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Sample records for chelonia mydas eggs

  1. Analysing persistent organic pollutants in eggs, blood and tissue of the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merwe, Jason Paul van de; Lee, Shing Yip [Griffith University, Griffith School of Environment and Australian Rivers Institute, Gold Coast, QLD (Australia); Hodge, Mary [Queensland Health Scientific Services, Queensland Government, Coopers Plains, QLD (Australia); Whittier, Joan Margaret [Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia (Australia). School of Biomedical Sciences

    2009-03-15

    Investigation into persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sea turtles is an important area of conservation research due to the harmful effects of these chemicals. However, the analysis of POPs in the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) has been limited by methods with relatively high limits of detection and high costs associated with multiple sample injections into complex arrangements of analytical equipment. The present study aimed to develop a method that could detect a large number of POPs in the blood, eggs and tissue of C. mydas at trace concentrations. A gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method was developed that could report 125 POP compounds to a limit of detection of <35 pg g{sup -1} using a single sample injection. The recoveries of internal standards ranged from 30% to 96%, and the standard reference materials were reported to within 70% of the certified values. The coefficient of variation of ten replicates of pooled egg sample was <20% for all compounds, indicating low within-run variation. This GC-MS/MS method is an improvement of previous methods for analysing POPs in C. mydas in that more compounds can be reported at lower concentrations and the accuracy and precision of the method are sound. This is particularly important for C. mydas as they occupy a low trophic level and have lower concentrations of POPs. This method is also simple to set up, and there are minimal differences in sample preparation for the different tissue types. (orig.)

  2. Final critical habitat for the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) based on the description provided in the Federal...

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Chelonia mydas Myoglobin

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    MOHAMAD SADIKIN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Green sea turtle – Chelonia mydas is a lung respiration animal that is able to dive and stay uder sea water for hours without needing to surface for oxygen. As oxygen supply in muscles is assured by myoglobin, we propose to study some characteristic of this muscle protein in green sea turtles. To achieve this objective, pure green sea turtle myoglobin has to be made available. Therefore, our first task is to purify this muscle protein from green sea turtles. Skeletal muscles from 3 green sea turtle hatchlings were studied icroscopically and biochemically. Microscopy observation showed a general structure of striated muscle. Biochemical studies revealed that green sea turtle myoglobin could be more purely isolated to a certain degree by ephadex G-75 gel filtration and purified by immunoaffinity gel chromatography rather than direct purification by DEAE-Sepharose ion exchange chromatography technique. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that green sea turtle myoglobin ran together with horse myoglobin as 17 kDa molecular weight proteins.

  4. Bacterial flora and antibiotic resistance from eggs of green turtles Chelonia mydas: an indication of polluted effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, Saif; Mahmoud, Ibrahim; Elshafie, Abdulkader; Al-Harthy, Asila; Al-Ghafri, Sabha; Al-Amri, Issa; Alkindi, Abdulaziz

    2009-05-01

    Sea turtles migrate to various habitats where they can be exposed to different pollutants. Bacteria were collected from turtle eggs and their resistance to antibiotics was used as pollutant bio-indicators of contaminated effluents. Eggs were collected randomly from turtles when they were laying their eggs. A total of 90 eggs were collected and placed into sterile plastic bags (3 eggs/turtle) during June-December of 2003. The bacteria located in the eggshell, albumen and yolk were examined, and 42% of the eggs were contaminated with 10 genera of bacteria. Pseudomonas spp. were the most frequent isolates. The albumen was found to be the part of the egg to be the least contaminated by bacterial infection. Bacterial isolates tested with 14 antibiotics showed variations in resistance. Resistance to ampicillin was the highest. The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in eggs indicates that the green turtle populations were subjected to polluted effluents during some of their migratory routes and feeding habitats. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that Salmonella typhimurium penetrated all eggshell layers.

  5. Bacterial flora and antibiotic resistance from eggs of green turtles Chelonia mydas: An indication of polluted effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sea turtles migrate to various habitats where they can be exposed to different pollutants. Bacteria were collected from turtle eggs and their resistance to antibiotics was used as pollutant bio-indicators of contaminated effluents. Eggs were collected randomly from turtles when they were laying their eggs. A total of 90 eggs were collected and placed into sterile plastic bags (3 eggs/turtle) during June-December of 2003. The bacteria located in the eggshell, albumen and yolk were examined, and 42% of the eggs were contaminated with 10 genera of bacteria. Pseudomonas spp. were the most frequent isolates. The albumen was found to be the part of the egg to be the least contaminated by bacterial infection. Bacterial isolates tested with 14 antibiotics showed variations in resistance. Resistance to ampicillin was the highest. The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in eggs indicates that the green turtle populations were subjected to polluted effluents during some of their migratory routes and feeding habitats. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that Salmonella typhimurium penetrated all eggshell layers.

  6. Migrations of green turtles (Chelonia mydas between nesting and foraging grounds across the Coral Sea.

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    Tyffen C Read

    Full Text Available Marine megafauna tend to migrate vast distances, often crossing national borders and pose a significant challenge to managers. This challenge is particularly acute in the Pacific, which contains numerous small island nations and thousands of kilometers of continental margins. The green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas, is one such megafauna that is endangered in Pacific waters due to the overexploitation of eggs and adults for human consumption. Data from long-term tagging programs in Queensland (Australia and New Caledonia were analysed to investigate the migrations by C. mydas across the Coral Sea between their nesting site and their feeding grounds. A review of data collected over the last 50 years by different projects identified multiple migrations of C. mydas to and from New Caledonia (n = 97 and indicate that turtles foraging in New Caledonia nest in the Great Barrier Reef (Australia and vice versa. Several explanations exist for turtles exhibiting this energetically costly movement pattern from breeding to distant foraging grounds (1200-2680 km away despite viable foraging habitat being available in the local vicinity. These include hatchling drift, oceanic movements and food abundance predictability. Most of the tag recoveries in New Caledonia belonged to females from the south Great Barrier Reef genetic stock. Some females (n = 2 even showed fidelity to foraging sites located 1200 km away from the nesting site located in New Caledonia. This study also reveals previously unknown migrations pathways of turtles within the Coral Sea.

  7. Myoglobin Expression in Chelonia mydas Brain, Heart and Liver Tissues

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    RINI PUSPITANINGRUM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the underpinning physiology and biochemistry of animals is essential to properly understand the impact of anthropogenic changes and natural catastrophes upon the conservation of endangered species. An observation on the tissue location of the key respiratory protein, myoglobin, now opens up new opportunities for understanding how hypoxia tolerance impacts on diving lifestyle in turtles. The respiratory protein, myoglobin has functions other than oxygen binding which are involved in hypoxia tolerance, including metabolism of reactive oxygen species and of the vascular function by metabolism of nitric oxide. Our work aims to determine whether myoglobin expression in the green turtle exists in multiple non muscle tissues and to confirm the hypothesis that reptiles also have a distributed myoglobin expression which is linked to the hypoxiatolerant trait. This initial work in turtle hatch Chelonia mydas confirms the presence of myoglobin transcriptin brain, heart and liver tissues. Furthermore, it will serve as a tool for completing the sequence and generating an in situ hybridization probe for verifying of cell location in expressing tissues.

  8. Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) Have Novel Asymmetrical Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M; Dagenais, Julie; Breeden, Renee; Schneemann, Anette; Sung, Joyce; Hew, Brian; Balazs, George H; Berestecky, John M

    2015-12-01

    Igs in vertebrates comprise equally sized H and L chains, with exceptions such as H chain-only Abs in camels or natural Ag receptors in sharks. In Reptilia, Igs are known as IgYs. Using immunoassays with isotype-specific mAbs, in this study we show that green turtles (Chelonia mydas) have a 5.7S 120-kDa IgY comprising two equally sized H/L chains with truncated Fc and a 7S 200-kDa IgY comprised of two differently sized H chains bound to L chains and apparently often noncovalently associated with an antigenically related 90-kDa moiety. Both the 200- and 90-kDa 7S molecules are made in response to specific Ag, although the 90-kDa molecule appears more prominent after chronic Ag stimulation. Despite no molecular evidence of a hinge, electron microscopy reveals marked flexibility of Fab arms of 7S and 5.7S IgY. Both IgY can be captured with protein G or melon gel, but less so with protein A. Thus, turtle IgY share some characteristics with mammalian IgG. However, the asymmetrical structure of some turtle Ig and the discovery of an Ig class indicative of chronic antigenic stimulation represent striking advances in our understanding of immunology.

  9. Relocations of sea turtle nests of Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriacea and Chelonia mydas in the Galibi Nature Reserve, Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, A.D.; Weijerman, M.; Tienen, van, C.; Hoekert, W.E.J.

    1997-01-01

    SCHOUTEN, A.D., WEIJERMAN, M., VAN TIENEN, L.H.G. & W.E.J. HOEKERT, 1997. Relocations of Sea Turtle nests of Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriace and Chelonia mydas in the Galibi Nature Reserve, Suriname. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam, 1997: 63-69. Relocation of nests of the marine turtles Lepidochelys olivacea (ESCHSCHOLTZ 1829), Dermochelys coriace (LINNAEUS 1758) and CHELONIA MYDAS (LINNAEUS 1758) in the Galibi Nature Reserve is performed to protect them from a nu...

  10. Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) genetic diversity at Paranaguá Estuarine Complex feeding grounds in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Costa Jordão; Ana Cristina Vigliar Bondioli; Flavia Maria Guebert; Benoit de Thoisy; Lurdes Foresti de Almeida Toledo

    2015-01-01

    Sea turtles are marine reptiles that undertake long migrations through their life, with limited information regarding juvenile stages. Feeding grounds (FGs), where they spend most of their lives, are composed by individuals from different natal origins, known as mixed stock populations. The aim of this study was to assess genetic composition, natal origins and demographic history of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) at the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC), Brazil, considered a Natural ...

  11. The environmental contaminant DDE fails to influence the outcome of sexual differentiation in the marine turtle Chelonia mydas.

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    Podreka, S; Georges, A; Maher, B; Limpus, C J

    1998-04-01

    In many turtles, the temperature experienced during the middle of egg incubation determines the sex of the offspring. The implication of steroid sex hormones as the proximate trigger for sex determination opens the possibility that endocrine-disrupting contaminants may also influence the outcome of sexual differentiation. In this study we investigate the potential effects of DDE (a common DDT metabolite) on sexual differentiation of Chelonia mydas (green sea turtle). Four clutches of eggs collected from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia, were treated with DDE at the beginning of the thermosensitive period for sexual determination. An incubation temperature of 28 degrees C or less produces male hatchlings in this species, whereas 30 degrees C or more produces female hatchlings. Dosed eggs were consequently incubated at two temperatures (27.6 degrees C and 30.4 degrees C) on the upper and lower boundaries of the sex determination threshold for this species. DDE, ranging from 3.3 to 66.5 microg, was dissolved in 5, 10, and 25 microl ethanol and applied to eggshells above the embryo. Less than 2.5 ng/g DDE was present in eggs prior to dosing. Approximately 34% of the applied DDE was absorbed in the eggs, but only approximately 8% of applied DDE was found in embryos. Thus, treated eggs, corrected for background DDE, had up to 543 ng/g DDE. The sex ratio at these doses did not differ from what would be expected on consideration of temperature alone. Incubation time, hatching success, incidence of body deformities, hatching size, and weight were also within the limits of healthy developed hatchlings. This indicates that the eggs of C. mydas in the wild with concentrations of DDE less than 543 ng/g should produce hatchlings with relatively high hatching success, survival rate, and normally differentiated gonads.

  12. Marine debris ingestion by Chelonia mydas (Testudines: Cheloniidae) on the Brazilian coast.

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    da Silva Mendes, Sarah; de Carvalho, Robson Henrique; de Faria, Adriana Fonseca; de Sousa, Bernadete Maria

    2015-03-15

    Chelonia mydas is distributed in several regions of the world and they are common in coastal regions and around islands. Between August 2008 and July 2009, 20 specimens of C. mydas were found dead on the beaches of Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The stomachs were removed and anthropogenic wastes were separated according their malleability and color. Of those animals, nine had ingested marine debris. Soft plastic was the most frequent among the samples and the majority of fragments was white or colorless and was between zero and five cm. Many studies have shown a high incidence of eating waste for some species of sea turtles. The record of ingestion of mostly transparent and white anthropogenic wastes in this study strengthens the hypothesis that these animals mistake them for jellyfish. Although the intake of anthropogenic waste causes impact on the lives of sea turtles, such studies are still scarce in Brazil.

  13. Blood Gasses Contents of Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) Hatch Treated by Different Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    RINI PUSPITANINGRUM; SEPTELIA INAWATI WANANDI; RONDANG ROEMIATI SOEGIANTO; MOHAMAD SADIKIN

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to gain the profile of blood gasses of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) hatch. Blood gas of the green turtle was analysed after exposuring them at 28 oC and 50% of humidity for 24 hours in a pvc tube and at 34 oC under sunlight exposured with 47% of humidity for 30 minutes. The result showed the different values of blood gas contents. This result showed indication of metabolism activities and poikilothermic adaptation of green turtle hatch. This information can be u...

  14. Immunological evaluation of captive green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) with ulcerative dermatitis

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    Muñoz, Fernando Alberto; Estrada-Para; Sergio; Romero-Rojas, Andrés; Gonzalez-Ballesteros, Erik; Work, Thierry; Villaseñor-Gaona, Hector; Estrada-Garcia, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is common in captive sea turtles and manifests as skin erosions and ulcers associated with gram-negative bacteria. This study compared clinically healthy and UD-affected captive turtles by evaluating hematology, histopathology, immunoglobulin levels, and delayed-type hypersensitivity assay. Turtles with UD had significantly lower weight, reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses, and higher heterophil:lymphocyte ratios. This study is the first to assay DTH in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and suggests that UD is associated with immunosuppression.

  15. Inorganic elements in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas): relationships among external and internal tissues.

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    Faust, Derek R; Hooper, Michael J; Cobb, George P; Barnes, Melanie; Shaver, Donna; Ertolacci, Shauna; Smith, Philip N

    2014-09-01

    Inorganic elements from anthropogenic sources have entered marine environments worldwide and are detectable in marine organisms, including sea turtles. Threatened and endangered classifications of sea turtles have heretofore made assessments of contaminant concentrations difficult because of regulatory restrictions on obtaining samples using nonlethal techniques. In the present study, claw and skin biopsy samples were examined as potential indicators of internal tissue burdens in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). Significant relationships were observed between claw and liver, and claw and muscle concentrations of mercury, nickel, arsenic, and selenium (p turtles.

  16. Relocations of sea turtle nests of Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriacea and Chelonia mydas in the Galibi Nature Reserve, Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, A.D.; Weijerman, M.; Tienen, van L.H.G.; Hoekert, W.E.J.

