jabotí Piranga.

  9. Contribución al conocimiento sobre la reproducción y el crecimiento de los "morrocoyes" (geochelone carbonaria y g. denticulata; testudines. testudinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    En Colombia existen dos especies del género Geochelone Fitzinger, 1836, las cuales se consideraron como una sola, denominada Testudo denticulata.  Williams, en 1960, basandose en ciertas características morfológicas externas constantes, consideró estas especies como válidas:1 - Geochelone carbonaria (Spix), 1824, p. 22, pl. 16.2 - Geochelone denticulata (L.), 1766, p. 352.En Colombia se usan los nombres vernáculos de "morrocoy", "morrocoyo" para ambas, "morrocoy negro" para G. carbonaria y en...

  10. Touchscreen performance and knowledge transfer in the red-footed tortoise (Chelonoidis carbonaria)

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller-Paul, Julia; Wilkinson, Anna; Aust, Ulrike; Steurer, Michael; Hall, Geoffrey; Huber, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    In recent years red-footed tortoises have been shown to be proficient in a number of spatial cognition tasks that involve movement of the animal through space (e.g., the radial maze). The present study investigated the ability of the tortoise to learn a spatial task in which the response required was simply to touch a stimulus presented in a given position on a touchscreen. We also investigated the relation between this task and performance in a different spatial task (an arena, in which whol...

  11. Acupuncture for locomotor disabilities in a South American red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria) - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamillo-Szabó, Márcia Valéria Rizzo; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto; Olegário, Maria Marlene Martins; Andrade, Mariana Batista

    2008-12-01

    The literature contains numerous reports of the effect of acupuncture on domestic or experimental animals, but only a few involving wild animals. This paper reports on acupuncture treatment for locomotor disabilities in a South American red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria, SPIX, 1824), an endangered land tortoise found in Brazils Cerrado region. The animal was captured and kept in an aquatic pen, subsequently developing respiratory symptoms and locomotor disabilities. The respiratory symptoms resolved in response to antibiotic treatment. However, despite the use of nutritional supplements, the motor symptoms remained unchanged. After 16 months, the tortoise was given six acupuncture sessions. No other changes were made to its environment or management. The location of the acupuncture points was transposed from canine charts. After acupuncture, the animals motor functions, which had remained unchanged during the preceding 16 months, were restored, enabling it to eat and walk unaided. The improvement persisted during 18 months follow up. The transposition of acupuncture points from canine charts is a viable alternative for chelonians. PMID:19098697

  12. Morphology and topographic anatomy of the spinal cord of the red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824)

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    Rafael C. Carvalho; Alana L. Sousa; Sâmia C.R Oliveira; Ana C.B.C.F. Pinto; José H Fontenelle; Silvia R.G. Cortopassi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the topography of the spinal cord of the red-footed tortoise to establish a morphological basis for applied research in anesthesiology and morphology. Six tortoises from the state of Maranhão (Brazil) that had died of natural causes were used. The common carotid artery was used to perfuse the arterial system with saline solution (heated to 37ºC) and to fix the material with a 20% formaldehyde solution. The specimens were then placed in a modified decalcif...

  13. Hormonal profiles of captive Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Maile A; Atkinson, Shannon; Ramos, Meg Ferrell

    2016-05-01

    Monthly blood samples, daily mating observations from Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis nigra), and local rainfall and temperature were collected at the Honolulu Zoo as part of a fertility evaluation. Testosterone concentrations were measured for males (n = 6), two of which were seen copulating and were considered sexually active. Estrone sulfate and progesterone concentrations were measured for female tortoises (n = 9), two of which nested and only one had laid eggs. Testosterone profiles were similar for both sexually active and sexually inactive males, both of which were positively correlated with temperature but not rainfall. Peak testosterone concentrations (12.0 ± 1.4 ng/ml sexually active animals vs. 14.4 ± 2.4 ng/ml sexually inactive animals) occurred at the end of the nesting season, from April to July. Estrone sulfate concentrations were similar for nesting (n = 2) and non-nesting (n = 7) female tortoises, rising from non-detectable concentrations (September), and increasing to peak concentrations during the nesting season. Progesterone concentrations remained low and spiked (9.44 ng/ml) only for the female that nested and laid eggs. Testosterone was negatively correlated with mating behavior, and the male tortoises were likely capable of spermatogenesis even though only two of them engaged in mating behavior. The female tortoises were not senescent, as the estrone sulfate concentrations likely reflected waves of ovarian follicular activity. Endocrine parameters were not in synchrony with rainfall, and a disconnect between the timing of reproductive events and the environmental milieu may help to explain the poor fertility of these tortoises. Zoo Biol. 35:237-245, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26971322

  14. Oxygenation properties of hemoglobin from the turtle Geochelone carbonaria.

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    Torsoni, M A; Ogo, S H

    1995-01-01

    The oxygen-binding properties of hemoglobin (Hb) from the adult terrestrial turtle Geochelone carbonaria are described. Turtle hemoglobins have a low intrinsic oxygen affinity and a low sensitivity to an endogenous cofactor (ATP) usually present at high concentrations in the reptile erythrocytes. The amplitude of the Bohr effect for O2 binding was virtually the same in the absence and presence of saturating ATP concentrations (delta logP50/delta pH, about -0.60) and increased in the total hemolysate (-0.83). The large Bohr effect found in G. carbonaria Hb may be important for O2 delivery to the tissue. The degree of cooperativity displayed by Hb for O2 binding ranged between 1.5 and 2.0 in stripped solution and total hemolysate. These observations suggest that stability of the low affinity conformation, which needs to be confirmed by additional experiments. PMID:8728839

  15. Spatial learning and memory in the tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria)

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    Wilkinson, A; Chan, H M; Hall, G

    2007-01-01

    A single tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria) was trained in an eight-arm radial maze, with the apparatus and general procedures modeled on those used to demonstrate spatial learning in rats. The tortoise learned to perform reliably above chance, preferentially choosing baited arms, rather than returning to arms previously visited on a trial. Test sessions that examined control by olfactory cues revealed that they did not affect performance. No systematic, stereotyped response patterns were evide...

  16. Spatial learning and memory in the tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Anna; Chan, Hui-Minn; Hall, Geoffrey

    2007-11-01

    A single tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria) was trained in an eight-arm radial maze, with the apparatus and general procedures modeled on those used to demonstrate spatial learning in rats. The tortoise learned to perform reliably above chance, preferentially choosing baited arms, rather than returning to arms previously visited on a trial. Test sessions that examined control by olfactory cues revealed that they did not affect performance. No systematic, stereotyped response patterns were evident. In spite of differences in brain structure, the tortoise showed spatial learning abilities comparable to those observed in mammals. PMID:18085925

  17. Social learning in a non-social reptile (Geochelone carbonaria)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Anna; Kuenstner, Karin; Mueller, Julia; Huber, Ludwig

    2010-01-01

    The ability to learn from the actions of another is adaptive, as it is a shortcut for acquiring new information. However, the evolutionary origins of this trait are still unclear. There is evidence that group-living mammals, birds, fishes and insects can learn through observation, but this has never been investigated in reptiles. Here, we show that the non-social red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria) can learn from the actions of a conspecific in a detour task; non-observer animals (wit...

  18. A note on the reproduction of Geochelone carbonaria and G. denticulata (Testudines, Testudinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    P. E. Vanzolini

    1999-01-01

    On the occasion of having collected three gravid Geochelone carbonaria in the Bolivian Chaco, data are given on oviducal eggs, as well as on five shells of eggs of the same species in the Museum collection. A review of the literature on the reproduction of G. carbonaria and of its sibling G. denticulata is presented, with an elementary statistical treatment of the data on number of clutches per reproductive season, interval between clutches, clutch size, egg shape and volume.

  19. A note on the reproduction of Geochelone carbonaria and G. denticulata (Testudines, Testudinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzolini, P E

    1999-11-01

    On the occasion of having collected three gravid Geochelone carbonaria in the Bolivian Chaco, data are given on oviducal eggs, as well as on five shells of eggs of the same species in the Museum collection. A review of the literature on the reproduction of G. carbonaria and of its sibling G. denticulata is presented, with an elementary statistical treatment of the data on number of clutches per reproductive season, interval between clutches, clutch size, egg shape and volume. PMID:23505648

  20. Social learning in a non-social reptile (Geochelone carbonaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Anna; Kuenstner, Karin; Mueller, Julia; Huber, Ludwig

    2010-10-23

    The ability to learn from the actions of another is adaptive, as it is a shortcut for acquiring new information. However, the evolutionary origins of this trait are still unclear. There is evidence that group-living mammals, birds, fishes and insects can learn through observation, but this has never been investigated in reptiles. Here, we show that the non-social red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria) can learn from the actions of a conspecific in a detour task; non-observer animals (without a conspecific demonstrator) failed. This result provides the first evidence that a non-social species can use social cues to solve a task that it cannot solve through individual learning, challenging the idea that social learning is an adaptation for social living. PMID:20356886

  1. Gaze following in the red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Anna; Mandl, Isabella; Bugnyar, Thomas; Huber, Ludwig

    2010-09-01

    Gaze following refers to the ability of an animal to orient its gaze direction to that of another organism. Such a behavior may be adaptive as it alerts the observer to important objects in the environment such as food or predators. This behavior has been shown in mammals and birds, but the evolutionary history and the distribution of this behavior throughout the animal kingdom remain unclear. Here, we show that a reptile, the red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria), is able to follow the gaze of a conspecific in a lookup task. Controls revealed that neither the mere presence of a conspecific nor the presentation of a light stimulus (without a demonstrator present) controlled the tortoises' behavior. The findings indicate that the ability to follow gaze may be found in mammals, birds and reptiles and could have evolved before the amniotic line diverged, or may result from a general ability to learn. PMID:20411292

  2. Description of a New Galapagos Giant Tortoise Species (Chelonoidis; Testudines: Testudinidae) from Cerro Fatal on Santa Cruz Island

    OpenAIRE

    Nikos Poulakakis; Edwards, Danielle L.; Ylenia Chiari; Garrick, Ryan C; Russello, Michael A.; Edgar Benavides; Gregory J Watkins-Colwell; Scott Glaberman; Washington Tapia; James P Gibbs; Linda J Cayot; Adalgisa Caccone

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) is currently based primarily on morphological characters and island of origin. Over the last decade, compelling genetic evidence has accumulated for multiple independent evolutionary lineages, spurring the need for taxonomic revision. On the island of Santa Cruz there is currently a single named species, C. porteri. Recent genetic and morphological studies have shown that, within this taxon, there are two evolutionarily and spatiall...

  3. A note on the reproduction of Geochelone carbonaria and G. denticulata (Testudines, Testudinidae) Nota sobre a reprodução de Geochelone carbonaria e G. denticulata (Testudines, Testudinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    P. E. Vanzolini

    1999-01-01

    On the occasion of having collected three gravid Geochelone carbonaria in the Bolivian Chaco, data are given on oviducal eggs, as well as on five shells of eggs of the same species in the Museum collection. A review of the literature on the reproduction of G. carbonaria and of its sibling G. denticulata is presented, with an elementary statistical treatment of the data on number of clutches per reproductive season, interval between clutches, clutch size, egg shape and volume.São apresentadas ...

  4. Valores hematológicos de referencia en tortuga terrestre argentina (Chelonoidis chilensis chilensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Troiano, Juan Carlos; M.C Silva

    1998-01-01

    Se tomaron muestras sanguíneas de 150 ejemplares sanos de tortuga terrestre argentina (Chelonoidis chilensis chilensis) por medio de punción de la vena coccígea superior. Las determinaciones que se realizaron incluyeron recuentos de glóbulos rojos, leucocitos y trombocitos, hematocrito, concentración de hemoglobina, índices hematimétricos y fórmulas leucocitarias relativas, las que se compararon con otras especies de Testudinidae. No se observaron cambios estadísticamente significativos en lo...

  5. Clinical management of potential ibuprofen toxicosis in a South American red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, Juliet N

    2006-09-01

    This article describes the clinical management of potential ibuprofen toxicosis in South American red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria). A 2.5-year-old, 0.78-kg Geochelone carbonaria tortoise was presented to the emergency clinic after ingesting solubilized ibuprofen (200 mg) in a gelatin capsule. Treatment on initial presentation consisted of esophagostomy tube placement for gastric lavage and activated charcoal administration, intravenous and intraosseous fluid therapy, and administration of gastrointestinal protectants (sucralfate and famotidine). The tortoise was discharged to the owners. Although follow-up diagnostic monitoring was minimal because of owner compliance, the patient was noted to be alive and in reasonable health 1 year after initial presentation. This is the first report on the management of potential nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug toxicosis in any chelonian species. PMID:16931380

  6. Description of a New Galapagos Giant Tortoise Species (Chelonoidis; Testudines: Testudinidae from Cerro Fatal on Santa Cruz Island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Poulakakis

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp. is currently based primarily on morphological characters and island of origin. Over the last decade, compelling genetic evidence has accumulated for multiple independent evolutionary lineages, spurring the need for taxonomic revision. On the island of Santa Cruz there is currently a single named species, C. porteri. Recent genetic and morphological studies have shown that, within this taxon, there are two evolutionarily and spatially distinct lineages on the western and eastern sectors of the island, known as the Reserva and Cerro Fatal populations, respectively. Analyses of DNA from natural populations and museum specimens, including the type specimen for C. porteri, confirm the genetic distinctiveness of these two lineages and support elevation of the Cerro Fatal tortoises to the rank of species. In this paper, we identify DNA characters that define this new species, and infer evolutionary relationships relative to other species of Galapagos tortoises.

  7. Hepatic cirrhosis in a red-foot tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria: a case report Cirrose hepática em jabuti (Geochelone carbonaria: relato de caso

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    R.M.C. Guedes

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Um jabuti (Geochelone carbonaria de 30 anos de idade foi encaminhado ao setor de patologia para exame post mortem. À necropsia, foi observada ascite acentuada. O fígado apresentava-se diminuído de volume e com vários nódulos firmes entre 0.3 e 1.0 cm de diâmetro distribuídos por todo o órgão. À microscopia, esses nódulos eram constituídos externamente por espessa camada de tecido conjuntivo fibroso envolvendo hepatócitos dilatados e vacuolizados na sua porção central. A cirrose conseqüente à lipidose hepática foi provavelmente causada por níveis baixos de proteína na dieta.

  8. Hepatic cirrhosis in a red-foot tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria): a case report Cirrose hepática em jabuti (Geochelone carbonaria): relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    R.M.C. Guedes; G.E. Lavalle

    2004-01-01

    Um jabuti (Geochelone carbonaria) de 30 anos de idade foi encaminhado ao setor de patologia para exame post mortem. À necropsia, foi observada ascite acentuada. O fígado apresentava-se diminuído de volume e com vários nódulos firmes entre 0.3 e 1.0 cm de diâmetro distribuídos por todo o órgão. À microscopia, esses nódulos eram constituídos externamente por espessa camada de tecido conjuntivo fibroso envolvendo hepatócitos dilatados e vacuolizados na sua porção central. A cirrose conseqüente à...

  9. Diarrhea associated with enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in a red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, J S; Staempfli, H R

    2000-06-01

    Enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens was associated with diarrhea in a 4-yr-old female captive-bred red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria). Diagnosis was based on bacterial culture, detection of C. perfringens enterotoxin in feces, and exclusion of commonly recognized pathogens. After treatment with metronidazole, normal feces were passed and C. perfringens enterotoxin was no longer detected in the feces. Although the role of C. perfringens cannot be determined definitively from this case, this pathogen should be considered in cases of diarrhea in tortoises and, perhaps, other reptiles. PMID:10982148

  10. Comparative ultrastructural analysis of two tortoise bladders, Testudo graeca and Geochelone carbonaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strum, J M; Danon, D

    1976-01-01

    Urinary bladders from the desert tortoises, Testudo graeca and Geochelone carbonaria were removed at specific times during the year and species in all bladders examined: (1) granular cells, (2) mitochondria-rich cells, and (3) basal cells. Cells analogous to these three types have also been observed in amphibian bladders (from toad Bufo marinus and bullfrog, Rana catesbiana) and reptilian bladders (from Pseudemys scripta and Clemmys caspica). Both tortoises have an incomplete layer of basal cells so that the granular and mitochondria-rich cells extend from the lumen to the basement membrane: something was not observed in bladders from bullfrog or turtles. A flask-shaped light cell was observed in the Geochelone carbonaria bladder obtained in April. No counterpart of this cell was seen in the same species sacrificed in January, or in any of the Testudo graeca bladders, although a similar cell has been described in the turtle, Pseudemys scripta (Rosen, Expt. Molec. Path., 12: 286-296, '70). This study was undertaken to characterize the cell types present in tortoise bladder and to compare them with cell types in the bladder of the turtle, bullfrog and toad. PMID:1252017

  11. Molecular characterization of hemoglobin alpha-D chains from Geochelone carbonaria and Geochelone denticulata land turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Mônica B; Bordin, Silvana; Duarte, Adriana S S; Ogo, Satie H; Torsoni, Márcio A; Saad, Sara T O; Costa, Fernando F

    2003-02-01

    In order to help elucidate the evolution of alpha-globins, the complete cDNA and amino acid sequences of Geochelone carbonaria and Geochelone denticulata land turtles alpha-D chains have been described. In G. carbonaria, the cDNA is 539 bp with ATG start codon located at position 46, TGA stop codon at position 469 and AATAAA polyadenylation signal at position 520. In G. denticulata, the cDNA is 536 bp with ATG start codon located at position 46, TGA stop codon at position 469 and AATAAA polyadenylation signal at position 517. Both cDNAs codify 141 amino acid residues, differing from each other in only four amino acid residues. When comparing with human Hb alpha-chain, alterations in important regions can be noted: alpha110 Ala-Gly, alpha114 Pro-Gly, alpha117 Phe-Tyr and alpha122 His-Gln. There is a high homology between the amino acids of these turtles when compared with chicken alpha-D chains, progressively decreasing when compared with human, crocodile, snake, frog and fish alpha-chains. Phylogenetic analysis of alpha-D chains shows that those of turtles are closer to those of birds than to snakes and lizards. PMID:12568815

  12. Radial-arm-maze behavior of the red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Paul, Julia; Wilkinson, Anna; Hall, Geoffrey; Huber, Ludwig

    2012-08-01

    The radial-arm maze is an established method for testing an animal's spatial win-shift behavior. Research on mammals, birds, and fish has shown that the mastery of this task is commonly mediated, to different degrees, by two types of strategy: those based on external cues and those based on response stereotypy. In the present study we trained four red-footed tortoises (Geochelone carbonaria) to navigate an eight-arm radial maze while providing different levels of access to visual room cues. The results indicate that response stereotypy is the more prevalent mechanism in these tortoises, although navigation based on landmarks can also occur if learned initially. The findings suggest that tortoise spatial navigation may be more similar to that observed in mammals and birds than previously thought. PMID:22390619

  13. Hemoglobin-sulfhydryls from tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria) can reduce oxidative damage induced by organic hydroperoxide in erythrocyte membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsoni, M A; Ogo, S H

    2000-08-01

    Sulfhydryl groups are important to avoid oxidative damage to the cell. In RBC, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tert-BOOH) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are capable of oxidizing heme and promoting lipid peroxidation. H2O2 caused greater oxidation of heme than tert-BOOH, although the oxidation of sulfhydryl groups was similar. Geochelone carbonaria Hb, a rich sulfhydryl protein, inhibited the TBA-reactive substances formation of human erythrocytes exposed to tert-BOOH by about 30%; this decrease was smaller with Geochelone denticulata Hb. Sulfhydryl reagents diminished the number of reactive sulfhydryl groups in the G. carbonaria Hb resulting in a decrease of its antioxidant power, suggesting the involvement of sulfhydryls of Hb in the protection against lipid peroxidation. PMID:11026669

  14. Espectro trófico de Chelonoidis chilensis (Chelonii: Testudinidae en la provincia fitogeográfica del monte (Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard, Enrique

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1983 and 1991, 83 field trips were made to the biogeographical province of Monte, in Mendoza province, Argentina, in order to study the trophic spectrum of Chelonoidis chilensis, among other ecoethological aspects. The trophic period extends from September to April. Adults are herbivorous in strict sense, but this may change according to the available resourees. Trophic spectrum is composed by 14 items (Families of vegetables. Some items have toxic or potentially toxit substances. Finally, the diet of Ch. chilensis is compared with the one of Ch. donosobarrosi and with other desert tortoises.

  15. Involvement of available SH groups in the heterogeneity of hemoglobin from the tortoise Geochelone carbonaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsoni, M A; Souza-Torsoni, A; Ogo, S H

    1998-04-01

    Geochelone carbonaria hemoglobin (Hb) was analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and purified by ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose. Seven fractions were obtained using fresh Hb preparations. CM-cellulose chromatography of Hb reacted with iodoacetamide, showed one minor (HbI) and one major band (HbII). Analysis of the molecular masses of recently collected Hb and of aged solutions determined by gel filtration showed that polymerization increased with the duration of storage. The reaction with oxidized glutathione changed the electrophoretic pattern of Hb, and highlighted the bands corresponding to glutathionyl-Hb. The presence of these bands in fresh Hb solutions and in alkylated preparations suggests that they may occur in vivo. PAGE under dissociating conditions showed that the hemolysate contained 3 different polypeptide chains (G1, G2 and G3). Both Hb components shared the G1 globin chain with HbI containing G1 and G2 and HbII, G1 and G3 chains. PMID:9584999

  16. Visual and response-based navigation in the tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Anna; Coward, Sacha; Hall, Geoffrey

    2009-11-01

    Much research has investigated spatial cognition in mammals and birds. Evidence suggests that the hippocampus plays a critical role in this; however, reptiles do not possess a hippocampus. It has been proposed that the reptilian medial cortex plays a similar role, yet little behavioral research has directly investigated this. Consequently, this study examined the role of extramaze cues in spatial navigation by the red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria) using an eight-arm radial maze. In Experiment 1 the maze was surrounded by a black curtain on which geometrical shapes were attached. After the tortoise reached above-chance performance we introduced test sessions in which the cues were removed. Performance was unaffected by cue removal. The tortoise appeared to have developed a "turn-by-one-arm" strategy. In a second experiment the curtain was removed and the tortoise was allowed access to a rich-cue environment. The use of the turn-by-one-arm strategy was significantly reduced and the tortoise appeared to be using the extramaze cues to navigate around the apparatus. This type of response-based strategy, and the specific contexts in which it was used, has not been observed in mammals and birds, suggesting that the mechanisms served by the reptilian medial cortex do not parallel exactly those of the hippocampus. PMID:19466467

  17. The marginal band and its role in the ellipsoidal shape of Geochelone carbonaria erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiro, J R; Brunner, A; Mitsutani, C Y; Weisz, V M; Fiori, A M

    1978-01-01

    Erythrocytes from a chelonian (Geochelone carbonaria) were submitted to physical and chemical treatments. Observations of their change in shape from ellipsoidal to spherical were made by means of light microscopy. A 100% change to the spherical shape was attained with erythrocytes under high temperature treatment (42 degrees C) for 45 min., and at room temperature (29 degrees C) plus colchicine, for 60 min. Erythrocytes kept at room temperature present changes in shape while those kept at low temperature (10 degrees C) did not exhibit significant changes in their original ellipsoidal shape, but displayed an intact marginal band (MB). By direct examination the diameter of microtubules was found to be nearly 300 A in the dissociated form and 0.70 mu when bundled. In cross section the value found for microtubule diameter was up to 210 A. These measures are compatible with those found by several other authors. Counting of microtubules by ultrathin sectioning indicated approximately 70 tubules per cell, a value that is higher than that found in other species. By means of electron microscopy the marginal band can be observed intact or dissociated into several dense rings formed by parallel microtubules running nearly or accompanying the periphery of the stroma. Temperature and colchicine are responsible for the depolymerization of the microtubules. In the stroma of spherical erythrocytes a dense peripheric fold can be observed but microtubules were never found. It is suggested therefore that the role of the marginal band is essential to maintain the ellipsoidal shape of chelonian erythrocytes. PMID:751572

  18. Effect of thiol reagents on functional properties and heme oxidation in the hemoglobin of Geochelone carbonaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsoni, M A; Viana, R I; Barros, B F; Stoppa, G; Cesquini, M; Ogo, S H

    1996-10-01

    The reaction of thiol reagents with G. carbonaria hemoglobin was studied, and the oxygen equilibrium and kinetic of oxidation of derivatives determined. The oxygen affinity and kinetic of oxidation of hemoglobin derivatives were modified to various extents depending on the nature of thiol reagents used. Diamide yielded approximately 80% polymeric hemoglobin, although the oxidation kinetic, and the functional properties, were practically invariant (T1/2 = 10.0 min.; P50 = 5.0 mm Hg at pH 7.4; alkaline Bohr effect = -0.64). Iodoacetamide did not modify the electrophoretic pattern significantly, although all the free SH groups of hemoglobin were alkylated. A P50 of 2.5 mmHg at pH 7.4 and the Bohr effect of -0.15 were obtained; the T1/2 of about 6.4 min. was shorter than that for un-modified Hb. Similar T1/2 were obtained for Hb treated with oxidized glutathione, which produced polymeric Hb and glutathionyl-Hb. The oxygen binding characteristics showed that both of Hb derivatives, glutathionyl-Hb and polymeric Hb, maintain the capacity to transport the gas. PMID:8896757

  19. Intraocular pressure determination in clinically normal red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, André L; Mendes, Guilherme M; McManus, Concepta; Arrais, Patrícia

    2002-03-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) reflects a balance between aqueous humor production and outflow and is often an essential ophthalmic diagnostic procedure in animals. The objective of this study was to estimate IOP in clinically normal red-footed tortoises (Geochelone carbonaria) of various sizes by using applanation tonometry. Intraocular pressures were estimated for 25 captive red-footed tortoises (10 males, 10 females, and 5 animals of unknown sex) by using an applanation tonometer after topical anesthesia. Body length ranged from 5.1 to 54.9 cm, measured from nuchal to anal scutes. Five measurements from each eye were obtained by a single observer in an ambient temperature of approximately 30 degrees C. Observer's reliability was good (intraclass r = 0.75), and IOP did not change over the ordered sequence of five replicate measurements. For individual tortoises the correlation for IOP between the left and right eyes was low (r = 0.20). The paired t-test did not show any statistical effect (P = 0.426) for the difference in IOP between the left and right eyes. Mean IOP determined for 10 confirmed males and 10 confirmed females did not differ between sexes (P = 0.244). The mean IOP of five small tortoises ( 10 cm long). In red-footed tortoises there does not appear to be any relation between carapace length and IOP. PMID:12216794

  20. Molecular detection of Rickettsia bellii in Amblyomma rotundatum from imported red-footed tortoise (Chelonoides carbonaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erster, Oran; Roth, Asael; Avni, Zvi; King, Rony; Shkap, Varda

    2015-06-01

    Introduction of exotic ticks and pathogens through international animal trade (farm animals and pets) is a serious threat to public health and local fauna. Rapid and correct identification of potential threats is an important step on the way to conduct an efficient control of imported pests. In this report we describe the molecular identification of the neotropic tick Amblyomma rotundatum intercepted from red-footed tortoise (Chelonoides carbonaria), imported to Israel from Florida, USA. Molecular analysis of the ticks conducted upon their identification, revealed that they were infected with Rickettsia bellii. Following their collection, the ticks were examined morphologically and five molecular markers were used to determine their taxonomic identity: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), cytochrome b (CytB), 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA and internal transcribed sequence 2 (ITS-2). Molecular analysis indicated that all of the collected ticks were Amblyomma rotundatum. Using rickettsial gltA (citrate synthase) gene in real-time PCR analysis we found that approximately 25% of the intercepted ticks (8 of 33) were infected with Rickettsia bellii. It is concluded that accurate and timely identification of imported exotic ticks prevented their introduction to Israel, and that use of molecular tools may further improve the response to such potential threats.

