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Sample records for chelonia mydas eggs

  1. Final critical habitat for the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) based on the description provided in the Federal...

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Chelonia mydas Myoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMAD SADIKIN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Green sea turtle – Chelonia mydas is a lung respiration animal that is able to dive and stay uder sea water for hours without needing to surface for oxygen. As oxygen supply in muscles is assured by myoglobin, we propose to study some characteristic of this muscle protein in green sea turtles. To achieve this objective, pure green sea turtle myoglobin has to be made available. Therefore, our first task is to purify this muscle protein from green sea turtles. Skeletal muscles from 3 green sea turtle hatchlings were studied icroscopically and biochemically. Microscopy observation showed a general structure of striated muscle. Biochemical studies revealed that green sea turtle myoglobin could be more purely isolated to a certain degree by ephadex G-75 gel filtration and purified by immunoaffinity gel chromatography rather than direct purification by DEAE-Sepharose ion exchange chromatography technique. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that green sea turtle myoglobin ran together with horse myoglobin as 17 kDa molecular weight proteins.

  3. Bacterial flora and antibiotic resistance from eggs of green turtles Chelonia mydas: An indication of polluted effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sea turtles migrate to various habitats where they can be exposed to different pollutants. Bacteria were collected from turtle eggs and their resistance to antibiotics was used as pollutant bio-indicators of contaminated effluents. Eggs were collected randomly from turtles when they were laying their eggs. A total of 90 eggs were collected and placed into sterile plastic bags (3 eggs/turtle) during June-December of 2003. The bacteria located in the eggshell, albumen and yolk were examined, and 42% of the eggs were contaminated with 10 genera of bacteria. Pseudomonas spp. were the most frequent isolates. The albumen was found to be the part of the egg to be the least contaminated by bacterial infection. Bacterial isolates tested with 14 antibiotics showed variations in resistance. Resistance to ampicillin was the highest. The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in eggs indicates that the green turtle populations were subjected to polluted effluents during some of their migratory routes and feeding habitats. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that Salmonella typhimurium penetrated all eggshell layers.

  4. Migrations of green turtles (Chelonia mydas between nesting and foraging grounds across the Coral Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyffen C Read

    Full Text Available Marine megafauna tend to migrate vast distances, often crossing national borders and pose a significant challenge to managers. This challenge is particularly acute in the Pacific, which contains numerous small island nations and thousands of kilometers of continental margins. The green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas, is one such megafauna that is endangered in Pacific waters due to the overexploitation of eggs and adults for human consumption. Data from long-term tagging programs in Queensland (Australia and New Caledonia were analysed to investigate the migrations by C. mydas across the Coral Sea between their nesting site and their feeding grounds. A review of data collected over the last 50 years by different projects identified multiple migrations of C. mydas to and from New Caledonia (n = 97 and indicate that turtles foraging in New Caledonia nest in the Great Barrier Reef (Australia and vice versa. Several explanations exist for turtles exhibiting this energetically costly movement pattern from breeding to distant foraging grounds (1200-2680 km away despite viable foraging habitat being available in the local vicinity. These include hatchling drift, oceanic movements and food abundance predictability. Most of the tag recoveries in New Caledonia belonged to females from the south Great Barrier Reef genetic stock. Some females (n = 2 even showed fidelity to foraging sites located 1200 km away from the nesting site located in New Caledonia. This study also reveals previously unknown migrations pathways of turtles within the Coral Sea.

  5. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) have novel asymmetrical antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Dagenais, Julie; Breeden, Renee; Schneemann, Anette; Sung, Joyce; Hew, Brian; Balazs, George H.; Berestecky, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Igs in vertebrates comprise equally sized H and L chains, with exceptions such as H chain–only Abs in camels or natural Ag receptors in sharks. In Reptilia, Igs are known as IgYs. Using immunoassays with isotype-specific mAbs, in this study we show that green turtles (Chelonia mydas) have a 5.7S 120-kDa IgY comprising two equally sized H/L chains with truncated Fc and a 7S 200-kDa IgY comprised of two differently sized H chains bound to L chains and apparently often noncovalently associated with an antigenically related 90-kDa moiety. Both the 200- and 90-kDa 7S molecules are made in response to specific Ag, although the 90-kDa molecule appears more prominent after chronic Ag stimulation. Despite no molecular evidence of a hinge, electron microscopy reveals marked flexibility of Fab arms of 7S and 5.7S IgY. Both IgY can be captured with protein G or melon gel, but less so with protein A. Thus, turtle IgY share some characteristics with mammalian IgG. However, the asymmetrical structure of some turtle Ig and the discovery of an Ig class indicative of chronic antigenic stimulation represent striking advances in our understanding of immunology.

  6. Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) Have Novel Asymmetrical Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M; Dagenais, Julie; Breeden, Renee; Schneemann, Anette; Sung, Joyce; Hew, Brian; Balazs, George H; Berestecky, John M

    2015-12-01

    Igs in vertebrates comprise equally sized H and L chains, with exceptions such as H chain-only Abs in camels or natural Ag receptors in sharks. In Reptilia, Igs are known as IgYs. Using immunoassays with isotype-specific mAbs, in this study we show that green turtles (Chelonia mydas) have a 5.7S 120-kDa IgY comprising two equally sized H/L chains with truncated Fc and a 7S 200-kDa IgY comprised of two differently sized H chains bound to L chains and apparently often noncovalently associated with an antigenically related 90-kDa moiety. Both the 200- and 90-kDa 7S molecules are made in response to specific Ag, although the 90-kDa molecule appears more prominent after chronic Ag stimulation. Despite no molecular evidence of a hinge, electron microscopy reveals marked flexibility of Fab arms of 7S and 5.7S IgY. Both IgY can be captured with protein G or melon gel, but less so with protein A. Thus, turtle IgY share some characteristics with mammalian IgG. However, the asymmetrical structure of some turtle Ig and the discovery of an Ig class indicative of chronic antigenic stimulation represent striking advances in our understanding of immunology. PMID:26500346

  7. Relocations of sea turtle nests of Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriacea and Chelonia mydas in the Galibi Nature Reserve, Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, A.D.; Weijerman, M.; Tienen, van, C.; Hoekert, W.E.J.

    1997-01-01

    SCHOUTEN, A.D., WEIJERMAN, M., VAN TIENEN, L.H.G. & W.E.J. HOEKERT, 1997. Relocations of Sea Turtle nests of Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriace and Chelonia mydas in the Galibi Nature Reserve, Suriname. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam, 1997: 63-69. Relocation of nests of the marine turtles Lepidochelys olivacea (ESCHSCHOLTZ 1829), Dermochelys coriace (LINNAEUS 1758) and CHELONIA MYDAS (LINNAEUS 1758) in the Galibi Nature Reserve is performed to protect them from a nu...

  8. Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) genetic diversity at Paranaguá Estuarine Complex feeding grounds in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Costa Jordão; Ana Cristina Vigliar Bondioli; Flavia Maria Guebert; Benoit de Thoisy; Lurdes Foresti de Almeida Toledo

    2015-01-01

    Sea turtles are marine reptiles that undertake long migrations through their life, with limited information regarding juvenile stages. Feeding grounds (FGs), where they spend most of their lives, are composed by individuals from different natal origins, known as mixed stock populations. The aim of this study was to assess genetic composition, natal origins and demographic history of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) at the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC), Brazil, considered a Natural ...

  9. Assessing humoral and cell-mediated immune response in Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Rameyer, R.A.; Chang, S.P.; Berestecky, J.

    2000-01-01

    Seven immature green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured from Kaneohe Bay on the island of Oahu were used to evaluate methods for assessing their immune response. Two turtles each were immunized intramuscularly with egg white lysozyme (EWL) in Freunda??s complete adjuvant, Gerbu, or ISA-70; a seventh turtle was immunized with saline only and served as a control. Humoral immune response was measured with an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cell-mediated immune response was measured using in vitro cell proliferation assays (CPA) using whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) cultured with concanavalin A (ConA), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or soluble egg EWL antigen. All turtles, except for one immunized with Gerbu and the control, produced a detectable humoral immune response by 6 weeks which persisted for at least 14 weeks after a single immunization. All turtles produced an anamnestic humoral immune response after secondary immunization. Antigen specific cell-mediated immune response in PBM was seen in all turtles either after primary or secondary immunization, but it was not as consistent as humoral immune response; antigen specific cell-mediated immune response in whole blood was rarely seen. Mononuclear cells had significantly higher stimulation indices than whole blood regardless of adjuvant, however, results with whole blood had lower variability. Both Gerbu and ISA-70 appeared to potentiate the cell-mediated immune response when PBM or whole blood were cultured with PHA. This is the first time cell proliferation assays have been compared between whole blood and PBM for reptiles. This is also the first demonstration of antigen specific cell-mediated response in reptiles. Cell proliferation assays allowed us to evaluate the cell-mediated immune response of green turtles. However, CPA may be less reliable than ELISA for detecting antigen specific immune response. Either of the three adjuvants appears suitable to safely elicit a

  10. Blood Gasses Contents of Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) Hatch Treated by Different Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    RINI PUSPITANINGRUM; SEPTELIA INAWATI WANANDI; RONDANG ROEMIATI SOEGIANTO; MOHAMAD SADIKIN

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to gain the profile of blood gasses of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) hatch. Blood gas of the green turtle was analysed after exposuring them at 28 oC and 50% of humidity for 24 hours in a pvc tube and at 34 oC under sunlight exposured with 47% of humidity for 30 minutes. The result showed the different values of blood gas contents. This result showed indication of metabolism activities and poikilothermic adaptation of green turtle hatch. This information can be u...

  11. Immunological evaluation of captive green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) with ulcerative dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Fernando Alberto; Estrada-Para; Sergio; Romero-Rojas, Andrés; Gonzalez-Ballesteros, Erik; Work, Thierry; Villaseñor-Gaona, Hector; Estrada-Garcia, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is common in captive sea turtles and manifests as skin erosions and ulcers associated with gram-negative bacteria. This study compared clinically healthy and UD-affected captive turtles by evaluating hematology, histopathology, immunoglobulin levels, and delayed-type hypersensitivity assay. Turtles with UD had significantly lower weight, reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, and higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. This study is the first to assay DTH in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and suggests that UD is associated with immunosuppression.

  12. Relocations of sea turtle nests of Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriacea and Chelonia mydas in the Galibi Nature Reserve, Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, A.D.; Weijerman, M.; Tienen, van L.H.G.; Hoekert, W.E.J.

    1997-01-01

    SCHOUTEN, A.D., WEIJERMAN, M., VAN TIENEN, L.H.G. & W.E.J. HOEKERT, 1997. Relocations of Sea Turtle nests of Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriace and Chelonia mydas in the Galibi Nature Reserve, Suriname. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam, 1997: 63-69. Relocation of nests of th

  13. Morfologia do tubo digestório da tartaruga verde (Chelonia mydas Morphology of the digestive tube of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela S. Magalhães

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a morfologia do tubo digestório da tartaruga verde (Chelonia mydas 10 animais, 9 juvenis e 1 adulto, foram analisados. A retirada dos órgãos digestórios procedeu-se após abertura do plastrão. A descrição e a medida do comprimento de cada órgão [esôfago, estômago, intestino delgado (ID e intestino grosso (IG] foram realizadas com o tubo digestório aberto. Os resultados mostraram que tanto nos animais juvenis como no adulto, o esôfago foi marcado pela presença de papilas pontiagudas em sua mucosa interna. O estômago apresentou aspecto saculiforme com fundo cego. No ID foi observado pregas reticulares na mucosa duodenal, enquanto o jejuno e do íleo mostrou pregas retilíneas longitudinais. O IG foi marcado pela alternância de regiões abauladas (haustros ou saculações e estreitamentos. A microscopia do tudo digestório em C. mydas revelou esôfago com mucosa pregueada revestida por epitélio estratificado pavimentoso queratinizado. O estômago mostrou-se dividido em regiões: cárdica, fúndica, pilórica, as quais diferiam quanto ao número de glândulas e disposição da camada muscular. O ID apresentou-se marcado por vilosidades, e o IG por mucosa pregueada contendo glândulas na lâmina própria. A morfologia do tubo digestório da tartaruga verde mostrou-se adaptada ao seu hábito alimentar, possuindo especializações e um longo trato digestório que promove o aumento da superfície de absorção, já que seu alimento é de difícil digestão.The morphology of the digestive tube of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas was evaluated. Nine young e 1 adult turtles were analyzed. The digestive organs withdrew occurred after plastron opening. The length's description and measurement from each organ [esophagus, stomach, small intestine (SI and large intestine (LI] were made with digestive tube opened. The results showed that in both the adult and young animals, the esophagus from all species were marked by the presence

  14. ultrastructural study of limb bud development in green turtles chelonia mydas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    morphological changes during the embryonic development of limbs of the green turtle,chelonia mydas,were studied during the entire period of incubation,using transmission and scanning electron microscopy (tem and sem).limb buds were first observed at stage 2.at that stage,the tip was covered with an apical ectodermal ridge (aer) which began to regress at stage 6.associated with aer was the presence of the mesenchymal cells which,consequently,differentiated into muscles,cartilage and bones.the gross features of the skeletal development appeared as a condensation of the cartilaginous structures in the proximal distal region of the limbs.the primordial digits were gradually enclosed by hard keratinized webbed skin.the increase in rate of ossification and skin pigmentation was correlated with the growth of the limbs.the development of the limbs was closely related to the transitional appearance of mucus secretion from the epidermis.

  15. Identification of CD3+ T lymphocytes in the green turtle Chelonia mydas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, F.A.; Estrada-Parra, S.; Romero-Rojas, A.; Work, T.M.; Gonzalez-Ballesteros, E.; Estrada-Garcia, I.

    2009-01-01

    To understand the role of the immune system with respect to disease in reptiles, there is the need to develop tools to assess the host's immune response. An important tool is the development of molecular markers to identify immune cells, and these are limited for reptiles. We developed a technique for the cryopreservation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and showed that a commercially available anti-CD3 epsilon chain antibody detects a subpopulation of CD3 positive peripheral blood lymphocytes in the marine turtle Chelonia mydas. In the thymus and in skin inoculated with phytohemagglutinin, the same antibody showed the classical staining pattern observed in mammals and birds. For Western blot, the anti-CD3 antibodies identified a 17.6 kDa band in membrane proteins of peripheral blood mononuclear cell compatible in weight to previously described CD3 molecules. This is the first demostration of CD3+ cells in reptiles using specific antibodies. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Food preferences and Hg distribution in Chelonia mydas assessed by stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M F; Lacerda, L D; Rezende, C E; Franco, M A L; Almeida, M G; Macêdo, G R; Pires, T T; Rostán, G; Lopez, G G

    2015-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic pollutant that poses in risk several marine animals, including green turtles (Chelonia mydas). Green turtles are globally endangered sea turtle species that occurs in Brazilian coastal waters as a number of life stage classes (i.e., foraging juveniles and nesting adults). We assessed total Hg concentrations and isotopic signatures ((13)C and (15)N) in muscle, kidney, liver and scute of juvenile green turtles and their food items from two foraging grounds with different urban and industrial development. We found similar food preferences in specimens from both areas but variable Hg levels in tissues reflecting the influence of local Hg backgrounds in food items. Some juvenile green turtles from the highly industrialized foraging ground presented liver Hg levels among the highest ever reported for this species. Our results suggest that juvenile foraging green turtles are exposed to Hg burdens from locally anthropogenic activities in coastal areas. PMID:26196313

  17. Histology and Immunohistochemistry of the Cardiac Ventricular Structure in the Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, J K F S; Freitas, M L; Magalhães, M S; Oliveira, M F; Costa, M S M O; Resende, N S; Clebis, N K; Silva, N B; Moura, C E B

    2016-08-01

    This study describes the implications of cardiac ventricular microscopy in Chelonia mydas relating to its ability to dive. For this work, 11 specimens of the marine turtle species C. mydas found dead on the coast of Rio Grande do Norte (Northeast Brazil) were used. After necropsy, fragments of the cardiac ventricular wall were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde solution for 24 h and then subjected to routine processing for light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ventricle in this species is formed by the epicardium, myocardium and endocardium. The subepicardial layer consists of highly vascularised connective tissue that emits septa to reinforce the myocardium surface. There is an abundant and diffuse subepicardial nerve plexus shown by immunostaining technique. The thickness of the spongy myocardium and the nature of its trabeculae varied between the heart chambers. The endocardium shows no characteristic elements of the heart conduction system. The valves have a hyaline cartilage skeleton, coated by dense irregular connective tissues characterised by elastic fibres. These findings in the green turtle ventricular microscopy are related to hypoxia resistance during diving. PMID:26268418

  18. Structure and Function of the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) Hatchling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hualing CHEN; Mingbin YE; Yuyan LU; Jinxia DUAN; Pipeng LI; Hexiang GU

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tracts of four Chelonia mydas hatchlings were examined at the anatomical, histological and ultrastructural level. Our results show that the gastrointestinal tract (GI) is composed by esophagus, stomach, small intestine (SI) and large intestine (LI), and histologically of mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa (ME) and serosa. The esophagus is marked by conical papillae lined by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, whereas the remaining GI by simple columnar epithelium; esophageal diverticulum is absent. The stomach covered with mucous granule cells, contains cardia, fundic regions and pylorus, which are separately characterized by cardiac glands, fundic glands and pyloric glands, and have the thickest submucosa and ME of the GI. The ME of the esophagus mainly consist of one layer of circular smooth muscle whereas the rest of GI of two layers, inner circular muscle and outer longitudinal muscle. The SI is slightly longer than the LI and the GI is approximately 5.11 times of the carapace length. The SI is lined with longitudinal zigzag folds and characterized by absorptive cells with longer and denser microvilli, whereas the LI by transversal folds, goblet cells and lymphoid nodules. Only intestinal glands appear in duodenum. Endocrine cells are observed in all sections of the GI and accounted for the largest proportion in duodenum. The results demonstrate a perfect combination of the structure and function of the GI and reveal that the digestion and absorption primarily occurs in the foregut. C. mydas hatchling may prefer carnivorous diet.

  19. Multinational Tagging Efforts Illustrate Regional Scale of Distribution and Threats for East Pacific Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas agassizii)

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Catherine E.; Blanco, Gabriela S.; Coyne, Michael S.; Delgado-Trejo, Carlos; Godley, Brendan J.; Jones, T. Todd; Resendiz, Antonio; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Witt, Matthew J.; Wallace J Nichols

    2015-01-01

    To further describe movement patterns and distribution of East Pacific green turtles (Chelonia mydas agassizii) and to determine threat levels for this species within the Eastern Pacific. In order to do this we combined published data from existing flipper tagging and early satellite tracking studies with data from an additional 12 satellite tracked green turtles (1996-2006). Three of these were tracked from their foraging grounds in the Gulf of California along the east coast of the Baja Cal...

  20. Bacteremia in free-ranging Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas, with fibropapillomatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Wolcott, M.; Morris, R.

    2003-01-01

    Past studies of free-ranging green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis (FP) in Hawaii have shown that animals become immunosuppressed with increasing severity of this disease. Additionally, preliminary clinical examination of moribund turtles with FP revealed that some animals were also bacteraemic. We tested the hypothesis that bacteraemia in sea turtles is associated with the severity of FP. We captured free-ranging green turtles from areas in Hawaii where FP is absent, and areas where FP has been endemic since the late 1950s. Each turtle was given an FP severity score ranging from 0 (no tumours) to 3 (severely affected). A fifth category included turtles that were stranded ashore and moribund with FP. We found that the percentage of turtles with bacteraemia increased with the severity of FP, and that the majority of bacteria cultured were Vibrio spp. Turtles with severe FP were more susceptible to bactaeremia, probably in part due to immunosuppression. The pattern of bacteraemia in relation to severity of disease strengthens the hypothesis that immunosuppression is a sequel to FP.

  1. Aerobic bacterial flora of nesting green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Hernández, Giovanna; Caballero, Magaly

    2006-12-01

    Bacteriological examination of 70 nesting green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Tortuguero National Park, Costa Rica was performed to investigate nasal and cloacal aerobic bacteria. A total of 325 bacterial isolates were obtained, including 10 Gram-negative and three Gram-positive genera. Two hundred thirty-nine were Gram-negative and 86 were Gram-positive isolates. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most common microbe identified in turtle samples: 27/70 (38.5%) in cloacal, and 33/70 (47.1%) in nasal samples. The Enterobacteriaceae family, including Enterobacter agglomerans, E. cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. pneumoniae, and Serratia marcescens, was the largest Gram-negative group of bacteria recovered and comprised 127 of 239 (53.1%) of the Gram-negative isolates. Staphylococcus species was the largest Gram-positive bacteria group, including S. aureus, S. cromogenes, S. epidermis, and S. intermedius, and made up 63 of 86 (73.2%) of the Gram-positive isolates recovered. The results of this study demonstrate that the aerobic bacterial flora of nesting green turtles at Tortuguero National Park is composed of a very wide spectrum of bacteria, including several potential pathogens. PMID:17315444

  2. Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) genetic diversity at Paranaguá Estuarine Complex feeding grounds in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordão, Juliana Costa; Bondioli, Ana Cristina Vigliar; Guebert, Flavia Maria; de Thoisy, Benoit; Toledo, Lurdes Foresti de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Sea turtles are marine reptiles that undertake long migrations through their life, with limited information regarding juvenile stages. Feeding grounds (FGs), where they spend most of their lives, are composed by individuals from different natal origins, known as mixed stock populations. The aim of this study was to assess genetic composition, natal origins and demographic history of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) at the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC), Brazil, considered a Natural World Heritage site. Tissue samples of stranded animals were collected (n = 60), and 700 bp mitochondrial DNA sequences were generated and compared to shorter sequences from previously published studies. Global exact tests of differentiation revealed significant differences among PEC and the other FGs, except those at the South Atlantic Ocean. Green turtles at PEC present genetic signatures similar to those of nesting females from Ascension Island, Guinea Bissau and Aves Island/Surinam. Population expansion was evidenced to have occurred 20-25 kYA, reinforcing the hypothesis of recovery from Southern Atlantic refugia after the last Glacial Maximum. These results contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of green turtle populations at a protected area by providing knowledge on the dispersion patterns and reinforcing the importance of the interconnectivity between nesting and foraging populations. PMID:26500439

  3. Green turtle (Chelonia mydas genetic diversity at Paranaguá Estuarine Complex feeding grounds in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Costa Jordão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea turtles are marine reptiles that undertake long migrations through their life, with limited information regarding juvenile stages. Feeding grounds (FGs, where they spend most of their lives, are composed by individuals from different natal origins, known as mixed stock populations. The aim of this study was to assess genetic composition, natal origins and demographic history of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas at the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC, Brazil, considered a Natural World Heritage site. Tissue samples of stranded animals were collected (n = 60, and 700 bp mitochondrial DNA sequences were generated and compared to shorter sequences from previously published studies. Global exact tests of differentiation revealed significant differences among PEC and the other FGs, except those at the South Atlantic Ocean. Green turtles at PEC present genetic signatures similar to those of nesting females from Ascension Island, Guinea Bissau and Aves Island/Surinam. Population expansion was evidenced to have occurred 20–25 kYA, reinforcing the hypothesis of recovery from Southern Atlantic refugia after the last Glacial Maximum. These results contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of green turtle populations at a protected area by providing knowledge on the dispersion patterns and reinforcing the importance of the interconnectivity between nesting and foraging populations.

  4. Evidence for retrovirus infections in green turtles Chelonia mydas from the Hawaiian islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, R.N.; Quackenbush, S.L.; Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Bowser, P.R.; Casey, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Apparently normal Hawaiian green turtles Chelonia mydas and those displaying fibropapillomas were analyzed for infection by retroviruses. Strikingly, all samples were positive for polymerase enhanced reverse transcriptase (PERT) with levels high enough to quantitate by the conventional reverse transcriptase (RT) assay. However, samples of skin, even from asymptomatic turtles, were RT positive, although the levels of enzyme activity in healthy turtles hatched and raised in captivity were much lower than those observed in asymptomatic free-ranging turtles. Turtles with fibropapillomas displayed a broad range of reverse transcriptase activity. Skin and eye fibropapillomas and a heart tumor were further analyzed and shown to have reverse transcriptase activity that banded in a sucrose gradient at 1.17 g ml-1. The reverse transcriptase activity purified from the heart tumor displayed a temperature optimum of 37??C and showed a preference for Mn2+ over Mg2+. Sucrose gradient fractions of this sample displaying elevated reverse transcriptase activity contained primarily retrovitalsized particles with prominent envelope spikes, when negatively stained and examined by electron microscopy. Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of gradient-purified virions revealed a conserved profile among 4 independent tumors and showed 7 prominent proteins having molecular weights of 116, 83, 51, 43, 40, 20 and 14 kDa. The data suggest that retroviral infections are widespread in Hawaiian green turtles and a comprehensive investigation is warranted to address the possibility that these agents cause green turtle fibropapillomatosis (GTFP).

  5. Exertional Myopathy in a Juvenile Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas Entangled in a Large Mesh Gillnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne E. Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A juvenile female green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas was found entangled in a large mesh gillnet in Pamlico Sound, NC, and was weak upon presentation for treatment. Blood gas analysis revealed severe metabolic acidosis and hyperlactatemia. Plasma biochemistry analysis showed elevated aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, marked hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperkalemia. Death occurred within 24 hours of presentation despite treatment with intravenous and subcutaneous fluids and sodium bicarbonate. Necropsy revealed multifocal to diffuse pallor of the superficial and deep pectoral muscles. Mild, multifocal, and acute myofiber necrosis was identified by histopathological examination. While histological changes in the examined muscle were modest, the acid-base, mineral, and electrolyte abnormalities were sufficiently severe to contribute to this animal’s mortality. Exertional myopathy in reptiles has not been well characterized. Sea turtle mortality resulting from forced submergence has been attributed to blood gas derangements and seawater aspiration; however, exertional myopathy may also be an important contributing factor. If possible, sea turtles subjected to incidental capture and entanglement that exhibit weakness or dull mentation should be clinically evaluated prior to release to minimize the risk of delayed mortality. Treatment with appropriate fluid therapy and supportive care may mitigate the effects of exertional myopathy in some cases.

  6. Blood gases, biochemistry, and hematology of Galapagos green turtles (Chelonia mydas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Lewbart

    Full Text Available The green turtle, Chelonia mydas, is an endangered marine chelonian with a circum-global distribution. Reference blood parameter intervals have been published for some chelonian species, but baseline hematology, biochemical, and blood gas values are lacking from the Galapagos sea turtles. Analyses were done on blood samples drawn from 28 green turtles captured in two foraging locations on San Cristóbal Island (14 from each site. Of these turtles, 20 were immature and of unknown sex; the other eight were males (five mature, three immature. A portable blood analyzer (iSTAT was used to obtain near immediate field results for pH, lactate, pO2, pCO2, HCO3-, Hct, Hb, Na, K, iCa, and Glu. Parameter values affected by temperature were corrected in two ways: (1 with standard formulas; and (2 with auto-corrections made by the iSTAT. The two methods yielded clinically equivalent results. Standard laboratory hematology techniques were employed for the red and white blood cell counts and the hematocrit determination, which was also compared to the hematocrit values generated by the iSTAT. Of all blood analytes, only lactate concentrations were positively correlated with body size. All other values showed no significant difference between the two sample locations nor were they correlated with body size or internal temperature. For hematocrit count, the iSTAT blood analyzer yielded results indistinguishable from those obtained with high-speed centrifugation. The values reported in this study provide baseline data that may be useful in comparisons among populations and in detecting changes in health status among Galapagos sea turtles. The findings might also be helpful in future efforts to demonstrate associations between specific biochemical parameters and disease.

  7. Nesting phenology of marine turtles: insights from a regional comparative analysis on green turtle (Chelonia mydas.

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    Mayeul Dalleau

    Full Text Available Changes in phenology, the timing of seasonal activities, are among the most frequently observed responses to environmental disturbances and in marine species are known to occur in response to climate changes that directly affects ocean temperature, biogeochemical composition and sea level. We examined nesting seasonality data from long-term studies at 8 green turtle (Chelonia mydas rookeries that include 21 specific nesting sites in the South-West Indian Ocean (SWIO. We demonstrated that temperature drives patterns of nesting seasonality at the regional scale. We found a significant correlation between mean annual Sea Surface Temperature (SST and dates of peak nesting with rookeries exposed to higher SST having a delayed nesting peak. This supports the hypothesis that temperature is the main factor determining peak nesting dates. We also demonstrated a spatial synchrony in nesting activity amongst multiple rookeries in the northern part of the SWIO (Aldabra, Glorieuses, Mohéli, Mayotte but not with the eastern and southern rookeries (Europa, Tromelin, differences which could be attributed to females with sharply different adult foraging conditions. However, we did not detect a temporal trend in the nesting peak date over the study period or an inter-annual relation between nesting peak date and SST. The findings of our study provide a better understanding of the processes that drive marine species phenology. The findings will also help to predict their ability to cope with climate change and other environmental perturbations. Despite demonstrating this spatial shift in nesting phenology, no trend in the alteration of nesting dates over more than 20 years was found.

  8. Population trends and survival of nesting green sea turtles Chelonia mydas on Aves Island, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cruz, Marco A.; Lampo, Margarita; Penaloza, Claudia L.; Kendall, William; Solé, Genaro; Rodriguez-Clark, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term demographic data are valuable for assessing the effect of anthropogenic impacts on endangered species and evaluating recovery programs. Using a 2-state open robust design model, we analyzed mark-recapture data from green turtles Chelonia mydas sighted between 1979 and 2009 on Aves Island, Venezuela, a rookery heavily impacted by human activities before it was declared a wildlife refuge in 1972. Based on the encounter histories of 7689 nesting females, we estimated the abundance, annual survival, and remigration intervals for this population. Female survival varied from 0.14-0.91, with a mean of 0.79, which is low compared to survival of other populations from the Caribbean (mean = 0.84) and Australia (mean = 0.95), even though we partially corrected for tag loss, which is known to negatively bias survival estimates. This supports prior suggestions that Caribbean populations in general, and the Aves Island population in particular, may be more strongly impacted than populations elsewhere. It is likely that nesters from this rookery are extracted while foraging in remote feeding grounds where hunting still occurs. Despite its relatively low survival, the nesting population at Aves Island increased during the past 30 years from approx. 500 to >1000 nesting females in 2009. Thus, this population, like others in the Caribbean and the Atlantic, seems to be slowly recovering following protective management. Although these findings support the importance of long-term conservation programs aimed at protecting nesting grounds, they also highlight the need to extend management actions to foraging grounds where human activities may still impact green turtle populations.

  9. Phaeohyphomycosis resulting in obstructive tracheitis in three green sea turtles Chelonia mydas stranded along the Florida coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Kyle; Waltzek, Thomas B; Wellehan, James F X; Sutton, Deanna A; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Stacy, Brian A

    2015-04-01

    Three wild immature green sea turtles Chelonia mydas were found alive but lethargic on the shores of the Indian River Lagoon and Gulf of Mexico in Florida, USA, and subsequently died. Necropsy findings in all 3 turtles included partial occlusion of the trachea by a mass comprised of granulomatous inflammation. Pigmented fungal hyphae were observed within the lesion by histology and were characterized by culture and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 domain of the rRNA gene and D1/D2 region of the fungal 28s gene. The dematiaceous fungus species Veronaea botryosa was isolated from the tracheal mass in 2 cases, and genetic sequence of V. botryosa was detected by polymerase chain reaction in all 3 cases. Genetic sequencing and fungal cultures also detected other dematiaceous fungi, including a Cladosporium sp., an Ochroconis sp., and a Cochliobolus sp. These cases are the first report of phaeohyphomycosis caused by V. botryosa in wild marine animals. PMID:25850403

  10. Analysis of epibiont data in relation with the Debilitated Turtle Syndrome of sea turtles in Chelonia mydas and Lepidochelys olivacea from Concepción coast, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Italo Fernández; Marco Antonio Retamal; Miguel Mansilla; Francisco Yáñez; Víctor Campos; Carlos Smith; Guillermo Puentes; Ariel Valenzuela; Hernán González

    2015-01-01

    Epibionts on the surface of the skin and shell of a specimen of Chelonia mydas and three Lepidochelys olivacea found floating on the coast of Concepción, Chile, between June 2010 and December 2012, were analyzed. These epibionts were analyzed during the clinical inspection and the tissue changes related to its settlement, with filamentous algae around, were observed. Subsequently, the epibionts were identified by morphological observation. The knowledge about theses epibionts in Chile is revi...

  11. INTRASPECIFIC VARIATION OF THE GREEN TURTLE, Chelonia mydas (CHELONIIDAE, IN THE FORAGING AREA OF GORGONA NATURAL NATIONAL PARK (COLOMBIAN PACIFIC

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    Laura Sampson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The size distribution and body condition of the two morphotypes of green turtle (Chelonia mydas foraging in Gorgona Natural National Park (GNNP in the Colombian Pacific was assessed from 2003 to 2012. Measurements of straight carapace length (SCL, curved carapace length (CCL, weight, and body condition of 1,023 turtles captured on the GNNP reefs were recorded. More black turtles (n = 747 than yellow turtles (n = 276 were captured, all of them juveniles. Black turtles were significantly larger and heavier than yellow turtles. The size of recruitment to the neritic zone was 40.0-49.9 cm SCL for both morphotypes, but there were more yellow than black turtles in this size class, indicating a difference in the recruitment pattern. The body condition index of yellow turtles was significantly higher than that of black turtles, which could indicate differences in resource use. Based on our results, we suggest that GNNP might function as a recruitment area for yellow turtles, which arrive at smaller sizes and as part of a coastal migratory route for black turtles, which arrive at larger sizes and maintain residence at this location for an unknown period of time.Variación intraespecífica de la tortuga verde Chelonia mydas (Cheloniidae en el área de forrajeo del Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona (Pacífico colombianoSe comparó la distribución de tallas y condición corporal de los dos morfotipos conocidos de tortuga verde (Chelonia mydas en el área de forrajeo del Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona (PNNG en el Pacífico colombiano entre 2003 y 2012. Se tomaron medidas de largo recto de caparazón (LRC, largo curvo de caparazón (LCC, peso y condición corporal de 1.023 tortugas capturadas en los arrecifes del PNG. Se capturaron más tortugas negras (n = 747 que amarillas (n = 276, todas juveniles. Las tortugas negras fueron significativamente más grandes y pesadas que las amarillas. El tamaño de reclutamiento a la zona nerítica fue de 40,0–49,9 cm

  12. Winter diets of immature green turtles (Chelonia mydas) on a northern feeding ground: integrating stomach contents and stable isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Natalie C.; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Carthy, Raymond R.

    2015-01-01

    The foraging ecology and diet of the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, remain understudied, particularly in peripheral areas of its distribution. We assessed the diet of an aggregation of juvenile green turtles at the northern edge of its range during winter months using two approaches. Stomach content analyses provide a single time sample, and stable isotope analyses integrate diet over a several-month period. We evaluated diet consistency in prey choice over time by comparing the results of these two approaches. We examined stomach contents from 43 juvenile green turtles that died during cold stunning events in St. Joseph Bay, Florida, in 2008 and 2011. Stomach contents were evaluated for volume, dry mass, percent frequency of occurrence, and index of relative importance of individual diet items. Juvenile green turtles were omnivorous, feeding primarily on seagrasses and tunicates. Diet characterizations from stomach contents differed from those based on stable isotope analyses, indicating the turtles are not feeding consistently during winter months. Evaluation of diets during warm months is needed.

  13. Individual variation in feeding habitat use by adult female green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas): are they obligately neritic herbivores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatase, Hideo; Sato, Katsufumi; Yamaguchi, Manami; Takahashi, Kotaro; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2006-08-01

    Satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis were used to confirm that oceanic areas (where water depths are >200 m) are alternative feeding habitats for adult female green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas), which have been thought to be obligate herbivores in neritic areas (where depths are 20 m, implying that they not only rested, but also foraged on macroplankton that exhibit diel vertical migration. Comparisons of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios between 89 females and the prey items in a three-source mixing model estimated that 69% of the females nesting on Ogasawara Islands mainly used neritic habitats and 31% mainly used oceanic habitats. Out of four females tracked by satellite, two females were inferred from isotope ratios to be neritic herbivores and the two others oceanic planktivores. Although post-nesting movements for four females were not completely consistent with the inferences from isotope ratios, possibly due to short tracking periods (28-42 days), their diving behaviors were consistent with the inferences. There were no relationships between body size and the two isotope ratios, indicating a lack of size-related differences in feeding habitat use by adult female green turtles, which was in contrast with loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). These results and previous findings suggest that ontogenetic habitat shifts by sea turtles are facultative, and consequently, their life histories are polymorphic. PMID:16683139

  14. Stable isotopes in barnacles as a tool to understand green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) regional movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detjen, M.; Sterling, E.; Gómez, A.

    2015-12-01

    Sea turtles are migratory animals that travel long distances between their feeding and breeding grounds. Traditional methods for researching sea turtle migratory behavior have important disadvantages, and the development of alternatives would enhance our ability to monitor and manage these globally endangered species. Here we report on the isotope signatures in green sea-turtle (Chelonia mydas) barnacles (Platylepas sp.) and discuss their potential relevance as tools with which to study green sea turtle migration and habitat use patterns. We analyzed oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios in barnacle calcite layers from specimens collected from green turtles captured at the Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (PANWR) in the central Pacific. Carbon isotopes were not informative in this study. However, the oxygen isotope results suggest likely regional movement patterns when mapped onto a predictive oxygen isotope map of the Pacific. Barnacle proxies could therefore complement other methods in understanding regional movement patterns, informing more effective conservation policy that takes into account connectivity between populations.

  15. Detecting patterns of fertilization and frequency of multiple paternity in Chelonia mydas of Colola (Michoacán, Mexico Detección de patrones de fertilización y frecuencia de paternidad múltiple en Chelonia mydas de Colola (Michoacán, México

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    Libny Ingrid Lara-De La Cruz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a microsatellite analysis that allows an indirect determination of the process of fertilization in the genital tract of Chelonia mydas. The strategy was based in that the order of oviposition is related to fertilization order. Once the genotype of the offspring was obtained through microsatellite analyses, it was possible to determine the frequency of multiple paternity and to infer the presence of anatomical structures or physiological mechanisms that allow females to undergo cryptic choice processes, which allowed us to hypothesize the existence of post-copula factors that determine reproductive success in a polyandrous system. This paper does not show the presence of physiological mechanisms that allow control of fertilization order in polyandrous females of Chelonia mydas.Presentamos un análisis con microsatélites para determinar de manera indirecta si existe un mecanismo de control del proceso de fertilización en el tracto genital de Chelonia mydas. La estrategia utilizada se basa en que el orden de oviposición está relacionado con el orden de fertilización. Determinando el genotipo de la progenie, fue posible determinar la frecuencia de paternidad múltiple e inferir la presencia de estructurasanatómicas o mecanismos fisiológicos, que actúen como factores post-copulatorios para regular los eventos reproductivos en un sistema poliándrico. El presente trabajo no muestra la presencia de mecanismos fisiológicos que permitan el control del orden de fertilización en hembras poliándricas de Chelonia mydas.

  16. Anidación de la tortuga verde (Chelonia mydas) y caracterización de las playas en Cayo Largo, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Cruz, Y.; Moncada Gavilán, F.; Nodarse Andreu, G.; Blanco López, R.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative relation between beach characteristic and number of observed nests of Green turtle Chelonia mydas at Cayo Largo is shown. The nest quantification was carried out by patrolling and direct count in reproduction season for this species (June-September) in period 2002-2006. A total of 7 beaches were identified with sands strips between 5 and 50 m of wide and between 70 and 4 060 m of length. Annual nesting between 1 114 and 1 866 nests was registered. Maxi...

  17. Ingestion of solid wastes by juvenile green turtles, Chelonia mydas (L. 1758), in the eastern Rio de Janeiro state coast, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Rodrigues Awabdi; Salvatore Siciliano; Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzed the solid wastes of anthropogenic origin obtained from the stomach contents of juvenile green turtles, Chelonia mydas, on the eastern Rio de Janeiro state coast, southeastern Brazil (22º50’S – 23º00’S). Between June 2009 and May 2010, the stomach contents of 49 specimens stranded on beaches were analyzed. Solid wastes were recorded in 29 stomach contents (59.2%) and more than one category of wastes was found out in 22 samples. Plastic bags, categorized as flexible plastic ...

  18. Multinational tagging efforts illustrate regional scale of distribution and threats for east pacific green turtles (Chelonia mydas agassizii.

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    Catherine E Hart

    Full Text Available To further describe movement patterns and distribution of East Pacific green turtles (Chelonia mydas agassizii and to determine threat levels for this species within the Eastern Pacific. In order to do this we combined published data from existing flipper tagging and early satellite tracking studies with data from an additional 12 satellite tracked green turtles (1996-2006. Three of these were tracked from their foraging grounds in the Gulf of California along the east coast of the Baja California peninsula to their breeding grounds in Michoacán (1337-2928 km. In addition, three post-nesting females were satellite tracked from Colola beach, Michoacán to their foraging grounds in southern Mexico and Central America (941.3-3020 km. A further six turtles were tracked in the Gulf of California within their foraging grounds giving insights into the scale of ranging behaviour. Turtles undertaking long-distance migrations showed a tendency to follow the coastline. Turtles tracked within foraging grounds showed that foraging individuals typically ranged up to 691.6 km (maximum from release site location. Additionally, we carried out threat analysis (using the cumulative global human impact in the Eastern Pacific clustering pre-existing satellite tracking studies from Galapagos, Costa Rica, and data obtained from this study; this indicated that turtles foraging and nesting in Central American waters are subject to the highest anthropogenic impact. Considering that turtles from all three rookeries were found to migrate towards Central America, it is highly important to implement conservation plans in Central American coastal areas to ensure the survival of the remaining green turtles in the Eastern Pacific. Finally, by combining satellite tracking data from this and previous studies, and data of tag returns we created the best available distributional patterns for this particular sea turtle species, which emphasized that conservation measures in key

  19. Multinational tagging efforts illustrate regional scale of distribution and threats for east pacific green turtles (Chelonia mydas agassizii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Catherine E; Blanco, Gabriela S; Coyne, Michael S; Delgado-Trejo, Carlos; Godley, Brendan J; Jones, T Todd; Resendiz, Antonio; Seminoff, Jeffrey A; Witt, Matthew J; Nichols, Wallace J

    2015-01-01

    To further describe movement patterns and distribution of East Pacific green turtles (Chelonia mydas agassizii) and to determine threat levels for this species within the Eastern Pacific. In order to do this we combined published data from existing flipper tagging and early satellite tracking studies with data from an additional 12 satellite tracked green turtles (1996-2006). Three of these were tracked from their foraging grounds in the Gulf of California along the east coast of the Baja California peninsula to their breeding grounds in Michoacán (1337-2928 km). In addition, three post-nesting females were satellite tracked from Colola beach, Michoacán to their foraging grounds in southern Mexico and Central America (941.3-3020 km). A further six turtles were tracked in the Gulf of California within their foraging grounds giving insights into the scale of ranging behaviour. Turtles undertaking long-distance migrations showed a tendency to follow the coastline. Turtles tracked within foraging grounds showed that foraging individuals typically ranged up to 691.6 km (maximum) from release site location. Additionally, we carried out threat analysis (using the cumulative global human impact in the Eastern Pacific) clustering pre-existing satellite tracking studies from Galapagos, Costa Rica, and data obtained from this study; this indicated that turtles foraging and nesting in Central American waters are subject to the highest anthropogenic impact. Considering that turtles from all three rookeries were found to migrate towards Central America, it is highly important to implement conservation plans in Central American coastal areas to ensure the survival of the remaining green turtles in the Eastern Pacific. Finally, by combining satellite tracking data from this and previous studies, and data of tag returns we created the best available distributional patterns for this particular sea turtle species, which emphasized that conservation measures in key areas may have

  20. EFFECTS OF "SWIM WITH THE TURTLES" TOURIST ATTRACTIONS ON GREEN SEA TURTLE (CHELONIA MYDAS) HEALTH IN BARBADOS, WEST INDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kimberly; Norton, Terry; Mohammed, Hamish; Browne, Darren; Clements, Kathleen; Thomas, Kirsten; Yaw, Taylor; Horrocks, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Along the West Coast of Barbados a unique relationship has developed between endangered green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) and humans. Fishermen began inadvertently provisioning these foraging turtles with fish offal discarded from their boats. Although initially an indirect supplementation, this activity became a popular attraction for visitors. Subsequently, demand for this activity increased, and direct supplementation or provisioning with food began. Food items offered included raw whole fish (typically a mixture of false herring [Harengula clupeola] and pilchard [Harengula humeralis]), filleted fish, and lesser amounts of processed food such as hot dogs, chicken, bread, or various other leftovers. Alterations in behavior and growth rates as a result of the provisioning have been documented in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine how tourism-based human interactions are affecting the overall health of this foraging population and to determine what potential health risks these interactions may create for sea turtles. Juvenile green sea turtles (n=29) were captured from four sites off the coast of Barbados, West Indies, and categorized into a group that received supplemental feeding as part of a tour (n=11) or an unsupplemented group (n=18) that consisted of individuals that were captured at sites that did not provide supplemental feeding. Following capture, a general health assessment of each animal was conducted. This included weight and morphometric measurements, a systematic physical examination, determination of body condition score and body condition index, epibiota assessment and quantification, and clinical pathology including hematologic and biochemical testing and nutritional assessments. The supplemented group was found to have changes to body condition, vitamin, mineral, hematologic, and biochemical values. Based on these results, recommendations were made to decrease negative behaviors and health impacts for turtles as a result

  1. Artisanal Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery of Caribbean Nicaragua: I. Catch rates and trends, 1991-2011.

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    Cynthia J Lagueux

    Full Text Available This is the first assessment of catch rates for the legal, artisanal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery in Caribbean Nicaragua. Data were collected by community members, monitoring up to 14 landing sites from 1991 to 2011. We examined take levels, and temporal and spatial variability in catch rates for the overall fishery, by region, and community using General Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs. More than 171,556 green turtles were killed during the period, with a mean estimated minimum 8,169±2,182 annually. There was a statistically significant decline in catch rates overall. Catch rates peaked in 1997 and 2002, followed by a downward trend, particularly from mid-2008 to the end of the study period. Similar downward trends were evident in both study regions. Community specific catch rate trends also indicated declines with decreases ranging from 21% to 90%. Decrease in catch rates in Nicaragua is cause for concern even though the principal source rookery at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, shows an increase in nesting activity. Explanations for the apparent discrepancy between the increasing trend at Tortuguero and decreasing catch rate trends in Nicaragua include: i an increase in reproductive output, ii insufficient time has passed to observe the impact of the fishery on the rookery due to a time lag, iii changes in other segments of the population have not been detected since only nesting activity is monitored, iv the expansive northern Nicaragua foraging ground may provide a refuge for a sufficient portion of the Tortuguero rookery, and/or v a larger than expected contribution of non-Tortuguero rookeries occurring in Nicaragua turtle fishing areas. Our results highlight the need for close monitoring of rookeries and in-water aggregations in the Caribbean. Where consumptive use still occurs, nations sharing this resource should implement scientifically based limits on exploitation to ensure sustainability and mitigate impacts to regional population

  2. The Recent Nesting Record of Female Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, at Pamban, Gulf of Mannar

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    Vellathi VENKATESAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A female green turtle was sighted at Pamban along the Gulf of Mannar just after the nesting on the beach on 15th January 2011. Morphometric measurements of the turtle were taken and data suggests that this individual is adult. A total number of laid eggs were 109. The distance between the nesting site and the high tide line was found to be 7 m. The depth and diameter of the nesting pit was 52 and 16 cm, whereas the mean egg diameter and weight were found to be 44.3 mm and 40.5 g respectively. Pamban coast may also be considered an important place for nesting, because of the continuous mixing of waters of GOM and Palk Bay areas, which in turn create current patterns continuously throughout the year in addition to the monsoon season. Conservation of nesting habitat along Gulf of Mannar will be important to maintain the green turtle population.