    1997-01-01

    SCHOUTEN, A.D., WEIJERMAN, M., VAN TIENEN, L.H.G. & W.E.J. HOEKERT, 1997. Relocations of Sea Turtle nests of Lepidochelys olivacea, Dermochelys coriace and Chelonia mydas in the Galibi Nature Reserve, Suriname. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam, 1997: 63-69. Relocation of nests of th

  17. Mercury in the sea turtle Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1958 from Ceará coast, NE Brazil

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    Moisés F. Bezerra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury concentrations in carapace fragments of the green turtle Chelonia mydas from the Ceará coast in NE Brazil are reported. Concentrations varied from As concentrações de Hg em fragmentos de carapaça de Chelonia mydas no litoral do Ceará, nordeste do Brasil, são reportadas. Concentrações variaram de <0,34 a 856,6 ng.g -1 em peso seco, e foram maiores (média de 154,8 ng.g -1 em peso seco em indivíduos juvenis (n = 22, enquanto que as menores concentrações (média de 2,5 ng.g -1 em peso seco foram observadas em indivíduos adultos/sub-adultos (n = 3. Houve uma correlação negativa significativa entre tamanho do animal e concentração de Hg provavelmente devido a diferença de dieta entre juvenis e sub-adultos/adultos. Fragmentos de carapaça, que constituem substratos não-invasivos e não letais, podem ser importantes para fins de monitoramento ambiental dessas espécies ameaçadas de extinção.

  18. Morfologia do tubo digestório da tartaruga verde (Chelonia mydas Morphology of the digestive tube of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas

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    Marcela S. Magalhães

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a morfologia do tubo digestório da tartaruga verde (Chelonia mydas 10 animais, 9 juvenis e 1 adulto, foram analisados. A retirada dos órgãos digestórios procedeu-se após abertura do plastrão. A descrição e a medida do comprimento de cada órgão [esôfago, estômago, intestino delgado (ID e intestino grosso (IG] foram realizadas com o tubo digestório aberto. Os resultados mostraram que tanto nos animais juvenis como no adulto, o esôfago foi marcado pela presença de papilas pontiagudas em sua mucosa interna. O estômago apresentou aspecto saculiforme com fundo cego. No ID foi observado pregas reticulares na mucosa duodenal, enquanto o jejuno e do íleo mostrou pregas retilíneas longitudinais. O IG foi marcado pela alternância de regiões abauladas (haustros ou saculações e estreitamentos. A microscopia do tudo digestório em C. mydas revelou esôfago com mucosa pregueada revestida por epitélio estratificado pavimentoso queratinizado. O estômago mostrou-se dividido em regiões: cárdica, fúndica, pilórica, as quais diferiam quanto ao número de glândulas e disposição da camada muscular. O ID apresentou-se marcado por vilosidades, e o IG por mucosa pregueada contendo glândulas na lâmina própria. A morfologia do tubo digestório da tartaruga verde mostrou-se adaptada ao seu hábito alimentar, possuindo especializações e um longo trato digestório que promove o aumento da superfície de absorção, já que seu alimento é de difícil digestão.The morphology of the digestive tube of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas was evaluated. Nine young e 1 adult turtles were analyzed. The digestive organs withdrew occurred after plastron opening. The length's description and measurement from each organ [esophagus, stomach, small intestine (SI and large intestine (LI] were made with digestive tube opened. The results showed that in both the adult and young animals, the esophagus from all species were marked by the presence

  19. Características de la anidación de la tortuga verde Chelonia mydas (Testudinata, Cheloniidae en la playa Caleta de los Piojos, Cuba, a partir de marcaciones externas

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    Ferrer Sánchez, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesting characteristics of the Green turtle Chelonia mydas (Testudinata, Cheloniidae at Caleta de los Piojos Beach, Cuba, determined from tagging studies Green turtle (Chelonia mydas females nesting during 2002 and 2003 nesting seasons at Caleta de los Piojos Beach, Cuba, were studied using data from individual tagging. Nesting occurred on average twice per season with a mean interval of 10.9 days. A high number of turtles nested only once per season (39% and 40% respectively. The percentage of failed multiple nesting attempts was high in both seasons. However, the percentage of failed attempts prior to the first nesting was higher in the 2003 season. Vegetation areas seem to be the most suitable sites for nesting and have a significant effect on nest-site selection behaviour. Fidelity to first nest-site was high, 50.3% and 72.9% respectively for 2002 and 2003. Observed mean clutch size (117 eggs was closely related to body dimensions.

  20. Body size distribution demonstrates flexible habitat shift of green turtle (Chelonia mydas

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    Ryota Hayashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Green turtles (Chelonia mydas, listed as Endangered on the IUCN redlist, have a broad migration area and undergo a habitat shift from the pelagic (hatchling to neritic (growth zones. We studied habitat utilisation of the coastal feeding grounds around Okinawajima Island, Japan, in 103 green turtles. The western and eastern turtle aggregations off Okinawa had homogeneous genetic compositions, but different body size distributions. The western coastal feeding ground supported larger individuals than the eastern coastal feeding ground. Thus, green turtles appear to prefer different feeding grounds during their growth, and have a flexible habitat shift including a secondary habitat shift from east to west around Okinawajima Island after they are recruited to the coastal habitats. This study suggests maintaining coastal habitat diversity is important for green turtle conservation.

  1. Young green turtles, Chelonia mydas, exposed to plastic in a frontal area of the SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Carman, Victoria; Acha, E Marcelo; Maxwell, Sara M; Albareda, Diego; Campagna, Claudio; Mianzan, Hermes

    2014-01-15

    Ingestion of anthropogenic debris represents an important threat to marine turtle populations. Information has been limited to inventories of debris ingested and its consequences, but why ingestion occurs and the conditions that enable it are less understood. Here we report on the occurrence of plastic ingestion in young green turtles (Chelonia mydas) inhabiting the Río de la Plata (SW Atlantic). This estuarine area is characterized by a frontal system that accumulates anthropogenic debris. We explored exposure of green turtles to plastic and its ingestion via debris distribution, habitat use and digestive tract examination. Results indicated that there is considerable overlap of frontal accumulated plastic and core foraging areas of the animals. Exposure results in ingestion, as shown by the high frequency of plastic found in the digestive tracts. The Río de la Plata estuarine front is an area of conservation concern for young green turtles.

  2. Food preferences and Hg distribution in Chelonia mydas assessed by stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M F; Lacerda, L D; Rezende, C E; Franco, M A L; Almeida, M G; Macêdo, G R; Pires, T T; Rostán, G; Lopez, G G

    2015-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic pollutant that poses in risk several marine animals, including green turtles (Chelonia mydas). Green turtles are globally endangered sea turtle species that occurs in Brazilian coastal waters as a number of life stage classes (i.e., foraging juveniles and nesting adults). We assessed total Hg concentrations and isotopic signatures ((13)C and (15)N) in muscle, kidney, liver and scute of juvenile green turtles and their food items from two foraging grounds with different urban and industrial development. We found similar food preferences in specimens from both areas but variable Hg levels in tissues reflecting the influence of local Hg backgrounds in food items. Some juvenile green turtles from the highly industrialized foraging ground presented liver Hg levels among the highest ever reported for this species. Our results suggest that juvenile foraging green turtles are exposed to Hg burdens from locally anthropogenic activities in coastal areas. PMID:26196313

  3. Helminth Parasites of Juvenile Green Turtles Chelonia mydas (Testudines: Cheloniidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, M R; Silva, R J

    2015-12-01

    The present study offers a parasitological analysis of juvenile individuals of the green turtle ( Chelonia mydas ) found on the Brazilian coast between 2004 and 2011. Helminths were found in 90 out of 136 individuals (66.2%, CI = 57.7-74.0). In total, 29,411 helminths were collected, belonging to the families Brachycoeliidae, Cladorchiidae, Microscaphidiidae, Pronocephalidae, Rhytidodidae, and Spirorchiidae. Mean species richness was 4.74 (CI = 4.03-5.46), the mean intensity was 327 (CI = 223-489), and the mean abundance was 216 (CI = 146-339). This study also reports new geographical records for: Angiodictyum longum, Angiodictyum parallelum, Rameshwarotrema uterocrescens, Pyelosomum cochlear, Schizamphistomum scleroporum, Cymatocarpus solearis, and Neospirorchis sp. This is the first analysis of helminth composition in juveniles of green turtles.

  4. ultrastructural study of limb bud development in green turtles chelonia mydas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    morphological changes during the embryonic development of limbs of the green turtle,chelonia mydas,were studied during the entire period of incubation,using transmission and scanning electron microscopy (tem and sem).limb buds were first observed at stage 2.at that stage,the tip was covered with an apical ectodermal ridge (aer) which began to regress at stage 6.associated with aer was the presence of the mesenchymal cells which,consequently,differentiated into muscles,cartilage and bones.the gross features of the skeletal development appeared as a condensation of the cartilaginous structures in the proximal distal region of the limbs.the primordial digits were gradually enclosed by hard keratinized webbed skin.the increase in rate of ossification and skin pigmentation was correlated with the growth of the limbs.the development of the limbs was closely related to the transitional appearance of mucus secretion from the epidermis.

  5. Health condition of juvenile Chelonia mydas related to fibropapillomatosis in southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renan de Deus Santos, Marcello; Silva Martins, Agnaldo; Baptistotte, Cecília; Work, Thierry M.

    2015-01-01

    Packed cell volume (PCV), plasma biochemistry, visual body condition (BC), and calculated body condition index (BCI) were evaluated in 170 wild juvenile green sea turtles Chelonia mydas from an aggregation in the effluent canal of a steel mill in Brazil. Occurrence of cutaneous fibropapillomatosis (FP) was observed in 44.1% of the animals examined. BCI alone did not differ significantly between healthy animals and those afflicted with FP. However, all turtles with low BCI were severely afflicted and were uremic, hypoglycemic, and anemic in relation to healthy animals. Severe FP was not always reflected by a poor health condition of the individual. Clinical evaluation and plasma biochemistry indicated that most animals afflicted with FP were in good health condition. Differences in FP manifestations and associated health conditions in different geographic regions must be assessed by long-term health monitoring programs to help define priorities for conservation efforts.

  6. Histology and Immunohistochemistry of the Cardiac Ventricular Structure in the Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas).

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    Braz, J K F S; Freitas, M L; Magalhães, M S; Oliveira, M F; Costa, M S M O; Resende, N S; Clebis, N K; Silva, N B; Moura, C E B

    2016-08-01

    This study describes the implications of cardiac ventricular microscopy in Chelonia mydas relating to its ability to dive. For this work, 11 specimens of the marine turtle species C. mydas found dead on the coast of Rio Grande do Norte (Northeast Brazil) were used. After necropsy, fragments of the cardiac ventricular wall were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde solution for 24 h and then subjected to routine processing for light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ventricle in this species is formed by the epicardium, myocardium and endocardium. The subepicardial layer consists of highly vascularised connective tissue that emits septa to reinforce the myocardium surface. There is an abundant and diffuse subepicardial nerve plexus shown by immunostaining technique. The thickness of the spongy myocardium and the nature of its trabeculae varied between the heart chambers. The endocardium shows no characteristic elements of the heart conduction system. The valves have a hyaline cartilage skeleton, coated by dense irregular connective tissues characterised by elastic fibres. These findings in the green turtle ventricular microscopy are related to hypoxia resistance during diving. PMID:26268418

  7. Structure and Function of the Gastrointestinal Tract of the Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) Hatchling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hualing CHEN; Mingbin YE; Yuyan LU; Jinxia DUAN; Pipeng LI; Hexiang GU

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tracts of four Chelonia mydas hatchlings were examined at the anatomical, histological and ultrastructural level. Our results show that the gastrointestinal tract (GI) is composed by esophagus, stomach, small intestine (SI) and large intestine (LI), and histologically of mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa (ME) and serosa. The esophagus is marked by conical papillae lined by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, whereas the remaining GI by simple columnar epithelium; esophageal diverticulum is absent. The stomach covered with mucous granule cells, contains cardia, fundic regions and pylorus, which are separately characterized by cardiac glands, fundic glands and pyloric glands, and have the thickest submucosa and ME of the GI. The ME of the esophagus mainly consist of one layer of circular smooth muscle whereas the rest of GI of two layers, inner circular muscle and outer longitudinal muscle. The SI is slightly longer than the LI and the GI is approximately 5.11 times of the carapace length. The SI is lined with longitudinal zigzag folds and characterized by absorptive cells with longer and denser microvilli, whereas the LI by transversal folds, goblet cells and lymphoid nodules. Only intestinal glands appear in duodenum. Endocrine cells are observed in all sections of the GI and accounted for the largest proportion in duodenum. The results demonstrate a perfect combination of the structure and function of the GI and reveal that the digestion and absorption primarily occurs in the foregut. C. mydas hatchling may prefer carnivorous diet.

  8. Green turtle (Chelonia mydas genetic diversity at Paranaguá Estuarine Complex feeding grounds in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Costa Jordão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea turtles are marine reptiles that undertake long migrations through their life, with limited information regarding juvenile stages. Feeding grounds (FGs, where they spend most of their lives, are composed by individuals from different natal origins, known as mixed stock populations. The aim of this study was to assess genetic composition, natal origins and demographic history of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas at the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC, Brazil, considered a Natural World Heritage site. Tissue samples of stranded animals were collected (n = 60, and 700 bp mitochondrial DNA sequences were generated and compared to shorter sequences from previously published studies. Global exact tests of differentiation revealed significant differences among PEC and the other FGs, except those at the South Atlantic Ocean. Green turtles at PEC present genetic signatures similar to those of nesting females from Ascension Island, Guinea Bissau and Aves Island/Surinam. Population expansion was evidenced to have occurred 20–25 kYA, reinforcing the hypothesis of recovery from Southern Atlantic refugia after the last Glacial Maximum. These results contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of green turtle populations at a protected area by providing knowledge on the dispersion patterns and reinforcing the importance of the interconnectivity between nesting and foraging populations.

  9. Bacteremia in free-ranging Hawaiian green turtles, Chelonia mydas, with fibropapillomatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Wolcott, M.; Morris, R.

    2003-01-01

    Past studies of free-ranging green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis (FP) in Hawaii have shown that animals become immunosuppressed with increasing severity of this disease. Additionally, preliminary clinical examination of moribund turtles with FP revealed that some animals were also bacteraemic. We tested the hypothesis that bacteraemia in sea turtles is associated with the severity of FP. We captured free-ranging green turtles from areas in Hawaii where FP is absent, and areas where FP has been endemic since the late 1950s. Each turtle was given an FP severity score ranging from 0 (no tumours) to 3 (severely affected). A fifth category included turtles that were stranded ashore and moribund with FP. We found that the percentage of turtles with bacteraemia increased with the severity of FP, and that the majority of bacteria cultured were Vibrio spp. Turtles with severe FP were more susceptible to bactaeremia, probably in part due to immunosuppression. The pattern of bacteraemia in relation to severity of disease strengthens the hypothesis that immunosuppression is a sequel to FP.

  10. Morbidity in a juvenile green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) due to ocean-borne plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamper, M Andrew; Spicer, Chad W; Neiffer, Donald L; Mathews, Kristin S; Fleming, Gregory J

    2009-03-01

    An emaciated 2.36-kg juvenile green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas, was found floating off of Melbourne Beach, Florida, USA (28 degrees 2'4"N, 80 degrees 32'32"W). The turtle exhibited signs of cachexia, positive buoyancy, lethargy, and obstipation; was covered with barnacles; and was anorexic at the time of presentation. Dorsal-ventral radiographs with positive contrast confirmed obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract. Serum chemistry abnormalities reflected metabolic/nutritional deficiencies. Gastrointestinal prokinetics and oral/enema mineral oil applications were effective in relieving gastrointestinal obstruction with the turtle defecating a total of 74 foreign objects over a period of a month. After the removal of the foreign material, the turtle quickly regained normal behavior and health. The lack of blood parameters demonstrating infection or inflammation; the failure to respond to antibiotic and antifungal treatment as well as the parallel improvement in behavior and health after incremental evacuation of the plastic is highly suggestive of a cause and effect association.