  1. No evidence of contagious yawning in the red-footed tortoise Geochelone carbonaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna WILKINSON, Natalie SEBANZ, Isabella MANDL, Ludwig HUBER

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Three hypotheses have attempted to explain the phenomenon of contagious yawning. It has been hypothesized that it is a fixed action pattern for which the releasing stimulus is the observation of another yawn, that it is the result of non-conscious mimicry emerging through close links between perception and action or that it is the result of empathy, involving the ability to engage in mental state attribution. This set of experiments sought to distinguish between these hypotheses by examining contagious yawning in a species that is unlikely to show nonconscious mimicry and empathy but does respond to social stimuli: the red-footed tortoise Geochelone carbonaria. A demonstrator tortoise was conditioned to yawn when presented with a red square-shaped stimulus. Observer tortoises were exposed to three conditions: observation of conditioned yawn, non demonstration control, and stimulus only control. We measured the number of yawns for each observer animal in each condition. There was no difference between conditions. Experiment 2 therefore increased the number of conditioned yawns presented. Again, there was no significant difference between conditions. It seemed plausible that the tortoises did not view the conditioned yawn as a real yawn and therefore a final experiment was run using video recorded stimuli. The observer tortoises were presented with three conditions: real yawn, conditioned yawns and empty background. Again there was no significant difference between conditions. We therefore conclude that the red-footed tortoise does not yawn in response to observing a conspecific yawn. This suggests that contagious yawning is not the result of a fixed action pattern but may involve more complex social processes [Current Zoology 57 (4: 477–484, 2011].

  2. Water balance of the land tortoise Geochelone carbonaria after olfactory bulbectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummler, G; Rummler, M C

    1994-06-01

    We have previously shown that olfactory bulbectomy causes a decrease in some metabolic parameters of chelonians. In the present study we evaluate the capacity for water retention of normal land tortoises and of tortoises with long-standing olfactory bulbectomy. Adult male Geochelone carbonaria tortoises were divided into three groups: group B, 11 tortoises submitted to olfactory bulbectomy two years prior to the study; group PB, 7 tortoises submitted to pseudobulbectomy two years before the study; group N, 9 intact animals. The animals were maintained in captivity in an outdoor area and submitted to the present study under semi-laboratory conditions involving an 18-day period with no solid or liquid food followed by 4 days of free water ingestion and a subsequent 17-day period of no solid or liquid food ingestion. Before water was offered, mean body weight (+/- SEM) was 1764 +/- 93.5 g for group B, 1801.4 +/- 137.4 g for group PB, and 2077.8 +/- 288.8 g for group N. Animal weight was recorded again on the 2nd and 4th days of water ingestion and on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th, 12th, 14th and 17th days of fasting. Since no differences were detected between PB and N animals at any time, the data for the two groups were pooled. Thus a control group (C) of 16 animals was used for statistical comparison. The data reflect three behavioral situations: 1) water ingestion and urine excretion, 2) no water ingestion and urine excretion, and 3) neither water ingestion nor urine excretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7894352

  3. Low oxygen affinity in reptilian hemoglobin D: prediction of residue interactions in Geochelone carbonaria HbD by homology modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfullah, Ghosia; Khalil, Hilal Shahid; Amin, Farhat; Azhar, Noreen

    2008-04-01

    The homology model of hemoglobin D from Geochelone carbonaria, the red-footed tortoise was predicted using the 3D structure coordinates of Geochelone gigantea hemoglobin D as the template. The model was built using the program, MODELLER (8v1) and evaluated with PROCHECK and PROSA. The present study features an in-depth analysis of the 3D model and its conformational changes brought about with variations in its environment. These structural changes are correlated with its ability to adapt to different environmental constraints enabling the organism to better suit to its natural habitat. The model shows additional contacts between amino acid pairs of alpha-119 and beta-55, alpha-35 and beta-124, alpha-103 and beta-112, alpha-115 and beta-116, alpha-120 and beta-52, alpha-120 and beta-55, alpha-36 and beta-127 which are not found in human hemoglobin. It is predicted that these contacts may result in T-state stabilization thus lowering oxygen affinity. Furthermore, decrease in the interaction of phosphate heteroatoms with the amino acid residues of G. carbonaria Hb was also predicted in this study. PMID:18085430

  4. Effect of Australian propolis from stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria) on pre-contracted human and porcine isolated arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Flavia C; Brooks, Peter R; Wallace, Helen M; Nsengiyumva, Vianne; Narokai, Lorraine; Russell, Fraser D

    2013-01-01

    Bee propolis is a mixture of plant resins and bee secretions. While bioactivity of honeybee propolis has been reported previously, information is limited on propolis from Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria). The aim of this study was to investigate possible vasomodulatory effects of propolis in KCl-precontracted porcine coronary arteries using an ex vivo tissue bath assay. Polar extracts of propolis produced a dose-dependent relaxant response (EC50=44.7±7.0 μg/ml), which was unaffected by endothelial denudation, suggesting a direct effect on smooth muscle. Propolis markedly attenuated a contractile response to Ca(2+) in vessels that were depolarised with 60 mM KCl, in Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution. Propolis (160 µg/ml) reduced vascular tone in KCl pre-contracted vessels to near-baseline levels over 90 min, and this effect was partially reversible with 6 h washout. Some loss in membrane integrity, but no loss in mitochondrial function was detected after 90 min exposure of human cultured umbilical vein endothelial cells to 160 µg/ml propolis. We conclude that Australian stingless bee (T. carbonaria) propolis relaxes porcine coronary artery in an endothelial-independent manner that involves inhibition of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. This effect is partially and slowly reversible upon washout. Further studies are required to determine the therapeutic potential of Australian stingless bee propolis for conditions in which vascular supply is compromised.

  5. Effect of Australian propolis from stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria on pre-contracted human and porcine isolated arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia C Massaro

    Full Text Available Bee propolis is a mixture of plant resins and bee secretions. While bioactivity of honeybee propolis has been reported previously, information is limited on propolis from Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria. The aim of this study was to investigate possible vasomodulatory effects of propolis in KCl-precontracted porcine coronary arteries using an ex vivo tissue bath assay. Polar extracts of propolis produced a dose-dependent relaxant response (EC50=44.7±7.0 μg/ml, which was unaffected by endothelial denudation, suggesting a direct effect on smooth muscle. Propolis markedly attenuated a contractile response to Ca(2+ in vessels that were depolarised with 60 mM KCl, in Ca(2+-free Krebs solution. Propolis (160 µg/ml reduced vascular tone in KCl pre-contracted vessels to near-baseline levels over 90 min, and this effect was partially reversible with 6 h washout. Some loss in membrane integrity, but no loss in mitochondrial function was detected after 90 min exposure of human cultured umbilical vein endothelial cells to 160 µg/ml propolis. We conclude that Australian stingless bee (T. carbonaria propolis relaxes porcine coronary artery in an endothelial-independent manner that involves inhibition of voltage-gated Ca(2+ channels. This effect is partially and slowly reversible upon washout. Further studies are required to determine the therapeutic potential of Australian stingless bee propolis for conditions in which vascular supply is compromised.

  6. Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823) e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823) and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Isai Jorge de Castro; Claudia Regina Silva; Arley José Silveira Da Costa; Ana Carolina Moreira Martins

    2011-01-01

    Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758) (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae). Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chiroptera, Phy...

  7. Sound amplification by means of a horn-like roosting structure in Spix's disc-winged bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverri, Gloriana; Gillam, Erin H

    2013-12-01

    While sound is a signal modality widely used by many animals, it is very susceptible to attenuation, hampering effective long-distance communication. A strategy to minimize sound attenuation that has been historically used by humans is to use acoustic horns; to date, no other animal is known to use a similar structure to increase sound intensity. Here, we describe how the use of a roosting structure that resembles an acoustic horn (the tapered tubes that form when new leaves of plants such as Heliconia or Calathea species start to unfurl) increases sound amplification of the incoming and outgoing social calls used by Spix's disc-winged bat (Thyroptera tricolor) to locate roosts and group members. Our results indicate that incoming calls are significantly amplified as a result of sound waves being increasingly compressed as they move into the narrow end of the leaf. Outgoing calls were faintly amplified, probably as a result of increased sound directionality. Both types of call, however, experienced significant sound distortion, which might explain the patterns of signal recognition previously observed in behavioural experiments. Our study provides the first evidence of the potential role that a roost can play in facilitating acoustic communication in bats.

  8. Sound amplification by means of a horn-like roosting structure in Spix's disc-winged bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverri, Gloriana; Gillam, Erin H

    2013-12-01

    While sound is a signal modality widely used by many animals, it is very susceptible to attenuation, hampering effective long-distance communication. A strategy to minimize sound attenuation that has been historically used by humans is to use acoustic horns; to date, no other animal is known to use a similar structure to increase sound intensity. Here, we describe how the use of a roosting structure that resembles an acoustic horn (the tapered tubes that form when new leaves of plants such as Heliconia or Calathea species start to unfurl) increases sound amplification of the incoming and outgoing social calls used by Spix's disc-winged bat (Thyroptera tricolor) to locate roosts and group members. Our results indicate that incoming calls are significantly amplified as a result of sound waves being increasingly compressed as they move into the narrow end of the leaf. Outgoing calls were faintly amplified, probably as a result of increased sound directionality. Both types of call, however, experienced significant sound distortion, which might explain the patterns of signal recognition previously observed in behavioural experiments. Our study provides the first evidence of the potential role that a roost can play in facilitating acoustic communication in bats. PMID:24132312

  9. cDNA-derived amino-acid sequence of a land turtle (Geochelone carbonaria) beta-chain hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, S; Meza, A N; Saad, S T; Ogo, S H; Costa, F F

    1997-06-01

    The cDNA sequence encoding the turtle Geochelone carbonaria beta-chain was determinated. The isolation of hemoglobin mRNA was based on degenerate primers' PCR in combination with 5'- and 3'-RACE protocol. The full length cDNA is 615 bp with the ATG start codon at position 53 and TGA stop codon at position 495; The AATAAA polyadenylation signal is found at position 599. The deduced polypeptyde contains 146 amino-acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence shares 83% identity with the beta-globin of a related specie, the aquatic turtle C. p. belli. Otherwise, identity is higher when compared with chicken beta-Hb (80%) than with other reptilian orders (Squamata, 69%, and Crocodilia, 61%). Compared with human HbA, there is 67% identity, and at least three amino acid substitutions could be of some functional significance (Glu43 beta-->Ser, His116 beta-->Thr and His143 beta-->Leu). To our knowledge this represents the first cDNA sequence of a reptile globin gene described. PMID:9238523

  10. Resources or landmarks: which factors drive homing success in Tetragonula carbonaria foraging in natural and disturbed landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara D; Kaluza, Benjamin F; Wallace, Helen; Heard, Tim A

    2016-10-01

    To date, no study has investigated how landscape structural (visual) alterations affect navigation and thus homing success in stingless bees. We addressed this question in the Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria by performing marking, release and re-capture experiments in landscapes differing in habitat homogeneity (i.e., the proportion of elongated ground features typically considered prominent visual landmarks). We investigated how landscape affected the proportion of bees and nectar foragers returning to their hives as well as the earliest time bees and foragers returned. Undisturbed landscapes with few landmarks (that are conspicuous to the human eye) and large proportions of vegetation cover (natural forests) were classified visually/structurally homogeneous, and disturbed landscapes with many landmarks and fragmented or no extensive vegetation cover (gardens and plantations) visually/structurally heterogeneous. We found that proportions of successfully returning nectar foragers and earliest times first bees and foragers returned did not differ between landscapes. However, most bees returned in the visually/structurally most (forest) and least (garden) homogeneous landscape, suggesting that they use other than elongated ground features for navigation and that return speed is primarily driven by resource availability in a landscape.

  11. Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isai Jorge de Castro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. A vocalização dos morcegos provavelmente atraiu os marsupiais para a rede, onde estes os predaram aproveitando que estavam presos. Este tipo de interação pode ocorrer naturalmente, no entanto, com maior dificuldade de registro.We observed three occasional predations of bats captured in mist nets by marsupials and a frog during studies in a várzea forest in the Amapá state. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed upon by Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed on by Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. The bats vocalizations probably attracted the marsupials and a frog to the mist nets where they preyed. This interaction form can occur naturally, however, are more difficult to observed.

  12. Anti-staphylococcal activity of C-methyl flavanones from propolis of Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria) and fruit resins of Corymbia torelliana (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, C F; Katouli, M; Grkovic, T; Vu, H; Quinn, R J; Heard, T A; Carvalho, C; Manley-Harris, M; Wallace, H M; Brooks, P

    2014-06-01

    Propolis of Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria, Meliponini) originating from Corymbia torelliana (Myrtaceae) fruit resins was tested for its antimicrobial activities as well as its flavonoid contents. This study aimed at the isolation, structural elucidation and antibacterial testing of flavanones of C. torelliana fruit resins that are incorporated into stingless bee propolis. Flavanones of this study were elucidated by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods including UV, 1D and 2D NMR, EI-MS, ESI-MS and HR-MS. The results indicated known C-methylated flavanones namely, 1 (2S)-cryptostrobin, its regioisomer 2 (2S)- stroboponin, 3 (2S)- cryptostrobin 7-methyl ether, and 6 (2S)- desmethoxymatteucinol, and known flavanones 4 (2S)- pinostrobin and 5 (2S)- pinocembrin as markers for C. torelliana fruit resins and one propolis type. Ethanolic preparations of propolis were shown to be active against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and to a lesser extent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853). C. torelliana flavanones inhibited the growth of S. aureus therefore contributing to the antibacterial effects observed for Australian stingless bee propolis extracts. PMID:24704551

  13. The expulsive and attractive effects of 16 species of plants on Golden Apple Snails(Ampullaria gigas Spix)%16种植物对福寿螺的趋避效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐武兵; 钟秋华; 李林峰; 郭荣荣; 章家恩; 罗明珠

    2010-01-01

    于实验室内通过自制的八边形分室趋避试验装置观察研究了16种植物对福寿螺(A mpullaria gigas Spix)的趋避效果.结果表明:福寿螺具有沿壁爬行的偏好性,沿壁爬行的福寿螺数量平均为非沿壁爬行福寿螺数的3.77倍.同时发现,在所选的16种植物中,白千层(Melaleuca leucadendra L)、扶桑(Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.)2种植物对福寿螺有较大的吸引作用;金叶假连翘(Duranta repens cv.Dwarf Yellow)、木麻黄(Casuarina equisetifolia L)、红龙草(A lternanthera dentata cv.Ruliginosa)、鸭脚木[Schefflera octophylla(Lour.)Harms]、剑麻(Agave Sisalana Perrine)5种植物对福寿螺有一定的驱赶作用.

  14. New species of Eimeria and Isospora (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) in Geochelone spp. (Chelonia: Testudinidae) from Amazonian Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lainson R; Da Silva F.M.M.; Franco C.M.; De Souza M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Tetrasporocystic, dizoic oocysts of reptiles have been separated by some authors into the genera Eimeria, Choleoeimeria and Acroeimeria (Protozoa: Eimeriidae), based on the site and mode of development of their endogenous stages. The majority of Eimeria species have been, and still are, however, described on oocyst morphology alone. Four different oocysts with this basic morphology were encountered in the faeces of Brazilian tortoises, Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824 and are assigned to the ...

  15. Distribution of Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles of the Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Camilo Montes Corea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research reviews the Colombian Caribbean distribution of the species Kinosternon scorpioides, Trachemys callirostris,Mesoclemmys dahli and Chelonoidis carbonaria, and to present new records for the region. The species K. scorpioides is reported for the first time in the Manzanares River drainage, Santa Marta, department of Magdalena. Trachemys callirostris was recorded inthe Cañas River, department of La Guajira, being the first record for this species in a small river on the north side of the SierraNevada de Santa Marta. Chelonoidis carbonaria was recorded in a wetland in Santa Marta. We recorded a female M. dahli in thevillage of Monterrubio, municipality of Sabanas de San Angel, department of Magdalena. Three of the four species includedin this account are listed in some category of threat. The lack of knowledge of the biology and distribution of these species could be considered a threat to them because ignorance precludes the establishment of their true conservation status and hinders the development of management plans required for their protection.DISTRIBUCIÓN DE TORTUGAS CONTINENTALESDEL CARIBE COLOMBIANOEste estudio revisa la distribución para el Caribe colombiano de las especies Kinosternon scorpioides, Trachemys callirostris,Mesoclemmys dahli y Chelonoidis carbonaria y nuevas localidades en la distribución de dichas especies para la región. La especie K. scorpioides es registrada por primera vez en la cuenca del río Manzanares, en Santa Marta, Magdalena. Trachemys callirostris fue registrada en el río Cañas, La Guajira, constituyéndose en el primer registro para la especie en un riachuelo de la cara norte de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Chelonoidis carbonaria fue registrada en un humedal ubicado en la ciudad de Santa Marta. Se registró una hembra de M. dahli en el corregimiento Monterrubio, municipio Sabana de San Ángel, Magdalena. Tres de las cuatro especies incluidas en esta revisión se encuentran en alguna

  16. Embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus (SPIX & AGASSIZ, 1829).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakauth, A C S Sampaio; Villacorta-Correa, M A; Figueiredo, M R; Bernardino, G; França, J M

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus, featuring the main events up to 50 hours after fertilization (AF). The material was provided by the Aquaculture Training, Technology and Production Center, Presidente Figueiredo (AM). The characterization was based on stereomicroscopic examination of the morphology of eggs, embryos and larvae and comparison with the literature. Matrinxã eggs are free, transparent, and spherical, with a perivitelline space of 0.56 ± 0.3 mm. The successive divisions give rise to cells with 64 blastomeres during the first hour AF. The gastrula stage, beginning 02 h 40 min AF, was characterized by progressive regression cells and the formation of the embryonic axis, leading to differentiation of the head and tail 05 h 30 min AF. From 06 to 09 h AF the somites, notochord, otic and optic vesicles and otoliths were observed, in addition to heart rate and the release of the tail. The larvae hatched at 10 h 30 min AF (29.9 °C), with a total length of 3.56 ± 0.46 mm. Between 19 and 30 h AF, we observed 1) pigmentation and gut formation, 2) branchial arches, 3) pectoral fins, 4) a mouth opening and 5) teeth. Cannibalism was initiated earlier (34 h AF) which was associated with rapid yolk absorption (more than 90% until 50 h AF), signaling the need for an exogenous nutritional source. The environmental conditions (especially temperature) influenced the time course of some events throughout the embryonic and larval development, suggesting the need for further studies on this subject. PMID:26909629

  17. New species of Eimeria and Isospora (Protozoa: Eimeriidae in Geochelone spp. (Chelonia: Testudinidae from Amazonian Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lainson R.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetrasporocystic, dizoic oocysts of reptiles have been separated by some authors into the genera Eimeria, Choleoeimeria and Acroeimeria (Protozoa: Eimeriidae, based on the site and mode of development of their endogenous stages. The majority of Eimeria species have been, and still are, however, described on oocyst morphology alone. Four different oocysts with this basic morphology were encountered in the faeces of Brazilian tortoises, Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824 and are assigned to the genus Eimeria, with the view that they can readily be transferred to the genus Choleoeimeria or Acroeimeria if this is indicated by a future examination of their endogenous development. A morphological comparison distinguishes the oocysts from those of Eimeria spp., previously described in chelonids of the family Testudinidae, and the names E. amazonensis, E. carbonaria, E. carajasensis and E. wellcomei n. spp. are proposed. Coccidial infection appears to be common in G. carbonaria, with three of seven animals examined passing oocysts. Oocysts of Isospora rodriguesae n. sp. (Protozoa: Eimeriidae are described in the faeces of Geochelone denticulata Linnaeus, 1766. They are morphologically very different from those of Isospora testudae, Davronov, 1985 in Testudo horsfieldi. Eimeria motelo H°urková et al., 2000, previously described in Geochelone denticulata from Peru, is here recorded in the same chelonid from Amazonian Brazil.

  18. New species of Eimeria and Isospora (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) in Geochelone spp. (Chelonia: Testudinidae) from Amazonian Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainson, R; Da Silva, F M M; Franco, C M; De Souza, M C

    2008-12-01

    Tetrasporocystic, dizoic oocysts of reptiles have been separated by some authors into the genera Eimeria, Choleoeimeria and Acroeimeria (Protozoa: Eimeriidae), based on the site and mode of development of their endogenous stages. The majority of Eimeria species have been, and still are, however, described on oocyst morphology alone. Four different oocysts with this basic morphology were encountered in the faeces of Brazilian tortoises, Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824 and are assigned to the genus Eimeria, with the view that they can readily be transferred to the genus Choleoeimeria or Acroeimeria if this is indicated by a future examination of their endogenous development. A morphological comparison distinguishes the oocysts from those of Eimeria spp., previously described in chelonids of the family Testudinidae, and the names E. amazonensis, E. carbonaria, E. carajasensis and E. wellcomei n. spp. are proposed. Coccidial infection appears to be common in G. carbonaria, with three of seven animals examined passing oocysts. Oocysts of Isospora rodriguesae n. sp. (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) are described in the faeces of Geochelone denticulata Linnaeus, 1766. They are morphologically very different from those of Isospora testudae, Davronov, 1985 in Testudo horsfieldi. Eimeria motelo Hůrková et al., 2000, previously described in Geochelone denticulata from Peru, is here recorded in the some chelonid from Amazonian Brazil. PMID:19202760

  19. Is preference a predictor of enrichment efficacy in Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis nigra)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrkam, Lindsay R; Dorey, Nicole R

    2014-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that environmental enrichment plays an important role in promoting the welfare of captive animals. However, a topic of debate is whether an animal's preference for an enrichment strategy is any indicator of its efficacy. In addition, relatively few studies have evaluated environmental enrichment strategies for non-mammalian species. In the present study, we compared the results of an observational evaluation of enrichment efficacy with the results of a paired-stimulus preference assessment for three Galapagos tortoises. In the observational study, object enrichment (boomer balls and a free-flowing sprinkler) and keeper interactions (shell scrubbing and neck rubbing) were evaluated systematically for their effects on locomotion, species-typical behavior, aggressive and non-aggressive conspecific interactions, and enclosure. Preference assessments were subsequently conducted in which subjects could choose the enrichment strategy to be implemented. All subjects preferred keeper interactions consistently over object enrichment. Our results suggest that enrichment preference was a variable predictor of efficacy across enrichment species-typical behavior, activity levels, enclosure use, and aggressive and non-aggressive conspecific interactions strategies. Preference predicted efficacy for promoting species-typical behavior (1/3 subjects), activity levels (2/3 subjects), and enclosure use (2/3 subjects), but not conspecific interactions (0/3 subjects). The results suggest that preference may be an efficient predictor of enrichment efficacy when daily observational evaluations are not practical; however, the predictive utility of preference assessments may depend on the behavioral goal of the enrichment strategy. We discuss the need for future research examining the relationship between preference and enrichment efficacy-as well as other potential indicators of enrichment effectiveness-in captive animals. PMID:25065472

  20. [The induction of oviposition in egg retention or laying distress of land or water turtles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildger, B J; Wicker, R

    1987-01-01

    We used a red-foot tortoise (Geochelone [Testudo] carbonaria, SPIX 1824) to describe in detail a successful method to induce the expulsion of the ova in tortoises. Apart from the dosage of oxytozine, the importance of the simulation of physiological environmental conditions for oviposition as well as the compensation of a potentially present Ca-deficit (50 mg/kg, Ca-Sandoz 10%, i.p.) is considered. The generally accepted dosage of up to 4 l. U./kg oxytozine, i.p., in tortoises proved to be too low in turtles. The drug dosages and other therapeutic measures against dystocia in different races and families of turtles are specified in tabular form. Finally the causes of dystocia and egg-retainment are discussed. PMID:3441920

  1. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of the Decoction of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 Used by the Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel J. M. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus are two lizard species utilized in traditional medicine in Northeast Brazil. Their medicinal use includes diseases related with bacterial infections such as tonsillitis and pharyngitis. They are used in the form of teas (decoctions for the treatment of illnesses. In this work, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the decoctions of T. hispidus (DTH and T. semitaeniatus (DTS against bacterial strains, namely, standard and multiresistant Escherichia coli, Staphylococus aureus, and Pseudomonas aureuginosa, alone and in combination with aminoglycoside antibiotics. The decoctions were prepared using the whole body of the dried lizards, and the filtrate was frozen and lyophilized. When tested alone, the samples did not demonstrate any substantial inhibition of bacterial growth. However, in combination with antibiotics as aminoglycosides, decoctions reduced the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of the assayed antibiotics against multiresistant strains of S. aureus and P. aureuginosa. Chemical prospecting tests revealed the presence of alkaloids in DTS. This is the first study evaluating the medicinal efficacy of T. hispidus and T. semitaeniatus and contributes to the list of new sources of medicines from natural products of animal origin.

  2. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Oil from Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Israel J M; Leite, Gerlânia O; Costa, José Galberto M; Alves, Romulo R N; Campos, Adriana R; Menezes, Irwin R A; Freita, Francisco Ronaldo V; Nunes, Maria Janeth H; Almeida, Waltécio O

    2015-01-01

    Tropidurus hispidus has been used in traditional medicine in several regions of Northeastern Region of Brazil. Its medicinal use involves the treatment of diseases such as warts, sore throat, tonsillitis, chicken pox, varicella, measles, asthma, alcoholism, and dermatomycosis. The present study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory activity of Tropidurus hispidus fat in treating ear edema in an animal model. Oil from T. hispidus (OTH) was evaluated on its effect against experimental inflammation in mice. OTH was extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of Tropidurus hispidus using hexane as a solvent. We used the model of mouse ear edema induced by phlogistic agents, croton oil (single and multiple applications), arachidonic acid, phenol, capsaicin, and histamine, applied into the right ears of animals pretreated with acetone (control), dexamethasone, or OTH. OTH inhibited the dermatitis induced by all noxious agents, except capsaicin. This effect may be related to the fatty acids present in OTH. PMID:26664448

  3. Ecological trap for Cnemidophorus ocellifer Spix 1825 (Squamata: Teiidae during removal of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Bezerra de Mattos Brito

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Animals must anticipate future conditions according to current environmental clues. When habitats are rapidly modified, these signs may not reflect the actual environmental quality, leading to a decreased fitness of an individual and its population. During an activity of faunal rescue and scaring away in the coast of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, evidence of an ecological trap for the lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer was observed. We suggest some actions which can minimize the impact of vegetation removal activities on lizards, such as: i better planning before proceeding with deforestation; and ii capture and release of lizards in appropriate locations.