  3. The Ozobranchus leech is a candidate mechanical vector for the fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus found latently infecting skin tumors on Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) of marine turtles is a neoplastic disease of ecological concern. A fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (FPTHV) is consistently present, usually at loads exceeding one virus copy per tumor cell. DNA from an array of parasites of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) was examined with quantitative PCR (qPCR) to determine whether any carried viral loads are sufficient to implicate them as vectors for FPTHV. Marine leeches (Ozobranchus spp.) were found to carry high viral DNA loads; some samples approached 10 million copies per leech. Isopycnic sucrose density gradient/qPCR analysis confirmed that some of these copies were associated with particles of the density of enveloped viruses. The data implicate the marine leech Ozobranchus as a mechanical vector for FPTHV. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of FPTHV gene expression indicated that most of the FPTHV copies in a fibropapilloma have restricted DNA polymerase expression, suggestive of latent infection

  4. The Ozobranchus leech as a mechanical vector for the fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpes virus found latently infecting skin tumors on Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, R.J.; Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.; Sutton, C.A.; Casey, R.N.; Casey, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) of marine turtles is a neoplastic disease of ecological concern. A fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (FPTHV) is consistently present, usually at loads exceeding one virus copy per tumor cell. DNA from an array of parasites of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) was examined with quantitative PCR (qPCR) to determine whether any carried viral loads are sufficient to implicate them as vectors for FPTHV. Marine leeches (Ozobranchus spp.) were found to carry high viral DNA loads; some samples approached 10 million copies per leech. Isopycnic sucrose density gradient/qPCR analysis confirmed that some of these copies were associated with particles of the density of enveloped viruses. The data implicate the marine leech Ozobranchus as a mechanical vector for FPTHV. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of FPTHV gene expression indicated that most of the FPTHV copies in a fibropapilloma have restricted DNA polymerase expression, suggestive of latent infection.

  5. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: Genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Maíra Carneiro; Lara-Ruiz, Paula; Reisser, Júlia Wiener; da Silva Pinto, Luciano; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2009-07-01

    We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64%) and CM-A5 (22%) were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies (Rocas/Noronha, in Brazil (p > 0.05). Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively). These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species. PMID:21637527

  6. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes

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    Maíra Carneiro Proietti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64% and CM-A5 (22% were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies ( 0.05. Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively. These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species.

  7. Ingestion of solid wastes by juvenile green turtles, Chelonia mydas (L. 1758, in the eastern Rio de Janeiro state coast, Brazil

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    Danielle Rodrigues Awabdi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the solid wastes of anthropogenic origin obtained from the stomach contents of juvenile green turtles, Chelonia mydas, on the eastern Rio de Janeiro state coast, southeastern Brazil (22º50’S – 23º00’S. Between June 2009 and May 2010, the stomach contents of 49 specimens stranded on beaches were analyzed. Solid wastes were recorded in 29 stomach contents (59.2% and more than one category of wastes was found out in 22 samples. Plastic bags, categorized as flexible plastic materials, achieved the greatest occurrence frequency (96.5%. Perhaps, these wastes came from the disposal of garbage bags, raffia bags, commercial shop bags and various packaging. Wastes related to manufacture of fishing equipment were also often reported, such as nylon yarns, rubber, ropes, Styrofoam, and fishhooks. The region is an area of regular occurrence of C. mydas and the relatively large intake of solid wastes deposited in the environment poses a risk to the conservation of this species.

  8. Microsatellite DNA Analysis on the Polyandry of Green Sea Turtle Chelonia mydas

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    Dewi Purnama

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Green turtle (Cheloniamydas; Testudines is included in the group of polyandryanimals, which is single female mated with many male. DNA polymorphism method generally considered to have a high degree of accuracy as compared to other methods to elucidate polyandry phenomena on many animals. In this research, three microsatellite loci were used to identify the number and frequency of genotypes per locus, the number and frequency alleles per locus, and genotypes and number of alleles in the nest. The purpose of this research was to study the reproductive pattern of Cheloniamydas and compensation eggs of males from hatchling’s population in turtle conservation area of Pangumbahan Coastal Park, West Java. The result showed that from 10 nests, we could find 37 genotypes with 11 alleles for D108 locus, 21 genotypes with 9 alleles for B103 locus, and 27 genotypes with 9 alleles for C102 locus. The alleles number of each nest was more than 5 alleles for 5 nests, and more than 4 alleles for the remaining nests. Based on the probabilities of alleles contribution of each parent, the green turtle was polyandry animals.

  9. Morfometria do coração e dos vasos da base e sua implicação no mergulho em Chelonia mydas

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    Janine K.F.S. Braz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se caracterizar a morfologia das câmaras cardíacas e das artérias aortas e pulmonares da espécie Chelonia mydas. Foram avaliados 11 espécimes de C. mydas mortas coletadas no litoral do estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Os animais foram necropsiados para a obtenção do coração, fragmentos das artérias aorta e pulmonares direita e esquerda. Os vasos adquiridos foram fixados em formol e submetidos ao processamento histológico de rotina e coloração com Técnica de Verhoff modificada. Enquanto, do coração, os parâmetros largura, altura base-ápice e a circunferência ventricular foram mensurados por meio do paquímetro. Nessa espécie a microscopia das artérias pulmonares e artérias aortas variaram de acordo com o antímero. A maior espessura relativa do Cavum Venosum (CV auxilia no bombeamento cardíaco durante o mergulho e sua menor espessura direita é uma vantagem para a dilatação ventricular durante a imersão profunda enquanto que a quantificação das lâminas elásticas e fibras musculares da túnica média das artérias aortas e pulmonares direita e esquerda comprovaram que a túnica média das aortas predomina o componente elástico vs. muscular, entretanto, nas artérias pulmonares o componente elástico não-predomina. Essa angioarquitetura pode estar relacionada com a capacidade de mergulho, favorecendo um maior aproveitamento do sangue oxigenado armazenado previamente durante o período de apneia.

  10. Analysis of epibiont data in relation with the Debilitated Turtle Syndrome of sea turtles in Chelonia mydas and Lepidochelys olivacea from Concepción coast, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Fernández

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Epibionts on the surface of the skin and shell of a specimen of Chelonia mydas and three Lepidochelys olivacea found floating on the coast of Concepción, Chile, between June 2010 and December 2012, were analyzed. These epibionts were analyzed during the clinical inspection and the tissue changes related to its settlement, with filamentous algae around, were observed. Subsequently, the epibionts were identified by morphological observation. The knowledge about theses epibionts in Chile is reviewed and the potential occurrence of Debilitated Turtle Syndrome (DTS in these turtles is discussed. The presence of sea turtles in the Chilean coast is considered a casual event, so there is little information on this issue. We propose it is necessary to carry out more studies on the association between turtles and epibionts because their identification, colonizing reptiles’ surface may give relevant information to a better understanding of different diseases, including DTS, that affect these marine reptiles and facilitates the development of strategies intended to recover their populations.

  11. Oxidative stress indicators and chemical contaminants in East Pacific green turtles (Chelonia mydas) inhabiting two foraging coastal lagoons in the Baja California peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Rodríguez, Paola A Tenorio; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lia C; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2011-08-01

    In order to determine the potential effects of contaminants in juveniles of East Pacific green turtle, Chelonia mydas, captured alive, circulating trace metal and organochlorine pesticide concentrations were correlated with body condition, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels. Turtles were sampled in Punta Abreojos (PAO) and Bahía Magdalena (BMA). Turtles from PAO showed higher silicon and cadmium concentrations, but lower α-hexachlorocyclohexane, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene and aldrin concentrations than individuals from BMA. In BMA cadmium concentration decreased as the standard carapace length of the turtles increased. In PAO concentrations of α-hexachlorocyclohexane, heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene were positively correlated with the weight of the individuals. Lipid peroxidation levels were positively correlated with cadmium concentrations. In turtles captured in PAO, enzymatic antioxidant activities correlated mostly with pesticide concentrations, while in individuals from BMA enzyme activities were correlated with trace element concentrations. Correlations between antioxidant enzyme activities and concentration of xenobiotics suggest physiological sensitivity of East Pacific green turtles to chemicals. Regional differences found could be influenced by habitat conditions such as currents, upwellings (PAO) and agricultural activities (BMA). We suggest that, combined, circulating contaminant concentrations, lipid peroxidation levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in sea turtles could be used as biomarkers of the habitat conditions. PMID:21377544

  12. Dispersal and Diving Adjustments of the Green Turtle Chelonia mydas in Response to Dynamic Environmental Conditions during Post-Nesting Migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippine Chambault

    Full Text Available In response to seasonality and spatial segregation of resources, sea turtles undertake long journeys between their nesting sites and foraging grounds. While satellite tracking has made it possible to outline their migration routes, we still have little knowledge of how they select their foraging grounds and adapt their migration to dynamic environmental conditions. Here, we analyzed the trajectories and diving behavior of 19 adult green turtles (Chelonia mydas during their post-nesting migration from French Guiana and Suriname to their foraging grounds off the coast of Brazil. First Passage Time analysis was used to identify foraging areas located off Ceará state of Brazil, where the associated habitat corresponds to favorable conditions for seagrass growth, i.e. clear and shallow waters. The dispersal and diving patterns of the turtles revealed several behavioral adaptations to the strong hydrodynamic processes induced by both the North Brazil current and the Amazon River plume. All green turtles migrated south-eastward after the nesting season, confirming that they coped with the strong counter North Brazil current by using a tight corridor close to the shore. The time spent within the Amazon plume also altered the location of their feeding habitats as the longer individuals stayed within the plume, the sooner they initiated foraging. The green turtles performed deeper and shorter dives while crossing the mouth of the Amazon, a strategy which would help turtles avoid the most turbulent upper surface layers of the plume. These adjustments reveal the remarkable plasticity of this green turtle population when reducing energy costs induced by migration.

  13. Dispersal and Diving Adjustments of the Green Turtle Chelonia mydas in Response to Dynamic Environmental Conditions during Post-Nesting Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambault, Philippine; Pinaud, David; Vantrepotte, Vincent; Kelle, Laurent; Entraygues, Mathieu; Guinet, Christophe; Berzins, Rachel; Bilo, Karin; Gaspar, Philippe; de Thoisy, Benoît; Le Maho, Yvon; Chevallier, Damien

    2015-01-01

    In response to seasonality and spatial segregation of resources, sea turtles undertake long journeys between their nesting sites and foraging grounds. While satellite tracking has made it possible to outline their migration routes, we still have little knowledge of how they select their foraging grounds and adapt their migration to dynamic environmental conditions. Here, we analyzed the trajectories and diving behavior of 19 adult green turtles (Chelonia mydas) during their post-nesting migration from French Guiana and Suriname to their foraging grounds off the coast of Brazil. First Passage Time analysis was used to identify foraging areas located off Ceará state of Brazil, where the associated habitat corresponds to favorable conditions for seagrass growth, i.e. clear and shallow waters. The dispersal and diving patterns of the turtles revealed several behavioral adaptations to the strong hydrodynamic processes induced by both the North Brazil current and the Amazon River plume. All green turtles migrated south-eastward after the nesting season, confirming that they coped with the strong counter North Brazil current by using a tight corridor close to the shore. The time spent within the Amazon plume also altered the location of their feeding habitats as the longer individuals stayed within the plume, the sooner they initiated foraging. The green turtles performed deeper and shorter dives while crossing the mouth of the Amazon, a strategy which would help turtles avoid the most turbulent upper surface layers of the plume. These adjustments reveal the remarkable plasticity of this green turtle population when reducing energy costs induced by migration. PMID:26398528

  14. Fast growing, healthy and resident green turtles (Chelonia mydas at two neritic sites in the central and northern coast of Peru: implications for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Velez-Zuazo

    Full Text Available In order to enhance protection and conservation strategies for endangered green turtles (Chelonia mydas, the identification of neritic habitats where this species aggregates is mandatory. Herein, we present new information about the population parameters and residence time of two neritic aggregations from 2010 to 2013; one in an upwelling dominated site (Paracas ∼14°S and the other in an ecotone zone from upwelling to warm equatorial conditions (El Ñuro ∼4°S in the Southeast Pacific. We predicted proportionally more adult individuals would occur in the ecotone site; whereas in the site dominated by an upwelling juvenile individuals would predominate. At El Ñuro, the population was composed by (15.3% of juveniles, (74.9% sub-adults, and (9.8% adults, with an adult sex ratio of 1.16 males per female. Times of residence in the area ranged between a minimum of 121 and a maximum of 1015 days (mean 331.1 days. At Paracas the population was composed by (72% of juveniles and (28% sub-adults, no adults were recorded, thus supporting the development habitat hypothesis stating that throughout the neritic distribution there are sites exclusively occupied by juveniles. Residence time ranged between a minimum of 65 days and a maximum of 680 days (mean 236.1. High growth rates and body condition index values were estimated suggesting healthy individuals at both study sites. The population traits recorded at both sites suggested that conditions found in Peruvian neritic waters may contribute to the recovery of South Pacific green turtles. However, both aggregations are still at jeopardy due to pollution, bycatch and illegal catch and thus require immediate enforcing of conservation measurements.

  15. Concentrations and distributions of metals in tissues of stranded green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were analyzed in tissues of juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) found stranded along the southern Atlantic coast in Brazil. Green sea turtles were collected (n = 29), measured (curved carapace length: CCL) and had their muscle, liver, and kidney dissected for metal concentration measurements. Sex was identified in 18 individuals (10 females and 8 males) through gonad histology. No gender differences in CCL and tissue metal concentrations were observed. In the muscle, there was a negative correlation between CCL and Cd and Cu concentrations. Metal concentrations were lower in the muscle than in the liver and kidney. Zn concentration in the muscle was the highest of all metals analyzed (16.6 mg/kg). The kidney showed the highest concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn (5.4, 28.3 and 54.3 mg/kg, respectively), while the liver had the highest values of Ag and Cu (0.8 and 100.9 mg/kg, respectively). Tissue Ag, Zn and Cd concentrations were similar to those found in green sea turtles from other regions while Cu and Pb values were elevated, likely due to the metal-rich water and sediment reported in the collection area. In the liver and kidney, concentrations of non-essential (Ag, Cd and Pb) and essential (Cu or Zn) metals were positively correlated, likely due to an induced metallothionein synthesis to protect tissue against the toxic effect of metals. This is the first study to report and correlate the concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in tissues of green sea turtles in the Brazilian southern Atlantic coast, an important feeding and developing area for this turtle species. - Highlights: •Juvenile female and male green sea turtles have similar concentrations of metals. •Kidney accumulated more Cd, Pb and Zn while liver accumulated more Ag and Cu. •Cu and Pb concentrations are elevated in liver of sea turtles from southern Brazil. •Concentrations of Cd and Cu in

  16. Microstructure and Identification of Peripheral Blood in Chelonia mydas%绿海龟外周血细胞显微结构与分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长玲; 曹伏君; 黄翔鹄; 刘楚吾; 麦哲文

    2008-01-01

    对绿海龟(Chelonia mydas)外周血细胞的进行显微观察.结果表明,经Wright's染液染色,可鉴定出红血细胞、单核细胞、淋巴细胞、血栓细胞、嗜酸性粒细胞、嗜碱性粒细胞、嗜中性粒细胞等七种血细胞.其中红血细胞数量多,长椭圆形,具圆核.白细胞数量少,多为圆形,分无颗粒型白细胞和颗粒型白细胞两种.无颗粒型白细胞包括单核细胞和淋巴细胞,细胞质中无特殊颗粒;颗粒型白细胞包括嗜酸性粒细胞、嗜碱性粒细胞和嗜中性粒细胞,细胞质中具有特殊颗粒.在白血细胞中,血栓细胞体积最小,单核细胞体积最大;在数量上,血栓细胞最多,淋巴细胞次之.单核细胞和嗜碱性粒细胞则较少.绿海龟的淋巴细胞可分为大淋巴细胞和小淋巴细胞两种类型.在外周血细胞中可观察到分解、解体状态的红血细胞,还可观察到少量未成熟的红血细胞和嗜中性粒细胞,偶尔可见正在分裂的红血细胞,提示红血细胞也可在外周血直接分裂.

  17. Concentrations and distributions of metals in tissues of stranded green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Silva, Cinthia Carneiro [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Varela, Antonio Sergio; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda [Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Bianchini, Adalto, E-mail: adaltobianchini@furg.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    Silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were analyzed in tissues of juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) found stranded along the southern Atlantic coast in Brazil. Green sea turtles were collected (n = 29), measured (curved carapace length: CCL) and had their muscle, liver, and kidney dissected for metal concentration measurements. Sex was identified in 18 individuals (10 females and 8 males) through gonad histology. No gender differences in CCL and tissue metal concentrations were observed. In the muscle, there was a negative correlation between CCL and Cd and Cu concentrations. Metal concentrations were lower in the muscle than in the liver and kidney. Zn concentration in the muscle was the highest of all metals analyzed (16.6 mg/kg). The kidney showed the highest concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn (5.4, 28.3 and 54.3 mg/kg, respectively), while the liver had the highest values of Ag and Cu (0.8 and 100.9 mg/kg, respectively). Tissue Ag, Zn and Cd concentrations were similar to those found in green sea turtles from other regions while Cu and Pb values were elevated, likely due to the metal-rich water and sediment reported in the collection area. In the liver and kidney, concentrations of non-essential (Ag, Cd and Pb) and essential (Cu or Zn) metals were positively correlated, likely due to an induced metallothionein synthesis to protect tissue against the toxic effect of metals. This is the first study to report and correlate the concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in tissues of green sea turtles in the Brazilian southern Atlantic coast, an important feeding and developing area for this turtle species. - Highlights: •Juvenile female and male green sea turtles have similar concentrations of metals. •Kidney accumulated more Cd, Pb and Zn while liver accumulated more Ag and Cu. •Cu and Pb concentrations are elevated in liver of sea turtles from southern Brazil. •Concentrations of Cd and Cu in

  18. Distribution patterns of the barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria, on juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas in Bahia Magdalena, Mexico Patrones de distribución del balano, Chelonibia testudinaria, en tortugas verdes (Chelonia mydas juveniles en bahía Magdalena, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Nájera-Hillman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria, is an obligate commensal of sea turtles that may show population variability according to the physical characteristics of the environment and properties of turtle hosts; therefore, we characterized the distributional patterns and the potential effects on health of C. testudinaria on juvenile green turtles in Bahia Magdalena, Mexico. Barnacle attachment position, abundance, and size-class structure were described, while the relationship between barnacle abundance and turtle health condition and size was explored through generalized linear models. Juvenile green turtles of Bahía Magdalena offered an appropriate habitat for C. testudinaria as their frequency of occurrence was high and their abundance was similar to that found in other green turtle populations. Barnacles showed an aggregated distribution that may be facilitating their reproduction during the warm summer months. Barnacle abundance is unaffected by turtle size or seasonality, while their attachment position appears to be influenced by water flow over the turtle carapace and by plastron abrasion by the turtle against the sea floor. Healthier turtles exhibited a decreased barnacle load; therefore we suggest that C. testudinaria abundance may be a useful indicator of health for juvenile green turtles.El balano Chelonibia testudinaria es un comensal obligado de tortugas marinas que puede presentar variaciones poblacionales de acuerdo a características ambientales y de las tortugas que coloniza; por lo tanto, caracterizamos su distribución y el efecto sobre la salud de tortugas verdes (Chelonia mydas juveniles en bahía Magdalena, México. Se describieron la posición de adherencia, la abundancia y la estructura de tallas de C. testudinaria, mientras que la relación entre su abundancia y la salud y el tamaño de las tortugas se exploró a través de modelos lineales generalizados. Las tortugas verdes ofrecieron un hábitat adecuado para C

  19. Clutch and egg allometry of the turtle Mauremys leprosa (Chelonia: Geoemydidae) from a polluted peri-urban river in west-central Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Mohamed; Znari, Mohammed; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Feddadi, Youssef; Baamrane, Moulay Abdeljalil Ait

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationships of clutch size (CS) and egg size to female body size (straight-line carapace length, CL) in a population of the turtle Mauremys leprosa from a polluted segment of oued (river) Tensift in arid west-central Morocco. Twenty-eight adult females were collected in May–July, 2009 and all were gravid. Each was weighed, measured, humanely euthanized and then dissected. Oviductal shelled eggs were removed, weighed (egg mass, EM) and measured for length (EL) and width (EW). Clutch mass (CM) was the sum of EM for a clutch. Pelvic aperture width (PAW) was measured at the widest point between the ilia bones through which eggs must pass at oviposition. The smallest gravid female had a CL of 124.0 mm. Mean CS was relatively large (9.7±2.0 eggs, range: 3–13) and may reflect high productivity associated with polluted (eutrophic) waters. Regression analyses were conducted using log-transformed data. CM increased isometrically with maternal body size. CS, EW and EM were all significantly hypoallometric in their relationship with CL. EL did not change significantly with increases in CL. EW increased at a hypoallometric rate with increasing CL but was unconstrained by PAW since the widest egg was smaller than the narrowest PAW measurement when excluding the three smallest females. Smaller females may have EW constrained by PAW. As females increase in size they increase both clutch size and egg width in contradiction to predictions of optimal egg size theory.

  20. Levels of trace elements in green turtle eggs collected from Hong Kong: Evidence of risks due to selenium and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 22 trace elements were determined in green turtle (Chelonia mydas) eggs collected from Hong Kong. Concentrations of selenium, lead and nickel in these eggs were generally higher than those reported in other studies. The predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC; ng/g wet weight) of Pb (1000), Se (340 and 6000 for the worst-case and best-case scenarios, respectively) and Ni (17) in the green turtle eggs were estimated. Hazard quotients (HQs) estimate that Se (HQs: 0.2-24.5) and Ni (HQs: 4.0-26.4) may pose some risks to the turtles. Our study also found that concentrations of Ag, Se, Zn, Hg and Pb in the shell of the turtle eggs were significantly correlated with levels in the whole egg contents (yolk + albumen). Once the precise relationships of specific elements are established, egg-shell concentrations may be used as a non-lethal, non-invasive, surrogate for predicting whole egg burden of certain contaminants in marine turtles. - Concentrations of selenium and nickel in green turtle eggs from Hong Kong might pose some risks to the turtles

  1. Analytical method for heavy metal determination in algae and turtle eggs from Guanahacabibes Protected Sea Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel I. Balbín Tamayo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A standard digestion method coupled to electrochemical detection for the monitoring of heavy metals in biological samples has been used for the simultaneous analysis of the target analytes. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV coupled to disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPEs was employed as a fast and sensitive electroanalytical method for the detection of heavy metals. The aim of our study was to determine Cd, Pb and Cu by SWASV in brown algae (Sargasum natan and green turtle eggs (Chelonia mydas using screen-printed electrodes. The method proved useful for the simultaneous analysis of these metals by comparison between two different procedures for preparing the samples. Two different approaches in digestion protocols were assessed. The study was focused on Guanahacabibes brown algae and green turtle eggs because the metal concentrations recorded in this area may be used for intraspecific comparison within the Guanahacabibes Protected Sea Park area, a body of water for which information is still very scarce. The best results were obtained by digesting biological samples with the EPA 3050B method. This treatment allowed the fast and quantitative extraction from brown algae and green turtle eggs of the target analytes, with high sensitivity and avoiding organic residues, eventually affecting electrochemical measurements.

  2. Surf and turf: predation by egg-eating snakes has led to the evolution of parental care in a terrestrial lizard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, David A.; Clark, Rulon W.; Manica, Andrea; Tseng, Hui-Yun; Hsu, Jung-Ya; Huang, Wen-San

    2016-01-01

    Animals display a great diversity of parental care tactics that ultimately enhance offspring survival, but how such behaviors evolve remains unknown for most systems. Here, we studied the evolution of maternal care, in the form of nest guarding, in a single population of long-tailed sun skink (Eutropis longicaudata) living on Orchid Island (Taiwan). This species typically does not provide protection to its offspring. Using a common garden experiment, we show that maternal care is genetically determined in this population. Through field manipulations, we demonstrate that care provides a significant increase in egg survival on Orchid Island by reducing predation from egg-eating snakes (Oligodon formosanus); this predator is not abundant in other populations of the lizard, which do not display parental care. Finally, using extensive field surveys, we show that the seasonal availability of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) nests is the cause for the high abundance of snake predators on Orchid Island, with the snakes consuming lizard eggs when green turtle eggs are not available. Together, these lines of evidence provide the first full demonstration of how predation can trigger the evolution of parental care in a species derived from a non-caring ancestor. PMID:26915464

  3. Surf and turf: predation by egg-eating snakes has led to the evolution of parental care in a terrestrial lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, David A; Clark, Rulon W; Manica, Andrea; Tseng, Hui-Yun; Hsu, Jung-Ya; Huang, Wen-San

    2016-01-01

    Animals display a great diversity of parental care tactics that ultimately enhance offspring survival, but how such behaviors evolve remains unknown for most systems. Here, we studied the evolution of maternal care, in the form of nest guarding, in a single population of long-tailed sun skink (Eutropis longicaudata) living on Orchid Island (Taiwan). This species typically does not provide protection to its offspring. Using a common garden experiment, we show that maternal care is genetically determined in this population. Through field manipulations, we demonstrate that care provides a significant increase in egg survival on Orchid Island by reducing predation from egg-eating snakes (Oligodon formosanus); this predator is not abundant in other populations of the lizard, which do not display parental care. Finally, using extensive field surveys, we show that the seasonal availability of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) nests is the cause for the high abundance of snake predators on Orchid Island, with the snakes consuming lizard eggs when green turtle eggs are not available. Together, these lines of evidence provide the first full demonstration of how predation can trigger the evolution of parental care in a species derived from a non-caring ancestor. PMID:26915464

  4. The respiratory epithelium of the lung in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, S E; Purton, M

    1984-01-01

    The chelonian lung exhibits reptilian, mammalian and avian features. The respiratory epithelium is typically vertebrate, i.e. pseudostratified columnar with cilia; gaseous exchange areas appear at all levels from the respiratory bronchi down to the alveoli. The latter are invested with a capillary network and both type I and type II cells are present. The possible functional significance of the distribution of collagen, elastic tissue, cartilage and smooth muscle is discussed.

  5. Performance and Stability of the Chelonia Storage Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, Jon K; Nagy, Zsombor; Mohn, Bjarte; Read, Alex L

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the Chelonia storage cloud middleware. It was designed to fill the requirements gap between those of large, sophisticated scientific collaborations which have adopted the grid paradigm for their distributed storage needs, and of corporate business communities which are gravitating towards the cloud paradigm. The similarities to and differences between Chelonia and several well-known grid- and cloud-based storage solutions are commented. The design of Chelonia has been chosen to optimize high reliability and scalability of an integrated system of heterogeneous, geographically dispersed storage sites and the ability to easily expand the system dynamically. The architecture and implementation in term of web-services running inside the Advanced Resource Connector Hosting Environment Dameon (ARC HED) are described. We present results of tests in both local-area and wide-area networks that demonstrate the fault-tolerance, stability and scalability of Chelonia.

  6. Specific accumulation of arsenic compounds in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from Ishigaki Island, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of total arsenic (As) and individual compounds were determined in green and hawksbill turtles from Ishigaki Island, Japan. In both species, total As concentrations were highest in muscle among the tissues. Arsenobetaine was a major compound in most tissues of both turtles. High concentrations of trimethylarsine oxide were detected in hawksbill turtles. A significant negative correlation between standard carapace length (SCL), an indicator of age, and total As levels in green turtles was found. In contrast, the levels increased with SCL of hawksbill turtles. Shifts in feeding habitats with growth may account for such a growth-dependent accumulation of As. Although concentrations of As in marine sponges, the major food of hawksbill turtles are not high compared to those in algae eaten by green turtles, As concentrations in hawksbill turtles were higher than those in green turtles, indicating that hawksbill turtles may have a specific accumulation mechanism for As. - Green turtles and hawksbill turtles have specific accumulation features of arsenic

  7. Clinical and Pathological Findings in Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Gladstone, Queensland: Investigations of a Stranding Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Mark; Eden, Paul A; Limpus, Colin J; Owen, Helen; Gaus, Caroline; Mills, Paul C

    2015-06-01

    An investigation into the health of green turtles was undertaken near Gladstone, Queensland, in response to a dramatic increase in stranding numbers in the first half of 2011. A total of 56 live turtles were subject to clinical examination and blood sampling for routine blood profiles, and 12 deceased turtles underwent a thorough necropsy examination. This population of green turtles was found to be in poor body condition and a range of infectious and non-infectious conditions were identified in the unhealthy turtles, including hepato-renal insufficiency (up to 81%, 27/33 based on clinical pathology), cachexia (92%, 11/12), parasitism (75%, 9/12), cardiopulmonary anomalies (42%, 5/12), gastroenteritis (25%, 3/12), masses (25%, 3/12) and mechanical impediments (17%, 2/12 based on necropsy). Overall, there was no evidence to indicate a unifying disease as a primary cause of the mass mortality. Recent adverse weather events, historic regional contamination and nearby industrial activities are discussed as potential causative factors. PMID:25256011

  8. Effects of Environmental Parameters on Bacterial Levels in Seawater from Juvenile Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas kept in Captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Chuen-Im

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infection is a major cause of high mortality in juvenile sea turtles at the Sea Turtle Conservation Centre, Chonburi Province, Thailand.The attempt is to identify sources of bacterial accumulation and contamination in order to reduce the number of infections. The aim of thisstudy was to determine the effects of live rocks and captivity parameters on microbiological water quality. Microbiological results indicated that the presence of live rocks in juvenile green turtle containers resulted in a reduction of haemolytic bacteria in seawater. Additionally, thehigh stock density of animals in the captivity has influence on the increased bacterial levels in the water, while temperature of the water was found to have an influence on bacterial growth. The results of this study implied that the environments of captivity have great impact on thebacterial levels in the water, which should be considered for the management of sea turtles as well as other aquatic animals.

  9. IDENTIFIKASI JEJARING PENGELOLAAN KONSERVASI PENYU HIJAU (Chelonia mydas) MELALUI PENENTUAN KOMPOSISI GENETIK DAN METAL TAG DI LAUT SULU SULAWESI

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Kadek Dita Cahyani; I.B. Windia Adnyana; I W Arthana

    2012-01-01

    The research used 51 tissue samples taken from 51 individual Green Turtles in Pulau Panjang, EastKalimantan. The isolation of mtDNA was achieved by adding Proteinase K into the samples prior to the utilization ofthe PCR (Polimerase Chain Reaction) technique. The MEGA 3.1 computer program was employed to read the DNAsequences obtained through the PCR technique.Seven different haplotypes were identified from the analyzed samples. The haplotypes are: A3 (N=7; 13.73%),A4 (N=1; 1.96%), A6 (N=2; 3....

  10. IDENTIFIKASI JEJARING PENGELOLAAN KONSERVASI PENYU HIJAU (Chelonia mydas MELALUI PENENTUAN KOMPOSISI GENETIK DAN METAL TAG DI LAUT SULU SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Kadek Dita Cahyani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The research used 51 tissue samples taken from 51 individual Green Turtles in Pulau Panjang, EastKalimantan. The isolation of mtDNA was achieved by adding Proteinase K into the samples prior to the utilization ofthe PCR (Polimerase Chain Reaction technique. The MEGA 3.1 computer program was employed to read the DNAsequences obtained through the PCR technique.Seven different haplotypes were identified from the analyzed samples. The haplotypes are: A3 (N=7; 13.73%,A4 (N=1; 1.96%, A6 (N=2; 3.92%, C3 (N=5; 9.80%, C5 (N=6; 11.76%, C14 (N=5; 9.80% dan D2 (N=25;49.02%. Tag findings clearly demonstrated that the Green Turtles, which feed on the seagrass beds of Pulau Panjang,originated in different nesting sites, including Sabah and Trengganu in Malaysia, Sangalaki and Derawan inIndonesia, and Phillipine. The MSA (Mixed Stock Analysis showed that the Green Turtles population in PulauPanjang was composed of several management units (nesting sites, which were Berau (47%, Sulu Sea (34% andMicronesia (6%.

  11. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism for the Identification of Spirorchiid Ova in Tissues from the Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Phoebe A; Traub, Rebecca J; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat T; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Cribb, Thomas H; Mills, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    Blood flukes are among the most common disease causing pathogens infecting vertebrates, including humans and some of the world's most globally endangered fauna. Spirorchiid blood flukes are parasites of marine turtles, and are associated with pathology, strandings and mortalities worldwide. Their ova embolize in tissues and incite significant inflammatory responses, however attempts to draw correlations between species and lesions are frustrated by difficulties in identifying ova beyond the genus level. In this study, a newly developed terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) method was validated as a tool for differentiating between mixed spirorchiid ova in turtle tissue. Initially, a multiplex PCR was used to differentiate between the five genera of spirorchiid flukes. Following this, PCR was performed using genus/genera-specific fluorescently tagged primer pairs and PCR products digested analysis using restriction endonucleases. Using capillary electrophoresis, this T-RFLP method could differentiate between twelve species and genotypes of spirorchiid flukes in turtles. It was applied to 151 tissue samples and successfully identified the spirorchiid species present. It was found to be more sensitive than visual diagnosis, detecting infections in 28 of 32 tissues that were negative on histology. Spirorchiids were present in 96.7% of tissues tested, with Neospirorchis genotype 2 being the most prevalent, present in 93% of samples. Mixed infections were common, being present in 60.7% of samples tested. The method described here is, to our knowledge, the first use of the T-RFLP technique on host tissues or in an animal ecology context, and describes a significant advancement in the clinical capacity to diagnose a common cause of illness in our environment. It is proven as a sensitive, specific and cost-efficient means of identifying spirorchiid flukes and ova in turtles, with the potential to contribute valuable information to epidemiological and pathological studies as well as future diagnostics for this poorly understood disease. PMID:27579605

  12. In vitro biology of fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus and host cells in Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Dagenais, J.; Balazs, G.H.; Schumacher, J.; Lewis, T.D.; Leong, J.-A.C.; Casey, R.N.; Casey, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) of green turtles has a global distribution and causes debilitating tumours of the skin and internal organs in several species of marine turtles. FP is associated with a presently non-cultivable alphaherpesvirus Chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus (CFPHV). Our aims were to employ quantitative PCR targeted to pol DNA of CFPHV to determine (i) if DNA sequesters by tumour size and/or cell type, (ii) whether subculturing of cells is a viable strategy for isolating CFPHV and (iii) whether CFPHV can be induced to a lytic growth cycle in vitro using chemical modulators of replication (CMRs), temperature variation or co-cultivation. Additional objectives included determining whether non-tumour and tumour cells behave differently in vitro and confirming the phenotype of cultured cells using cell-type-specific antigens. CFPHV pol DNA was preferentially concentrated in dermal fibroblasts of skin tumours and the amount of viral DNA per cell was independent of tumour size. Copy number of CFPHV pol DNA per cell rapidly decreased with cell doubling of tumour-derived fibroblasts in culture. Attempts to induce viral replication in known CFPHV-DNA-positive cells using temperature or CMR failed. No significant differences were seen in in vitro morphology or growth characteristics of fibroblasts from tumour cells and paired normal skin, nor from CFPHV pol-DNA-positive intestinal tumour cells. Tumour cells were confirmed as fibroblasts or keratinocytes by positive staining with anti-vimentin and anti-pancytokeratin antibodies, respectively. CFPHV continues to be refractory to in vitro cultivation.

  13. Methods of Developing User-Friendly Keys to Identify Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas L. from Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane R. Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying individual animals is important in understanding their ecology and behaviour, as well as providing estimates of population sizes for conservation efforts. We produce identification keys from photographs of green sea turtles to identify them while foraging in Akumal Bay, Mexico. We create three keys, which (a minimise the length of the key, (b present the most obvious differential characteristics first, and (c remove the strict dichotomy from key b. Keys were capable of identifying >99% of turtles in >2500 photographs during the six-month study period. The keys differed significantly in success rate for students to identify individual turtles, with key (c being the best with >70% success and correctly being followed further than other keys before making a mistake. User-friendly keys are, therefore, a suitable method for the photographic identification of turtles and could be used for other large marine vertebrates in conservation or behavioural studies.

  14. Methods of Developing User-Friendly Keys to Identify Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas L.) from Photographs

    OpenAIRE

    Jane R. Lloyd; Miguel Á. Maldonado; Richard Stafford

    2012-01-01

    Identifying individual animals is important in understanding their ecology and behaviour, as well as providing estimates of population sizes for conservation efforts. We produce identification keys from photographs of green sea turtles to identify them while foraging in Akumal Bay, Mexico. We create three keys, which (a) minimise the length of the key, (b) present the most obvious differential characteristics first, and (c) remove the strict dichotomy from key b. Keys were capable of identify...

  15. Chelonia: A self-healing, replicated storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelonia is a novel grid storage system designed to fill the requirements gap between those of large, sophisticated scientific collaborations which have adopted the grid paradigm for their distributed storage needs, and of corporate business communities gravitating towards the cloud paradigm. Chelonia is an integrated system of heterogeneous, geographically dispersed storage sites which is easily and dynamically expandable and optimized for high availability and scalability. The architecture and implementation in term of web-services running inside the Advanced Resource Connector Hosting Environment Dameon (ARC HED) are described and results of tests in both local -area and wide-area networks that demonstrate the fault tolerance, stability and scalability of Chelonia will be presented. In addition, example setups for production deployments for small and medium-sized VO's are described.

  16. Studies on transplantation of marine turtle nests at Karachi coast (Sindh), Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egg clutches of two species of marine turtles, namely Chelonia mydas and Lepidochelys olivacea, were collected during 1974 to 1997 and transplanted to the protected enclosures. The emerging hatching were released to the natural environment. The experiment helped to produce an average of 19495.5 hatch lings per year of green and 1174.5 per year of olive ridley turtles. (author)

  17. The Effects of Feeding on Hematological and Plasma Biochemical Profiles in Green (Chelonia mydas and Kemp's Ridley (Lepidochelys kempii Sea Turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, lipemic blood from sampling too soon after an animal feeds can have substantial effects on biochemical values. Plasma biochemical values in reptiles may be affected by species, age, season, and nutritional state. However, fasting status is not routinely considered when sampling reptile blood. In this paper, we evaluated 2-hour postprandial blood collection in two sea turtle species to investigate the effects of feeding on hematological and plasma biochemical values. Feeding had no significant effects on hematological values in either species, nor did it have an effect on plasma biochemistry values in Kemp's ridley sea turtles. In postprandial green turtles, total protein, albumin, ALP, AST, ALT, amylase, and cholesterol increased significantly, and chloride decreased significantly. Although statistically significant changes were observed, the median percent differences between pre- and postprandial values did not exceed 10% for any of these analytes and would not likely alter the clinical interpretation.

  18. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Up for Sports Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Egg Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Egg Allergy Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? About Egg Allergy Diagnosis Treatment Getting the Flu Vaccine Food Labels: What ...

  19. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... viruses for the flu vaccine are grown in chicken eggs. If you have an egg allergy, ask your ... In some cases, positive results of skin and blood tests aren't enough to prove that a person's symptoms are definitely caused by eggs. So doctors may use what's called a food ...

  20. Egg proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Lechevalier, Valérie; Anton, Marc; Nau, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Hen egg was categorised by Baldwin in 1986 as a polyfunctional ingredient, as it can simultaneously realise several technological functions in the same formulated foodstuff. Its emulsifying, foaming, gelling, thickening, colouring and aromatic properties make it still today a universal basic ingredient for the domestic kitchen and the food processing industry. Whereas egg yolk is well recognised for its emulsifying properties, egg white (or albumen) is a reference in terms o...

  1. Egg allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew S

    2007-12-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in infants and young children. The great majority is not life-threatening and management involves exclusion of egg from the diet and regular review with the expectation that the majority of children will outgrow the allergy by school age. Judgment is required as to when the dietary elimination of egg is no longer required. This decision may be helped by demonstrating loss of sensitivity by skin prick or specific IgE testing and in some cases a supervised food challenge. Particular issues in management arise with more severe, potentially life-threatening reactions, with immunization with vaccines prepared in eggs, with the diagnosis of egg hypersensitivity as a cause of delayed exacerbations of eczema which can be non-IgE mediated, and in deciding whether a child can be allowed to ingest small amounts of cooked egg through egg-containing foods while continuing to avoid raw egg or larger amounts of whole egg. Cases which illustrate these issues are presented. PMID:18078424

  2. Does polyandry really pay off? The effects ofmultiple mating and number of fathers on morphological traits and survival in clutches of nesting green turtles at Tortuguero

    OpenAIRE

    Alonzo Alfaro-Núñez; Jensen, Michael P; Alberto Abreu-grobois, F.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the long debate of whether or not multiple mating benefits the offspring, studies still show contradictory results. Multiple mating takes time and energy. Thus, if females fertilize their eggs with a single mating, why to mate more than once? We investigated and inferred paternal identity and number of sires in 12 clutches (240 hatchlings) of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) nests at Tortuguero, Costa Rica. Paternal alleles were inferred through comparison of maternal and hatchling geno...

  3. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Health Problems Illnesses & Injuries Health Problems of Grown Ups People, Places & Things That Help Feelings Q&A ... egg allergy will usually carry — or have a grown-up carry — an epinephrine injection, just in case. continue ...

  4. Relación entre la talla y los estados de maduración de Chelonia mydas y Eretmochelys imbricata en el agregado pesquero legal de Jardines del Rey

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Bermúdez, E.

    2008-01-01

    Las tortugas marinas son especies amenazadas de extinción y están incluidas en el Apéndice I de CITES. A pesar de esto, Cuba ha sido una de las naciones que ha defendido la pesquería sostenible de este recurso, estableciendo la talla mínima de pesquería en 65 cm. La sostenibilidad estaba basada en el criterio de que en aguas cubanas la madurez sexual se alcanza de forma temprana y el crecimiento de los individuos es más acelerado. Adicionalmente, el número de individuos y las...

  5. INTERIOR EGG QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Without a high quality product, it is difficult for an industry to survive. This is no different for the shell egg processor. Many factors can influence shell egg interior quality. These influences occur during egg production and processing. Physiological stress, nutritional stress, heat stress,...

  6. Eggs: good or bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes. PMID:27126575

  7. Eggs and Foodborne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table eggs and eggshells may be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms, although the only significant threat to human health related to eggs in recent history has been from the bacterium Salmonella. Salmonella is currently the leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the U.S. with 16 ...

  8. Symbolism in "The Egg"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤艳娟

    2007-01-01

    Sherwood Anderson is one of the most prominent writers in American literary history. This paper deals with the abundant symbolic meanings in his famous short story "The Egg". Symbolism makes a literary work profound. The various depressing fates awaiting the eggs simultaneously come true on the father and the son, exposing the unreality of the American dream for the poor to be rich.

  9. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  10. Egg Bungee Jump!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Brand, Lance

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an egg bungee jumping activity. This activity introduces students to ways that engineers might apply calculations of failure to meet a challenge. Students are required to use common, everyday materials such as rubber bands, string, plastic bags, and eggs. They will apply technological problem solving, material…

  11. Egg protein hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amerongen, van A.; Beelen, M.J.C.; Wolbers, L.A.M.; Gilst, van W.H.; Buikema, J.H.; Nelissen, J.W.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention provides egg-protein hydrolysates with DPP-IV inhibitory activity which are particularly suited for the treatment of diabetes. Particularly advantageous is to use hydrolysate of lysozyme for the treatment of diabetes.

  12. Egg and time limitation mediate an egg protection strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deas, J B; Hunter, M S

    2014-05-01

    The number of mature eggs remaining in the ovaries and the time left for oviposition determine the reproductive decisions of the hyperdiverse guild of insects that require discrete and potentially limiting resources for oviposition (such as seeds, fruits or other insects). A female may run out of eggs before all available oviposition sites are used (egg limitation), or die before using all of her eggs (time limitation). Females are predicted to change clutch size depending on whether eggs or time is the limiting resource. We extend this framework and ask whether the same constraints influence a strategy in which females modify eggs into protective shields. In response to egg parasitism cues, female seed beetles (Mimosestes amicus) lay eggs in vertical groups of 2-4, modifying the top 1-3 eggs into shields in order to protect the bottom egg from attack by parasitoids. We made contrasting predictions of how egg and time limitation would influence egg size and the incidence and level of egg protection. By varying access to seed pods, we manipulated the number of remaining eggs a female had at the time she received a parasitism cue. Although egg size was not affected, our results confirm that egg-limited females protected fewer eggs and time-limited females protected more eggs. Female body size explained the number of eggs in a stack rather than host deprivation or the timing of parasitoid exposure. Our results clearly show that host availability relative to female age influences the incidence of egg protection in M. amicus. Furthermore, our study represents a novel use of life history theory to explain patterns in an unusual but compelling defensive behaviour. PMID:24735410

  13. Factors Affecting Egg Processing Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggs are designed to limit bacterial contamination of egg contents as well as to protect and nourish a developing embryo; these qualities contribute to eggs being wholesome and nutritious for humans. When eggs are involved in human enteritis, there is usually temperature abuse and pooling of raw pr...

  14. The fish egg microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp. The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia Emerging oomycete pathogens increasingly threaten biodiversity and food security. This thesis describes the study of the microbiome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) eggs and analyses of the effects of infections by the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia ...

  15. Drosophila egg chamber elongation

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Julie

    2012-01-01

    As tissues and organs are formed, they acquire a specific shape that plays an integral role in their ability to function properly. A relatively simple system that has been used to examine how tissues and organs are shaped is the formation of an elongated Drosophila egg. While it has been known for some time that Drosophila egg elongation requires interactions between a polarized intracellular basal actin network and a polarized extracellular network of basal lamina proteins, how these interac...

  16. LCA of Egg Phospholipids

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Egg phospholipids are a group of fats or lipids in the egg yolk, commonly used as emulsifiers in the chemical industry to facilitate the dissolving of substances. The pharmaceutical company Fresenius-Kabi manufactures this product and seeks a better understanding of the product’s major environmental impacts in order to comply with the ISO 14001 requirements, communicate its environmental performance and choose raw materials that result in lower environmental impacts. The aim of this study is ...

  17. Effects of cryogenic cooling of shell eggs on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Tharrington, J B; Curtis, P A; Anderson, K E; Keener, K M; Jones, F T

    2002-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of cryogenic cooling on shell egg quality. Gaseous nitrogen (GN), liquid nitrogen (LN), and gaseous carbon dioxide (GC) were utilized to rapidly cool eggs in a commercial egg processing facility and were compared to traditional cooling (TC). A modified food freezer was attached to existing egg processing equipment in order to expose eggs to the selected cryogen. In Experiment 1, eggs were treated with GN, LN, and TC then stored and tested over 10 wk. Experiment 2 eggs were treated (GC and TC) and evaluated for 12 wk. Quality factors that were measured included Haugh units, vitelline membrane strength and deformation at rupture, and USDA shell egg grades for quality defects. Haugh unit values were greater for cryogenically treated eggs as compared to traditionally cooled eggs (Experiment 1: 73.27, GN; 72.03, LN; and 71.4, TC and Experiment 2: 74.42, GC and 70.18, TC). The percentage of loss eggs in the GN treatment was significantly (P membrane strength was greater for the cryogenically cooled eggs versus traditional processing. Vitelline membrane breaking strength decreased over storage time. Vitelline membrane deformation at rupture was significantly (P eggs compared to the traditional eggs in each experiment. Use of the technology could allow for egg quality to be maintained for a longer time, which could increase international markets and potentially lead to extended shelf lives. PMID:12033425

  18. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  19. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight, e

  20. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. PMID:25965316

  1. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public and...... private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  2. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  3. Egg Processing Plant Sanitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

  4. The Egg model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The "Egg Model" is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four producers. It has been used in numerous publications to demonstrate

  5. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca; Marcelo Emílio Beletti; Roberta Torres de Melo; Eliane Pereira Mendonça; Letícia Ríspoli Coelho; Priscila Christen Nalevaiko; Daise Aparecida Rossi

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to...