  11. Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) genetic diversity at Paranaguá Estuarine Complex feeding grounds in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordão, Juliana Costa; Bondioli, Ana Cristina Vigliar; Guebert, Flavia Maria; de Thoisy, Benoit; Toledo, Lurdes Foresti de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Sea turtles are marine reptiles that undertake long migrations through their life, with limited information regarding juvenile stages. Feeding grounds (FGs), where they spend most of their lives, are composed by individuals from different natal origins, known as mixed stock populations. The aim of this study was to assess genetic composition, natal origins and demographic history of juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) at the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC), Brazil, considered a Natural World Heritage site. Tissue samples of stranded animals were collected (n = 60), and 700 bp mitochondrial DNA sequences were generated and compared to shorter sequences from previously published studies. Global exact tests of differentiation revealed significant differences among PEC and the other FGs, except those at the South Atlantic Ocean. Green turtles at PEC present genetic signatures similar to those of nesting females from Ascension Island, Guinea Bissau and Aves Island/Surinam. Population expansion was evidenced to have occurred 20-25 kYA, reinforcing the hypothesis of recovery from Southern Atlantic refugia after the last Glacial Maximum. These results contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of green turtle populations at a protected area by providing knowledge on the dispersion patterns and reinforcing the importance of the interconnectivity between nesting and foraging populations. PMID:26500439

  12. Exertional Myopathy in a Juvenile Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas Entangled in a Large Mesh Gillnet

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    Brianne E. Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A juvenile female green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas was found entangled in a large mesh gillnet in Pamlico Sound, NC, and was weak upon presentation for treatment. Blood gas analysis revealed severe metabolic acidosis and hyperlactatemia. Plasma biochemistry analysis showed elevated aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, marked hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperkalemia. Death occurred within 24 hours of presentation despite treatment with intravenous and subcutaneous fluids and sodium bicarbonate. Necropsy revealed multifocal to diffuse pallor of the superficial and deep pectoral muscles. Mild, multifocal, and acute myofiber necrosis was identified by histopathological examination. While histological changes in the examined muscle were modest, the acid-base, mineral, and electrolyte abnormalities were sufficiently severe to contribute to this animal’s mortality. Exertional myopathy in reptiles has not been well characterized. Sea turtle mortality resulting from forced submergence has been attributed to blood gas derangements and seawater aspiration; however, exertional myopathy may also be an important contributing factor. If possible, sea turtles subjected to incidental capture and entanglement that exhibit weakness or dull mentation should be clinically evaluated prior to release to minimize the risk of delayed mortality. Treatment with appropriate fluid therapy and supportive care may mitigate the effects of exertional myopathy in some cases.

  13. Evidence for retrovirus infections in green turtles Chelonia mydas from the Hawaiian islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, R.N.; Quackenbush, S.L.; Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Bowser, P.R.; Casey, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Apparently normal Hawaiian green turtles Chelonia mydas and those displaying fibropapillomas were analyzed for infection by retroviruses. Strikingly, all samples were positive for polymerase enhanced reverse transcriptase (PERT) with levels high enough to quantitate by the conventional reverse transcriptase (RT) assay. However, samples of skin, even from asymptomatic turtles, were RT positive, although the levels of enzyme activity in healthy turtles hatched and raised in captivity were much lower than those observed in asymptomatic free-ranging turtles. Turtles with fibropapillomas displayed a broad range of reverse transcriptase activity. Skin and eye fibropapillomas and a heart tumor were further analyzed and shown to have reverse transcriptase activity that banded in a sucrose gradient at 1.17 g ml-1. The reverse transcriptase activity purified from the heart tumor displayed a temperature optimum of 37??C and showed a preference for Mn2+ over Mg2+. Sucrose gradient fractions of this sample displaying elevated reverse transcriptase activity contained primarily retrovitalsized particles with prominent envelope spikes, when negatively stained and examined by electron microscopy. Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of gradient-purified virions revealed a conserved profile among 4 independent tumors and showed 7 prominent proteins having molecular weights of 116, 83, 51, 43, 40, 20 and 14 kDa. The data suggest that retroviral infections are widespread in Hawaiian green turtles and a comprehensive investigation is warranted to address the possibility that these agents cause green turtle fibropapillomatosis (GTFP).

  14. Relating fibropapilloma tumor severity to blood parameters in green turtles Chelonia mydas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirama, Shigetomo; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M; Rea, Lorrie D; Kiltie, Richard A

    2014-08-21

    Fibropapillomatosis is a neoplastic disease that is commonly found in the green turtles Chelonia mydas in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In the current project, juvenile green turtles were captured with large-mesh tangle nets in the Indian River Lagoon and on nearshore reefs of Indian River County, Florida, USA, in 1998 and 1999. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between the severity of the disease and the general health of green turtles as indicated by blood parameters. All turtles were measured and examined, and the overall severity of the disease was rated by the size, number, and location of external fibropapilloma tumors. Hematocrit, total protein, and hemoglobin concentration were measured and compared with tumor scores (tumor severity appraisal). As the tumor score increased, the blood parameters of turtles decreased; for instance, the percentage of decrease in hematocrit for mildly afflicted, moderately afflicted, and severely afflicted groups were 2.6, 18.3, and 45.5%, respectively. Severely afflicted turtles suffered from anemia, while individuals with mild affliction did not.

  15. Establishment and characterization of 13 cell lines from a green turtle (Chelonia mydas) with fibropapillomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Nerurkar, V.R.; Aguirre, A.A.; Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Yanagihara, R.

    1999-01-01

    Thirteen cell lines were established and characterized from brain, kidney, lung, spleen, heart, liver, gall bladder, urinary bladder, pancreas, testis, skin, and periorbital and tumor tissues of an immature male green turtle (Chelonia mydas) with fibropapillomas. Cell lines were optimally maintained at 30A? C in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. Propagation of the turtle cell lines was serum dependent, and plating efficiencies ranged from 13 to 37%. The cell lines, which have been subcultivated more than 20 times, had a doubling time of approximately 30 to 36 h. When tested for their sensitivity to several fish viruses, most of the cell lines were susceptible to a rhabdovirus, spring viremia carp virus, but refractory to channel catfish virus (a herpesvirus), infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (a birnavirus), and two other fish rhabdoviruses, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus. During in vitro subcultivation, tumor-like cell aggregates appeared in cell lines derived from lungs, testis, and periorbital and tumor tissues, and small, naked intranuclear virus particles were detected by thin-section electron microscopy. These cell lines are currently being used in attempts to isolate the putative etiologic virus of green turtle fibropapilloma.

  16. First record of hybridization between green Chelonia mydas and hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata sea turtles in the Southeast Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelez, Shaleyla; Velez-Zuazo, Ximena; Pacheco, Aldo S

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization among sea turtle species has been widely reported in the Atlantic Ocean, but their detection in the Pacific Ocean is limited to just two individual hybrid turtles, in the northern hemisphere. Herein, we report, for the first time in the southeast Pacific, the presence of a sea turtle hybrid between the green turtle Chelonia mydas and the hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata. This juvenile sea turtle was captured in northern Peru (4°13'S; 81°10'W) on the 5(th) of January, 2014. The individual exhibited morphological characteristics of C. mydas such as dark green coloration, single pair of pre-frontal scales, four post-orbital scales, and mandibular median ridge, while the presence of two claws in each frontal flipper, and elongated snout resembled the features of E. imbricata. In addition to morphological evidence, we confirmed the hybrid status of this animal using genetic analysis of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I, which revealed that the hybrid individual resulted from the cross between a female E. imbricata and a male C. mydas. Our report extends the geographical range of occurrence of hybrid sea turtles in the Pacific Ocean, and is a significant observation of interspecific breeding between one of the world's most critically endangered populations of sea turtles, the east Pacific E. imbricata, and a relatively healthy population, the east Pacific C. mydas.

  17. Blood gases, biochemistry, and hematology of Galapagos green turtles (Chelonia mydas.

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    Gregory A Lewbart

    Full Text Available The green turtle, Chelonia mydas, is an endangered marine chelonian with a circum-global distribution. Reference blood parameter intervals have been published for some chelonian species, but baseline hematology, biochemical, and blood gas values are lacking from the Galapagos sea turtles. Analyses were done on blood samples drawn from 28 green turtles captured in two foraging locations on San Cristóbal Island (14 from each site. Of these turtles, 20 were immature and of unknown sex; the other eight were males (five mature, three immature. A portable blood analyzer (iSTAT was used to obtain near immediate field results for pH, lactate, pO2, pCO2, HCO3-, Hct, Hb, Na, K, iCa, and Glu. Parameter values affected by temperature were corrected in two ways: (1 with standard formulas; and (2 with auto-corrections made by the iSTAT. The two methods yielded clinically equivalent results. Standard laboratory hematology techniques were employed for the red and white blood cell counts and the hematocrit determination, which was also compared to the hematocrit values generated by the iSTAT. Of all blood analytes, only lactate concentrations were positively correlated with body size. All other values showed no significant difference between the two sample locations nor were they correlated with body size or internal temperature. For hematocrit count, the iSTAT blood analyzer yielded results indistinguishable from those obtained with high-speed centrifugation. The values reported in this study provide baseline data that may be useful in comparisons among populations and in detecting changes in health status among Galapagos sea turtles. The findings might also be helpful in future efforts to demonstrate associations between specific biochemical parameters and disease.

  18. Compensatory responses to food restriction in juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Alison M; Bjorndal, Karen A; Bolten, Alan B

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the compensatory responses to food restriction and subsequent increased food availability in juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas). Turtles were fed an ad libitum ration for 12 weeks (AL), a restricted ration for 12 weeks (R), or a restricted ration for 5 weeks and an ad libitum ration for 7 weeks (R-AL). Analysis of covariance was used to test the relationships between (1) growth and body size, (2) intake and body size, and (3) growth and intake for each of the three treatment groups. Body composition of turtles in each group was also evaluated at the beginning of the study and after weeks 5 and 12. After the switch to ad libitum feeding, R-AL turtles consumed comparable amounts of food and grew faster than AL turtles on a size-adjusted basis, but mean body sizes did not converge, although the overlap in their size ranges increased with time. The R-AL turtles also converted food to growth more efficiently and allocated proportionally more nutrients to protein accretion, thereby restoring body composition (except mineral content) to AL levels by the end of the study. Thus, accelerated size-specific growth without hyperphagia restored body condition but not size. These results indicate that (1) intake in juvenile green turtles is maximal when food is readily available and cannot be increased to compensate for a previous period of food limitation, (2) growth rates of ad libitum-fed turtles are only mildly plastic in response to past nutritional history, and (3) priority rules for nutrient allocation favor the attainment of an optimal condition rather than an optimal size. Nutritional setbacks experienced during the vulnerable juvenile stage could therefore have long-lasting consequences for wild turtles in terms of size-specific mortality risk, but these risks may be mitigated by the potential benefits of maintaining sufficient body stores.

  19. Population trends and survival of nesting green sea turtles Chelonia mydas on Aves Island, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cruz, Marco A.; Lampo, Margarita; Penaloza, Claudia L.; Kendall, William; Solé, Genaro; Rodriguez-Clark, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term demographic data are valuable for assessing the effect of anthropogenic impacts on endangered species and evaluating recovery programs. Using a 2-state open robust design model, we analyzed mark-recapture data from green turtles Chelonia mydas sighted between 1979 and 2009 on Aves Island, Venezuela, a rookery heavily impacted by human activities before it was declared a wildlife refuge in 1972. Based on the encounter histories of 7689 nesting females, we estimated the abundance, annual survival, and remigration intervals for this population. Female survival varied from 0.14-0.91, with a mean of 0.79, which is low compared to survival of other populations from the Caribbean (mean = 0.84) and Australia (mean = 0.95), even though we partially corrected for tag loss, which is known to negatively bias survival estimates. This supports prior suggestions that Caribbean populations in general, and the Aves Island population in particular, may be more strongly impacted than populations elsewhere. It is likely that nesters from this rookery are extracted while foraging in remote feeding grounds where hunting still occurs. Despite its relatively low survival, the nesting population at Aves Island increased during the past 30 years from approx. 500 to >1000 nesting females in 2009. Thus, this population, like others in the Caribbean and the Atlantic, seems to be slowly recovering following protective management. Although these findings support the importance of long-term conservation programs aimed at protecting nesting grounds, they also highlight the need to extend management actions to foraging grounds where human activities may still impact green turtle populations.

  20. Nesting phenology of marine turtles: insights from a regional comparative analysis on green turtle (Chelonia mydas.

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    Mayeul Dalleau

    Full Text Available Changes in phenology, the timing of seasonal activities, are among the most frequently observed responses to environmental disturbances and in marine species are known to occur in response to climate changes that directly affects ocean temperature, biogeochemical composition and sea level. We examined nesting seasonality data from long-term studies at 8 green turtle (Chelonia mydas rookeries that include 21 specific nesting sites in the South-West Indian Ocean (SWIO. We demonstrated that temperature drives patterns of nesting seasonality at the regional scale. We found a significant correlation between mean annual Sea Surface Temperature (SST and dates of peak nesting with rookeries exposed to higher SST having a delayed nesting peak. This supports the hypothesis that temperature is the main factor determining peak nesting dates. We also demonstrated a spatial synchrony in nesting activity amongst multiple rookeries in the northern part of the SWIO (Aldabra, Glorieuses, Mohéli, Mayotte but not with the eastern and southern rookeries (Europa, Tromelin, differences which could be attributed to females with sharply different adult foraging conditions. However, we did not detect a temporal trend in the nesting peak date over the study period or an inter-annual relation between nesting peak date and SST. The findings of our study provide a better understanding of the processes that drive marine species phenology. The findings will also help to predict their ability to cope with climate change and other environmental perturbations. Despite demonstrating this spatial shift in nesting phenology, no trend in the alteration of nesting dates over more than 20 years was found.

  1. Factors influencing survivorship of rehabilitating green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) with fibropapillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Karjian, Annie; Norton, Terry M; Krimer, Paula; Groner, Maya; Nelson, Steven E; Gottdenker, Nicole L

    2014-09-01

    Marine turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a debilitating, infectious neoplastic disease that has reached epizootic proportions in several tropical and subtropical populations of green turtles (Chelonia mydas). FP represents an important health concern in sea turtle rehabilitation facilities. The objectives of this study were to describe the observed epidemiology, biology, and survival rates of turtles affected by FP (FP+ turtles) in a rehabilitation environment; to evaluate clinical parameters as predictors of survival in affected rehabilitating turtles; and to provide information about case progression scenarios and potential outcomes for FP+ sea turtle patients. A retrospective case series analysis was performed using the medical records of the Georgia Sea Turtle Center (GSTC), Jekyll Island, Georgia, USA, during 2009-2013. Information evaluated included signalment, morphometrics, presenting complaint, time to FP onset, tumor score (0-3), co-morbid conditions, diagnostic test results, therapeutic interventions, and case outcomes. Overall, FP was present in 27/362 (7.5%) of all sea turtles admitted to the GSTC for rehabilitation, either upon admittance or during their rehabilitation. Of these, 25 were green and 2 were Kemp's ridley turtles. Of 10 turtles that had only plaque-like FP lesions, 60% had natural tumor regression, all were released, and they were significantly more likely to survive than those with classic FP (P = 0.02 [0.27-0.75, 95% CI]). Turtles without ocular FP were eight times more likely to survive than those with ocular FP (odds ratio = 8.75, P = 0.032 [1.21-63.43, 95% CI]). Laser-mediated tumor removal surgery is the treatment of choice for FP+ patients at the GSTC; number of surgeries was not significantly related to case outcome.