  4. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Oil from Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel J. M. Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropidurus hispidus has been used in traditional medicine in several regions of Northeastern Region of Brazil. Its medicinal use involves the treatment of diseases such as warts, sore throat, tonsillitis, chicken pox, varicella, measles, asthma, alcoholism, and dermatomycosis. The present study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory activity of Tropidurus hispidus fat in treating ear edema in an animal model. Oil from T. hispidus (OTH was evaluated on its effect against experimental inflammation in mice. OTH was extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of Tropidurus hispidus using hexane as a solvent. We used the model of mouse ear edema induced by phlogistic agents, croton oil (single and multiple applications, arachidonic acid, phenol, capsaicin, and histamine, applied into the right ears of animals pretreated with acetone (control, dexamethasone, or OTH. OTH inhibited the dermatitis induced by all noxious agents, except capsaicin. This effect may be related to the fatty acids present in OTH.

  5. Genetic Diversity in Cichla monoculus (Spix and Agassiz, 1931 Populations: Implications for Management and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H.D.A.D. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The object of this study was to examine the genetic structure and gene flow in Cichla monoculus populations in seven varzea lakes of the Solimoes River using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers, to monitor the region where petroleum is transported in the Amazon basin. Approach: The loss of genetic diversity is one of the main factors leading to reduced evolutionary potential in species of fish. In this context, this paper seeks to understand how the influence of the stretch of pipeline in the Solimoes River between the cities of Manaus-Coari influences the genetic structure of C. monoculus. For this we measured the level of genetic diversity and structure of the species in the studied stretch. Results: Proportions of polymorphic loci varied from 8.7-39.7% in analyzed populations. Low heterozygosis levels were detected (He = 0.1652 and highly structured populations in the seven lakes with low gene flow (Nm = 0.7025 among all fish studied. Unexpected differentiation was found between fishes among the lakes. Fish populations from lakes closest to Manaus (human population of ∼2 million are different from those occurring in lakes closest to the Coari region (close proximity to petroleum barge transfer terminals. Conclusion/Recommendations: Differentiation can be explained by natural causes. This study identifies antropogenic activities influencing this species overall. Since industrial fishing is prevalent due to the high economic value of C. monoculus. Also, this species posses behavioral characteristics that are desirable in sports fishing. Management and conservation of this species will be necessary in the near future to recover genetic variability levels in each lake and allow gene flow among them. Further studies are needed to better understand the differentiation among populations.

  6. No evidence of contagious yawning in the red-footed tortoise Geochelone carbonaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, A.; Sebanz, N.; Mandl, I.; Huber, L.

    2011-01-01

    Three hypotheses have attempted to explain the phenomenon of contagious yawning. It has been hypothesized that it is a fixed action pattern for which the releasing stimulus is the observation of another yawn, that it is the result of non-conscious mimicry emerging through close links between percept

  7. No evidence of contagious yawning in the red-footed tortoise Geochelone carbonaria

    OpenAIRE

    Anna WILKINSON, Natalie SEBANZ, Isabella MANDL, Ludwig HUBER

    2011-01-01

    Three hypotheses have attempted to explain the phenomenon of contagious yawning. It has been hypothesized that it is a fixed action pattern for which the releasing stimulus is the observation of another yawn, that it is the result of non-conscious mimicry emerging through close links between perception and action or that it is the result of empathy, involving the ability to engage in mental state attribution. This set of experiments sought to distinguish between these hypotheses by examining ...

  8. Notes on parasitism by Amblyomma humerale (Acari: Ixodidae) in the state of Rondônia, western Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Camargo, Luís Marcelo A; Terrassini, Flávio A; Schumaker, Teresinha T S; Camargo, Erney P

    2002-11-01

    The tick Amblyomma humerale Koch is endemic to South America. All host records refer to the adult stage parasitizing tortoises, mostly yellow-footed tortoise, Geochelone denticulata (L.), and red-footed tortoise, Geochelone carbonaria (Spix). The current study reports the presence of A. humerale in the state of Rondônia, Brazil. A total of 215 adult ticks (201 males, 14 females) was collected from six G denticulata in an Indian reserve and nine Geochelone sp. in rural Monte Negro County, giving an overall mean infestation of 14.3 +/- 12.0 (range: 2-44) ticks per tortoise. Male ticks always outnumbered females on the host and nine tortoises had only male ticks. Male ticks were mostly attached in clusters on the ventral sides of the carapace near the anterior and posterior margins, and more rarely on the outer margin of the plastron. All females were found attached to the tortoise skin, at different sites such as head, neck, shoulders or legs. Male ticks were rarely observed attached to the body skin. Seven engorged nymphs collected on small vertebrates from Monte Negro County molted to adults of A. humerale. This included one nymph each on the seven-colored lizard, Plica plica (L), green tree climber, Plica umbra (L.), and wide-foraging lizard, Kentropyx calcarata Spix,three nymphs on the common opossum, Didelphis marsupialis L., and one nymph on the silky anteater, Cyclopes didactylus L. These constitute the first host records for the immature stages of the tick A. humerale. PMID:12495177

  9. Dieta de Hypophthalmus edentatus (Spix, 1829 (Osteichthyes, Hypophthalmidae e variações de seu estoque no reservatório de Itaipu Diet of Hypophthalmus edentatus (Spix, 1829, (Osteichthyes, Hypophythalmidae and variations in its stock in Itaipu Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Agostinho

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a dieta do mapará Hypophthalmus edentatus (Osteichthyes, Hypophthalmidae no reservatório de Itaipu, durante o período de novembro/94 a outubro/97, e comparar os dados com a dieta dessa espécie nos primeiros anos de formação do reservatório, relacionando-os com a densidade de zooplâncton e fitoplâncton encontrados no ambiente e buscando possíveis relações com a depleção dos estoques que essa espécie vem apresentando nos últimos anos. Os conteúdos estomacais foram analisados pelos métodos de ocorrência e volumétrico, combinados no Índice Alimentar (IAi. A dieta do mapará no período de nov/94 a out/97 (149 estômagos mostrou um número restrito de itens alimentares, sendo composta por cladóceros, copépodos, algas e tecamebas, todos organismos planctônicos. Os resultados deste trabalho evidenciaram que o mapará utiliza, em sua dieta, principalmente zooplâncton, sendo cladóceros o zooplâncton mais ingerido (aproximadamente 63%. Não foram observadas alterações marcantes entre locais, anos e classes de tamanho estudados. Entretanto, comparações entre a dieta da espécie nos primeiros anos da formação do reservatório e aquelas do período deste estudo mostraram diferenças relevantes, com uma maior participação de cladóceros de maior tamanho (Daphnia gessneri e menor de algas cianofícias. A elevada concentração de nutrientes no período que se seguiu o represamento, com o aumento na biomassa fitoplanctônica no ambiente, e seu decréscimo com o passar dos anos, explicam essas variações. Dessa maneira, é esperado que flutuações na abundância do recurso conduzam a flutuações populacionais nesta espécie.The aim of this paper is to assess the diet of Hypophthalmus edentatus (Osteichthyes, Hypophthalmidae, also called mapará, at Itaipú Reservoir from November 1994 to October 1997 and also to compare data to the species’ diet during the first few years of the reservoir formation. The data analysis related to the density of zooplankton and phytoplankton in the environment and searched for possible relationship regarding to stock depletion shown by the species during the last few years. Stomach contents were analysed by the occurrence and volumetric methods, coupled to Food Index. Mapará diet showed an ingestion of a restricted number of feeding items consisting of plankton organisms such as cladocerans, copepods, algae and testacea amoebae in 149 stomachs from November 1994 to October 1997. Results showed that zooplankton is the chief item in mapará diet and the cladocerans are the most ingested (approximately 63.0%. No significant changes were found between sites, years and classes analysed. However, comparisons between the species’ diet in the first years of the reservoir formation and those of this study period showed significant differences, or rather a high prevalence of bigger sized cladocerans (Daphnia gessneri and a smaller amount of Cyanophyceae algae. High concentration of nutrients after impoundment, an increase in phytoplanktinic biomass of the species are expected according to the resource variation.

  10. Morphological deformities in the osseous structure in spotted sorubim Pseudoplatystoma coruscans (Agassiz & Spix, 1829) with vitamin C deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y; Santos, Rudã F B; Carneiro, Dalton J

    2013-03-01

    Vitamin C is essential for fish diets because many species cannot syntethize it. This vitamin is needed for bone and cartilage formation. Moreover, it acts as antioxidant and improve the immunological system. The present work investigated the effects of vitamin C diet supplementation to spotted sorubim (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans) fingerlings by frequency of bone and cartilage deformation. Ascorbyl poliphosphate (AP) was used as source of vitamin C in the diets for spotted sorubim fingerlings during three months. Six diets were formulated: one diet control (0 mg/kg of vitamin C) and 500, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000 and 2,500 mg AP/kg diets. Fishes fed without vitamin C supplementation presented bone deformation in head and jaws, and fin fragilities. Thus, 500 mg AP/kg diet was enough to prevent deformation and the lack of vitamin C supplementation worsening the development of fingerlings. PMID:23460425

  11. New distribution data for Podocnemis erythrocephala (Spix) with remarks on some other turtle taxa (Reptilia: Chelonia: Pelomedusidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.; Avila-Pires, de T.C.S.

    1990-01-01

    During fieldwork in the Lago de Faro, the lower reaches of the Rio Nhamundá, on the border of the Brazilian states of Pará and Amazonas, several species of pelomedusid turtles were observed. Podocnemis erythrocephala and P. unifilis occur in the area and breed there; P. expansa seems to be absent or

  12. 福寿螺多糖提取工艺优选%Extraction process of polysaccharide from Pila gigas Spix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵东贤; 王克霞

    2010-01-01

    目的 正交实验法优选福寿螺多糖的最佳提取工艺.方法以多糖含量为指标,对提取过程中的醇沉浓度、溶液pH值、浸提温度及浸提时间4个因素进行优选研究.结果 最佳提取条件为:加无水酒精至醇沉浓度为75%、溶液的pH=9.0、浸提温度50℃、浸提时间8 h.结论福寿螺多糖碱浸醇沉工艺经济,有效,可行.

  13. Sound amplification by means of a horn-like roosting structure in Spix's disc-winged bat

    OpenAIRE

    Chaverri, Gloriana; Gillam, Erin H

    2013-01-01

    While sound is a signal modality widely used by many animals, it is very susceptible to attenuation, hampering effective long-distance communication. A strategy to minimize sound attenuation that has been historically used by humans is to use acoustic horns; to date, no other animal is known to use a similar structure to increase sound intensity. Here, we describe how the use of a roosting structure that resembles an acoustic horn (the tapered tubes that form when new leaves of plants such as...

  14. Revisión sobre la distribución geográfica de Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824 (Anura: Leptodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langone, José A.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Existen con frecuencia en la literatura neotropical, confusiones respecto a la distribución geográfica de las especies de anuros. En el caso de las confusiones del género Physalaemus fueron y son debidas a identificaciones erradas, producto de descripciones originales vagas y del difícil acceso o inexistencia de material tipo. La presente nota trata sobre una de estas confusiones.

  15. Possible interspecific origin of the B chromosome of Hypsiboas albopunctatus (Spix, 1824 (Anura, Hylidae, revealed by microdissection, chromosome painting, and reverse hybridisation

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    Simone Gruber

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The B chromosome in the hylid Hypsiboas albopunctatus (2n = 22 + B is small, almost entirely composed of C-positive heterochromatin, and does not pair with any chromosome of the A complement. B probe, obtained by microdissection and DOP-PCR amplification, was used to search for homology between the B and regular chromosomes of H. albopunctatus and of the related species H. raniceps (Cope, 1862. Reverse hybridisation was also carried out in the investigation. The B probe exclusively painted the supernumerary, not hybridising any other chromosomes in H. albopunctatus, but all H. raniceps chromosomes showed small labelling signals. This result might be an indication that differences exist between the repetitive sequences of A and B chromosomes of H. albopunctatus, and that the chromosomes of H. raniceps and the heterochromatin of the B chromosome of H. albopunctatus are enriched with the same type of repetitive DNA. In meiotic preparations, the B labelled about 30% of scored spermatids, revealing a non-mendelian inheritance, and the painted B in micronucleus suggests that the supernumerary is eliminated from germ line cells. Although our results could suggest an interespecific origin of the B at first sight, further analysis on its repetitive sequences is still necessary. Nevertheless, the accumulation of repetitive sequences, detected in another species, even though closely related, remains an intriguing question.

  16. Use and knowledge of the razor-billed curassow pauxi tuberosa (spix, 1825 (galliformes, cracidae by a riverine community of the oriental amazonia, brazil

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    Pereira Henrique M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Amazonian basin, the human populations that traditionally inhabit the forest use its natural resources in various ways. One example is the local fauna which, among several other uses, is an important source of protein. The general aim of our study was to investigate the importance of hunting to the lives of the Amazonian riverine communities and to identify the multiple uses and knowledge about the hunted animals. In this article we focused the study on the razor-billed curassow Pauxi tuberosa, a Cracidae of significant value to the studied community. The investigation was conducted in the "Riozinho do Anfrísio Extractive Reserve", a Brazilian Conservation Unit located at the Altamira municipality, in the state of Pará. We used an ethnoecological approach, which included participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Our results show that the razor-billed curassow is used by the "Riozinho do Anfrísio" local population mainly as food, but it also fulfils secondary functions, with the feathers being used as a domestic tool and as magic-religious symbol, some organs as traditional medicine, and some chicks even being raised as pets. Our study also revealed that the traditional ecological knowledge of the riverines about their environment is considerably large, and that the local biodiversity provides various ecosystem services.

  17. Use and knowledge of the razor-billed curassow pauxi tuberosa (spix, 1825) (galliformes, cracidae) by a riverine community of the oriental amazonia, brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Flávio B; Pereira, Henrique M; Vicente, Luís

    2011-01-01

    In the Amazonian basin, the human populations that traditionally inhabit the forest use its natural resources in various ways. One example is the local fauna which, among several other uses, is an important source of protein. The general aim of our study was to investigate the importance of hunting to the lives of the Amazonian riverine communities and to identify the multiple uses and knowledge about the hunted animals. In this article we focused the study on the razor-billed curassow Pauxi tuberosa, a Cracidae of significant value to the studied community. The investigation was conducted in the "Riozinho do Anfrísio Extractive Reserve", a Brazilian Conservation Unit located at the Altamira municipality, in the state of Pará. We used an ethnoecological approach, which included participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Our results show that the razor-billed curassow is used by the "Riozinho do Anfrísio" local population mainly as food, but it also fulfils secondary functions, with the feathers being used as a domestic tool and as magic-religious symbol, some organs as traditional medicine, and some chicks even being raised as pets. Our study also revealed that the traditional ecological knowledge of the riverines about their environment is considerably large, and that the local biodiversity provides various ecosystem services. PMID:21194497

  18. Comparative study on hematological parameters of farmed matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus Spix and Agassiz, 1829 (Characidae: Bryconinae with others Bryconinae species Estudo comparativo sobre parâmetros hematológicos de matrinxã Brycon amazonicus Spix e Agassiz, 1892(Characidae: Bryconinae criados em cativeiro, com outras espécies de Bryconinae

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    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was not only to determine the red blood cells parameters, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts in farmed Brycon amazonicus (matrinxã, to compare these parameters among Bryconinae species from literature, and also to investigate the presence of special granulocytic cells in these fish. The results of the blood cells parameters here established for farmed B. amazonicus, a species of great economic importance in Brazilian aquaculture, could help a better understanding of the blood features in natural populations of this Amazon species. Blood parameters varied between Bryconinae species investigated, mainly the red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume (MCV. The presence of the blood granulocytes, neutrophils and heterophils in matrinxã suggest that both leukocytes can be a characteristic for Bryconinae family. Furthermore, it indicates that the existence of special granulocytic cells in the blood of Bryconinae species from literature is an artifact, and this was herein discussed.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os parâmetros eritrocíticos, as contagens de trombócitos e de leucócitos de espécimes de Brycon amazonicus (matrinxã, criados em cativeiro e compará-los com aqueles descritos na literatura para outras espécies de Bryconinae. Além disso, foi ainda investigada a presença de células granulocíticas especiais nestes peixes. Os resultados dos parâmetros sangüíneos apresentados para B. amazonicus podem ajudar a entender melhor as características sangüíneas em população natural desta espécie de grande importância para a aqüicultura brasileira. Os parâmetros sangüíneos das espécies de Bryconinae investigadas apresentaram variação interespecíficas principalmente a contagem de eritrócitos, hemoglobina, hematócrito e volume corpuscular médio (VCM. A presença dos granulócitos sangüíneos, neutrófilos e heterófilos em matrinxã sugere que esta pode ser uma característica das espécies pertencentes à subfamília Bryconinae. Além disso, indica que a existência de células granulocíticas especiais no sangue de espécies de Bryconinae da literatura é um artefato, e isto foi aqui discutido.

  19. Formação de nitrato e nitrito em sardinha (Triportheus angulatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829) decorrente do processamento térmico através do uso de carvão vegetal / Formation of nitrate and nitrito in sardine (Triportheus angulatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829) due to the thermal processing through the use of vegetable coal

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Wolinger Marcondes

    2013-01-01

    A pesca é uma importante atividade extrativista na Amazônia, sendo fonte nutricional de renda e lazer de grande parte da população. Sua constituição orgânica, sob determinadas condições de preparo sofre alterações físicas e químicas e pesquisas sugerem que reações entre compostos nitrosantes (nitratos e nitritos) e nitronisáveis (proteínas, aminoácidos entre outros) originem substâncias secundárias, como os compostos nitrosos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a formação de nitratos e...

  20. Formação de nitrato e nitrito em sardinha (Triportheus angulatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 decorrente do processamento térmico através do uso de carvão vegetal / Formation of nitrate and nitrito in sardine (Triportheus angulatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 due to the thermal processing through the use of vegetable coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wolinger Marcondes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A pesca é uma importante atividade extrativista na Amazônia, sendo fonte nutricional de renda e lazer de grande parte da população. Sua constituição orgânica, sob determinadas condições de preparo sofre alterações físicas e químicas e pesquisas sugerem que reações entre compostos nitrosantes (nitratos e nitritos e nitronisáveis (proteínas, aminoácidos entre outros originem substâncias secundárias, como os compostos nitrosos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a formação de nitratos e nitritos a partir da degradação proteica em sardinha (Triportheus angulatus ocasionada pelo calor de assamento com carvão vegetal através de espectrofotometria visível. A média de nitratos encontrados nas amostras in natura, assadas 30 e 60 minutos foi de 0,0020% (m/m, 0,00001% (m/m e 0,00001%(m/m respectivamente e a de nitritos foi de 0.0001% (m/m, 0.0063% (m/m e 0.0030% (m/m respectivamente. A pesquisa permite concluir a existência de uma relação direta entre a formação destes compostos nitrosantes e aplicação de calor com uso de carvão vegetal para seu preparo para consumo, principal forma de preparo na região Amazônica. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Research suggests that in foods subjected to high temperature reactions between ni-trosating compounds (nitrate and nitrite and substances which can undergo nitrosation (proteins, amino acids, etc. originate secondary substances such as nitrosamines. The aim of this study was to quantify the formation of nitrates and nitrites from protein degradation in sardine (Triportheus angulatus arising from the baking done with char-coal barbecue in temperature and time controlled. The average of nitrates found in fresh samples, baked 30 minutes and 60 minutes was 0.0020% (m/m 0.00001% (m/m and 0.00001% (w/w respectively and nitrite was 0.0001% (w/w, 0.0063% (w/w and 0.0030% (w/w respectively. The research suggests that the scope of the direct rela-tionship between the formation of these compounds and nitrosating applying heat using charcoal for their preparation for consumption.

  1. Description of a new species of the genus Leporinus Spix (Characiformes: Anostomidae from the rio Araguaia, Brazil, with comments on the taxonomy and distribution of L. parae and L. lacustris

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    Heraldo A. Britski

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Leporinus is described from the rio Araguaia, in Mato Grosso and Goiás states, Brazil. The new species has the dental formula 4/3, a unique feature within the genus; all other species of Leporinus have dental formulae 3/3, 3/4 or 4/4. In addition, the new species can also be distinguished by the following combination of characters: 36 to 37 scales in the lateral line, 4/4.5 or 4/5 series of scales in the transversal line, 16 circumpeduncular scale series, anal fin surpassing base of lower caudal-fin rays and three blotches along the lateral line. The new species shares with L. parae and L. lacustris a rather deep body, terminal mouth, long anal fin, three small dark blotches on the lateral line, the latter two, particularly the last one, usually fading, and preference for lentic habitats. Comments on the taxonomy and distribution of the species L. parae and L. lacustris are provided.Uma nova espécie do gênero Leporinus é descrita do rio Araguaia, nos estados do Mato Grosso e Goiás, Brasil. A característica mais notável da nova espécie é sua fórmula dental 4/3, única entre as espécies do gênero que possuem fórmula dental 3/3, 3/4 ou 4/4. A nova espécie também pode ser reconhecida pela combinação das seguintes características: 36 a 37 escamas na linha lateral, 4/4,5 ou 4/5 séries de escamas na linha transversal, 16 series de escamas circumpedunculares, nadadeira anal ultrapassando a base dos raios inferiores da nadadeira caudal e presença de três manchas escuras ao longo da linha lateral. A nova espécie compartilha com L. parae e L. lacustris corpo alto, boca terminal, nadadeira anal longa e escura, três manchas escuras na linha lateral pequenas, sendo as duas últimas, em especial a última, geralmente apagadas, e preferência por habitats lênticos. Além disso, são feitos comentários sobre a taxonomia e a distribuição de L. parae e L. lacustris.

  2. Differences in Ca2+-management between the ventricle of two species of neotropical teleosts: the jeju, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829, and the acara, Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824

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    Monica Jones Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the physiological role of the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR of two neotropical teleosts, the jeju, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Erythrinidae, and the acara, Geophagus brasiliensis (Cichlidae. While the in vivo heart frequency (fH - bpm of acara (79.6 ± 6.6 was higher than that of the jeju (50.3 ± 2.7, the opposite was observed for the ventricular inotropism (Fc - mN/mm² at 12 bpm (acara = 28.66 ± 1.86 vs. jeju = 36.09 ± 1.67. A 5 min diastolic pause resulted in a strong potentiation of Fc (≅ 90% of strips from jeju, which was completely abolished by ryanodine. Ryanodine also resulted in a ≅ 20% decrease in the Fc developed by strips from jeju at both subphysiological (12 bpm and physiological (in vivo frequencies. However, this effect of ryanodine reducing the Fc from jeju was completely compensated by adrenaline increments (10-9 and 10-6 M. In contrast, strips from acara were irresponsive to ryanodine, irrespective of the stimulation frequency, and increases in adrenaline concentration (to 10-9 and 10-6 M further increased Fc. These results reinforce the hypothesis of the functionality of the SR as a common trait in neotropical ostariophysian (as jeju, while in acanthopterygians (as acara it seems to be functional mainly in 'athletic' species.O presente estudo analisou o papel fisiológico desempenhado pelo retículo sarcoplasmático (RS de duas espécies de teleósteos neotropicais, o jeju, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Erythrinidae, e o acará, Geophagus brasiliensis (Cichlidae. Enquanto a frequência cardíaca registrada in vivo (fH - bpm para o acará (79.6 ± 6.6 foi superior àquela observada para o jeju (50.3 ± 2.7, resposta inversa foi verificada para o inotropismo ventricular (Fc - mN/mm² na frequência de estimulação de 12 bpm (acará = 28.66 ± 1.86 vs. jeju = 36.09 ± 1.67. Uma pausa diastólica de 5 min resultou em uma expressiva potenciação da Fc (≅ 90% das tiras de jeju, a qual foi completamente abolida pela rianodina. A rianodina também resultou em um decréscimo de ≅ 20% na Fc desenvolvida pelas tiras de jeju tanto a frequências sub-fisiológicas (12 bpm quanto fisiológicas (in vivo. No entanto, o decréscimo da Fc promovido pela rianodina foi completamente compensado pela adição de adrenalina (10-9 e 10-6 M. Em contraste, as tiras de acará foram irresponsivas à rianodina, independentemente da frequência de estimulação utilizada, fazendo com que a adição de adrenalina (10-9 e 10-6 M resultasse em incrementos ainda maiores da Fc. Esses resultados reforçam a hipótese de que a funcionalidade do RS seja uma característica comum aos ostariofíseos neotropicais (como o jeju, enquanto nos acantopterígios (como o acará esta organela parece ser funcional principalmente em espécies ativas.

  3. The effects of stocking density, prey concentration and feeding on Rhinelepis aspera (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 (Pisces: Loricariidae larviculture - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i2.8541

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    Ronald Kennedy Luz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate three stocking densities (20, 40 and 60 larvae L-1, and two daily prey concentrations (400 and 700 Artemia nauplii larvae-1 during the first seven days of active feeding (first phase. In the second phase was evaluate the effect of the different feeding regimes: fasting, dry diet (55% crude protein, Artemia sp. and mixed feeding (Artemia sp. plus dry diet, after 17 days of active feeding on Rhinelepis aspera larviculture. In the first phase, growth was affected only by prey concentration. In the second phase, the dry diet induced higher growth rates than fasting, but lower growth rates than the other treatments. The acceptance of the dry diet was evidenced by an increase in the growth rate from 4.6% day-1 in the first five days to 10.7% day-1 in the following five days of feeding. Survival was similar among dry diet, mixed feeding and Artemia nauplii treatments. R. aspera larvae can be reared during the first seven days of active feeding at a density of 60 larvae L-1, after which they can be fed with a commercial dry diet.

  4. Lesões pulmonares associadas ao parasitismo por Sebekia oxycephala (Pentastomida em jacarés-açu (Melanosuchus niger Spix, 1825 oriundos de vida livre na Amazônia brasileira

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    Adriana Maciel de C. Cardoso

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou descrever as lesões pulmonares macro e microscópicas associadas ao parasitismo por Sebekia oxycephala em 100 espécimes de jacarés-açu (Melanosuchusniger, abatidos na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá, situada no Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Durante a avaliação macroscópica, exemplares dos parasitos encontrados no tecido pulmonar foram coletados individualmente em AFA (Álcool etílico - Formalina - Ácido acético glacial e formol a 5% para avaliação parasitológica e classificação taxonômica. Amostras de tecido pulmonar de todos os animais, independentemente da ocorrência de lesões macroscópicas, foram fixadas em formol 10% e incluídas em parafina. Secções histológicas coradas por Hematoxilina-Eosina destas amostras foram avaliadas por meio de microscopia óptica. Macroscopicamente, 4 dos 100 animais (4% apresentaram espécimes de pentastomídeos no parênquima pulmonar. Os parasitos foram classificados taxonomicamente como pertencentes à espécie Sebekia oxycephala. Nenhuma alteração macroscópicas foi observada, porém, microscopicamente, lesões pulmonares foram encontradas em 37% dos casos, sendo que, lesões inflamatórias associadas ao parasitismo corresponderam a 75,6% dos mesmos (28/37. Nestes, segmentos degenerados e ovos de S. oxycephala encontravam-se envolvidos por cápsula de tecido conjuntivo fibroso e infiltrado inflamatório predominantemente composto por células gigantes do tipo corpo estranho. Três espécimes apresentaram espessamento de septos alveolares e sete exemplares continham infiltrado inflamatório granulocítico multifocal no parênquima pulmonar. As lesões associadas ao parasitismo, de modo geral, apresentaram intensidade discreta e parecem não representar uma causa importante de doença pulmonar entre a população estudada. Esta é a primeira descrição de lesões pulmonares em M. niger associadas ao parasitismo por S. oxycephala na Amazônia brasileira.