  6. Egg Formation in Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    William H. Telfer

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive biology in the Twentieth Century produced comprehensive descriptions of the mechanisms of egg formation in most of the major orders of insects. While many general principles of ovarian development and physiology emerged, every order turned out to have a set of its own special motifs. Discovery of the lepidopteran motifs is summarized in this essay. The emphasis is on developmental mechanisms, beginning with the early growth and differentiation of female germ cells and ending, aft...

  7. NAA Comparison of Nutriens in Egg Yolk and Egg White

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food we eat has significant effects on our wellbeing. Eggs are among food products widely consumed and contain many essential nutrients. Yet eggs often are involved in dietary controversy regarding benefit versus risk. The fear of serum cholesterol has driven a large number of people away from consuming egg yolks. In this study, we assessed the nutritional importance of eggs using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique at Thai Research Reactor, operating at 1.2 MW. We investigated whether consumers miss any health benefits by choosing to eat only egg whites or yolks rather than whole natural eggs. Essential minerals such as sodium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, copper, selenium, iron and zinc are studied using three NAA loading methods: short-term individual pneumatic transfer system loading using inner-core tubes, medium-term CA3 loading and long-term Lazy Susan (LS) loading for 10 s, 7 h and 3 d, respectively. Two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were used to find the nutrient concentrations and validate the method. From the study, we found significant differences in nutritional contents between egg yolks and egg whites. Along with literature review conducted as part of this study, we evaluated the consumption choice when it comes to eggs.

  8. Egg Phospholipids and Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N. Blesso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eggs are a major source of phospholipids (PL in the Western diet. Dietary PL have emerged as a potential source of bioactive lipids that may have widespread effects on pathways related to inflammation, cholesterol metabolism, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL function. Based on pre-clinical studies, egg phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin appear to regulate cholesterol absorption and inflammation. In clinical studies, egg PL intake is associated with beneficial changes in biomarkers related to HDL reverse cholesterol transport. Recently, egg PC was shown to be a substrate for the generation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO, a gut microbe-dependent metabolite associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. More research is warranted to examine potential serum TMAO responses with chronic egg ingestion and in different populations, such as diabetics. In this review, the recent basic science, clinical, and epidemiological findings examining egg PL intake and risk of CVD are summarized.

  9. Irradiation of liquid egg, frozen egg, powdered egg, egg yolk and white of egg: reducing the population of Salmonella enteritidis and sensory aspects and physico-chemical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggs and their products have been incriminated in foodborne disease outbreaks due to Salmonella enteritidis contamination. Irradiation is a food preservation technology that could be applied to minimize the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of irradiation in liquid and frozen egg as well as in powdered egg, egg yolk and egg white spiked with Salmonella enteritidis. Spiked samples of liquid egg, egg white and egg yolk were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0 kGy and spiked samples of frozen and powdered egg were exposed to 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5; 3,0; 3,5 e 4,0 kGy. Raw odour, cooked odour and taste of non inoculated and irradiated samples and non irradiated samples of egg and egg products were analysed by a trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation (malonaldehyde concentration) were also determined. Doses of 2,0; 3,0; 3,5; 3,0 e 3,5 kGy reduced in 5 log the population of S. Enteritidis in liquid and frozen egg, powdered egg yolk, egg white and egg, respectively, with moderate alterations in relation to non irradiated samples detected by the trained penal. Viscosity and lipid oxidation in the powdered products, however, showed more intense alterations. Therefore, irradiation can be considered a feasible process for liquid and frozen egg while when applied to powdered products it should be considered the type of food product to which they will be added due to alterations in viscosity. (author)

  10. The Symplectic Egg

    CERN Document Server

    de Gosson, Maurice A

    2012-01-01

    We invite the reader (presumably an upper level undergraduate student) to a journey leading from the continent of Classical Mechanics to the new territories of Quantum Mechanics. We'll be riding the symplectic camel and have William of Occam as travel companion, so no excess baggage is allowed. The first part of our trip takes us from the symplectic egg to Gromov's non-squeezing theorem and its dynamical interpretation. The second part leads us to a symplectic formulation of the quantum uncertainty principle, which opens the way to new discoveries.

  11. Plant responses to insect egg deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilker, Monika; Fatouros, Nina E

    2015-01-01

    Plants can respond to insect egg deposition and thus resist attack by herbivorous insects from the beginning of the attack, egg deposition. We review ecological effects of plant responses to insect eggs and differentiate between egg-induced plant defenses that directly harm the eggs and indirect defenses that involve egg parasitoids. Furthermore, we discuss the ability of plants to take insect eggs as warning signals; the eggs indicate future larval feeding damage and trigger plant changes that either directly impair larval performance or attract enemies of the larvae. We address the questions of how egg-associated cues elicit plant defenses, how the information that eggs have been laid is transmitted within a plant, and which molecular and chemical plant responses are induced by egg deposition. Finally, we highlight evolutionary aspects of the interactions between plants and insect eggs and ask how the herbivorous insect copes with egg-induced plant defenses and may avoid them by counteradaptations. PMID:25341089

  12. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried eggs. 160.105 Section 160.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... eggs. (a) Dried eggs, dried whole eggs are prepared by drying liquid eggs that conform to §...

  13. Egg White Phantoms for HIFU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used fresh egg white and polyacrylamide to create a transparent tissue mimicking phantom. Heating of phantoms by HIFU leads to egg white protein denaturation and creation of visible white lesions. We measured the acoustical and thermal properties and investigated the possibility to use such phantoms to study the lesion formation during the HIFU therapy

  14. Eggspectation : organic egg verification tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 RIKILT conducted a study on about 2,000 eggs to evaluate three different analytical verification methods: carotenoid profiling, fatty acid profiling and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The eggs were collected from about 50 Dutch farms. The selection was based on the farms’ location and size

  15. Egg shell treatment methods effect on commercial eggs quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Santos de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The objective was to evaluate commercial eggs quality after being subjected to a cleaning process and immersion in whey protein concentrate (WPC as a function of storage time. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 4x7, being four methods of treating shell (not cleaned and not coated with WPC, not cleaned and coated with WPC, cleaned and not coated with WPC, cleaned and coated with WPC and seven periods of storage (1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days for a total of 28 treatments, with five replicates of four eggs each. Quality parameters evaluated were weight loss of eggs (%, specific gravity (g/cm3, haugh units (HU, yolk index (YI and potential hydrogen (pH albumen. The storage period increase, regardless of the shell treatment method, causing weight loss in eggs, reductions in specific gravity in the Haugh units, yolk index and increase in the albumen pH. The cleaning method makes egg's internal quality worse during storage. Coverage of whey protein concentrate is a viable alternative for commercial eggs conservation stored at room temperature in order to minimize quality loss during storage, including eggs that need to go through the cleaning process.

  16. The Eagle's EGGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    VLT ISAAC Looks for Young Stars in the Famous "Pillars of Creation" Summary Through imaging at infrared wavelengths, evidence has been found for recent star formation in the so-called "Pillars of Creation" in the Eagle Nebula (also known as Messier 16 ), made famous when the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) obtained spectacular visible-wavelength images of this object in 1995. Those huge pillars of gas and dust are being sculpted and illuminated by bright and powerful high-mass stars in the nearby NGC 6611 young stellar cluster . The Hubble astronomers suggested that perhaps even younger stars were forming inside. Using the ISAAC instrument on the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory , European astronomers have now made a wide-field infrared image of the Messier 16 region with excellent spatial resolution, enabling them to penetrate the obscuring dust and search for light from newly born stars . Two of the three pillars are seen to have very young, relatively massive stars in their tips. Another dozen or so lower-mass stars seem to be associated with the small "evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs)" that the Hubble astronomers had discovered scattered over the surface of the pillars. These findings bring new evidence to several key questions about how stars are born . Was the formation of these new stars triggered as the intense ultraviolet radiation from the NGC 6611 stars swept over the pillars, or were they already there? Will the new stars be prematurely cut off from surrounding gas cloud, thus stunting their growth? If the new stars have disks of gas and dust around them, will they be destroyed before they have time to form planetary systems? PR Photo 37a/01 : Full wide-field ISAAC image of the Eagle Nebula. PR Photo 37b/01 : Close-up view of the ISAAC image , showing the famous "Pillars of Creation". PR Photo 37c/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 1 . PR Photo 37d/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 2 . PR Photo 37e/01

  17. Egg to Fry - Chinook Egg-to-Fry Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Few estimates of Chinook egg-to-fry survival exist despite the fact that this is thought to be one of the life stages limiting production of many listed Chinook...

  18. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A;

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family......, denominated the parvalbumins. This cross-reactivity has been indicated to be of clinical relevance for several species, since patients with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cod will also react with other fish species, such as herring, plaice and mackerel. In spite...

  19. Mechanical Hatching Egg Sanitization: A Fresh Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three to four decades ago, hatching egg sanitization was done by immersion of eggs in an egg-gathering basket (plastic-coated metal wire) into a small vat with a heating element and disinfectant solution. This procedure failed miserably for several reasons. First, the eggs were not subjected to the...

  20. Effect of egg shell color on some egg quality in table eggs during storage at refrigerator temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days of storage at 5 °C. A total of 100 fresh eggs (60-65 g) were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in brown shell color eggs significantly (P<0.01) higher than white shell color eggs at 21 days of storage, but no significant differences were observed among groups other storage periods. The brown shell color eggs showed lower levels of specific gravity than white shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21, but there were no significant differences between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs at day 28. The albumen height and Haugh unit of white shell color eggs was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of white shell color eggs during the storage periods. There were no significant differences in yolk index and albumen pH between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs during the storage periods. The yolk pH of white shell color eggs was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that of brown shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21 of storage period. The results indicated that the white shell color eggs showed better quality than brown shell color eggs at 5 °C for the entire storage period.

  1. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required... INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled. (a) All shell eggs packed into containers destined for the ultimate consumer shall be labeled...

  2. It's what's inside that counts: egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Mark P; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-05-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm(3)) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v  = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v  = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6-13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w . PMID:26932462

  3. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Andersen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk.

  4. Salmonella enteritidis in Quail Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğrul, Özlem Turgay

    2002-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella enteritidis was investigated in 123 liquid whole quail eggs. Salmonella strains were identified and sero-grouped by coagglutination test and slide agglutination test. Seven (5.69%) of 123 whole quail eggs were in group D1 and were sero-typed as Salmonella enteritidis. It was found that in phage-typing of Salmonella enteritidis, three of 7 strains were Salmonella enteritidis PT4 , two of them were PT1, one of them was PT7, and one of them was indefinite.

  5. Why cuckoos should parasitize parrotbills by laying eggs randomly rather than laying eggs matching the egg appearance of parrotbill hosts?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Canchao; Yang; Fugo; Takasu; Wei; Liang; Anders; P; M?ller

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary interaction between cuckoos and their hosts has been studied for a long time, but to date some puzzles still remain unsolved. Whether cuckoos parasitize their hosts by laying eggs randomly or matching the egg morphs of their hosts is one of the mysteries of the cuckoo problem. Scientists tend to believe that cuckoos lay eggs matching the appearance of host eggs due to selection caused by the ability of the hosts to recognize their own eggs.In this paper, we first review previous empirical studies to test this mystery and found no studies have provided direct evidence of cuckoos choosing to parasitize host nests where egg color and pattern match. We then present examples of unmatched cuckoo eggs in host nests and key life history traits of cuckoos, e.g. secretive behavior and rapid egg-laying and link them to cuckoo egg laying behavior. Finally we develop a conceptual model to demonstrate the egg laying behaviour of cuckoos and propose an empirical test that can provide direct evidence of the egg-laying properties of female cuckoos. We speculate that the degree of egg matching between cuckoo eggs and those of the host as detected by humans is caused by the ability of the hosts to recognize their own eggs, rather than the selection of matching host eggs by cuckoos. The case of Common Cuckoos(Cuculus canorus) and their parrotbill hosts(Paradoxornis alphonsianus), where it has been shown that both have evolved polymorphic eggs(mainly blue and white), was used to develop a conceptual model to demonstrate why cuckoos should utilize parrotbill hosts by laying eggs randomly rather than laying eggs matching the appearance of host eggs.In conclusion, we found no evidence for the hypothesis that cuckoos lay eggs based on own egg color matching that of the parrotbill-cuckoo system. We argue theoretically that laying eggs matching those of the hosts in this system violates a key trait of the life history of cuckoos and therefore should be maladaptive.

  6. Why cuckoos should parasitize parrotbills by laying eggs randomly rather than laying eggs matching the egg appearance of parrotbill hosts?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Canchao Yang; Fugo Takasu; Wei Liang; Anders P Mller

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary interaction between cuckoos and their hosts has been studied for a long time, but to date some puzzles stil remain unsolved. Whether cuckoos parasitize their hosts by laying eggs randomly or matching the egg morphs of their hosts is one of the mysteries of the cuckoo problem. Scientists tend to believe that cuckoos lay eggs matching the appearance of host eggs due to selection caused by the ability of the hosts to recognize their own eggs. In this paper, we first review previous empirical studies to test this mystery and found no studies have provided direct evidence of cuckoos choosing to parasitize host nests where egg color and pattern match. We then present examples of unmatched cuckoo eggs in host nests and key life history traits of cuckoos, e.g. secretive behavior and rapid egg-laying and link them to cuckoo egg laying behavior. Finally we develop a conceptual model to demonstrate the egg laying behaviour of cuckoos and propose an empirical test that can provide direct evidence of the egg-laying properties of female cuckoos. We speculate that the degree of egg matching between cuckoo eggs and those of the host as detected by humans is caused by the ability of the hosts to recognize their own eggs, rather than the selection of matching host eggs by cuckoos. The case of Common Cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) and their parrotbill hosts (Paradoxornis alphonsianus), where it has been shown that both have evolved polymorphic eggs (mainly blue and white), was used to develop a conceptual model to demonstrate why cuckoos should utilize parrotbill hosts by laying eggs randomly rather than laying eggs matching the appearance of host eggs. In conclusion, we found no evidence for the hypothesis that cuckoos lay eggs based on own egg color matching that of the parrotbill-cuckoo system. We argue theoretically that laying eggs matching those of the hosts in this system violates a key trait of the life history of cuckoos and therefore should be maladaptive.

  7. Shell Eggs from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in eggs? Federal and state governments, the egg industry, and the scientific community are working together to solve the problem. Involved government agencies include: USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and the Animal ...

  8. Contaminant concentrations in Florida raptor eggs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Inviable eggs from the nests of Florida bald eagles and ospreys were collected opportunistically from 1987 through 1989. Egg contents were analyzed for...

  9. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  10. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming

  11. A calorimetric study of egg white proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, M; Hofer, C; Raemy, A.

    1997-01-01

    Egg white is of great interest for many culinary and industrial applications. Egg white is used for coating, gluing, thickening and so on in pasta, desserts, etc. There is thus a great interest from the industrial point of view to better know this raw material, used in very large amounts in the dessert production for example, and to obtain egg white fractions with different functional properties. Various egg white fractions prepared by selected procedures were analyzed by differential scan...

  12. Dinosaur egg structure investigated by MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Mcjury, M; Clark, N.D.L.; Liston, J; Condon, B

    1994-01-01

    In July 1993, the Hunterian Museum of the University of Glasgow was offered a sandstone block with a clutch of intact dinosaur eggs, from Hunan Province, China. Later, a number of single eggs were also acquired. An inter-disciplinary project began to investigate the structure of these eggs. Investigations carried out included egg shell structure analysis, protein analysis, and a program of imaging including CT|, neutron radiography, and MRI. In this poster, the results of imaging the ...

  13. Molecular genetics of chicken egg quality

    OpenAIRE

    Honkatukia, Mervi

    2010-01-01

    Faultless quality in eggs is important in all production steps, from chicken to packaging, transportation, storage, and finally to the consumer. The egg industry (specifically transportation and packing) is interested in robustness, the consumer in safety and taste, and the chicken itself in the reproductive performance of the egg. High quality is commercially profitable, and egg quality is currently one of the key traits in breeding goals. In conventional breeding schemes, the more traits th...

  14. Effect of storage temperature on egg quality traits in table eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of storage temperature on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days. A total of 100 fresh eggs were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (5 °C and 22 °C; 10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 5 and 22 °C. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in eggs stored at 5 °C significantly (P<0.01) lower than the eggs stored at 22 °C group for the entire storage period. The eggs stored at 5 °C showed higher levels of specific gravity than eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage (P<0.01; P<0.05). The albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk index of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of eggs stored at 22 °C during the storage periods. The albumen pH of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that of eggs stored at 22 °C during storage period. The results indicated that the eggs stored at 5 °C are better off in terms of protecting quality compared to the eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage.

  15. The Egg as a Symbol——Analysis of Sherwood Anderson's The Egg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙慧春; 李伟

    2009-01-01

    @@ A naive narrator in Sherwood Anderson's The Egg leads the reader to witness the various experiences of his family related with eggs.The egg is a dominant theme in their living and an inseparable part of their family.The egg means something that he could only feel directly as a na(i)ve boy.

  16. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Eggs from other than chicken; duck, turkey, guinea, and goose eggs. (5) Other eggs—satisfactory for use... broken promptly. (3) Eggs with meat or blood spots may be used if the spots are removed in an acceptable... to include black rots, white rots, mixed rots, green whites, eggs with diffused blood in the...

  17. Debates in allergy medicine: baked milk and egg ingestion accelerates resolution of milk and egg allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie A

    2016-01-01

    Cow's milk and hen's egg are ubiquitous in diets around the world and can be important sources of protein in young children. Unfortunately, milk and egg allergies are also some of the most common food allergies in childhood. Less allergenic forms of milk and egg due to heating and interactions with a food matrix, as in baked goods, are tolerated by a majority of milk- and egg-allergic patients. Adding baked milk and egg into the diets of milk- and egg-allergic children can broaden diets, increase nutrition, and improve quality of life. Most important, regular ingestion of baked milk and egg can help children outgrow their allergies to milk and egg. This article will review our current understanding of baked milk and egg tolerance and outline how these baked forms accelerates tolerance to regular milk and egg. PMID:26839628

  18. Energy density of marine pelagic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis-Vestergaard, J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the literature on pelagic fish eggs enabled generalizations to be made of their energy densities, because the property of being buoyant in sea water appears to constrain the proximate composition of the eggs and thus to minimize interspecific variation. An energy density of 1.34 J mul......(-1) of total egg volume is derived for most species spawning eggs without visible oil globules. The energy density of eggs with oil globules is predicted by (σ) over cap = 1.34 + 40.61 x (J mul(-1)) where x is the fractional volume of the oil globule. (C) 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British...

  19. Egg care by termite soldiers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanus, Robert; Šobotník, Jan; Čížek, Lukáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 52, - (2005), 357-359. ISSN 0020-1812 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/2146 Grant ostatní: NSF(US) DEB-97-07928; NSF(US) DEB-02-11591 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : termite soldier * egg transport Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.618, year: 2005

  20. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  1. Salmonella and eggs: from production to plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; Ross, Kirstin

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption. PMID:25730295

  2. Baked Milk and Egg Diets for Milk and Egg Allergy Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna H

    2016-02-01

    In baked form, cow's milk and egg are less allergenic and are tolerated by most milk- and egg-allergic children. Not only may including baked milk and egg in the diets of children who are tolerant improve nutrition and promote more social inclusion but there is also evidence that inclusion may accelerate the resolution of unheated milk and egg allergy. Further research is needed on biomarkers that can predict baked milk or egg reactivity; however, data suggest casein- and ovomucoid-specific immunoglobulin E levels may be useful. Physician-supervised introduction of baked milk and egg is recommended because anaphylaxis has occurred. PMID:26617232

  3. Egg baked in product open oral food challenges are safe in selected egg-allergic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Buelow, Becky J.; Lee, Carrie; Zafra, Heidi T.; Dasgupta, Mahua; Hoffmann, Ray G.; Vasudev, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in children. Most egg-allergic children are able to tolerate egg baked in product (EBP) and will likely outgrow his/her egg allergy. By introducing EBP in the diet of an egg-allergic child, diet can be expanded and family stress can be reduced. Recent evidence suggests that children who tolerate EBP and continue to consume it will have quicker resolution of egg allergy than those who strictly avoid EBP; therefore, we aimed to evaluate the e...

  4. Egg shell treatment methods effect on commercial eggs quality

    OpenAIRE

    Dayane Santos de Almeida; Aline Félix Schneider; Flavio Manabu Yuri; Bárbara Dalazen Machado; Clóvis Eliseu Gewehr

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:The objective was to evaluate commercial eggs quality after being subjected to a cleaning process and immersion in whey protein concentrate (WPC) as a function of storage time. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 4x7, being four methods of treating shell (not cleaned and not coated with WPC, not cleaned and coated with WPC, cleaned and not coated with WPC, cleaned and coated with WPC and seven periods of storage (1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days) for a to...

  5. Effect of the Egg Size on Egg Loses and Hatchability of the Muscovy Duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Weis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of egg size on weight losses during incubation and hatchability of Muscovy duck. A total of 150 hatching eggs comprising of small (70.0–76.99g, medium (77.0– 83.99g and large (84.00–90.99g size categories. There were high difference in the results recorded for hatchability between medium (89.83% and large (84.62 eggs. In contrast, result of hatchability between low and medium eggs was comparable (88.38 vs. 89.83%. When comparing the length of incubation, hatching eggs of Muscovy duck we recorded that the first ducklings hatched from eggs with lower weight. Ducklings from heavier eggs longer to hatch. Results obtained on egg weight loss were comparable among groups.

  6. Ectopic Schistosoma mansoni Eggs Inside a Lipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Kelly Renata; Nunes, Maurício Buzelin; Petroianu, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic schistosomiasis is uncommon and tends to occur when the parasite's eggs or adult forms are located far from their normal site. This report presents the first described case of ectopic Schistosoma mansoni eggs inside a subcutaneous lipoma far from the tissues of this worm's life cycle and with no connection to either portal veins or any other vascular system. These eggs were found inside giant cells surrounded by inflammatory cells. In conclusion, in humans, ectopic S. mansoni eggs can be found far from the tissues of the described life cycle of this worm, with no connection to portal veins or other blood vessels used for their migration. PMID:26598562

  7. [Soil contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs in the Elblag area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, W

    2001-01-01

    The distribution of Toxocara spp. eggs in Elbl4g was studied. Out of 72 soil samples collected in public places of the city 13.9% were positive and the mean egg density was 3.75/100g soil. The city backyards were much more contaminated with Toxocara spp. eggs (18.0%) than the playgrounds (4.5%). In sandpits examined the eggs were not found. Almost 80% of Toxocara spp. eggs recovered were infective. T. cati eggs were more frequent than T. canis eggs. Additionally in examined samples two eggs of Ancylostoma caninum and one egg of Ascaris lumbricoides were recognized. PMID:16888965

  8. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Igic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection.

  9. Host selection by a phytophagous insect: the interplay between feeding, egg maturation, egg load, and oviposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding movement patterns of phytophagous insects among plants is a primary goal of insect ecology. Adult females may visit plants for the purpose of depositing eggs, feeding, or both. For some species, egg maturation may be dependent on adult feeding. As a result, rates of egg maturation m...

  10. Effects of processing on barriers of bacterial invasion in shell eggs and egg products

    Science.gov (United States)

    To project a developing embryo, there are many physical and chemical barriers inherent in eggs for the prevention of invasion by bacteria and other microorganisms. As versatile as they are nutritious, eggs are subjected to many types of processing – from washing, grading, and packing shell eggs to ...

  11. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of shipping containers of... PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation. (a) Shipping containers of foreign product which are shipped to the United...

  12. Egg-laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Yee, Julie L; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-06-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intraclutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. The authors examined the influence of egg-laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last eggs laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg-laying order were inconsistent among species, and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were nests would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained nests (20% accuracy). Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1458-1469. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. PMID:26505635

  13. Producing and marketing a specialty egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michella, S M; Slaugh, B T

    2000-07-01

    Eggland's Best, Inc. markets premium quality shell eggs under the Eggland's Best (EB) brand name. The company, started in 1988, is comprised of a franchise network of established egg producers and covers most of the United States. Eggland's Best provides its franchisees with marketing and technical support. The franchisees produce, process, and distribute EB eggs according to the strict program established and monitored by EB. Production follows the all-natural vegetarian feed program in accordance with the company's US patent entitled "Eggs Compatible with a Cholesterol Reducing Diet and Method of Producing the Same." The EB program excludes animal fat and other animal byproducts. Eggland's Best eggs have seven times the generic level of vitamin E, nearly three times more omega-3 fatty acids and iodine, and 25% less saturated fat than regular generic eggs. Eggland's Best has one of the finest shell egg quality assurance programs anywhere. Eggland's Best franchisees submit weekly egg samples that are analyzed for shell quality, interior quality, vitamin E, iodine, cholesterol and fatty acids. Samples of feed and the EB-patented feed supplement are also analyzed. Approximately 28,000 total laboratory tests are conducted annually. Nationwide product and display retail evaluations are contracted through an outside audit company (40 to 50 cities evaluated four times per year). All EB eggs are USDA graded according to EB's strict quality standards. Producers must follow a food safety quality assurance program (United Egg Producers Association 5-Star or equivalent state or company program). Each egg is stamped "EB" as assurance of meeting EB's highest standards of flavor, quality, and nutrition. Eggland's Best has enjoyed record sales growth for the past 3 yr. PMID:10901196

  14. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food. (a) No person shall buy, sell, or transport... not intended for use as human food. 590.45 Section 590.45 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY...

  15. Use of powdered egg yolk vs fresh egg yolk for the cryopreservation of ovine semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Jiménez, F; Puchades, S; Mocé, E; Viudes-de-Cartro, M P; Vicente, J S; Rodriguez, M

    2004-12-01

    Egg yolk is a common additive to sperm cryopreservation diluents. Because of its animal origin, however, it also represents a potential risk of microbiological contamination in the diluent. This potential contamination can be avoided by using powdered egg yolk, instead of fresh egg yolk, as it is pasteurized. This study was conducted to determine ram sperm cryosurvival was affected by the type of egg yolk used (powdered egg yolk or fresh egg yolk) and by yolk concentration (10, 15 or 20%) in the diluent. Microbiological analyses were also performed to quantify the microbiological contamination in the diluents containing the two types of egg yolk. Sperm cryosurvival was determined by motility and morphology analyses after thawing. Motility parameters were assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system, and the percentage of sperm with a normal apical ridge was evaluated using a differential interference contrast microscope. No significant differences were observed between diluents in the percentage of sperm with normal apical ridge. However, higher percentages of total motile cells were observed for samples containing powdered egg yolk (69%) compared to samples containing fresh egg yolk (60%). However, sperm in diluents containing fresh egg yolk, exhibited higher values for average-path velocity, straight-line velocity and beat cross frequency and lower values for amplitude of lateral head displacement (p egg yolk. Microbiological contamination was similar (egg yolk can be effective used in diluents for the freezing of ram semen. However, the in vivo fertility of sperm frozen in diluents containing powdered egg yolk should be tested, as some motility parameters were different for sperm treated with powdered egg yolk compared to fresh egg yolk. PMID:15598235

  16. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Golüke

    Full Text Available Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial-breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited.

  17. Energy density of marine pelagic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis-Vestergaard, J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the literature on pelagic fish eggs enabled generalizations to be made of their energy densities, because the property of being buoyant in sea water appears to constrain the proximate composition of the eggs and thus to minimize interspecific variation. An energy density of 1.34 J mul...

  18. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golüke, Sarah; Dörrenberg, Sebastian; Krause, E Tobias; Caspers, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial-breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited. PMID:27192061

  19. Microbiology and Safety of Table Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter describes the microbiology of table eggs, effects of processing, regulatory influences, relative risk of egg-borne disease, and the role of retail and consumer practices in outbreaks. Effects of washing, refrigeration, and facility sanitation in US commercial facilities will be describe...

  20. Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Features Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... can take to reduce my risk of a Salmonella infection from eggs? Like other foods, keep eggs ...

  1. Description of the egg of Aedeomyia squamipennis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, J L; Linley, J R

    1995-11-01

    The egg of Aedeomyia squamipennis (Lynch Arribalzaga) is described with the aid of scanning electron micrographs. This study allows separation of the eggs of Ad. squamipennis from the eggs of other mosquitoes inhabiting similar aquatic vegetation. PMID:8551515

  2. Payment for egg donation and surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbock, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This article examines the ethics of egg donation. It begins by looking at objections to noncommercial gamete donation, and then takes up criticism of commercial egg donation. After discussing arguments based on concern for offspring, inequality, commodification, exploitation of donors, and threats to the family, I conclude that some payment to donors is ethically acceptable. Donors should not be paid for their eggs, but rather they should be compensated for the burdens of egg retrieval. Making the distinction between compensation for burdens and payment for a product has the advantages of limiting payment, not distinguishing between donors on the basis of their traits, and ensuring that donors are paid regardless of the number or quality of eggs retrieved. PMID:15365592

  3. Iodine Disinfection of Sea Trout, Salmo Trutta (L., Eggs and the Affect on Egg Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawada Adam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate the impact iodine solution disinfection had on Salmo trutta (L. egg survival rates during incubation, and to determine the effect of the disinfection procedure on egg shells using scanning microscopy. The study groups were bathed in a Desamar K30 solution at a concentration of 100 ml per 10 dm-3 for 10 m once after the eggs had hardened and four times after the eyed stage. Egg samples for scanning analyses were collected on day 30 of incubation at the eyed stage after the first bath in the iodophor solution, and then at the end of incubation. Egg surface images were analyzed for the number of bacteria, the presence of hyphae, and the egg surface area covered with sediments. No statistically significant differences were noted in embryo survival rates in the groups that were disinfected. The highest number of bacteria was observed on egg surfaces which had not been disinfected prior to hatching. A significant amount of sediment was observed on the eggs during incubation. On day 90 of incubation, all of the egg surfaces were covered with sediments. Disinfection was not noted to have had a significant impact on the presence of hyphae. Iodophor preparations can be used for routine disinfection of trout eggs; however, other means of disinfection should be applied before the eyed egg stage.

  4. Hydrolysed egg displays strong decrease in allergenicity and is well tolerated by egg-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmer-Weber, B K; Brockow, K; Fiocchi, A; Theler, B; Vogel, L; Ring, J; Szépfalusi, Z; Mazzina, O; Schaller, R; Fritsché, R; Vissers, Y M; Nutten, S

    2016-05-01

    Food allergies are believed to be on the rise, and currently, management relies on the avoidance of the food. Hen's egg allergy is after cow's milk allergy the most common food allergy; eggs are used in many food products and thus difficult to avoid. A technological process using a combination of enzymatic hydrolysis and heat treatment was designed to produce modified hen's egg with reduced allergenic potential. Biochemical (SDS-PAGE, Size exclusion chromatography and LC-MS/MS) and immunological (ELISA, immunoblot, RBL-assays, animal model) analysis showed a clear decrease in intact proteins as well as a strong decrease of allergenicity. In a clinical study, 22 of the 24 patients with a confirmed egg allergy who underwent a double-blind food challenge with the hydrolysed egg remained completely free of symptoms. Hydrolysed egg products may be beneficial as low-allergenic foods for egg-allergic patients to extent their diet. PMID:26836363

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on some characteristics of shell eggs and mayonnaise prepared from irradiated eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shell eggs were irradiated at doses of 0.0, 0,5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Immediately after irradiation, microbiological, physical and chemical analyses of eggs and sensory evaluation of mayonnaise prepared from irradiated eggs were done. The results indicated that all doses of gamma irradiation reduced the total counts of mesophilic bacteria and total coli form of yolk eggs. Irradiated eggs with 1.5 kGy maybe suitable microbiologically to prepare safe mayonnaise. There are no significant differences on saturated fatty acids and TBA values between yolk fat extracted from irradiated and that of non-irradiated eggs. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between mayonnaise prepared from irradiated and non-irradiated eggs. (Author)

  6. Bioresonance method influencing the egg quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At 2 poultry yards with capacity of 30 thousand laying hens an experiment was undertaken to study the bioresonance effect on 18-week-old poultry (experimental poultry yard, EPY) to obtain eggs of high biological value by activating the assimilation by poultry of a microelement complex from food. At the EPY hens received a vitamin-mineral complex Lifepac senior (produced in France) treated with electromagnetic radiation. At the control poultry yard (CPY) this method was not used. The first egg collection was conducted from hens at the age of 28 weeks, the second one – at the age of 3-4 weeks and the third one – at the age of 52 weeks. The keeping and feeding conditions at the two poultry yards were the same. The contents of water, protein, fat in the eggs of CPY and EPY were practically the same, but the level of microelements in the EPY eggs was higher than in CPY eggs. It was observed so as to maintain high level of microelements in eggs it is required to a bioresonance effect throughout the egg laying period. So, the level of manganese in eggs of EPY and CPY at week 52 was 0.024 and 0.003 mg%, iron – 3.74 and 1.48 mg%, zinc – 1.23 and 0.87 mf%, copper – 0.078 and 0.069 mg%, respectively. The transition of microelements from food into eggs also was % to the control: iron – 2.55, manganese – 10.0, zinc – 1.44, copper – 1.35, potassium – 1.33, calcium – 1.05, phosphorus – 1.15, sodium – 1.16. Thus, the bioresonance method for keeping laying hens makes it possible to obtain food eggs of the desired chemical composition

  7. What determines hatchling weight: breeder age or incubated egg weight?

    OpenAIRE

    AB Traldi; Menten JFM; CS Silva; PV Rizzo; PWZ Pereira; J Santarosa

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine which factor influences weight at hatch of broiler chicks: breeder age or incubated egg weight. In Experiment 1, 2340 eggs produced by 29- and 55-week-old Ross® broiler breeders were incubated. The eggs selected for incubation weighed one standard deviation below and above average egg weight. In Experiment 2, 2160 eggs weighing 62 g produced by breeders of both ages were incubated. In both experiments, 50 additional eggs within the weight interval...

  8. Factors affecting egg predation in Black-tailed Gulls

    OpenAIRE

    Kazama, Kentaro

    2007-01-01

    In colonial seabirds, nesting density, egg-laying date and nest microhabitat affect the probability of eggs being taken by avian predators. Jungle Crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) are dominant predators of eggs of Black-tailed Gulls (Larus crassirostris). Factors affecting the probability of gulls allowing the crows to attack their nests or depredate their eggs and the probability of eggs being taken were studied by direct observation and egg census, respectively. The effect of vegetation heights...

  9. The Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Pollen on Egg Production and Egg Yolk Qualitative Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytobiotics are defined as products derived from plants, which may have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oil and pollen extract addition on egg production and physical egg yolk parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks with diets with oregano essential oil and pollen supplemented. In the control group hens received feed mixture with no additions. The diets in the first experimental groups was supplemented with 0.25 g/kg oregano essential oil. The feed for second experimental groups of birds consisted of basal diet supplemented with pollen extract of the same dose at 0.4 g/kg. Number of eggs per hen during the reporting period in order of the groups: 135.6, 136.7 and 138.5 units, at an average intensity of laying 90.4, 91.13 and 92.33%. The results suggest that the egg production, egg mass, egg weight and all of qualitative parameters of egg yolk (egg yolk weight (g, egg yolk index, egg yolk colour (°HLR were not significantly influenced with oregano oil or pollen addition (P>0.05.

  10. Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, Christy A. [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom); Elliott, John E. [Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, 5421 Robertson Road, Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada); Ormerod, Stephen J., E-mail: ormerod@cf.ac.u [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in delta{sup 13}C (C. cinclus) or delta{sup 15}N (C. mexicanus) in female plasma relative to red blood cells indicated a dietary shift during laying that was not observed in males. Eurasian dippers increased prey consumption as breeding approached, shifting from primarily trichopteran insect larvae to ephemeropterans and plecopterans. In American dippers, egg-laying females switched to feeding at a higher trophic level by consuming more fish. Eggs derived from higher trophic level diets contained more mercury (American dipper), polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorines, especially DDT metabolites. The results demonstrate how dietary changes during egg laying accompany the demands for egg production with consequences for contaminant deposition in avian eggs. - Changes in laying diet influences contaminant deposition in bird eggs.

  11. Nest inundation from sea-level rise threatens sea turtle population viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, David A; Roznik, Elizabeth A; Bell, Ian

    2015-07-01

    Contemporary sea-level rise will inundate coastal habitats with seawater more frequently, disrupting the life cycles of terrestrial fauna well before permanent habitat loss occurs. Sea turtles are reliant on low-lying coastal habitats worldwide for nesting, where eggs buried in the sand remain vulnerable to inundation until hatching. We show that saltwater inundation directly lowers the viability of green turtle eggs (Chelonia mydas) collected from the world's largest green turtle nesting rookery at Raine Island, Australia, which is undergoing enigmatic decline. Inundation for 1 or 3 h reduced egg viability by less than 10%, whereas inundation for 6 h reduced viability by approximately 30%. All embryonic developmental stages were vulnerable to mortality from saltwater inundation. Although the hatchlings that emerged from inundated eggs displayed normal physical and behavioural traits, hypoxia during incubation could influence other aspects of the physiology or behaviour of developing embryos, such as learning or spatial orientation. Saltwater inundation can directly lower hatching success, but it does not completely explain the consistently low rates of hatchling production observed on Raine Island. More frequent nest inundation associated with sea-level rise will increase variability in sea turtle hatching success spatially and temporally, due to direct and indirect impacts of saltwater inundation on developing embryos. PMID:26587269

  12. Egg and cows' milk allergy in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, R. P.; Fergusson, D M

    1980-01-01

    The relationships between a history of egg or cows' milk allergy, positive skin tests to these allergens, and atopic illness were examined in a sample of 126 children. Positive skin tests were found more often in children with a history of egg or cows' milk allergy than in children with no such history. 40 children suspected of being allergic to egg or milk, by history or by positive skin tests, were tested by double-blind food challenge. 54 challenges were given to these children, and 26 (49...

  13. Rotational Collision Apparatus for Indoor Egg Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halada, Richard

    2003-05-01

    Our units about momentum and energy are richly illustrated with applications to car crashes and explanations of such safety features as airbags and crumple zones. The main lab exercise, however, is an egg crash (car insurance rates being so much higher). Fairly standard rules apply: Students must devise an "egg-protection package" that will keep a teacher-supplied egg intact through two successive impacts. After the test, they must hand in a written analysis of the specific physics principles they employed, modifications they would make after seeing their project's actual performance, and suggestions for applying their protection system to auto safety.

  14. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and...... samples between the two methods was assessed. The method presented here was superior to the traditional method. Only 14% of the samples had a standard deviation higher than expected, as compared with 58% in the traditional method. To reduce bias in the estimation of the variance and the mean of a trait...... diminishes environmental variance. This method was compared with a traditional egg collection method where eggs are collected directly from the medium. Within each method the observed and expected standard deviations of egg-to-adult viability were compared, whereby the difference in the randomness of the...

  15. Sea Turtle Conservation on Bonaire. Sea Turtle Club Bonaire 1995 Project Report and Long Term Proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkering, N.P.; Nugteren, Van P.; Eijck, Van T.J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Bonaire (12°12’N, 68°77’W), Netherlands Antilles, is famous for its unspoiled coral reefs. Reefs and lush sea grass provide forage and refuge for two species of endangered sea turtle, the green turtle ( Chelonia mydas) and the hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata). Loggerhead ( Caretta caretta ) and le

  16. Bird communities of contrasting semi-natural habitats of Lac bay, Bonaire, during the fall migration season, 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Bemmelen, van R.S.A.; Ligon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The mangrove and seagrass lagoon of Lac Bay on Bonaire covers an area of roughly 700 ha. It is home to endangered green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, and the Caribbean queen conch, Strombus gigas, and is a roosting and breeding area for several birds. Based on its nature values this 7 km2 bay has bee

  17. Turtle mimetic soft robot with two swimming gaits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sung-Hyuk; Kim, Min-Soo; Rodrigue, Hugo; Lee, Jang-Yeob; Shim, Jae-Eul; Kim, Min-Cheol; Chu, Won-Shik; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a biomimetic turtle flipper actuator consisting of a shape memory alloy composite structure for implementation in a turtle-inspired autonomous underwater vehicle. Based on the analysis of the Chelonia mydas, the flipper actuator was divided into three segments containing a scaffold structure fabricated using a 3D printer. According to the filament stacking sequence of the scaffold structure in the actuator, different actuating motions can be realized and three different types of scaffold structures were proposed to replicate the motion of the different segments of the flipper of the Chelonia mydas. This flipper actuator can mimic the continuous deformation of the forelimb of Chelonia mydas which could not be realized in previous motor based robot. This actuator can also produce two distinct motions that correspond to the two different swimming gaits of the Chelonia mydas, which are the routine and vigorous swimming gaits, by changing the applied current sequence of the SMA wires embedded in the flipper actuator. The generated thrust and the swimming efficiency in each swimming gait of the flipper actuator were measured and the results show that the vigorous gait has a higher thrust but a relatively lower swimming efficiency than the routine gait. The flipper actuator was implemented in a biomimetic turtle robot, and its average swimming speed in the routine and vigorous gaits were measured with the vigorous gait being capable of reaching a maximum speed of 11.5 mm s(-1). PMID:27145061

  18. Egg shape changes at the theropod–bird transition, and a morphometric study of amniote eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Deeming, D Charles; Ruta, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    The eggs of amniotes exhibit a remarkable variety of shapes, from spherical to elongate and from symmetrical to asymmetrical. We examine eggshell geometry in a diverse sample of fossil and living amniotes using geometric morphometrics and linear measurements. Our goal is to quantify patterns of morphospace occupation and shape variation in the eggs of recent through to Mesozoic birds (neornithe plus non-neornithe avialans), as well as in eggs attributed to non-avia...

  19. Hatching Characteristics and Growth Performance of Eggs with Different Egg Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Alasahan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was carried out to identify the effect of the egg shape index on the hatchability, performance, and carcass yield of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix Japonica . Eggs were incubated in three groups, according to three different egg shape index (SI values (Group SI-I: 70.00-73.85%, Group SI-II: 73.86-77.71% and Group SI-III: 77.72-81.57%. Unhatched eggs weight loss (HEWL was correlated with the egg shape index groups (SI-I: 18.51%, SI-II: 13.34% and SI-III: 13.96%; p0.05. The live weight of female and male chicks hatched from SI-I, SI-II, and SI-III egg shape index groups were compared at weeks 4 (female/male: 249.12/237.77, 244.69/236.35, and 241.52/229.72 g, respectively and 5 (female/male:304.89/272.42, 295.76/274.34, and 285.42/271.29 g, respectively, and the results showed that females were heavier than males (p0.05 (female/male: 296.87/283.80, 287.95/278.00 and 283.86/278.10 g, respectively. Males presented higher carcass yield in SI-I (p>0.05, SI-II (p<0.01 and SI-III (p<0.05 (female/male: 74.40/75.92, 74.50/76.44 and 74.80/76.42% groups than females. Egg shape index had no effect on initial egg weight (IEW, shell blunt end weight (SBW, chick weight, shank length, growth performance or carcass traits, but egg shape indexwas correlated with egg length, egg width, and hatchability of fertile eggs (p<0.05.

  20. Imaging Calcium in Drosophila at Egg Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, Christopher J; York-Andersen, Anna H; Weil, Timothy T

    2016-01-01

    Egg activation is a universal process that includes a series of events to allow the fertilized egg to complete meiosis and initiate embryonic development. One aspect of egg activation, conserved across all organisms examined, is a change in the intracellular concentration of calcium (Ca(2+)) often termed a 'Ca(2+) wave'. While the speed and number of oscillations of the Ca(2+) wave varies between species, the change in intracellular Ca(2+) is key in bringing about essential events for embryonic development. These changes include resumption of the cell cycle, mRNA regulation, cortical granule exocytosis, and rearrangement of the cytoskeleton. In the mature Drosophila egg, activation occurs in the female oviduct prior to fertilization, initiating a series of Ca(2+)-dependent events. Here we present a protocol for imaging the Ca(2+) wave in Drosophila. This approach provides a manipulable model system to interrogate the mechanism of the Ca(2+) wave and the downstream changes associated with it. PMID:27584955

  1. Composition of and cholesterol in Araucana and commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D W; Lilyblade, A; Clifford, C K; Ernst, R; Clifford, A J; Dunn, P

    1978-01-01

    Araucana eggs from six sources and commercial-type white eggs of two major supermarket brands and from the University of California flock were collected and analyzed for cholesterol content of the yolk. The yolks of Araucana eggs were significantly higher in cholesterol than those of commercial white eggs. PMID:563887

  2. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... egg yolks. (a) Dried egg yolks, dried yolks is the food prepared by drying egg yolks that conform to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg yolks. 160.185 Section 160.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  3. Influence of low temperature on development of Meloidogyne incognita and M. hapla eggs in egg masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrain, T C; Barker, K R

    1978-10-01

    Egg masses of Meloidogyne incognita and M. hapla were placed in soil at 10, 12, 16, and 20 C. At regular intervals, eggs from samples of egg masses were released from the gelatinous matrices and their developmental stages recorded. The number of days necessary to complete each stage from gastrulation to hatch is given for each temperature. The minimal temperature threshold for the development of eggs was computed by linear regression to be 8.26 C for M. incognita and 6.74 C for M. hapla. PMID:19305859

  4. Gestagens and glucocorticoids in chicken eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Rettenbacher, S.; Moestl, E.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2009-01-01

    Avian eggs contain a variety of steroid hormones, which have been attributed as a tool for maternal phenotypic engineering. The majority of studies focuses on androgens, but also significant amounts of progesterone as well as other steroid hormones have been measured. The question if corticosterone is also present in eggs of chickens is currently under debate. The only analytical validation performed so far has failed to demonstrate corticosterone in the yolk of chickens, suggesting that anti...

  5. How To Boil the Perfect Egg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小雨

    2007-01-01

    A British inventor says he has cracked(破解)the age-old riddle(难题)of how to boil the perfect egg,get rid of(摆脱)the water. Simon Rhymes uses powerful light bulbs instead of boiling water to cook the egg. The gadget(小发明)does the job in six minutes,and then chons off(削)the top of

  6. Enumeration of Salmonellae in Table Eggs, Pasteurized Egg Products, and Egg-Containing Dishes by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakočiūnė, Džiuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares;

    2014-01-01

    employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between the...... salmonellae in two egg-containing dishes, long egg and tiramisu, at abused refrigeration temperatures, and results indicated the growth of bacteria over a 1-week period. In conclusion, enrichment qPCR was shown to be reliable for enumeration of salmonellae in different egg products....