  2. Aspectos de comportamento alimentar e dieta da tartaruga marinha, Chelonia mydas no litoral norte paulista Some aspects on feeding behaviour of the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, in the northern littoral of State of São Paulo

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    Ivan Sazima

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior of immature green turtles, Chelonia mydas, has been observed on rocky shores along the northern part of State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. This turtle forages on underwater ledges, at depths of 1 to 3 m and grazes on benthic algae. The turtle seems to visually scan the algae during feeding and moves slowly, walking from one patch of vegetation to another. Gut contents of four individuals (331-452 mmCCL consisted mainly of red and brown algae. Comparisons between gut contents and algae growing at the grazing sites, together with scanning behavior suggest selective feeding. Syntopic large herbivorous fishes of the genera Kyphosus, Sparisma, and Acanthurus showed little feeding overlap with the green turtle.

  3. Selected heavy metals and selenium in the blood of black sea turtle (Chelonia mydas agasiizzi) from Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley-Quiñónez, C P; Zavala-Norzagaray, A A; Réndon-Maldonado, J G; Espinosa-Carreón, T L; Canizales-Román, A; Escobedo-Urías, D C; Leal-Acosta, M L; Hart, C E; Aguirre, A A

    2013-12-01

    The concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, Mn) and selenium (Se) was analyzed in blood collected from 12 black turtles (Chelonia mydas agasiizzi) captured in Canal del Infiernillo, Punta Chueca, Mexico. The most abundant metals were Zn (63.58 μg g(-1)) and Se (7.66 μg g(-1)), and Cd was the lower (0.99 μg g(-1)). The sequential concentrations of trace metals were Zn > Se > Cu > Mn > Ni > Cd. In conclusion, this information is important as a baseline when using blood as tissue analysis of heavy metals; however, these levels could represent recent exposure in foraging grounds of black turtles in the Sea of Cortez.

  4. Concentration of heavy metals in tissues of green turtles (Chelonia mydas sampled in the Cananéia estuary, Brazil

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    Edison Barbieri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty specimens (15 adults and 15 juveniles of Chelonia mydas found in the Cananéia estuary in the state of São Paulo on the southeastern Brazilian coast between January 2005 and September 2006, were analyzed The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn and Ni in liver and kidney samples of adult and juvenile green turtles were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry.The average Cd concentration found in adult livers (0.57µg.g-1 was significantly higher than that in juveniles (0.279µg.g-1. Cu concentrations were significantly higher in the liver than in the kidney, and significantly higher in adults (39.9µg.g-1 than in juveniles (20.7µg.g-1 Average Mn concentrations in liver and kidney did not differ between adults (4.32 and 4.17µg.g-1 and juveniles (4.81 and 3.82µg.g-1, whereas Ni concentrations in adults (0.28 and 0.19µg.g-1, respectively were significantly higher than in juveniles (0.13 and 0.089µg.g-1, respectively. Pb concentrations in liver were significantly higher in adults (0.37µg.g-1 than in juveniles (0.06µg.g-1. The concentrations of essential trace elements in Chelonia mydas were generally comparable to values reported in other, similar studies. With respect to non-essential metals (Cd, Pb and Ni, Chelonia mydas presented lower values than those reported for their northern Atlantic counterparts.Analisou-se 30 espécimes (15 adultos e 15 juvenis de Chelonia mydas encontradas no estuário de Cananéia, Estado de São Paulo, região sudeste, durante o período de janeiro de 2005 a setembro de 2006. Foram determinados no fígado e rins de adultos e juvenis de C. mydas os seguintes metais: Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn e Ni, através de Espectrofotometria de Absorção Atômica. Verificou-se que as concentrações médias de Cd no fígado de adultos (0,957µg.g-1 foram significativamente diferentes em relação a dos juvenis (0,279µg.g-1. As concentrações médias de Cu no fígado de C. mydas foram diferentes em relação ao rim

  5. Analysis of epibiont data in relation with the Debilitated Turtle Syndrome of sea turtles in Chelonia mydas and Lepidochelys olivacea from Concepción coast, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Italo Fernández; Marco Antonio Retamal; Miguel Mansilla; Francisco Yáñez; Víctor Campos; Carlos Smith; Guillermo Puentes; Ariel Valenzuela; Hernán González

    2015-01-01

    Epibionts on the surface of the skin and shell of a specimen of Chelonia mydas and three Lepidochelys olivacea found floating on the coast of Concepción, Chile, between June 2010 and December 2012, were analyzed. These epibionts were analyzed during the clinical inspection and the tissue changes related to its settlement, with filamentous algae around, were observed. Subsequently, the epibionts were identified by morphological observation. The knowledge about theses epibionts in Chile is revi...

  6. INTRASPECIFIC VARIATION OF THE GREEN TURTLE, Chelonia mydas (CHELONIIDAE, IN THE FORAGING AREA OF GORGONA NATURAL NATIONAL PARK (COLOMBIAN PACIFIC

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    Laura Sampson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The size distribution and body condition of the two morphotypes of green turtle (Chelonia mydas foraging in Gorgona Natural National Park (GNNP in the Colombian Pacific was assessed from 2003 to 2012. Measurements of straight carapace length (SCL, curved carapace length (CCL, weight, and body condition of 1,023 turtles captured on the GNNP reefs were recorded. More black turtles (n = 747 than yellow turtles (n = 276 were captured, all of them juveniles. Black turtles were significantly larger and heavier than yellow turtles. The size of recruitment to the neritic zone was 40.0-49.9 cm SCL for both morphotypes, but there were more yellow than black turtles in this size class, indicating a difference in the recruitment pattern. The body condition index of yellow turtles was significantly higher than that of black turtles, which could indicate differences in resource use. Based on our results, we suggest that GNNP might function as a recruitment area for yellow turtles, which arrive at smaller sizes and as part of a coastal migratory route for black turtles, which arrive at larger sizes and maintain residence at this location for an unknown period of time.Variación intraespecífica de la tortuga verde Chelonia mydas (Cheloniidae en el área de forrajeo del Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona (Pacífico colombianoSe comparó la distribución de tallas y condición corporal de los dos morfotipos conocidos de tortuga verde (Chelonia mydas en el área de forrajeo del Parque Nacional Natural Gorgona (PNNG en el Pacífico colombiano entre 2003 y 2012. Se tomaron medidas de largo recto de caparazón (LRC, largo curvo de caparazón (LCC, peso y condición corporal de 1.023 tortugas capturadas en los arrecifes del PNG. Se capturaron más tortugas negras (n = 747 que amarillas (n = 276, todas juveniles. Las tortugas negras fueron significativamente más grandes y pesadas que las amarillas. El tamaño de reclutamiento a la zona nerítica fue de 40,0–49,9 cm

  7. Detecting patterns of fertilization and frequency of multiple paternity in Chelonia mydas of Colola (Michoacán, Mexico Detección de patrones de fertilización y frecuencia de paternidad múltiple en Chelonia mydas de Colola (Michoacán, México

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    Libny Ingrid Lara-De La Cruz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a microsatellite analysis that allows an indirect determination of the process of fertilization in the genital tract of Chelonia mydas. The strategy was based in that the order of oviposition is related to fertilization order. Once the genotype of the offspring was obtained through microsatellite analyses, it was possible to determine the frequency of multiple paternity and to infer the presence of anatomical structures or physiological mechanisms that allow females to undergo cryptic choice processes, which allowed us to hypothesize the existence of post-copula factors that determine reproductive success in a polyandrous system. This paper does not show the presence of physiological mechanisms that allow control of fertilization order in polyandrous females of Chelonia mydas.Presentamos un análisis con microsatélites para determinar de manera indirecta si existe un mecanismo de control del proceso de fertilización en el tracto genital de Chelonia mydas. La estrategia utilizada se basa en que el orden de oviposición está relacionado con el orden de fertilización. Determinando el genotipo de la progenie, fue posible determinar la frecuencia de paternidad múltiple e inferir la presencia de estructurasanatómicas o mecanismos fisiológicos, que actúen como factores post-copulatorios para regular los eventos reproductivos en un sistema poliándrico. El presente trabajo no muestra la presencia de mecanismos fisiológicos que permitan el control del orden de fertilización en hembras poliándricas de Chelonia mydas.

  8. Stable isotopes in barnacles as a tool to understand green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) regional movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detjen, M.; Sterling, E.; Gómez, A.

    2015-12-01

    Sea turtles are migratory animals that travel long distances between their feeding and breeding grounds. Traditional methods for researching sea turtle migratory behavior have important disadvantages, and the development of alternatives would enhance our ability to monitor and manage these globally endangered species. Here we report on the isotope signatures in green sea-turtle (Chelonia mydas) barnacles (Platylepas sp.) and discuss their potential relevance as tools with which to study green sea turtle migration and habitat use patterns. We analyzed oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios in barnacle calcite layers from specimens collected from green turtles captured at the Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (PANWR) in the central Pacific. Carbon isotopes were not informative in this study. However, the oxygen isotope results suggest likely regional movement patterns when mapped onto a predictive oxygen isotope map of the Pacific. Barnacle proxies could therefore complement other methods in understanding regional movement patterns, informing more effective conservation policy that takes into account connectivity between populations.

  9. Winter diets of immature green turtles (Chelonia mydas) on a northern feeding ground: integrating stomach contents and stable isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Natalie C.; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Carthy, Raymond R.

    2015-01-01

    The foraging ecology and diet of the green turtle, Chelonia mydas, remain understudied, particularly in peripheral areas of its distribution. We assessed the diet of an aggregation of juvenile green turtles at the northern edge of its range during winter months using two approaches. Stomach content analyses provide a single time sample, and stable isotope analyses integrate diet over a several-month period. We evaluated diet consistency in prey choice over time by comparing the results of these two approaches. We examined stomach contents from 43 juvenile green turtles that died during cold stunning events in St. Joseph Bay, Florida, in 2008 and 2011. Stomach contents were evaluated for volume, dry mass, percent frequency of occurrence, and index of relative importance of individual diet items. Juvenile green turtles were omnivorous, feeding primarily on seagrasses and tunicates. Diet characterizations from stomach contents differed from those based on stable isotope analyses, indicating the turtles are not feeding consistently during winter months. Evaluation of diets during warm months is needed.

  10. Ingestion of solid wastes by juvenile green turtles, Chelonia mydas (L. 1758), in the eastern Rio de Janeiro state coast, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Rodrigues Awabdi; Salvatore Siciliano; Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzed the solid wastes of anthropogenic origin obtained from the stomach contents of juvenile green turtles, Chelonia mydas, on the eastern Rio de Janeiro state coast, southeastern Brazil (22º50’S – 23º00’S). Between June 2009 and May 2010, the stomach contents of 49 specimens stranded on beaches were analyzed. Solid wastes were recorded in 29 stomach contents (59.2%) and more than one category of wastes was found out in 22 samples. Plastic bags, categorized as flexible plastic ...

  11. Anidación de la tortuga verde (Chelonia mydas) y caracterización de las playas en Cayo Largo, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Cruz, Y.; Moncada Gavilán, F.; Nodarse Andreu, G.; Blanco López, R.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative relation between beach characteristic and number of observed nests of Green turtle Chelonia mydas at Cayo Largo is shown. The nest quantification was carried out by patrolling and direct count in reproduction season for this species (June-September) in period 2002-2006. A total of 7 beaches were identified with sands strips between 5 and 50 m of wide and between 70 and 4 060 m of length. Annual nesting between 1 114 and 1 866 nests was registered. Maxi...

  12. Hematological profile of Chelonia mydas (Testudines, Cheloniidae according to the severity of fibropapillomatosis or its absence Perfil hematológico de Chelonia mydas (Testudines, Cheloniidae de acordo com o grau de acometimento pela fibropapilomatose e sua ausência

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    Silmara Rossi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The green turtle Chelonia mydas feeds and nests in the Brazilian coastal area and is considered an endangered species by the World Conservation Union (IUCN 2009 and threatened by the Red List of Brazilian Fauna (Ministério do Meio Ambiente 2009. Fibropapillomatosis is a disease characterized by benign skin tumors (fibropapillomas, and it is one of the main threats to the survival of this species. Studies suggest the involvement of viruses as infectious agents associated with environmental and genetic factors. Blood samples were collected from 45 turtles captured in the coastal area of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. From these, 27 were affected by fibropapillomas and 18 were tumor free. Biometrical data on the turtles, size, location and quantity of tumors were recorded. The area occupied by fibropapillomas per animal was calculated and four groups were determined according to severity of the disease or its absence. The objective of the study was to compare hemogram results of the sea turtles classified in these four groups. The lowest hematocrit value was observed in severely affected animals. In the hemoglobin assay, the highest value was observed in the group of tumor free turtles and the lowest, in animals severely affected. Lymphocyte counts and curved carapace length were on the verge of statistical significance.Chelonia mydas, denominada tartaruga verde, é uma tartaruga marinha que frequenta o litoral brasileiro para alimentação e nidificação e é considerada em perigo de extinção pela IUCN (World Conservation Union, 2009 e ameaçada pela Lista Vermelha da Fauna Brasileira (Ministério do Meio Ambiente, 2009. A fibropapilomatose, doença caracterizada por tumores cutâneos benignos (fibropapilomas, é uma das mais importantes ameaças à sobrevivência dessa espécie. Pesquisas sugerem o envolvimento de agentes infecciosos virais em associação com fatores ambientais e genéticos. Foram colhidas amostras sanguíneas de 45

  13. EFFECTS OF "SWIM WITH THE TURTLES" TOURIST ATTRACTIONS ON GREEN SEA TURTLE (CHELONIA MYDAS) HEALTH IN BARBADOS, WEST INDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kimberly; Norton, Terry; Mohammed, Hamish; Browne, Darren; Clements, Kathleen; Thomas, Kirsten; Yaw, Taylor; Horrocks, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Along the West Coast of Barbados a unique relationship has developed between endangered green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) and humans. Fishermen began inadvertently provisioning these foraging turtles with fish offal discarded from their boats. Although initially an indirect supplementation, this activity became a popular attraction for visitors. Subsequently, demand for this activity increased, and direct supplementation or provisioning with food began. Food items offered included raw whole fish (typically a mixture of false herring [Harengula clupeola] and pilchard [Harengula humeralis]), filleted fish, and lesser amounts of processed food such as hot dogs, chicken, bread, or various other leftovers. Alterations in behavior and growth rates as a result of the provisioning have been documented in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine how tourism-based human interactions are affecting the overall health of this foraging population and to determine what potential health risks these interactions may create for sea turtles. Juvenile green sea turtles (n=29) were captured from four sites off the coast of Barbados, West Indies, and categorized into a group that received supplemental feeding as part of a tour (n=11) or an unsupplemented group (n=18) that consisted of individuals that were captured at sites that did not provide supplemental feeding. Following capture, a general health assessment of each animal was conducted. This included weight and morphometric measurements, a systematic physical examination, determination of body condition score and body condition index, epibiota assessment and quantification, and clinical pathology including hematologic and biochemical testing and nutritional assessments. The supplemented group was found to have changes to body condition, vitamin, mineral, hematologic, and biochemical values. Based on these results, recommendations were made to decrease negative behaviors and health impacts for turtles as a result

  14. Multinational tagging efforts illustrate regional scale of distribution and threats for east pacific green turtles (Chelonia mydas agassizii.