  5. Identificación de Mycobacterium sp., en una población de tortugas morrocoy (Geochelone carbonaria en cautiverio y en su entorno, en un zoológico en la Sabana de Bogotá

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    Ángela Natalia Agudelo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En un Zoológico de la Sabana de Bogotá, se presentó alta mortalidad de aves por tuberculosis aviar, en un encierro en el cual habitaban dos clases de animales diferentes: reptiles y aves. Se buscó establecer la presencia del Mycobacterium sp, por medio de la identificación molecular (PCR-PRA, en una población de 19 tortugas Morrocoy en cautiverio en el Zoológico mencionado anteriormente. Se procedió a tuberculinizar a todas las tortugas, las cuales resultaron negativas y se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal y muestras ambientales (agua y suelo y se cultivaron en medios OK/MSTA, LJ y OK respectivamente realizando baciloscopia para cada una de las muestras. De la muestras de materia fecal sólo cuatro fueron positivas a baciloscopia y de nueve muestras ambientales (suelo (n=7, agua (n=2, cinco fueron positivas (suelo (n=4, agua (n=1; en cuanto al crecimiento fueron negativas todas las de materia fecal de las tortugas Morrocoy. De las muestras ambientales (suelo, agua crecieron cinco y una muestras respectivamente. Adicionalmente se obtuvo muestras de la necropsia de una tortuga Icotea, (tejido, orina y absceso y sólo hubo crecimiento de la muestra de absceso. De la muestra de absceso se identificó Mycobacterium gordonae tipo 3, de las de suelo se obtuvo Mycobacterium avium tipo 3 y en el de agua se obtuvo Mycobacterium fortuitum tipo 1. Los hallazgos sugieren la necesidad de una vigilancia continua, que permita la identificación de la presencia de micobacterias; por medio de pruebas de laboratorio apropiadas (baciloscopia, cultivo, pruebas bioquímicas y moleculares; ya que se debe evitar que las tortugas sigan siendo parte de un ciclo epidemiológico de transmisión como portadores sanos y el contacto con los humanos debe darse sólo cuando sea estrictamente necesario, aplicando normas de bioseguridad.

  6. Identificación de Mycobacterium sp., en una población de tortugas morrocoy (Geochelone carbonaria) en cautiverio y en su entorno, en un zoológico en la Sabana de Bogotá

    OpenAIRE

    Ángela Natalia Agudelo; Germán Rodríguez Martínez; Leonardo Arias Bernal

    2008-01-01

    En un Zoológico de la Sabana de Bogotá, se presentó alta mortalidad de aves por tuberculosis aviar, en un encierro en el cual habitaban dos clases de animales diferentes: reptiles y aves. Se buscó establecer la presencia del Mycobacterium sp, por medio de la identificación molecular (PCR-PRA), en una población de 19 tortugas Morrocoy en cautiverio en el Zoológico mencionado anteriormente. Se procedió a tuberculinizar a todas las tortugas, las cuales resultaron negativas y se recolectaron mues...

  7. The industrial melanism mutation in British peppered moths is a transposable element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Hof, Arjen E; Campagne, Pascal; Rigden, Daniel J; Yung, Carl J; Lingley, Jessica; Quail, Michael A; Hall, Neil; Darby, Alistair C; Saccheri, Ilik J

    2016-06-01

    Discovering the mutational events that fuel adaptation to environmental change remains an important challenge for evolutionary biology. The classroom example of a visible evolutionary response is industrial melanism in the peppered moth (Biston betularia): the replacement, during the Industrial Revolution, of the common pale typica form by a previously unknown black (carbonaria) form, driven by the interaction between bird predation and coal pollution. The carbonaria locus has been coarsely localized to a 200-kilobase region, but the specific identity and nature of the sequence difference controlling the carbonaria-typica polymorphism, and the gene it influences, are unknown. Here we show that the mutation event giving rise to industrial melanism in Britain was the insertion of a large, tandemly repeated, transposable element into the first intron of the gene cortex. Statistical inference based on the distribution of recombined carbonaria haplotypes indicates that this transposition event occurred around 1819, consistent with the historical record. We have begun to dissect the mode of action of the carbonaria transposable element by showing that it increases the abundance of a cortex transcript, the protein product of which plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, during early wing disc development. Our findings fill a substantial knowledge gap in the iconic example of microevolutionary change, adding a further layer of insight into the mechanism of adaptation in response to natural selection. The discovery that the mutation itself is a transposable element will stimulate further debate about the importance of 'jumping genes' as a source of major phenotypic novelty. PMID:27251284

  8. The industrial melanism mutation in British peppered moths is a transposable element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Hof, Arjen E; Campagne, Pascal; Rigden, Daniel J; Yung, Carl J; Lingley, Jessica; Quail, Michael A; Hall, Neil; Darby, Alistair C; Saccheri, Ilik J

    2016-06-01

    Discovering the mutational events that fuel adaptation to environmental change remains an important challenge for evolutionary biology. The classroom example of a visible evolutionary response is industrial melanism in the peppered moth (Biston betularia): the replacement, during the Industrial Revolution, of the common pale typica form by a previously unknown black (carbonaria) form, driven by the interaction between bird predation and coal pollution. The carbonaria locus has been coarsely localized to a 200-kilobase region, but the specific identity and nature of the sequence difference controlling the carbonaria-typica polymorphism, and the gene it influences, are unknown. Here we show that the mutation event giving rise to industrial melanism in Britain was the insertion of a large, tandemly repeated, transposable element into the first intron of the gene cortex. Statistical inference based on the distribution of recombined carbonaria haplotypes indicates that this transposition event occurred around 1819, consistent with the historical record. We have begun to dissect the mode of action of the carbonaria transposable element by showing that it increases the abundance of a cortex transcript, the protein product of which plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, during early wing disc development. Our findings fill a substantial knowledge gap in the iconic example of microevolutionary change, adding a further layer of insight into the mechanism of adaptation in response to natural selection. The discovery that the mutation itself is a transposable element will stimulate further debate about the importance of 'jumping genes' as a source of major phenotypic novelty.

  9. Sulphydryl groups and their relation to the antioxidant enzymes of chelonian red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsoni, M A; Viana, R I; Ogo, S H

    1998-09-01

    Thiol groups of hemoglobin and blood glutathione are higher in Geochelone carbonaria than in Geochelone denticulata. Exposure of stripped hemolysate of both tortoises to terc-butyl hydroperoxide, resulted in a higher ferroheme oxidation of G. denticulata hemoglobin. In this example glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase, were not active due to the absence of GSH and NADPH, suggesting that the thiol groups of G. carbonaria hemoglobin act as antioxidant, similar to GSH. In the total hemolysate, however, where the antioxidant enzymes are active, both species showed similar levels of hemoglobin oxidation, suggesting that the protective effect of thiol groups of hemoglobin are less effective for heme protection. The activity of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase was higher in erythrocytes of G. denticulata and the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was higher in erythrocytes of G. carbonaria. PMID:9784849

  10. Esqueleto pré-sacral e sacral dos lagartos teiêdeos (Squamata, Teiidae Pressacral and sacral skeleton of teiids lizards (Squamata, Teiidae

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    Lauren Betina Veronese

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the axial skeleton -pressacral and sacral regions - of the nine genera of Teiidae Boulenger, 1885 comprising Ameiva Meyer, 1795, Callopistes Gravenhorst, 1838, Cnemidophorus Wagler, 1830, Crocodilurus Spix, 1825, Dicrodon Duméril & Bibron, 1839, Dracaena Daudin, 1802, Kenlropyx Spix, 1825, Teius Merrem, 1820 and Tupinambis Daudin, 1803 is here analysed under a comparative approach. The study is in a generic levei, and the principal conclusions reter to differences on the total number of vertebrae and some aspects of the ribs, especially their insertion and presence.

  11. The genetic legacy of Lonesome George survives: Giant tortoises with Pinta Island ancestry identified in Galápagos

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, DL; Benavides, E; Garrick, RC; Gibbs, JP; Russello, MA; Dion, KB; Hyseni, C; Flanagan, JP; Tapia, W. (ed.); Caccone, A

    2013-01-01

    The death of Lonesome George, the last known purebred individual of Chelonoidis abingdoni native to Pinta Island, marked the extinction of one of 10 surviving giant tortoise species from the Galápagos Archipelago. Using a DNA reference dataset including historical C. abingdoni and >1600 living Volcano Wolf tortoise samples, a site on Isabela Island known to harbor hybrid tortoises, we discovered 17 individuals with ancestry in C. abingdoni. These animals belong to various hybrid categories, i...

  12. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera) Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Dias; Adriano Lúcio Peracchi; Shirley Seixas Pereira da Silva

    2002-01-01

    A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856); Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842); Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856); Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838); Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767); Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823); Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mor...

  13. Chromosomal similarity between the Scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani), the Short-tailed parrot (Graydidascalus brachyurus) and the Yellow-faced parrot (Salvatoria xanthops) (Psittaciformes: Aves): a cytotaxonomic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Caparroz; José Maurício Barbanti Duarte

    2004-01-01

    Behavior, morphology, allozyme studies and DNA hybridization and sequencing data all suggest the independent evolution of the Old and New World parrots and support tribe status for the American species, although the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe are still poorly understood. A previous study has shown that the Yellow-faced parrot (Amazona xanthops Spix 1824) exhibits large karyotypic differences compared to the other Amazona species and suggested that this species should be rena...

  14. Differential repetitive DNA composition in the centromeric region of chromosomes of Amazonian lizard species in the family Teiidae

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Natalia; Carmo,Edson; NEVES,ROGERIO; Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Differences in heterochromatin distribution patterns and its composition were observed in Amazonian teiid species. Studies have shown repetitive DNA harbors heterochromatic blocks which are located in centromeric and telomeric regions in Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758), Kentropyx calcarata (Spix, 1825), Kentropyx pelviceps (Cope, 1868), and Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758). In Cnemidophorus sp.1, repetitive DNA has multiple signals along all chromosomes. The aim of this study was to charac...

  15. The alternative Pharaoh approach: stingless bees mummify beetle parasites alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mark K.; Hoffmann, Dorothee; Dollin, Anne; Duncan, Michael; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Neumann, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Workers from social insect colonies use different defence strategies to combat invaders. Nevertheless, some parasitic species are able to bypass colony defences. In particular, some beetle nest invaders cannot be killed or removed by workers of social bees, thus creating the need for alternative social defence strategies to ensure colony survival. Here we show, using diagnostic radioentomology, that stingless bee workers ( Trigona carbonaria) immediately mummify invading adult small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida) alive by coating them with a mixture of resin, wax and mud, thereby preventing severe damage to the colony. In sharp contrast to the responses of honeybee and bumblebee colonies, the rapid live mummification strategy of T. carbonaria effectively prevents beetle advancements and removes their ability to reproduce. The convergent evolution of mummification in stingless bees and encapsulation in honeybees is another striking example of co-evolution between insect societies and their parasites.

  16. Cytogenetic analyses of five amazon lizard species of the subfamilies Teiinae and Tupinambinae and review of karyotyped diversity the family Teiidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Natália Dayane Moura; Arias, Federico José; da Silva, Francijara Araújo; Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Lizards of the family Teiidae (infraorder Scincomorpha) were formerly known as Macroteiidae. There are 13 species of such lizards in the Amazon, in the genera Ameiva (Meyer, 1795), Cnemidophorus (Wagler, 1830), Crocodilurus (Spix, 1825), Dracaena (Daudin, 1801), Kentropyx (Spix, 1825) and Tupinambis (Daudin, 1802). Cytogenetic studies of this group are restricted to karyotype macrostructure. Here we give a compilation of cytogenetic data of the family Teiidae, including classic and molecular cytogenetic analysis of Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758), Cnemidophorus sp.1, Kentropyx calcarata (Spix, 1825), Kentropyx pelviceps (Cope, 1868) and Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758) collected in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Ameiva ameiva, Kentropyx calcarata and Kentropyx pelviceps have 2n=50 chromosomes classified by a gradual series of acrocentric chromosomes. Cnemidophorus sp.1 has 2n=48 chromosomes with 2 biarmed chromosomes, 24 uniarmed chromosomes and 22 microchromosomes. Tupinambis teguixin has 2n=36 chromosomes, including 12 macrochromosomes and 24 microchromosomes. Constitutive heterochromatin was distributed in the centromeric and terminal regions in most chromosomes. The nucleolus organizer region was simple, varying in its position among the species, as evidenced both by AgNO3 impregnation and by hybridization with 18S rDNA probes. The data reveal a karyotype variation with respect to the diploid number, fundamental number and karyotype formula, which reinforces the importance of increasing chromosomal analyses in the Teiidae. PMID:26753079

  17. A survey of Blastocystis in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teow, W L; Ng, G C; Chan, P P; Chan, Y C; Yap, E H; Zaman, V; Singh, M

    1992-01-01

    A total of 28 species of reptiles were investigated for Blastocystis using light microscopy and in vitro culture in biphasic egg slant medium. Blastocystis species were detected in 8 (28.6%) of these 28 species in 3 tortoises (Geochelone elephantopus, G. elegans and G. carbonaria), 3 snakes (Boiga dendrophilla, Python reticulatus and Elaphe radiata), 1 crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) and 1 iguana lizard (Cyclura cornuta). The reptilian Blastocystis appeared to be morphologically similar to B. hominis. PMID:1495927

  18. Bergmann's rule near the equator: latitudinal clines in body size of an Andean passerine bird.

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, G R

    1991-01-01

    Critical correlative support for Bergmann's ecogeographic rule is provided by symmetrical patterns of size variation in Diglossa carbonaria, a tropical passerine bird whose geographic range in the Andes Mountains of South America straddles the equator. Body size is positively correlated with latitude both north and south of the equator. Moreover, parapatric taxa that exhibit either partial (north-western Bolivia) or complete (northern Peru) reproductive isolation converge in body size. Relati...

  19. NUEVOS APORTES AL CONOCIMIENTO DE LA HERPETOFAUNA DE LA FORMACIÓN CERRO AZUL (MIOCENO SUPERIOR), PROVINCIA DE LA PAMPA, ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    AGUSTÍN SCANFERLA; Agnolín, Federico L.

    2015-01-01

    RESUMENSe describen nuevos materiales fósiles de anfibios y reptiles hallados en sedimentos referidos a la Formación Cerro Azul (Mioceno Superior), procedentes de numerosas localidades de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina. Los nuevos registros se basan en un resto craneano de anuro asignado al géneroCeratophrys, restos de caparazón de tortugas terrestres del géneroChelonoidis, vértebras asignables al lagarto de la familia TeiidaeTupinambis, y una vértebra troncal de serpiente comparable a...

  20. Improved functional properties of glycosylated soy protein isolate using D-glucose and xanthan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruiqi; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Rayaprolu, Srinivas; Davis, Mike; Eswaranandam, Satchithanandam; Jha, Alok; Chen, Pengyin

    2015-09-01

    Functional properties of the soy protein need to improve to have better applications in food industry. Alkali extracted and acid precipitated soy protein isolate (SPI) was glycosylated using D-glucose (G) and Xanthan gum (X) via Maillard reaction to improve solubility. The effects of SPI to G and SPI to X ratios (SPI:G = 2:1, 1:1, and 1:2; SPI:X = 100:1 and 10:1) and incubation time (0, 6, 12, and 24 h) on the solubility and functional properties of glycosylated SPI were evaluated. The SPI:G ratio of 1:2 yielded a maximum degree of glycosylation of 71.1 %. The solubility of SPI after glycosylation significantly increased (P 4.0-8.0 compared to SPI alone. Although the emulsion stability of glycosylated SPIs has not significantly increased (P > 0.05), the emulsifying activity improved significantly (P < 0.05). Glycosylation with SPI-X at a ratio of 10: 1 showed maximum emulsifying activity of 191.6 m(2)/g (SPI alone: 66.3 m(2)/g). Moreover, the SPI:X (ratio of 100:1) showed the maximum foaming activity (205 mL) compared to SPI alone (155 mL). The foaming stability of SPI (2.6 %) increased to 5.5 and 8.2 % when using xanthan gum at the ratio of 100:1 and 10:1, respectively. Glycosylated SPI with enhanced emulsifying and foaming properties has potential to improve the functional quality of the food products. PMID:26345030

  1. An unusual reproductive mode in Hypsiboas (Anura: Hylidae

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    Mário Ribeiro de Moura

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an unusual reproductive behavior of Hypsiboas pardalis (Spix, 1824. Species belonging to this genus usually are known to reproduce in lentic water bodies, with the development of exotrophic tadpoles. Herein, the bromeligenous behavior is reported for the first time in Hypsiboas Wagler, 1830. Although this reproductive behavior has been observed more than once here, we believe that it is not typical of Hypsiboas, being better characterized as an unusual reproductive mode for Hypsiboas, indicating the presence of plasticity in the reproductive modes of H. pardalis

  2. De la foi du charbonnier �� celle du héros (et retour

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    Alain Mothu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available « Si nous avions une seule goute de foy, nous remuerions les montagnes de leur place, dict la saincte parole : nos actions, qui seroient guidées et accompaignées de la divinité, ne seroient pas simplement humaines ; elles auroient quelque chose de miraculeux comme nostre croyance. Brevis est institutio vitae beataeque, si credas » (Montaigne, Essais, II, 12, éd. Villey, p. 442.La « foi du charbonnier », ou fides carbonarii / fides carbonaria, the collier’s creed en anglais, der Köhlerglaube ...

  3. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dias

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842; Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856; Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767; Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823; Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903; Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Glosso-phaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838; Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Artibeus obscuras Schinz, 1821; Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901; Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843; Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Diphylla ecaudata Von Spix, 1823; Eptesicus brasiliensis (DesMarest, 1819; Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Molossus molossus (Palas, 1766. One external (forearm length and 13 cranial meansurements were studied for 23 species. The meansurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Comments about some taxonomic respects for some species studied are also included.

  4. Una especie nueva de Cheiropteronema (Nematoda, Molineidae en Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae en la Argentina A new species of Cheiropteronema (Nematoda, Molineidae in Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae from Argentina

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    Mirna C Oviedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe a Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. parásita del murciélago Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823. Se caracteriza por presentar vesícula cefálica estriada, superficie de los huevos con puntuaciones, espículas iguales, nacimiento simétrico del ala espicular, particular disposición y número de crestas del synlophe y por carecer de diente esofágico. Es la segunda especie del género y la primera que se registra en quirópteros frugívoros de la Argentina.Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. is a parasite of the bat Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823. This species is characterized by cephalic vesicle striate, thick egg shell punctate, spicules equal, symmetrical development of spicule wings, particular arrangement and number the ridges of synlophe, and lack of esophageal tooth. Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. is the second species described for the genus and the first recorded in frugivorous bats of Argentina.

  5. Functional behavior of tortoise hemoglobin Geochelone denticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsoni, M A; Stoppa, G R; Turra, A; Ogo, S H

    2002-11-01

    The hemolysate from Geochelone denticulata contains two main hemoglobin components, as shown by ion exchange chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Electrophoresis under dissociating conditions showed three types of globin chains. The apparent molecular mass, as determined by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200, was compatible with tetrameric Hb, which was unable to polymerize. The G. denticulata Hb has a P50 value of 9.56 mm Hg at pH 7.4. The Hb oxygenation appears to be under the control of organic phosphates and hydrogen ion since it is strongly affected by those species. In the presence ATP or IHP the P50 values increased to 29.51 mm Hg and 54.95 mm Hg, respectively, at pH 7.4. The n50 was generally lower than 1.5 in stripped Hb, suggesting a dissociation of tetramers. In the presence of organic phosphates n50 values increased to approximately 2.5. The Bohr effect was evident in oxygen equilibrium experiments. The hematocrit (32%) and Hb concentration (5.7 mM as heme) of G. denticulata blood were substantially larger than those of G. carbonaria, but the methemoglobin levels were similar in both species, approximately 1%. Thus, the oxygen capacity of blood appears to be higher in G. denticulata than in G. carbonaria, particularly considering the functional properties of their Hbs, which would guarantee the survival of animals. PMID:12659022

  6. Giant fossil tortoise and freshwater chelid turtle remains from the middle Miocene, Quebrada Honda, Bolivia: Evidence for lower paleoelevations for the southern Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Edwin A.; Anaya, Federico; Croft, Darin A.

    2015-12-01

    We describe the first Miocene turtle remains from Bolivia, which were collected from the late middle Miocene (13.18-13.03 Ma) of Quebrada Honda, southern Bolivia. This material includes a large scapula-acromion and fragmentary shell elements conferred to the genus Chelonoidis (Testudinidae), and a left xiphiplastron from a pleurodire or side-necked turtle, conferred to Acanthochelys (Chelidae). The occurrence of a giant tortoise and a freshwater turtle suggests that the paleoelevation of the region when the fossils were deposited was lower than has been estimated by stable isotope proxies, with a maximum elevation probably less than 1000 m. At a greater elevation, cool temperatures would have been beyond the tolerable physiological limits for these turtles and other giant ectotherm reptiles.

  7. Exploring conservation discourses in the Galapagos Islands: A case study of the Galapagos giant tortoises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Capistros, Francisco; Hugé, Jean; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico

    2016-10-01

    Conservation discourses change rapidly both at global and local scales. To be able to capture these shifts and the relationships between humans and nature, we focused on a local and iconic conservation case: the Galapagos giant tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.). We used the Q methodology to contextualize conservation for science and decision making and to explore the multidimensionality of the conservation concept in Galapagos. The results indicate four prevailing discourses: (1) Multi-actor governance; (2) giant tortoise and ecosystems conservation; (3) community governance; and (4) market and tourism centred. These findings allow us to identify foreseeable points of disagreement, as well as areas of consensus, and to discuss the implication of the findings to address socio-ecological conservation and sustainability challenges. This can help the different involved stakeholders (managers, scientists and local communities) to the design and apply contextualized conservation actions and policies to contribute to a better sustainable management of the archipelago.

  8. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF STRAINS OF Salmonella spp IN RED-FOOT-TORTOISES FROM WILDLIFE TRADE ISOLAMENTO E IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE CEPAS DE Salmonella spp DE JABUTIS-PIRANGA ORIUNDOS DO TRÁFICO DE ANIMAIS SILVESTRES

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    Oberdan Coutinho Nunes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated Salmonella sp. in red-foot tortoise (Chelonoides carbonaria because of the fact this particular reptile shows high frequency of illegal commerce, and also because this situation represents a serious risk for health. We collected feces of 89 turtles from the wildlife center “Chico Mendes” - IBAMA/SUPES-BA. Characteristic colonies of Salmonella sp. were isolated in 12.36% of the tortoises (11/89. Nine colonies were identificated at the Adolfo Lutz Institute, distributed into six different sorotypes: S. enterica salamae 47:b:-; S. enterica houtenae 21:g,z51; S. Panama; S. Poona; S. Javiana e S. Michigan. All of them, according to literature, without previous description of infection in C. carbonaria whatsoever. However, there are previous cases of infections and antibiotics resistance involving these sorotypes, confirming the risk represented by wildlife trade to public health concerning the children’s exposition to the source of infection as well as the dissemination of resistant sorotypes.

    KEY WORDS: Epidemiology, reptiles, zoonosis.

    Este trabalho objetivou investigar a ocorrência de Salmonella sp. em jabutis-piranga (Chelonoides carbonaria, dada sua elevada frequência no comércio ilegal e risco que representa para a saúde. Coletaram-se fezes de 89 jabutis mantidos no Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres Chico Mendes – IBAMA/SUPES-BA. Isolaram-se colônias características de Salmonella sp. em 12,36% dos jabutis (11/89. Destas, nove foram identificadas no Instituto Adolfo Lutz (São Paulo, distribuindo-se em seis diferentes sorovares: S. enterica salamae 47:b:-; S. enterica houtenae 21:g,z51; S. Panama; S. Poona; S. Javiana e S. Michigan, todas, segundo a literatura consultada, sem prévia descrição para C. carbonária. No entanto, estão presentes em relatos de infecções e em estudos sobre resistência a antibióticos, confirmando o risco representado pelo tráfico de animais para a sa

  9. Morcegos da região sul do Brasil: análise comparativa da riqueza de espécies, novos registros e atualizações nomenclaturais (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from southern Brazil: comparative analysis of species richness, new records and nomenclatural update (Mammalia, Chiroptera

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    Fernando C. Passos

    Full Text Available Uma análise comparativa da riqueza de espécies de morcegos da Região Sul do Brasil é apresentada, assim como análises de similaridades entre estados. O estado do Paraná apresentou a maior riqueza de espécies de morcegos, com 64 espécies, seguido por Santa Catarina com 46 e pelo Rio Grande do Sul com 40. A família Phyllostomidae influencia fortemente este padrão de riqueza. As distribuições geográficas de Trachops cirrhosus (Spix, 1823, Artibeus cinereus (Gervais, 1851 e Thyroptera tricolor Spix, 1823 são ampliadas até o Paraná, estabelecendo um novo limite sul de distribuição dessas espécies e da família Thyropteridae. Além disso, Myotis dinellii Thomas, 1902 foi registrado pela primeira vez no Brasil, em Santa Catarina e no Rio Grande do Sul, estabelecendo um novo limite leste para sua distribuição. Ainda, é ampliada a distribuição de Eptesicus taddeii Miranda, Bernardi & Passos, 2006 a partir de seu primeiro registro no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Uma lista atualizada dos morcegos dos estados sul-brasileiros é apresentada bem como algumas adequações nomenclaturais. É enfatizada a importância do emprego de maiores esforços de campo para levantamentos da quiropterofauna, que assim podem contribuir para medidas de conservação embasadas em inventariamentos e coleções científicas representativas.A comparative analysis of the patterns of bat species richness in southern Brazil is presented, as well as similarity analyses among states. The highest richness of bat species is found in the state of Paraná, with 64 species, followed by Santa Catarina with 46, and Rio Grande do Sul, with 40. The family Phyllostomidae plays an important role in determining this pattern. The geographical distributions of Trachops cirrhosus (Spix, 1823, Artibeus cinereus (Gervais, 1851 and Thyroptera tricolor Spix, 1823 are expanded to the state of Paraná, establishing a new southern limit for these species and for Thyropteridae. In

  10. Dactylogyrids (Monogenea) parasitic on cichlids from northern Brazil, with description of two new species of Sciadicleithrum and new host and geographical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Fabiano; Scholz, Tomáš; Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Luque, José L

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Sciadicleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1989 are described from two cichlids from the Araguarí River, State of Amapá, northern Brazil. Sciadicleithrum edgari n. sp. from Satanoperca jurupari (Heckel, 1840) differs from all congeneric species in the morphology (hook-shaped, with middle process and distally bifurcate) of the accessory piece of the male copulatory organ (MCO). Sciadiclethrum araguariensis n. sp. from Crenicichla labrina (Spix and Agassiz, 1831) can be distinguished from all other species by a Y-shaped accessory piece of MCO. In addition to the description of two new species, new host and geographical records of six dactylogyrid monogeneans from cichlid fishes are presented. PMID:26751887

  11. Reproductive and fat body cycles of Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil Ciclos reproductivos y de grasa corporal de Tropidurus hispidus y Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae en una área de caatinga del nordeste de Brasil

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    LEONARDO B. RIBEIRO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the reproductive and fat body cycles of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 in an area of caatinga in the Serido of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, from October 2006 to May 2008. In both species, the females were reproductively active from the middle of the dry season to the beginning of the rainy season. Female reproductive activity was influenced by precipitation, whereas males exhibited spermatozoa in their testes throughout the year, and their reproductive activity was not related to any of the climatic variables analyzed. Mean clutch size (± SD was 8.1 ± 2.0 and 2.1 ± 0.6 eggs in T. hispidus and T. semitaeniatus, respectively, and was significantly related to female body size only in T. hispidus. The fat stock varied inversely with reproductive activity in the two species, and there was no difference in fat body mass between females and males. The effects of precipitation on the length of the breeding season of these two Tropidurus species suggest that their reproductive cycles are related to the microclimatic conditions suitable for embryo development, as well as for the neonates' emergence and survival especially during the rainy season, which may offer greater food availability to the hatchlings.Este estudio evaluó los ciclos reproductivos y de grasa corporal de Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 y T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 en una área de caatinga en el Seridó de Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, de octubre de 2006 a mayo de 2008. En ambas especies, las hembras se encontraron reproductivamente activas a partir de mediados de la estación seca para el inicio de la temporada de lluvias. La actividad reproductiva de las hembras fue influenciada por las precipitaciones, mientras que los machos presentaron espermatozoides en los testículos durante todo el año, y su actividad reproductiva no fue relacionada con ninguna de las variables climáticas analizadas. El tamaño medio (± DE de la nidada

  12. Biologia reprodutiva e reprodução induzida de duas espécies de Characidae (Osteichthyes, Characiformes) da bacia do São Francisco, Minas Gerais, Brasil Reproductive biology and induced breeding of two Characidae species (Osteichthyes, Characiformes) from the São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimi Sato; Edson V. Sampaio; Nelsy Fenerich-Verani; José R. Verani

    2006-01-01

    Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758) e Tetragonopterus chalceus Spix & Agassiz, 1829 são duas importantes espécies de peixes forrageiros da bacia do São Francisco. Espécimes destas duas espécies foram submetidos à indução da desova através de hipofisação, para observação de aspectos reprodutivos e obtenção de subsídios para definição de protocolo de reprodução artificial. Machos e fêmeas receberam dose única de extrato bruto de hipófise de carpa comum (6 mg/kg de peixe). A extrusão de ovócit...