  7. Molecular diagnosis of egg allergy: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokshi, Niti Y; Sicherer, Scott H

    2015-01-01

    Hen's egg allergy affects up to 2.5% of young children and is potentially life-threatening. Several phenotypes of egg allergy have been identified, including those who tolerate extensively heated egg in bakery products. Diagnosis and monitoring for resolution often requires oral food challenges, which can result in anaphylaxis. Newer approaches, such as component-resolved diagnostics, microarray analysis and epitope mapping, are being evaluated to determine if these strategies can replace or reduce the need for oral food challenges. Studies suggest that elevated levels of ovomucoid IgE indicate an inability to tolerate extensively heated forms of egg. Egg protein-specific IgE/IgG4 ratios may be helpful in predicting tolerance. Additionally, patients with conformational epitopes to hen's egg are more likely to resolve their allergy compared with those with IgE binding to sequential epitopes. The pairing of microarray technology to epitope mapping is a potential tool to improve diagnosis. This review examines the current body of literature on these tools. PMID:25975845

  8. Bacteria associated with Amblyomma cajennense tick eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Vizzoni, Vinicius Figueiredo; Piesman, Joseph; Gazeta, Gilberto Salles; Soares, Carlos Augusto Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Ticks represent a large group of pathogen vectors that blood feed on a diversity of hosts. In the Americas, the Ixodidae ticks Amblyomma cajennense are responsible for severe impact on livestock and public health. In the present work, we present the isolation and molecular identification of a group of culturable bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs from females sampled in distinct geographical sites in southeastern Brazil. Additional comparative analysis of the culturable bacteria from Anocentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes scapularis tick eggs were also performed. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses identified 17 different bacterial types identified as Serratia marcescens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter spp., Micrococcus luteus, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus spp., distributed in 12 phylogroups. Staphylococcus spp., especially S. sciuri, was the most prevalent bacteria associated with A. cajennense eggs, occurring in 65% of the samples and also frequently observed infecting A. nitens eggs. S. maltophilia, S. marcescens and B. cereus occurred infecting eggs derived from specific sampling sites, but in all cases rising almost as pure cultures from infected A. cajennense eggs. The potential role of these bacterial associations is discussed and they possibly represent new targets for biological control strategies of ticks and tick borne diseases. PMID:26537602

  9. Geographical variation in egg size dimorphism in rockhopper penguins

    OpenAIRE

    Demongin, L.; Poisbleau, M.; Rey, A.R.; Schiavini, A.; Quillfeldt, P.; Eens, M.; Strange, I.J.

    2010-01-01

    All crested penguins present a unique reversed hatching asynchrony: the larger second-laid egg (B-egg) hatches before the smaller first-laid egg (A-egg). Although both eggs often hatch, the A-chick generally dies of starvation within days after hatching. However, within rockhopper penguins, the population at the Falkland Islands is unique in that some birds manage to raise both chicks. Although it has been suggested that the egg size dimorphism between A- and B-eggs may explain how long both ...

  10. Non-transferable signals on ant queen eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Tofilski, Adam; Heinze, Jürgen;

    2006-01-01

    How biological systems resolve internal conflicts is a major evolutionary question. Social insect workers cooperate but also pursue individual interests, such as laying male eggs. The rewards of this individual selfishness can be reduced by policing, such as by killing worker-laid eggs. However......, selfish individuals may evade policing. What factors prevent individuals from being able to evade policing? In the ant Pachycondyla inversa, workers kill (police) worker-laid eggs. Because the colony keeps eggs in piles and worker-laid and queen-laid eggs are chemically distinct, worker-laid eggs might...... become more acceptable once placed in the egg pile by odour transfer from touching queen-laid eggs. Here, we show that such "cue scrambling" does not occur. Worker-laid eggs that were sandwiched between three queen-laid eggs for 45 min were not more acceptable in a policing bioassay than control worker...

  11. Prevalence of Pathogens Associated with Eggs and the Environment of Conventional Cage and Free Range Egg Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative egg production methods are becoming more popular with US consumers. As the drive to expand the retail shell egg market to accommodate consumer shifts proceeds, a need arises for additional information to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A study ...

  12. Running title: Yeasts from refrigerated commercial shell eggs Identification of yeasts isolated from commercial shell eggs stored at refrigerated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeasts and molds can grow on or in eggs, causing spoilage. Washed and unwashed eggs (treatments) were collected aseptically on three separate days (replications) from a commercial processing facility and stored for 10 weeks at 4ºC. Ten eggs from each treatment were sampled weekly (110 eggs/treatme...

  13. A brood parasite selects for its own egg traits

    OpenAIRE

    Spottiswoode, Claire N

    2013-01-01

    Many brood parasitic birds lay eggs that mimic their hosts' eggs in appearance. This typically arises from selection from discriminating hosts that reject eggs which differ from their own. However, selection on parasitic eggs may also arise from parasites themselves, because it should pay a laying parasitic female to detect and destroy another parasitic egg previously laid in the same host nest by a different female. In this study, I experimentally test the source of selection on greater hone...

  14. Debates in allergy medicine: baked egg and milk do not accelerate tolerance to egg and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Thanh D; Peters, Rachel L; Allen, Katrina J

    2016-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that children with egg and cow's milk allergy who can tolerate these allergens cooked in baked goods are more likely to develop tolerance. As a result a hypothesis has arisen that exposure to egg and milk in baked goods may hasten tolerance development; however, it is unclear whether children who develop tolerance do so because they have ingested low levels of egg or milk in baked products. An alternative explanation for the improved prognosis in those who can tolerate food allergens in the baked form is that tolerance to egg and milk in baked goods is simply an indicator of a phenotype that is less likely to be persistent. We discuss the role that the baked egg or milk allergy phenotype plays on predicting tolerance development and suggest that it is the phenotype of the disease rather than exposure to altered allergens that is the strongest predictor of tolerance development. PMID:26839629

  15. Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lauren K; Harrison, Mark A; Berrang, Mark E; Jones, Deana R

    2016-07-01

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures were evaluated for Salmonella reduction: pH 11 at 48.9°C (industry standard), pH 11 at ambient temperature (∼20°C), pH 6 at 48.9°C, and pH 6 at ambient temperature. Alkaline washes contained potassium hydroxide-based detergent, while pH 6 washes contained approximately 200 ppm of chlorine and a proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128). When eggs were inoculated by immersion in a cell suspension of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, all treatments resulted in a slight and similar reduction of Salmonella numbers (approximately 0.77 log CFU/ml of shell emulsion reduction). When eggs were inoculated by droplet on the shell surface, Salmonella counts were reduced by approximately 5 log CFU when washed with chlorine plus the chlorine stabilizer at both temperatures and with the alkaline wash at the high temperature. The reductions in Salmonella by these treatments were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from each other but were significantly (P shelf life, and slow pathogen growth in and on shell eggs. PMID:27357042

  16. Egg substitutes: chemical and biologic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, M T; Ostrander, J

    1976-03-01

    The total lipid, cholesterol, phospholipid, and fatty acid content of dried whole egg (DWE), a refrigerated liquid egg substitute, a powdered egg substitute, and a commercial egg yolk replacer (EYR) were compared. All substitutes contained less total lipid, cholesterol, and phospholipid than DWE. The powdered substitute contained only half the total lipid content reported by the producers and only a fifth of the cholesterol of DWE, while the percentage distribution of fatty acids was similar to that of DWE. The liquid substitute and EYR had fatty acid distributions similar to soybean oil. Rat growth and lipid response were compared for diets containing either DWE or a mixture of EYR and egg white. Both diets were fed with and without vitamin and mineral supplements. Rat growth response was greatest on the DWE diets, either with or without the supplements, was intermediate on the supplemented EYR diets, and was least on the unsupplemented EYR diets. The consumption of DWE-containing diets, when compared with the EYR-containing diets, caused greater liver weight, greater liver total lipid and total cholesterol content, and slightly higher serum cholesterol. PMID:942984

  17. Egg-laying rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Manjunatha; Shantala Hari Dass; Vijay Kumar Sharma

    2008-12-01

    Extensive research has been carried out to understand how circadian clocks regulate various physiological processes in organisms. The discovery of clock genes and the molecular clockwork has helped researchers to understand the possible role of these genes in regulating various metabolic processes. In Drosophila melanogaster, many studies have shown that the basic architecture of circadian clocks is multi-oscillatory. In nature, different neuronal subgroups in the brain of D. melanogaster have been demonstrated to control different circadian behavioural rhythms or different aspects of the same circadian rhythm. Among the circadian phenomena that have been studied so far in Drosophila, the egg-laying rhythm is unique, and relatively less explored. Unlike most other circadian rhythms, the egg-laying rhythm is rhythmic under constant light conditions, and the endogenous or free-running period of the rhythm is greater than those of most other rhythms. Although the clock genes and neurons required for the persistence of adult emergence and activity/rest rhythms have been studied extensively, those underlying the circadian egg-laying rhythm still remain largely unknown. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the circadian egg-laying rhythm in D. melanogaster, and the possible molecular and physiological mechanisms that control the rhythmic output of the egg-laying process.

  18. eggNOG v4.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, Sean; Forslund, Kristoffer; Szklarczyk, Damian Milosz; Trachana, Kalliopi; Roth, Alexander; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Gabaldón, Toni; Rattei, Thomas; Creevey, Chris; Kuhn, Michael; Jensen, Lars J; von Mering, Christian; Bork, Peer

    With the increasing availability of various 'omics data, high-quality orthology assignment is crucial for evolutionary and functional genomics studies. We here present the fourth version of the eggNOG database (available at http://eggnog.embl.de) that derives nonsupervised orthologous groups (NOGs...... levels compared with 41 in eggNOGv3, (iii) identification and annotation of particularly closely related orthologous groups, facilitating analysis of related gene families, (iv) improvements of the clustering and functional annotation approach, (v) adoption of a revised tree building procedure based on...... the multiple alignments generated during the process and (vi) implementation of quality control procedures throughout the entire pipeline. As in previous versions, eggNOGv4 provides multiple sequence alignments and maximum-likelihood trees, as well as broad functional annotation. Users can access the...

  19. Ultrastructure of the egg apparatus of Spinacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Wilms

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The egg apparatus of Spinacia was studied from the time the embryo sac reaches its maximal size to just before fertilization, i.e., until about 8-9 hours after pollination. At maturity each synergid has a large elongated nucleus and prominent chalazal vacuoles, Numerous mitochondria, plastids, dictyosomes, free ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER, and lipid bodies are present. The cell wall exists only around the micropylar half of the synergids and each cell has a distinct, striated filiform apparatus. In general, degeneration of one synergid starts after pollination. The egg cell has a spherical nucleus and nucleolus and a large micropylar vacuole. Numerous mitochondria, some plastids with starch grains, dictyosomes, free ribosomes, and HER are present. A continuous cell wall is absent around the chalazal end of the egg cell.

  20. eggNOG v3.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, S.; Trachana, K.; Letunic, I.;

    2012-01-01

    Orthologous relationships form the basis of most comparative genomic and metagenomic studies and are essential for proper phylogenetic and functional analyses. The third version of the eggNOG database (http://eggnog.embl.de) contains non-supervised orthologous groups constructed from 1133 organisms......, doubling the number of genes with orthology assignment compared to eggNOG v2. The new release is the result of a number of improvements and expansions: (i) the underlying homology searches are now based on the SIMAP database; (ii) the orthologous groups have been extended to 41 levels of selected taxonomic...... ranges enabling much more fine-grained orthology assignments; and (iii) the newly designed web page is considerably faster with more functionality. In total, eggNOG v3 contains 721,801 orthologous groups, encompassing a total of 4,396,591 genes. Additionally, we updated 4873 and 4850 original COGs and...

  1. Chemical residue content and hatchability of screech owl eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, E.E.; Swineford, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    Eggs of wild Screech Owls were collected from nests in northwestern Ohio in 1973. One egg was taken from each of 19 nests near the start of incubation. Mean shell thickness in these 19 eggs and mean thickness of 16 unhatched eggs did not differ from 49 archival eggs collected in Ohio and Pennsylvania prior to the widespread use of organochlorine pesticides. Residues were generally low although all eggs contained DDE and PCB?s. No relationship was found between hatching failures and the presence of organochlorine residues. Low residues are consistent with a long history of good nesting success and a stable population.

  2. Effects of Ascorbic Acid on Egg Production and Egg Shell Quality in Laying Hens Drinking Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mirabdollbaghi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of different water source, saline water (Tap water +2 g L-1 Na and tape water with a diet that supplemented by three level of Ascorbic Acid (0, 1.5 and 3 g kg-1 of diet on laying hen`s performance and egg shell quality. This trail was carried out on 108 commercial laying hens (Hy-Line 32 weeks old for 12 weeks. All of the data were subjected to Two- way analysis of variance test. The result showed that egg production (%, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/h/day, feed conversion ratio, feed consumptions didn`t effected by saline water but using saline water increased the percentage of eggs with damaged shells (p<0.01. Also the effect of different level of Ascorbic acid on egg production (%, egg weight (g, egg mass (g/h/day, feed conversion ratio were not significant, but feed consumption reduced by using ascorbic acid (p<0.05. Egg shell thickness (mm, egg shell weight (%, egg shell weight (mg/cm2, egg specific gravity, egg shell calcium (% and egg shell phosphorous (% didn`t affected by saline water and different level of Ascorbic acid.

  3. A region on chicken chromosome 2 affects both egg white thinning and egg weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäki-Tanila Asko

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe the results from genetic dissection of a QTL region on chicken chromosome 2, shown to affect egg weight and quality in an earlier genome scan of an F2 intercross between two divergent egg layer lines. As the 90% confidence intervals for the detected QTL covered tens of centiMorgans, new analyses were needed. The datasets were reanalysed with denser marker intervals to characterise the QTL region. Analysis of a candidate gene from the original QTL region, vimentin, did not support its role in controlling egg white thinning. Even after reanalysis with additional seven markers in the QTL area, the 90% confidence intervals remained large or even increased, suggesting the presence of multiple linked QTL for the traits. A grid search fitting two QTL on chromosome 2 for each trait suggested that there are two distinct QTL areas affecting egg white thinning in both production periods and egg weight in the late production period. The results indicate possible pleiotropic effects of some of the QTL on egg quality and egg weight. However, it was not possible to make a distinction between close linkage versus pleiotropic effects.

  4. Enumeration of salmonellae in table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes by using quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakociune, Dziuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares; Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Klein, Günter; Manfreda, Gerardo; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2014-03-01

    Salmonellae are a major cause of food-borne outbreaks in Europe, with eggs and egg products being identified as major sources. Due to the low levels of salmonellae in eggs and egg products, direct quantification is difficult. In the present study, enrichment quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between the numbers of salmonellae and the quantification cycle (Cq) values for all matrices used, with the exception of pasteurized egg white. Standard curves were constructed by using both stationary-phase cells and heat-stressed cells, with similar results. Finally, this method was used to evaluate the fate of salmonellae in two egg-containing dishes, long egg and tiramisu, at abused refrigeration temperatures, and results indicated the growth of bacteria over a 1-week period. In conclusion, enrichment qPCR was shown to be reliable for enumeration of salmonellae in different egg products. PMID:24362433

  5. Physical quality and composition of retail shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Musgrove, M T; Anderson, K E; Thesmar, H S

    2010-03-01

    There are a number of specialty shell eggs available to consumers in the US retail market. A survey consisting of white and brown large shell eggs with various production and nutritional differences (traditional, cage-free, free-roaming, pasteurized, nutritionally enhanced, and fertile) was conducted to determine if physical quality and compositional differences exist. Identical brands of eggs were purchased from the same retail outlets on 3 occasions (replicates) in a single city. The average range of time from processing to purchase for all eggs was 7.67 to 25.33 d, with traditional white eggs in retail having the shortest time. Haugh unit values ranged from 66.67 (cage-free, docosahexaenoic acid, and n-3 enhanced) to 84.42 (traditional white). Albumen height followed a similar pattern. Egg weight was greater for brown eggs (61.12 vs. 58.85 g). Brown eggs also had greater static compression shell strength than white eggs (4,130.61 vs. 3,690.31 g force). Vitelline membrane strength was greatest for traditional brown eggs (2.24 g force). Percentage of total solids and crude fat was greatest in the cage-free, n-3-enhanced white eggs (25.07 and 11.71%, respectively). Although significant differences were found between white and brown shell eggs and production methods, average values for quality attributes varied without one egg type consistently maintaining the highest or lowest values. PMID:20181877

  6. Non-transferable signals on ant queen eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Tofilski, Adam; Heinze, Jürgen; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2006-03-01

    How biological systems resolve internal conflicts is a major evolutionary question. Social insect workers cooperate but also pursue individual interests, such as laying male eggs. The rewards of this individual selfishness can be reduced by policing, such as by killing worker-laid eggs. However, selfish individuals may evade policing. What factors prevent individuals from being able to evade policing? In the ant Pachycondyla inversa, workers kill (police) worker-laid eggs. Because the colony keeps eggs in piles and worker-laid and queen-laid eggs are chemically distinct, worker-laid eggs might become more acceptable once placed in the egg pile by odour transfer from touching queen-laid eggs. Here, we show that such “cue scrambling” does not occur. Worker-laid eggs that were sandwiched between three queen-laid eggs for 45 min were not more acceptable in a policing bioassay than control worker-laid eggs. Chemical analyses also showed that the surface hydrocarbon profile of these eggs was unchanged. Policing, therefore, is stable against this potential cheating mechanism probably because queen-laid eggs are made chemically distinct using chemicals, that are not easily transferred by physical contact.

  7. BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS (BEA IN EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Deže

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A conducted research analyzes two systems of egg production, the conventional, commercial egg production and the egg production with a higher nutritive value - PUFA n-3 enriched eggs. Financial result of eggs production with PUFA n-3 is significantly higher than that of the conventional production - profitability of the conventional production was 19.29% and the one with PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 36.10%. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the efficiency of the use of capital based on the profitability of capital that is in the conventional egg production 23.9%, and in the production of PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 56.1%. According to the results of investigation, it is necessary to produce 258 eggs in the conventional egg production, whereas in the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 breakeven point (BEP is lower and amounts 204 eggs per laying hen per year. A higher cover rate with a difference of 10% (42.99±53.07 confirms that the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 is economically more efficient.

  8. Egg size matching by an intraspecific brood parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Patrick R.; Sedinger, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Avian brood parasitism provides an ideal system with which to understand animal recognition and its affect on fitness. This phenomenon of laying eggs in the nests of other individuals has classically been framed from the perspective of interspecific brood parasitism and host recognition of parasitic eggs. Few examples exist of strategies adopted by intraspecific brood parasites to maximize success of parasitic eggs. Intraspecific brood parasitism within precocial birds can be a risky strategy in that hatch synchrony is essential to reproductive success. Given that egg size is positively correlated with incubation time, parasitic birds would benefit by recognizing and selecting hosts with a similar egg size. Intraspecific brood parasitism is an alternative reproductive strategy in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans), a colonial nesting goose with precocial young. Based on a randomization test, parasitic eggs in this study differed less in size from eggs in their host's nests than did random eggs placed in random nests. Parasitic eggs were remarkably similar in size to hosts’ eggs, differing by parasitic brant match the egg size of hosts in our study supports our hypothesis that brant match egg size of hosts, thereby maximizing hatching success of their parasitic eggs.

  9. Recovery of Salmonella from eggshell wash, eggshell crush, and egg internal contents of unwashed commercial shell eggs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chousalkar, K K; Roberts, J R

    2012-07-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the prevalence of Salmonella spp. on the eggshell surface, eggshell membranes or pores, and in egg internal contents from unwashed eggs collected from commercial caged layer farms in Australia. Eggshell rinsate, shell crush, and egg internal contents (yolk and albumen) of eggs were processed for Salmonella spp. Salmonella Infantis and Salmonella subspecies 1, serotype 4,12:d were isolated from the eggshell surface. Salmonella spp. were not isolated from any eggshell crush or egg internal contents. It would appear that the occurrence of Salmonella in the Australian egg industry is low. PMID:22700522

  10. 7 CFR 57.720 - Disposition of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the egg meat. Except that, lots of eggs containing significant percentages of blood spots or meat... permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B shall be identified as required in §§...

  11. Infections may select for filial cannibalism by impacting egg survival in interactions with water salinity and egg density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-07-01

    In aquatic environments, externally developing eggs are in constant contact with the surrounding water, highlighting the significance of water parameters and pathogens for egg survival. In this study we tested the impact of water salinity, egg density and infection potential of the environment on egg viability in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a small fish that exhibits paternal egg care and has a marine origin, but which in the Baltic Sea lives in brackish water. To manipulate the infection potential of the environment, we added either a Saprolegnia infection vector into UV-filtered water or a fungicide into natural Baltic Sea water. Saprolegnia are widely spread water moulds that are a key cause of egg mortality in aquatic organisms in fresh- and brackish water. We found that increased water salinity indeed decreased the egg infection rate and had a positive effect on egg viability, while high egg density tended to have the opposite effect. However, the different factors influenced egg viability interactively, with a higher egg density having negative effects at low, but not in high, salinity. Thus, the challenges facing marine organisms adapting to lower salinity levels can be amplified by Saprolegnia infections that reduce egg survival in interaction with other environmental factors. Our results support the hypothesis that suppressing egg infections is an important aspect of parental care that can select for filial cannibalism, a common but poorly understood behaviour, especially in fish with parental care. PMID:25676104

  12. Effect of egg storage length on hatchability and weight loss in incubation of egg and meat type Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Romao

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The quail raising in Brazil has increased through the last years and the incubation procedures are important to maintenance and improvement of quail egg production. To obtain a sufficient number of eggs to fill an incubator, eggs are usually accumulated in storage over a period from 1 day up to 3 weeks before incubation. The objective of this research was to verify the effect of egg storage on hatchability and egg weight loss for two lineages of Japanese quails. Sixty four Japanese quails were divided in two groups: G1 (n=32 for meat production and G2 (n=32 for egg production. They were used for serial egg collections that were performed every day, during 15 consecutively days, totaling 600 eggs. After collection they were placed in refrigerated room (20°C and 60% of relative humidity and submitted to different periods of storage, from 0 day until 14 days, according to their collection day. The incubation occurred at 37.6°C and 60% RH. The weight measurements were done during storage, incubation and hatching. The results showed that for Meat type and Egg type quails, the egg hatchability was around 84% until 10 days of storage, and then this rate decreased significantly. Both types of quail eggs presented similar weight loss during storage and incubation. The research showed that quail eggs present great hatchability until 10 days of storage and that eggs submitted to storage present a reduced weight loss during incubation.

  13. Bald eagle predation on common loon egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Stephen; McCarthy, Kyle P.; Laskowski, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Common Loon (Gavia immer) must defend against many potential egg predators during incubation, including corvids, Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), fisher (Martes pennanti), and mink (Neovison vison) (McIntyre 1988, Evers 2004, McCann et al. 2005). Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) have been documented as predators of both adult Common Loons and their chicks (Vliestra and Paruk 1997, Paruk et al. 1999, Erlandson et al. 2007, Piper et al. 2008). In Wisconsin, where nesting Bald Eagles are abundant (.1200 nesting pairs, .1 young/pair/year), field biologists observed four instances of eagle predation of eggs in loon nests during the period 2002–2004 (M. Meyer pers. comm.). In addition, four cases of eagle predation of incubating adult loons were inferred from evidence found at the loon nest (dozens of plucked adult loon feathers, no carcass remains) and/or loon leg, neck, and skull bones beneath two active eagle nests, including leg bones containing the bands of the nearby (,25 m) incubating adult loon. However, although loon egg predation has been associated with Bald Eagles, predation events have yet to be described in peer-reviewed literature. Here we describe a photographic observation of predation on a Common Loon egg by an immature Bald Eagle as captured by a nest surveillance video camera on Lake Umbagog, a large lake (32 km2) at Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge (UNWR) in Maine.

  14. Frog egg growth, experiment S003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. S.; Tremor, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The objective of experiment was to determine the effect of weightlessness on the ability of a fertilized frog egg to divide normally and to differentiate and form a normal embryo. This experiment was first attempted on the Gemini 8 mission and was completed only partially because of the early termination of that mission.

  15. Social order and egg production of hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, van E.H.; Groeneveld, J.; Brat, L.C.; Kleijn, L.J.K.; Schenk, P.M.

    1968-01-01

    1. For two flocks of 48 and 40 hens, consisting of the F1 of Rhode Island Red males and White Leghorn females, peck-order, aggressiveness and egg production were determined. Flock I was built up step by step by continually adding a group of 8 hens to the hens already present in the testing pen. Floc

  16. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  17. Field study on broiler eggs hatchability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yassin, H.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Boerjan, M.; Riel, van J.W.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore factors that are related with hatchability in the field. Data from 3 Dutch hatcheries for the years 2004, 2005, and 2006 were analyzed using a random regression model with the method of restricted maximum likelihood. In total, 24,234 batches of 724,750,444 egg

  18. SANITATION IN SHELL EGG PROCESSING PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

  19. Hen Egg as an Antioxidant Food Commodity: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Chamila Nimalaratne; Jianping Wu

    2015-01-01

    Intake of antioxidants through diet is known to be important in reducing oxidative damage in cells and improving human health. Although eggs are known for their exceptional, nutritional quality, they are not generally considered as antioxidant foods. This review aims to establish the importance of eggs as an antioxidant food by summarizing the current knowledge on egg-derived antioxidants. Eggs have various natural occurring compounds including the proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysoz...

  20. Evaluating factors that influence egg production at Konsoni Poultry Company

    OpenAIRE

    Muje Gjonbalaj; Arben Musliu; Myrvete Badivuku-Pantina; Ilir Zenalaj

    2009-01-01

    The main focus of this research is to evaluate the factors thought to influence the monthly egg production of Konsoni Poultry Company. The linear regression employing different variables of interest is used to predict the future monthly egg production of the largest poultry farm in Kosovo. The general purpose of multiple regressions (the term was first used by Pearson, 1908) is to learn more about the relationship between egg price, local competitors and egg imports as independent or predicto...

  1. The Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Pollen on Egg Production and Egg Yolk Qualitative Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Henrieta Arpášová; Miroslava Kačániová; Branislav Gálik

    2013-01-01

    Phytobiotics are defined as products derived from plants, which may have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oil and pollen extract addition on egg production and physical egg yolk parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30) were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10) and fed for 23 weeks with die...

  2. Organochlorine and heavy metal residues in bald eagle eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, W.C.; Mulhern, B.M.; Bagley, G.E.; Sprunt, A., IV; Ligas, F.J.; Robertson, W.B., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Bald eagle eggs collected in 1968 from nests in Wisconsin, Maine, and Florida all contained residues of DDE, DDD, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Many also contained traces of DDT. Eggs from five nonproductive nests sampled in Maine contained much higher residues than did eggs collected from either productive or nonproductive nests in Wisconsin and Florida.

  3. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or producer... laying hens is in some other party to the contract. In the event the party to an oral contract...

  4. Consumption of bird eggs by invasive Burmese Pythons in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Carla J.; Reed, Robert N.; Snow, Ray W.

    2012-01-01

    Burmese Pythons (Python molurus bivittatus or P. bivittatus) have been reported to consume 25 species of adult birds in Everglades National Park, Florida (Dove et al. 2011), but until now no records documented this species eating bird eggs. Here we report three recent cases of bird-egg consumption by Burmese Pythons and discuss egg-eating in basal snakes.

  5. 7 CFR 57.35 - Eggs in commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eggs in commerce. 57.35 Section 57.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Eggs in commerce. (a)(1) For eggs that moved or are moving in interstate or foreign commerce, no...

  6. Quality assessment of marketed eggs in Eastern Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kara Ali, Monira; Ait Kaki, Asma; Milet, Asma; Moula, Nassim

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare eggs quality between industrial and local chickens in four departments of Eastern Algeria (Bejaia, Jijel, Mila and Setif). A total of 4748 eggs were bought from three marketing channels as following: shops (1184), public markets (2757) and supermarkets (807). The percentage of stained eggs was significantly different (P

  7. Factors that affect Commercial Shell Egg Processing Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intact shell eggs are designed to limit bacterial contamination of egg contents, protecting a developing embryo, but also contributing to their wholesomeness as human food. In order for eggs to be involved in human enteritis, there is often temperature abuse of raw product followed by consumption o...

  8. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hatching egg sanitation. 147.22... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at...

  9. Irregularly calcified eggs and eggshells of Caiman latirostris (Alligatoridae: Crocodylia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Mariela Soledad; Simoncini, Melina Soledad; Dyke, Gareth

    2013-05-01

    We describe irregularly calcified egg and eggshell morphologies for the first time in nests of the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris. Research is based on detailed descriptions of 270 eggs from a total sample of 46,800 collected between 2005 and 2011 in Santa Fe Province, Argentina, and encompasses animals from both natural habitats and held in captivity. We discuss possible reasons for the occurrence of eggs with different mineralisation patterns in our extensive C. latirostris field sample and its conservation significance; the chemistry of egg laying in amniotes is sensitive to environmental contamination which, in turn, has biological implications. Based on our egg sample, we identify two caiman eggshell abnormalities: (1) regularly calcified eggs with either calcitic nodules or superficial wrinkles at one egg end and (2) irregularly calcified eggs with structural gaps that weaken the shell. Some recently laid clutches we examined included eggs with most of the shell broken and detached from the flexible membrane. Most type 1 regularly calcified eggs lost their initial calcified nodules during incubation, suggesting that these deposits do not affect embryo survival rates. In contrast, irregularly calcified caiman eggs have a mean hatching success rate of 8.9 % (range 0-38 %) across our sample compared to a mean normal success of 75 %. Most irregularly calcified caiman eggs probably die because of infections caused by fungi and bacteria in the organic nest material, although another possible explanation that merits further investigation could be an increase in permeability, leading to embryo dehydration.

  10. Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-19

    Eggs are one of nature's most nutritious and economical foods, but you must take special care when handling and preparing fresh eggs and egg products to avoid food poisoning.  Created: 8/19/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases (NCEZID/DFWED).   Date Released: 8/19/2010.

  11. Factors that Affect the Microbiology of Commercial Shell Egg Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intact shell eggs are designed to limit bacterial contamination of egg contents, protecting a developing embryo, but also contributing to their wholesomeness as human food. In order for eggs to be involved in human enteritis, there is often temperature abuse of raw product followed by consumption o...

  12. Effects of gamma radiation on the Mediterranean flour moth eggs and acceptability of irradiated eggs by trichogramma cacoeciae females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, eggs in different stages of development to gamma irradiation was studied and the acceptability of irradiated eggs by Trichogramma cacoeciae females was examined. In addition, the developmental rate of immature stages (larvae and pupae), resulting from irradiated eggs, to the adult stage was examined and the acceptance of irradiated eggs to T. cacoeciae females was evaluated. Results showed that the radio-sensitivity of E. kuehniella eggs decreased with increasing age. Irradiation also negatively affected survival to the adult stage and the rate of development of immature stages (larvae and pupae) to adults. In addition, the rate of development of immature stages resulting from irradiated eggs was negatively affected. Furthermore, irradiation positively affected the degree of acceptance of eggs to parasitization; irradiated eggs were more acceptable to T. cacoeciae than cold treated ones. (Author)

  13. A saltwater flotation technique to identify unincubated eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devney, C.A.; Kondrad, S.L.; Stebbins, K.R.; Brittingham, K.D.; Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Field studies on nesting birds sometimes involve questions related to nest initiation dates, length of the incubation period, or changes in parental incubation behavior during various stages of incubation. Some of this information can be best assessed when a nest is discovered before the eggs have undergone any incubation, and this has traditionally been assessed by floating eggs in freshwater. However, because the freshwater method is not particularly accurate in identifying unincubated eggs, we developed a more reliable saltwater flotation method. The saltwater method involves diluting a saturated saltwater solution with freshwater until a salt concentration is reached where unincubated eggs sink to the bottom and incubated eggs float to the surface. For Laughing Gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla), floating eggs in freshwater failed to identify 39.0% (N = 251) of eggs that were subsequently found by candling to have undergone incubation prior to collection. By contrast, in a separate collection of gull eggs, no eggs that passed the saltwater test (N = 225) were found by a later candling to have been incubated prior to collection. For Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), floating eggs in freshwater failed to identify 15.6% (N = 250) of eggs that had undergone incubation prior to collection, whereas in a separate collection, none of the eggs that passed the saltwater test (N = 85) were found by a later candling to have been incubated prior to collection. Immersion of eggs in saltwater did not affect embryo survival. Although use of the saltwater method is likely limited to colonial species and requires calibrating a saltwater solution, it is a faster and more accurate method of identifying unincubated eggs than the traditional method of floating eggs in freshwater.

  14. Industrially processed oilseed rape in the production of table eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g. Egg white weight was calculated. The thickness and strength of the egg shell were measured from the dried samples at 55 °C. From each egg shell were cut 3 pcs of samples in the equatorial plane, one sample from the blunt end and one sample from the sharp end. Egg shell thickness was measured by test instrument SOME, type 60/0.01mm with a range of 0 - 10 mm. Egg shell strength was measured according to test instrument Instron with the small body, having a diameter 4.48 mm to exert pressure on the egg shell. The obtained data were assessed in the program system SAS, version 8.2. Based on the results observed in egg weight of our experiment we can conclude that in the group with share 5% of rape cakes was non-statistically significant (p >0.05 decreased egg weight compared to the control group. Egg weight was reduced in the group with share 10% of rape cakes, which confirmed a statistically significant difference compared to egg weight of control group (p ˂0.05. The differences among experimental groups with share 5% and 10% of rape cakes in feed mixture and as well as to control group were not statistically significant (p >0.05 in weight of egg yolk, egg white, egg shell and egg shell strength. Egg shell thickness was no statistically significant (p >0.05 increased in experimental group with share 5% of rape cakes and decreased in experimental group with share 10% of rape cakes versus control group. Increase of egg shell thickness in experimental group with

  15. Consumer confidence in Food Safety and the 2010 egg recall

    OpenAIRE

    Pouliot, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Iowa egg producers recalled nearly 500 million eggs in August 2010. The typical effect of a recall is to cause a decline in the demand for the affected product, yielding a decrease in the price. In the case of August 2010 egg recall, the price of eggs increased in the following weeks. This essay investigates the market effects of the egg recall. I estimate a system of simultaneous equations that includes supply and demand equations for the two main segments of the US industry. This essay offe...

  16. Characteristics of reared game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Guidobono Cavalchini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and physical characteristics of game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg were studied and compared with domesticfowl (Gallus gallus domesticus’s egg. The birds were housed in individual cages in a environmentally controlled room(T=18÷20°C; 16L:8D and fed ad libitum standard breeder diet. A sample of thirty eggs was analysed for each phase of thelaying period (beginning, peak and end. The following chemico-physical parameters: egg, albumen, yolk and shell weight;yolk colour; egg and shell dry matter (DM; shell thickness (blunt end, pointed end and middle part were measured. Theprotein, lipid, and cholesterol content was evaluated; the fatty acid (FA profile analysed. We observed: egg weight averageof 34.5g ; a high proportion of yolk (37% in the whole egg (Y/E, consequently, a high lipid content of 13.9%; a protein contentDM of 44.3%; the fatty acid composition was similar to that of chicken egg and the oleic acid (36.4% was the majorproportion of the total fatty acids, as in the domestic fowl. The rearing pheasant’s egg has a high nutritive concentration, dueto high ratio yolk/whole egg, with biological and nutritional characteristics similar to domestic fowl’s egg.

  17. Hen Egg as an Antioxidant Food Commodity: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamila Nimalaratne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intake of antioxidants through diet is known to be important in reducing oxidative damage in cells and improving human health. Although eggs are known for their exceptional, nutritional quality, they are not generally considered as antioxidant foods. This review aims to establish the importance of eggs as an antioxidant food by summarizing the current knowledge on egg-derived antioxidants. Eggs have various natural occurring compounds including the proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme in egg white, as well as phosvitin, carotenoids and free aromatic amino acids in egg yolk. Some lipophilic antioxidants such as vitamin E, carotenoids, selenium, iodine and others can be transferred from feed into egg yolk to produce antioxidant-enriched eggs. The bioactivity of egg antioxidants can be affected by food processing, storage and gastrointestinal digestion. Generally thermal processing methods can promote loss of antioxidant properties in eggs due to oxidation and degradation, whereas gastrointestinal digestion enhances the antioxidant properties, due to the formation of new antioxidants (free amino acids and peptides. In summary, in addition to its well-known nutritional contribution to our diet, this review emphasizes the role of eggs as an important antioxidant food.

  18. Ballistocardiogram of avian eggs determined by an electromagnetic induction coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, H; Akiyama, R; Sakamoto, Y; Pearson, J T; Tazawa, H

    1997-07-01

    As an avian embryo grows within an eggshell, the whole egg is moved by embryonic activity and also by the embryonic heartbeat. A technical interest in detecting minute biological movements has prompted the development of techniques and systems to measure the cardiogenic ballistic movement of the egg or ballistocardiogram (BCG). In this context, there is interest in using an electromagnetic induction coil (solenoid) as another simple sensor to measure the BCG and examining its possibility for BCG measurement. A small permanent magnet is attached tightly to the surface of an incubated egg, and then the egg with the magnet is placed in a solenoid. Preliminary model analysis is made to design a setup of the egg, magnet and solenoid coupling system. Then, simultaneous measurement with a laser displacement measuring system, developed previously, is made for chicken eggs, indicating that the solenoid detects the minute cardiogenic ballistic movements and that the BCG determined is a measure of the velocity of egg movements. PMID:9327626

  19. The Eagle's EGGs fertile or sterile?

    CERN Document Server

    McCaughrean, M J; Caughrean, Mark J. Mc; Andersen, Morten

    2002-01-01

    We present a deep, high spatial resolution (0.35 arcsec FWHM), near-infrared (1-2.5 micron) imaging survey of the Eagle Nebula, M16, made with the VLT, centred on the famous elephant trunks. We compare these data with the existing HST optical images to search for evidence of ongoing or recent star formation in the trunks, and in particular in the 73 small evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs) on their surface. We find that two of the three HST trunks have relatively massive YSOs in their tips. Most of the EGGs appear to be empty, but some 15% of them do show evidence for associated young low-mass stars or brown dwarfs: in particular, there is a small cluster of such sources seen at the head of the largest trunk.

  20. Physics Models of Pronuclear Movements in Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on published experimental data, Newton's laws, and Coulomb's law, we investigate natural and normal pronuclear movements in wild types of eggs and develop physics models to fit the experimental data quantitatively. The difference between our modeling calculated results and the experimental data is less than 20%. Our models explain why and how pronuclei move in even or in variant velocities. We hypothesize: During the migration, positively charged asters (or self assembled microtubules drive two negatively charged sperm and egg pronuclei to move towards each other. The driving force comes from a spontaneous and strong Electromagnetic Field (EMF. Hamilton's principle determines the path of these movements. A natural and normal EMF inside or around the pronuclei can be alternated environmentally. An abnormal EMF could induce aberrant embryos that cause life disease. We believe our models are helpful to further understand the mechanism of fertilization and have potential clinical value to prevent aberrant embryos that induce human life disease.

  1. Crocodile egg sounds signal hatching time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Amélie L; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2008-06-24

    Crocodilians are known to vocalize within the egg shortly before hatching [1,2]. Although a possible function of these calls - inducing hatching in siblings and stimulating the adult female to open the nest - has already been suggested, it has never been experimentally tested [1-5]. Here, we present the first experimental evidence that pre-hatching calls of Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) juveniles are informative acoustic signals which indeed target both siblings and mother. PMID:18579090

  2. Comparison of the egg flotation and egg candling techniques for estimating incubation day of Canada Goose nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Both egg flotation and egg candling have been used to estimate incubation day (often termed nest age) in nesting birds, but little is known about the relative accuracy of these two techniques. We used both egg flotation and egg candling to estimate incubation day for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) nesting near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, from 2000 to 2007. We modeled variation in the difference between estimates of incubation day using each technique as a function of true incubation day, as well as, variation in error rates with each technique as a function of the true incubation day. We also evaluated the effect of error in the estimated incubation day on estimates of daily survival rate (DSR) and nest success using simulations. The mean difference between concurrent estimates of incubation day based on egg flotation minus egg candling at the same nest was 0.85 ?? 0.06 (SE) days. The positive difference in favor of egg flotation and the magnitude of the difference in estimates of incubation day did not vary as a function of true incubation day. Overall, both egg flotation and egg candling overestimated incubation day early in incubation and underestimated incubation day later in incubation. The average difference between true hatch date and estimated hatch date did not differ from zero (days) for egg flotation, but egg candling overestimated true hatch date by about 1 d (true - estimated; days). Our simulations suggested that error associated with estimating the incubation day of nests and subsequently exposure days using either egg candling or egg flotation would have minimal effects on estimates of DSR and nest success. Although egg flotation was slightly less biased, both methods provided comparable and accurate estimates of incubation day and subsequent estimates of hatch date and nest success throughout the entire incubation period. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  3. Effects of extended storage on egg quality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Musgrove, M T

    2005-11-01

    Eggs were collected from a single inline processing facility weekly for 3 wk (replicates). The eggs were stored at 4 degrees C and 80% RH. Sampling began the day after collection and continued each week for 10 wk. During analysis, 24 eggs were examined for egg weight, albumen height, Haugh units (HU), shell strength, and vitelline membrane strength for each replicate. Egg weight decreased (P Eggs from the second replicate were significantly (P eggs in replicate 2 compared with the other replicates (P shell strength between replicates or during extended storage. A significant difference (P membrane strength between replicates, but this difference was less than 0.05 g. The elasticity of the vitelline membrane decreased during storage (P egg weight, albumen height, and HU. However, average HU values were still within the range for grade A. Shell strength was not affected by extended storage. Vitelline membrane elasticity also decreased, which could lead to yolks more easily rupturing as consumers crack the eggs. The results indicated that although the physical quality factors monitored in this study decreased during storage, egg quality was still acceptable beyond current recommended shelf life guidelines. PMID:16463976

  4. Effects of Disinfectants on Larval Development of Ascaris suum Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Geon-Tae; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several different commercial disinfectants on the embryogenic development of Ascaris suum eggs. A 1-ml aliquot of each disinfectant was mixed with approximately 40,000 decorticated or intact A. suum eggs in sterile tubes. After each treatment time (at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min), disinfectants were washed away, and egg suspensions were incubated at 25˚C in distilled water for development of larvae inside. At 3 weeks of incubation after exposure, ethanol, methanol, and chlorohexidin treatments did not affect the larval development of A. suum eggs, regardless of their concentration and treatment time. Among disinfectants tested in this study, 3% cresol, 0.2% sodium hypochlorite and 0.02% sodium hypochlorite delayed but not inactivated the embryonation of decorticated eggs at 3 weeks of incubation, because at 6 weeks of incubation, undeveloped eggs completed embryonation regardless of exposure time, except for 10% povidone iodine. When the albumin layer of A. suum eggs remained intact, however, even the 10% povidone iodine solution took at least 5 min to reasonably inactivate most eggs, but never completely kill them with even 60 min of exposure. This study demonstrated that the treatment of A. suum eggs with many commercially available disinfectants does not affect the embryonation. Although some disinfectants may delay or stop the embryonation of A. suum eggs, they can hardly kill them completely. PMID:26951988

  5. A brood parasite selects for its own egg traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spottiswoode, Claire N

    2013-10-23

    Many brood parasitic birds lay eggs that mimic their hosts' eggs in appearance. This typically arises from selection from discriminating hosts that reject eggs which differ from their own. However, selection on parasitic eggs may also arise from parasites themselves, because it should pay a laying parasitic female to detect and destroy another parasitic egg previously laid in the same host nest by a different female. In this study, I experimentally test the source of selection on greater honeyguide (Indicator indicator) egg size and shape, which is correlated with that of its several host species, all of which breed in dark holes. Its commonest host species did not discriminate against experimental eggs that differed from their own in size and shape, but laying female honeyguides preferentially punctured experimental eggs more than host or control eggs. This should improve offspring survival given that multiple parasitism by this species is common, and that honeyguide chicks kill all other nest occupants. Hence, selection on egg size in greater honeyguides parasitizing bee-eaters appears to be imposed not by host defences but by interference competition among parasites themselves. PMID:23966598

  6. Impacts of radiation processing on physicochemical properties of Table Eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the effect of gamma irradiation on pathogens, quality, and functional properties of shell eggs. Using intact, fresh while and brown shell eggs, inoculated with 109 colony-forming units (cfu) of S enteritidis and S, typhimurium. The effect of gamma-irradiation at doses 2,4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation on bacteriologic and population and physical characteristics (Haugh units and yolk color), chemical composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash), the rheological changes (viscosity), pH and protean solubility of the eggs were determinate d. Results showed that 2 kGy, the number of S, enteritidis and eggs internal quality as freshness as measured by albumen height and the number of hugh units, and yolk color index were all significantly reduced with increasing irradiation doses. On significant change was found after irradiation in egg white or yolk in the chemical composition (moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash). After irradiation, the foaming ability and foam capacity of egg white were increasing radiation doses> The viscosity of egg white and yolk decreased with increasing doses of irradiation. The pH of the egg white and yolk increasing doses of radiation dose. The protein salability decreased significantly in egg white and yolk with increasing radiation dose. These Results Suggest that gamma irradiation reduce the freshness of shell eggs and improving important functional properties such as to foaming ability and foaming capacity. Gamma irradiation can also be applied to the egg breaking process sine irradiation reduces the viscosity of egg white and yolk, which can allow egg whites and yolks to be separated with greater efficiency. (Author)

  7. Reciprocal crosses between Alabio and Mojosari ducks : early egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H Prasetyo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available alternative to increasing productivity and production efficiency. Crossbreeding has been used widely for increasing productivity, and in this experiment Alabio and Mojosari ducks were crossed reciprocally in order to evaluate their egg production and egg quality, when compared to their parental breeds. Four genotypes AA, AM, MA and MM were compared and each consisted of 50 layer ducks. Each animal was kept in individual cage, and individual egg production and egg quality were recorded. They were given layer feed containing 20% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg metabolisable energy. Results showed that the crossbred ducks (AM and MA laid eggs earlier than their parental breeds (AA and MM, and MA laid earlier than AM. The weight of first eggs of the crossbreeds did not differ significantly, AM was the same as MM and MA the same as AA. For the body weight at first lay, MA and AM weighed in between their parental breeds, AA was the heaviest and then followed by MA, AM and MM. For the 3-month egg production, MA ducks laid significantly more egg than the other 3 genotypes, and this is related to the age of first lay being the earliest. In terms of egg quality such as egg weight, yolk color, weight and thickness of shell, weight of the white and HU value, the crossbred ducks showed quality in between AA and MM. The AM ducks tended to be closer to MM and MA closer to AA, and this shows a strong influence of maternal effects. The average level of heterosis for weight of first egg is 2.41% and for 3-month egg production is 2.1%, but for MA cross the heterosis level is 11.69% for egg production. The overall results showed that crossbreeds between Alabio and Mojosari have the potential in improving production traits in the effort to increase productivity and production efficiency.