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    Catherine E Hart

    Full Text Available To further describe movement patterns and distribution of East Pacific green turtles (Chelonia mydas agassizii and to determine threat levels for this species within the Eastern Pacific. In order to do this we combined published data from existing flipper tagging and early satellite tracking studies with data from an additional 12 satellite tracked green turtles (1996-2006. Three of these were tracked from their foraging grounds in the Gulf of California along the east coast of the Baja California peninsula to their breeding grounds in Michoacán (1337-2928 km. In addition, three post-nesting females were satellite tracked from Colola beach, Michoacán to their foraging grounds in southern Mexico and Central America (941.3-3020 km. A further six turtles were tracked in the Gulf of California within their foraging grounds giving insights into the scale of ranging behaviour. Turtles undertaking long-distance migrations showed a tendency to follow the coastline. Turtles tracked within foraging grounds showed that foraging individuals typically ranged up to 691.6 km (maximum from release site location. Additionally, we carried out threat analysis (using the cumulative global human impact in the Eastern Pacific clustering pre-existing satellite tracking studies from Galapagos, Costa Rica, and data obtained from this study; this indicated that turtles foraging and nesting in Central American waters are subject to the highest anthropogenic impact. Considering that turtles from all three rookeries were found to migrate towards Central America, it is highly important to implement conservation plans in Central American coastal areas to ensure the survival of the remaining green turtles in the Eastern Pacific. Finally, by combining satellite tracking data from this and previous studies, and data of tag returns we created the best available distributional patterns for this particular sea turtle species, which emphasized that conservation measures in key

  15. Artisanal Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery of Caribbean Nicaragua: I. Catch rates and trends, 1991-2011.

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    Cynthia J Lagueux

    Full Text Available This is the first assessment of catch rates for the legal, artisanal green turtle, Chelonia mydas, fishery in Caribbean Nicaragua. Data were collected by community members, monitoring up to 14 landing sites from 1991 to 2011. We examined take levels, and temporal and spatial variability in catch rates for the overall fishery, by region, and community using General Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs. More than 171,556 green turtles were killed during the period, with a mean estimated minimum 8,169±2,182 annually. There was a statistically significant decline in catch rates overall. Catch rates peaked in 1997 and 2002, followed by a downward trend, particularly from mid-2008 to the end of the study period. Similar downward trends were evident in both study regions. Community specific catch rate trends also indicated declines with decreases ranging from 21% to 90%. Decrease in catch rates in Nicaragua is cause for concern even though the principal source rookery at Tortuguero, Costa Rica, shows an increase in nesting activity. Explanations for the apparent discrepancy between the increasing trend at Tortuguero and decreasing catch rate trends in Nicaragua include: i an increase in reproductive output, ii insufficient time has passed to observe the impact of the fishery on the rookery due to a time lag, iii changes in other segments of the population have not been detected since only nesting activity is monitored, iv the expansive northern Nicaragua foraging ground may provide a refuge for a sufficient portion of the Tortuguero rookery, and/or v a larger than expected contribution of non-Tortuguero rookeries occurring in Nicaragua turtle fishing areas. Our results highlight the need for close monitoring of rookeries and in-water aggregations in the Caribbean. Where consumptive use still occurs, nations sharing this resource should implement scientifically based limits on exploitation to ensure sustainability and mitigate impacts to regional population

  16. EFFECTS OF "SWIM WITH THE TURTLES" TOURIST ATTRACTIONS ON GREEN SEA TURTLE (CHELONIA MYDAS) HEALTH IN BARBADOS, WEST INDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kimberly; Norton, Terry; Mohammed, Hamish; Browne, Darren; Clements, Kathleen; Thomas, Kirsten; Yaw, Taylor; Horrocks, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Along the West Coast of Barbados a unique relationship has developed between endangered green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) and humans. Fishermen began inadvertently provisioning these foraging turtles with fish offal discarded from their boats. Although initially an indirect supplementation, this activity became a popular attraction for visitors. Subsequently, demand for this activity increased, and direct supplementation or provisioning with food began. Food items offered included raw whole fish (typically a mixture of false herring [Harengula clupeola] and pilchard [Harengula humeralis]), filleted fish, and lesser amounts of processed food such as hot dogs, chicken, bread, or various other leftovers. Alterations in behavior and growth rates as a result of the provisioning have been documented in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine how tourism-based human interactions are affecting the overall health of this foraging population and to determine what potential health risks these interactions may create for sea turtles. Juvenile green sea turtles (n=29) were captured from four sites off the coast of Barbados, West Indies, and categorized into a group that received supplemental feeding as part of a tour (n=11) or an unsupplemented group (n=18) that consisted of individuals that were captured at sites that did not provide supplemental feeding. Following capture, a general health assessment of each animal was conducted. This included weight and morphometric measurements, a systematic physical examination, determination of body condition score and body condition index, epibiota assessment and quantification, and clinical pathology including hematologic and biochemical testing and nutritional assessments. The supplemented group was found to have changes to body condition, vitamin, mineral, hematologic, and biochemical values. Based on these results, recommendations were made to decrease negative behaviors and health impacts for turtles as a result

  17. The Ozobranchus leech is a candidate mechanical vector for the fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus found latently infecting skin tumors on Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) of marine turtles is a neoplastic disease of ecological concern. A fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (FPTHV) is consistently present, usually at loads exceeding one virus copy per tumor cell. DNA from an array of parasites of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) was examined with quantitative PCR (qPCR) to determine whether any carried viral loads are sufficient to implicate them as vectors for FPTHV. Marine leeches (Ozobranchus spp.) were found to carry high viral DNA loads; some samples approached 10 million copies per leech. Isopycnic sucrose density gradient/qPCR analysis confirmed that some of these copies were associated with particles of the density of enveloped viruses. The data implicate the marine leech Ozobranchus as a mechanical vector for FPTHV. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of FPTHV gene expression indicated that most of the FPTHV copies in a fibropapilloma have restricted DNA polymerase expression, suggestive of latent infection

  18. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: Genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Maíra Carneiro; Lara-Ruiz, Paula; Reisser, Júlia Wiener; da Silva Pinto, Luciano; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2009-07-01

    We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64%) and CM-A5 (22%) were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies (Rocas/Noronha, in Brazil (p > 0.05). Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively). These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species. PMID:21637527

  19. Hematological and histopathological evaluation of wildlife green turtles (Chelonia mydas with and without fibropapilloma from the north coast of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Ticiana Zwarg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood profiles were determined in 47 juvenile green turtles, Chelonia mydas, from São Paulo northern coast, Brazil. Twenty-nine were affected by fibropapillomas and 18 were tumor free. Complete gross and histopathologic examinations of the fibropapillo were performed in 21 green turtles. Biometrical data, size, location and amount of tumors were recorded. The papillomas varied in morphology, location, size, color and texture. We found hyperplastic stroma, rich in blood vessels and connective tissue with increase in thickness of the dermis. The tumors w0ere classified as papillomas or fibropapillomas according to their epithelial and/or stromal proliferation. The lowest Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (HCM values were observed in affected turtles.

  20. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes

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    Maíra Carneiro Proietti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64% and CM-A5 (22% were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies ( 0.05. Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively. These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species.

  1. The Ozobranchus leech as a mechanical vector for the fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpes virus found latently infecting skin tumors on Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, R.J.; Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.; Sutton, C.A.; Casey, R.N.; Casey, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) of marine turtles is a neoplastic disease of ecological concern. A fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (FPTHV) is consistently present, usually at loads exceeding one virus copy per tumor cell. DNA from an array of parasites of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) was examined with quantitative PCR (qPCR) to determine whether any carried viral loads are sufficient to implicate them as vectors for FPTHV. Marine leeches (Ozobranchus spp.) were found to carry high viral DNA loads; some samples approached 10 million copies per leech. Isopycnic sucrose density gradient/qPCR analysis confirmed that some of these copies were associated with particles of the density of enveloped viruses. The data implicate the marine leech Ozobranchus as a mechanical vector for FPTHV. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of FPTHV gene expression indicated that most of the FPTHV copies in a fibropapilloma have restricted DNA polymerase expression, suggestive of latent infection.

  2. Ingestion of solid wastes by juvenile green turtles, Chelonia mydas (L. 1758, in the eastern Rio de Janeiro state coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Rodrigues Awabdi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the solid wastes of anthropogenic origin obtained from the stomach contents of juvenile green turtles, Chelonia mydas, on the eastern Rio de Janeiro state coast, southeastern Brazil (22º50’S – 23º00’S. Between June 2009 and May 2010, the stomach contents of 49 specimens stranded on beaches were analyzed. Solid wastes were recorded in 29 stomach contents (59.2% and more than one category of wastes was found out in 22 samples. Plastic bags, categorized as flexible plastic materials, achieved the greatest occurrence frequency (96.5%. Perhaps, these wastes came from the disposal of garbage bags, raffia bags, commercial shop bags and various packaging. Wastes related to manufacture of fishing equipment were also often reported, such as nylon yarns, rubber, ropes, Styrofoam, and fishhooks. The region is an area of regular occurrence of C. mydas and the relatively large intake of solid wastes deposited in the environment poses a risk to the conservation of this species.

  3. Morfometria do coração e dos vasos da base e sua implicação no mergulho em Chelonia mydas

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    Janine K.F.S. Braz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se caracterizar a morfologia das câmaras cardíacas e das artérias aortas e pulmonares da espécie Chelonia mydas. Foram avaliados 11 espécimes de C. mydas mortas coletadas no litoral do estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Os animais foram necropsiados para a obtenção do coração, fragmentos das artérias aorta e pulmonares direita e esquerda. Os vasos adquiridos foram fixados em formol e submetidos ao processamento histológico de rotina e coloração com Técnica de Verhoff modificada. Enquanto, do coração, os parâmetros largura, altura base-ápice e a circunferência ventricular foram mensurados por meio do paquímetro. Nessa espécie a microscopia das artérias pulmonares e artérias aortas variaram de acordo com o antímero. A maior espessura relativa do Cavum Venosum (CV auxilia no bombeamento cardíaco durante o mergulho e sua menor espessura direita é uma vantagem para a dilatação ventricular durante a imersão profunda enquanto que a quantificação das lâminas elásticas e fibras musculares da túnica média das artérias aortas e pulmonares direita e esquerda comprovaram que a túnica média das aortas predomina o componente elástico vs. muscular, entretanto, nas artérias pulmonares o componente elástico não-predomina. Essa angioarquitetura pode estar relacionada com a capacidade de mergulho, favorecendo um maior aproveitamento do sangue oxigenado armazenado previamente durante o período de apneia.

  4. Growth-related changes in histology and immunolocalization of steroid hormone receptors in gonads of the immature male green turtle (Chelonia mydas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Saori; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Kamezaki, Naoki; Shima, Tatsuya; Wakatsuki, Motoki; Kon, Yasuhiro; Ohtaishi, Noriyuki

    2008-03-01

    Studies on the population dynamics of sea turtles require histological evaluation of the ontogenetic development and the activity of the gonads for reproduction. To investigate the growth-related changes of gonads in the immature male green turtle (Chelonia mydas), the histological changes of testes and epididymides and the localization of the androgen receptor, estrogen receptor alpha, estrogen receptor beta, and progesterone receptor were examined. The testes were categorized histologically into six developmental stages, and a scarce relationship between straight carapace length and gonadal development was confirmed based on the histological analysis. Several kinds of steroid hormone receptors were examined to show distributions in both testes and epididymides, for which their immunoreactivities were enhanced according to the developmental stage of the testes. These results suggest that straight carapace length is not an adequate indicator of maturity determination, whereas histological and immunohistochemical evaluations are useful in identifying the growth stages of green turtles, owing to the higher sensitivity to steroid hormones that appear during growth.

  5. Analysis of epibiont data in relation with the Debilitated Turtle Syndrome of sea turtles in Chelonia mydas and Lepidochelys olivacea from Concepción coast, Chile

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    Italo Fernández

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Epibionts on the surface of the skin and shell of a specimen of Chelonia mydas and three Lepidochelys olivacea found floating on the coast of Concepción, Chile, between June 2010 and December 2012, were analyzed. These epibionts were analyzed during the clinical inspection and the tissue changes related to its settlement, with filamentous algae around, were observed. Subsequently, the epibionts were identified by morphological observation. The knowledge about theses epibionts in Chile is reviewed and the potential occurrence of Debilitated Turtle Syndrome (DTS in these turtles is discussed. The presence of sea turtles in the Chilean coast is considered a casual event, so there is little information on this issue. We propose it is necessary to carry out more studies on the association between turtles and epibionts because their identification, colonizing reptiles’ surface may give relevant information to a better understanding of different diseases, including DTS, that affect these marine reptiles and facilitates the development of strategies intended to recover their populations.

  6. Identification of a small, naked virus in tumor-like aggregates in cell lines derived from a green turtle, Chelonia mydas, with fibropapillomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Aguirre, A.A.; Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Nerurkar, V.R.; Yanagihara, R.

    2000-01-01

    Serial cultivation of cell lines derived from lung, testis, periorbital and tumor tissues of a green turtle (Chelonia mydas) with fibropapillomas resulted in the in vitro formation of tumor-like cell aggregates, ranging in size from 0.5 to 2.0 mm in diameter. Successful induction of tumor-like aggregates was achieved in a cell line derived from lung tissue of healthy green turtles, following inoculation with cell-free media from these tumor-bearing cell lines, suggesting the presence of a transmissible agent. Thin-section electron microscopy of the cell aggregates revealed massive collagen deposits and intranuclear naked viral particles, measuring 50??5 nm in diameter. These findings, together with the morphological similarity between these tumor-like cell aggregates and the naturally occurring tumor, suggest a possible association between this novel virus and the disease. Further characterization of this small naked virus will clarify its role in etiology of green turtle fibropapilloma, a life-threatening disease of this endangered marine species. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  7. [Gonadic histology and phenotypical maturation criteria in the marine turtles Chelonia mydas and Eretmochelys imbricata (Testudines: Chelonidae) from Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Emir; Ruiz, Ariel; Espinosa, Georgina; Lee, Idania

    2010-03-01

    Gonad maturity is usually evaluated through macroscopic analysis of the gonads. In sea turtles, the maturation stages are associated with body size, depending on the studied marine stock. Fishermen classify turtles bigger than 65.0 cm as sexually mature. If they have secondary sex characters they are recorded as breeding males. We compared body size with macroscopic and microscopic gonad characteristics in two Cuban turtles. Eighteen individuals of C. mydas and twenty of E. imbricata was obtained from the legal fishery stock of Jardines del Rey Archipelago (Cuba), from October 2005 and 2006. In males, breeding condition (maximum spermiogenesis) was checked by histological analysis of the testes. In females, sexual maturity was identified by the presence of vitellogenic follicles or ovarian corpora. Most males were immature (C. mydas: 79.0 cm; E. imbricata: 73.1+/-4.9 cm, n=3) and lacked secondary sex characters. Some E. imbricata without a developed penis were in spermatogenic stages II to IV (i.e. pubescent). Most females were immature (C. mydas: 79.6+/-7.7 cm, n=17; E. imbricata: 69.0+/-7.1 cm, n=16; i.e.prepubescent and pubescent. The prepubescent females had ovaries with previtellogenic follicles near 1.0 mm in a compact and yellowish stroma. The pubescent females had ovaries with previtellogenic follicles between 2.0 and 3.0 mm. The stroma was more loosened and irrigated than in prepubescent turtles. The finding of spermatogenic activity in pubescent males indicates asynchrony between testicular and penial development in E. imbricata. The current phenotypical approach used by fishermen is not enough to determine sexual maturation in these turtles. The minimal size tentatively should be changed to: C. mydas: above 93.0 cm and E. imbricata above 79.0 cm.