  13. Dinâmica populacional da matrinxã Brycon amazonicus (Characidae na Amazônia Central Population dynamics of matrinxã Brycon amazonicus (Characidae in Central Amazon

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    Leocy C. dos Santos Filho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 is one of the most important fishery resources of the Amazonas state. Its population dynamics in Central Amazon was analyzed based on total landing and biometry data registered in the main landing port of Manaus, between 1994 and 2002. Growth and mortality rates were estimated separately for the rivers Purus, Madeira and Solimões. Differences in size structure and growth curves suggest that different population units exist among these rivers, requiring individualized evaluation and fisheries management strategies. The analysis of the yield per recruit does not indicate overexploitation. However, the highest relative exploitation rate was observed in the Madeira river. The suggested management strategies are related to restrictions to the fishery in the main fishing grounds during the migratory dispersal period, instead of restrictions during reproductive periods.

  14. Advertisement call of Dendropsophus studerae (Carvalho-e-Silva, Carvalho-e-Silva and Izecksohn, 2003) (Anura: Hylidae), with new record and geographic distribution extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras; De Abreu, Rafael Oliveira; Cruz, Deise; Herrera, Jocilene Brandão; Petersen, Emanuela; Klein, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    The treefrog genus Dendropsophus Fitzinger comprises 95 species, with geographic distribution from northern Argentina and Uruguay north through tropical South and Central America to tropical southern Mexico (Frost 2014). Dendropsophus studerae was included in the D. microcephalus clade by Faivovich et al. (2005), which currently consists of 39 species (Frost 2014). The species that most resembles D. studerae is D. bipunctatus (Spix), as already stated in the original description of the former (Carvalho-e-Silva et al. 2003). Thus far, Dendropsophus studerae was only known from its type locality, in the municipality of Quebrangulo (09º19'08"S, 36º28'16"W), State of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The original description of the species also included data on its eggs, tadpole (oral disc and external morphology) and some natural history information of adults and larvae, but its advertisement call remains undescribed.  PMID:25544468

  15. Marine organisms as source of extracts to disrupt bacterial communication: bioguided isolation and identification of quorum sensing inhibitors from Ircinia felix

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    Jairo Quintana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this study, 39 extracts from marine organisms were evaluated as quorum sensing inhibitors, collected in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and the Brazilian Coast including 26 sponges, seven soft corals, five algae and one zooanthid. The results showed that crude extracts from the soft coral Eunicea laciniata, and the sponges Svenzea tubulosa, Ircinia felix and Neopetrosia carbonaria were the most promising source of quorum sensing inhibitors compounds without affecting bacterial growth, unlike the raw extracts of Agelas citrina, Agelas tubulata, Iotrochota arenosa, Topsentia ophiraphidites, Niphates caycedoi, Cliona tenuis, Ptilocaulis walpersi, Petrosia pellasarca, and the algae Laurencia catarinensis and Laurencia obtusa, which displayed potent antibacterial activity against the biosensors employed. The crude extract from the sponge I. felix was fractionated, obtaining furanosesterterpenes which were identified and evaluated as quorum sensing inhibitors, showing a moderate activity without affecting the biosensor's growth.

  16. New tick records in Rondônia, Western Brazilian Amazon Novos relatos de carrapatos em Rondônia, Amazônia ocidental brasileira

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    Marcelo Bahia Labruna

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we provide new tick records from Vilhena Municipality, in the Southeast of the State of Rondônia, Northern Brazil. Ticks collected from a capybara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, were identified as Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli (1 female, and Amblyomma sp. (1 larva. Ticks collected from a harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, were identified as Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius (16 nymphs and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley (1 nymph. Ticks collected from a yellow-footed tortoise, Chelonoidis denticulada (Linnaeus, were identified as Amblyomma rotundatum Koch (10 females, 2 nymphs, and Amblyomma sp. (2 larvae. The present record of A. romitii is the first in the State of Rondônia, and represents the southernmost record for this tick species, indicating that its distribution area is much larger than currently recognized. Although both A. cajennense and H. juxtakochi have been reported parasitizing various bird species, we provide the first tick records on a harpy eagle. A. rotundatum is widespread in the State of Rondônia, and has been previously reported on the yellow-footed tortoise. The present records increase the tick fauna of Rondônia to 26 species.O presente estudo relata novos achados de carrapatos provenientes do Município de Vilhena, Sudeste do Estado de Rondônia, na região Norte do Brasil. Carrapatos colhidos de uma capivara, Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, foram identificados como Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli (1 fêmea e Amblyomma sp. (1 larva. Carrapatos colhidos de uma águia harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, foram identificados como Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius (16 ninfas e Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley (1 ninfa. Carrapatos colhidos de um jabuti, Chelonoidis denticulada (Linnaeus, foram identificados como Amblyomma rotundatum Koch (10 fêmeas, 2 ninfas e Amblyomma sp. (2 larvas. O presente achado de A. romitii é o primeiro no Estado de Rondônia, representando o achado mais

  17. NUEVOS APORTES AL CONOCIMIENTO DE LA HERPETOFAUNA DE LA FORMACIÓN CERRO AZUL (MIOCENO SUPERIOR, PROVINCIA DE LA PAMPA, ARGENTINA

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    AGUSTÍN SCANFERLA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENSe describen nuevos materiales fósiles de anfibios y reptiles hallados en sedimentos referidos a la Formación Cerro Azul (Mioceno Superior, procedentes de numerosas localidades de la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina. Los nuevos registros se basan en un resto craneano de anuro asignado al géneroCeratophrys, restos de caparazón de tortugas terrestres del géneroChelonoidis, vértebras asignables al lagarto de la familia TeiidaeTupinambis, y una vértebra troncal de serpiente comparable al género de colubroideos actualesPhilodryas. Tanto los registros terciarios previos de géneros actuales de anfibios y reptiles en América del Sur, como así también la asociación recuperada en el Mioceno Superior de La Pampa sugieren que la mayoría de los géneros que componen la herpetofauna Neotropical estaban presentes en el Mioceno, patrón similar al observado en otras regiones del mundo.

  18. Evidence of Fluconazole-Resistant Candida Species in Tortoises and Sea Turtles.

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    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rodrigues, Pedro Henrique de Aragão; de Alencar, Lucas Pereira; Riello, Giovanna Barbosa; Ribeiro, Joyce Fonteles; de Oliveira, Jonathas Sales; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Monteiro, André Jalles; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. recovered from tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) and sea turtles (Chelonia mydas, Caretta caretta, Lepidochelys olivacea, Eretmochelys imbricata). For this purpose, material from the oral cavity and cloaca of 77 animals (60 tortoises and 17 sea turtles) was collected. The collected specimens were seeded on 2% Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, and the identification was carried out by morphological and biochemical methods. Sixty-six isolates were recovered from tortoises, out of which 27 were C. tropicalis, 27 C. famata, 7 C. albicans, 4 C. guilliermondii and 1 C. intermedia, whereas 12 strains were obtained from sea turtles, which were identified as Candida parapsilosis (n = 4), Candida guilliermondii (n = 4), Candida tropicalis (n = 2), Candida albicans (n = 1) and Candida intermedia (n = 1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations for amphotericin B, itraconazole and fluconazole ranged from 0.03125 to 0.5, 0.03125 to >16 and 0.125 to >64, respectively. Overall, 19 azole-resistant strains (14 C. tropicalis and 5 C. albicans) were found. Thus, this study shows that Testudines carry azole-resistant Candida spp.

  19. Two new species of Creptotrema (Digenea: Allocreadiidae from South America Dos especies nuevas de Creptotrema (Digenea: Allocreadiidae de América del Sur

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    Stephen S. Curran

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new digenean species belonging in Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928 are described from specimens stored in the invertebrate collection at the Museum of Natural History, Geneva, Switzerland. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. is described from Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix and Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, and Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae in the Paraguay River, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. is described from Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae in Río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei differs from its congeners by having testes with irregular rather than entire outlines. Creptotrema sucumbiosa differs from its congeners by having a bilobed rather than entire ovary. Both C. lamothei and C. sucumbiosa differ from their other congeners by having relatively longer posttesticular spaces in their bodies, representing 25-30% and 24-28% of body length respectively, compared with approximately 6-19% in other species.Dos especies nuevas de digéneos pertenecientes a Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas y Pereira, 1928 fueron descritas de ejemplares depositados en la colección de invertebrados del Museo de Historia Natural de Ginebra, Suiza. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. fue descrita en Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier y Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix y Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, y Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Paraguay, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. fue descrita de Tetragonopterus argenteus, Cuvier 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei difiere de sus congéneres por tener testículos con contornos irregulares en contraste con los que presentan contornos enteros. Creptotrema sucumbiosa difiere de

  20. Crescimento alométrico, morfologia e uso do habitat em cinco espécies de Mabuya Fitzinger (Reptilia, Scincidae Allometric growth, morphology and habitat use in five species of Mabuya Fitzinger (Reptilia, Scincidae

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    Gabriel Silva Pinto

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas a variação ontogenética da forma do corpo nos lagartos sul-americanos Mabuya agilis, M. bistriata, M. guaporicola, M. macrorhyncha e M. nigropunctata, assim como as diferenças interespecíficas nas proporções do corpo, como resultados de um possível crescimento alométrico. As trajetórias das tendências ontogenéticas foram significativamente diferentes somente entre M. guaporicola e M. nigropunctata; todos os pares de espécies, exceto M. agilis e M. macrorhyncha, M. bistriata e M. nigropunctata, demonstraram diferenças significativas em relação ao intercepto Y. A Análise de Componentes Principais aplicada sobre uma série de caracteres morfométricos demonstrou sinais opostos para as variáveis do corpo e dos membros, corroborando estudos anteriores. Contudo, quando as espécies foram analisadas individualmente, as mãos e dígitos apresentaram alometria negativa, enquanto os demais segmentos apresentaram variação em suas alometrias. Algumas hipóteses levantadas nesse estudo, relacionadas à forma do corpo e ao uso do hábitat nessas espécies, necessitam ser testadas.The ontogenetic variation of body shape in the South American skinks Mabuya agilis Boulenger, 1887, M. bistriata (Spix, 1825, M. guaporicola Dunn, 1936, M. macrorhyncha Hoge, 1946, and M. nigropunctata (Spix, 1825 were analyzed. Interspecific differences in body proportions as a possible result of allometric growth in these species are also examined. Ontogenetic trend lines were significantly different only between M. guaporicola and M. nigropunctata; all other species pairs, except M. agilis and M. macrorhyncha, M. bistriata and M. nigropunctata, showed significantly different Y intercepts. A PCA analysis on a series of morphometric characters showed opposite signals for body and limb variables, corroborating previous studies. However, when the species were analyzed separately, hand and digits were the most likely segments to present negative

  1. Feeding overlap in two sympatric species of Rhinella (Anura: Bufonidae of the Atlantic Rain Forest Sobreposição alimentar em duas espécies simpátricas de Rhinella (Anura: Bufonidae da Mata Atlântica

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    Leandro T. Sabagh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A clear understanding of the relationships between overlapping, similarity, and competition is necessary to understand many of the questions about the structure and operation of a community. Rhinella icterica (Spix, 1824 and Rhinella crucifer (Wied Neuwied, 1821 are sympatric species of toads occurring in the National Park of Serra dos Órgãos in southeastern Brazil. The aim of the present study was to assess the dietary overlap of these two species. Ninety-four stomachs were analyzed, and 2245 prey items were found. Common prey were Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera larvae, Blattaria, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Opiliones, and Aranaea. Ants were the most important prey in both diets, followed by beetles and cockroaches. The niche breadth of R. icterica was 1.76 and of R. crucifer was 1.28. The dietary overlap between the species was 98.62%. A positive correlation was observed between jaw width and prey size consumed by R. icterica.Um claro entendimento das relações entre sobreposição, similaridade e competição é necessário para entender muitas questões sobre a estrutura e o funcionamento de uma comunidade. Rhinella icterica (Spix, 1824 e Rhinella crucifer (Wied Neuwied, 1821 são espécies simpátricas que ocorrem no Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos, região sudeste do Brasil. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a sobreposição alimentar dessas duas espécies. Foram analisados 94 estômagos e encontradas 2245 presas. Os grupos comuns foram: Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, larva de Lepidoptera, Blattaria, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Opiliones e Aranaea. Formigas foram as presas mais importantes na dieta, seguidas por besouros e baratas. A amplitude de nicho de R. icterica foi de 1,76 e a de R. cruicifer 1,28. A sobreposição de nicho alimentar entre as espécies foi de 98,62%. Houve relação positiva entre a largura da mandíbula e a dimensão das presas consumidas em R. icterica.

  2. Diversidade e distribuição espaço-temporal de anuros em região com pronunciada estação seca no sudeste do Brasil Temporal and spatial distribution and diversity of anurans in a region with pronounced dry season in southeastern Brazil

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    Tiago Gomes dos Santos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available As atividades antrópicas têm alterado profundamente os ambientes naturais e muitas vezes afetado a diversidade e distribuição dos anuros. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as seguintes questões: (1 qual a composição da anurofauna em uma região de pastagem com clima marcadamente sazonal no extremo noroeste paulista? (2 como adultos e girinos das espécies se distribuem temporal e espacialmente? (3 a riqueza de espécies está correlacionada com descritores da heterogeneidade dos hábitats de reprodução? Na área estudada foram registradas 20 espécies de anuros, distribuídas em 11 gêneros de quatro famílias: Leptodactylidae (9, Hylidae (8, Microhylidae (2 e Bufonidae (1. Destas, Chaunus schneideri (Werner, 1894, Physalaemus centralis Bokermann, 1962 e Physalaemus fuscomaculatus (Steindachner, 1864 foram registradas apenas por coleta de girinos, enquanto Dendropsophus minutus (Peters, 1872 e Leptodactylus labyrinthicus (Spix, 1824 ocorreram somente em corpos d'água próximos aos selecionados. As espécies registradas são conhecidas por sua ampla distribuição geográfica e por colonizarem áreas alteradas em outras localidades. Não houve correlação entre a riqueza de espécies e a complexidade estrutural dos corpos d'água. Entretanto, a maior riqueza de espécies foi registrada nos corpos d'água de longa duração. As poças temporárias de hidroperíodo instável foram colonizadas inicialmente por leptodactilídeos, enquanto que as poças permanentes ou temporárias estáveis foram colonizadas por hilídeos. A atividade de vocalização e de reprodução da maioria das espécies foi restrita ao período quente e chuvoso do ano, um padrão típico de ambientes tropicais sazonais. Cinco espécies [Chaunus schneideri, Dendropsophus nanus (Boulenger, 1889, Hypsiboas albopunctatus Spix, 1824, Leptodactylus podicipinus (Cope, 1862 e Pseudopaludicola aff. saltica (Cope, 1887] vocalizaram durante a estação seca e chuvosa, mas

  3. Ecological parameters of the endohelminths in relation to size and sex of Prochilodus argenteus (Actinopterygii: Prochilodontidae from the Upper São Francisco River, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Cassandra M. Monteiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the ecological indexes of the helminths of the digestive system and coelom of Prochilodus argenteus Spix & Agassiz, 1829. A total of 150 specimens (53 males and 97 females taken from the upper reaches of the São Francisco River in the municipality of Três Marias (18º12'32"S, 45º15'41"W, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were examined. The specimens were collected in July, 2003 and January, 2004. Ninety-eight fish (65.3% were infected by at least one species of helminth. Five helminth species were found: one digenean, Saccocoelioides nanii Szidat, 1954; two Eucestoda, Valipora sp., and one undetermined metacestode; one nematode, Spinitectus asperus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928; and one acanthocephalan, Neoechinorhynchus prochilodorum Nickol & Thatcher, 1971. The sex of the host did not influence parasite indexes. The total length of the hosts influenced the abundance of S. nanii (r s = -0.21, p = 0.01 and the prevalence of the metacestode (r = -0.91, p = 0.01. Saccocoelioides nanii was the dominant species in the parasite fauna of P. argenteus. Saccocoelioides nanii, Valipora sp., S. asperus and N. prochilodorum are reported here for the first time in P. argenteus and their known distribution is expanded to the São Francisco River.

  4. On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae

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    Silvana C. Thiengo

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.78-0.96 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.68-0.77 (mean 0.72. Radula similar to other congeneric species. Testis and spermiduct as in P. lineata and P. sordida; prostate cylindric and short, cream in color as the testis. Penial sheath straight bearing a central outer gland deeply embedded in the tissue of its basal portion and a large wrinkled gland occupying 2/3 of the distal tip of its inner surface; the rigth margin of the sheath overlaps the left one until 2/3 of its proximal end. Female reproductive apparatus similar to that P. lineata; vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.

  5. A taxonomic review of the Dark-winged Trumpeter Psophia viridis (Aves: Gruiformes: Psophiidae

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    Marina Oppenheimer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dark-winged Trumpeter, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae is a Brazilian endemic species and includes three subspecies: Psophia viridis viridis Spix, 1825; Psophia v. dextralis Conover, 1934, and Psophia v. obscura Pelzeln, 1857, as well as P. v. interjecta Griscom & Greenway, 1937, whose validity has been questioned by several authors. These taxa are allopatric in distribution along the south of the Amazon River, although the precise limits of their distribution still remain unknown. This complex has never been taxonomically reviewed and this work aims to test the validity of its taxa based on the Phylogenetic Species Concept. Morphometrical characters and plumage colour patterns were analyzed, and the distribution of the taxa was also revised. In this study, 108 specimens from 41 localities were examined (all types included, with each reliable literature-based locality being included in order to delimit the geographical distribution of the complex. Morphometrical data did not point out significant differences between the taxa, also showing no sexual dimorphism among them. Meanwhile, plumage characters showed consistent and distinct patterns for each of the taxa, except for P. v. interjecta, whose features indicated by authors as diagnosable are the result of individual variation. No clinal variation or intergradation were observed, even at regions close to the rivers headwaters, where supposedly populations could be in contact. It is suggested that the currently accepted subspecies be elevated to the species level, such as: Psophia viridis Spix, 1825, distributed in the Madeira-Tapajós interfluvium, P. dextralis, found in the Tapajós-Tocantins interfluvium, and P. obscura, which occurs from the right bank of the Tocantins River to the west of the State of Maranhão.Os jacamins-de-costas-verdes, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae são endêmicos da Amazônia brasileira e contam, atualmente, com três subespécies reconhecidas

  6. New and significant bird records from Rio Grande do Sul, with comments on biogeography and conservation of the southern Brazilian avifauna

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    Glayson A. Bencke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available I report on the occurrence of 16 species of birds in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, of which seven are new for the state - Accipiter superciliosus (Linnaeus, 1766, Brotogeris tirica (Gmelin, 1788, Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837, Phyllomyias griseocapilla Sclater, 1862, Saltator coerulescens Vieillot, 1817, Orthogonys chloricterus (Vieillot, 1819, and Sporophila lineola (Linnaeus, 1758 - and seven were previously known from unsubstantiated or poorly documented records - Ixobrychus exilis (Gmelin, 1789, Brotogeris chiriri (Vieillot, 1818, Coccyzus euleri Cabanis, 1873, Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana (Bertoni & Bertoni, 1901, Psilorhamphus guttatus (Ménétriès, 1835, Serpophaga griseicapilla Straneck, 2007, and Hemithraupis ruficapilla (Vieillot, 1818. Descriptive and natural history notes are presented for some of these species. The records of B. tirica, P. guttatus, P. griseocapilla, Myiozetetes similis (Spix, 1825, O. chloricterus, H. ruficapilla, and S. lineola represent significant southward range extensions of up to 300 km. Also, a new confirmed record of Myiarchus ferox (Statius Muller, 1776 is divulged. Finally, I argue that the Atlantic forests of north-eastern Rio Grande do Sul should be included in the Serra do Mar area of endemism (sensu SILVA et al., 2004 because of the presence of Orthogonys chloricterus, and comment on the possible range expansion of Myiozetetes similis, Sporophila lineola and other primarily tropical species in southern Brazil.

  7. Intestinal Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae of Brazilian Lizards. Eimeria carmelinoi n.sp., from Kentropyx calcarata and Acroeimeria paraensis n.sp. from Cnemidophorus lemniscatus lemniscatus (Lacertilia: Teiidae

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    Lainson Ralph

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Eimeria carmelinoi n.sp., is described in the teiid lizard Kentropyx calcarata Spix, 1825 from north Brazil. Oocysts subspherical to spherical, averaging 21.25 x 20.15 µm. Oocyst wall smooth, colourless and devoid of striae or micropyle. No polar body or conspicuous oocystic residuum, but frequently a small number of fine granules in Brownian movement. Sporocysts, averaging 10.1 x 9 µm, are without a Stieda body. Endogenous stages characteristic of the genus: intra-cytoplasmic, within the epithelial cells of the ileum and above the host cell nucleus. A re-description is given of a parasite previously described as Eimeria cnemidophori, in the teiid lizard Cnemidophorus lemniscatus lemniscatus. A study of the endogenous stages in the ileum necessitates renaming this coccidian as Acroeimeria cnemidophori (Carini, 1941 nov.comb., and suggests that Acroeimeria pintoi Lainson & Paperna, 1999 in the teiid Ameiva ameiva is a synonym of A. cnemidophori. A further intestinal coccidian, Acroeimeria paraensis n.sp. is described in C. l. lemniscatus, frequently as a mixed infection with A. cnemidophori. Mature oocysts, averaging 24.4 x 21.8 µm, have a single-layered, smooth, colourless wall with no micropyle or striae. No polar body, but the frequent presence of a small number of fine granules exhibiting Brownian movements. Sporocysts 9 x 8, without a Stieda body. Endogenous stages epicytoplasmic, characteristic of the genus, in the upper ileum. The importance of a study of the endogenous stages of eimeriid coccidia is discussed.

  8. Chromosomal similarity between the Scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani, the Short-tailed parrot (Graydidascalus brachyurus and the Yellow-faced parrot (Salvatoria xanthops (Psittaciformes: Aves: a cytotaxonomic analysis

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    Renato Caparroz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavior, morphology, allozyme studies and DNA hybridization and sequencing data all suggest the independent evolution of the Old and New World parrots and support tribe status for the American species, although the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe are still poorly understood. A previous study has shown that the Yellow-faced parrot (Amazona xanthops Spix 1824 exhibits large karyotypic differences compared to the other Amazona species and suggested that this species should be renamed Salvatoria xanthops, although the relationships between S. xanthops and the other New World parrots remain unclear. In the present work, we describe the karyotype of the Scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani, Kuhl 1820 and the karyotype and C-banding pattern of the Short-tailed parrot (Graydidascalus brachyurus, Kuhl 1820 and compare them to the karyotype and C-banding pattern of S. xanthops, as well as to the karyotypes of other New World parrots. The chromosomal similarity between these three species and the karyotypic differences between them and other New World parrots suggest that G. brachyurus and S. xanthops are sister species and are most closely related to members of the genus Pionus.

  9. Relacionamento entre anfíbios anuros e bromélias da restinga de Regência, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brasil Relationship between anuran amphibians and bromeliads of the sandy coastal plain of Regência, linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    José Alberto P. Schineider

    Full Text Available Some anuran amphibians use the bromeliads during the entire life cycle and others only as diurnal shelter. At the sandy coastal plain of Linhares, State of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil, 676 bromeliads were examined, of which 303 of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker L. B. Smith., 1955, 287 of Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb., 1864, and 86 of Vrisea procera (Mart. Ex Schult. f. Wittm, 1891. The morphometric and physical-chemical analysis of different bromeliads evidenced variations among plants. During the period sampled, six anuran species were found inside the plant axils. The hylid frog Phyllodytes luteolus (Wied, 1824 was the most abundant species (260 specimens. Its abundance was higher in the epiphyte bromeliad Vrisea procera. Phyllodytes luteolus had higher occurrences in bromeliads located at a transitional area between open and under the shrub vegetation. Specimens of Scinax alterus (Lutz, B., 1973 and Aparasphenodon brunoi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920, were more frequent mainly in transitional areas; Bufo granulosus Spix, 1824 occurred in open and transitional areas, whereas Gastrotheca fissipis (Boulenger, 1888 and Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 were found only in bromeliads located in open areas.