  8. Closer clutch inspection—quicker egg ejection: timing of host responses toward parasitic eggs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Polačiková, Lenka; Honza, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2011), s. 46-51. ISSN 1045-2249 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605; GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA ČR(CZ) GD524/05/H536; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * brood parasitism * egg discrimination * egg ejection time * great reed warbler * nest inspection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.083, year: 2011

  9. Radiation preservation study on middle host eggs of trichogramma species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical feasibility about the preservation of Antheraea pernyi's eggs, which are used as middle hosts of Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura, irradiated by electron beam is studied. The effects of radiation dose, storage temperature on preservative time of eggs are discussed. The results reveal that the preservative time of Antheraea pernyi's eggs irradiated by electron beam, combining with storage in a refrigerator, is notable prolonged in contrast with the control. When the irradiated eggs stored in a refrigerator for 89 days are serviced as hosts, the parasitic percentage for Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura is about 80%. Besides, the emergence percentage, average numbers of parasitoids reproduced out of one egg, as well as body size, growing stage periods, and the sexual rate of descendant are all normal. Irradiated eggs have not any adverse effects on the abilities of Trichogramma species and their offspring in both bearing and controlling insect pests

  10. Heartbeat, embryo communication and hatching synchrony in snake eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubret, Fabien; Blanvillain, Gaëlle; Bignon, Florent; Kok, Philippe J R

    2016-01-01

    Communication is central to life at all levels of complexity, from cells to organs, through to organisms and communities. Turtle eggs were recently shown to communicate with each other in order to synchronise their development and generate beneficial hatching synchrony. Yet the mechanism underlying embryo to embryo communication remains unknown. Here we show that within a clutch, developing snake embryos use heart beats emanating from neighbouring eggs as a clue for their metabolic level, in order to synchronise development and ultimately hatching. Eggs of the water snake Natrix maura increased heart rates and hatched earlier than control eggs in response to being incubated in physical contact with more advanced eggs. The former produced shorter and slower swimming young than their control siblings. Our results suggest potential fitness consequences of embryo to embryo communication and describe a novel driver for the evolution of egg-clustering behaviour in animals. PMID:26988725

  11. A quantitative assessment method for Ascaris eggs on hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    2014-01-01

    The importance of hands in the transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially Ascaris and Trichuris infections, is under-researched. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of eggs on hands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method...... with Ascaris eggs and of their role in human infection. Follow-up studies are needed that validate the hand washing method under field conditions, e.g. including people of different age, lower levels of contamination and various levels of hand cleanliness....... to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were seeded with a known number of Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates of eggs for four...

  12. Sampling efficiency of the Moore egg collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Mueller, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative studies focusing on the collection of semibuoyant fish eggs, which are associated with a pelagic broadcast-spawning reproductive strategy, are often conducted to evaluate reproductive success. Many of the fishes in this reproductive guild have suffered significant reductions in range and abundance. However, the efficiency of the sampling gear used to evaluate reproduction is often unknown and renders interpretation of the data from these studies difficult. Our objective was to assess the efficiency of a modified Moore egg collector (MEC) using field and laboratory trials. Gear efficiency was assessed by releasing a known quantity of gellan beads with a specific gravity similar to that of eggs from representatives of this reproductive guild (e.g., the Arkansas River Shiner Notropis girardi) into an outdoor flume and recording recaptures. We also used field trials to determine how discharge and release location influenced gear efficiency given current methodological approaches. The flume trials indicated that gear efficiency ranged between 0.0% and 9.5% (n = 57) in a simple 1.83-m-wide channel and was positively related to discharge. Efficiency in the field trials was lower, ranging between 0.0% and 3.6%, and was negatively related to bead release distance from the MEC and discharge. The flume trials indicated that the gellan beads were not distributed uniformly across the channel, although aggregation was reduced at higher discharges. This clustering of passively drifting particles should be considered when selecting placement sites for an MEC; further, the use of multiple devices may be warranted in channels with multiple areas of concentrated flow.

  13. Embryonic growth and antioxidant provision in avian eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Deeming, D Charles; Pike , Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Avian embryos undergo extremely rapid development over a relatively short period of time, and so are likely to suffer high levels of oxidative damage unless this is mitigated by sufficient maternal allocation of appropriate antioxidants. At a species level, it is therefore predicted that antioxidants should be allocated to eggs according to the rate of embryonic growth, such that eggs containing embryos that grow faster are furnished with higher antioxidant levels, independent of egg size. We...

  14. Egg laying site preferences in Pterostichus melanarius Illiger (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Trefas, H.; Lenteren, van, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    In the case of ground beetles, the number of studies investigating the effects plant-related structure and microclimate on the selection of egg laying sites is very limited. The egg laying site preference of Pterostichus melanarius, an important carabid beetle in agricultural fields, was studied under laboratory conditions. The effects of wet/dry substrate, light/shadow and structured/unstructured environment on the number of eggs laid were investigated, as well as the influence of the presen...

  15. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS PACKED UNDER MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Giampietro-Ganeco; Hirasilva Borba; Aline Mary Scatolini-Silva; Marcel Manente Boiago; Pedro Alves de Souza; Juliana Lolli Malagoli de Mello

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are perishable foods and lose quality quickly if not stored properly. From the moment of posture to the marketing of egg, quality loss occurs through gas exchange and water through the pores of the shell with the external environment and thus, studies involving modified atmosphere packaging are extremely important. The aim of the present study is to assess the internal quality of eggs packed under modified atmosphere and stored at room temperature. Six hundred and twelve fresh commercial...

  16. The Economics of Regulated Changes to the Australian Egg Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Trewin, Ray

    2001-01-01

    The Australian egg industry is facing adjustment pressures including from animal welfare developments. Production and consumption of free-range eggs are rising in response. However, considerations have been given to banning the dominant conventional cage production as in Switzerland. Consideration has also been given to compulsory labelling eggs by their form of production. A focus of the research is to develop possible future scenarios and to value any associated animal welfare benefits agai...

  17. Compositional analysis and structural elucidation of glycosaminoglycans in chicken eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhangguo; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; LI, GUOYUN; He, Wenqing; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have numerous applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and foods. GAGs are also critically important in the developmental biology of all multicellular animals. GAGs were isolated from chicken egg components including yolk, thick egg white, thin egg white, membrane, calcified shell matrix supernatant, and shell matrix deposit. Disaccharide compositional analysis was performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spec...

  18. Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches

    OpenAIRE

    Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific brood parasitism represents a prime example of the coevolutionary arms race where each party has evolved strategies in response to the other. Here, we investigated whether common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) actively select nests within a host population to match the egg appearance of a particular host clutch. To achieve this goal, we quantified the degree of egg matching using the avian vision modelling approach. Randomization tests revealed that cuckoo eggs in naturally parasitiz...

  19. Enzymatic Hydrolysis Conditions for Egg White Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Yujie; Tian, Bo; Sun, Bo; Guo, Mingruo

    2006-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins in egg white by Alcalase was systematically studied through dual quadratic rotary, orthogonal and regressive design. The optimum conditions of hydrolysis were determined. The results showed that the optimum temperature was 68.5℃, pH 8.21 at the substrate concentration of 5.5%. The regression equation, Y=42.6994+0.3344X1+7.53X2-0.0086X1X2-0.001X21-0.4726X22 (Y-nitrogen recovery rate, NR; X1-enzyme concentration /substrate concentration, E/S; X2-hydrolytic t...

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROLACTIN HORMONE LEVEL, MOLTING AND DUCK EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Susanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to obtain information on the mechanism of molting and the prolactin hormone levels affecting egg production. The study utilized AP (crossbred of Alabio ♂ with Peking ♀ and PA (crossbred of Peking ♂ and Alabio ♀ ducks with a total of 180 birds. The observed variables were the duration of cessation of egg production before and after molting, the prolactin hormone level in the period of molting, the egg production period before and after molting. The data was analyzed using ANOVA, regression and correlation. The results showed that AP crossbred had fewer molting (23.33% compared to PA (50.00%. The mechanism of molting is always preceded by cessation of egg production, molting and relaying. The prolactin hormone concentrations of AP and PA in the period before and after molting were significantly higher than in the period of molting. At the egg production period before molting, the prolactin hormone concentration of AP ducks was higher than the PA ducks. So that the egg production of AP before molting (0-16 weeks was higher than the PA. The egg production of AP was higher than PA, 256.66±6.00 vs 232.22±6.64 eggs for 48 weeks. So it can be concluded that the prolactin hormone affects the molting and egg production.

  1. Industrially processed oilseed rape in the production of table eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Mária Angelovičová; Michal Angelovič; Zdenko Tkáč; Juraj Jablonický; Marek Angelovič

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g....

  2. Compositional analysis and structural elucidation of glycosaminoglycans in chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhangguo; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; Li, Guoyun; He, Wenqing; Linhardt, Robert J

    2014-11-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have numerous applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and foods. GAGs are also critically important in the developmental biology of all multicellular animals. GAGs were isolated from chicken egg components including yolk, thick egg white, thin egg white, membrane, calcified shell matrix supernatant, and shell matrix deposit. Disaccharide compositional analysis was performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results of these analyses showed that all four families of GAGs were detected in all egg components. Keratan sulfate was found in egg whites (thick and thin) and shell matrix (calcified shell matrix supernatant and deposit) with high level. Chondroitin sulfates were much more plentiful in both shell matrix components and membrane. Hyaluronan was plentiful in both shell matrix components and membrane, but was only present in a trace of quantities in the yolk. Heparan sulfate was plentiful in the shell matrix deposit but was present in a trace of quantities in the egg content components (yolk, thick and thin egg whites). Most of the chondroitin and heparan sulfate disaccharides were present in the GAGs found in chicken eggs with the exception of chondroitin and heparan sulfate 2,6-disulfated disaccharides. Both CS and HS in the shell matrix deposit contained the most diverse chondroitin and heparan sulfate disaccharide compositions. Eggs might provide a potential new source of GAGs. PMID:25218438

  3. DIAGNOSIS OF EGG MARKETING CONDITION IN SINOP - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The eggs, when manipulated in inadequate sanitary conditions, are considered as ways for development and multiplication of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of eggs marketed out at Sinop – MT, through the identification of Salmonella spp., count of aerobic mesophile bacteria and enterobacteria. We collected 12 eggs from each establishment, three supermarkets and three fairs. Were not identified Salmonella spp. in egg shells and internal content. Escherichia coli was isolated from the internal contents of eggs come from an street fair. In aerobic mesophilic counts were obtained from eggs supermarkets counts CFU/g/egg shell of 5,8 x 105, 1,21 x 105 e 4,7 x 103. In relation to the fairs, the counts were 7,2 x 104, 5,66 x 104 e 8,7 x 103. The absence of Salmonella spp. the evaluated eggs classifies them as fit for consumption for compliance with current legislation. However, the presence of E. coli and the values of aerobic mesophilic counts and Enterobacteriaceae highlight the need to establish measures to reduce bacterial contamination of shell eggs sold out at Sinop, MT.

  4. Egg pigmentation reflects female and egg quality in the spotless starling Sturnus unicolor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    López-Rull, I.; Mikšík, Ivan; Gil, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 12 (2008), s. 1877-1884. ISSN 0340-5443 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : egg pigments * biliverdin * yolk androgens Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.917, year: 2008

  5. Egg rejection behaviour in the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus): the effect of egg type

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Moskát, C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2008), s. 389-395. ISSN 0289-0771 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093203; GA AV ČR IAA600930605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Brood parasitism * Egg ejection * Hosts * Decision making * Cuculus canorus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.205, year: 2008

  6. Egg forensics: an appraisal of DNA sequencing to assist in species identification of illegally smuggled eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, Megan L; White, Nicole E; Parkinson, Liza; Haile, James; Spencer, Peter B S; Bunce, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos) are charismatic birds, their plumage and capacity for learning make them highly sought after pets. The illegal trade in parrots and cockatoos poses a serious threat to the viability of native populations; in addition, species transported to non-endemic areas may potentially vector disease and genetically 'pollute' local native avifauna. To reduce the logistical difficulties associated with trafficking live birds, smugglers often transport eggs. This creates a problem for authorities in elucidating accurate species identification without the laborious task of incubation and hand rearing until a morphological identification can be made. Here, we use 99 avian eggs seized from carriers coming into and within Australia, as a result of suspected illegal trade. We investigate and evaluate the use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to accurately identify eggs to family, genus or species level. However, Identification of a species based on percentage mtDNA similarities is difficult without good representations of the inter- and intra-levels of species variation. Based on the available reference database, we were able to identify 52% of the eggs to species level. Of those, 10 species from eight genera were detected, all of which belong to the parrot (Psittacidae) and cockatoo (Cacatuidae) families. Of the remaining 48%, a further 36% of eggs were identified to genus level, and 12% identified to family level using our assignment criteria. Clearly the lack of validated DNA reference sequences is hindering our ability to accurately assign a species identity, and accordingly, we advocate that more attention needs to be paid to establishing validated, multi locus mtDNA reference databases for exotic birds that can both assist in genetic identifications and withstand legal scrutiny. PMID:21741338

  7. Imaging System with Modified-Pressure Chamber for Crack Detection in Shell-Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    To detect checks and/or cracks in shell eggs, the egg industry is using high-speed acoustic systems. Prior to shipment, human graders candle a small subset of eggs to ensure that the high-speed systems are operating within specifications for a given grade of egg (e.g., Grade A Large Eggs). In addit...

  8. 7 CFR 56.37 - Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs. 56.37... (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Identifying and Marking Products § 56.37 Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs. Shell eggs identified with the grademarks shown...

  9. 7 CFR 57.801 - Nest run or washed ungraded eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. 57.801 Section 57... Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 57.801 Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. Nest run or washed ungraded eggs are exempt from the labeling provisions in §...

  10. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Cayan, H.; Erener, G.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effe...

  11. Effects of Ascorbic Acid on Egg Production and Egg Shell Quality in Laying Hens Drinking Saline Water

    OpenAIRE

    J. Mirabdollbaghi; S.A. Hosseini; H. Lotfollahian; Mahdavi Ali; Kalanie Mehdi

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of different water source, saline water (Tap water +2 g L-1 Na) and tape water with a diet that supplemented by three level of Ascorbic Acid (0, 1.5 and 3 g kg-1 of diet) on laying hen`s performance and egg shell quality. This trail was carried out on 108 commercial laying hens (Hy-Line) 32 weeks old for 12 weeks. All of the data were subjected to Two- way analysis of variance test. The result showed that egg production (%), egg weight (g), egg...

  12. Quality of spelt pasta enriched with eggs and identification of eggs using 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jelena S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of spelt pasta enriched with eggs. Eggs were added to spelt farina in the quantity of 0, 124 or 248 g/kg (equivalent to 0, 3 or 6 eggs, respectively. Post-hoc Tukey’s HSD test at 95% confidence limit showed significant differences between various samples. Relatively low coefficients of variation have been obtained for each applied assay (1.25-12.42%, which confirmed the high accuracy measurements and statistically significant results. Standard score analysis is applied for accessing the contribution of eggs content to spelt pasta quality. Maximum scores regarding quality (0.89 and chemical characteristics (0.70, have been obtained for 6 eggs spelt pasta formulation. It is also shown that the presence of eggs in pasta can be clearly confirmed by 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy. Simultaneous increase in area of peak positioned at 29.5 and 176 ppm is directly associated with the increase in the content of added eggs in the corresponding samples. Pertinent data point at positive contribution of eggs to the spelt pasta and also that NMR spectrum can be used in the egg quantity control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TRI 46005 i br. TR 31029

  13. Chondrichthyan egg cases from the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabragaña, E; Figueroa, D E; Scenna, L B; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Colonello, J H; Delpiani, G

    2011-11-01

    Egg cases of 21 oviparous chondrichthyan species from the south-west Atlantic Ocean are described and compared. The catshark Schroederichthys bivius has a cigar-shaped egg case with curled tendrils only at the posterior end. Egg cases of the elephant fish Callorhinchus callorynchus are spindle-shaped with anterior and posterior tubular extensions and lateral flanges. The skate Amblyraja doellojuradoi presents medium-sized egg cases (71 mm in length) with a lateral keel extending to the first portion of the horns. The endemic skate species of the genus Atlantoraja have medium to large egg cases (69-104 mm in length) and present relatively large posterior horns. Egg cases of the genus Bathyraja have a medium size, 75-98 mm in length, and are characterized by a very similar morphology, a relatively smooth to rough surface case and posterior horns strongly curved inwards. Egg cases of the genera Dipturus and Zearaja are very large, 115-230 mm in length, and have a well-developed posterior apron. Despite the problematical identification of skates at species level, the egg capsules of the endemic genus Psammobatis are easily diagnosed; the capsules are small (25-53 mm in length), those of Psammobatis rutrum being the smallest known to date in the world. Egg cases of Rioraja agassizi have a medium size, 61-68 mm in length, relatively straight sides, a smooth surface and silky attachment fibres placed in the lateral keel next to each horn. Those of the genus Sympterygia are small to medium sized, 51-86 mm in length, and display the thickest lateral keel and the longest posterior horns among the skates of the world. Egg cases can be a useful tool for identifying species and egg-laying areas; therefore, a provisional key for the south-west Atlantic Ocean chondrichthyan capsules is presented. PMID:22026605

  14. Prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter associated with eggs and the environment of conventional cage and free range egg production

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a desired by US consumers for eggs produced by hens in alternative production systems. As the retail shell egg market offers these products to accommodate consumer demands, additional information is needed to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A stud...

  15. Dicofol residues in eggs and carcasses of captive American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Clark, D.R., Jr.; Spann, J.W.; Belisle, A.A.; Bunck, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed diets containing 0 (control), 1, 3, 10, and 30 ?g/g (wet wt) of Kelthane?. Residues of dicofol and its metabolites were then analyzed in the eggs and carcasses of females. Significant differences occurred among treatments for residues of both p,p'-dicofol and p,p'-dechlorodicofol (DCD) in both eggs and carcasses and for p,p'-dicholorbenzophenone (DCBP) in eggs. Residue concentrations increased with increasing treatment exposure. Residues of p,p'-dicofol, p,p'-DCD, and p,p'-DCBP in eggs were significantly correlated with eggshell quality parameters. Significant correlations also occurred among contaminants in eggs and for individual contaminants between eggs and carcasses. The lowest-observed-dietary-effect concentration for eggshell thinning was 3 ?g/g, whereas 1 ?g/g may be considered to be near a no-observable-adverse-effect concentration. Concentrations of dicofol in potential prey items and eggs of wild birds generally have been lower than dietary-effect concentrations or concentrations in tissues or eggs associated with eggshell thinning and reduced reproductive success.

  16. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... The liquid egg whites are subjected to the action of a culture of glucose-fermenting bacteria either... by following one of the optional procedures set forth in paragraph (b) of this section. If the food... microorganisms. Dried egg whites may be powdered. (b) The optional glucose-removing procedures are: (1)...

  17. Egg structural characteristics of Pygmy Cormorant (Microcarbo pygmaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris A. Al-Obaidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine egg morphology characteristics and component of Pygmy Cormorant (Microcarbo pygmaeus in Iraq. Freshly Pygmy Cormorant eggs without developed embryo were collected from Al- Tarmiya lakes north of Baghdad city to determined egg morphology characteristics including egg shape dimensions: weight, volume, specific gravity, shell, yolk, albumin weight as well as percentage of shell, yolk and albumin. Results revealed that average values egg breadth, length, shape index, weight, volume, specific gravity, shell weight, yolk weight, albumin weight, egg shell percentage, egg yolk percentage and egg albumin percentage were: 3.11±0.45 (cm, 4.59±0.24 (cm, 67.75±1.07, 12.77±0.55 (gm, 22.64±0.74 (cm3 3 , 0.56±0.1 (gm/cm , 0.87±0.15 (gm, 2.76±0.27 (gm, 9.15±0.59 (gm, 6.80±0.25 (%, 21.58±0.55 (% and 71.62±2.32 (% respectively. This report provides important information that can help the avian taxonomists in species classification.

  18. How long does it take to boil an egg? Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buay, D [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Foong, S K [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Kiang, D [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Kuppan, L [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Centre for Research in Pedagogy and Practice, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Liew, V H [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore)

    2006-01-01

    How long does it take to boil an egg? Theoretical prediction, based on a simple adaptation of the solution to the exact thermal diffusion equation for a sphere, is consistent with experiments. The experimental data are also used to estimate an average value for the thermal diffusivity of an egg.

  19. EGG YOLK AND LDL: POSSIBILITIES FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN EQUINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor F. Canisso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The world horse industry exerts an important role as a job and income generation source. Reproductive technologies arises as an important tool in the service of world equine growth. Artificial insemination (AI is perhaps the biotechnology with greater impact on equine breeding; a stallion can leave hundreds of offsprings over his reproductive life if AI is efficiently used. In some countries, egg yolk is frequently used as part of equine seminal extenders. The egg yolk provides the spermatozoa “resistance factors’’ when it is added. The protective fraction of the egg yolk probably is the low density lipoproteins (LDL. Several studies have reported successful results with the addition and replacement of egg yolk by LDL. There are many citations about the use of egg yolk in seminal extenders for stallion’s cooled and frozen semen, and in the equine reproduction practice. The egg yolk dilutors are used with good fertility results. New research is needed for the better understanding of the protective effects of egg yolk and the LDL for stallion semen. The LDL would be a great solution for dilutors to artificial insemination in horse. This review discusses the use and the advantages of egg yolk and LDL as constituents of equine semen extenders.

  20. Microbiology of Shell Egg Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant proportion of human illnesses caused by Salmonella are linked to the consumption of contaminated eggs. Substantial government and industry resources have been committed to comprehensive Salmonella testing and risk reduction programs for commercial egg-laying flocks. The implementation ...

  1. Foraging behavior of egg parasitoids exploiting chemical information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Dicke, M.; Mumm, R.; Meiners, T.; Hilker, M.

    2008-01-01

    Female parasitic wasps seek hosts for their offspring often in a dynamic environment. Foraging egg parasitoids rely on a variety of chemical cues originating from the adult host, host products, or the host plant rather than from the attacked host stage¿the insect egg itself. Besides pupae, insect eg

  2. UV inactivation of E. coli in liquid egg white

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ultraviolet light (UV) system was developed to pasteurize liquid egg white. The system consisted of low-pressure mercury bulbs surrounded by UV transparent tubing. Egg white was inoculated with Escherichia coli K12 and pumped through the UV system at a flow rate of 330 ml/min. The effects of trea...

  3. MMR vaccination of children with egg allergy is safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorthe Vestergård; Jørgensen, Inger Merete

    2013-01-01

    Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination is part of the Danish Childhood Vaccination Programme. It is known that children may react with anaphylaxis to MMR vaccines containing traces of egg protein. In Denmark, national clinical guidelines recommend that children with egg allergy be referred to...

  4. Safety of copper sulfate to channel catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used in the catfish industry to control saprolegniasis (caused by watermolds) on eggs. This study was designed to establish the safety of CuSO4 when applied to hatching troughs containing channel catfish eggs in 26 degrees C flow-through well water at 10, 30, and ...

  5. Protein and cholesterol content of Araucana chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somes, R G; Francis, P V; Tlustohowicz, J J

    1977-09-01

    Comparative data collected over two years are presented which refute the popular press claims that blue-shelled eggs of Araucana chickens have higher protein levels and lower cholesterol levels than market eggs. These comparisons were made between the eggs from the strains of Araucanas and those of White Leghorns and Sex-links. None of the differences found between test groups in % protein/g. albumen and % protein/g. yolk were shown to be consistently related to any one test group type. However, all Araucana test groups were significantly (P less than .01) lower in their total egg protein content than either control group by from 2.8--6.5%. This lower total protein content was the result of a consistent increase in the yolk/albumen ratio of the Araucana eggs over the market eggs. The Araucana eggs were consistently higher in their cholesterol levels on a mg./g. yolk basis than either of the market eggs. These increased concentrattions ranged from 2.0--6.9%. PMID:564510

  6. Helminth Egg Removal Capacity of UASB Reactors under Subtropical Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaya-Beas, R.E.; Ayala-Limaylla, C.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Van Lier, J.B.; Zeeman, G.

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the anaerobic sludge filtration capacity regarding helminth egg removal in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. Two 25 L lab-scale UASB reactors were operated at an ambient temperature which varied between 17.1 and 28.6 °C. Ascaris suum egg was select

  7. Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 281, č. 1774 (2014), s. 20132665. ISSN 0962-8452 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : brood parasitism * cuckoo * egg coloration * egg mimicry * great reed warbler Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.051, year: 2014

  8. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implication of alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth...

  9. DDE in eggs of two crocodile species from Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T H; Rainwater, T R; Platt, S G; McMurry, S T; Anderson, T A

    2000-12-01

    Organochlorine (OC) residues were recently detected in nonviable Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from northern Belize. To further the assessment of contaminant exposure in Belizean crocodiles, nonviable Morelet's crocodile eggs (n = 11) from southern Belize and American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) eggs (n = 12) from the coastal zones of Belize were screened for 20 OCs. Results indicated p,p-DDE to be the most prevalent OC (96% occurrence) in eggs examined, with concentrations ranging from 5 to 372 ng/g. These concentrations are similar to those observed in crocodile eggs (10-180 ng/g) from northern Belize. A general trend toward higher DDE concentrations in Morelet's crocodile eggs (mean = 103 ppb) compared with American crocodile eggs (mean = 31 ppb) was observed. However, this trend may be due to site-specific contamination rather than differences in interspecific susceptibility to chemical exposure. Other OCs detected in crocodile eggs included the parent compound, p,p-DDT, and its metabolite, p, p-DDD. PMID:11141295

  10. Mercury in Morelet's crocodile eggs from northern Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, T R; Adair, B M; Platt, S G; Anderson, T A; Cobb, G P; McMurry, S T

    2002-04-01

    Recent studies have examined mercury accumulation in crocodilians. However, though most researchers have focused on tissue concentrations, few have examined mercury levels in crocodilian eggs. In July 1995, we analyzed mercury in 31 nonviable Morelet's crocodile ( Crocodylus moreletii) eggs collected from eight nests across three localities in northern Belize. All eggs were found to contain mercury. Based on an individual egg basis, mean concentration of mercury for all three localities was among the lowest reported for any crocodilian species. When localities were examined separately, mean concentrations for Laguna Seca and Gold Button Lagoon were comparable to those observed in other studies, and the mean for Sapote Lagoon was the lowest ever reported. Based on mean nest concentrations, mercury in eggs from Laguna Seca was approximately two- and tenfold higher than for Gold Button Lagoon and Sapote Lagoon, respectively. Variability in mercury concentrations among localities is likely the result of site-specific differences in mercury input, bioavailabilty, and bioaccumulation. Mercury concentrations were relatively uniform in eggs from the same nest and among nests from the same localities. The presence of mercury in Morelet's crocodile eggs suggests exposure in adult females, developing embryos, and neonates. However, crocodiles in these areas show no overt signs of mercury toxicity, and no indication of population decline is evident. A paucity of data on the effects of mercury on crocodilians precludes meaningful speculation as to the biological significance of tissue and egg concentrations. Controlled laboratory studies and long-term population monitoring are needed to address these questions. PMID:11910460

  11. Maximizing carbon dioxide content of shell eggs by rapid cooling treatment and its effect on shell egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, P; Keener, K M

    2012-06-01

    Rapid cooling of shell eggs using liquid CO₂ has been shown to cool eggs to 7°C within minutes, as opposed to days required by traditional cooling treatments. This quick-cooling technique is component in the maintenance of egg quality and extended shelf life beyond the current 30- to 45-d period. The hypothesis for the current study was that maximizing CO₂ content of the eggs during cooling may increase Haugh units and thus extend shelf life (physical quality factors). The objective of this study was to maximize CO₂ content of shell eggs during rapid cooling with liquid CO₂ and determine its effect on egg quality during 12 wk of refrigerated storage. Three cooling conditions selected for the study were -45°C for 18 min (treatment A), -60°C for 15 min (treatment B), and -75°C for 12 min (treatment C). After rapid-cooling treatment, it took approximately 25 min for the internal temperature of eggs to equilibrate to 7°C. The Haugh units of the rapidly cooled eggs were significantly higher than the traditionally cooled (control) eggs. After 12 wk of refrigerated (5-7°C) storage, control eggs were only 37% AA-grade, 57% A-grade, and 6% B-grade. In comparison, all the rapidly cooled eggs averaged to 80% AA-grade and 20% A-grade. After 6 wk, the average quality of control eggs reduced to grade A, whereas rapid cooling treatment was able to maintain AA quality up to 12 wk. The CO₂ content of the rapidly cooled eggs (1.8 mg of CO₂/g of albumen) showed no difference between treatments A, B, and C, but it was significantly higher than the control (1.3 mg of CO₂/g of albumen). In addition, the vitelline membrane strength of the control decreased 65% during storage and was between 30 and 50% of the vitelline membrane strength of CO₂-cooled eggs at 12 wk. Rapid cooling with liquid CO₂ extends shelf life of shell eggs. PMID:22582306

  12. Irradiation of Poultry and Egg Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poultry and egg products may be treated advantageously with various kinds of irradiation process, in different circumstances. Where contamination with Salmonella is a problem, 'radicidation' may be carried out with doses of the order of 0.5 Mrad. This is particularly valuable for frozen products, such as whole egg and some kinds of poultry, especially duck. Dried-egg products may be treated also in this way. This application is described in detail by other authors (Ley, Mossel [2,3]). The treatment of poultry carcasses so that they can be stored indefinitely, or 'radappertization', can be achieved by doses of 4,5 Mrad. However, other processes must be associated with the irradiation, to prevent undesirable off-flavours. These can include pre-heating to inactivate enzymes, irradiation in the frozen state, in vacuum or nitrogen packs, or with activated charcoal included in the pack, and particular methods of cooking are sometimes recommended. These methods are of interest for army use, and have been extensively studied for the research programme of the United States Army. The 'radurization' process for poultry, i.e. increase in storage life by inactivation of most of the spoilage microorganisms, is of interest for commercial use. Doses ranging from 0.15 to 0.25 Mrad may be used without adverse effects on flavour, and will extend the periodjbefore microbial spoilage by 1.5- to 3-fold. Storage at chill temperatures (5°C or below) is necessary, and changes in flavour during storage may limit the extension of this period, so that 20 days at 1°C is about i the most obtainable without quality deterioration. The mechanism of these changes is not understood, but they are not due to microbial spoilage or to the irradiation. The eventual microbial spoilage of irradiated chickens at chill temperatures is due to non-pathogenic bacteria, which are normally present in the spoilage flora, though sometimes the proportions of different kinds of these bacteria may be altered, giving

  13. The egg consumption of the average household in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Migliorati

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted over a one-year period by means of telephone interviews with 7 991 Italian households to establish the domestic consumption of eggs, the distribution by source of supply, seasonal variations and storage and preparation methods used. Eggs are mainly purchased from large retailers (53%, followed by small retailers (25.2%, direct purchase from producers (16%, and local or itinerant markets (5.8%. It was found that 69.9% of households buy packaged eggs; 92% of households store them in the refrigerator, although this percentage varies considerably, according to the type of presentation (packaged or loose and the number of eggs bought. Italian households mainly eat eggs cooked (48.9%, followed by partly cooked (35.0% and raw (16.1%.

  14. The egg consumption of the average household in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prencipe, Vincenza; Rizzi, Valentina; Giovannini, Armando; Migliorati, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    A survey was conducted over a one-year period by means of telephone interviews with 7 991 Italian households to establish the domestic consumption of eggs, the distribution by source of supply, seasonal variations and storage and preparation methods used. Eggs are mainly purchased from large retailers (53%), followed by small retailers (25.2%), direct purchase from producers (16%), and local or itinerant markets (5.8%). It was found that 69.9% of households buy packaged eggs; 92% of households store them in the refrigerator, although this percentage varies considerably, according to the type of presentation (packaged or loose) and the number of eggs bought. Italian households mainly eat eggs cooked (48.9%), followed by partly cooked (35.0%) and raw (16.1%). PMID:20857379

  15. Radiation preservation study on middle host eggs of trichogramma species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lianzhong, Ding; Zhengdong, Wu; Ping, Jiang; Zulin, Chen; Jianxin, Fu; Jianging, Shi

    1993-10-01

    Technical feasibility on the preservation of Antheraea pernyi's eggs, which are used as the middle hosts of Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura, irradiated by electron beam is studied in this paper. The results reveal that the preservative time of Antheraea pernyi's eggs irradiated by electron beam, combining with storage in a refrigerator, is notably prolonged in contrast with the control. When the irradiated eggs stored in a refrigerator for 89 days are serviced as hosts, the parasitic percentage for Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura is about 80 %. Besides, the emergence percentage, average numbers of parasitoids reproduced out of one egg, as well as body size, growing stage periods, and sexual rate of descendant are all normal. Irradiated eggs have not any adverse effects on the abilities of Trichogramma species and their offspring in both bearing and controlling insect pests.

  16. Radiation preservation study on middle host eggs of Trichogramma species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Lianzhong; Chen Zulin; Fu Jianxin; Shi Jianqing (Institute of Applied Technical Physics, Hangzhou, ZJ (China)); Wu Zhengdong (Chang Le Forest Farm of Zhejiang, Yuhang (China)); Jiang Ping (Zhejiang Provincial Forest Bureau, Hangzhou (China))

    The technical feasibility of the radiopreservation of Antheraea pernyi's eggs, used as the middle hosts of Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura, by electron beam is studied in this paper. The results reveal that the preservation time of Antheraea pernyi's eggs irradiated by electron beam, combined with storage in a refrigerator, is prolonged in contrast with the control. When the irradiated eggs stored in a refrigerator for 89 days are serviced as hosts, the percentage for Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura emerging is about 80%. Besides, the emergence percentage, the average numbers of parasitoids produced from one egg, as well as body size, growth stage and sexual rte of descendants are all normal. Irradiated host eggs have no adverse effects on the abilities of Trichogramma species and their offspring to control insect pests. (author).

  17. Developing a method for quantification of Ascaris eggs on hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen J. H.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan;

    In transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially with Ascaris and Trichuris infections, the importance of hands is unclear and very limited literature exists. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of helminth eggs on hands. The aim of this study...... was to develop a method to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were contaminated with app. 1000 Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates...... of eggs for two different detergents (cationic [benzethonium chloride 0.1%], anionic [7X 1% - quadrafos, glycol ether, and dioctyl sulfoccinate sodium salt]) and de-ionized water used as control. The highest recovery rate (95.6%) was achieved with a hand rinse performed with 7X 1%. Washing hands...

  18. Environmental challenges for the Egg Processing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram; Hald, Mie

    industries having a large consumption of natural resources (water and energy) and produces significantly amounts of residue (waste water, carbon dioxide and biodegradable waste). As such it is only natural that the food industry is governed by environmental regulation. In this book the Egg......Environmental regulation within the European Union and its Member States has evolved from command-and-control regulation to more complex ways of regulation. Different industries may be more or less ‘vulnerable’ towards an increased level of environmental regulation. The food industry is among those......-processing industry has been selected as a case study in order to be capable of illustrating the impact of such regulation on industry...

  19. Sludge hygienization: Helminth eggs destruction by lime treatment Ascaris eggs as model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, S.; Schwartzbrod, J. [Lab. de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie de l' Environnement, Nancy (France); Remy, M. [Lhoist, on behalf of the European Lime Assoication (EuLA), Bruessel (Germany); Boehm, R. [Univ. Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany); Verfuerden, M. [Fels-Werke GmbH, im Namen des Bundesverbandes der Deutschen Kalkindustrie (BVK), Koeln (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Most pathogens in the raw sewage are concentrated into the sewage sludge. They can be separated into four categories: viruses, bacteria, protozoa and larger parasites such as human roundworms, tapeworms and liver flukes. Such micro-organisms can cause disease in humans, the transmission occurring in several ways e.g. by inhaling sludge aerosols or dust, by eating vegetables or fruits contaminated by sludge, drinking water contaminated by run-off or by eating meat from livestock infected by grazing pastures fertilised with sludge. The presence of helminth eggs in urban sludge may constitute a sanitary risk when used as agricultural fertiliser. To avoid any contamination, the efficiency of a certain number of sludge hygienization processes must be tested. One of these involves decontamination with quicklime. The Ascaris egg inactivation by liming with lime milk, slaked lime and quicklime is studied in a series of sludges coming from slaughterhouses. (orig.)

  20. Salted and preserved duck eggs: a consumer market segmentation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jennifer; Wiseman, Kelleen; Cheng, K M

    2015-08-01

    The combination of increasing ethnic diversity in North America and growing consumer support for local food products may present opportunities for local producers and processors in the ethnic foods product category. Our study examined the ethnic Chinese (pop. 402,000) market for salted and preserved duck eggs in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. The objective of the study was to develop a segmentation model using survey data to categorize consumer groups based on their attitudes and the importance they placed on product attributes. We further used post-segmentation acculturation score, demographics and buyer behaviors to define these groups. Data were gathered via a survey of randomly selected Vancouver households with Chinese surnames (n = 410), targeting the adult responsible for grocery shopping. Results from principal component analysis and a 2-step cluster analysis suggest the existence of 4 market segments, described as Enthusiasts, Potentialists, Pragmatists, Health Skeptics (salted duck eggs), and Neutralists (preserved duck eggs). Kruskal Wallis tests and post hoc Mann-Whitney tests found significant differences between segments in terms of attitudes and the importance placed on product characteristics. Health Skeptics, preserved egg Potentialists, and Pragmatists of both egg products were significantly biased against Chinese imports compared to others. Except for Enthusiasts, segments disagreed that eggs are 'Healthy Products'. Preserved egg Enthusiasts had a significantly lower acculturation score (AS) compared to all others, while salted egg Enthusiasts had a lower AS compared to Health Skeptics. All segments rated "produced in BC, not mainland China" products in the "neutral to very likely" range for increasing their satisfaction with the eggs. Results also indicate that buyers of each egg type are willing to pay an average premium of at least 10% more for BC produced products versus imports, with all other characteristics equal. Overall

  1. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND AMINO ACID PROFILES OF EGG TOFU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maizura Murad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tofu contains high quality protein source and antioxidant which could reduce risk of cancer. This research aims to determine the effect of soymilk and egg ratios on the antioxidant capacity, daidzein and genistein content and amino acid profiles of egg tofu. Egg tofu was prepared using soymilk and fresh egg in ratios of 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. Glucono-Delta-Lactone (GDL was added in the egg tofu to act as a coagulating agent. Increased of soymilk at all ratios had significantly (p<0.05 increased in Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP, daidzein and genistein content of egg tofu. Conversely, decreased in soymilk ratio had significantly (p<0.05 increased the radical scavenging activities of the 2,2-Azino-Bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid (ABTS and 2,2-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH in egg tofu. Increased of soymilk ratio up to 3:1 caused decreased in amino acid methionine (met and cystein (cys significantly (p<0.05. A significant (p<0.01 and a positive correlation was observed between Total Phenolic Content (TPC and FRAP (r = 0.93. However, there was a negative (p<0.01 correlation between TPC and DPPH (r = -0.83. The antioxidant capacity of egg tofu in DPPH assay showed a positive and significant (p<0.01 correlation with cysteine, methionine and tryptophan with r value of 0.92, 0.93 and 0.96 respectively. Higher content of egg in egg tofu had contributed to the increased of antioxidant capacity as indicated in DPPH assay and ABTS assay as well as amino acid methionine and cysteine.

  2. Pallisentis rexus from the Chiang Mai Basin, Thailand: ultrastructural studies on egg envelope development and the mechanism of egg expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkham, W; Whitfield, P J

    2004-03-01

    Pallisentis rexus Wongkham & Whitfield, 1999 (Eoacanthocephala: Quadrigyridae) infects the freshwater snakehead fish, Channa striata, in the Chiang Mai Basin, Thailand. All stages of egg development within the body cavity of the female parasite were observed, using transmission electron microscopy. Changes in mature eggs after contact with water were also investigated. The mature egg has five egg envelopes separated from each other by four gaps. The fertilization membrane, which is formed first, is pushed centrifugally by other, subsequently formed, envelopes and gaps, which produces a final total shell thickness of 8-36 microm around the acanthor. The disappearance of the outermost layer and the unpleating of an adjacent inner layer causes the expansion of eggs on contact with water. The volume of an expanded egg is approximately 27 times that of an unexpanded one, but the density of eggs is reduced from a value greater than water to one almost equal to water. This is believed to aid the dispersion of eggs. PMID:14972041

  3. Vitellogenin knockdown strongly affects cotton boll weevil egg viability but not the number of eggs laid by females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Roberta R; de Souza Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Firmino, Alexandre A P; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Fonseca, Fernando C A; Terra, Walter R; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice; da Silva, Maria Cristina M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg), a yolk protein precursor, is the primary egg nutrient source involved in insect reproduction and embryo development. The Cotton Boll weevil (CBW) Anthonomus grandis Boheman, the most important cotton pest in Americas, accumulates large amounts of Vg during reproduction. However, the precise role of this protein during embryo development in this insect remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of vitellogenin (AgraVg) knockdown on the egg-laying and egg viability in A. grandis females, and also characterized morphologically the unviable eggs. AgraVg transcripts were found during all developmental stages of A. grandis, with highest abundance in females. Silencing of AgraVg culminated in a significant reduction in transcript amount, around 90%. Despite this transcriptional reduction, egg-laying was not affected in dsRNA-treated females but almost 100% of the eggs lost their viability. Eggs from dsRNA-treated females showed aberrant embryos phenotype suggesting interference at different stages of embryonic development. Unlike for other insects, the AgraVg knockdown did not affect the egg-laying ability of A. grandis, but hampered A. grandis reproduction by perturbing embryo development. We concluded that the Vg protein is essential for A. grandis reproduction and a good candidate to bio-engineer the resistance against this devastating cotton pest. PMID:27419079

  4. Egg weights, egg component weights, and laying gaps in Great Tits (Parus major) in relation to ambient temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Dingemanse, N.J.; Both, C.; Blem, C.

    2002-01-01

    We collected 328 freshly laid Great Tit (Parus major) eggs from 38 clutches in 1999 to determine the relationship of whole egg weight, wet yolk weight, wet albumen weight, dry shell weight, and the occurrence of laying gaps with mean ambient temperature in the three days preceding laying, while cont

  5. Antimicrobial secondary metabolites from marine gastropod egg capsules and egg masses

    OpenAIRE

    Kaviarasan, T; Siva, Sankar R; Yogamoorthi, A

    2012-01-01

    Marine organisms have attracted special attention in the last three decades for their ability to produce interesting pharmacological active compounds. Even though all marine organisms have the potential to produce antimicrobial secondary metabolites, the gastropod has the vital sources of secondary metabolites particularly their egg capsule which has the promising antimicrobial secondary metabolites. In the present review, we intend to focus on marine secondary metabolites from marine gastrop...

  6. Effects of Feeding Dietary Palm Kernel Cake on Egg Production 1 and Egg Quality of Khaki Campbell Duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjas Asmara Samsudin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of graded levels of Palm Kernel Cake (PKC on the laying performance and egg quality in Khaki Campbell ducks. Twenty-seven female Khaki Campbell ducks were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments viz T1 (0% PKC; control, T2 (15% PKC and T3 (35% PKC and the performance characteristics and egg quality traits were examined for 4 weeks. Ducks fed T2 and T3 had higher (P0.05 on the feed conversion ratio in ducks. Similarly, dietary PKC did not affect (P>0.05 the weekly egg production and the percentage of hen-day production. Ducks fed T2 and T3 had greater (P0.05 by dietary PKC. Results indicated that Khaki Campbell ducks could tolerate up to 35% PKC in their diets without detrimental effects on egg production and egg quality.

  7. Egg and a lot of science: an interdisciplinary experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Gayer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Egg and a lot of science: an interdisciplinary experimentGayer, M.C.1,2;Rodrigues, D.T.1,2; Escoto, D.F.1; Denardin, E.L.G.2, Roehrs, R.1,21Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, BrazilIntroduction: How to tell if an egg is rotten? How to calculate the volume of an egg? Because the rotten egg float? Why has this characteristic rotten egg smell? Because the gray-green color is formed on the surface of the cooked egg yolk? These issues are commonplace and unnoticed in day-to-day. Our grandmothers know how to tell if an egg is rotten or not, you just put the egg in a glass of water. If it is rotten floating, sinking is good. But why this happens? That they do not know answer. With only one egg chemical reactions work, macromolecules (proteins, density, membranes and conservation of matter. Hydrogen sulphide is responsible for the aroma of a freshly cooked egg. This gas as they break down the molecules of albumin, a protein present in the egg is formed. The color comes from a sulfide precipitation, this time with the Fe2+ ion contained in the yolk (Fe2+ + S2  FeS. The use of simple and easy to perform experiments, correlating various knowledge proves a very useful tool in science education. Objectives: Develop multidisciplinary learning contents through the problem. Materials and methods: The teacher provides students with a boiled egg, salt, a syringe and a cup, a plate and water. The teacher lays the aforementioned issues for students and allows them to exchange information with each other, seeking answers through experimentation. Results and discussion: Students engaged with the activity and interaction of groups in order to solve the proposed problem. Still, through trial and error have sought in various ways to find the answers. This tool takes the student to

  8. High pressure processing treatment prevents embryonation of eggs of Trichuris vulpis and Ascaris suum and induces delay in development of eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Zajac, Anne M; Flick, George J; Bowman, Dwight D; Lindsay, David S

    2011-09-27

    High hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is an effective non-thermal treatment used to inactivate pathogens from a variety of food and food products. It has been extensively examined using prokaryotic organisms and protozoan's but has had limited study on metazoans. Treatment using HPP has been shown to be effective in inactivating nematode larvae in food and preventing embryonation of Ascaris suum eggs. We conducted experiments using eggs of the canine whipworm Trichuris vulpis collected from naturally infected dogs and A. suum eggs from naturally infected pigs. We observed a delay in development of eggs of T. vulpis in a preliminary experiment and conducted 2 experiments to test the hypothesis that appropriate HPP levels can induce a delay in embryonation of nematode eggs. In experiment 1, nonembryonated T. vulpis eggs in tap water were packaged in sealable bags and exposed to 138-600 megapascals (MPa; 1 MPa=10 atm=147 psi) for 60s in a commercial HPP unit. In a second experiment, nonembryonated eggs of A. suum were exposed to 138-600 MPa and treated for 60s in the same commercial HPP unit. Embyronation of T. vulpis eggs was delayed by 4 and 5 days for eggs treated with 207 and 241 MPa but eventually eggs developed and the numbers of embryonated eggs was similar to controls on day 55. Embryonation of T. vulpis eggs treated with 345 or 350 MPa was delayed by 9 days and never reached more than 5% of eggs embryonated. On day 55 post treatment, 95% of control nontreated T. vulpis eggs were embryonated, 100-65% of eggs treated with 138-276 MPa were embryonated, a maximum of 5% of eggs treated with 345-350 MPa were embryonated, and 0% of eggs treated with ≥ 400 MPa were embryonated. T. vulpis eggs treated with ≥ 400 MPa did not undergo cell division. Embryrnation of A. suum eggs was delayed by 4, 10, and 16 days for eggs treated with 207, 241, and 250MPa, respectively, compared to nontreated control eggs. A. suum eggs treated with 207 MPa eventually embryonated

  9. Egg Production Constrains Chemical Defenses in a Neotropical Arachnid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís M Nazareth

    Full Text Available Female investment in large eggs increases the demand for fatty acids, which are allocated for yolk production. Since the biosynthetic pathway leading to fatty acids uses the same precursors used in the formation of polyketides, allocation trade-offs are expected to emerge. Therefore, egg production should constrain the investment in chemical defenses based on polyketides, such as benzoquinones. We tested this hypothesis using the harvestman Acutiosoma longipes, which produces large eggs and releases benzoquinones as chemical defense. We predicted that the amount of secretion released by ovigerous females (OFs would be smaller than that of non-ovigerous females (NOF. We also conducted a series of bioassays in the field and in the laboratory to test whether egg production renders OFs more vulnerable to predation. OFs produce less secretion than NOFs, which is congruent with the hypothesis that egg production constrains the investment in chemical defenses. Results of the bioassays show that the secretion released by OFs is less effective in deterring potential predators (ants and spiders than the secretion released by NOFs. In conclusion, females allocate resources to chemical defenses in a way that preserves a primary biological function related to reproduction. However, the trade-off between egg and secretion production makes OFs vulnerable to predators. We suggest that egg production is a critical moment in the life of harvestman females, representing perhaps the highest cost of reproduction in the group.