  8. Concentrations and distributions of metals in tissues of stranded green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cinthia Carneiro; Varela, Antonio Sergio; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Bianchini, Adalto

    2014-01-01

    Silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were analyzed in tissues of juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) found stranded along the southern Atlantic coast in Brazil. Green sea turtles were collected (n=29), measured (curved carapace length: CCL) and had their muscle, liver, and kidney dissected for metal concentration measurements. Sex was identified in 18 individuals (10 females and 8 males) through gonad histology. No gender differences in CCL and tissue metal concentrations were observed. In the muscle, there was a negative correlation between CCL and Cd and Cu concentrations. Metal concentrations were lower in the muscle than in the liver and kidney. Zn concentration in the muscle was the highest of all metals analyzed (16.6 mg/kg). The kidney showed the highest concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn (5.4, 28.3 and 54.3 mg/kg, respectively), while the liver had the highest values of Ag and Cu (0.8 and 100.9 mg/kg, respectively). Tissue Ag, Zn and Cd concentrations were similar to those found in green sea turtles from other regions while Cu and Pb values were elevated, likely due to the metal-rich water and sediment reported in the collection area. In the liver and kidney, concentrations of non-essential (Ag, Cd and Pb) and essential (Cu or Zn) metals were positively correlated, likely due to an induced metallothionein synthesis to protect tissue against the toxic effect of metals. This is the first study to report and correlate the concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in tissues of green sea turtles in the Brazilian southern Atlantic coast, an important feeding and developing area for this turtle species.

  9. Monitoring organic and inorganic pollutants in juvenile live sea turtles: results from a study of Chelonia mydas and Eretmochelys imbricata in Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D; Orós, Jorge; López, Pedro; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2014-05-15

    Despite the current environmental concern regarding the risk posed by contamination in marine ecosystems, the concentrations of pollutants in sea turtles have not been thoroughly elucidated. In the current study, we determined the concentrations of 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 11 inorganic elements (Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, As, Al, Hg and Se) for the first time in two sea turtle species (Chelonia mydas and Eretmochelys imbricata). Only five of the 18 analyzed OCPs were detected in both species. The average total OCP concentration was higher in green turtles than in hawksbills (0.33 ng/ml versus 0.20 ng/ml). Higher concentrations of individual congeners and total PCBs were also detected in green turtles than in hawksbills (∑PCBs=0.73ng/ml versus 0.19 ng/ml), and different PCB contamination profiles were observed in these two species. Concerning PAHs, we also observed a different contamination profile and higher levels of contamination in green turtles (∑PAHs=12.06 ng/ml versus 2.95 ng/ml). Di- and tri-cyclic PAHs were predominant in both populations, suggesting a petrogenic origin, rather than urban sources of PAHs. Additionally, all of the samples exhibited detectable levels of the 11 inorganic elements. In this case, we also observed relevant differences between both species. Thus, Zn was the most abundant inorganic element in hawksbills (an essential inorganic element), whereas Ni, a well-known toxicant, was the most abundant inorganic element in green turtles. The presence of contaminants is greater in green turtles relative to hawksbill turtles, suggesting a greater exposure to hazardous chemical contaminants for green turtles. These results provide baseline data for these species that can serve for future monitoring purposes outlined in the EU's Marine Strategy Framework Directive. PMID:24602915

  10. Dispersal and Diving Adjustments of the Green Turtle Chelonia mydas in Response to Dynamic Environmental Conditions during Post-Nesting Migration.

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    Philippine Chambault

    Full Text Available In response to seasonality and spatial segregation of resources, sea turtles undertake long journeys between their nesting sites and foraging grounds. While satellite tracking has made it possible to outline their migration routes, we still have little knowledge of how they select their foraging grounds and adapt their migration to dynamic environmental conditions. Here, we analyzed the trajectories and diving behavior of 19 adult green turtles (Chelonia mydas during their post-nesting migration from French Guiana and Suriname to their foraging grounds off the coast of Brazil. First Passage Time analysis was used to identify foraging areas located off Ceará state of Brazil, where the associated habitat corresponds to favorable conditions for seagrass growth, i.e. clear and shallow waters. The dispersal and diving patterns of the turtles revealed several behavioral adaptations to the strong hydrodynamic processes induced by both the North Brazil current and the Amazon River plume. All green turtles migrated south-eastward after the nesting season, confirming that they coped with the strong counter North Brazil current by using a tight corridor close to the shore. The time spent within the Amazon plume also altered the location of their feeding habitats as the longer individuals stayed within the plume, the sooner they initiated foraging. The green turtles performed deeper and shorter dives while crossing the mouth of the Amazon, a strategy which would help turtles avoid the most turbulent upper surface layers of the plume. These adjustments reveal the remarkable plasticity of this green turtle population when reducing energy costs induced by migration.

  11. Fast growing, healthy and resident green turtles (Chelonia mydas at two neritic sites in the central and northern coast of Peru: implications for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Velez-Zuazo

    Full Text Available In order to enhance protection and conservation strategies for endangered green turtles (Chelonia mydas, the identification of neritic habitats where this species aggregates is mandatory. Herein, we present new information about the population parameters and residence time of two neritic aggregations from 2010 to 2013; one in an upwelling dominated site (Paracas ∼14°S and the other in an ecotone zone from upwelling to warm equatorial conditions (El Ñuro ∼4°S in the Southeast Pacific. We predicted proportionally more adult individuals would occur in the ecotone site; whereas in the site dominated by an upwelling juvenile individuals would predominate. At El Ñuro, the population was composed by (15.3% of juveniles, (74.9% sub-adults, and (9.8% adults, with an adult sex ratio of 1.16 males per female. Times of residence in the area ranged between a minimum of 121 and a maximum of 1015 days (mean 331.1 days. At Paracas the population was composed by (72% of juveniles and (28% sub-adults, no adults were recorded, thus supporting the development habitat hypothesis stating that throughout the neritic distribution there are sites exclusively occupied by juveniles. Residence time ranged between a minimum of 65 days and a maximum of 680 days (mean 236.1. High growth rates and body condition index values were estimated suggesting healthy individuals at both study sites. The population traits recorded at both sites suggested that conditions found in Peruvian neritic waters may contribute to the recovery of South Pacific green turtles. However, both aggregations are still at jeopardy due to pollution, bycatch and illegal catch and thus require immediate enforcing of conservation measurements.

  12. Dispersal and Diving Adjustments of the Green Turtle Chelonia mydas in Response to Dynamic Environmental Conditions during Post-Nesting Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambault, Philippine; Pinaud, David; Vantrepotte, Vincent; Kelle, Laurent; Entraygues, Mathieu; Guinet, Christophe; Berzins, Rachel; Bilo, Karin; Gaspar, Philippe; de Thoisy, Benoît; Le Maho, Yvon; Chevallier, Damien

    2015-01-01

    In response to seasonality and spatial segregation of resources, sea turtles undertake long journeys between their nesting sites and foraging grounds. While satellite tracking has made it possible to outline their migration routes, we still have little knowledge of how they select their foraging grounds and adapt their migration to dynamic environmental conditions. Here, we analyzed the trajectories and diving behavior of 19 adult green turtles (Chelonia mydas) during their post-nesting migration from French Guiana and Suriname to their foraging grounds off the coast of Brazil. First Passage Time analysis was used to identify foraging areas located off Ceará state of Brazil, where the associated habitat corresponds to favorable conditions for seagrass growth, i.e. clear and shallow waters. The dispersal and diving patterns of the turtles revealed several behavioral adaptations to the strong hydrodynamic processes induced by both the North Brazil current and the Amazon River plume. All green turtles migrated south-eastward after the nesting season, confirming that they coped with the strong counter North Brazil current by using a tight corridor close to the shore. The time spent within the Amazon plume also altered the location of their feeding habitats as the longer individuals stayed within the plume, the sooner they initiated foraging. The green turtles performed deeper and shorter dives while crossing the mouth of the Amazon, a strategy which would help turtles avoid the most turbulent upper surface layers of the plume. These adjustments reveal the remarkable plasticity of this green turtle population when reducing energy costs induced by migration. PMID:26398528

  13. Monitoring organic and inorganic pollutants in juvenile live sea turtles: results from a study of Chelonia mydas and Eretmochelys imbricata in Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D; Orós, Jorge; López, Pedro; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2014-05-15

    Despite the current environmental concern regarding the risk posed by contamination in marine ecosystems, the concentrations of pollutants in sea turtles have not been thoroughly elucidated. In the current study, we determined the concentrations of 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 11 inorganic elements (Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, As, Al, Hg and Se) for the first time in two sea turtle species (Chelonia mydas and Eretmochelys imbricata). Only five of the 18 analyzed OCPs were detected in both species. The average total OCP concentration was higher in green turtles than in hawksbills (0.33 ng/ml versus 0.20 ng/ml). Higher concentrations of individual congeners and total PCBs were also detected in green turtles than in hawksbills (∑PCBs=0.73ng/ml versus 0.19 ng/ml), and different PCB contamination profiles were observed in these two species. Concerning PAHs, we also observed a different contamination profile and higher levels of contamination in green turtles (∑PAHs=12.06 ng/ml versus 2.95 ng/ml). Di- and tri-cyclic PAHs were predominant in both populations, suggesting a petrogenic origin, rather than urban sources of PAHs. Additionally, all of the samples exhibited detectable levels of the 11 inorganic elements. In this case, we also observed relevant differences between both species. Thus, Zn was the most abundant inorganic element in hawksbills (an essential inorganic element), whereas Ni, a well-known toxicant, was the most abundant inorganic element in green turtles. The presence of contaminants is greater in green turtles relative to hawksbill turtles, suggesting a greater exposure to hazardous chemical contaminants for green turtles. These results provide baseline data for these species that can serve for future monitoring purposes outlined in the EU's Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  14. Metal contamination as a possible etiology of fibropapillomatosis in juvenile female green sea turtles Chelonia mydas from the southern Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cinthia Carneiro; Klein, Roberta Daniele; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Bianchini, Adalto

    2016-01-01

    Environmental contaminants have been suggested as a possible cause of fibropapillomatosis (FP) in green sea turtles. In turn, a reduced concentration of serum cholesterol has been indicated as a reliable biomarker of malignancy in vertebrates, including marine turtles. In the present study, metal (Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn) concentrations, oxidative stress parameters [antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), protein carbonyls (PC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), frequency of micronucleated cells (FMC)], water content, cholesterol concentration and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity were analyzed in the blood/serum of juvenile (29.3-59.5cm) female green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) with FP (n=14) and without FP (n=13) sampled at Ubatuba coast (São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil). Green sea turtles were grouped and analyzed according to the severity of tumors. Individuals heavily afflicted with FP showed significantly higher blood Cu, Pb and Fe concentrations, blood LPO levels, as well as significantly lower serum cholesterol concentrations and HMGR activity than turtles without FP. Significant and positive correlations were observed between HMGR activity and cholesterol concentrations, as well as LPO levels and Fe and Pb concentrations. In turn, Cu and Pb concentrations were significantly and negatively correlated with HMGR activity and cholesterol concentration. Furthermore, Cu, Fe and Pb were positively correlated with each other. Therefore, the reduced concentration of serum cholesterol observed in green sea turtles heavily afflicted with FP is related to a Cu- and Pb-induced inhibition of HMGR activity paralleled by a higher LPO rate induced by increased Fe and Pb concentrations. As oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of viral infections, our findings support the idea that metal contamination, especially by Cu, Fe and Pb, may be implicated in the etiology of FP in green sea turtles through oxidative stress

  15. Habitat use of breeding green turtles Chelonia mydas tagged in Dry Tortugas National Park: Making use of local and regional MPAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen; Zawada, David G.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lidz, Barbara H.

    2013-01-01

    Use of existing marine protected areas (MPAs) by far-ranging marine turtles can be determined using satellite telemetry. Because of a lack of information on MPA use by marine turtles in the Gulf of Mexico, we used satellite transmitters in 2010 and 2011 to track movements of 11 adult female breeding green turtles (Chelonia mydas) tagged in Dry Tortugas National Park (DRTO), in the Gulf of Mexico, south Florida, USA. Throughout the study period, turtles emerged every 9–18 days to nest. During the intervals between nesting episodes (i.e., inter-nesting periods), the turtles consistently used a common core-area within the DRTO boundary, determined using individual 50% kernel-density estimates (KDEs). We mapped the area in DRTO where individual turtle 50% KDEs overlapped using the USGS Along-Track Reef-Imaging System, and determined the diversity and distribution of various benthic-cover types within the mapped area. We also tracked turtles post-nesting as they transited to foraging sites 5–282 km away from tagging beaches; these sites were located both within DRTO and in the surrounding area of the Florida Keys and Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), a regional MPA. Year-round residency of 9 out of 11 individuals (82%) both within DRTO and in the FKNMS represents novel non-migratory behavior, which offers an opportunity for conservation of this imperiled species at both local and regional scales. These data comprise the first satellite-tracking results on adult nesting green turtles at this remote study site. Additional tracking could reveal whether the distinct inter-nesting and foraging sites delineated here will be repeatedly used in the future by these and other breeding green turtles.

  16. Molecular Characterization of Coccidia Associated with an Epizootic in Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas in South East Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoebe A Chapman

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2014, mass mortalities among wild green sea turtles occurred off the coast of south-east Queensland, Australia. The suspected causative agent was Caryospora cheloniae, an eimeriid coccidian implicated in previous epizootics. Necropsies were undertaken on a subset of 11 dead turtles, with subsequent histopathology and molecular analyses. All turtles returned positive PCR results for coccidial infection in various tissues; these included the brain, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and thyroid. Granulomatous encephalitis was consistently observed, as well as enteritis and, less frequently, thyroiditis and nephritis. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of two distinct coccidian genotypes, presumably separate species-one associated with the brain, gastrointestinal tract and lung, and the second with the thyroid and kidney. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses placed the first genotype closest to the lankesterellid genus Schellackia, rather than in the Eimeriidae, while the second was paraphyletic to the eimeriids. Presence of coccidial stages in extra-intestinal tissues of the primary host raises questions about the potential presence of intermediate or paratenic hosts within the life cycles, as well as their current placement relative to the genus Caryospora. This study represents the first genetic characterization of this emerging disease agent in green sea turtles, an endangered species, and has relevance for life-cycle elucidation and future development of diagnostics.