  10. Reconsidering the taxonomy of the Black-Faced Uacaris, Cacajao melanocephalus group (Mammalia: Pitheciidae), from the northern Amazon Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stephen F; Guedes, Patrícia G; Figueiredo-Ready, Wilsea M B; Barnett, Adrian A

    2014-09-24

    The black-faced uacaris are a poorly known group of platyrrhine monkeys from the Rio Negro basin in northwestern Amazonia. Originally described as two distinct species-Cacajao melanocephalus (Humboldt 1812) and Cacajao ouakary (Spix 1823)-from opposite banks of the Negro, they were treated as a single species until the end of the twentieth century, when molecular studies reconfirmed their status as true species. One of these studies not only nominated a third (northern) species, Cacajao ayresi Boubli et al. 2008, but also identified C. ouakary as a junior synonym of C. melanocephalus, resulting in the introduction of a new nomen, Cacajao hosomi Boubli et al. 2008. In the present study, additional evidence on morphological and zoogeographic variables is analyzed, which indicates that C. ouakary should be reinstated, and supports the nomination of a neotype of C. melanocephalus. The molecular and zoogeographic data on the species status of the ayresi form are also re-assessed, leading to the conclusion that, on the basis of the evidence available at the present time, this form should be considered a subspecies of C. melanocephalus. A new taxonomic arrangement is proposed, which recognizes two species, C. ouakary and C. melanocephalus, the latter with two subspecies, C. m. melanocephalus and C. m. ayresi.

  11. Diversidad y estado de conservación de primates en las Sierras de Contamana, Amazonía peruana

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    Rolando Aquino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo contiene información del inventario, abundancia y estado de conservación de las especies de primates que habitan en los bosques de las Sierras de Contamana. Hemos registrado 87 grupos correspondientes a 11 especies. De ellas, Saguinus mystax Spix, Ateles chamek Humboldt, Cebus apella Linnaeus y Lagothrix poeppigii Schinz fueron las más avistadas con 14, 13, 13 y 11 grupos, respectivamente. El rango de variación del tamaño de grupo resultaron similares a los registrados para otras áreas, con excepción de A. chamek, cuyos grupos en la mayoría de los casos estuvieron compuestos por más de 16 individuos. En el área de estudio, las poblaciones más abundantes correspondieron al Cacajao calvus ucayalii Thomas (479 individuos/100 km, L. poeppigii (178,5 individuos/100 km y A. chamek (148,2 individuos/100 km. los mayores avistamientos ocurrieron en los bosques de terraza alta (46% y de colina baja (27%, constituyéndose así en los hábitats de mayor uso por los primates. Entre las especies registradas, C. calvus ucayalii y S. mystax aún no están protegidas en ninguna de las actuales áreas naturales protegidas del Perú.

  12. Intestinal coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of Brazilian lizards. Eimeria carmelinoi n.sp., from Kentropyx calcarata and Acroeimeria paraensis n.sp. from Cnemidophorus lemniscatus lemniscatus (Lacertilia: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainson, Ralph

    2002-03-01

    Eimeria carmelinoi n.sp., is described in the teiid lizard Kentropyx calcarata Spix, 1825 from north Brazil. Oocysts subspherical to spherical, averaging 21.25 x 20.15 micro m. Oocyst wall smooth, colourless and devoid of striae or micropyle. No polar body or conspicuous oocystic residuum, but frequently a small number of fine granules in Brownian movement. Sporocysts, averaging 10.1 x 9 microm, are without a Stieda body. Endogenous stages characteristic of the genus: intra-cytoplasmic, within the epithelial cells of the ileum and above the host cell nucleus. A re-description is given of a parasite previously described as Eimeria cnemidophori, in the teiid lizard Cnemidophorus lemniscatus lemniscatus. A study of the endogenous stages in the ileum necessitates renaming this coccidian as Acroeimeria cnemidophori (Carini, 1941) nov.comb., and suggests that Acroeimeria pintoi Lainson & Paperna, 1999 in the teiid Ameiva ameiva is a synonym of A. cnemidophori. A further intestinal coccidian, Acroeimeria paraensis n.sp. is described in C. l. lemniscatus, frequently as a mixed infection with A. cnemidophori. Mature oocysts, averaging 24.4 x 21.8 microm, have a single-layered, smooth, colourless wall with no micropyle or striae. No polar body, but the frequent presence of a small number of fine granules exhibiting Brownian movements. Sporocysts 9 x 8, without a Stieda body. Endogenous stages epicytoplasmic, characteristic of the genus, in the upper ileum. The importance of a study of the endogenous stages of eimeriid coccidia is discussed. PMID:12016449

  13. Mortality of captive tortoises due to viviparous nematodes of the genus Proatractis (Family Atractidae).

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    Rideout, B A; Montali, R J; Phillips, L G; Gardiner, C H

    1987-01-01

    Between September 1982 and January 1984, verminous colitis was diagnosed post mortem in eight red-footed tortoises (Geochelone carbonaria) and three leopard tortoises (Geochelone pardalis) from the reptile collection of the National Zoological Park. This represented 69% of 16 tortoise necropsy accessions for that period. Etiology was determined to be a viviparous pinworm-like nematode of the genus Proatractis (Family Atractidae). Clinical signs were either nonspecific, consisting of anorexia, lethargy, and depression, or were absent. Limited trials with piperazine citrate and fenbendazole appeared to be ineffectual against the parasite and supportive therapy was unsuccessful. Post mortem examination revealed roughening and thickening of the mucosa of the cecum and colon, and in severe cases myriads of tiny (0.5-1.0 cm) nematodes were evident on the mucosal surface. In six tortoises, worms were found also in the small intestine. Histopathologic features in severe cases included mucosal necrosis with parasites and mixed inflammatory cells extending into the tunica muscularis. Focal to diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates were present consistently in the submucosa of the cecum and colon, and similar but milder lesions occasionally occurred in the small intestine. PMID:3820411

  14. Toxicity and efficacy of ivermectin in chelonians.

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    Teare, J A; Bush, M

    1983-12-01

    Five red-footed tortoises (Geochelone carbonaria) treated for intestinal nematode parasitism with a single IM injection of ivermectin (0.4 mg/kg) were found in a state of extreme paresis or flaccid paralysis. One tortoise recovered normal motor function over the next 7 to 10 days. The remaining tortoises died within 3 days of receiving the ivermectin. The only consistent postmortem finding was a marked fatty change in the liver. Studies in the red-footed tortoise showed that some paresis will occur with dosages as low as 0.05 mg/kg. At least 3 other species of chelonians were found to be susceptible to ivermectin toxicosis at similar dosages (0.1 mg/kg or less). The leopard tortoise (Geochelone pardalis) appeared to be the most susceptible of the species tested, consistently developing mild paresis with a dosage of 0.025 mg/kg. Death occurred with dosages as low as 0.3 mg/kg. A dosage of 0.05 mg/kg was found to be safe in red-footed tortoises, provided that treatment was not repeated at intervals of less than 7 days. Shedding of nematode larvae and eggs in the feces of parasitized red-footed tortoises was prevented with 2 to 6 weekly IM injections of ivermectin at a dosage of 0.05 mg/kg, but limited necropsy findings indicated that elimination of adult nematodes from the intestines was incomplete. PMID:6689009

  15. Axenic culture of reptilian Blastocystis isolates in monophasic medium and speciation by karyotypic typing.

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    Singh, M; Ho, L C; Yap, A L; Ng, G C; Tan, S W; Moe, K T; Yap, E H

    1996-01-01

    The growth of axenic reptilian isolates of Blastocystis in Iscove's modified Dulbecco's medium (IMDM) was studied and the morphology of the parasite was examined by phase-contrast microscopy. The chromosomal patterns of these reptilian isolates of Blastocystis were examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and compared with those of B. hominis and B. lapemi, a sea snake Blastocystis. IMDM with 10% horse serum supported excellent growth of the reptilian Blastocystis isolates. The parasites from all the isolates were predominantly vacuolar, but multivacuolar and amoeboid forms were also seen. Amoeboid forms with rather elongate pseudopodia were also observed. There were some differences in size, morphology, and growth characteristics in the different reptilian isolates. The karyotypic patterns of the Blastocystis isolates from tortoise, iguana, and python were distinctly different from one another and from those obtained with B. hominis and B. lapemi. On the basis of the above-mentioned differences in chromosomal patterns, the tortoise, iguana, and python isolates are described as new species, viz., B. geocheloni sp. nov. from Geochelone carbonaria (red-footed tortoise), B. cycluri sp. nov. from Cyclura cornuta (rhino iguana), and B. pythoni sp. nov. from Python reticulatus (reticulated python). PMID:8825212

  16. Diversity of black Aspergilli isolated from raisins in Argentina: Polyphasic approach to species identification and development of SCAR markers for Aspergillus ibericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaj Merlera, G; Muñoz, S; Coelho, I; Cavaglieri, L R; Torres, A M; Reynoso, M M

    2015-10-01

    Aspergillus section Nigri is a heterogeneous fungal group including some ochratoxin A producer species that usually contaminate raisins. The section contains the Series Carbonaria which includes the toxigenic species Aspergillus carbonarius and nontoxigenic Aspergillus ibericus that are phenotypically undistinguishable. The aim of this study was to examine the diversity of black aspergilli isolated from raisins and to develop a specific genetic marker to distinguish A. ibericus from A. carbonarius. The species most frequently found in raisins in this study were Aspergillus tubingensis (35.4%) and A. carbonarius (32.3%), followed by Aspergillus luchuensis (10.7%), Aspergillus japonicus (7.7%), Aspergillus niger (6.2%), Aspergillus welwitschiae (4.6%) and A. ibericus (3.1%). Based on inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) fingerprinting profiles of major Aspergillus section Nigri members, a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was identified. Primers were designed based on the conserved regions of the SCAR marker and were utilized in a PCR for simultaneous identification of A. carbonarius and A. ibericus. The detection level of the SCAR-PCR was found to be 0.01 ng of purified DNA. The present SCAR-PCR is rapid and less cumbersome than conventional identification techniques and could be a supplementary strategy and a reliable tool for high-throughput sample analysis.

  17. Seven new species of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera from South America with the proposal of three new genera

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    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The following new species are described - Cerambycinae, Sydacini: Sydax flechtmanni sp. nov. from Brazil (São Paulo; Eburiini: Ebrodacrys biffipradorum sp. nov. from Brazil (Roraima; - Lamiinae, Pteropliini: Ataxia piauiensis sp. nov. from Brazil (Piuaí; Calliini: Amucallia carbonaria sp. nov. from French Guiana; A. citrina sp. nov. from Guiana. Also in Lamiinae, two new genera of Onciderini are proposed. Ubytyra gen. nov., type species U. tuberosa sp. nov. from Peru (Junin e Japi gen. nov., type species J. duartei sp. nov., from Brazil (São Paulo; Ubytyra gen. nov. can be distinguished by the sides of prothorax with long central spine rounded at apex, and this new feature among Onciderini is discussed. Japi gen. nov., is characterized by a fringe of long hairs on the inner side of antennomere III, present only in species from North and Central America, and gender comparison of these species is done and discussed. In Hemilophini, Pseudotacocha gen. nov., type species P. magnifica sp. nov. from Peru (Cuzco, are described. The new genera can be distinguished by eyes well developed, elytra with two carinae and the apices outer with short spine; a comparison with related genera is done.

  18. The peppered moth and industrial melanism: evolution of a natural selection case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, L M; Saccheri, I J

    2013-03-01

    From the outset multiple causes have been suggested for changes in melanic gene frequency in the peppered moth Biston betularia and other industrial melanic moths. These have included higher intrinsic fitness of melanic forms and selective predation for camouflage. The possible existence and origin of heterozygote advantage has been debated. From the 1950s, as a result of experimental evidence, selective predation became the favoured explanation and is undoubtedly the major factor driving the frequency change. However, modelling and monitoring of declining melanic frequencies since the 1970s indicate either that migration rates are much higher than existing direct estimates suggested or else, or in addition, non-visual selection has a role. Recent molecular work on genetics has revealed that the melanic (carbonaria) allele had a single origin in Britain, and that the locus is orthologous to a major wing patterning locus in Heliconius butterflies. New methods of analysis should supply further information on the melanic system and on migration that will complete our understanding of this important example of rapid evolution. PMID:23211788

  19. Illegal Trade of Tortoises (Testudinata in Colombia: A Network Analysis Approach

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    Felber Jair Arroyave

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of wildlife is important for supporting the economic and demographic growth in emerging countries. Nevertheless, the products of wildlife usually come from illegal trade to supply fur, wild meat and pet markets. Illegal trade puts great pressure over wild populations and threats some endangered species. In Colombia, the trade of wildlife is important because of thevolumes traded and the cultural and economic connotation of some products. We describe the spatial structure of illegal trade of wildlife at departmental level for the five most traded genera of Colombian tortoises (Trachemys, Chelonoidis, Kinosternon, Podocnemis and Rhinoclemmys. This study is based on thereports of seizures between 2005 and 2009 compiled by the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo of Colombia. Weapply Network Analysis to study and evidence that the illegal trade network of tortoises includes international markets and supplies the Andean region. The Caribbean, Pacific and Orinoquia regions are the principal suppliers. Quindio, Santander, Antioquia and Putumayo are the biggest jobbers and consumers of wild tortoises. We propose sociocultural and cohercitive actions to fragment the trade network andtheir illegal market as well as promoting the conservation and sustainable use of tortoises.TRÁFICO ILEGAL DE TORTUGAS CONTINENTALES (TESTUDINATA EN COLOMBIA: UNA APROXIMACIÓN DESDEEL ANÁLISIS DE REDESEl uso de productos extraídos o provenientes de la fauna silvestre es relevante para el desarrollo económico y el bienestar social en muchos lugares del mundo. Sin embargo, frecuentemente la fauna silvestre entra en los circuitos de tráfico ilegal para abastecer los mercados de mascotas y productos como pieles, plumas, “carne de monte”, entre otros. El tráfico ilegal genera enormes presiones sobre las especies sujetas a extracción y es una de las principales amenazas para estas. En Colombia, el tráfico de tortugas es de importancia debido a los vol

  20. Allometric and temporal scaling of movement characteristics in Galapagos tortoises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Yackulic, Charles B; Frair, Jacqueline L; Cabrera, Freddy; Blake, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how individual movement scales with body size is of fundamental importance in predicting ecological relationships for diverse species. One-dimensional movement metrics scale consistently with body size yet vary over different temporal scales. Knowing how temporal scale influences the relationship between animal body size and movement would better inform hypotheses about the efficiency of foraging behaviour, the ontogeny of energy budgets, and numerous life-history trade-offs. We investigated how the temporal scaling of allometric patterns in movement varies over the course of a year, specifically during periods of motivated (directional and fast movement) and unmotivated (stationary and tortuous movement) behaviour. We focused on a recently diverged group of species that displays wide variation in movement behaviour - giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) - to test how movement metrics estimated on a monthly basis scaled with body size. We used state-space modelling to estimate seven different movement metrics of Galapagos tortoises. We used log-log regression of the power law to evaluate allometric scaling for these movement metrics and contrasted relationships by species and sex. Allometric scaling of movement was more apparent during motivated periods of movement. During this period, allometry was revealed at multiple temporal intervals (hourly, daily and monthly), with values observed at daily and monthly intervals corresponding most closely to the expected one-fourth scaling coefficient, albeit with wide credible intervals. We further detected differences in the magnitude of scaling among taxa uncoupled from observed differences in the temporal structuring of their movement rates. Our results indicate that the definition of temporal scales is fundamental to the detection of allometry of movement and should be given more attention in movement studies. Our approach not only provides new conceptual insights into temporal attributes in one

  1. Social, biological, and environmental drivers of the hunting and trade of the endangered yellow-footed tortoise in the Amazon

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    Thaís Q. Morcatty

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chelonians constitute an important source of food and income for the inhabitants of tropical forests. We assessed the social, biological, and environmental factors affecting the hunting and trade of the endangered yellow-footed tortoise (Chelonoidis denticulata in rural and urban areas in the Amazon and estimated the sustainability of tortoise use. We also discuss possible conservation alternatives that are compatible with the needs of local inhabitants. We monitored tortoise hunting and trade for 12 years in 10 traditional communities that exploit different habitat types in the Brazilian Amazon and collected data on the tortoise trade in two urban markets for six years. In upland forests, tortoise hunting mainly occurred during the dry season; in whitewater flooded forests, hunting mainly occurred during the flood season. The tortoise trade was carried out nearly entirely by whitewater flooded forest users and was intimately related to fishing, the main economic activity in these communities. Furthermore, the tortoise trade was encouraged in whitewater flooded forests because this environment yielded significantly heavier tortoises than upland forests, and we observed a strong relationship between trade probability and tortoise size. The tortoise trade was found to primarily supply nearby urban centers, generating high monetary gain. Female tortoises suffered greater hunting pressure and were more valued in the bushmeat market. The productivity of tortoise hunting in the monitored communities severely decreased with time. In addition, the price per kilogram of tortoise greatly increased in the urban market. Given this unsustainable scenario, policies regulating tortoise hunting in the Amazon are needed. These policies must be adapted to the different patterns of tortoise use by rural communities while maintaining the culture and food sovereignty of the local inhabitants.

  2. Demographic outcomes and ecosystem implications of giant tortoise reintroduction to Espanola Island, Galapagos.

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    James P Gibbs

    Full Text Available Restoration of extirpated species via captive breeding has typically relied on population viability as the primary criterion for evaluating success. This criterion is inadequate when species reintroduction is undertaken to restore ecological functions and interactions. Herein we report on the demographic and ecological outcomes of a five-decade-long population restoration program for a critically endangered species of "ecosystem engineer": the endemic Española giant Galapagos tortoise (Chelonoidis hoodensis. Our analysis of complementary datasets on tortoise demography and movement, tortoise-plant interactions and Española Island's vegetation history indicated that the repatriated tortoise population is secure from a strictly demographic perspective: about half of tortoises released on the island since 1975 were still alive in 2007, in situ reproduction is now significant, and future extinction risk is low with or without continued repatriation. Declining survival rates, somatic growth rates, and body condition of repatriates suggests, however, that resources for continued population growth are increasingly limited. Soil stable carbon isotope analyses indicated a pronounced shift toward woody plants in the recent history of the island's plant community, likely a legacy of changes in competitive relations between woody and herbaceous plants induced by now-eradicated feral goats and prolonged absence of tortoises. Woody plants are of concern because they block tortoise movement and hinder recruitment of cactus--a critical resource for tortoises. Tortoises restrict themselves to remnant cactus patches and areas of low woody plant density in the center of the island despite an apparent capacity to colonize a far greater range, likely because of a lack of cactus elsewhere on the island. We conclude that ecosystem-level criteria for success of species reintroduction efforts take much longer to achieve than population-level criteria; moreover

  3. Allometric and temporal scaling of movement characteristics in Galapagos tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Yackulic, Charles B.; Frair, Jacqueline L.; Cabrera, Freddy; Blake, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how individual movement scales with body size is of fundamental importance in predicting ecological relationships for diverse species. One-dimensional movement metrics scale consistently with body size yet vary over different temporal scales. Knowing how temporal scale influences the relationship between animal body size and movement would better inform hypotheses about the efficiency of foraging behaviour, the ontogeny of energy budgets, and numerous life-history trade-offs.We investigated how the temporal scaling of allometric patterns in movement varies over the course of a year, specifically during periods of motivated (directional and fast movement) and unmotivated (stationary and tortuous movement) behaviour. We focused on a recently diverged group of species that displays wide variation in movement behaviour – giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) – to test how movement metrics estimated on a monthly basis scaled with body size.We used state-space modelling to estimate seven different movement metrics of Galapagos tortoises. We used log-log regression of the power law to evaluate allometric scaling for these movement metrics and contrasted relationships by species and sex.Allometric scaling of movement was more apparent during motivated periods of movement. During this period, allometry was revealed at multiple temporal intervals (hourly, daily and monthly), with values observed at daily and monthly intervals corresponding most closely to the expected one-fourth scaling coefficient, albeit with wide credible intervals. We further detected differences in the magnitude of scaling among taxa uncoupled from observed differences in the temporal structuring of their movement rates.Our results indicate that the definition of temporal scales is fundamental to the detection of allometry of movement and should be given more attention in movement studies. Our approach not only provides new conceptual insights into temporal attributes in one

  4. Combate ao Desmodus rotundus rotundus (E. Geoffroy,1810 na região cárstica de Cordisburgo e Curvelo, Minas Gerais

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    Almeida E.O.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar em uma região cárstica o tipo de refúgio, as espécies de morcegos, a população de animais domésticos, as associações interespecíficas nas coabitações com outros mamíferos silvestres suscetíveis à raiva e a eficácia da warfarina aplicada no dorso do Desmodus rotundus rotundus foi realizada uma pesquisa de maio de 1998 a março de 2000, nos municípios de Cordisburgo e Curvelo, Minas Gerais. Em 49 refúgios vistoriados, 29 naturais e 20 artificiais, localizados em 14 propriedades, encontrou-se o Desmodus rotundus rotundus em 18 abrigos naturais. Destes, 17 eram cavernas formadas pela dissolução ou abatimento de rocha calcária, típica do carste, e um era túnel escavado na terra pela ação das águas de um rio. As características geomorfológicas e de localização espacial foram registradas com base nas coordenadas geográficas, obtidas com auxílio de um sensor geográfico de posição. Nesses abrigos foram capturados e identificados 1457 morcegos de 14 espécies, sendo 640 Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, 566 Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, 73 Anoura geoffroyi (Gray 1838, 58 Trachops cirrhosus (Spix, 1823, 38 Diphylla ecaudata ecaudata (Spix, 1823, 23 Platyhrrinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, 16 Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856, 14 Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, 13 Phyllostomus hastatus hastatus (Pallas, 1767, 9 Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, 3 Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838, 2 Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821, 1 Eptesicus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819 e 1 Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843. Não se conseguiu isolar ou detectar o vírus rábico no cérebro de 25 hematófagos selecionados e em 52 de outras espécies. A maioria desses abrigos também era usada por pacas (Agouti paca Linnaues, 1766, capivaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, Linnaues, 1766, guaxinins (Procyon cancrivorus, G. Cuvier, 1798 e raposas (Lycalopex vetulus, Lund, 1842 que são suscetíveis à raiva. Em 546 Desmodus

  5. On Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae Sobre Pomacea sordida (Swaison, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae

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    Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available A description of Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 collected in Caxias and Nova Iguaçu, state of Rio de Janeiro, is presented. The shell is globose, heavy, whith greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spinal bands; apex subelevated, 4-5 moderately shoudered whorls, increasing rather rapidly and separated by deep suture. Aperture large, moderately round, yellowish or violaceous; lip thick and sometimes dark brown; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous and heavy, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.81-0.91 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.66-0.75 (mean 0.70. Testis, spermiduct and penis pouch as in Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827. Seminal vesicle whitish and bean-shaped. Prostate cylindric and narrow, cream in coloar as the testis. Penis whiplike whith a closed circular spermiduct. Penial sheath elongated and tapered, with its distal tip turned to the right; outer basal gland situated on the left; inner median gland rounded; apical gland elongated and wrinkled. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules lying superficially on the digestive gland; oviduct and seminal receptacle as in P. lineata; albumen gland yellowish - orange. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.Nesse trabalho é apresentada a descrição de Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823, coletada em Caxias e Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Concha globosa, espessa, com perióstraco esverdeado ou castanho e com faixas espirais escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros moderadamente arredondados, crescendo relativamente rápido, separados por suturas profundas. Abertura grande, moderadamente arredondada, amarelada ou violácea; lábio espesso e algumas vezes marrom escuro; umbílico grande e profundo; opérculo córneo e espesso, fechando completamente a abertura. Razões: largura da concha/comprimento da concha=0.81-0.91 (média 0.86; comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha=0

  6. Foraging behavior of tyrant flycatchers (Aves, Tyrannidae in Brazil Comportamento de forrageamento de tiranídeos (Aves, Tyrannidae no Brasil

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    Vagner de A. Gabriel

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present data on the foraging maneuvers and substrates used to capture preys by 28 species of tyrant flycatchers (Tyrannidae in Brazil. For six species: Arundinicola leucocephala Linnaeus, 1764, Fluvicola nengeta Linnaeus, 1766, Machetornis rixosa Vieillot, 1819, Myiozetetes similis Spix, 1825, Pitangus sulphuratus Linnaeus, 1766, and Tyrannus melancholicus Vieillot, 1819 -, we go further to investigate perch height, search time, sally distance, and sally angle. With a few exceptions, sally strike was the most frequent foraging maneuver. Living foliage and air were the most frequent substrates used to capture preys. Among the six species studied in detail we found three distinct groups of perch heights: F. nengeta and M. rixosa foraged on the ground, A. leucocephala with P. sulphuratus were medium-height foragers, and T. melancholicus and M. similis form the third group for which prey attacks usually start from perches from the ground up to 3 m. With the exception of P. sulphuratus, which had the longest search time, the other five species did not differ in this aspect of the foraging behavior. Three groups were also discernible in relation to sally distance: F. nengeta and M. rixosa usually attacked prey close (Este trabalho apresenta dados acerca do comportamento de forrageamento e substratos usados para a captura de presas por 28 espécies de tiranídeos (Tyrannidae no Brasil. Para seis espécies: Arundinicola leucocephala Linnaeus, 1764, Fluvicola nengeta Linnaeus, 1766, Machetornis rixosa Vieillot, 1819, Myiozetetes similis Spix, 1825, Pitangus sulphuratus Linnaeus, 1766 e Tyrannus melancholicus Vieillot, 1819 -, também são apresentados dados sobre a altura do poleiro usado para caça, tempo de procura por presas, distância e ângulo de ataque. Com raras exceções, manobras do tipo "sally strike" foram as mais freqüentes, enquanto folhas vivas e o ar foram os substratos mais comumente usados para capturar presas. Para

  7. Aves de um fragmento de Mata Atlântica no alto Rio Doce, Minas Gerais: colonização e extinção The birds of an Atlantic Forest fragment at upper Rio Doce valley, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil: colonization and extinction

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    Christiana M. A. Faria

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um levantamento de espécies de aves em um fragmento florestal no alto Rio Doce de abril de 2002 a novembro de 2004. A região está inserida numa das áreas prioritárias para conservação da biodiversidade do Brasil, a Mata Atlântica. O fragmento está dentro da 'Estação de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Ambiental de Peti' (EPDA-Peti e cerca uma represa de uma usina hidroelétrica das 'Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais'. O fragmento possui 605 ha de mata secundária semidecídua em vários estágios de regeneração. O método utilizado foi o de observação direta ao longo de 'transectos', captura com redes, pontos de escuta e identificação a partir do uso de vocalizações. Foram registradas 231 espécies de aves pertencentes a 57 famílias. Isso corresponde cerca de 33% das 682 espécies já registradas para o bioma da Mata Atlântica. Constam nesta lista 33 espécies endêmicas da Mata Atlântica e uma endêmica do Cerrado. Cinco espécies são ameaçadas em Minas Gerais e uma espécie ameaçada de extinção global, o mutum do sudeste Crax blumenbachii Spix, 1825 (Cracidae. Foram encontradas 35 novas espécies em relação ao levantamento de 1989, bem como a extinção local de outras 52 espécies. O fragmento florestal da EPDA-Peti abriga uma porção significativa da avifauna da Mata Atlântica, e monitoramento de longo prazo irá revelar aspectos importantes para compreensão dos mecanismos de extinção e colonização na Mata Atlântica.It is presented a bird survey of a forest fragment at the upper Rio Doce valley carried out from April 2002 to November 2004. The region is within one of the most important Brazilian hot spot for biological conservation: the Atlantic Forest. The fragment is within 'Estação de Desenvolvimento Ambiental de Peti' (EPDA-Peti under the premises of a hydroelectric power station run by the Minas Gerais Energetic Company. It holds 605 ha of a mosaic of secondary growth forest patches

  8. PERSPECTIVAS DE SUSTENTABILIDADE ECOLÓGICA DO TURISMO EM XINGÓ, SE/AL / TOURISM ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY PERSPECTIVES IN XINGÓ, SERGIPE AND ALAGOAS, BRAZIL

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    Cláudio Roberto Braghini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A busca da sustentabilidade em várias dimensões implica olhar para o desenvolvimento local nos territórios em que o turismo ocorre. Este estudo analisou de forma sistêmica a relação entre turismo, gastronomia local e os recursos extraídos do rio São Francisco pela pesca artesanal, na região de Xingó, Nordeste do Brasil. A área de estudo abrangeu três municípios, Poço Redondo/SE, Canindé de São Francisco/SE e Piranhas/AL. Tratou-se de uma pesquisa exploratória, descritiva, intencional e não probabilística, utilizando entrevistas com roteiro estruturado e aberto, junto aos restaurantes, pescadores artesanais e gestores públicos, visitas locais de reconhecimento, construção de mapa coletivo com pescadores e elaboração de diagramas de alças causais, visando selecionar indicadores de sustentabilidade. Os resultados indicaram o Surubim Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix e Agassiz, 1829, Pitu Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 e Tubarana Salminus hilarii (Valenciennes, 1850, os pescados típicos mais vendidos, no entanto, dependem de distribuidores e de estoques externos. Observou-se que a redução do pescado na região deveu-se à barragem da UHE de Xingó e a sobrepesca. O fluxo turístico crescente tem forte influência sobre o camarão Pitu. Os indicadores ambientais selecionados apontam necessidade de sistematização de informações sobre a produção pesqueira e o consumo nos restaurantes.Palavras-chaves: Sustentabilidade; Turismo; Xingó; Rio São Francisco; CaatingaABSTRACTThe carrying support and the development of the local tourism involve different looks on its dimensions in the area where it occurs. This study examined in a systematic way the sustainability of tourism in the Northeast - Brazil, region of Xingó: the resources tourist and local gastronomy. The study area covers three districts: Poço Redondo and Canindé do São Francisco at Sergipe and in the state of Alagoas at Piranhas. This research

  9. Living in a caatinga-rocky field transitional habitat: ecological aspects of the whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae in northeastern Brazil

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    Vanderlaine A Menezes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The ecology of the active forager lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825 was studied to analyze food habits, thermal ecology and habitat use, in the Morro do Chapéu municipality (11º29'S, 41º07'W, state of Bahia, Brazil. Lizards (N = 34 were collected with rubber bands or with an air rifle and, for each individual, we recorded cloacal temperature (Tc, air temperature (Ta (1 cm above the substrate and substrate temperature (Ts (to nearest 0.2ºC. We registered the microhabitat used by each animal at the moment of first sight and measured its morphological variables (nearest 0.1 mm. In the laboratory, we registered the number of items of each prey category to the taxonomic level of Order, its dimensions and frequencies. Data showed that, numerically, the category most consumed was Isoptera (84.4%. Volumetrically, the diet was composed predominantly by Orthoptera (27.5% and Isoptera (21.5%. Prey items that occur aggregated in the environment (termites were important in the diet of C. ocellifer, a characteristic of active foragers. Males and females did not differ in the types of prey consumed. Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a mean Tc in activity of 37.6 ± 1.6ºC and the relationship between Tc and ambient temperatures (Ts and Ta was positive and significant (F2,28 = 4.814; R² = 0.256; p < 0.05. Most lizards were first sighted on leaf litter inside shrubs (45.5% and on leaf litter at shrub edge (42.4%. Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a relatively high mean Tc during activity, with Ts explaining most of the variation in lizard Tc.