  10. Trichogramma parasitoids alter the metabolic physiology of Manduca eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Kristen A; Woods, H Arthur

    2012-09-01

    Egg parasitoids face unique developmental constraints. First, they have exceptionally limited resources to support themselves and their siblings through three life stages. Second, they develop within the physiological system of another species, which they modify to their own ends. We examined how these constraints affect the metabolic physiology of egg parasitism, and whether parasitoids retool their host eggshell to account for their different metabolic demands. Higher-conductance eggshells allow more oxygen to reach the developing parasitoids, but also allow more water to leave the egg. We used Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) eggs and Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids from southeastern AZ, USA. Compared with unparasitized Manduca eggs, eggs parasitized by Trichogramma had lower peak metabolic rates and approximately 50 per cent lower metabolic efficiency. However, developing Trichogramma were far more efficient than typical transfer efficiencies between tropic levels (approx. 10%). Even within a few hours of parasitization, eggs containing more Trichogramma had lower per-parasitoid metabolic rates, suggesting that parasitoid larvae have mechanisms for rapidly adjusting their metabolic rates based on number of siblings. Parasitoids also appear to control the conductance of their host eggshell: their different metabolic demands were mirrored by shifts in rates of water loss. PMID:22719035

  11. Bioactive amines and internal quality of commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, T C; Viegas, R P; Lara, L J C; Baião, N C; Souza, M R; Heneine, L G D; Cançado, S V

    2013-05-01

    The physicochemical and microbiological qualities of commercial eggs produced by layer hens of different ages (approximately 30 and 60 wk old) were submitted to storage under room temperature or refrigeration for 28 d. A total of 600 eggs were subjected to microbiological analyses of their inner contents and another 600 to a determination of Haugh units (HU) and bioactive amine content. A decrease in the quality of the inner contents of the eggs was observed during the experiment, mainly in the eggs from the 60-wk-old layers, which presented the worst HU values when stored at room temperature (P Pseudomonas spp., mesophilic aerobic bacteria, and fungi were also recorded. The chromatographic analysis of bioactive amines detected the presence of phenylethylamine in all albumens (38.0 mg/kg) and spermidine in the yolks (1.02 mg/kg). It was concluded that the age of the hens and the time and temperature of storage influenced the quality parameters of the eggs (P < 0.05). Furthermore, despite the low levels of microbial contamination found, phenylethylamine was detected in the albumen. It was not possible to establish index of quality of eggs using bioactive amines present in the yolk and albumen of eggs. PMID:23571349

  12. Temperature effects on copepod egg hatching: does acclimatization matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume; Kozmér, A.;

    2010-01-01

    This report investigates female sizes, egg sizes and egg hatching rates in relation to temperature for the near-shore calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa cultured at 6, 9, 14 and 24°C for several generations to achieve acclimatization. Inverse size relationships of eggs and females were revealed with...... increasing temperature. Eggs produced at 6°C were 85 ± 4 µm in diameter, but decreased to 80 ± 3 µm at 24°C. Female cephalothorax length was 840 ± 52 and 692 ± 39 µm at 9 and 24°C, respectively. Parallel hatching experiments were performed between non-acclimatized and acclimatized cultures across a range of...... temperatures reflecting natural conditions in Danish waters. A greater fraction of eggs enter quiescence as temperature declines. Eggs were able to hatch at temperatures as low as 1.5°C. Final egg hatching success increased with temperature. Acclimatization of the copepods resulted in a lower maximum hatching...

  13. Organochlorine contaminants in Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T H; Rainwater, T R; Platt, S G; McMurry, S T; Anderson, T A

    2000-03-01

    Non-viable eggs of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) were collected from Gold Button (GBL) and New River lagoons (NRL) in northern Belize and screened for organochlorine (OC) compounds using gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD). All egg samples from both lagoons (n = 24) tested positive for one or more OCs. Primary contaminants were p,p-DDE and methoxychlor, detected in 100% and 29% of the eggs examined, respectively. Concentrations of individual OC contaminants ranged from 1 ppb (ng chemical/g egg) to > 0.5 ppm (microgram chemical/g egg). Total concentrations of OCs (sum of all OCs) for one egg collected from a nest at GBL reached as high as 0.7 ppm. Sediment samples from both lagoons also tested positive for OCs (lindane, aldrin, methoxychlor, heptachlor epoxide, p,p-DDT, among others). Nest media (soil and plant material) collected from crocodile nests at GBL were positive for p,p-DDT, methoxychlor, aldrin, endosulfan II, and endrin aldehyde. Based on the 24 egg samples analyzed to date, crocodiles from both lagoons are being exposed to OCs. Such exposure may present a health threat to populations of crocodiles in Central America. PMID:10705543

  14. Does polyandry really pay off? The effects of multiple mating and number of fathers on morphological traits and survival in clutches of nesting green turtles at Tortuguero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Jensen, Michael P; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Despite the long debate of whether or not multiple mating benefits the offspring, studies still show contradictory results. Multiple mating takes time and energy. Thus, if females fertilize their eggs with a single mating, why to mate more than once? We investigated and inferred paternal identity and number of sires in 12 clutches (240 hatchlings) of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) nests at Tortuguero, Costa Rica. Paternal alleles were inferred through comparison of maternal and hatchling genotypes, and indicated multiple paternity in at least 11 of the clutches (92%). The inferred average number of fathers was three (ranging from 1 to 5). Moreover, regression analyses were used to investigate for correlation of inferred clutch paternity with morphological traits of hatchlings fitness (emergence success, length, weight and crawling speed), the size of the mother, and an environmental variable (incubation temperature). We suggest and propose two different comparative approaches for evaluating morphological traits and clutch paternity, in order to infer greater offspring survival. First, clutches coded by the exact number of fathers and second by the exact paternal contribution (fathers who gives greater proportion of the offspring per nest). We found significant differences (P 0.05) for any of the traits. We conclude that multiple paternity does not provide any extra benefit in the morphological fitness traits or the survival of the offspring, when analysed following the proposed comparative statistical methods. PMID:25870773

  15. Does polyandry really pay off? The effects of multiple mating and number of fathers on morphological traits and survival in clutches of nesting green turtles at Tortuguero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonzo Alfaro-Núñez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the long debate of whether or not multiple mating benefits the offspring, studies still show contradictory results. Multiple mating takes time and energy. Thus, if females fertilize their eggs with a single mating, why to mate more than once? We investigated and inferred paternal identity and number of sires in 12 clutches (240 hatchlings of green turtles (Chelonia mydas nests at Tortuguero, Costa Rica. Paternal alleles were inferred through comparison of maternal and hatchling genotypes, and indicated multiple paternity in at least 11 of the clutches (92%. The inferred average number of fathers was three (ranging from 1 to 5. Moreover, regression analyses were used to investigate for correlation of inferred clutch paternity with morphological traits of hatchlings fitness (emergence success, length, weight and crawling speed, the size of the mother, and an environmental variable (incubation temperature. We suggest and propose two different comparative approaches for evaluating morphological traits and clutch paternity, in order to infer greater offspring survival. First, clutches coded by the exact number of fathers and second by the exact paternal contribution (fathers who gives greater proportion of the offspring per nest. We found significant differences (P 0.05 for any of the traits. We conclude that multiple paternity does not provide any extra benefit in the morphological fitness traits or the survival of the offspring, when analysed following the proposed comparative statistical methods.

  16. Diversity, habitat distribution, and indigenous hunting of marine turtles in the Calamian Islands, Palawan, Republic of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N.S. Poonian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available All of the world’s seven species of marine turtle are threatened by a multitude of anthropogenic pressures across all stages of their life history. The Calamian Islands, Palawan, Philippines provide important foraging and nesting grounds for four species: green turtles (Chelonia mydas, hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata, loggerheads (Caretta caretta, and leatherbacks (Dermochelys coriacea. This work aimed to assess the relative importance of turtle nesting beaches and local threats using a combination of social science and ecological research approaches. Endangered green turtles and critically endangered hawksbills were found to nest in the Calamianes. The most important nesting sites were located on the islands off the west of Busuanga and Culion, particularly Pamalican and Galoc and along the north coast of Coron, particularly Linamodio Island. Opportunistic hunting and egg collection, conducted legally by indigenous communities, is the most significant threat to sea turtles in the area. Sites particularly vulnerable to hunting were found to be Galoc Island, Pamalican Island, and Panlaitan Island. Raising awareness, community engagement, and understanding of socio-cultural drivers of sea turtle exploitation, particularly among indigenous communities, are essential to gain support for any effective conservation program. Additionally, more effective enforcement of laws related to the trade in sea turtle products is required to close the commercial and export markets.

  17. The anti-predator role of within-nest emergence synchrony in sea turtle hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Robson G; Pinheiro, Hudson Tercio; Martins, Agnaldo Silva; Riul, Pablo; Bruno, Soraya Christina; Janzen, Fredric J; Ioannou, Christos C

    2016-07-13

    Group formation is a common behaviour among prey species. In egg-laying animals, despite the various factors that promote intra-clutch variation leading to asynchronous hatching and emergence from nests, synchronous hatching and emergence occurs in many taxa. This synchrony may be adaptive by reducing predation risk, but few data are available in any natural system, even for iconic examples of the anti-predator function of group formation. Here, we show for the first time that increased group size (number of hatchlings emerging together from a nest) reduces green turtle (Chelonia mydas) hatchling predation. This effect was only observed earlier in the night when predation pressure was greatest, indicated by the greatest predator abundance and a small proportion of predators preoccupied with consuming captured prey. Further analysis revealed that the effect of time of day was due to the number of hatchlings already killed in an evening; this, along with the apparent lack of other anti-predatory mechanisms for grouping, suggests that synchronous emergence from a nest appears to swamp predators, resulting in an attack abatement effect. Using a system with relatively pristine conditions for turtle hatchlings and their predators provides a more realistic environmental context within which intra-nest synchronous emergence has evolved. PMID:27383817

  18. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS PACKED UNDER MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Giampietro-Ganeco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eggs are perishable foods and lose quality quickly if not stored properly. From the moment of posture to the marketing of egg, quality loss occurs through gas exchange and water through the pores of the shell with the external environment and thus, studies involving modified atmosphere packaging are extremely important. The aim of the present study is to assess the internal quality of eggs packed under modified atmosphere and stored at room temperature. Six hundred and twelve fresh commercial eggs from 38-week old Hisex White laying hens were used. The present study was conducted in a completely randomized experimental design in a 4 x 4 + 1 factorial arrangement [vacuum, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 absorbents, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent and carbon dioxide (CO2 gas generator; storage times (7, 14, 21 and 28 days, control group (fresh eggs], with three repetitions (12 eggs each. The following factors were assessed: weight maintenance during storage; Haugh unit; color and yolk index. The modified atmosphere packaging maintained the weight of the eggs during a period of 28 days. Vacuum packaging with O2 absorbent and CO2 gas generator was more efficient in maintenance of egg quality, based on the values ​​of Haugh unit and yolk index. The luminosity of the yolk was preserved during the 28 storage days in all of the packaging types used. The vacuum packaging with O2 gas absorbent and CO2 gas generator provide an increase in internal egg quality.

  19. Freeze-drying behaviour of pasteurized whole egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because it provides full nutritional and certain desirable functional attributes, egg products are widely used as ingredients in many food products. Dried egg is especially valuable for being stable, easily mixable and having a long shelf life. It is necessary to know the effects of drying conditions onto the moisture removal behaviour and the functional properties of the powder product, to serve the egg powder as an alternative. An experimental study was conducted to achieve an understanding of the freeze-drying behaviour of pasteurized whole egg having 24% dry solids. In order to determine the moisture removal behaviour; the percent moisture loss (w/w), the average moisture content and the drying rates were obtained, the drying curves were developed and total drying times were determined, also the movement of the dry-wet boundary between the frozen layer and the dry porous layer formed by sublimation of ice crystals were investigated during a complete process. The physical properties of pasteurized whole egg such as; colour, water activity (aw), the morphological structure (through SEM analysis) and functional properties (foam stability and dissolubility) were determined. The net colour change (ΔE) was about 22, independent of layer thickness. The water activity decreased to 0.22 at the end of drying. The SEM images of freeze-dried and slightly milled egg powder samples at magnification levels of 500 and 1000 showed the porous structure caused by sublimation of ice crystals generated within the egg structure during air blast freezing. The dissolubility and foaming capacity of powder egg were observed to be lower compared to those of pasteurized liquid egg. (author)

  20. Effect of fermented earthworm cast on egg production and egg quality as well as removal of odor in feces from egg laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jae-Sung; Park, Byung-Sung

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of feeding fermented earthworm casts (EEC) to layers on egg-laying performance, blood lipid profiles, cecal microflora, and fecal odor removing performance. A total of 200 Hyline Brown layer chicks at 33-week-old were used in this study. They were randomly assigned to two numerically equal groups with 100 replications per treatment for 10 weeks. All the birds were caged individually. The control group was not treated with EEC. The EEC group was treated with top dressing containing 3.5% EEC. The present study revealed that egg production and egg weight were increased after feeding diet containing EEC at the top dressing level. Haugh unit, eggshell thickness, and eggshell breaking strength of EEC group were higher than those of control group. Egg yolk was determined for fatty acid profiling. It was found that EEC group had higher ratio of unsaturated- to saturated fatty acid as compared to control group. Lower ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids were found in the egg yolk of EEC group. Plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol contents were lower in the EEC group. However, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol content was higher in the EEC group as compared to that in control group. The number of cecal Lactobacillus was increased while the population of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria decreased in the EEC group. Fecal ammonia and hydrogen sulfide contents were lower in the EEC group as compared to those in control group. Taken together, these results suggested that EEC could improve egg production and egg quality. In addition, it could remove odour from laying-hen manure. PMID:27498506

  1. Egg Development of Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1839

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Ronzani Cerqueira

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Eggs of the Southern Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus were obtained through spawning induction and reared in laboratory. The eggs released were free-floating or pelagic. Other important characteristics were: spherical shape, smooth chorion, narrow perivitelline space, and a single oil globule. Egg and oil globule diameter were about 0.792 ± 0.008 mm and 0.114 ± 0.003 mm, respectively. The blastodisc was observed approximately 1 h after fertilization and followed by blastodisc cleavage. Blastula stage started after about 5 h and gastrula stage after 9 h. Approximately 20 h after fertilization, blastopore closure was observed. Neurula or early embryo occurred after 24 h. Cardiac beats and movements of the free embryonic tail were recorded after 40 h of incubation. Hatching occurred after an incubation period of 40-50 h at temperatures ranging from 18 to 20 ºC. Newly hatched larvae were about 2.04 ± 0.024 mm long and quite undeveloped, with a large yolk sac with a posterior oil globule and sparse pigmentation. These results were greatly similar to those obtained by previous studies regarding congener species. This is one of the first steps towards the artificial propagation of this species under controlled conditions.Através do cultivo de ovos do linguado Paralichthys orbignyanus, obtidos de reprodução induzida em laboratório, foram descritos pela primeira vez seus estádios de desenvolvimento. O ovo era livre e flutuante, caracteristicamente pelágico. Além disso, tinha formato esférico, córion liso, espaço perivitelino estreito, vitelo homogêneo, e uma única gota de óleo. Seu diâmetro médio era de 0,792 ± 0,008 mm e o da gota de óleo de 0,114 ± 0,003 mm. Cerca de 1 h após a fecundação observou-se o blastodisco e em seguida a segmentação celular. A blástula iniciou após cerca de 5 h e a gástrula após 9 h. Com aproximadamente 20 h observou-se o fechamento do blastóporo. A nêurula ou embrião na fase inicial

  2. The egg consumption of the average household in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Migliorati; Armando Giovannini; Valentina Rizzi; Vincenza Prencipe

    2010-01-01

    A survey was conducted over a one-year period by means of telephone interviews with 7 991 Italian households to establish the domestic consumption of eggs, the distribution by source of supply, seasonal variations and storage and preparation methods used. Eggs are mainly purchased from large retailers (53%), followed by small retailers (25.2%), direct purchase from producers (16%), and local or itinerant markets (5.8%). It was found that 69.9% of households buy packaged eggs; 92% of household...

  3. Fish and egg specific immunoglobin e in multiple sclerosis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Fereshteh Ashtari; Fatemeh Jamshidi; Raheleh Shokouhi Shoormasti; Zahra Pourpak; Mojtaba Akbari; Faiborz Zandieh

    2013-01-01

    Background: The effect of nutrition in the course of multiple sclerosis (MS) is a topic of great interest. The present study was aimed to evaluate the immunoglobin E (IgE) against egg and fish in MS patients compared to healthy controls. Methods: Between March 2012 and July 2012, 48 MS patients were selected and compared with 48 healthy subjects to assess the frequency of IgE against egg and fish in MS patients compared to healthy control. Fish and Egg specific IgE was determined by Immuno CA...

  4. MMR vaccination of children with egg allergy is safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorthe Vestergård; Jørgensen, Inger Merete

    2013-01-01

    Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination is part of the Danish Childhood Vaccination Programme. It is known that children may react with anaphylaxis to MMR vaccines containing traces of egg protein. In Denmark, national clinical guidelines recommend that children with egg allergy be referred to...... vaccination at a paediatric ward despite changed recommendations in other countries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether children with egg allergy presented with anaphylactic/allergic reactions to MMR vaccination and to discuss whether Danish recommendations should be upheld....

  5. Daily variability of strongyle fecal egg counts in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Helena; Larsen, Lene; Ritz, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses and constitute a potential threat to equine health. Feces were collected from six horses four times daily over a period of 5 days. Fecal egg counts (FECs) were performed to identify any diurnal rhythms in strongyle egg shedding and to quantify...... variability at the different levels: individual horses, repeated counts, repeated subsamples, different time points, and different days. No significant differences in FECs were found between the different time points (P = .11). The variables-horse, day, subsample, and egg count-accounted for a variance of 104...

  6. Bird communities of contrasting semi-natural habitats of Lac bay, Bonaire, during the fall migration season, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Debrot, A.O.; Bemmelen, van, R.S.A.; Ligon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The mangrove and seagrass lagoon of Lac Bay on Bonaire covers an area of roughly 700 ha. It is home to endangered green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, and the Caribbean queen conch, Strombus gigas, and is a roosting and breeding area for several birds. Based on its nature values this 7 km2 bay has been designated as a legally protected Ramsar site. The area falls under the management responsibility of the National Parks Foundation of Bonaire.

  7. The Status and Conservation of Sea Turtles in Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Okemwa, G.M.; Nzuki, S.; Mueni, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    Five species of sea turtles have been documented as occurring within Kenyan waters: the green turtle (Chelonia mydas), hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta), olive ridley turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) and the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea). Of these, green, hawksbill and olive ridley turtles are known to nest in Kenya. The 200km of beach land available for sea turtle nesting is however under critical threat of erosion and pollution (UNEP 19...

  8. Diversity and status of sea turtle species in the Gulf of Guinea islands

    OpenAIRE

    Castroviejo, Javier; Juste, Javier; Pérez del Val, Jaime; Castelo, Ramón; Gil, Ramón

    1994-01-01

    In West Africa, the Gulf of Guinea islands are important nesting places for four sea turtle species. The Green turtle (Chelonia mydas), the Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), the Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) and the Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) turtles nest on Bioko’s southern beaches. The Green, Hawksbill and Leatherback turtles breed on Principe and São Tome. The Leatherback turtle nests, at least, on Annobén. The Leatherback turtle is reported on the four islan...

  9. Anatomy of the digestive tube of sea turtles (Reptilia: Testudines)

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela dos S. Magalhães; Armando J. Barsante Santos; Naisandra B. da Silva; Carlos E. B. Moura

    2012-01-01

    This study characterized the morphology of the digestive tube of five species of sea turtles. We used specimens found dead along the coast of the state Rio Grande do Norte, as well as specimens accidentally killed as a result of pelagic longline fishing. Nineteen animals of the following species were analyzed: Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758) (n = 9), Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829) (n = 6), Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758) (n = 2), Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1766) (n = 1) and...

  10. The diving behaviour of green turtles undertaking oceanic migration to and from Ascension Island: dive durations, dive profiles and depth distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Hays, G. C.; Åkesson, Susanne; Broderick, A C; Glen, F.; Godley, B.J.; Luschi, P; C. Martin; Metcalfe, D.; Papi, F.

    2001-01-01

    Satellite telemetry was used to record the submergence duration of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) as they migrated from Ascension Island to Brazil (N=12 individuals) while time/depth recorders (TDRs) were used to examine the depth distribution and dive profiles of individuals returning to Ascension Island to nest after experimental displacement (N=5 individuals). Satellite telemetry revealed that most submergences were short (<5 min) but that some submergences were longer (>20 min), par...

  11. Molecular Data for the Sea Turtle Population in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sibelle Torres Vilaça; Fabricio Rodrigues dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    We report here a dataset comprising nine nuclear markers for the Brazilian population of Cheloniidae turtles: hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata), loggerheads (Caretta caretta), olive ridleys (Lepidochelys olivacea), and green turtles (Chelonia mydas). Because hybridization is a common phenomenon between the four Cheloniidae species nesting on the Brazilian coast, we also report molecular markers for the hybrids E. imbricata × C. caretta, C. caretta × L. olivacea, and E. imbricata × L. olivac...

  12. The Rings Around the Egg Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpaz, Amos; Rappaport, Saul; Soker, Noam

    1997-01-01

    We present an eccentric binary model for the formation of the proto-planetary nebula CRL 2688 (the Egg Nebula) that exhibits multiple concentric shells. Given the apparent regularity of the structure in the Egg Nebula, we postulate that the shells are caused by the periodic passages of a companion star. Such an orbital period would have to lie in the range of 100-500 yr, the apparent time that corresponds to the spacing between the rings. We assume, in this model, that an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star, which is the origin of the matter within the planetary nebula, loses mass in a spherically symmetric wind. We further suppose that the AGB star has an extended atmosphere (out to approximately 10 stellar radii) in which the outflow speed is less than the escape speed; still farther out, grains form and radiation pressure accelerates the grains along with the trapped gas to the escape speed. Once escape speed has been attained, the presence of a companion star will not significantly affect the trajectories of the matter leaving in the wind and the mass loss will be approximately spherically symmetric. On the other hand, if the companion star is sufficiently close that the Roche lobe of the AGB star moves inside the extended atmosphere, then the slowly moving material will be forced to flow approximately along the critical potential surface (i.e., the Roche lobe) until it flows into the potential lobe of the companion star. Therefore, in our model, the shells are caused by periodic cessations of the isotropic wind rather than by any periodic enhancement in the mass-loss process. We carry out detailed binary evolution calculations within the context of this scenario, taking into account the nuclear evolution and stellar wind losses of the giant as well as the effects of mass loss and mass transfer on the evolution of the eccentric binary orbit. From the initial binary parameters that we find are required to produce a multiple concentric shell nebula and the known

  13. An antisperm monoclonal antibody inhibits sperm fusion with zona-free hamster eggs but not homologous eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primakoff, P; Hyatt, H

    1986-09-01

    The zona-free hamster egg penetration assay (HEPA) was evaluated as a test for identifying fertilization-blocking antibodies. A monoclonal antibody, AH-20, that binds to the surface of guinea pig sperm was used to test antibody inhibition of sperm-egg fusion. AH-20 strongly inhibited guinea pig sperm fusion with zona-free hamster eggs but had no effect on guinea pig sperm fusion with zona-free guinea pig eggs. No inhibition by AH-20 was found in the homologous fusion assay over a wide range of sperm concentration, fertilization rate, and fertilization index. The results suggest that although guinea pig sperm can fuse with both hamster and guinea pig eggs, some aspect of the fusion mechanism is different in the two cases. The findings also indicate that HEPA, which is frequently used to assess the fertility potential of human sperm, can identify as blockers of sperm-egg fusion antibodies that have no effect on homologous sperm-egg fusion. PMID:3527769

  14. Adult nutrition and butterfly fitness: effects of diet quality on reproductive output, egg composition, and egg hatching success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Lepidoptera it was historically believed that adult butterflies rely primarily on larval-derived nutrients for reproduction and somatic maintenance. However, recent studies highlight the complex interactions between storage reserves and adult income, and that the latter may contribute significantly to reproduction. Effects of adult diet were commonly assessed by determining the number and/or size of the eggs produced, whilst its consequences for egg composition and offspring viability were largely neglected (as is generally true for insects. We here specifically focus on these latter issues by using the fruit-feeding tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana, which is highly dependent on adult-derived carbohydrates for reproduction. Results Adult diet of female B. anynana had pronounced effects on fecundity, egg composition and egg hatching success, with butterflies feeding on the complex nutrition of banana fruit performing best. Adding vitamins and minerals to a sucrose-based diet increased fecundity, but not offspring viability. All other groups (plain sucrose solution, sucrose solution enriched with lipids or yeast had a substantially lower fecundity and egg hatching success compared to the banana group. Differences were particularly pronounced later in life, presumably indicating the depletion of essential nutrients in sucrose-fed females. Effects of adult diet on egg composition were not straightforward, indicating complex interactions among specific compounds. There was some evidence that total egg energy and water content were related to hatching success, while egg protein, lipid, glycogen and free carbohydrate content did not seem to limit successful development. Conclusion The patterns shown here exemplify the complexity of reproductive resource allocation in B. anynana, and the need to consider egg composition and offspring viability when trying to estimate the effects of adult nutrition on fitness in this

  15. Rare earth element-enriched yeast improved egg production and egg quality in laying hens in the late period of peak egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, L; Nyachoti, C M; Hancock, J D; Lee, J Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, D H; Kim, I H

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rare earth element-enriched yeast (RY) on egg production, coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD), egg quality, excreta gas emission and excreta microbiota of laying hens. A total of 216 ISA brown laying hens of 52 weeks of age were used in a 5-week feeding trial and data were collected every week. Birds were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments each with six replicates and 12 hens per replicate. Each cage (38 cm width × 50 cm length × 40 cm height) contained one hen. Treatments consisted of corn-soya bean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 500 or 1000 mg/kg of RY. From weeks 55 to 56, inclusion of RY linearly increased (p laying hens. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with RY improved egg production and CTTAD of nitrogen and slightly improved egg quality in laying hens of the late period of peak egg production. PMID:26250098

  16. Egg mortality: predation and hydrography in the central Baltic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, R.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Stepputtis, D.; Bernreuther, M.; Huwer, Bastian; Neumann, Viola; Schmidt, J.O.

    2011-01-01

    during the egg phase to be of critical importance. Two years of extensive field investigations in the Bornholm Basin, central Baltic Sea, were undertaken. In 2002, a typical stagnation situation characterized by low salinity and poor oxygen conditions was investigated, and in early 2003, a major inflow...... of North Sea water completely changed the hydrographic conditions by increasing salinity and oxygen content, thereby altering ecological conditions. The goal was to quantify egg mortality caused by predation and hydrography, and to compare these estimates with independent estimates based on cohort...... analysis. Results indicated high intra-annual variability in egg mortality. Cod and sprat egg mortality responded differently to the major Baltic inflow: mortality related to hydrographic conditions increased for sprat and decreased for cod. On the other hand, predation mortality during peak spawning...

  17. Values and public acceptability dimensions of sustainable egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P B; Appleby, M; Busch, L; Kalof, L; Miele, M; Norwood, B F; Pajor, E

    2011-09-01

    The attributes of egg production that elicit values-based responses include the price and availability of eggs, environmental impacts, food safety or health concerns, and animal welfare. Different social groups have distinct interests regarding the sustainability of egg production that reflect these diverse values. Current scientifically based knowledge about how values and attitudes in these groups can be characterized is uneven and must be derived from studies conducted at varying times and using incomplete study methods. In general, some producer and consumer interests are translated through markets and are mediated by market mechanisms, whereas others are poorly reflected by economic behavior. An array of survey and focus group research has been performed to elicit consumer and activist beliefs about performance goals they would expect from an egg production system. These studies provide evidence that consumers' market behavior may be at odds with their ethical and political beliefs about performance goals. PMID:21844278

  18. Environmental contaminants in two bald eagle eggs from New Hampshire

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On June 12, 2006 and June 2, 2009, nonviable, addled bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus eggs were collected from nests at Pontook Reservoir on the Androscoggin...

  19. Continuous Underway Fish-Egg Sampler (CUFES) Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pelagic eggs collected using the CUFES during cruises conducted by the SWFSC Fisheries Resources Division from 1996 to present. Data are typically collected every...

  20. CalCOFI Continuous Underway Fish-Egg Sampler

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples collected using the Continuous Underway Fish-Egg Sampler, known as CUFES. The data include numbers of anchovy, sardine, jack mackerel, squid, hake, and...

  1. Study on the sterilization of egg white powder by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article studied the killing microorganism result, the influence of main essential nutrient and sense organ of egg white powder by Co-60 γ-ray irradiation. The microorganism index of the egg white powder samples can meet the government food sanitation standard by 4 kGy irradiation, and the killing microorganism rare can reach 100%. The irradiation dose from 4 to 10 kGy has little influence to the egg white powder protein, crude fiber and amino acids contras ting to comparison, and the sensory quality such as color and luster, scent has little change below 6 kGy irradiation. Synthesizing the results of physical chemistry and sense organ, the optimal irradiation dose of egg white powder killing microorganism is 4 to 6 kGy. (authors)

  2. Forecasting of the Egg Price Based on EEMD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan; WANG; Yucheng; HE

    2015-01-01

    In the transitional period of " new normal",the target price is put forward to deepen the reform system of agricultural product price. Egg is the main agricultural product and its price has fluctuated violently in recent years. Setting up a target price for egg will reduce the price fluctuations. This article brings up a three-step agricultural price forecasting model based on EEMD and applies it to the analysis of egg price. It shows that the upward trend can be divided into three stages,and the fluctuation is greater than that of food consumer price in the foreseeable future. The volatility of egg price is bad for the development of the fresh market and stable life of the residents. This article finally puts forward some recommendations.

  3. Contaminant concentrations in peregrine falcon eggs from Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the 1991 breeding season, three addled peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs were collected from two sites in Vermont (Figure 1). At one site (Deer Leap),...

  4. Chemical egg defense in a green lacewing (Ceraeochrysa smithi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, T; Attygalle, A B; Conner, W E; Eisner, M; MacLeod, E; Meinwald, J

    1996-01-01

    The green lacewing Ceraeochrysa smithi (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae), like other members of its family, lays its eggs on stalks, but it is unusual in that it coats these stalks with droplets of an oily fluid. The liquid consists of a mixture of fatty acids, an ester, and a series of straight-chain aldehydes. Relative to the eggs of a congeneric chrysopid that lacks stalk fluid, the eggs of C. smithi proved well protected against ants. Components of the fluid, in an assay with a cockroach, proved potently irritant. Following emergence from the egg, C. smithi larvae imbibe the stalk fluid, thereby possibly deriving nutritive benefit, defensive advantage, or both. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8622928

  5. Factors Affecting Microbial Contamination of Market Eggs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodová J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review was to analyze the ways of microbial contamination, the protective mechanism of egg, and factors that affect the quantity of contamination and microbial penetration. Eggs can be contaminated during their formation in the infected reproductive organs of hens or after laying, when eggs are exposed to contaminated environment. The eggs are equipped against microbial contamination by several protective mechanisms comprising the presence of cuticle, eggshell, eggshell membranes, occurrence of some antibacterial proteins, and high pH value of albumen. There are several factors that affect the quantity of microbial contamination and penetration such as species of bacteria, the amount of microorganisms, storage conditions, quality of eggshell or number of pores.

  6. 7 CFR 57.45 - Prohibition on eggs not intended for use as human food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs not intended for use as human food...) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of...

  7. Motion compensated image processing and optimal parameters for egg crack detection using modified pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell eggs with microcracks are often undetected during egg grading processes. In the past, a modified pressure imaging system was developed to detect eggs with microcracks without adversely affecting the quality of normal intact eggs. The basic idea of the modified pressure imaging system was to ap...

  8. Factors from production to packaging that affect the microbiology of commercial shell egg processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggs are designed to limit bacterial contamination of egg contents as well as to protect and nourish a developing embryo; these qualities contribute to eggs being wholesome and nutritious for humans. When eggs are involved in human enteritis, there is usually temperature abuse and pooling of raw pr...

  9. Thermal Inactivation of Salmonella in Commercially-Processed Liquid Egg Yolk

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 regulates egg products through the USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) by mandating minimum thermal pasteurization requirements for specified egg products. These standards were based on data for the inactivation of Salmonella in liquid egg products...

  10. 50 CFR 21.50 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... geese nests and eggs. 21.50 Section 21.50 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.50 Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs. (a... nests and eggs, and what is its purpose? The nest and egg depredation order for resident Canada...

  11. Molecular Detection of Salmonella Serovar Isolated from Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Monadi, M. (MSc; M Kargar; Naghiha, A. (PhD; Najafi, A. (MSc; Mohammadi, R. (MSc

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Salmonellosis is the most common type of food poisoning in developed and developing countries that is caused by Salmonella serotype. Hence, we aimed to identify the Salmonella serovars in eggs obtained from Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad province and to evaluate antibiotic resistance of the isolated strains. Material and Methods: In this study, 210 eggs were collected from Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad Province. The bacteria were isolated and identified using biochemical test...

  12. Controlling egg dioxin levels from laying hens with outdoor run

    OpenAIRE

    Kijlstra, Prof. Dr. Aize; Hoogenboom, Dr. Ron; Traag, Dr. Wim

    2008-01-01

    After the first news items concerning raised dioxin levels in eggs from hens with outdoor access were published in the summer of 2001, Wageningen UR carried out intensive research activities to understand the problem and to find a way to manage the problem. In 2004 the first Wageningen UR report on this issue was published. It described the possible factors that were associated with high egg dioxin levels in organic poultry farms. The most striking feature was the number of laying hens on ...

  13. APPLICATION OF "SUPER ANK ANOLYTE" FOR BIOCIDAL TREATMENT OF EGGS

    OpenAIRE

    Vanner N. E.

    2015-01-01

    Under the field conditions breeding the young poultry takes place in the eggs out of maternal body. For successful breeding the progeny keeping all the demands to safety and quality of hatching eggs has the important significance. Safety demands are presented in the appropriate Technical Standards (TS). The microbial standards are to be very significant. Moreover, it is necessary to control both the microorganisms note in TS and other species as dangerous factors on during the process of prod...

  14. Organic poultry and egg production in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bestman, Monique

    2011-01-01

    There are over 1 million organic laying hens in the Netherlands. Organic eggs are in high demand on the domestic market. Dutch organic poultry meat has a small but growing market share. To facilitate organic poultry farmers, Wageningen UR and Louis Bolk Institute carry out a variety of research aimed specifically at organic poultry meat and egg production. Hot topics are the protein content of poultry feed, organic rearing and animal health. The report contains sector facts, sector aspirat...

  15. Survival and transport of bacteria in egg washwater.

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, J.; Southam, G G; Holley, R A

    1987-01-01

    An evaluation of methods for monitoring the quality of water used to wash eggs at grading stations was undertaken to improve maintenance of bacterial viability during overnight sample transport. Bacterial content of samples at analysis would then better reflect conditions at the time eggs were washed. The interactive effects of temperature and the highly alkaline water conditions upon viability were the subjects of this study. Nine transport methods were examined for their efficacy in recover...

  16. Heartbeat, embryo communication and hatching synchrony in snake eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Fabien Aubret; Gaëlle Blanvillain; Florent Bignon; Kok, Philippe J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Communication is central to life at all levels of complexity, from cells to organs, through to organisms and communities. Turtle eggs were recently shown to communicate with each other in order to synchronise their development and generate beneficial hatching synchrony. Yet the mechanism underlying embryo to embryo communication remains unknown. Here we show that within a clutch, developing snake embryos use heart beats emanating from neighbouring eggs as a clue for their metabolic level, in ...

  17. Trichogramma parasitoids alter the metabolic physiology of Manduca eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Kristen A.; Woods, H. Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Egg parasitoids face unique developmental constraints. First, they have exceptionally limited resources to support themselves and their siblings through three life stages. Second, they develop within the physiological system of another species, which they modify to their own ends. We examined how these constraints affect the metabolic physiology of egg parasitism, and whether parasitoids retool their host eggshell to account for their different metabolic demands. Higher-conductance eggshells ...

  18. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Jyothi B; Dhanashri V Kulkarni; V L Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symp...

  19. A possible chelonian egg from the Brazilian late cretaceous

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a possible fossil egg proceeding from the Bauru Group, Late Cretaceous of Paraná Basin, Brazil. External morphology, dimensions, texture and shell ornamentation examined under electron microscopy show close resemblance to the Recent podocnemidid chelonian eggs. Association with bony material in the outcrop suggests that it is related to a species of Podocnemis. Computerized tomography reveals a high density outer region corresponding to the shell component layers, and suc...

  20. The egg quality and performance of laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Skálová, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Many factors affect on egg quality and performance of laying hens. There are external factors, for example the housing system, and internal factors, for example the age of laying hens. This thesis discusses about the statement. There are known results, conclusions and conducted research on the issue influencing egg quality and performance of laying hens from Czech and foreign authors. Literature review contains a description of alternative housing systems and equipment of these systems. Th...

  1. Lead exposure from backyard chicken eggs: a public health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Adrienne C; Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Although the USA has made significant strides in reducing lead exposure, new and emerging sources are raising cause for public concern. Recent reports of finding lead in eggs from chickens raised in urban gardens has highlighted the need to consider the potential health risks of consuming eggs from backyard chickens. Following the detection of 0.33 μg/g lead in the edible portion of eggs submitted for lead analysis from a backyard chicken owner, further investigation was conducted to determine the source and extent of lead exposure in the flock. Several birds, almost two dozen eggs, and environmental samples were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory for further testing. Lead was detected in the blood, liver, kidney, and bone at varying concentrations in all birds but was not detected in the muscle tissue. All egg shells contained detectable amounts of lead, while only a little over half of the edible portion of the eggs contained lead. The detected concentrations in the edible portion approached or exceeded the recommended threshold of lead consumption per day that should not be exceeded by young children if a child consumed one average-sized egg. Peeling paint from a wooded structure adjacent to the flock's coop was the likely lead source containing 3,700 μg/g lead. Thus, removal of the chickens from the source and periodic testing of eggs for lead were recommended. This case illustrates the need for consumers and health care workers to be aware of potential sources for lead exposure such as backyard chickens. PMID:24943230

  2. Hen's egg as a source of valuable biologically active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Herman, Marta; Starostecka, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show current knowledge concerning valuable substances biologically active present in hen eggs and underline important nutritive role of hen eggs. Hen egg is a good source of nutrients such as proteins, vitamins (A, B2, B6, B12, D, E, K), minerals and lipids. The significant part of lipids is a group of unsaturated phospholipids, which are components of cell membranes, act protectively on the cardiovascular system and contribute to a decrease of cholesterol level and blood pressure. Therefore, the consumption of unsaturated phospholipids is recommended especially in patients suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular system. Another important substance is egg cystatin, which has a wide spectrum of biological functions, for example the ability to stimulate cell growth, inhibit inflammatory processes and has antibacterial and antiviral properties. Other substance presented in the egg white which helps fight bacteria is lysozyme. It is used in medicine as an aid in antibiotic therapy and analgesic in the course of infection, as well as in tumor malignancies. Among the components contained in the egg yolk there is also immunoglobulin Y which due to its therapeutic importance deserves special attention. Its use offers the possibility of replacing chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of bacterial infections of digestive system, as well as an opportunity for the development of medicine associated with passive immunization of patients. The egg is a rich source of retinol which gradual depletion in the organism causes many eye pathologies. A very important and useful part of the egg, used in medicine is a shell and its membranes, due to the high collagen content relevant in the treatment of connective tissue diseases. PMID:27383572

  3. Characteristics of current international trade of live salmonid eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, M; McLeary, R

    1996-06-01

    World trade in live salmonid embryos (eyed eggs) has grown in response to increased global salmon production, particularly in South America, and parallels international trade in farmed salmonid products. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) are the most commercially important species. In 1992, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimated world production of rainbow trout at 300,000 tonnes, while the production of Atlantic salmon was estimated at 250,000 tonnes and coho salmon at 50,000 tonnes. One can estimate that roughly 3 billion, 150 million and 30 million eggs, respectively, were required to produce this yield. Broodstock are cultivated world-wide, using a wide variety of water sources, including the marine environment, riverine water containing anadromous fish, and ground water free of migrating fish. As many as 70% of all coho eggs are derived from feral fish. Approximately 50% of all commercial salmonid eyed eggs are produced in Europe, and approximately 15% are produced in the state of Washington, United States of America. Conditions which are ideal for commercial salmonid grow-out are not necessarily ideal for the cultivation of salmonid broodstock; this is one reason why international egg trade is necessary. The trend of current salmonid health regulations is towards facilitating egg commerce on a regional level, in an attempt to control disease transmission. Regulations controlling egg importation often include pathogens which are not vertically transmitted. This serves only to increase egg prices, in compensation for the cost of laboratory tests. Genetic improvements have been the cornerstone of increasing commercial production of all agricultural commodities. Fish health regulations are sometimes instituted in an effort to protect the local industry, but in fact they act more often to restrict the flow of genetic material and may actually serve to reduce industry

  4. Type of dietary lipids and storing time on egg stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Fernandes Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of diets containing different lipid sources on eggs quality during refrigerated storage, on yolk fatty acid composition, and on cholesterol in the yolk. Four diets were used containing Soy Oil (SO, Sunflower Seed (SS, and Meat and Bone Meal + Soy Oil (MBM + SO or Meat and Bone Meal + Tallow (MBM + TA. The experiment followed a factorial design 4 × 3 with four dietary treatments and three storage times. The eggs were stored at 4 °C for 0, 30, and 60 days. The collected eggs were analyzed for egg weight loss, Haugh units, yolk moisture, yolk lipid oxidation, and cooked yolk firmness. Refrigerated storage reduced Haugh units, and increased yolk moisture. Sixty days of storage time reduced the firmness of hard-cooked yolk. There was an interaction between dietary treatment and storage time for egg weight loss and lipid oxidation. With regard to yolk fatty acid profile, MBM + TA diet increased the contents of palmitic and palmitoleic acids. The levels of oleic and arachidonic acids were higher in yolks from birds fed with SS diet. Linoleic acid level was higher in the yolk from treatment with SO diet. Diets containing MBM + SO induced higher levels of docosahexaenoic acid. Yolk cholesterol content was reduced with the inclusion of SS in the diet. Therefore, the type of lipid present in the diet and refrigerated storage for 60 days at 4 °C can affect the egg quality.

  5. The development of regional markets of eggs production in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal'ya Anatol'evna Alekseeva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current state of regional markets development and the production of eggs and egg products for a long period — from 1990 to 2009 — is reviewed in this paper. The main research method is the method of statistical groupings. The variable amount of egg production was chosen as the grouping characteristic, since this figure fits well into research goals and has the property of the prevalence in the aggregate / total. To analyze the trends of the Russian regional markets involved into egg production, official statistics on consumer prices was used as well as producer prices, the volume of egg production per capita based on food import and export products. This allowed to group regions for comparison with average values of indicators carried out by different criteria, and to draw conclusions about trends in the development of regional markets. The most relevant factors influencing the development of egg production, among which the factor of vertical integration of production was especially noticed: building own plants and feed mills, joining the land in order to ensure the needs for higher quality raw materials and other activities were identified.

  6. EXPERIMENTS OF FORTIFIED EGG YOLK POWDER IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Kiss

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The egg contains inorganic binding nutrients, which are essential in human feeding. Besides a great number of nutrients, vitamins and microelements can be accumulated in egg yolk. The enrichment of vitamins and carotinoids in egg yolk can be achieved by addition of desired supplementary compounds to the feed. Fortified egg yolk can be a good source of different carotenoids, and vitamin C. Carotenoids have protecting effect as follows: antioxidant activity, immunostimulation effect and antimutagenous effect. The ascorbic acid’s biological effect is ability of oxidation-reduction. It has reduction capacity, and takes part in regeneration after glutation oxidation. In our experiment BALBc mice were fed by fortified egg yolk powder. Carotenoid, lutein, lycopene, and vitamin C were mixed into the egg yolk before lyophilisation (lutein 0.014 %; vitamin C 0.035 %, likopin 0.035 % in food. The other mice group was fed with syntetic form of lutein, lycopene and vitamin C. Mice were bled at 5th and 10th day of experiment. Blood and liver concentrations of lutein, lycopene and vitamin C were measured by HPLC method. In our experiment we compared utilization of lutein, lycopene and vitamin C concentration in different fortified food of BALBc mice.

  7. The application of superweak bioluminescence on freshness degree of chicken egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The luminescence of chicken egg in storage is studied by a detection system of superweak bioluminescence. The results show that egg has the strongest vigour on the third day after it is laid, subsequently the luminescence presents decay with oscillation. These eggs, which have been stored for 3 days, are most suitable for hatching. Different eggs have different luminescence intensities depending on the vigour of the egg. The stronger the vigour of the egg is, the more intensive the luminescence is. Superweak bioluminescence as a comprehensive index of biology and biochemistry response can be used for inspecting the freshness degree of the egg, and the test is nondestructive and sensitive

  8. Reassessing the role of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) Dufour's gland in egg marking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen; Jones, Graeme; Châline, Nicolas; Middleton, Helen; Ratnieks, Francis

    2002-10-01

    Dufour's gland secretion may allow worker honeybees to discriminate between queen-laid and worker-laid eggs. To investigate this, we combined the chemical analysis of individually treated eggs with an egg removal bioassay. We partitioned queen Dufour's gland into hydrocarbon and ester fractions. The bioassay showed that worker-laid eggs treated with either whole gland extract, ester fraction or synthetic gland esters were removed more slowly than untreated worker-laid eggs. However, the effect only lasted up to 20 h. Worker-laid eggs treated with the hydrocarbon fraction were removed at the same rate as untreated eggs. The amount of ester which reduced the egg removal rate was far higher than that naturally found on queen-laid or worker-laid eggs, and at natural ester levels no effect was found. Our results indicate that esters or hydrocarbons probably do not function as the signal by which eggs can be discriminated.

  9. Retention of Coastal Cod Eggs in a Fjord Caused by Interactions between Egg Buoyancy and Circulation Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Myksvoll, Mari Skuggedal; Sundby, Svein; Ådlandsvik, Bjørn; Frode B Vikebø

    2011-01-01

    Norwegian coastal cod form a stationary population of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua consisting of several genetically separated subpopulations. A small-scale differentiation in marine populations with pelagic eggs and larvae is made possible by local retention of early life stages in coastal environments. A numerical model was used to simulate the circulation in a fjord system in northern Norway over 2 years with different river runoff patterns. The dispersal of cod eggs was calculated with a par...

  10. The Influence of Oregano Essential Oil and Pollen on Egg Albumen Qualitative Parameters and Microbiological Indicators of Table Eggs Content

    OpenAIRE

    Henrieta Arpášová; Miroslava Kačaniová; Branislav Gálik; Martin Mellen

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils are intensive fragrant, oily liquid substances contained in different parts of the plant. Besides antibacterial properties, essential oils or their components have been shown to exhibit antiviral, antimycotic, antitoxigenic, antiparasitic, and insecticidal properties. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oils or pollen on egg albumen physical parameters and microbiological egg parameters were studied. Hens of layin...