  17. Molecular Characterization of Coccidia Associated with an Epizootic in Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South East Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Phoebe A; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Traub, Rebecca J; Cribb, Thomas H; Mills, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, mass mortalities among wild green sea turtles occurred off the coast of south-east Queensland, Australia. The suspected causative agent was Caryospora cheloniae, an eimeriid coccidian implicated in previous epizootics. Necropsies were undertaken on a subset of 11 dead turtles, with subsequent histopathology and molecular analyses. All turtles returned positive PCR results for coccidial infection in various tissues; these included the brain, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and thyroid. Granulomatous encephalitis was consistently observed, as well as enteritis and, less frequently, thyroiditis and nephritis. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of two distinct coccidian genotypes, presumably separate species-one associated with the brain, gastrointestinal tract and lung, and the second with the thyroid and kidney. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses placed the first genotype closest to the lankesterellid genus Schellackia, rather than in the Eimeriidae, while the second was paraphyletic to the eimeriids. Presence of coccidial stages in extra-intestinal tissues of the primary host raises questions about the potential presence of intermediate or paratenic hosts within the life cycles, as well as their current placement relative to the genus Caryospora. This study represents the first genetic characterization of this emerging disease agent in green sea turtles, an endangered species, and has relevance for life-cycle elucidation and future development of diagnostics.

  18. Concentrations and distributions of metals in tissues of stranded green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the southern Atlantic coast of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Silva, Cinthia Carneiro [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Varela, Antonio Sergio; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda [Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Bianchini, Adalto, E-mail: adaltobianchini@furg.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Itália km 8, 96203-900, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    Silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations were analyzed in tissues of juvenile green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) found stranded along the southern Atlantic coast in Brazil. Green sea turtles were collected (n = 29), measured (curved carapace length: CCL) and had their muscle, liver, and kidney dissected for metal concentration measurements. Sex was identified in 18 individuals (10 females and 8 males) through gonad histology. No gender differences in CCL and tissue metal concentrations were observed. In the muscle, there was a negative correlation between CCL and Cd and Cu concentrations. Metal concentrations were lower in the muscle than in the liver and kidney. Zn concentration in the muscle was the highest of all metals analyzed (16.6 mg/kg). The kidney showed the highest concentrations of Pb, Cd and Zn (5.4, 28.3 and 54.3 mg/kg, respectively), while the liver had the highest values of Ag and Cu (0.8 and 100.9 mg/kg, respectively). Tissue Ag, Zn and Cd concentrations were similar to those found in green sea turtles from other regions while Cu and Pb values were elevated, likely due to the metal-rich water and sediment reported in the collection area. In the liver and kidney, concentrations of non-essential (Ag, Cd and Pb) and essential (Cu or Zn) metals were positively correlated, likely due to an induced metallothionein synthesis to protect tissue against the toxic effect of metals. This is the first study to report and correlate the concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in tissues of green sea turtles in the Brazilian southern Atlantic coast, an important feeding and developing area for this turtle species. - Highlights: •Juvenile female and male green sea turtles have similar concentrations of metals. •Kidney accumulated more Cd, Pb and Zn while liver accumulated more Ag and Cu. •Cu and Pb concentrations are elevated in liver of sea turtles from southern Brazil. •Concentrations of Cd and Cu in

  19. Microstructure and Identification of Peripheral Blood in Chelonia mydas%绿海龟外周血细胞显微结构与分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长玲; 曹伏君; 黄翔鹄; 刘楚吾; 麦哲文

    2008-01-01

    对绿海龟(Chelonia mydas)外周血细胞的进行显微观察.结果表明,经Wright's染液染色,可鉴定出红血细胞、单核细胞、淋巴细胞、血栓细胞、嗜酸性粒细胞、嗜碱性粒细胞、嗜中性粒细胞等七种血细胞.其中红血细胞数量多,长椭圆形,具圆核.白细胞数量少,多为圆形,分无颗粒型白细胞和颗粒型白细胞两种.无颗粒型白细胞包括单核细胞和淋巴细胞,细胞质中无特殊颗粒;颗粒型白细胞包括嗜酸性粒细胞、嗜碱性粒细胞和嗜中性粒细胞,细胞质中具有特殊颗粒.在白血细胞中,血栓细胞体积最小,单核细胞体积最大;在数量上,血栓细胞最多,淋巴细胞次之.单核细胞和嗜碱性粒细胞则较少.绿海龟的淋巴细胞可分为大淋巴细胞和小淋巴细胞两种类型.在外周血细胞中可观察到分解、解体状态的红血细胞,还可观察到少量未成熟的红血细胞和嗜中性粒细胞,偶尔可见正在分裂的红血细胞,提示红血细胞也可在外周血直接分裂.

  20. Distribution patterns of the barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria, on juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas in Bahia Magdalena, Mexico Patrones de distribución del balano, Chelonibia testudinaria, en tortugas verdes (Chelonia mydas juveniles en bahía Magdalena, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Nájera-Hillman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The barnacle, Chelonibia testudinaria, is an obligate commensal of sea turtles that may show population variability according to the physical characteristics of the environment and properties of turtle hosts; therefore, we characterized the distributional patterns and the potential effects on health of C. testudinaria on juvenile green turtles in Bahia Magdalena, Mexico. Barnacle attachment position, abundance, and size-class structure were described, while the relationship between barnacle abundance and turtle health condition and size was explored through generalized linear models. Juvenile green turtles of Bahía Magdalena offered an appropriate habitat for C. testudinaria as their frequency of occurrence was high and their abundance was similar to that found in other green turtle populations. Barnacles showed an aggregated distribution that may be facilitating their reproduction during the warm summer months. Barnacle abundance is unaffected by turtle size or seasonality, while their attachment position appears to be influenced by water flow over the turtle carapace and by plastron abrasion by the turtle against the sea floor. Healthier turtles exhibited a decreased barnacle load; therefore we suggest that C. testudinaria abundance may be a useful indicator of health for juvenile green turtles.El balano Chelonibia testudinaria es un comensal obligado de tortugas marinas que puede presentar variaciones poblacionales de acuerdo a características ambientales y de las tortugas que coloniza; por lo tanto, caracterizamos su distribución y el efecto sobre la salud de tortugas verdes (Chelonia mydas juveniles en bahía Magdalena, México. Se describieron la posición de adherencia, la abundancia y la estructura de tallas de C. testudinaria, mientras que la relación entre su abundancia y la salud y el tamaño de las tortugas se exploró a través de modelos lineales generalizados. Las tortugas verdes ofrecieron un hábitat adecuado para C

  1. Development and validation of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of total plasma immunoglobulins in healthy loggerhead sea (Caretta caretta) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Amy J; Stacy, Nicole I; Jacobson, Elliott; Le-Bert, Carolina R; Nollens, Hendrik H; Origgi, Francesco C; Green, Linda G; Bootorabi, Shadi; Bolten, Alan; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    The quantification of circulating plasma immunoglobulins represents a valuable diagnostic tool in human and veterinary immunology, although its application is very limited in reptile medicine to date. The objectives of our study were the development and standardization of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for the measurement of total plasma immunoglobulins (Igs; both IgM and IgY) in loggerhead sea turtles (LST; Caretta caretta; n = 254) and green turtles (GT; Chelonia mydas; n = 111), the establishment of reference intervals for Ig for both species, and the examination of associations between Ig and total protein (TP), condition index, and water temperature. The cELISA for Ig was successfully developed and optimized. Reference intervals for Ig were 0.38-0.94 g/dL in LST (median: 0.59 g/dL; range: 0.16-2.15 g/dL) and 0.40-0.85 g/dL in GT (median: 0.58 g/dL; range: 0.18-1.80 g/dL). In LST, there were positive linear relationships of Ig with TP, and TP with Ig and condition index, and a negative relationship of Ig with condition index. The positive linear relationships of Ig with TP, and TP with Ig were also identified in GT. These positive associations of Ig and TP were expected, as Ig represents fractions of TP, and TP reportedly increases with straight carapace length and weight. The negative association of Ig with condition index may indicate potential biological variations. The cELISA and reference intervals for total Ig of LST and GT presented herein have the potential to be useful as a diagnostic and research tool for sea turtle immunology.

  2. Contribución al conocimiento de los hábitos alimenticios de Lepidochelys olivacea y Chelonia mydas agassizi (Reptilia, Cheloniidae en el Pacífico Mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Casas-Andreu

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study on the feeding habits of L. olivacea and C. mydas agassizi from the Pacific coast, located at 19ºN and 105ºW, are presented. A preference for feeding on crustacea was observed on L. olivacea, proving to be essentially a carnivorous specie. In the case of C. m. agassizi a certain balance between algae and animal feeding was appreciated, beeing the plants in a greater volume and animals more diversified. Related to animal preying C m. agassizi bucal structure, seems to be adapted toward the retention of animals captured with algae. Apparently there is no competition for food between both species,, given that L. olivacea feeds on organisms from sandy bottoms, while C. m, agassizi feeds on arrecifal or rocky bottoms.

  3. Serum gonadotropins and gonadal steroids associated with ovulation and egg production in sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbels, T; Owens, D W; Licht, P; Limpus, C; Reed, P C; Amoss, M S

    1992-07-01

    Changes in serum concentrations of gonadotropins and gonadal steroids during the periovulatory period were monitored in green, Chelonia mydas, and loggerhead, Caretta caretta, sea turtles. Turtles were from natural populations that nest on a coral island on the Great Barrier Reef. After nesting, each turtle was transferred to a holding tank and held for a maximum of 8 days. A time series of blood samples was obtained from each of five sea turtles (three C. mydas and two C. caretta) starting immediately after nesting and then at approximately 12-hr intervals until the time of release. Prior to release back into the ocean, each turtle was examined by laparoscopy to verify that ovulation had occurred. Serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone (PRO), and testosterone (T) in both species exhibited significant changes during this period. Surges of FSH, LH, and PRO were evident within approximately 20 to 50 hr after each turtle had nested. The significant change in FSH concentration during the periovulatory period is the first such report for a reptile. Coincident with maximal concentrations of FSH, LH, and PRO was a decline in T concentrations in both species. Estradiol-17 beta concentrations were near or below assay sensitivity in the C. mydas, whereas those in the C. caretta were detectable but exhibited no significant changes. The dynamic changes in FSH, LH, PRO, and T concentrations are consistent with the hypothesis that these hormones facilitate specific physiological events during ovulation and egg production.

  4. Levels of trace elements in green turtle eggs collected from Hong Kong: Evidence of risks due to selenium and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 22 trace elements were determined in green turtle (Chelonia mydas) eggs collected from Hong Kong. Concentrations of selenium, lead and nickel in these eggs were generally higher than those reported in other studies. The predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC; ng/g wet weight) of Pb (1000), Se (340 and 6000 for the worst-case and best-case scenarios, respectively) and Ni (17) in the green turtle eggs were estimated. Hazard quotients (HQs) estimate that Se (HQs: 0.2-24.5) and Ni (HQs: 4.0-26.4) may pose some risks to the turtles. Our study also found that concentrations of Ag, Se, Zn, Hg and Pb in the shell of the turtle eggs were significantly correlated with levels in the whole egg contents (yolk + albumen). Once the precise relationships of specific elements are established, egg-shell concentrations may be used as a non-lethal, non-invasive, surrogate for predicting whole egg burden of certain contaminants in marine turtles. - Concentrations of selenium and nickel in green turtle eggs from Hong Kong might pose some risks to the turtles

  5. Clutch and egg allometry of the turtle Mauremys leprosa (Chelonia: Geoemydidae) from a polluted peri-urban river in west-central Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Mohamed; Znari, Mohammed; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Feddadi, Youssef; Baamrane, Moulay Abdeljalil Ait

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationships of clutch size (CS) and egg size to female body size (straight-line carapace length, CL) in a population of the turtle Mauremys leprosa from a polluted segment of oued (river) Tensift in arid west-central Morocco. Twenty-eight adult females were collected in May–July, 2009 and all were gravid. Each was weighed, measured, humanely euthanized and then dissected. Oviductal shelled eggs were removed, weighed (egg mass, EM) and measured for length (EL) and width (EW). Clutch mass (CM) was the sum of EM for a clutch. Pelvic aperture width (PAW) was measured at the widest point between the ilia bones through which eggs must pass at oviposition. The smallest gravid female had a CL of 124.0 mm. Mean CS was relatively large (9.7±2.0 eggs, range: 3–13) and may reflect high productivity associated with polluted (eutrophic) waters. Regression analyses were conducted using log-transformed data. CM increased isometrically with maternal body size. CS, EW and EM were all significantly hypoallometric in their relationship with CL. EL did not change significantly with increases in CL. EW increased at a hypoallometric rate with increasing CL but was unconstrained by PAW since the widest egg was smaller than the narrowest PAW measurement when excluding the three smallest females. Smaller females may have EW constrained by PAW. As females increase in size they increase both clutch size and egg width in contradiction to predictions of optimal egg size theory.

  6. Analytical method for heavy metal determination in algae and turtle eggs from Guanahacabibes Protected Sea Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel I. Balbín Tamayo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A standard digestion method coupled to electrochemical detection for the monitoring of heavy metals in biological samples has been used for the simultaneous analysis of the target analytes. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV coupled to disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPEs was employed as a fast and sensitive electroanalytical method for the detection of heavy metals. The aim of our study was to determine Cd, Pb and Cu by SWASV in brown algae (Sargasum natan and green turtle eggs (Chelonia mydas using screen-printed electrodes. The method proved useful for the simultaneous analysis of these metals by comparison between two different procedures for preparing the samples. Two different approaches in digestion protocols were assessed. The study was focused on Guanahacabibes brown algae and green turtle eggs because the metal concentrations recorded in this area may be used for intraspecific comparison within the Guanahacabibes Protected Sea Park area, a body of water for which information is still very scarce. The best results were obtained by digesting biological samples with the EPA 3050B method. This treatment allowed the fast and quantitative extraction from brown algae and green turtle eggs of the target analytes, with high sensitivity and avoiding organic residues, eventually affecting electrochemical measurements.

  7. First record of a Caribbean green turtle (Chelonia mydas) grazing on invasive seagrass (Halophila stipulacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, L.E.; Bussel, T.; Debrot, A.O.; Christianen, M.

    2014-01-01

    From Bonaire, we here provide the first documented case of the green turtle feeding on the invasive seagrass, Halophila stipulacea, in the Caribbean. The seagrass is rapidly invading existing seagrass meadows and altering key foraging habitat of this endangered marine reptile throughout the eastern

  8. Genetic stock compositions and natal origin of green turtle (Chelonia mydas foraging at Brunei Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of genetics composition and growth stages of endangered green turtles, as well as the connectivity between nesting and foraging grounds is important for effective conservation. A total of 42 green turtles were captured at Brunei Bay with curved carapace length ranging from 43.8 to 102.0 cm, and most sampled individuals were adults and large juveniles. Twelve haplotypes were revealed in mitochondrial DNA control region sequences. Most haplotypes contained identical sequences to haplotypes previously found in rookeries in the Western Pacific, Southeast Asia, and the Indian Ocean. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity indices of the Brunei Bay were 0.8444±0.0390 and 0.009350±0.004964, respectively. Mixed-stock analysis (for both uninformative and informative prior weighting by population size estimated the main contribution from the Southeast Asian rookeries of the Sulu Sea (mean ≥45.31%, Peninsular Malaysia (mean ≥17.42%, and Sarawak (mean ≥12.46%. Particularly, contribution from the Sulu Sea rookery was estimated to be the highest and lower confidence intervals were more than zero (≥24.36%. When estimating contributions by region rather than individual rookeries, results showed that Brunei Bay was sourced mainly from the Southeast Asian rookeries. The results suggest an ontogenetic shift in foraging grounds and provide conservation implications for Southeast Asian green turtles.