  10. Potenciais efeitos das mudanças climáticas futuras sobre a distribuiçãode um anuro da Caatinga Rhinella granulosa (Anura, Bufonidae

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    Hauanny Rodrigues Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, usamos dois tipos de modelagem de distribuição de espécies (correlativo e mecanístico, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito das mudanças climáticas sob a distribuição geográfica de Rhinella granulosa (Spix, 1824, espécie inserida principalmente no bioma Caatinga. Avaliamos a predição, levantada por outros autores, de que espécies de anfíbios distribuídos em climas quentes terão suas distribuições espaciais restringidas por aumento da temperatura considerando cenários futuros. Na abordagem correlativa, os resultados mostraram que as distribuições espaciais geradas pelo modelo de distância Euclidiana foram mais conservativas, ou seja, as áreas que apresentaram menor distância do nicho ótimo se restringiram às áreas de distribuição real da espécie (Caatinga e às pequenas regiões que abrangem o bioma Cerrado. A abordagem mecanística apresentou resultados menos conservativos, onde o habitat indicado como adequado para R. granulosa está contido em grande parte da América do Sul, formando uma extensa área contínua. No geral, verificou-se que R. granulosa não sofrerá forte influência climática sobre sua distribuição geográfica no futuro, pelo menos até 2080, provavelmente por apresentar uma fisiologia extremamente tolerante às altas temperaturas e por possuir adaptações para suportar clima quente e seco.

  11. Snake assemblages of Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil

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    Gerson Moreira Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We describe the diversity, natural history and structure of snake assemblages from Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil, after analyzing 439 specimens deposited in herpetological collections. We tested the hypothesis that snake assemblages from forest and open areas of Marajó Island are distinct with regard to their structure, composition and functional groups. To compare the snake composition of the forest and open areas of Marajó with other comparable assemblages in Brazil, Principal Coordinate Analysis and Clustering tests were performed. A total of 61 species of snakes was recorded for Marajó, with ten species cited for the first time for the study area (Atractus natans Hoogmoed & Prudente, 2003, A. schach (Boie, 1827, Dendrophidion dendrophis (Schlegel, 1837, Helicops hagmanni Roux, 1910, Hydrops martii (Wagler in Spix, 1824, Lygophis meridionalis (Schenkel, 1901, Erythrolamprus typhlus (Linnaeus, 1758, Philodryas argentea (Daudin, 1803, Siphlophis cervinus (Laurenti, 1768, and Thamnodynastes sp.. The composition and structure of snake assemblages between forested and open were different, with five functional groups of snakes in forest areas, and three groups in open areas, based on habit and habitat. In all, 19 species were exclusive to forest areas, 10 were exclusive to open areas and 26 species were recorded in both areas. Our results revealed greater richness for forested areas, probably due to greater habitat heterogeneity. The species composition for forested area in Marajó was similar to that found in other Amazonian assemblages, while that for open areas was more similar to the Pantanal region than other open area assemblages. The general structure of the snake assemblage of Marajó was dominated by anurophagous, terrestrial and diurnal species. Terrestrial, arboreal and semi-arboreal snakes showed a seasonal offspring production pattern, while the pattern for aquatic and semi-aquatic species was aseasonal. The

  12. Avaliação de risco e plasticidade comportamental limitada em girinos de Rhinella ornata (Anura, Bufonidae

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    Renan N. Costa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Os girinos de anuros são elementos importantes das redes tróficas de ambientes aquáticos, sendo recurso alimentar de diversos tipos de predadores. Desta maneira, os girinos apresentam uma grande variedade de mecanismos de defesa que podem ser morfológicos, comportamentais e/ou fisiológicos. A impalatabilidade, produzida pelo acúmulo de substâncias tóxicas na pele, é um mecanismo comum em muitas linhagens de anfíbios. No entanto, alguns predadores não são afetados por estas substâncias tóxicas, o que pode favorecer o desenvolvimento de mecanismos alternativos de defesa contra predação. Neste contexto, nosso objetivo foi avaliar se girinos impalatáveis de Rhinella ornata (Spix, 1824, podem apresentar mecanismos comportamentais de defesa contra predação na presença de predadores que não são afetados pelas substâncias tóxicas em sua pele. Para testar nossa hipótese, utilizamos dois tipos de predadores aquáticos: um heteróptero aquático do gênero Belostoma e uma larva de libélula do gênero Aeshna. Os girinos foram colocados em aquários com pistas visuais e químicas dos predadores (experimento de risco direto, somente pistas químicas (experimento de risco indireto e ausência completa de sinais de predadores (controle. Em ambos os casos, o comportamento de natação foi observado durante 5 minutos. Durante os experimentos não houve alteração no comportamento de natação dos girinos.

  13. Tucunarella n. Gen. and other dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) from cichlid fish (Perciformes) from Peruvian Amazonia.

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    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Scholz, T; Rozkosná, P

    2010-06-01

    During parasitological research on cichlid fish from the tributaries of the Amazon River around Iquitos, Peru, the following gill monogenoidean species were found: Tucunarella cichlae n. gen. and n. sp. from Cichla monoculus Spix and Agassiz; Gussevia alioides Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1986 from Heros severus Heckel; Gussevia asota Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1989 from Astronotus ocellatus (Agassiz); Gussevia disparoides Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1986 from H. severus (all new geographical records) and Cichlasoma amazonarum Kullander (new host record); Gussevia longihaptor (Mizelle and Kritsky, 1969) Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1986 and Gussevia undulata Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1986 from C. monoculus ; Sciadicleithrum satanopercae Yamada, Takemoto, Bellay, and Pavanelli, 2008 from Satanoperca jurupari Heckel; and Sciadicleithrum variabilum (Mizelle and Kritsky, 1969) Kritsky, Thatcher, and Boeger, 1989 from C. amazonarum (new host and geographical records). Tucunarella n. gen. is proposed to accommodate a new species, Tucunarella cichlae , which is its type and only known species in the genus. The new genus is characterized by, besides a very large body size (about 1.5 mm vs. much less than 1 mm in other ancyrocephaline genera in Amazonia), a thickened tegument, 1 pair of eyes, overlapping gonads (testis dorsal to the germarium), nonarticulated male copulatory organ (MCO) and accessory piece, a coiled (counterclockwise) MCO, a dextral vaginal aperture, a haptor armed with 2 pairs of anchors (each with broad base and subequal roots, which are marginally folded), and dorsal and ventral bars and 14 hooks with protruding blunt thumbs and 2 different shapes (slender vs. slightly expanded shanks). Illustrations and data on morphological and biometric variability of individual species from different hosts are provided. The present data provide evidence of a relatively wide host specificity of gill monogenoideans parasitic in South American cichlids

  14. IMPORTÂNCIA E A CONTRIBUIÇÃO DE VON MARTIUS PARA O CONHECIMENTO DA FLORA ARBÓREA DO CERRADO

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    Ramon Cleomar de Jesus Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Os naturalistas viajantes podem ser definidos como pessoas que durante os séculos XVIII e XIX dedicavam seu tempo ao estudo da história natural. Partindo deste pressuposto, o presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar as contribuições do naturalista alemão Carl Friederich Philipp von Martius para a flora arbórea do Cerrado. Martius veio ao Brasil no ano de 1817 acompanhado do zoólogo Johann Baptiste von Spix. Os dois cientistas passaram três anos viajando pelo Brasil e percorreram territórios dos futuros estados de São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Bahia, Pernambuco, Piauí, Maranhão, Pará e Amazonas. Nesse contexto, Martius teve contato com várias fisionomias naturais presentes nos diversos ecossistemas brasileiros, percorreu e estudou territórios do Cerrado e suas contribuições foram importantes para a flora deste Bioma. O trabalho de Martius é diverso e de acordo com a APG III 161 espécies arbóreas foram descritas por ele ou contou com a sua colaboração, distribuídas em 39 famílias e 92 gêneros. Martius, ao longo de sua viagem, descreveu várias espécies arbóreas típicas do cerrado, a saber: Araticum (Annona crassiflora, Guatambu (Aspidosperma macrocarpon, A. tomentosum, Ingá (Inga edulis e Pau Terra (Qualea grandiflora, Q. multiflora, Q. parviflora, além de tantas outras ainda pouco conhecidas pela população, mas que do ponto de vista ecológico são extremamente importantes para o funcionamento dos ecossistemas.

  15. Diel vertical migration of predators (planktivorous fish larvae and prey (zooplankton in a tropical lagoon

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    Marcos Marques Mendonça

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Based on the hypothesis that diel vertical migration (DVM is a mechanism of predator avoidance, the objective of the present study was to test for the occurrence of DVM in planktivorous fish larvae of Hypophthalmus edentatus (Spix, 1829 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae and Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Perciformes, Sciaenidae, and zooplankton (rotifers, cladocerans and copepods in an isolated tropical lagoon in the floodplain of the Upper Paraná River, Brazil (region of Parque Nacional de Ilha Grande. We investigated spatial overlap between predators (planktivorous fish larvae and prey (zooplankton, and tested which physical and chemical variables of the water are related to the DVM of the studied communities. We performed nocturnal (8:00 pm and 4:00 am and diurnal sampling (8:00 am and 4:00 pm in the limnetic region of the lagoon for six consecutive months, from October 2010 to March 2011, which comprises the reproductive period of the fish species analyzed. During the day the larvae tried to remain aggregated in the bottom of the lagoon, whereas at night they tried to disperse in the water column. Especially for cladocerans, the diel vertical migration is an important behavior to avoid predation larvae of H. edentatus and P. squamosissimus once decreased spatial overlap between secured and its potential predators, which corroborates the hypothesis that DVM is a mechanism of predator avoidance. Although significant correlations were observed between the abiotic factors and WMD of microcrustaceans at certain times of day, the effect of predation of fish larvae on zooplankton showed more important in this environment, because the small depth and isolation not allow great variation of abiotic factors seasonally and between strata the lagoon.

  16. Differential repetitive DNA composition in the centromeric region of chromosomes of Amazonian lizard species in the family Teiidae.

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    Carvalho, Natalia D M; Carmo, Edson; Neves, Rogerio O; Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Differences in heterochromatin distribution patterns and its composition were observed in Amazonian teiid species. Studies have shown repetitive DNA harbors heterochromatic blocks which are located in centromeric and telomeric regions in Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758), Kentropyx calcarata (Spix, 1825), Kentropyx pelviceps (Cope, 1868), and Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758). In Cnemidophorus sp.1, repetitive DNA has multiple signals along all chromosomes. The aim of this study was to characterize moderately and highly repetitive DNA sequences by C ot1-DNA from Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 genomes through cloning and DNA sequencing, as well as mapping them chromosomally to better understand its organization and genome dynamics. The results of sequencing of DNA libraries obtained by C ot1-DNA showed that different microsatellites, transposons, retrotransposons, and some gene families also comprise the fraction of repetitive DNA in the teiid species. FISH using C ot1-DNA probes isolated from both Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 showed these sequences mainly located in heterochromatic centromeric, and telomeric regions in Ameiva ameiva, Kentropyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin chromosomes, indicating they play structural and functional roles in the genome of these species. In Cnemidophorus sp.1, C ot1-DNA probe isolated from Ameiva ameiva had multiple interstitial signals on chromosomes, whereas mapping of C ot1-DNA isolated from the Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 highlighted centromeric regions of some chromosomes. Thus, the data obtained showed that many repetitive DNA classes are part of the genome of Ameiva ameiva, Cnemidophorus sp.1, Kentroyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin, and these sequences are shared among the analyzed teiid species, but they were not always allocated at the same chromosome position. PMID:27551343

  17. The sustainability of subsistence hunting by Matsigenka native communities in Manu National Park, Peru.

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    Ohl-Schacherer, Julia; Shepard, Glenn H; Kaplan, Hillard; Peres, Carlos A; Levi, Taal; Yu, Douglas W

    2007-10-01

    The presence of indigenous people in tropical parks has fueled a debate over whether people in parks are conservation allies or direct threats to biodiversity. A well-known example is the Matsigenka (or Machiguenga) population residing in Manu National Park in Peruvian Amazonia. Because the exploitation of wild meat (or bushmeat), especially large vertebrates, represents the most significant internal threat to biodiversity in Manu, we analyzed 1 year of participatory monitoring of game offtake in two Matsigenka native communities within Manu Park (102,397 consumer days and 2,089 prey items). We used the Robinson and Redford (1991) index to identify five prey species hunted at or above maximum sustainable yield within the approximately 150-km(2) core hunting zones of the two communities: woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha), spider monkey (Ateles chamek), white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), Razor-billed Currasow (Mitu tuberosa), and Spix's Guan (Penelope jacquacu). There was little or no evidence that any of these five species has become depleted, other than locally, despite a near doubling of the human population since 1988. Hunter-prey profiles have not changed since 1988, and there has been little change in per capita consumption rates or mean prey weights. The current offtake by the Matsigenka appears to be sustainable, apparently due to source-sink dynamics. Source-sink dynamics imply that even with continued human population growth within a settlement, offtake for each hunted species will eventually reach an asymptote. Thus, stabilizing the Matsigenka population around existing settlements should be a primary policy goal for Manu Park. PMID:17883483

  18. Caza y estado de conservación de primates en la cuenca del río Itaya, Loreto, Perú

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    Rolando Aquino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este reporte contiene información relacionada a la diversidad e impacto de la caza de los primates, así como las amenazas potenciales para sus poblaciones que habitan en la cuenca del río Alto Itaya. Está basado en censos por transectos y registros de caza llevados a cabo en seis comunidades. Como resultado de los censos, fueron registrados 384 grupos pertenecientes a 9 de las 11 especies que habitan en el área de estudio, correspondiendo los mayores registros al pichico pardo (Saguinus fuscicollis Spix con 25,3%, huapo negro (Pithecia aequatorialis Hershkovitz con 20,6% y mono choro (Lagothrix poeppigii Humboldt con 15,9%. La densidad poblacional fue estimada para nueve especies, siendo Saimiri sciureus Linnaeus la más abundante con 18,2 individuos/km2, seguido por L. poeppigii con 15,5 individuos/km2 y S. fuscicollis con 10,5 individuos/ km2; lo contrario ocurrió en Alouatta seniculus Linnaeus, cuya densidad fue estimada en 0,15 individuos/ km2. Del área de caza estimada en 600 km2 fueron extraídos un promedio anual de 262 ejemplares y cuya biomasa fue calculada en 1677,9. kg. Del total, 119 individuos equivalente al 45% correspondió a L. poeppigii, cuya presión de caza fue calculada en 0,19 individuos/km2. La aplicación del modelo de cosecha sugiere sobrecaza en poblaciones de A. seniculus, L. poeppigii y C. apella. La caza y la deforestación con fines agrícolas son las amenazas potenciales para las poblaciones de primates.

  19. Estudo ecológico e zoogeográfico sobre a fauna de lagartos (Sauria das dunas de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte e da Restinga de Ponta de Campina, Cabedelo, Paraíba, Brasil Ecologic and zoogeographic study on a fauna of lizards (Sauria from Dunas of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte and from Restinga de Ponta de Campina, Cabedelo, Paraíba, Brazil

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    Eliza Maria Xavier Freire

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of the fauna of lizards was made in the dunes of Natal (Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil and in the "restingas" (sandbanks with its associated vegetation of Ponta de Campina (Cabedelo, Paraíba, Brazil from October/84 to March/86. The objective was to know the composition and structure of these communities as well as to evaluate the zoogeographical importance of the spots. The samples were collected and the observations were made along of transects which were established to enable the sampling of the habitats under study in both areas. Each transect was crossed one day per month, during 14 months. The collect of lizards was made manually or through the use of a small gun, calibre 22, with ammunition of the type mustard lead. Observations were made on the habitats utilized by the species (open areas or forests and on the species distribution by microhabitat. The fauna of lizards in the area under study is formed by species ecologically connected with open formations and also by species of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The majority of the species collected in the open areas is part of the fauna of the great diagonal of open formations which come from the Northeast of Argentina and go up to the state of Maranhão. There is, however, a great influence of the caatinga fauna, specially in the dunes of Natal. The species found in the forest of the dunes, in spite of being part of the Atlantic Forest, are morphologically differentiated. Gymnodactylus darwinii (Gray, 1845 and G. geckoides Spix, 1825 are sympatrics, but not syntopics, in the dunes of Natal.

  20. Redescription of Temnocephala iheringi (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida based on specimens from Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: the possible type host and type locality

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    Samantha A. Seixas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The original description of Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893 was based on specimens collected by Hermann von Ihering from undetermined ampullariid apple snails, which at that time were identified as Ampullaria sp., and sent to William H. Haswell, with the type locality simply indicated as Brazil. The type specimens studied by Haswell were not found in the scientific collections of Brazil, Europe or Australia, and should be considered lost. In 1941, Pereira & Cuocolo collected specimens from apple snails, identified as Pomacea lineata (Spix in Wagner, 1827, at two localities (Guaicurús and Salobra in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central Brazil. These specimens could not be located either and should, thus, be considered lost as well. Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822, the main host of T. iheringi in southern Brazil, is known to have a geographical distribution that reaches Uruguay and 400 km beyond the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Three hundred and one mollusks were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity presented a greenish body pigmentation (adults and lacked eye pigment of any color, including the red-eye pigment, typical of Neotropical species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849; straight cirrus, with a thick band at base of the introvert' swelling; and a single, circular, asymmetric vaginal sphincter, wider in diameter in the posterior portion. As the species occurs concurrently with two other species, at least in P. canaliculata from Rio Grande do Sul, the eggs of T. iheringi could not be reliably distinguished. A redescription of the species is provided. A comparison of data from the present work with those of earlier papers published on T. iheringi from Argentina showed that the Argentinean specimens had the smallest measurements.

  1. Evaluación y valorización económica de la fauna silvestre en el río Algodón, Amazonía peruana

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    Rolando Aquino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo informa sobre los hábitats, abundancia cuantitativa y valorización económica de la fauna silvestre que habitan en la cuenca del río Algodón. El estudio está basado en la diferenciación de hábitats, entrevistas a cazadores y censos por transecto. En 7 de los 10 tipos de hábitats diferenciados fueron realizados censos, donde ocurrieron en total 327 avistamientos directos de mamíferos, aves y reptiles. Entre los mamíferos, el pecarí labiado (Tayassu pecari Link y el choro (Lagothrix lagotricha Humboldt fueron los más abundantes con 9,8 individuos/km2, equivalente a 323,4 kg/km2 de biomasa, y 18,4 individuos/km2 equivalente a 202,4 kg/km2 de biomasa, respectivamente. En aves, la mayor densidad correspondió a la pucacunga (Penelope jacquacu Spix con 5,4 individuos/km2, equivalente a 6,9 kg/km2 de biomasa. Sin considerar las especies nocturnas y algunas diurnas, en el área de estudio se estiman alrededor de 31891 animales de caza entre mamíferos y aves, cuyo valor económico fue estimado en US$ 349374. De ellos, 3479 individuos tienen el valor de comercial y pertenecen a cuatro especies de ungulados y uno de aves, el resto tienen el valor de subsistencia.

  2. Success in Competition for Space in Two Invasive Coral Species in the western Atlantic - Tubastraea micranthus and T. coccinea.

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    Sammarco, Paul W; Porter, Scott A; Genazzio, Melissa; Sinclair, James

    2015-01-01

    Invasion success by an alien species is dependent upon rate of reproduction, growth, mortality, physical characteristics of the environment, and successful competition for resources with native species. For sessile, epibenthic marine species, one critical resource is space. We examined competitive success in two invasive Indo-Pacific corals involved in competition for space in the northern Gulf of Mexico-Tubastraea coccinea and T. micranthus-on up to 13 offshore oil/gas platforms south of the Mississippi River. Still-capture photos of thousands of overgrowth interactions between the target corals and other sessile epibenthic fauna were analyzed from ROV videos collected at 8-183 m depth. T. micranthus was observed overgrowing >90% of all sessile epibenthic species which it encountered. Frequencies of competitive success varied significantly between platforms. T. coccinea was competitively superior to all competitors pooled, at the 60% level. There was little variability between T. coccinea populations. T. coccinea encountered the following species most frequently-the encrusting sponges Xestospongia sp. (with the commensal Parazoanthus catenularis), X. carbonaria, Dictyonella funicularis, Mycale carmigropila, Phorbas amaranthus, and Haliclona vansoesti-and was found to be, on average, competitively superior to them. Both T. micranthus and T. coccinea appear to be good competitors for space against these species in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Competitive success in T. micranthus was highest in the NE part of the study area, and lowest in the SW area near the Mississippi River plume. T. coccinea's competitive success peaked in the SW study area. This suggests that variation in competitive success both within and between populations of these species may be due to differences in local environmental factors. PMID:26684321

  3. Urban gardens promote bee foraging over natural habitats and plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Benjamin F; Wallace, Helen; Heard, Tim A; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Leonhardt, Sara D

    2016-03-01

    Increasing human land use for agriculture and housing leads to the loss of natural habitat and to widespread declines in wild bees. Bee foraging dynamics and fitness depend on the availability of resources in the surrounding landscape, but how precisely landscape related resource differences affect bee foraging patterns remains unclear. To investigate how landscape and its interaction with season and weather drive foraging and resource intake in social bees, we experimentally compared foraging activity, the allocation of foragers to different resources (pollen, nectar, and resin) and overall resource intake in the Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria (Apidae, Meliponini). Bee colonies were monitored in different seasons over two years. We compared foraging patterns and resource intake between the bees' natural habitat (forests) and two landscapes differently altered by humans (suburban gardens and agricultural macadamia plantations). We found foraging activity as well as pollen and nectar forager numbers to be highest in suburban gardens, intermediate in forests and low in plantations. Foraging patterns further differed between seasons, but seasonal variations strongly differed between landscapes. Sugar and pollen intake was low in plantations, but contrary with our predictions, it was even higher in gardens than in forests. In contrast, resin intake was similar across landscapes. Consequently, differences in resource availability between natural and altered landscapes strongly affect foraging patterns and thus resource intake in social bees. While agricultural monocultures largely reduce foraging success, suburban gardens can increase resource intake well above rates found in natural habitats of bees, indicating that human activities can both decrease and increase the availability of resources in a landscape and thus reduce or enhance bee fitness.