  11. Influence of Flaxseed Oil on Fecal Microbiota, Egg Quality and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolks in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Yeong; Kang, Sang-Kee; Heo, Yun-Jeong; Shin, Do-Woon; Park, Tae-Eun; Han, Geon Goo; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Lee, Ho-Bin; Jung, Eojin; Kim, Hee Sung; Na, Yerim; Kim, Eun Bae; Choi, Yun-Jaie

    2016-03-01

    Although there have been many attempts to produce ω-3 fatty acid-rich eggs using alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) that is a popular fatty acid in the poultry feed industry, only limited knowledge about the effects of ALA-enriched diets on chicken fecal microbiota is currently available. Herein we examined the changes in the fecal microbiota composition, egg quality traits and fatty acid composition of the egg yolks of laying hens fed ALA-rich flaxseed oil for 8 weeks. The animals fed the experimental diets that contained 0 % (group C), 0.5 % (group T1), and 1.0 % (group T2) of flaxseed oil, respectively, and eggs and feces were obtained for the analyses. ω-3 fatty acids, including ALA, were increased in T1 and T2 compared with C. Furthermore, the freshness of eggs was improved with no side effects on the eggs. The diet also changed the fecal microbiota; Firmicutes was increased in T1 and T2 (48.6 to 83 and 79.6 %) and Bacteroidetes was decreased (40.2 to 8.8 and 4.2 %). Principal coordinate analysis revealed that Lactobacillus, among the 56 examined genera, was the most influenced bacterial group in terms of the fecal microbial community shifts. These results indicate that ALA-rich diets influenced both the egg and fecal microbiota in beneficial manners in laying hens although the association between the fatty acid composition of the egg yolk and the fecal microbiota was not clear. This study is a first step to understand the effect of flaxseed oil as well as intestinal microbiota of laying hens. PMID:26613617

  12. Nest Material Shapes Eggs Bacterial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Castellano, Cristina; Tomás, Gustavo; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Martín-Gálvez, David; Soler, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Selective pressures imposed by pathogenic microorganisms to embryos have selected in hosts for a battery of antimicrobial lines of defenses that includes physical and chemical barriers. Due to the antimicrobial properties of volatile compounds of green plants and of chemicals of feather degrading bacteria, the use of aromatic plants and feathers for nest building has been suggested as one of these barriers. However, experimental evidence suggesting such effects is scarce in the literature. During two consecutive years, we explored experimentally the effects of these nest materials on loads of different groups of bacteria (mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus) of eggshells in nests of spotless starlings (Sturnus unicolor) at the beginning and at the end of the incubation period. This was also explored in artificial nests without incubation activity. We also experimentally increased bacterial density of eggs in natural and artificial nests and explored the effects of nest lining treatments on eggshell bacterial load. Support for the hypothetical antimicrobial function of nest materials was mainly detected for the year and location with larger average values of eggshell bacterial density. The beneficial effects of feathers and plants were more easily detected in artificial nests with no incubation activity, suggesting an active role of incubation against bacterial colonization of eggshells. Pigmented and unpigmented feathers reduced eggshell bacterial load in starling nests and artificial nest boxes. Results from artificial nests allowed us to discuss and discard alternative scenarios explaining the detected association, particularly those related to the possible sexual role of feathers and aromatic plants in starling nests. All these results considered together confirm the antimicrobial functionality mainly of feathers but also of plants used as nest materials, and highlight the importance of temporally and geographically

  13. Performance, Egg Characteristics and Economic Impact of Laying Hens Fed Extruded Bakery Waste

    OpenAIRE

    I.M. Al-Ruqaie; M.S. Alamri; M.A. Alodan; T.M. Shafey; M.A. Abouheif; H.A. Al-Batshan

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of replacing corn with extruded Bakery Waste (BWP) in the diet of laying hens on the performance (feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass and feed efficiency) and egg components (albumen, yolk and eggshell) and characteristics of eggshell (thickness and strength) and albumen (height and Haugh unit) and yolk (height and color (YH and YC)) and feed costs of egg production. Six isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulat...

  14. Production characteristics of Hy-Line W36 laying hens hatched from white and tinted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Purswell, J L; Evans, J D; Branton, S L

    2014-08-01

    Eggshell color can greatly influence visual appeal of table eggs, and within the United States, table eggs are normally sorted and marked according to eggshell color to maximize consumer appeal. Recently, table egg producers have noted increased incidence of "off-color" or tinted (TT) eggs derived from white egg laying breeder hens. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the production characteristics and resultant eggshell color of laying hens hatched from different colored eggs. Hy-Line W36 eggs were obtained from a commercial breeder operation and eggshell color was assessed with a colorimeter to separate eggs into groups of tinted (TT) and nontinted (NT) eggs before incubation. Treatment groups were placed into separate hatching trays. At hatching, chicks from each treatment group were individually wing-banded. Pullets were randomly allocated into cages according to treatment groups at 18 wk. Birds were placed into individual cages, with 5 consecutive cages representing a treatment replicate. Each treatment was replicated 24 times for a total of 120 birds per treatment and fed a nutritionally complete layer diet. Production performance was evaluated from 18 to 34 wk of age. Average weekly egg production was calculated. Feed intake, egg weights, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, and egg color were analyzed every 2 wk. Birds were weighed every 4 wk until completion of the study. Birds hatched from TT eggs had significantly increased BW throughout the experimental period. Hen-day egg production was significantly different when compared with the NT treatment at 19 and 20 wk of age. Eggshell color was also found to be significantly different for the NT and TT groups with TT eggs being significantly further from true white. Selection of progeny based on eggshell color may be a criterion for selecting white egg layers as layers hatched from TT eggs resulted in more off-color eggs, which may affect consumer acceptance for buying white table eggs

  15. Using Lipase to Improve the Functional Properties of Yolk-Contaminated Egg Whites

    OpenAIRE

    Macherey, Laura Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Egg yolk contamination of egg whites continues to be a serious problem in the egg industry. The ability of egg whites to form stable and voluminous foams is greatly inhibited by accidental yolk contamination, even at extremely small levels. Experiments were conducted to determine if lipase can regenerate the functional properties of yolk-contaminated egg whites. Treatments included control, 0.2% yolk-contamination, and 0.2% yolk-contamination that was treated with lipase and colipase and h...

  16. Effects of egg shell quality and washing on Salmonella Infantis penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah; Chousalkar, K K; Roberts, J R; Sexton, M; May, D; Kiermeier, A

    2013-07-15

    The vast majority of eggs in Australia are washed prior to packing to remove dirt and fecal material and to reduce the microbial contamination of the egg shell. The egg contents can be an ideal growth medium for microorganisms which can result in human illness if eggs are stored improperly and eaten raw or undercooked, and it is estimated that egg-related salmonellosis is costing Australia $44 million per year. Egg shell characteristics such as shell thickness, amount of cuticle present, and thickness of individual egg shell layers can affect the ease with which bacteria can penetrate the egg shell and washing could partially or completely remove the cuticle layer. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of egg washing on cuticle cover and effects of egg shell quality and cuticle cover on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. A higher incidence of unfavorable ultrastructural variables of the mammillary layer such as late fusion, type B bodies, type A bodies, poor cap quality, alignment, depression, erosion and cubics were recorded in Salmonella penetrated areas of egg shells. The influence of egg washing on the ability of Salmonella Infantis on the egg shell surface to enter the egg internal contents was also investigated using culture-based agar egg penetration and real-time qPCR based experiments. The results from the current study indicate that washing affected cuticle cover. There were no significant differences in Salmonella Infantis penetration of washed or unwashed eggs. Egg shell translucency may have effects on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. The qPCR assay was more sensitive for detection of Salmonella Infantis from egg shell wash and internal contents than traditional microbiological methods. The agar egg and whole egg inoculation experiments indicated that Salmonella Infantis penetrated the egg shells. Egg washing not only can be highly effective at removing Salmonella Infantis from the egg shell surface

  17. Effect of a commercial housing system on egg quality during extended storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Karcher, D M; Abdo, Z

    2014-05-01

    Egg producers in the United States are utilizing a variety of commercial egg production systems to provide consumer choice and meet legislative requirements. Consumer egg grades in the United States were developed for conventional cage production, and it is unclear what effect alternative production systems might have on egg quality during retail and consumer home storage. The current study was undertaken to determine what changes in egg quality characteristics occur during extended cold storage for commercially produced conventional cage, enriched colony cage, and cage-free aviary eggs. During 12 wk of cold storage, egg weight, albumen height, Haugh unit, static compression shell strength, vitelline membrane strength and deformation, yolk index, shell dynamic stiffness, and whole egg total solids were monitored. Overall, aviary and enriched eggs were significantly (P eggs. Static compression shell strength was greatest (P eggs compared with aviary. No overall housing system effects for yolk measurements, shell dynamic stiffness, or whole egg total solids were observed. Albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk quality measurements were all greatest at 0 and lowest at 12 wk of storage (P egg weight at 4 wk, no significant differences in the rate of quality decline were found among the housing systems. The results of the current study indicate that current US egg quality standards should effectively define quality for commercially produced conventional cage, enriched colony cage, and cage-free aviary eggs. PMID:24795324

  18. A proposed mechanism for enhanced water-conservation in egg clutches of the Mexican Kingsnake, Lampropeltis mexicana (Serpentes: Colubridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Richard S. Phillips; Andrew J. Jajack; YODER, JAY A.

    2014-01-01

    Laying eggs on a wet substrate minimizes water stress for flexible-shelled reptile eggs because they absorb water through the permeable shell. This water gain contributes to reduced water-loss in aggregated eggs. This water-conserving feature is demonstrated in eggs of Lampropeltis mexicana in a water-balance experiment investigating both naturally laid clutches and eggs in arranged clusters. Water-loss rates of eggs decrease as more eggs are added to the aggregation, with a threshold at appr...

  19. Removal of small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) eggs and larvae by African honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera scutellata)

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Peter; Härtel, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    International audience The removal of small hive beetle [SHB] eggs and larvae was studied in seven Apis mellifera scutellata colonies. Because female beetles can protect their eggs by oviposition in small cracks we introduced unprotected eggs and protected eggs into these colonies. Whereas all unprotected eggs were removed within 24 hours, $66 \\pm 12$% of the protected eggs remained, showing that SHB eggs are likely to hatch in infested colonies. However, all larvae introduced into the sam...

  20. Deposition of carotenoids in egg yolk by short-term supplement of coloured carrot (Daucus carota) varieties as forage material for egg-laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Hammershoj, Marianne; Kidmose, Ulla; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supplying egg-laying hens with different forage materials may influence egg production and quality. The aim of this study was to examine the short-term effects of standard feed plus 70 g day−1 per hen of three coloured carrot varieties (orange, yellow and purple) as forage material in comparison with a standard feed control on egg production, egg yolk colour and deposition of carotenoids in the yolk. RESULTS: Carrot supplementation reduced feed intakes significantly, but not...

  1. Inoculation of a Poultry Isolate Salmonella enteritidis on Egg Vitelline Membrane: Survival and Growth in Egg Components after Different Refrigeration Storage Times

    OpenAIRE

    Z. R. Howard; R. W. Moore; I. B. Zabala Diaz; Kim, W. K.; S. G. Birkhold; J. A. Byrd; L. F. Kubena; Nisbet, D. J.; Ricke, S C

    2007-01-01

    An in vitro study was designed to determine the extent of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis survival and growth permissiveness in egg components isolated from shell eggs held at refrigeration temperature over an 8 week time period. Eggs were collected from a commercial laying facility at one-week intervals for eight weeks and stored at refrigeration temperature. After storage, eggs were dipped in ethanol, cracked aseptically and separated into yolk and albumen samples. S. enteritidis re...

  2. Pathogen prevalence and microbial levels associated with restricted shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Musgrove, M T

    2007-09-01

    Restricted shell eggs that do not meet quality standards for retail but maintain acceptable quality for inclusion in further processed eggs are often diverted to further processing. A study was conducted to characterize the microbiological populations present on and in these eggs. On a single day, restricted eggs were collected from three shell egg processing plants a total of three times (replicates). Six shells or egg contents were combined to create a pool. Ten pools of shells and contents were formed for each plant per replicate. Shells and membranes were macerated in 60 ml of diluent. Contents were stomacher blended to form a homogeneous mixture. Total aerobic microorganisms and Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated. The prevalence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Listeria was determined by cultural methods. Average aerobic counts were 4.3 log CFU/ml for the shells and 2.0 log CFU/ml for the contents. There were plant x replicate differences for both (P shell was 2.4 log CFU/ml and less than 0.1 log CFU/ml for the egg contents, with 36.7% of the samples being positive. One shell sample (0.5% of total samples) was Campylobacter positive. Two shell samples (1.1% of total samples) were Salmonella positive. Twenty-one percent of samples were positive for Listeria (33 shells and 5 contents). Although current pasteurization guidelines are based on Salmonella lethality, the results of this study reiterate the need to revisit the guidelines to determine the effectiveness for other pathogenic species. PMID:17900075

  3. The greenhouse emissions footprint of free-range eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R C; Omed, H; Edwards-Jones, G

    2014-01-01

    Eggs are an increasingly significant source of protein for human consumption, and the global poultry industry is the single fastest-growing livestock sector. In the context of international concern for food security and feeding an increasingly affluent human population, the contribution to global greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions from animal protein production is of critical interest. We calculated the GHG emissions footprint for the fastest-growing sector of the UK egg market: free-range production in small commercial units on mixed farms. Emissions are calculated to current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and UK standards (PAS2050): including direct, indirect, and embodied emissions from cradle to farm gate compatible with a full product life-cycle assessment. We present a methodology for the allocation of emissions between ruminant and poultry enterprises on mixed farms. Greenhouse gas emissions averaged a global warming potential of 2.2 kg of CO2e/dozen eggs, or 1.6 kg of CO2equivalent (e)/kg (assuming average egg weight of 60 g). One kilogram of protein from free-range eggs produces 0.2 kg of CO2e, lower than the emissions from white or red meat (based on both kg of meat and kg of protein). Of these emissions, 63% represent embodied carbon in poultry feed. A detailed GHG emissions footprint represents a baseline for comparison with other egg production systems and sources of protein for human consumption. Eggs represent a relatively low-carbon supply of animal protein, but their production is heavily dependent on cereals and soy, with associated high emissions from industrial nitrogen production, land-use change, and transport. Alternative sources of digestible protein for poultry diets are available, may be produced from waste processing, and would be an effective tool for reducing the industry's GHG emissions and dependence on imported raw materials. PMID:24570444

  4. Helminth Egg Removal Capacity of UASB Reactors under Subtropical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa-Elena Yaya-Beas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the anaerobic sludge filtration capacity regarding helminth egg removal in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactors. Two 25 L lab-scale UASB reactors were operated at an ambient temperature which varied between 17.1 and 28.6 °C. Ascaris suum egg was selected as the model egg considering its similarity in terms of size and morphology to Ascaris lumbricoides, a human pathogen. Ascaris suum eggs were obtained from female parasites of infected pigs. The anaerobic sludge filtration capacity was performed applying upflow velocities between 0.09 and 0.68 m·h−1. Three sludge bed heights in the range of 0.30–0.40 m, 0.50–0.60 m and 0.60–0.70 m were applied. These sludge bed heights corresponded to 19%–25%, 31%–38% and 38%–44% of the total reactor height, respectively. Under the mentioned conditions, the average helminth egg removal efficiency was reciprocally correlated to the imposed upflow velocity. The studied lab-scale reactors reported an average helminth egg removal between 34%–100%, 30%–91% and 34%–56%, when the sludge bed in the UASB reactor was 19%–25%, 31%–38% and 38%–44% of the total reactor height, respectively. The decreased filtration capacity at increasing sludge bed heights might be likely related to biogas production and channeling formation. The average helminth egg removal efficiency in the control experiments performed without any sludge bed, by plain sedimentation, varied between 44% and 66%.

  5. When a sperm meets an egg: block to polyspermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaadon, Alina; Eliyahu, Efrat; Shtraizent, Nataly; Shalgi, Ruth

    2006-06-27

    Embryonic development is initiated after the fertilizing spermatozoon enters the egg and triggers a series of events known as egg activation. Activation results in an increase in intracellular calcium concentration, cortical granule exocytosis (CGE), cell cycle resumption and recruitment of maternal mRNA. CGE is an evolutionary developed mechanism that causes modification of the zona pellucida to prevent penetration of additional spermatozoa, ensuring successful egg activation and embryo development. The egg CGE is a unique and convenient mammalian model for studying the different proteins participating at the membrane fusion cascade, which, unlike other secretory cells, occurs only once in the egg's lifespan. This article highlights a number of proteins, ascribed to participate in CGE and thus the block to polyspermy. CGE can be triggered either by a calcium dependent pathway, or via protein kinase C (PKC) activation that requires a very low calcium concentration. In a recent study, we suggested that the filamentous actin (F-actin) at the egg's cortex is a dynamic network. It can be maneuvered towards allowing CGE by activated actin associated proteins and/or by activated PKC and its down stream proteins, such as myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS). MARCKS, a protein known to cross-link F-actin in other cell types, was found to be expressed and colocalized with actin in non-activated MII eggs. We further demonstrated MARCKS dissociation from actin after activation by ionomycin, a process that can lead to the breakdown of the actin network, thus allowing CGE. The more we know of the intricate process of CGE and of the proteins participating in it, the more the assisted reproductive procedures might benefit from that knowledge. PMID:16687208

  6. Egg hatchability in high Arctic breeding wader species Charadriiformes is not affected by determining incubation stage using the egg flotation technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Jannik; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Reneerkens, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    Capsule By following the fate of both floated and non-floated eggs from individual clutches of four Arctic wader (shorebird) species, we show that the use of the flotation method for determining incubation stage of eggs (which involves both the submersion and handling of eggs) does not negatively af

  7. On the influence of storage duration on rheological properties of liquid egg products and response of eggs to impact loading - Japanese quail eggs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumbár, V.; Trnka, Jan; Nedomová, Š.; Buchar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 166, May (2015), s. 86-94. ISSN 0260-8774 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : egg quality * japanese quail * haugh units * storage duration * non-Newtonian fluid * non-destructive impact * surface displacement Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 2.771, year: 2014

  8. Using egg albumin foam to extinguish fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hytham A. Alsaati

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil, coal and chemical fires are often difficult to put out using water. In certain hydrocarbon fires, protein foam can extinguish fires better than water by keeping air (oxygen away from the flames and by ''blowing'' the flame away from its fuel source. Egg albumin is a relatively inexpensive protein and is representative of foaming proteins, which are candidates for use as fire suppression agents. This paper begins to deal with the effect of the foam bulk pH, foam protein concentration and generating air flow rate into the foam on the fire extinguishing time in laboratory experiments. A Bunsen burner was used to generate a small, controlled laboratory fire within a plastic container, which represented a point source in a partially open room in the experiments. The Bunsen burner represents a gaseous hydrocarbon fire, which can be difficult to extinguish. Both a low pH foam and one made with a high air flow rate favor a reduction in time required to put out the Bunsen burner flame.Chamas produzidas por óleo, carvão e produtos químicos (incêndios provocados são difíceis de ser extinguidos com água. Algumas chamas de hidrocarbonetos podem ser extinguidas por espumas protéicas melhor do que a manutenção de ar (oxigênio fora do alcance das chamas ou pelo sopramento da chama para longe da sua fonte. Albumina de ovo é uma proteína relativamente barata e é representativa dentre as proteínas usadas como espuma para a (supressão extinção de agentes causadores de incêndio. Este artigo trata do estudo do efeito do pH e concentração da espuma protéica, além da geração de ar no interior da espuma, sobre o tempo de extinção de incêndio em experimentos laboratoriais. Nos experimentos um bico de Bunsen foi usado para gerar uma pequena chama, controlada em um container de plástico, representando uma fonte pontual em um ambiente parcialmente aberto. A chama do bico de Bunsen representa uma chama gasosa de hidrocarbonetos, que são dif

  9. D values of Salmonella enteritidis isolates and quality attributes of shell eggs and liquid whole eggs treated with irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation sensitivity of five Salmonella enteriditis isolates inoculated either on the surface or inside of whole shell eggs were determined. The shell eggs were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kGy. A minimal dose of 0.5 kGy was sufficient to eliminate all the isolates from the surface of whole eggs; however, the same isolates were more resistant to irradiation when present inside the eggs. The ATCC 13076 isolate was significantly more sensitive to irradiation, with a D value of 0.32 kGy, than the other four isolates from animal origin. Irradiation D values of the latter ranged from 0.39 to 0.41 kGy. Liquid whole eggs were also inoculated (2.4 x 10(6) cells per milliliter) with two S. enteritidis isolates and were heat-treated at 50 C for 0, 20, 40, or 60 min followed by irradiation at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1.0 kGy. The results indicate that mild heating prior to irradiation was ineffective in reducing the irradiation D values. However, on the basis of the D values obtained, an irradiation dose of 1.5 kGy should be sufficient to reduce Salmonella counts by approximately 4 log10 in both whole shell and liquid eggs. Results also indicate that color and thermal characteristics of the whole or liquid eggs were unaffected by a 1.5-kGy dose of irradiation

  10. Count your eggs before they invade: identifying and quantifying egg clutches of two invasive apple snail species (Pomacea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin H Kyle

    Full Text Available Winning the war against invasive species requires early detection of invasions. Compared to terrestrial invaders, aquatic species often thrive undetected under water and do not garner notice until too late for early action. However, fortunately for managers, apple snails (Family Ampullariidae, Genus Pomacea provide their own conspicuous sign of invasion in the form of vibrantly colored egg clutches. Managers can potentially use egg clutches laid in the riparian zone as a means of early detection and species identification. To facilitate such efforts, we quantified differences in characteristics (length, width, depth, mass, egg number of field-laid clutches for the two most common invasive species of apple snail, P. canaliculata and P. maculata, in native and non-native populations. Pomacea canaliculata native and non-native populations differed noticeably only in width. Native P. maculata clutches possessed significantly greater width, mass and eggs numbers compared with native P. canaliculata. Non-native P. maculata clutches significantly exceeded all other populations in all measured characteristics. Consequently, these traits may successfully distinguish between species. Fecundity data also allowed us to develop models that accurately estimated the number of eggs per clutch for each species based on clutch dimensions. We tested one, two and three dimensional models of clutches, including rendering a clutch as either a complete ellipsoid or an ellipsoid intersected by a cylinder to represent the oviposition site. Model comparisons found the product of length and depth, with a different function for each population, best predicted egg number for both species. Comparisons of egg number to clutch volume and mass implied non-native P. canaliculata may be food limited, while non-native P. maculata appeared to produce such enormous clutches by having access to greater nutrients than the native population. With these new tools, researchers and

  11. Efficacy of Several Pesticide Products on Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) Egg Sacs and Their Penetration Through the Egg Sac Silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Tarango, Jacob; Campbell, Kathleen A; Tham, Christine; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Information on pesticide effects on spiders is less common than for insects; similar information for spider egg sacs is scarcer in the open literature. Spider egg sacs are typically covered with a protective silk layer. When pesticides are directly applied to egg sacs, the silk might prevent active ingredients from reaching the eggs, blocking their insecticidal effect. We investigated the impact of six water-based pesticide sprays and four oil-based aerosol products against egg sacs of brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch. All water-based spray products except one failed to provide significant mortality to egg sacs, resulting in successful spiderling emergence from treated egg sacs at a similar rate to untreated egg sacs. In contrast to water-based sprays, oil-based aerosols provided almost complete control, with 94-100% prevention of spiderling emergence. Penetration studies using colored pesticide products indicated that oil-based aerosols were significantly more effective in penetrating egg sac silk than were the water-based sprays, delivering the active ingredients on most (>99%) of the eggs inside the sac. The ability of pesticides to penetrate spider egg sac silk and deliver lethal doses of active ingredients to the eggs is discussed in relation to the chemical nature of egg sac silk proteins. Our study suggests that pest management procedures primarily relying on perimeter application of water-based sprays might not provide satisfactory control of brown widow spider eggs. Determination of the most effective active ingredients and carrier characteristics warrant further research to provide more effective control options for spider egg sacs. PMID:26530954

  12. Patient experiences in advertising for an egg donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowoweiski, Sarah; Matic, Hayley; Foster, Penelope

    2011-06-01

    Advertising is a commonly used means of recruiting an egg donor within Australia. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and outcomes of people's attempts to recruit an egg donor through advertising in a printed publication, Melbourne's Child. Individuals and couples who placed a new advertisement between July 2007 and December 2008 were invited to participate (n = 84), and those who expressed interest were mailed a questionnaire specifically designed for the purposes of this study. Thirty-one advertisers (37%) agreed to be sent the questionnaire and 28 were completed and returned (33%). Results showed that over half (56%) of respondents successfully recruited an egg donor through their advertisement in Melbourne's Child, 75% received at least one genuine reply and most people received a response within 2 weeks (50%) or 1-2 months (32%) after publication. At the time of completing the questionnaire, 48% had undergone a treatment cycle using donor eggs. Advertising was recalled as a stressful experience and 79% of respondents felt that more information about the success of advertising would have been helpful prior to embarking on this process. Results will be used to inform current clinical practice in assisting patients to recruit an egg donor. PMID:21498120

  13. Depletion of florfenicol and florfenicol amine residues in chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filazi, A; Sireli, U T; Yurdakok, B; Aydin, F G; Kucukosmanoglu, A G

    2014-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable method for the analysis of florfenicol (FF) and its metabolite florfenicol amine (FFA) in chicken eggs and to determine FF and FFA residue depletion in eggs of laying hens. 2. The analytes were extracted from yolk, albumen and whole egg by phosphate buffer and ethyl acetate. Following purification, samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. 3. Fifty laying hens were divided into 5 groups, and each hen received doses of 20 mg/kg FF: Group 1 (received a single oral dose by gavage); Group 2 (a single intramuscular dose); Group 3 (a single subcutaneous dose); Group 4 (multiple oral doses for 3 d) and Group 5 (multiple oral doses for 5 d). 4. Limits of detection and of quantitation values were 1.94 and 6.45 g/10(9) g (ppb) for FF, respectively, and 0.48 and 1.58 ppb for FFA, respectively. Relative standard deviation values of intra-day and inter-day variation below 11% also confirmed the usefulness of the method for analysing FF and FFA in eggs. 5. From the first day of both oral and parenteral administration, FF and FFA were detected at 0.1% and 0.08% of dosage, respectively, and 57% of the drugs were eliminated from the egg yolk. Elimination time of FF was 8 d in Groups 1, 2 and 3; 9 d in Group 4 and 10 d in Group 5. PMID:24945307

  14. The Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply project: An introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J C; Mench, J A; Karcher, D

    2015-03-01

    In the United States, empirical information on the sustainability of commercial-scale egg production is lacking. The passage of state regulations specific to hen housing created urgency to better understand the effects of different housing systems on the sustainability of the egg supply, and stimulated the formation of a coalition, the Coalition for a Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES), to conduct research on this topic. The CSES is a multi-stakeholder group with 27 members, including food manufacturers, research institutions, scientists, restaurants, food service, retail food companies, egg suppliers, and nongovernmental organizations. A commercial-scale study was developed to better understand the effect of 3 housing systems (conventional cage, enriched colony, and cage-free aviary) on 5 areas related to a sustainable egg supply. These 5 sustainability areas represent effects on people, animals, and the environment: animal health and well-being, environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and food affordability. Five teams of scientists, each associated with a sustainability area, conducted an integrated field study at a commercial site in the upper Midwest through 2 flock cycles in 3 housing systems. This paper provides a brief overview of the CSES project to serve as an introduction for the papers that follow in this volume of Poultry Science. PMID:25737565

  15. Immunoglobulins in the eggs of the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Ashley N; Flajnik, Martin F; Rumfelt, Lynn L; Wourms, John P

    2005-01-01

    Elasmobranchs, which include the sharks, skates, and rays, emerged over 450 million years ago and are the oldest vertebrates to possess an adaptive immune system. They have evolved diverse reproductive modes, with a variety of physiological adaptations that enhance reproductive success. The nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, is an aplacental, viviparous elasmobranch in which the egg and its associated vitelline vasculature are the primary route for maternal-embryonic interactions. During gestation, nurse shark embryos hatch from their eggcases and develop free in the uterus, which is flushed regularly with seawater. Similar to higher vertebrates, embryonic and neonatal nurse sharks possess an immune system that is not fully competent. In birds and bony fishes, maternal immunoglobulins (Ig) stored in the egg during oogenesis confer protective immunity to embryos during gestation. However, early research suggested that such transfer of passive immunity does not occur in sharks. To better understand how elasmobranch embryos are protected from waterborne pathogens during this potentially vulnerable time, we have re-examined the existence of Igs in elasmobranch eggs. Using monoclonal antibodies, we establish the presence of two classes of Igs in nurse shark eggs: 7S IgM and IgNAR. The potential transfer of immunoglobulins from elasmobranch eggs is discussed. PMID:15707663

  16. The detection of avian bornavirus within psittacine eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Erin; Hoppes, Sharman; Guo, Jianhua; Tizard, Ian

    2012-09-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) is a known cause of proventricular dilatation disease in parrots and encephalitis in waterfowl and is a significant cause of both morbidity and mortality in captive birds. Transmission is thought to occur primarily by the fecal-oral route. In an aviary setting, controlling the disease involves a thorough understanding of the complete transmission cycle, including determining whether vertical transmission occurs. In this study, vertical transmission of ABV was evaluated by using 61 eggs obtained from birds in 2 aviaries where proventricular dilatation disease was prevalent, and the presence of ABV had been confirmed by fecal reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction by using a primer set designed to detect ABV M protein. The contents of these eggs were then tested for the presence of ABV RNA. Of the eggs tested, 10 were determined to contain ABV RNA. These eggs ranged from apparently nonviable to those that contained developing embryos. ABV was detected in the brain tissue of 2 embryos. It remains to be proven that infected chicks can hatch from these eggs to complete the vertical transmission cycle; however, these findings suggest that vertical transmission of ABV may occur. PMID:23156976

  17. Transfer of orally administrated iodine-131 into chicken eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uenak, Turan E-mail: unak@sci.ege.edu.tr; Yildirim, Yeliz; Avcibasi, U.; Cetinkaya, Berkan; Uenak, G

    2003-03-01

    Radioactive iodine-131 as both as free iodide (Na{sup 131}I) and covalently bound to aniline (aniline-{sup 131}I) was added to the drinking water of two Leghorn laying hens as a single dose and also as a cumulative dose over 1 week. The radioactivity of the principal parts of the eggs, i.e. shell, white, and yolk, was measured, and the radioactivity levels per gram material, and percent of the total radioactivity were calculated. The radioactivity measurements were continued for 1 month following the administration of {sup 131}I. In the case of the single dose administration, the results obtained showed that about 15% of the total radioactivity administered as Na{sup 131}I was transported into the egg structure; compared to only about 1% for aniline-{sup 131}I. After cumulative administration, about 15% of the total administered radioactivity was transported into the egg structure with both forms of {sup 131}I. This was probably because of metabolic cleavage of iodine bonds in the labeled aniline molecules during the longer period of exposure. These results also showed considerable accumulation of {sup 131}I in the egg yolks. In the case of the single dose administration, {sup 131}I can be detected in eggs up to about 20 days after administration, and up to about 30 days, in the case of the cumulative administration over 1 week.

  18. Ancient origin and maternal inheritance of blue cuckoo eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossøy, Frode; Sorenson, Michael D; Liang, Wei; Ekrem, Torbjørn; Moksnes, Arne; Møller, Anders P; Rutila, Jarkko; Røskaft, Eivin; Takasu, Fugo; Yang, Canchao; Stokke, Bård G

    2016-01-01

    Maternal inheritance via the female-specific W chromosome was long ago proposed as a potential solution to the evolutionary enigma of co-existing host-specific races (or 'gentes') in avian brood parasites. Here we report the first unambiguous evidence for maternal inheritance of egg colouration in the brood-parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus. Females laying blue eggs belong to an ancient (∼2.6 Myr) maternal lineage, as evidenced by both mitochondrial and W-linked DNA, but are indistinguishable at nuclear DNA from other common cuckoos. Hence, cuckoo host races with blue eggs are distinguished only by maternally inherited components of the genome, which maintain host-specific adaptation despite interbreeding among males and females reared by different hosts. A mitochondrial phylogeny suggests that blue eggs originated in Asia and then expanded westwards as female cuckoos laying blue eggs interbred with the existing European population, introducing an adaptive trait that expanded the range of potential hosts. PMID:26754355

  19. Comparison between morphological and staining characteristics of live and dead eggs of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AK Sarvel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni eggs are classified, according to morphological characteristics, as follows: viable mature and immature eggs; dead mature and immature eggs, shells and granulomas. The scope of this study was to compare the staining characteristics of different morphological types of eggs in the presence of fluorescent labels and vital dyes, aiming at differentiating live and dead eggs. The eggs were obtained from the intestines of infected mice, and put into saline 0.85%. The fluorescent labels were Hoechst 33258 and Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide and vital dyes (Trypan Blue 0.4% and Neutral Red 1%. When labelled with the probe Hoechst 33258, some immature eggs, morphologically considered viable, presented fluorescence (a staining characteristic detected only in dead eggs; mature eggs did not present fluorescence, and the other types of dead eggs, morphologically defined, showed fluorescence. As far as Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide are concerned, either the eggs considered to be live, or the dead ones, presented staining with green color, and only the hatched and motionless miracidium was stained with an orange color. Trypan Blue was not able to stain the eggs, considered to be dead but only dead miracidia which had emerged out of the shell. Neutral Red stained both live and dead eggs. Only the fluorescent Hoechst 33258 can be considered a useful tool for differentiation between dead and live eggs.

  20. Fish as vectors in the dispersal of Bythotrephes cederstroemi: Diapausing eggs survive passage through the gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnagin, S.T.; Swan, B.K.; Kerfoot, W.C.

    2000-01-01

    1. Bythotrephes cederstroemi (Crustacea: Onychopoda: Cercopagidae) is an introduced invertebrate predator currently spreading through the Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America. We examined a previously unsuspected way in which B. cederstroemi may be dispersed by fish by their consumption of diapausing eggs. 2. Ninety-four percentage of the mature B. cederstroemi diapausing eggs consumed by fish were egested apparently intact. This proportion is considerably above previous estimates for the ephippial eggs of Daphnia. The hatching success of diapausing eggs was compared among four categories: (a) eggs released naturally by B. cederstroemi (control, 73% hatched (b) eggs released during 'stressful confinement' (46% hatched) (c) eggs dissected from dead females (13% hatched) and (d) eggs recovered from faecal pellets following consumption by fish (viable gut passage experiment, 41% hatched). 3. Samples of small fish and B. cederstroemi were collected simultaneously. Examination of gut contents revealed that fish contained B. cederstroemi diapausing eggs and that B. cederstroemi bearing resting eggs were consumed selectively over those without eggs. Moreover, fish selected B. cederstroemi bearing mature rather than immature diapausing eggs. 4. The fact that diapausing eggs survive gut passage is important for the dispersal of B. cederstroemi. Fish often move between the pelagic and littoral zones of lakes and may thus disperse diapausing eggs widely. Fish may also move between lakes connected by river systems and can be caught and passively dispersed by anglers or piscivorous birds. Our results demonstrate the potential for fish to act as vectors in the spread of B. cederstroemi.

  1. The effects of temperature and light on the survival, development, and infectivity of Plagiorchis elegans eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakikhani, M; Rau, M E

    1998-12-01

    Plagiorchis elegans eggs were incubated at 0, 4, 10, 20, or 30 C under a 12-hr:12-hr (L:D) photoperiod for 120 days. Approximately one-quarter of the eggs had already initiated the process of embryonation when passed with the feces of the hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), the experimental definitive host. Eggs failed to embryonate at 0 C and died within 2 days. Incubation at 4 C allowed full embryonation, but the mean number of embryonated eggs per day (1.32+/-0.15) and the mean number of eggs available over the course of incubation (egg days) (219.00+/-2.24) remained low. These values increased progressively as incubation temperatures rose and reached levels of 3.59+/-0.30 and 1,467.50+/-4.56, respectively, at 20 C. Although incubation at 30 C further increased the mean number of eggs per day (5.45+/-0.56), the mean number of egg days declined sharply to 735.25+/-4.71, suggesting that elevated temperatures enhanced embryonation but lowered the survival of embryonated eggs. This was also reflected in the infectivity of eggs over time. Embryonated eggs incubated at 10 and 20 C remained infective significantly longer than eggs incubated at higher or lower temperatures. Incubation in constant light yielded significantly lower mean numbers of embryonated eggs per day (1.86+/-0.09) and mean number of egg days (96.25+/-0.99) than incubation in constant darkness (2.23+/-0.17 and 701.50+/-2.86 eggs, respectively) but did not affect the infectivity of embryonated eggs. The data suggest that at moderate temperatures and shielded from light, fully embryonated eggs of P. elegans may survive in the aquatic environment for a period of months. Such eggs may serve as a source of infection for populations of Stagnicola elodes and ensure the sustained production of the highly entomopathogenic cercariae required for mosquito control. PMID:9920308

  2. Effects of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of individual commercial layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, M Y; Song, E; Billard, L; Aggrey, S E; Pesti, G M; Sodsee, P

    2013-10-01

    The effects of a series of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of laying hens from 18 through 74 wk of age were investigated. One hundred forty-four pullets (Bovans) were randomly assigned to individual cages with separate feeders including 3 different protein level series of isocaloric diets. Diets were separated into 4 phases of 18-22, 23-32, 33-44, and 45-74 wk of age. The high protein (H) series contained 21.62, 19.05, 16.32, and 16.05% CP, respectively. Medium protein (M) and low protein (L) series were 2 and 4% lower in balanced dietary protein. The results clearly demonstrated that the balanced dietary protein level was a limiting factor for BW, ADFI, egg weight, hen day egg production (HDEP), and feed per kilogram of eggs. Feeding with the L series resulted in lower ADFI and HDEP (90.33% peak production) and more feed per kilogram of eggs compared with the H or M series (HDEP; 93.23 and 95.68% peak production, monthly basis). Egg weight responded in a linear manner to balanced dietary protein level (58.78, 55.94, and 52.73 g for H, M, and L, respectively). Feed intake of all hens, but especially those in the L series, increased considerably after wk 54 when the temperature of the house decreased due to winter conditions. Thus, hens fed the L series seemed particularly dependent on house temperature to maintain BW, ADFI, and HDEP. For egg quality parameters, percent yolk, Haugh units, and egg specific gravity were similar regardless of diets. Haugh units were found to be greatly affected by the variation of housing temperature (P = 0.025). Maximum performance cannot always be expected to lead to maximum profits. Contrary to the idea of a daily amino acid requirement for maximum performance, these results may be used to determine profit-maximizing levels of balanced dietary protein based on the cost of protein and returns from different possible protein levels that may be fed. PMID:24046416

  3. Factorial estimation of energy requirement for egg production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André

    1992-01-01

    Based on balance and respiration measurements with 60 White Leghorns during the laying period from 27 to 48 wk of age, a factorial method for estimating the energy requirement for egg production is proposed. The present experiment showed that the deposition of fat and energy increased during...... is different between protein and fat, the ME requirement was calculated as the sum of ME for maintenance and the partial requirements for protein, fat, and carbohydrate deposition. For practical applications, functions for prediction of protein (OP), fat (OF), and energy (OE) in eggs during the laying period...... have been established according to the following model: OP, OF, or OE = a + b1 x egg (grams per day) + b2 x age (weeks). The average ME requirement [calculated with either measured or predicted chemical composition, and by applying a constant maintenance requirement of 98 kcal/kg BW.75 and partial...

  4. Characterization of high-pressure-treated egg albumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iametti, S; Donnizzelli, E; Pittia, P; Rovere, P P; Squarcina, N; Bonomi, F

    1999-09-01

    Addition of NaCl or sucrose to egg albumen prior to high-pressure treatment (up to 10 min at 800 MPa) prevented insolubilization or gel formation after pressure treatment. As a consequence of protein unfolding, the treated albumen had increased viscosity but retained its foaming and heat-gelling properties. Susceptibility of egg albumen proteins to hydrolysis by trypsin increased dramatically after pressure treatment. The S-form of ovalbumin, the presence of which is an index of egg aging, was not found in any of the pressure-treated samples, which also did not display evidence for covalent protein aggregation. However, recognition of ovalbumin by an anti-ovalbumin antiserum was reduced to 40% of that of untreated sample. PMID:10552693

  5. CFD simulation of mixing in egg-shaped anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binxin

    2010-03-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that characterizes mechanical draft tube mixing in egg-shaped anaerobic digesters was developed. Simulation of flow patterns were carried out with a propeller rotating from 400 to 750rpm, assuming liquid manure to be Newtonian (water) and non-Newtonian fluids depending on the total solids (TS) concentration. Power number and flow number of the propeller in water mixing were validated against lab specifications and experimental data from a field test. The rotational direction and placement of the propeller were examined to identify the primary pumping mode and the optimum position of the propeller fixed inside the tube. Quantitative comparisons of two mixing methods and two digester shapes indicated that mechanical draft tube mixing is more efficient than external pumped recirculation, and that the egg shape provides for more efficient mixing than the cylindrical shape. Furthermore, scale-up rules for mixing in egg-shaped digesters were investigated. PMID:19913870

  6. Study on preparation the egg yolk puff with chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Hui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper was studied chitosans with different degrees of deacetylation (70%,80%,90%,95% and different usages of chitosan that were added to research the effect of functional indexs in the egg yolk puff,such as calcium content and cholesterol content.Preliminarily chitosan was explored in the application of the Egg yolk puff.Text results showed that when the deacetylation degree of chitosan and its usage were 90% and 1% separately,the functional indexs and sensory quality of the Egg yolk puff can reach the equilibrium.Its calcium content was 76.2 mg/100 g,increased by 44.3 percent.Its cholesterol content was 290 mg/100 g,decreased by 35.1%.

  7. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi B Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis.

  8. Fish egg size: a characteristic determined by parental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana RM Mazzoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a trade-off between relative batch fecundity and egg size has been widely documented (e.g. Brown & Shine 2009. Studies on the evolution of parental care and its relationship with fish egg size were stimulated by the work of Shine (1978, who proposed several possible hypotheses, including one that predicted that the onset of parental care preceded the increase in egg size. This hypothesis has since been challenged by Nussbaum & Schultz (1989 and more recently by Summers et al. (2006, who proposed an alternative hypothesis in which the evolution of large eggs was said to precede the evolution of parental care and not the reverse. Here, we examined 313 species of bony fish, including 152 species with parental care (PC and 161 species without parental care (NPC, and found evidence that fully supports the hypothesis of Shine (1978. Additionally, we explain how strengthening this hypothesis could impact the development of phylogenies. We also make suggestions for future studies on gene regulatory mechanisms that could explain the evolution of parental care and egg size in bony fish within a more modern context of developmental ecology. Our analysis uses data describing the mean size of ripe eggs and the occurrence of parental care in 313 species of bony fish belonging to 53 families in 11 orders. Data for 22 of the 313 species were collected by us from the Tocantins River. Data for the remaining species were obtained from the literature: 6 species from the Paraná River (Suzuki et al. 2000, 149 species from large African lakes and some pelagic marine species (Duponchelle et al. 2008, 74 marine species (Pauly & Pullin 1988, and 65 species from the Tocantins River (Neuberger 2010. Of these 313 total species, 161 (51.4% are PC species and 152 (48.6% are NPC species. We analyzed a minimum of eight mature females from each of the 16 species we collected, and for each female, we measured 10 mature oocytes and derived the mean diameter of

  9. Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen's egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20 kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients' IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than that in the control with a non-irradiated one. Whereas, the detected concentrations of intact OVA in the control significantly decreased in the treatments, when determined by IgE-based ELISA. The results appeared to indicate that the antigenicity of the OVA increased, but that the allergenicity was decreased by irradiation and processing. Egg white irradiated for reducing the egg allergy could be used for producing a safer cake from the egg allergy

  10. The effect of heavy metal exposure on egg size, eggshell thickness and the number of spermatozoa in blue tit Parus caeruleus eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we compared the egg size, the eggshell thickness and the number of spermatozoa trapped on the perivitelline layer of the eggs in three blue tit (Parus caeruleus) populations across a heavy metal pollution gradient. No significant differences were observed in egg characteristics among study sites. Eggs from the two most polluted sites however, had significantly less spermatozoa on the perivitelline layer than eggs from the least polluted site. Our results suggest a significant effect of pollution on blue tit sperm concentrations in the infundibulum. Determining the number of spermatozoa on the egg membranes is relatively cheap and straightforward, which renders this technique a new and useful tool in biomonitoring. - Exposure to elevated levels of heavy metals had a negative effect on the number of spermatozoa in the eggs of free-living blue tits (Parus caeruleus)

  11. Influence of low dose γ-rays on laying egg property of hen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Harbin white breeding eggs were irradiated by γ-rays. The results showed that low dose irradiation stimulated the embryo development of fertilized eggs, increasing the hatching rate by 6.86% and the healthy bird rate by 5.52%. The egg production rate of the irradiated generation hens was increased by 8.03%, the first laying egg date of the second irradiated generation hens was shifted 6 to 7 weeks earlier and the egg production period was prolonged. 72-week egg production was raised by 10.48%

  12. Effect of Different Sources and Levels of Zinc on Egg Quality and Laying Hen Performance

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Tabatabaie; H. Aliarabi; A.A. Saki; Ahmadi, A. (Amir); S.A. Hosseini Siyar

    2007-01-01

    Eighty layer hens were assigned in a completely randomized design to four dietary treatments containing zinc sulphate or organic zinc as Albino-Zn in two levels of 25 or 50 ppm. Feed intake was expressed on a per hen basis. Daily egg collection was expressed on a hen-day basis. Eggs were weighed to calculate egg mass. Feed conversion ratio was calculated as feed consumed per egg mass. Also all eggs produced on days 14, 28 and 42 were collected and used for egg quality parameters. Albumen heig...

  13. Comparative Study on the Nutritional Value of Pidan and Salted Duck Egg

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesan, P.; T. Kaewmanee; S. Benjakul; Baharin, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Pidan and salted duck eggs are of nutritional rich alternative duck egg products which are predominantly consumed in China, Thailand, South Korea and other Chinese migrated countries. Both eggs are rich in proteins, lipids, unsaturated fatty acids and minerals. A Pidan whole egg contains 13.1% of protein, 10.7% of fat, 2.25% of carbohydrate and 2.3% of ash, whereas the salted duck egg contains 14% of protein, 16.6% of fat, 4.1% of carbohydrate and 7.5% of ash. The fresh duck egg contains a ra...

  14. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Sofia: Growth in and Persistence on Eggs under Production and Retail Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Salmonellosis in Australia has been linked to eggs and egg products with specific serotypes associated with outbreaks. We compared attachment to and survival on egg shells and growth in eggs of two Salmonella serotypes, an egg outbreak associated Salmonella Typhimurium and a non-egg-associated Salmonella enterica ssp. II 1,4,12,27:b:[e,n,x] (S. Sofia). Experiments were conducted at combinations of 4, 15, 22, 37 and 42°C. No significant differences occurred between the serotypes in maximum gro...

  15. Determination of selenium in egg by using GFAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Egg is one of the most consumed food in the world. Its importance and consumption are raising due to its nutritional value. Selenium-fortified eggs can easily find in the local markets and the determination of selenium fortification level in egg is important because of its toxicity and essentially. The main aim of this work was to provide a simple, fast and accurate method for selenium determination in both commercially available eggs and selenium-fortified eggs. A number of procedures exist for the determination of selenium. However, as selenium exists in volatile and unstable forms and because of inhomogeneity of many types of materials, the methods of sampling, preparation and storage are equally important as the applied analytical methods. Therefore, great care is necessary to avoid contamination or loss of the analyte. In this study, a very simple and fast alternative dissolution procedure with tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (THAH) was proposed. The samples simply mixed with a few millilitres of TMAH solution in an open flask. Dissolution was obtained in fifteen minutes with a low temperature heating which is around 60 deg C. Mild heating was found to be necessary not only for to reduce the dissolution time but also reduce the contamination risk. In the presence of modifiers (Pd, Pd+Mg as non permanent and Ru, Rh as permanent) selenium was analysed by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) technique. The results were compared with modified AOAC standard spectrophotometric method. In order to test the accuracy of the proposed method, standard reference material, whole egg powder NIST-SRM 8415 was analysed and result was found to be in good agreement with the certified value, according to the t-test for a 95% confidence level. In addition, interference effect of species such as Fe, Zn, Cu, Al, Mg, Mn and Pb were also examined.

  16. Social Egg Freezing: Developing Countries Are Not Exempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahbadia, Gautam N

    2016-08-01

    Non-medical egg freezing has only been available for about the last 5 years, as new vitrification techniques have made the success rates for actual conception more reliable than the earlier method of slow freezing. The improved outcomes of new technologies of vitrification and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) have led to the marketing of egg freezing for non-medical reasons, whereby women are offered the possibility of preserving their eggs until such time as they wish to have a child. For many women today, it is not cancer but the simple passage of time that robs them of their chance of motherhood. Social, educational, emotional and financial pressures often lead them to delay trying to start a family until their late thirties, by which time the chance of success is very low. Women at age 40 face a 40 % chance of miscarriage if they can get pregnant at all, and by the age of 45, the risk of miscarriage is 75 %. Donor eggs are not an option for many because of supply constraints and ethical and cultural concerns. Freezing a woman's eggs at age 30 literally "freezes in time" her fertility potential and gives her the chance of a healthy pregnancy at a time of her choosing. Despite the initial reactions of disapproval, more and more fertility clinics are now offering oocyte cryopreservation to healthy women in order to extend their reproductive options. This procedure is now becoming popular even in developing economies, and egg freezing in major Indian Metros is now routine. PMID:27382212

  17. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  18. Pharmacological Analyses of Protein Kinases Regulating Egg Maturation in Marine Nemertean Worms: A Review and Comparison with Mammalian Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Marquardt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For development to proceed normally, animal eggs must undergo a maturation process that ultimately depends on phosphorylations of key regulatory proteins. To analyze the kinases that mediate these phosphorylations, eggs of marine nemertean worms have been treated with pharmacological modulators of intracellular signaling pathways and subsequently probed with immunoblots employing phospho-specific antibodies. This article both reviews such analyses and compares them with those conducted on mammals, while focusing on how egg maturation in nemerteans is affected by signaling pathways involving cAMP, mitogen-activated protein kinases, Src-family kinases, protein kinase C isotypes, AMP-activated kinase, and the Cdc2 kinase of maturation-promoting factor.

  19. Bacterial Colonization of Cod (Gadus morhua L.) and Halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) Eggs in Marine Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Geir Høvik; Olafsen, Jan A.

    1989-01-01

    Aquaculture has brought about increased interest in mass production of marine fish larvae. Problems such as poor egg quality and mass mortality of fish larvae have been prevalent. The intensive incubation techniques that often result in bacterial overgrowth on fish eggs could affect the commensal relationship between the indigenous microflora and opportunistic pathogens and subsequently hamper egg development, hatching, larval health, and ongrowth. Little information about the adherent microflora on fish eggs is available, and the present study was undertaken to describe the microbial ecology during egg development and hatching of two fish species of potential commercial importance in marine aquaculture. Attachment and development of the bacterial flora on cod (Gadus morhua L.) eggs from fertilization until hatching was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The adherent microflora on cod (G. morhua L.) and halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) eggs during incubation was characterized and grouped by cluster analysis. Marked bacterial growth could be demonstrated 2 h after fertilization, and at hatching eggs were heavily overgrown. Members of the genera Pseudomonas, Alteromonas, Aeromonas, and Flavobacterium were found to dominate on the surface of both cod and halibut eggs. The filamentous bacterium Leucothrix mucor was found on eggs from both species. While growth of L. mucor on halibut eggs was sparse, cod eggs with a hairy appearance due to overgrowth by this bacterium close to hatching were frequently observed. Vibrio fischeri could be detected on cod eggs only, and pathogenic vibrios were not detected. Members of the genera Moraxella and Alcaligenes were found only on halibut eggs. Caulobacter and Seliberia spp. were observed attached to eggs dissected from cod ovaries under sterile conditions, indicating the presence of these bacteria in ovaries before spawning. Adherent strains did not demonstrate antibiotic resistance above a normal level. Attempts to

  20. Resuspension and settling of helminth eggs in water: Interactions with cohesive sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Mita E; Andersen, Thorbjørn J; Dalsgaard, Anders; Olsen, Annette; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2012-08-01

    Helminth parasite eggs in low quality water represent main food safety and health hazards and are therefore important indicators used to determine whether such water can be used for irrigation. Through sedimentation helminth eggs accumulate in the sediment, however resuspension of deposited helminth eggs will lead to increased concentration of suspended eggs in the water. Our study aimed to determine the erodibility (erosion rate and erosion threshold) and settling velocity of Ascaris and Trichuris eggs as well as cohesive sediment at different time points after incorporation into the sediment. Cohesive sediment collected from a freshwater stream was used to prepare a sediment bed onto which helminth eggs were allowed to settle. The erodibility of both sediment and helminth eggs was found to decrease over time indicating that the eggs were incorporated into the surface material of the bed and that this material was stabilized through time. This interaction between eggs and bulk sediment was further manifested in an increased settling velocity of suspended eggs when sediment was present in the suspension as compared to a situation with settling in clean water. The incorporation into the sediment bed and the aggregation with sediment particles decrease the mobility of both helminth egg types. Our findings document that helminth eggs should not be viewed as single entities in water systems when modelling the distribution of eggs since both erodibility and settling velocity of eggs are determined by mobility of the sediment present in the water stream. Recalculation of the erosion threshold for helminth eggs and sediment showed that even at relatively low current velocities i.e. 0.07-0.12ms(-1) newly deposited eggs will be mobile in open irrigation channels. These environmental factors affecting resuspension must be taken into account when developing models for sedimentation of helminth eggs in different water systems. PMID:22591818

  1. Egg size variation among tropical and temperate songbirds: An embryonic temperature hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    Species with 'slow' life history strategies (long life, low fecundity) are thought to produce high-quality offspring by investing in larger, but fewer, young. Larger eggs are indeed associated with fewer eggs across taxa and can yield higher-quality offspring. Tropical passerines appear to follow theory because they commonly exhibit slow life history strategies and produce larger, but fewer, eggs compared with northern species. Yet, I show here that relative egg mass (corrected for adult mass) varies extensively in the tropics and subtropics for the same clutch size, and this variation is unexplained. I propose a hypothesis to explain egg size variation both within the tropics and between latitudes: Relative egg mass increases in species with cooler egg temperatures and longer embryonic periods to offset associated increases in energetic requirements of embryos. Egg temperatures of birds are determined by parental incubation behavior and are often cooler among tropical passerines because of reduced parental attentiveness of eggs. Here, I show that cooler egg temperatures and longer embryonic periods explained the enigmatic variation in egg mass within and among regions, based on field studies in tropical Venezuela (36 species), subtropical Argentina (16 species), and north temperate Arizona (20 species). Alternative explanations are not supported. Thus, large egg sizes may reflect compensation for increased energetic requirements of cool egg temperatures and long embryonic periods that result from reduced parental attentiveness in tropical birds. ?? 2008 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  2. Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Demeler

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (<1 g. A direct PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles - only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many

  3. Microbial quality of industrial liquid egg white: assumptions on spoiling issues in egg-based chilled desserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techer, Clarisse; Daoud, Amina; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Gautier, Michel; Jan, Sophie; Baron, Florence

    2015-02-01

    As a 1st step, this study aimed at investigating the microbial quality of liquid egg white in a French egg processing company. Thirty raw and 33 pasteurized liquid egg white samples were analyzed. Pasteurization was globally found efficient on mesophilic contaminants (1.7 ± 1.6 and 0.8 ± 0.9 log CFU/mL in raw and pasteurized samples, respectively), including for the control of Salmonella. However, Gram-positive enterococci were still detected in the pasteurized samples. As a 2nd step, a representative bacterial collection was built for exploring the spoilage issue in egg-based chilled desserts. Custard cream was chosen as growth medium since this food is widely used for the production of French chilled desserts. All of the 166 isolates of the bacterial collection were shown to be able to grow and to induce spoilage of the custard cream at refrigeration temperature (10 °C). Several spoilage types were highlighted in the custard cream, on the basis of changes regarding pH, consistency, production of holes or gas. As a 3rd step, bacterial enzymatic activities were explored on custard cream-based agar media. The bacterial collection was reduced to 43 isolates, based on further selection regarding the genera and the spoilage types previously highlighted. Albeit to different degrees, all these isolates were able to produce proteases. A large part of these isolates also expressed lipolytic and amylolytic activities. This study emphasizes the need to control egg white contamination and especially with Gram-positive heat-resistant Enterococi, in order to guarantee the shelf life of egg-based chilled desserts. PMID:25588552

  4. Contaminants in Interior Least Tern and Snowy Plover Eggs from Quivira National Wildlife Refuge in 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Four flooded or abandoned eggs of interior least terns (Sterna anti11arum) and four flooded or abandoned eggs of snowy plovers (Charadrium aiexandrinus) that nested...

  5. Stage-specific mortality of Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Grønkjær, P.

    2000-01-01

    A study on cod egg mortality was carried out in the Bornholm Basin (southern central Baltic Sea) toward the end of July 1996. An initial egg aggregation marked by a satellite-tracked drifter buoy was sampled repeatedly over an Ii-day period; profiles of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen...... were concurrently recorded. Three replicate estimates of mortality were obtained for each pair of subsequent developmental stages from newly spawned eggs to early larvae. A consistent pattern of stage-specific mortality coincided well with previous experimental observations. Average daily mortality...... rates were 7.2% (eggs IA/IB), 38.7% (eggs (IB/II), 25.6% (eggs II/III), 40.0% (eggs III/IV), and 42.3% (eggs IV/early larvae). The cumulative mortality until hatch amounted to 99.9%. Results from hydrodynamic modelling, however, indicated that the drifter's trajectory was influenced by wind stress...

  6. Organochlorine compounds and mercury in bald eagle eggs, Penobscot River, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Four bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus eggs from three nests on the Penobscot River, Maine, were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants and mercury. Eggs were...

  7. Comparative fine structure of eggs of autogenous and anautogenous Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Belal A; Tewfick, Maha K; Wassim, Nahla M

    2014-12-01

    Culex (Cx.) pipiens is the potential vector human filariasis in Egypt. However, autogenous Cx. pipiens may be less efficient vector of Wuchereria (W.) bancrofti in endemic areas of Egypt compared to anautogenous counterparts. In this study, an attempt was made to differentiate eggs of autogenous and anautogenous Cx. pipiens using scanning electron micrographs. The results indicated that eggs of both species appear to be similar to great extent in surface morphology. Eggs of both forms are black and elongate-oval. Width is greatest at the anterior end. The posterior end is pointed. The micropylar disc is apparent with distinct edge. Exochorionic bridges are angular. Size of both eggs represented by length and width are comparable. In both eggs, length is greater than width. However, eggs of both forms can be distinguished from each other by the exochorionic bridges being longer and thinner in the autogenous eggs than in the anautogenous eggs. PMID:25643517

  8. Egg predators of an endemic Italian salamander, Salamandrina perspicillata (Savi, 1821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We report new aquatic predators feeding on Northern spectacled salamander eggs, Salamandrina perspicillata, an endemic Italian species. Eggs were preyed upon by the leech, Trocheta bykowskii, and the trichopteran larvae of Potamophylax cingulatus and Halesus appenninus.

  9. Salmonella Growth and Deposition Inside Eggs: Implications for Refrigeration as a Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent risk assessment for Salmonella Enteritidis contamination of eggs concluded that prompt refrigeration of freshly laid eggs was among the most promising disease mitigation strategies. ARS research has provided detailed information about the deposition, movement, and multiplication of Salmonel...

  10. Kepekaan Telur Spesific Pathogen Free dan Clean Egg Terhadap Virus Flu Burung (SENSITIVITY OF SPESIFIC PATHOGEN FREE EGGS AND CLEAN EGG TO THE AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUSES SUBTYPE H5N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Yuniati Kencana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza which is  in Indonesia  known as Flu Burung  is caused by the avian influenza virussubtype H5N1 (AIV-H5N1. Vaccination is one of the major strategies for preventing and eradicatingAIV-H5N1 in Indonesia. Several factors can affect the potential vaccine such as viral content and mediaused for the propagation of the virus. One of the media commonly used to propagate  the virus is pathogenspecific free (SPF embryonated chicken eggs. However, as the SPF eggs production is limited and expensive,the use of clean embryonated chicken eggs as an alternative need to examined. This study aimed todetermine the sensitivity of SPF and clean embryonated chicken eggs to the AIV-H5N1. The virus usedwas seed avian influenza virus (A/ Chicken/West Java (Subang/29/2007  which haa previously werepropagated  in SPF eggs and the Clean Eggs. The virus titer was determined as Embryo infective Dose 50%(EID50 using Reed and Muench method. Sensitivity of SPF eggs and Clean Egg to the VAI-H5N1 wascompared using  Chi-square statistical analysis. The titers of Avian Influenza Virus subtype H5N1 were106.83EID50/0.1ml in SPF eggs and 106.17EID50/0.1 ml in the Clean Eggs. Statistical analysis showed that,the sensitivity of SPF Eggs and Egg Clean  for the propagation of the VAI-H5N1 was not significantlydifferent.

  11. The effect of replacing soya bean oil with glycerol in diets on performance, egg quality and egg fatty acid composition in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cufadar, Y; Göçmen, R; Kanbur, G

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to replace soya bean oil with glycerol in laying hen diets and assess the change's effect on performance, parameters of egg quality and the egg fatty acid profile. A total of 60 44-week-old Hy-Line W36 laying hens were distributed according to a completely randomised experimental design into four treatments consisting of glycerol substitutions for soya bean oil dietary at varying inclusion levels (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%), with five replicates of three birds each. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on BW change, egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight and egg mass of laying hens. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on egg specific gravity, eggshell breaking strength, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, egg shape index, albumen index, yolk index, haugh unit, albumen pH, yolk pH and egg yolk colour values. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic and linolenic acid contents of the egg yolk. The linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of the egg yolk significantly decreased with the higher levels of dietary glycerol supplementation (P<0.05). The results of this study show that it is possible to replace 75% of soya bean oil (4.5% in diet) with glycerol. PMID:26365705

  12. Using peracetic acid to control fungus on catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A promising new treatment for parasites and egg fungi is peracetic acid (PAA; also called peroxyacetic acid). It is registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an oxidizing agent used as an antimicrobial compound approved for indoor use on hard, non-porous surfaces. This stud...

  13. The Egg as a Semiotic Gateway to Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Bruni, Luis Emilio; Goldberg, Louis J.

    2013-01-01

    The egg behaves as a prospective cell sustaining the developmental processes of the future embryo. In biosemiotic terms, this apparent teleonomic behaviour can be accounted for without referring to the exclusive causal role played by its genetic makeup. We envision two different processes that ar...

  14. A leakage of aminopeptidases from maturing fish and crayfish eggs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barth, Tomislav; Barthová, Jana; Hauzerová, Linda; Kouřil, J.; Hamačková, J.; Kozák, P.; Bečková, P.

    Praha : ICARIS Ltd., 2003 - (Dick, R.). s. 48 [Enzymes in the Environment: Activity, Ecology and Applications. 14.07.2003-17.07.2003, Praha] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS4055006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : crayfish eggs * aminopeptidases Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  15. Lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids in dividing Xenopus eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, S.W. de; Tetteroo, P.A.T.; Bluemink, J.G.; Dictus, W.J.A.G.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van

    1984-01-01

    The lateral mobility of plasma membrane lipids was analyzed during first cleavage of Xaopus Levis eggs by fluorescence photobleaching recovery (FPR) measurements, using the lipid analogs 5-(N-hexadecanoyl)aminofluorescein (“HEDAF”) and 5-(N-tetradecanoyl)aminofluorescein (“TEDAF”) as probes. The pre

  16. Modification of Biomphalaria straminea eggs enclose induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vector of Schistosomiasis, the mollusk Biomphalaria straminea, can procreate by means of sexual - when in colonies - or by hermaphrodite fecundation, if isolated. In order to study its reproductive behavior under gamma radiation, 540 snails kept in colony and 540 maintained isolated in individual aquariums, were irradiated with doses, 0, 2,5, 5,0, 7,5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 80, 160, 320 and 640 Gy of gamma-rays from a 60 Co. source, and were observed during 30 days. Daily, the off spring were collected from the aquariums, its eggs counted and maintained in Petri's plate, in water. After eight days, the eggs were counted again and the difference with the first count representing the hatched eggs. As a result, the eggs from the snails kept in colony showed a greater number of encloses than those from the isolated snails, ranging from 2,5 to 40 Gy. Beyond this dose the difference between the two observed groups were statistically non significant, leading to suppose a greater resistance of the sexually fecundation to the influence of gamma-rays. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  17. Propagation of planktonic copepods: production and mortality of eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, Flemming; Tiselius, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Data on fecundity and egg mortality of neritic copepods were collected in various seasons, areas and under various hydrographical conditions. On a seasonal basis variations in fecundity (F) were related to temperature rather than to the abundance of phytoplankton (P). However, a strong correlatio...

  18. APPLICATION OF "SUPER ANK ANOLYTE" FOR BIOCIDAL TREATMENT OF EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanner N. E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Under the field conditions breeding the young poultry takes place in the eggs out of maternal body. For successful breeding the progeny keeping all the demands to safety and quality of hatching eggs has the important significance. Safety demands are presented in the appropriate Technical Standards (TS. The microbial standards are to be very significant. Moreover, it is necessary to control both the microorganisms note in TS and other species as dangerous factors on during the process of production. The methods and means used presently for disinfection of hatching eggs have some disadvantages, e.g. the method of gazation with using the preparations on a base of formaldehyde, formalin, potassium permanganate; ozone has the toxical, corrosive and inflammable properties and its using must be controlled; chlorine-containing disinfectants have a property to react with cuticle of eggshell and fall their activity. The results of a study on applicating Super ANK Anolyte for biocidal treatment of the eggs are presented in the article

  19. BIOLOGICAL HALF-LIFE OF TRITIUM IN CHICKENS AND EGGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies of tritium transport in the environment suggest that although water is the main route for human intake, other routes should not be ignored. The importance of eggs as a step in the pathway for human intake of tritium was assessed by intravenously administering a s...

  20. On maturation in the eggs of Limnaea stagnalis L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raven, Chr.P.

    1949-01-01

    1. The maturation divisions of the egg of Limnaea stagnalis L. have been studied. 2. The haploid number of chromosomes is 18. 3. At the telophase of the first maturation division, the central group of dyads reaches the surface of the inner central body of the first maturation amphiaster. 4. This cen

  1. Can museum egg specimens be used for proteomic analyses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portugal Steven J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometry and proteomic analyses have become powerful tools for the analysis of proteins and peptides. Investigation of proteins contained in the various layers of the avian eggshell has focused entirely on domesticated species. It has been widely assumed that this existing research can inform the study of wild bird species despite the fact that the vast majority of the diversity in avian species (~95% exists outside the Orders to which domestic and poultry species belong. Museum collections offer a potentially valuable source of material for studying composition of wild avian eggshell matrix proteins. We used museum and fresh eggshells of common quails Coturnix coturnix to compare the protein composition of their organic matrices. Four eggs of domestic chickens were analysed simultaneously as a control for comparison to the fresh and museum quail eggs. The determination of the proteins was carried out using enzymatic cleavage followed by high-performance mass spectrometry. Results We found that some of the expected key eggshell proteins (3 out of 11 were not present in the samples of museum quail egg. These proteins were either entirely absent from the museum eggs or the technique was unable to detect them. There was no pattern in the absent proteins in the sense of protein function or where they are located within the eggshell. Conclusion We conclude it is likely that such studies on museum specimens using a proteomic approach will be limited in coverage of proteins and may, therefore, be misleading.

  2. Egg albumen - a promising material for fabrication of nanoporous mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Lei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural protein, egg albumen, is used for fabrication of nanoporous mats by bubbfil electrospinning. In our experiment, starch is used as an additive. By suitable choices of the spinning conditions, a mat with nanopores can be produced, and the spinning process is tenable by controlling the thermodynamic properties of spun solution and spinning environment.

  3. The Egg-Eating Snake, Introductory Problem, Explorations in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mid-Continent Regional Educational Lab., Inc., Kansas City, MO.

    The booklet is designed as an introduction to a series of topics which use the same format, and which are published separately. A series of photographs of a snake eating an egg are used to ask students to identify a puzzling event that they would want to investigate if they were biologists. A scrambled programed text format is used to direct…

  4. Brave new propagules: terrestrial embryos in anamniotic eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K L; Carter, A L

    2013-08-01

    A surprisingly large number of fish and amphibian species reproduce terrestrially despite the absence of the key evolutionary innovation of the amniotic egg. In contrast with shelled eggs of reptiles and birds, eggs of teleost fish and amphibians are typically much smaller and enclosed in relatively simple chorionic membranes. Incubation times may be brief or prolonged, and resultant hatchlings typically require the return to an aquatic habitat. Advantages of terrestrial incubation include the increased availability of warmer temperatures and avoidance of aquatic hypoxia, whereas disadvantages include desiccation, exposure to novel predators, and the risk of hatching into a hostile habitat. Hatching may be environmentally cued. Use of energy in the yolk may require trade-offs between growth of the embryo and extended incubation, as exemplified by a case study of the California Grunion. The physical challenges of terrestrial incubation, constraints for hatching, effects of egg size, and parental care are explored. Eight different types of early life history among anamniotic embryos incubating in a terrestrial environment are identified, with examples of these alternate routes to the invasion of land by vertebrates. PMID:23604618

  5. 75 FR 55255 - Egg Research and Promotion Order; Referendum Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1250 Egg Research and Promotion Order; Referendum Procedures AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule establishes procedures that the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) will use in conducting a referendum to determine whether...

  6. Ancient Whole Grain Gluten-free Egg-free Pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA food guide recommends that at least ½ of all the grains eaten should be whole grains. The FDA allows food Health Claim labels for food containing 51% whole gains and 11 g of dietary fiber per serving. This is the only report demonstrating innovative ancient whole grain, gluten-free, egg-fre...

  7. Effect of Saprotrophic Soil Fungi on Toxocara canis Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciarmela, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to assess the ovicidal activity of Chrysosporium merdarium, Trichoderma harzianum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. moniliforme and F. sulphureum isolated from public areas in the city of La Plata, Argentina, on Toxocara canis eggs in vitro. Each species were cultured on water agar 2% with a suspension of immature-stage T. canis eggs. At 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-culture, they were observed by light and scanning electron microscopy. One hundred eggs were evaluated and scored according to Lỳsek’s ovicidal effect classification. These procedures were repeated three times which each fungal species. Chrysosporium merdarium and F. oxysporum showed very high ovicidal activity, F. sulphureum high ovicidal activity, F. moniliforme intermediate ovicidal activity and T. harzianum did not affect the viability of T. canis eggs. Taking into account the effects on human and animal health and the environment, the species with better prospects for studying its potential use as biological control was F. sulphureum.

  8. pH regulation of an egg cortex tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, W P; Veno, P A; Wood, R W; Peaucellier, G; Kinsey, W H

    1991-07-01

    Fertilization of the echinoderm egg is known to result in the phosphorylation, on tyrosine, of a high-molecular-weight cortical protein (HMWCP) localized in the egg cortex. Studies using various parthenogenic agents indicate that this phosphorylation event occurs in response to the alkaline shift in cytoplasmic pHi which normally occurs 1 to 2 min after fertilization. In the present study, the purified egg cell surface complex was used as in vitro system to determine whether a small alkaline shift in pH, such as occurs upon fertilization, could stimulate the activity of the egg cortex-associated tyrosine kinase toward endogenous protein substrates. The results demonstrated that the cell surface complex is highly enriched in a tyrosine kinase activity which accounts for the majority of the protein kinase activity in this preparation. The activity of this tyrosine kinase toward the HMWCP and other cortical proteins was highly dependent on pH over the range pH 6.8 to 7.3. This indicates that the fertilization-associated change in cytoplasmic pH would be sufficient to trigger increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the high-molecular-weight cortical protein in vivo. The regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation by small changes in pH represents a novel control mechanism in which a tyrosine protein kinase may act as a pH-sensitive transducer. PMID:2060713

  9. Behaviour of Japanese Quail Eggs Under Mechanical Compression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchar, J.; Nedomová, Š.; Trnka, Jan; Strnková, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 5 (2015), s. 1110-1118. ISSN 1094-2912 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : quail egg * compression * rupture force Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.915, year: 2014 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10942912.2013.862634#.VNI0aC7z_PM

  10. Embryonation ability of Ascaridia galli eggs isolated from worm uteri or host faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, Shayan; Gauly, Matthias; Daş, Gürbüz

    2016-01-15

    Experimental infection models for Ascaridia galli rely on the use of eggs isolated either directly from worm uteri or from host faeces. We investigated whether A. galli eggs isolated from the two sources differ in their embryonation ability. A. galli eggs originating from 12 worm infrapopulations were isolated both from faeces of the living host (faecal eggs) and directly from worm uteri after host necropsy (uterine eggs). The isolated eggs from each infrapopulation and source were incubated in Petri dishes (n=24) containing a potassium-dichromate (0.1%) medium for 28 days (d) at room temperature. Starting from the day of egg isolation (d0), in ovo larval development was evaluated every second day by examining morphological characteristics of 200 eggs/petri dish. A total of 72,000 eggs were classified into undeveloped, early development, vermiform or fully embryonated stages. Isolation procedures caused similar damage to uterine and faecal eggs (2.2% and 0.5%, respectively; P=0.180). The first sign of in ovo embryonic development in faecal eggs (7%) was observed during the 24-h period when faeces were collected. On d28, a higher percentage of uterine eggs remained undeveloped when compared with faecal eggs (58.6% vs 11.0%; P<0.001). Although a higher (P<0.001) percentage of faecal eggs entered both the early developmental and vermiform stages, which took place primarily within the first two weeks of incubation, there was no time-shift between the development of faecal and uterine eggs. Starting from day 10, higher (P<0.05) percentages of faecal eggs completed embryonation compared with uterine equivalents. Eggs from both sources reached a plateau of embryonation by the end of 2nd week of incubation, with faecal eggs having a greater than two-fold higher embryonation ability. Cumulative mortality was higher in uterine eggs (14.3%) than in faecal eggs (0.2%). We conclude that faecal eggs have a higher embryonation ability than uterine eggs possibly due to maturation

  11. Experimental parameterisation of principal physics in buoyancy variations of marine teleost eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung-Mi Jung; Arild Folkvord; Olav Sigurd Kjesbu; Svein Sundby

    2014-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the high buoyancy of pelagic marine eggs is due to substantial influx of water across the cell membrane just before ovulation. Here we further develop the theoretical basis by applying laboratory observations of the various components of the fertilized egg in first-principle equations for egg specific gravity (ρ(egg)) followed by statistical validation. We selected Atlantic cod as a model animal due to the affluent amount of literature on this species, but also u...

  12. The effect of ambient salinity on the buoyancy of eggs from the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus)

    OpenAIRE

    Mangor-Jensen, Anders; Jelmert, Anders

    1986-01-01

    The effect of ambient salinity on buoyancy and the formation of perivitelline fluid in eggs from the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus have been investigated. The results clearly demonstrate that the water balance of the eggs are independant of the ambient salinity the first days after fertilization. The water loss from eggs fertilized in 17 ppt saline sea water was not less than from eggs fertilized in 34 ppt sea water in spite of a reduced osmotic gradient. Nei...

  13. Juno is the egg Izumo receptor and is essential for mammalian fertilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Enrica; Doe, Brendan; Goulding, David; ,; Wright, Gavin J.

    2014-01-01

    Fertilisation occurs when sperm and egg recognise each other and fuse to form a new, genetically distinct organism. The molecular basis of sperm-egg recognition is unknown, but is likely to require interactions between receptor proteins displayed on their surface. Izumo1 is an essential sperm cell surface protein, but its egg receptor has remained a mystery. Here, we identify Juno as the receptor for Izumo1 on mouse eggs, and show this interaction is conserved within mammals. Female mice lack...

  14. Host preference of the egg parasitoids Telenomus remus and Trichogramma pretiosum in laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Mirmes Paiva Goulart; Adeney de Freitas Bueno; Regiane Cristina Oliveira de Freitas Bueno; Adenil Ferreira Diniz

    2011-01-01

    Host preference of the egg parasitoids Telenomus remus and Trichogramma pretiosum in laboratory. This research aimed to evaluate the host preference of the egg parasitoids Telenomus remus and Trichogramma pretiosum. Trials were carried out in laboratory, under controlled environmental conditions (25 ± 2ºC temperature; 70 ± 10% RH; and 14 h photophase). The parasitoid searching behavior was evaluated based on the distribution (%) of eggs parasitized by each parasitoid, on egg masses of each ho...

  15. Research on Non-destructive Comprehensive Detection and Grading of Poultry Eggs Based on Intelligent Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shucai; Cheng, Jinxiu; Wen, Youxian

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a light-duty automation system for the automatization of detecting and grading poultry eggs, namely SIRDGE, short for System of Intelligent Robot Detecting and Grading Eggs. This system combines crack detection, inner quality detection and eggs conveying in detecting and grading, which are all performed by a joint-robot to fully automate egg detection and gradation. The hardware components and software structure of the system are presented. Necessary explanation of the mai...

  16. Influence of artificial lighting on the performance and egg quality of commercial layers: a review

    OpenAIRE

    IMTD Jácome; LA Rossi; R Borille

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the egg production chain produces fresh eggs for the consumer market and for processing. Layers are housed in battery cage systems. Rearing and development farms are separate from egg-production farms. Considering the recent advance of Brazilian chicken egg production, scientific knowledge on management practices are required to disseminate and to consistently apply this knowledge to improve such practices. Artificial lighting is widely used in poultry reproduction, both in the pro...

  17. In Vitro Development of Parthenogenetic Eggs: A Fast Ecotoxicity Test with Daphnia magna?

    OpenAIRE

    Sobral, Olímpia; Chastinet, Carla; Nogueira, António; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Gonçalves, Fernando; Ribeiro, Rui

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated and defined development stages of Daphnia magna eggs that could be potential endpoints for sublethal toxicity tests with in vitro parthenogenetic egg cultures. Such an "egg test" could be a cost-effective alternative to the classic 21-day test with D. magna. Three main stages of embryonic development were considered: release of the egg external membrane, release of the internal membrane, and separation of the caudal spine. The first embryonic sta...

  18. Search for QTL affecting the shape of the egg laying curve of the Japanese quail

    OpenAIRE

    Gourichon David; Vignal Alain; Miwa Mitsuru; Inoue-Murayama Miho; Kayang Boniface B; Minvielle Francis; Neau André; Monvoisin Jean-Louis; Ito Shin'ichi

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Egg production is of critical importance in birds not only for their reproduction but also for human consumption as the egg is a highly nutritive and balanced food. Consequently, laying in poultry has been improved through selection to increase the total number of eggs laid per hen. This number is the cumulative result of the oviposition, a cyclic and repeated process which leads to a pattern over time (the egg laying curve) which can be modelled and described individually...

  19. Residues in common flicker and mountain bluebird eggs one year after a DDT application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Olson, R.A.; Meeker, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    Common flicker (Colaptes auratus) and mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides) eggs were examined 1 year after DDT application and showed a marked difference. Residue levels in mountain bluebird eggs were approximately 10 times higher than in common flicker eggs (5.29 to 0.58 ppm wet weight). These differences can be explained by disparate dietary habits. The mean level in American kestrel (Falco sparverius) eggs collected in the spray area at the same time was 6.42 ppm wet weight.

  20. Evaluasi Pengaruh Penggunaan Bahan Pengganti Telur (Egg Replacer) Pada Pembuatan Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Nova Sarifah

    2015-01-01

    Nowdays many people are allergic to egg either the white or the egg yolk, that is why the research way conducted. The research was aimed to evaluate the functional characteristics and sensory quality of cakes made of soy protein isolate, whey protein isolate, corn starch, guar gum, xanthan gum and whole egg powder. The research had been performed using a non factorial completely randomized design with 7 levels and 3 repetition. The egg replacer composition were E1 = whey protein isolate (18,...

  1. Irradiation effect on zooplankton eggs applied by bremsstrahlung induced from pulsed intense electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have considered an irradiation effect on zooplankton eggs applied by bremsstrahlung induced from pulsed intense electron beam. Zooplankton eggs about 200 have been successfully inactivated using a bremsstrahlung at 3 kGy. We found that 63.9% of zooplankton eggs are inactivated by bremsstrahlung irradiation. It was the increase of 30 points in comparisons with 33.3% of zooplankton eggs inactivated for non-irradiation case. (author)

  2. Egg size variation among tropical and temperate songbirds: An embryonic temperature hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    Species with “slow” life history strategies (long life, low fecundity) are thought to produce high-quality offspring by investing in larger, but fewer, young. Larger eggs are indeed associated with fewer eggs across taxa and can yield higher-quality offspring. Tropical passerines appear to follow theory because they commonly exhibit slow life history strategies and produce larger, but fewer, eggs compared with northern species. Yet, I show here that relative egg mass (corrected for adult mass...

  3. Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R.G.; Miles, A.K.; Ricca, M.A.; Estes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) and nitrogen (??15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (??PCBs), p,p???- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of ??PCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) or nitrogen (??15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  4. Trace element concentrations of wild saltwater crocodile eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saltwater crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) accumulate trace elements from the environment into their flesh and bones (Jeffree et al., 2001a). Elevated levels of metals (e.g. Hg, Zn, Pb), organochlorines (e.g. DDT) and radionuclides (e.g. radiocesium) have been recorded in blood, tissues and eggs of several crocodilian species (Manolis et al., this volume). In this study the concentrations of various elements (including metals) were measured in the yolk of C. porosus eggs collected from the Finniss River and two other distant nesting sites (Melacca Swamp, a spring-fed freshwater swamp; Adelaide River, a tidal river) during the 2000- 01 nesting season. Infertile eggs from 30 clutches (Adelaide 12, Melacca 8, Finniss 10) were opened and the yolk contents removed (after Webb et al., 1987) and frozen. Samples of yolk were then oven-dried, digested in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The digest solutions were then analysed for 20 elements (see Table 1) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Similarities between the elemental composition of eggs from the three areas suggests that downstream contamination from Rum Jungle Mine is not apparent in C. porosus nesting in the Finniss River. These nesting areas are some 60 km downstream of the mine site, and contaminants are probably greatly diluted during the wet season. C. porosus were also intensively hunted in the Finniss River area during the 1950s and 1960s, until their protection in 1971 (Webb et al. 1984). Some females would have been recruited into the population after the period of mining. Long-term effects of the mine may be apparent in areas with Australian freshwater crocodiles (C. johnstoni), mainly upstream of C. porosus nesting areas and up to the mine. Examination of tissues and eggs of C. johnstoni may provide more information on the historical effects of the mine

  5. Assessing the sustainability of egg production systems in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, E D; van Bussel, L G J; van Horne, P; van der Voet, H; van der Heijden, G W A M; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2015-08-01

    Housing systems for laying hens have changed over the years due to increased public concern regarding animal welfare. In terms of sustainability, animal welfare is just one aspect that needs to be considered. Social aspects as well as environmental and economic factors need to be included as well. In this study, we assessed the sustainability of enriched cage, barn, free-range, and organic egg production systems following a predefined protocol. Indicators were selected within the social, environmental, and economic dimensions, after which parameter values and sustainability limits were set for the core indicators in order to quantify sustainability. Uncertainty in the parameter values as well as assigned weights and compensabilities of the indicators influenced the outcome of the sustainability assessment. Using equal weights for the indicators showed that, for the Dutch situation, enriched cage egg production was most sustainable, having the highest score on the environmental dimension, whereas free-range egg production gave the highest score in the social dimension (covering food safety, animal welfare, and human welfare). In the economic dimension both enriched cage egg and organic egg production had the highest sustainability score. When weights were attributed according to stakeholder outputs, individual differences were seen, but the overall scores were comparable to the sustainability scores based on equal weights. The provided method enabled a quantification of sustainability using input from stakeholders to include societal preferences in the overall assessment. Allowing for different weights and compensabilities helps policymakers in communicating with stakeholders involved and provides a weighted decision regarding future housing systems for laying hens. PMID:26049800

  6. How Egg Case Proteins Can Protect Cuttlefish Offspring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Cornet

    Full Text Available Sepia officinalis egg protection is ensured by a complex capsule produced by the female accessory genital glands and the ink bag. Our study is focused on the proteins constituting the main egg case. De novo transcriptomes from female genital glands provided essential databases for protein identification. A proteomic approach in SDS-PAGE coupled with MS unveiled a new egg case protein family: SepECPs, for Sepia officinalis Egg Case Proteins. N-glycosylation was demonstrated by PAS staining SDS-PAGE gels. These glycoproteins are mainly produced in the main nidamental glands. SepECPs share high sequence homology, especially in the signal peptide and the three cysteine-rich domains. SepECPs have a high number of cysteines, with conserved motifs involved in 3D-structure. SDS-PAGE showed that SepECPs could form dimers; this result was confirmed by TEM observations, which also revealed a protein network. This network is similar to the capsule network, and it associates these structural proteins with polysaccharides, melanin and bacteria to form a tight mesh. Its hardness and elasticity provide physical protection to the embryo. In addition, SepECPs also have bacteriostatic antimicrobial activity on GRAM- bacteria. By observing the SepECP / Vibrio aestuarianus complex in SEM, we demonstrated the ability of these proteins to agglomerate bacteria and thus inhibit their growth. These original proteins identified from the outer egg case ensure the survival of the species by providing physical and chemical protection to the embryos released in the environment without any maternal protection.

  7. Chicken Egg Shell Membrane Associated Proteins and Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Sarbjeet; Liyanage, Rohana; Kannan, Lakshmi; Packialakshmi, Balamurugan; Lay, Jack O; Rath, Narayan C

    2015-11-11

    Egg shells are poultry industry byproducts with potential for use in various biological and agricultural applications. We have been interested in the membranes underlying the calcareous shell as a feed supplement, which showed potential to improve immunity and performance of post hatch poultry. Therefore, to determine their protein and peptide profiles, we extracted the egg shell membranes (ESM) from fresh unfertilized eggs with methanol and guanidine hydrochloride (GdHCl) to obtain soluble proteins for analysis by mass spectrometry. The methanol extract was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), electrospray ionization (ESI), high-performance reverse phase liquid chromatographic separation (HPLC), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to determine its peptide and protein profiles. The GdHCl extract was subjected to ESI-HPLC-MS/MS following trypsin digestion of reduced/alkylated proteins. Nine proteins from the methanol extract and >275 proteins from the GdHCl extract were tentatively identified. The results suggested the presence of several abundant proteins from egg whites, such as ovoalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme as well as many others associated with antimicrobial, biomechanical, cytoskeletal organizational, cell signaling, and enzyme activities. Collagens, keratin, agrin, and laminin were some of the structural proteins present in the ESM. The methanol-soluble fraction contained several clusterin peptides and defensins, particularly, two isoforms of gallin. The ratios of the two isoforms of gallin differed between the membranes obtained from brown and white eggs. The high abundance of several antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and other bioactive proteins in the ESM along with its potential to entrap various microbes and antigens may make it a suitable vehicle for oral immunization of post hatch poultry and improve their disease resistance. PMID:26485361

  8. Detection and classification of parasite eggs for use in helminthic therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Johan Musaeus; Kapel, Christian M. O.; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2012-01-01

    Eggs from the small, intestinal pig whipworm Trichuris suis constitute the active pharmaceutical ingredient in a novel type of medicine for chronic autoimmune diseases like Crohn's disease. The pharmaceutical potency of such an egg suspension can be assessed by microscopic inspection, as only eggs...

  9. Improved methods for isolating DNA from Ostertagia ostertagi eggs in cattle feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Aaron F; Zarlenga, Dante S; Hildreth, Michael B

    2006-02-18

    A multiplex PCR assay for differentiating strongyle eggs from cattle has recently been described; however, the egg disruption and DNA extraction procedures, though effective, are inadequate for large studies or clinical application. The purpose of this research was to evaluate methods for disrupting trichostrongyle eggs, then assess commercial kits for extracting egg DNA using Ostertagia ostertagi as a model species. Egg disruption procedures tested included probe sonication, bath sonication, bead beating, boiling, microwaving, proteinase K/SDS digestion, freezing, and various combinations of the above with the incorporation of sodium dodecyl sulfate. These procedures were evaluated in conjunction with four commercial DNA extraction kits: DNA Stool mini kit and DNeasy Plant kit (Qiagen), Fast DNA kit (QBiogene), and the MAP extraction kit (Tetracore). Results showed that egg disruption was best accomplished with the bead beater and ceramic beads, resulting in 100% disruption within 1min. When DNA extraction was preceded by the isolation of eggs from feces, all procedures except the Fast DNA kit produced PCR-ready DNA from at least two eggs. The DNeasy Plant kit allowed consistent detection of DNA released from one egg. Due to the morphological similarities among trichostrongyle eggs in ruminants, strongyle eggs in equids, and hookworm eggs, the methods described herein may have broad application to other nematodes. PMID:16303253

  10. Egg rejection behavior in a population exposed to parasitism: Village Weavers on Hispaniola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, A.; Prather, J.W.; Wiley, J.W.; Weaver, P.F.

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to African Village Weavers (Ploceus cucullatus) that are parasitized by Diederik Cuckoos (Chrysococcyx caprius), introduced weavers on Hispaniola existed without parasitism for at least 2 centuries until the arrival of the Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) in the 1970s. Cruz and Wiley (1989) found that Hispaniolan weavers had a lower rejection rate of foreign eggs than African populations. Subsequently, Robert and Sorci (1999) and Lahti (2005, 2006) found that acceptance of dissimilar eggs is not characteristic of the species throughout its Hispaniolan range. In 1999-2002, we studied egg rejection in Hispaniolan weavers on a broad regional scale. Rejection increased as experimental eggs became increasingly different from the host eggs. Rejection rates for mimetic eggs, different color eggs, different-spotting eggs, and cowbird eggs was 23.2%, 33.3%, 61.5%, and 85.3%, respectively, with higher rejection of cowbird eggs in areas where cowbirds were observed. Although rejection is likely to have a genetic component, the differences could be due to phenotypic plasticity. Plasticity in egg rejection may be expected, given the potential cost of rejection and the spatiotemporal distribution of cowbirds. Thus, egg rejection has not necessarily decreased in Hispaniolan weavers, but it may act in a plastic manner, increasing where cowbirds are present. ?? The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of environmental and egg microbiology associated with conventional and free range laying hen management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggs from alternative production practices are a growing niche in the market. Meeting consumer requests for greater diversity in retail egg options has resulted in some unique challenges such as understanding the food safety implications of eggs from alternative production practices. A study was c...

  12. Microbiological Difference of Eggs From Traditional Cage and Free Range Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggs from alternative production systems are a growing market share in the US. Meeting consumer requests for greater diversity in retail egg options has resulted in some unique challenges such as understanding the food safety implications of eggs from alternative housing practices. A study was con...

  13. Effect of origin and composition of diet on ecological impact of the organic egg production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, S.E.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the potential to reduce the integral ecological impact (i.e. impact along the egg production chain per kg egg) of Dutch organic egg production by replacing currently used imported diet ingredients with Dutch diet ingredients. We realized this objective by

  14. Experimental parameterisation of principal physics in buoyancy variations of marine teleost eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Mi; Folkvord, Arild; Kjesbu, Olav Sigurd; Sundby, Svein

    2014-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the high buoyancy of pelagic marine eggs is due to substantial influx of water across the cell membrane just before ovulation. Here we further develop the theoretical basis by applying laboratory observations of the various components of the fertilized egg in first-principle equations for egg specific gravity (ρ(egg)) followed by statistical validation. We selected Atlantic cod as a model animal due to the affluent amount of literature on this species, but also undertook additional dedicated experimental works. We found that specific gravity of yolk plus embryo is central in influencing ρ(egg) and thereby the buoyancy. However, our established framework documents the effect on ρ(egg) of the initial deposition of the heavy chorion material in the gonad prior to spawning. Thereafter, we describe the temporal changes in ρ(egg) during incubation: Generally, the eggs showed a slight rise in ρ(egg) from fertilization to mid-gastrulation followed by a gradual decrease until full development of main embryonic organs just before hatching. Ontogenetic changes in ρ(egg) were significantly associated with volume and mass changes of yolk plus embryo. The initial ρ(egg) at fertilization appeared significantly influenced by the chorion volume fraction which is determined by the combination of the final chorion volume of the oocyte and of the degree of swelling (hydrolyzation) prior to spawning. The outlined principles and algorithms are universal in nature and should therefore be applicable to fish eggs in general. PMID:25122447

  15. 50 CFR 16.15 - Importation of live reptiles or their eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of live reptiles or their eggs... live reptiles or their eggs. (a) The importation, transportation, or acquisition is prohibited of any... of live reptiles or their eggs may be imported, transported, and possessed in captivity, without...

  16. Brood Parasitism Is Linked to Egg Pattern Diversity within and among Species of Australian Passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Iliana; Troscianko, Jolyon; Stevens, Martin; Langmore, Naomi E

    2016-03-01

    Bird eggs show striking diversity in color and pattern. One explanation for this is that interactions between avian brood parasites and their hosts drive egg phenotype evolution. Brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other species, their hosts. Many hosts defend their nests against parasitism by rejecting foreign eggs, which selects for parasite eggs that mimic those of the host. In theory, this may in turn select for changes in host egg phenotypes over time to facilitate discrimination of parasite eggs. Here, we test for the first time whether parasitism by brood parasites has led to increased divergence in egg phenotype among host species. Using Australian host and nonhost species and objective measures of egg color and pattern, we show that (i) hosts of brood parasites have higher within-species variation in egg pattern than nonhosts, supporting previous findings in other systems, and (ii) host species have diverged more in their egg patterns than nonhost species after controlling for divergence time. Overall, our results suggest that brood parasitism has played a significant role in the evolution of egg diversity and that these effects are evident, not only within species, but also among species. PMID:26913947

  17. File list: Unc.Adl.10.AllAg.Egg_chamber [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Unc.Adl.50.AllAg.Egg_chamber [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: ALL.Adl.20.AllAg.Egg_chamber [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Unc.Adl.20.AllAg.Egg_chamber [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  15. File list: InP.Adl.05.AllAg.Egg_chamber [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. File list: Oth.Adl.20.AllAg.Egg_chamber [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  17. Competitiveness of the EU egg industry. International comparison base year 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this report the impact of reducing or removing import tariffs on the competitiveness of the EU egg sector is studied. The results show that the offer price of whole egg powder in 2013 of some third countries is close to the average EU price. Despite the current import tariffs on whole egg powder,

  18. 21 CFR 115.50 - Refrigeration of shell eggs held for retail distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refrigeration of shell eggs held for retail... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SHELL EGGS § 115.50 Refrigeration of shell eggs held for... interstate commerce, held for retail distribution: (1) Shall promptly be placed under refrigeration...

  19. Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

    2010-03-22

    Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle. PMID:19923132

  20. Inactivation of salmonella in shell eggs by hot water immersion and its effect on quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal inactivation kinetics of heat resistant strains of Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs processed by hot water immersion were determined, and the effects of the processing on egg quality were evaluated. Shell eggs were inoculated with a composite of heat resistant Salmonella Enteritidis (SE)...