  4. Success in Competition for Space in Two Invasive Coral Species in the western Atlantic – Tubastraea micranthus and T. coccinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, Paul W.; Porter, Scott A.; Genazzio, Melissa; Sinclair, James

    2015-01-01

    Invasion success by an alien species is dependent upon rate of reproduction, growth, mortality, physical characteristics of the environment, and successful competition for resources with native species. For sessile, epibenthic marine species, one critical resource is space. We examined competitive success in two invasive Indo-Pacific corals involved in competition for space in the northern Gulf of Mexico—Tubastraea coccinea and T. micranthus—on up to 13 offshore oil/gas platforms south of the Mississippi River. Still-capture photos of thousands of overgrowth interactions between the target corals and other sessile epibenthic fauna were analyzed from ROV videos collected at 8–183 m depth. T. micranthus was observed overgrowing >90% of all sessile epibenthic species which it encountered. Frequencies of competitive success varied significantly between platforms. T. coccinea was competitively superior to all competitors pooled, at the 60% level. There was little variability between T. coccinea populations. T. coccinea encountered the following species most frequently—the encrusting sponges Xestospongia sp. (with the commensal Parazoanthus catenularis), X. carbonaria, Dictyonella funicularis, Mycale carmigropila, Phorbas amaranthus, and Haliclona vansoesti—and was found to be, on average, competitively superior to them. Both T. micranthus and T. coccinea appear to be good competitors for space against these species in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Competitive success in T. micranthus was highest in the NE part of the study area, and lowest in the SW area near the Mississippi River plume. T. coccinea’s competitive success peaked in the SW study area. This suggests that variation in competitive success both within and between populations of these species may be due to differences in local environmental factors. PMID:26684321

  5. Success in Competition for Space in Two Invasive Coral Species in the western Atlantic - Tubastraea micranthus and T. coccinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W Sammarco

    Full Text Available Invasion success by an alien species is dependent upon rate of reproduction, growth, mortality, physical characteristics of the environment, and successful competition for resources with native species. For sessile, epibenthic marine species, one critical resource is space. We examined competitive success in two invasive Indo-Pacific corals involved in competition for space in the northern Gulf of Mexico-Tubastraea coccinea and T. micranthus-on up to 13 offshore oil/gas platforms south of the Mississippi River. Still-capture photos of thousands of overgrowth interactions between the target corals and other sessile epibenthic fauna were analyzed from ROV videos collected at 8-183 m depth. T. micranthus was observed overgrowing >90% of all sessile epibenthic species which it encountered. Frequencies of competitive success varied significantly between platforms. T. coccinea was competitively superior to all competitors pooled, at the 60% level. There was little variability between T. coccinea populations. T. coccinea encountered the following species most frequently-the encrusting sponges Xestospongia sp. (with the commensal Parazoanthus catenularis, X. carbonaria, Dictyonella funicularis, Mycale carmigropila, Phorbas amaranthus, and Haliclona vansoesti-and was found to be, on average, competitively superior to them. Both T. micranthus and T. coccinea appear to be good competitors for space against these species in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Competitive success in T. micranthus was highest in the NE part of the study area, and lowest in the SW area near the Mississippi River plume. T. coccinea's competitive success peaked in the SW study area. This suggests that variation in competitive success both within and between populations of these species may be due to differences in local environmental factors.

  6. Urban gardens promote bee foraging over natural habitats and plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Benjamin F; Wallace, Helen; Heard, Tim A; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Leonhardt, Sara D

    2016-03-01

    Increasing human land use for agriculture and housing leads to the loss of natural habitat and to widespread declines in wild bees. Bee foraging dynamics and fitness depend on the availability of resources in the surrounding landscape, but how precisely landscape related resource differences affect bee foraging patterns remains unclear. To investigate how landscape and its interaction with season and weather drive foraging and resource intake in social bees, we experimentally compared foraging activity, the allocation of foragers to different resources (pollen, nectar, and resin) and overall resource intake in the Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria (Apidae, Meliponini). Bee colonies were monitored in different seasons over two years. We compared foraging patterns and resource intake between the bees' natural habitat (forests) and two landscapes differently altered by humans (suburban gardens and agricultural macadamia plantations). We found foraging activity as well as pollen and nectar forager numbers to be highest in suburban gardens, intermediate in forests and low in plantations. Foraging patterns further differed between seasons, but seasonal variations strongly differed between landscapes. Sugar and pollen intake was low in plantations, but contrary with our predictions, it was even higher in gardens than in forests. In contrast, resin intake was similar across landscapes. Consequently, differences in resource availability between natural and altered landscapes strongly affect foraging patterns and thus resource intake in social bees. While agricultural monocultures largely reduce foraging success, suburban gardens can increase resource intake well above rates found in natural habitats of bees, indicating that human activities can both decrease and increase the availability of resources in a landscape and thus reduce or enhance bee fitness. PMID:26848387

  7. DNA from the past informs ex situ conservation for the future: an "extinct" species of Galapagos tortoise identified in captivity.

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    Michael A Russello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although not unusual to find captive relicts of species lost in the wild, rarely are presumed extinct species rediscovered outside of their native range. A recent study detected living descendents of an extinct Galápagos tortoise species (Chelonoidis elephantopus once endemic to Floreana Island on the neighboring island of Isabela. This finding adds to the growing cryptic diversity detected among these species in the wild. There also exists a large number of Galápagos tortoises in captivity of ambiguous origin. The recently accumulated population-level haplotypic and genotypic data now available for C. elephantopus add a critical reference population to the existing database of 11 extant species for investigating the origin of captive individuals of unknown ancestry. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: We reanalyzed mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes and microsatellite genotypes of 156 captive individuals using an expanded reference database that included all extant Galápagos tortoise species as well as the extinct species from Floreana. Nine individuals (six females and three males exhibited strong signatures of Floreana ancestry and a high probability of assignment to C. elephantopus as detected by Bayesian assignment and clustering analyses of empirical and simulated data. One male with high assignment probability to C. elephantopus based on microsatellite genotypic data also possessed a "Floreana-like" mitochondrial DNA haplotype. SIGNIFICANCE: Historical DNA analysis of museum specimens has provided critical spatial and temporal components to ecological, evolutionary, taxonomic and conservation-related research, but rarely has it informed ex situ species recovery efforts. Here, the availability of population-level genotypic data from the extinct C. elephantopus enabled the identification of nine Galápagos tortoise individuals of substantial conservation value that were previously misassigned to extant species of varying

  8. Invasive vertebrate species in Chile and their control and monitoring by governmental agencies Especies de vertebrados invasores en Chile y su control y monitoreo por agencias gubernamentales

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    J. AGUSTÍN IRIARTE

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of the current status of vertebrate invasive species throughout Chile, updating information on terrestrial exotics and reporting for the first time the situation of exotic freshwater fishes. In addition, we document the legislation and programs that the Chilean government has implemented to limit the entry of exotics to the country or minimize their impact on native wild flora and fauna and on natural ecosystems. We document what is known about the introduction of 26 exotic fish species to continental waters of the country, discussing the distribution and putative effects of those 11 species that may be considered invasive. From a previous list of 24 terrestrial vertebrate invaders, we withdraw the Argentine tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis, reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and mouflon (Ovis ammon because there are no data on their subsistence in the wild. On the other hand, we add three new species: red-eared freshwater turtle (Trachemys scripta, monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus, and red-crested cardinal (Paroaria coronata, thus keeping the total number of terrestrial invaders unchanged at 24 species. The chief agency in charge of existing laws and regulations regarding the import of exotic freshwater species is the National Fisheries Service (SERNAPESCA, in Spanish, a dependency of the Ministry of Economy. The main agency in charge of enforcing existing laws and regulations regarding the import of exotic terrestrial species to Chile is the Agriculture and Livestock Service (SAG, in Spanish, a dependency of the Ministry of Agriculture. Currently, SAG is not only controlling major border passes, seaports and airports, but also is funding studies to monitor and control already existing invaders. In addition, the Chilean Forest Service (CONAF, in Spanish is also concerned about invasive species, but only if they enter national parks and reserves within the National System of Protected Wildlife Areas (SNASPE, in Spanish

  9. The primary structure of hemoglobin D from the Aldabra giant tortoise, Geochelone gigantea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishikura, Fumio

    2002-02-01

    The complete primary structures of alpha D-2- and beta-globin of hemoglobin D (Hb D) from the Aldabra giant tortoise, Geochelone gigantea, have been constructed by amino acid sequencing analysis in assistance with nucleotide sequencing analysis of PCR fragments amplified using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. Using computer-assisted sequence comparisons, the alpha D-2-globin shared a 92.0% sequence identity versus alpha D-globin of Geochelone carbonaria, a 75.2% versus alpha D-globin of Aves (Rhea americana) and a 62.4% versus alpha A-globin of Hb A expressed in adult red blood cells of Geochelone gigantea. Additionally, judging from their primary structures, an identical beta-globin was common to the two hemoglobin components, Hb A and Hb D. The alpha D-2- and beta-globin genes contained the three-exon and two-intron configurations and showed the characteristic of all functional vertebrate hemoglobin genes except an abnormal GC dinucleotide instead of the invariant GT at the 5' end of the second intron sequence. The introns of alpha D-2-globin gene were both small (224-bp/first intron, 227-bp/second intron) such that they were quite similar to those of adult alpha-type globins; the beta-globin gene has one small intron (approximately 130-bp) and one large intron (approximately 1590-bp). A phylogenetic tree constructed on primary structures of 7 alpha D-globins from Reptilia (4 species of turtles, 2 species of squamates, and 1 species of sphenodontids) and two embryonic alpha-like globins from Aves (Gullus gullus) and Mammals (Homo sapiens) showed the following results: (1) alpha D-globins except those of squamates were clustered, in which Sphenodon punctatus was a closer species to birds than turtles; (2) separation of the alpha A- and alpha D-globin genes occurred approximately 250 million years ago after the embryonic alpha-type globin-genes (pi' and zeta) first split off from the ancestor of alpha-type globin gene family. PMID:12012783

  10. Colonização de Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856 em localidade com esquistossomose mansoni: Baldim, MG (Brasil. (Prosobranchia, Pilidae Colonization of Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1856 at localility with Schistosomiasis mansoni: Baldim, MG (Brazil

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    Roberto Milward-de-Andrade

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Na localidade de Baldim, MG, Brasil, foram introduzidos, em agosto de 1972, 5.421 exemplares de Pomacea haustrum (Prosobranchia, Pilidae em 5 córregos e 2 valas, nos quais predominavam Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818 e, secundariamente, B. straminea (Dunker, 1848. Entre 1968 e 1971, os índices de infecção da espécie B. glabrata por Schistosoma mansoni oscilaram de 2,1% a 11,9%. Em nenhum momento foram capturados B. straminea liberando cercárias daquele trematódeo. Após a introdução do pilídeo, apenas uma única vez detectou-se 2 (0,8% B. glabrata positivas. Observou-se decréscimo populacional de planorbineos e aumento de densidade de pomácea até 20,0 e 121,6 exemplares/m² em córregos e valas, respectivamente. A estimativa da densidade de F. haustrum foi feita através do método dos "quadrats". Foram coletados, de junho de 1968 a julho de 1972, 65,2% (1.526 dos planorbíneos. Porém, após a introdução do predador-competidor, foram registrados os seguintes dados: 1976, 15% (352; em 1977, 16,1% (377 e, em 1978, apenas 3,7% (87 do total dos exemplares capturados. As pomáceas, transferidas do ambiente lenítico (Sete Lagoas, MG, adaptaram-se às coleções lóticas de Baldim e foram capazes de substituir as populações originais de B. glabrata em vários biótopos, ou tornaram-se, pelo menos, dominantes, sem danos visíveis para os novos ecossistemas. Acredita-se que em outras situações análogas, Pomacea haustrum (Reeve, 1956 - e, por extensão, P. lineata (Spix, 1827, P. canaliculata (Lamark, 1822 e outras do mesmo táxon - poderão ser utilizadas, com sucesso, no controle biológico dos hospedeiros intermediários de Schistosoma mansoni.In the region of Baldim, MG (Brazil - a well-known Schistosoma mansoni endemic area where transmission control had already been unsuccessfully attempted through molluscicide, sanitary education and clinical treatment - 5,421 specimens of Pomacea haustrum (Prosobranchia, Pilidae were

  11. Natureza ou Deus: afinidades panteístas entre Goethe e o "brasileiro" Martius Nature or God: pantheistic affinities between Goethe and Martius, "the Brazilian"

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    Marcus V. Mazzari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Na segunda parte do romance As afinidades eletivas, a jovem Ottilie registra em seu diário as seguintes palavras: "Digno de veneração é apenas o naturalista que sabe descrever e expor o mais estranho, o mais insólito, com sua cor local, com todo o seu entorno e sempre em seu elemento mais próprio. Como eu gostaria de ver-me um dia na presença de Humboldt, ouvindo suas narrações!". A passagem revela, ao lado da admiração de Goethe por Humboldt, o seu interesse pelas ciências naturais, o qual experimenta significativa intensificação em setembro de 1824, quando estabelece contato pessoal com o botânico Carl F. P. von Martius. Em seu jovem interlocutor Goethe logo reconhece as qualidades de naturalista que no romance são atribuídas a Humboldt. Passa então a acompanhar com máximo interesse as publicações em que Martius elabora as pesquisas, observações e experiências realizadas ao longo dos três anos e meio em que percorreu, junto com o zoólogo Spix, mais de dez mil quilômetros de território brasileiro. Nasce assim um intercâmbio científico e cultural dos mais fecundos, o qual se enraíza especialmente nas concepções panteístas de que partilhavam o velho poeta de Weimar e o jovem botânico. Além de enfocar alguns aspectos das viagens brasileiras de Martius, este ensaio tem por objetivo expor a sua recepção por Goethe e discutir ainda eventuais influxos sobre sua produção literária. A reelaboração, em 1825, de uma das canções que Goethe, 43 anos antes, havia redigido com o subtítulo Brasilianisch deve-se seguramente a esse intercâmbio. Pretende-se discutir também a hipótese de que determinados textos e concepções de Martius tenham deixado vestígios em passagens da segunda parte do Fausto.In the second part of the novel Elective Affinities, young Ottilie registered the following words in her diary: "The only inquirers into nature whom we care to respect, are such as know how to describe and to represent

  12. Taxonomia e variação geográfica das espécies do gênero Alouatta Lacépède (Primates, Atelidae no Brasil Taxonomy and geographic variation of species of the genus Alouatta Lacépède (Primates, Atelidae in Brazil

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    Renato Gregorin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo analisou-se a variação geográfica e não-geográfica de táxons de bugios, gênero Alouatta Lacépède, 1799, que ocorrem no Brasil, com o objetivo de esclarecer a taxonomia do grupo. Para a análise morfológica, examinou-se um total de 1.286 espécimes mantidos em cinco museus brasileiros e dois norte-americanos. O material consistiu basicamente de peles, crânios e ossos hióides; esqueletos e espécimes preservados em via úmida foram escassos. O estudo se baseou na análise qualitativa dos complexos morfológicos em adição a 18 morfométicos do crânio e osso hióide. Antes das decisões taxonômicas, elaborou-se um estudo de variação geográfica, sexual, ontogenética e individual. Reconheceu-se 10 espécies de Alouatta ocorrendo no Brasil, sendo a maioria definida por caracteres discretos, porém diagnósticos. São elas: Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812, A. fusca (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1812, A. clamitans Cabrera, 1940, A. belzebul (Linnaeus, 1766, A. discolor (Spix, 1823, A. ululata Elliot, 1912; A. juara (Linnaeus, 1766, A. macconnelli (Humboldt, 1812, A. puruensis Lönnberg, 1941 e A. nigerrima Lönnberg, 1941. Alouatta macconnelli e A. clamitans mostraram notável variação geográfica na coloração da pelagem e algumas variáveis morfométricas (polimorfismo o que dificultou as definições e limites dos táxons. Alouatta belzebul apresentou variação em mosaico na coloração da pelagem. Alouatta ululata e A. puruensis foram definidas pela presença de dicromatismo sexual na pelagem, mas este caráter pode ser um artefato e necessita estudos adicionais para corroborar sua validade. Sinonimizou-se Alouatta belzebul mexianae Hagmann, 1908 com A. discolor; e a validade de Alouatta seniculus amazonica Lönnberg 1941, não foi considerada.In this monograph, was studied non-geographic and geographic variation of taxa of Howling Monkeys, genus Alouatta Lacépède, 1799, occuring in Brazil, in order to solve the

  13. Thesis Abstract Morphological and phylogeographic analysis of Brazilian tortoises (Testudinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T L; Venancio, L P R; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2015-12-29

    The discriminative potentials of biogeography, vocalization, morphology, cytogenetics, hemoglobin, and molecular profiling of cytochrome b as taxonomic techniques for differentiating Brazilian tortoises were evaluated in this study. In Brazil, two species of tortoises are described, Chelonoidis carbonarius and Chelonoidis denticulatus. However, in the present study, some animals that were initially recognized based on morphological characters and coloring did not correspond to the typical pattern of C. carbonarius; these animals were classified as morphotypes 1 and 2. It was proposed that these morphotypes are differentiated species, and they should not be considered as a single taxonomic unit with C. carbonarius. Tortoises analyzed were provided by the National Institute for Amazonian Research (INPA); the Emilio Goeldi Museum, PA; municipal zoos in São José do Rio Preto, SP, and Araçatuba, SP; and the Reginaldo Uvo Leone breeding farm for Wild and Exotic Animals, Tabapuã, SP. Based on the data obtained using biogeographic evaluation of specimens in the literature, it was found that C. carbonarius is distributed in the Northeast Region of Brazil, and no animal of this pattern was observed in the investigated collections. On the other hand, C. denticulatus is found in all the states of the Legal Amazonia. In addition, isolated individual records of this species exist in the Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro and in the Midwest Region composed of the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, and Mato Grosso do Sul. In the Northeast Region, C. denticulatus occurs in the State of Bahia. Morphotype 1 has a wider geographical distribution than C. carbonarius, possibly because of several distribution reports associated with C. carbonarius, indicating erroneous association of morphotype 1 as a single taxonomic unit with C. carbonarius. Morphotype 2 is found only in the states of Pará, Maranhão, and Piauí. These biogeographic data indicate that the

  14. 白背黄花稔Sida rhombifolia的生物活性及化学成分研究%Study on bioactivity and chemical constituents of Sida rhombifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈维权; 张恒; 徐汉虹

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol extract of the aerial part of Sida rhombifolia L. was extracted with petroleum ether and ethyl acetate to give the petroleum ether extract,ethyl acetate extract and water phase. Toxic activity of the ethanol extract and three crude extracts against the 4th-instars larva of Aedes albopictus Skuse and Ampullaria gigas Spix was tested. It showed that the ethanol extract and ethyl acetate extract had obvious insecticidal activity against the 4th-instars larva of A. albopictus, while petroleum ether extract and the ethanol extract showed higher molluscicidal activity against A. gigas. Eleven known compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract through further phytochemical investigation, their structures were identified as m-hydroxybenzoic acid (1), glyceroyl monopalmitate (2), syringic acid (3), gallic acid (4), /3-sitosterol (5), stigmasterol (6), scopoletin (7), kaempferol (8), 5 -hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavanone (9), tiliroside (10) and β-sitosterol-3-0-glucoside (11), respectively, by 'H NMR and 13C NMR. Compound 2 exhibited potent insecticidal activity against the 4th-instars larva of A. albopictus, with LC50 value of 28.66 μg/mL and 13.50 μg/mL after treatment in 24 h and 48 h, respectively.%用石油醚和乙酸乙酯分别对白背黄花稔Sida rhombifoliaL.地上部分的乙醇提取物进行萃取,得不同萃取相;测定了乙醇提取物及不同萃取相对白纹伊蚊Aedes albopictus Skuse 4龄幼虫和福寿螺Ampullaria gigas Spix的毒杀活性.结果表明,乙醇提取物和乙酸乙酯相对白纹伊蚊4龄幼虫的杀虫活性明显,而石油醚相和乙醇提取物对福寿螺的杀螺活性较好.对乙酸乙酯相进一步分离得到11个化合物,经核磁共振氢谱(1H NMR)和碳谱(13C NMR)鉴定其分别为已知化合物:间-羟基苯甲酸(1)、棕榈酸1-甘油酯(2)、丁香酸(3)、没食子酸(4)、β-谷甾醇(5)、豆甾醇(6)、东莨菪内酯(7)、山奈酚(8)、5-羟基-7,4 ′-二甲氧基二氢黄酮(9)

  15. Occurrence, local extinction and conservation of Primates in the corridor of the Upper Paraná River, with notes on other mammals Ocorrência, extinção local e conservação dos primatas do corredor do Alto Rio Paraná, com notas sobre outros mamíferos

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    Lucas M. Aguiar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The region of Porto Rico, on the Upper Paraná River, is a contact zone between the Atlantic Rainforest and the Cerrado, with elements of the Pantanal wetlands. During surveys from September 2003 to September to 2005, we recorded the presence of non-volant mammals on 14 islands and the adjacent riverbanks. Surveys were by foot and by boat, and we also interviewed local people about the mammals of the region. Sightings of three primate species - Cebus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809 (left margin of the river, C. libidinosus Spix, 1823 (right margin and Alouatta caraya (Humboldt, 1812 (both margins and 12 islands - were plotted on a satellite image. Alouatta clamitans Cabrera, 1940 was not recorded. However, interviews indicated that this species has occurred in this region in the past. The survey of mammals revealed the occurrence of 32 native species, a native genus with one or more unidentified species, and two introduced species [Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778 and Sus scrofa (Linnaeus, 1758]. The study discusses the permeability of the Paraná River to dispersal, as well as its potential as a geographical barrier to some species. Hypothesis on the local extinction of A. clamitans is also addressed. This study provides information that can be useful for promoting the conservation of this region.A região de Porto Rico, Alto Rio Paraná, é zona de contato entre a Mata Atlântica e o Cerrado, com influências do Pantanal. Este estudo levantou as espécies de primatas da região para a confecção de um mapa de ocorrências. Listou-se as ocorrências de mamíferos não-voadores, discriminando os registros entre os ambientes de ilhas e margens opostas. Para tanto, além do auxílio de entrevistas, as matas de 14 ilhas e das margens foram percorridas por terra e de barco durante setembro de 2003 a setembro de 2005. Pontos de avistamento dos primatas foram plotados em imagem de satélite. Três espécies de primatas foram registradas: Cebus nigritus somente

  16. Gopherus Agassizii (Desert Tortoise). Predation/Mountain Lions (Pre-Print)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul D. Greger and Philip A. Medica

    2009-01-01

    sized Mountain Lion. By comparison, a 2 year old male Mountain Lion salvaged on NTS had an upper intercanine bite width of 45 mm, and a 6 month old kitten measured 35mm respectively. The Mountain Lion (Puma concolor) is the only predator that exists in southern Nevada that could possibly have a bite with a gap between its upper canine teeth that large (Murmann et al. 2006. J. Forensic Sci. 51:846-860). The appearance of the shell remains in Figure 1A is similar to that depicting Jaguar (Panthera onca) predation, on the Amazonian Tortoise (Geochelone denticulata) as illustrated by Emmons (1989. J. Herpetol. 23:311-314) with the majority of the carapace broken open and the plastron still intact. Predation of Desert Tortoises by Mountain Lions was also documented in 1993 in southern Arizona (Little Shipp Wash Plot), where 7 of 8 carcasses found were attributed to Mountain Lion predation (Averill-Murray et al. 2002. In. T.R.Van Devender [ed.], The Sonoran Desert Tortoise: Natural History, Biology, and Conservation, pp.109-134. University of Arizona Press and Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona). Similarly, predation by a Mountain Lion has been reported on the Argentine Tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis) in Argentina (Acosta et al. 2004. Herpetol. Review 35:53-54), and a Mountain Lion kitten was observed to kill and consume a portion of the carapace of a Texas Tortoise (Gopherus berlandieri) in west Texas (Adams et al. 2006. Southwestern Nat. 51:581-581). Over the past 45 years this Desert Tortoise population has been monitored yearly, with no prior evidence of predation to tortoises within the fenced enclosures. On several occasions other predators such as Bobcats (Lynx rufus) have been observed within the study enclosures for as long as a week. Evidence of Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotus) sign has been observed on numerous occasions, and a Spotted Skunk (Spilogale putorius) and Longtail Weasels (Mustela frenata) have been captured and released (B.G. Maza, pers. comm

  17. 不同浓度下四种除草剂对福寿螺和坑螺的生态毒理效应%Eco-toxicological effects of four herbicides on typical aquatic snail Pomacea canaliculata and Crown conchs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兰; 骆世明; 黎华寿; 贺鸿志; 陈桂葵; 秦俊豪

    2011-01-01

    以化学除草剂应用为前提的水稻免耕抛秧栽培技术是近年来推广的节本栽培新技术.为更好地评价除草剂的环境风险,为防治除草剂的负效应提供科学依据,采用室内静水模拟实验研究了4种免耕稻田除草剂丁草胺、苄嘧N磺隆、丁苄混剂和氯酸钾的3种浓度梯度下对典型水生动物福寿螺、坑螺的影响.结果表明,各除草剂对水生动物的代谢都有不同程度的影响,氯酸钾和苄嘧磺隆对2种水生动物的呼吸作用影响不大,而丁草胺和丁苄混剂对3种水生动物的呼吸作用的影响有显著的抑制作用,且呈现一定的剂量效应;在本实验染毒剂量下,丁草胺和丁苄混剂对2种水生动物的存活率影响很大,而氯酸钾和苄嘧磺隆对其存活率影响较小.丁草胺和丁苄混剂处理对福寿螺的氮代谢影响远远大于氯酸钾和苄嘧磺隆处理,而从水体总氮和总磷含量的影响来看,4种除草剂对其影响都较大.总之,从4种除草剂对实验用螺存活率和主要代谢生理指标的综合影响大小来看,丁草胺>丁苄混剂>苄嘧磺隆>氯酸钾.%There has been an increase in the use of other herbicides for both agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. The use of herbicides in China also has increased faster than that of insecticides and fungicides since last 30 years. The new technique of rice seedling-broadcasting with no-tillage ( RSB-NT) is widely used and it was based on the applition of herbicides. The increasing pollution of herbicides in soil and water has been of concerns. The effect of four herbicides including butachlor, bensulfuron-methyl, the mixture of bensulfuron and butachlor, potassium chlorate on typical aquatic animals (Pomacea canaliculata Spix, Tunnel snail) in rice paddy wetland were studied in laboratory. In the immersion experiment, both of the aquatic animals divided into four groups with three concentrations. The results showed that the

  18. Estudos sobre a Esquistosomose em Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggeu Magalhães

    1940-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores referem os resultados dos estudos sobre esquistosomose realisados, em Pernambuco, de Novembro de 1938 a Dezembro de 1939. Não se extendem em discussão, nem comentarios, tampouco, relacionam suas verificações com o que já foi relatado sobre o assunto em trabalhos nacionais e estrangeiros, pelo fato de que, não se trata de um resultado definitivo e sim de atividades que irão proseguir. Os estudos sistematicos em torno da endemia esquistosomica foram executados em duas localidades diversas pela população e pela situação geografica e ecologica. Pontezinha é uma povoação de 1200 habitantes localizada proximo a um conjunto de charcos e lagõas de agua dôce onde pululam caramujos do tipo olivaceus de Spix, e apresenta uma taxa de infestação de 21,4% para individuos do sexo masculino, e de 14,7% para os do sexo feminino. A distribuição por grupos de idade mostra que a incidencia cresce até o grupo de 16 a 20 anos de idade, quando atinge a percentagem de 37,8%, para decrescer em seguida. Em Vitoria a incidencia foi maior nos indivíduos do sexo feminino, atingindo a taxa de 41,4%, dando o sexo masculino a taxa de 36,9%. Por idade a percentagem maxima é atingida pelo grupo de 11 a 15 anos. Vitoria é uma cidade de 1500 habitantes, construida á margem do rio Tapacurá, onde se encontram numerosos caramujos do tipo centimetralis Lutz. A divergencia de incidencia corre por conta dos habitos da população e pela utilização que ela faz do rio, sendo maior em Vitoria porque a proximidade do rio facilita o uso de suas aguas para banho e serviços domesticos, condicionando este ultimo fato, a maior infestação das mulheres. O estudo da frequencia da infestação dos caramujos por cercarias de diversos trematodios, permite suspeitar uma relação inversa entre a taxa de infestação e o diametro maximo atingido pelos caramujos, parecendo este fato confirmar os trabalhos de Vianna Martins sobre a identidade dos hospedeiros