  9. Ingestion of marine plastic debris by green turtle(Chelonia mydas) in davao gulf, Mindanao, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreo, Neil A.S.; Macusi, Edison D.; Blatchley, Darrell D.

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastic debris is a global problem that is threatening marine biodiversity. Different marine organisms have been exposed to the lethal and sub-lethal effects of this problem. Sub-lethal effects include reduced fitness due to reduced feeding, reduced reproductive output, limb amputation, an

  10. The respiratory epithelium of the lung in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, S E; Purton, M

    1984-01-01

    The chelonian lung exhibits reptilian, mammalian and avian features. The respiratory epithelium is typically vertebrate, i.e. pseudostratified columnar with cilia; gaseous exchange areas appear at all levels from the respiratory bronchi down to the alveoli. The latter are invested with a capillary network and both type I and type II cells are present. The possible functional significance of the distribution of collagen, elastic tissue, cartilage and smooth muscle is discussed.

  11. Performance and Stability of the Chelonia Storage Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, Jon K; Nagy, Zsombor; Mohn, Bjarte; Read, Alex L

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the Chelonia storage cloud middleware. It was designed to fill the requirements gap between those of large, sophisticated scientific collaborations which have adopted the grid paradigm for their distributed storage needs, and of corporate business communities which are gravitating towards the cloud paradigm. The similarities to and differences between Chelonia and several well-known grid- and cloud-based storage solutions are commented. The design of Chelonia has been chosen to optimize high reliability and scalability of an integrated system of heterogeneous, geographically dispersed storage sites and the ability to easily expand the system dynamically. The architecture and implementation in term of web-services running inside the Advanced Resource Connector Hosting Environment Dameon (ARC HED) are described. We present results of tests in both local-area and wide-area networks that demonstrate the fault-tolerance, stability and scalability of Chelonia.

  12. MtDNA Sequence Analysis of Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas) of the South China Sea%中国南海绿海龟(Chelonia mydas)线粒体DNA序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭昱嵩; 王中铎; 刘楚吾

    2009-01-01

    测定了南海海域绿海龟(Cheloniamydas)线粒体DNA的细胞色素b(Cyt b,EU918367,EU918368)和控制区(D-100p,EU918363、EU918364、EU918365、EU918366)的全序列以及细胞色素氧化酶Ⅰ(CO Ⅰ,EU600157、EU600158)5'端DNA标签序列.cyt b基因全序列和CO Ⅰ标签序列(DNAbarcode)与GenBank中的相应序列比对,确认样本均为绿海龟.D-loop区序列聚类分析显示中国南海绿海龟分别与中东太平洋、西南太平洋和印度洋的绿海龟存在较近的亲缘关系.

  13. Methods of Developing User-Friendly Keys to Identify Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas L.) from Photographs

    OpenAIRE

    Jane R. Lloyd; Miguel Á. Maldonado; Richard Stafford

    2012-01-01

    Identifying individual animals is important in understanding their ecology and behaviour, as well as providing estimates of population sizes for conservation efforts. We produce identification keys from photographs of green sea turtles to identify them while foraging in Akumal Bay, Mexico. We create three keys, which (a) minimise the length of the key, (b) present the most obvious differential characteristics first, and (c) remove the strict dichotomy from key b. Keys were capable of identify...

  14. IDENTIFIKASI SEKS RASIO TUKIK PENYU HIJAU (Chelonia mydas DAN PENYU BELIMBING (Dermochelys coriacea DI BERBAGAI PANTAI PENELURAN UTAMA DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI SUPRAPTI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex ratio is highly dependent on incubation temperature. The optimum temperature of 28 ° C - 30 ° C can result in sex ratio 1: 1. The high temperature will be produced predominantly female hatchlings, and vice versa. The incubation temperatures influenced by some environmental factors such as rainfall, air temperature, air humidity, sand temperature, sand humidity, sand type and vegetation. This research carried out at the Sukamade beach - East Java, Sangalaki island - East Kalimantan and Jamursba Medi beach - West Papua. Results showed the unbalanced sex ratio of sea turtle hatchlings in each of study area. The Sukamade beach generated 75% of male hatchlings in nests under vegetation, 100% female hatchlings in the nest on open beaches, and 87.5% male hatchlings in the hatchery. While the sex ratio of hatchlings produced on Sangalaki island are 100% male in nests under vegetation, 72.22% male hatchlings in the nest on open beaches and 94.44% male hatchlings in the hatchery. On the Jamursba Medi beach produced 90.9% male hatchlings from nests on open beaches. Based on correlation analysis, a significant correlation showed between sex ratio and incubation temperature with significance of 0.01. While there is no significance correlation showed between sex ratios by environmental factors, with significance of 0.942 for the air temperature variable, 0.340 for the air humidity, 0292 for amount of the rainfall, 0799 for the sand fraction, and 0.331 for the sand humidity. All of these significance are greater than 0.05.

  15. Specific accumulation of arsenic compounds in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from Ishigaki Island, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of total arsenic (As) and individual compounds were determined in green and hawksbill turtles from Ishigaki Island, Japan. In both species, total As concentrations were highest in muscle among the tissues. Arsenobetaine was a major compound in most tissues of both turtles. High concentrations of trimethylarsine oxide were detected in hawksbill turtles. A significant negative correlation between standard carapace length (SCL), an indicator of age, and total As levels in green turtles was found. In contrast, the levels increased with SCL of hawksbill turtles. Shifts in feeding habitats with growth may account for such a growth-dependent accumulation of As. Although concentrations of As in marine sponges, the major food of hawksbill turtles are not high compared to those in algae eaten by green turtles, As concentrations in hawksbill turtles were higher than those in green turtles, indicating that hawksbill turtles may have a specific accumulation mechanism for As. - Green turtles and hawksbill turtles have specific accumulation features of arsenic

  16. IDENTIFIKASI JEJARING PENGELOLAAN KONSERVASI PENYU HIJAU (Chelonia mydas MELALUI PENENTUAN KOMPOSISI GENETIK DAN METAL TAG DI LAUT SULU SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Kadek Dita Cahyani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The research used 51 tissue samples taken from 51 individual Green Turtles in Pulau Panjang, EastKalimantan. The isolation of mtDNA was achieved by adding Proteinase K into the samples prior to the utilization ofthe PCR (Polimerase Chain Reaction technique. The MEGA 3.1 computer program was employed to read the DNAsequences obtained through the PCR technique.Seven different haplotypes were identified from the analyzed samples. The haplotypes are: A3 (N=7; 13.73%,A4 (N=1; 1.96%, A6 (N=2; 3.92%, C3 (N=5; 9.80%, C5 (N=6; 11.76%, C14 (N=5; 9.80% dan D2 (N=25;49.02%. Tag findings clearly demonstrated that the Green Turtles, which feed on the seagrass beds of Pulau Panjang,originated in different nesting sites, including Sabah and Trengganu in Malaysia, Sangalaki and Derawan inIndonesia, and Phillipine. The MSA (Mixed Stock Analysis showed that the Green Turtles population in PulauPanjang was composed of several management units (nesting sites, which were Berau (47%, Sulu Sea (34% andMicronesia (6%.

  17. Specific accumulation of arsenic compounds in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from Ishigaki Island, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Takagi, Kozue [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kubota, Reiji [Division of Environmental Chemistry, National Institute of Health Sciences, Kamiyoga 1-18-1, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Anan, Yasumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2008-05-15

    Concentrations of total arsenic (As) and individual compounds were determined in green and hawksbill turtles from Ishigaki Island, Japan. In both species, total As concentrations were highest in muscle among the tissues. Arsenobetaine was a major compound in most tissues of both turtles. High concentrations of trimethylarsine oxide were detected in hawksbill turtles. A significant negative correlation between standard carapace length (SCL), an indicator of age, and total As levels in green turtles was found. In contrast, the levels increased with SCL of hawksbill turtles. Shifts in feeding habitats with growth may account for such a growth-dependent accumulation of As. Although concentrations of As in marine sponges, the major food of hawksbill turtles are not high compared to those in algae eaten by green turtles, As concentrations in hawksbill turtles were higher than those in green turtles, indicating that hawksbill turtles may have a specific accumulation mechanism for As. - Green turtles and hawksbill turtles have specific accumulation features of arsenic.

  18. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism for the Identification of Spirorchiid Ova in Tissues from the Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Phoebe A; Traub, Rebecca J; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat T; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Cribb, Thomas H; Mills, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    Blood flukes are among the most common disease causing pathogens infecting vertebrates, including humans and some of the world's most globally endangered fauna. Spirorchiid blood flukes are parasites of marine turtles, and are associated with pathology, strandings and mortalities worldwide. Their ova embolize in tissues and incite significant inflammatory responses, however attempts to draw correlations between species and lesions are frustrated by difficulties in identifying ova beyond the genus level. In this study, a newly developed terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) method was validated as a tool for differentiating between mixed spirorchiid ova in turtle tissue. Initially, a multiplex PCR was used to differentiate between the five genera of spirorchiid flukes. Following this, PCR was performed using genus/genera-specific fluorescently tagged primer pairs and PCR products digested analysis using restriction endonucleases. Using capillary electrophoresis, this T-RFLP method could differentiate between twelve species and genotypes of spirorchiid flukes in turtles. It was applied to 151 tissue samples and successfully identified the spirorchiid species present. It was found to be more sensitive than visual diagnosis, detecting infections in 28 of 32 tissues that were negative on histology. Spirorchiids were present in 96.7% of tissues tested, with Neospirorchis genotype 2 being the most prevalent, present in 93% of samples. Mixed infections were common, being present in 60.7% of samples tested. The method described here is, to our knowledge, the first use of the T-RFLP technique on host tissues or in an animal ecology context, and describes a significant advancement in the clinical capacity to diagnose a common cause of illness in our environment. It is proven as a sensitive, specific and cost-efficient means of identifying spirorchiid flukes and ova in turtles, with the potential to contribute valuable information to epidemiological and pathological studies as well as future diagnostics for this poorly understood disease.

  19. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism for the Identification of Spirorchiid Ova in Tissues from the Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Phoebe A; Traub, Rebecca J; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat T; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Cribb, Thomas H; Mills, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    Blood flukes are among the most common disease causing pathogens infecting vertebrates, including humans and some of the world's most globally endangered fauna. Spirorchiid blood flukes are parasites of marine turtles, and are associated with pathology, strandings and mortalities worldwide. Their ova embolize in tissues and incite significant inflammatory responses, however attempts to draw correlations between species and lesions are frustrated by difficulties in identifying ova beyond the genus level. In this study, a newly developed terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) method was validated as a tool for differentiating between mixed spirorchiid ova in turtle tissue. Initially, a multiplex PCR was used to differentiate between the five genera of spirorchiid flukes. Following this, PCR was performed using genus/genera-specific fluorescently tagged primer pairs and PCR products digested analysis using restriction endonucleases. Using capillary electrophoresis, this T-RFLP method could differentiate between twelve species and genotypes of spirorchiid flukes in turtles. It was applied to 151 tissue samples and successfully identified the spirorchiid species present. It was found to be more sensitive than visual diagnosis, detecting infections in 28 of 32 tissues that were negative on histology. Spirorchiids were present in 96.7% of tissues tested, with Neospirorchis genotype 2 being the most prevalent, present in 93% of samples. Mixed infections were common, being present in 60.7% of samples tested. The method described here is, to our knowledge, the first use of the T-RFLP technique on host tissues or in an animal ecology context, and describes a significant advancement in the clinical capacity to diagnose a common cause of illness in our environment. It is proven as a sensitive, specific and cost-efficient means of identifying spirorchiid flukes and ova in turtles, with the potential to contribute valuable information to epidemiological and pathological studies as well as future diagnostics for this poorly understood disease. PMID:27579605

  20. Clinical and Pathological Findings in Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Gladstone, Queensland: Investigations of a Stranding Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Mark; Eden, Paul A; Limpus, Colin J; Owen, Helen; Gaus, Caroline; Mills, Paul C

    2015-06-01

    An investigation into the health of green turtles was undertaken near Gladstone, Queensland, in response to a dramatic increase in stranding numbers in the first half of 2011. A total of 56 live turtles were subject to clinical examination and blood sampling for routine blood profiles, and 12 deceased turtles underwent a thorough necropsy examination. This population of green turtles was found to be in poor body condition and a range of infectious and non-infectious conditions were identified in the unhealthy turtles, including hepato-renal insufficiency (up to 81%, 27/33 based on clinical pathology), cachexia (92%, 11/12), parasitism (75%, 9/12), cardiopulmonary anomalies (42%, 5/12), gastroenteritis (25%, 3/12), masses (25%, 3/12) and mechanical impediments (17%, 2/12 based on necropsy). Overall, there was no evidence to indicate a unifying disease as a primary cause of the mass mortality. Recent adverse weather events, historic regional contamination and nearby industrial activities are discussed as potential causative factors. PMID:25256011

  1. Effects of Environmental Parameters on Bacterial Levels in Seawater from Juvenile Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas kept in Captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Chuen-Im

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infection is a major cause of high mortality in juvenile sea turtles at the Sea Turtle Conservation Centre, Chonburi Province, Thailand.The attempt is to identify sources of bacterial accumulation and contamination in order to reduce the number of infections. The aim of thisstudy was to determine the effects of live rocks and captivity parameters on microbiological water quality. Microbiological results indicated that the presence of live rocks in juvenile green turtle containers resulted in a reduction of haemolytic bacteria in seawater. Additionally, thehigh stock density of animals in the captivity has influence on the increased bacterial levels in the water, while temperature of the water was found to have an influence on bacterial growth. The results of this study implied that the environments of captivity have great impact on thebacterial levels in the water, which should be considered for the management of sea turtles as well as other aquatic animals.

  2. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism for the Identification of Spirorchiid Ova in Tissues from the Green Sea Turtle, Chelonia mydas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Phoebe A.; Traub, Rebecca J.; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat T.; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Cribb, Thomas H.; Mills, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    Blood flukes are among the most common disease causing pathogens infecting vertebrates, including humans and some of the world's most globally endangered fauna. Spirorchiid blood flukes are parasites of marine turtles, and are associated with pathology, strandings and mortalities worldwide. Their ova embolize in tissues and incite significant inflammatory responses, however attempts to draw correlations between species and lesions are frustrated by difficulties in identifying ova beyond the genus level. In this study, a newly developed terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) method was validated as a tool for differentiating between mixed spirorchiid ova in turtle tissue. Initially, a multiplex PCR was used to differentiate between the five genera of spirorchiid flukes. Following this, PCR was performed using genus/genera-specific fluorescently tagged primer pairs and PCR products digested analysis using restriction endonucleases. Using capillary electrophoresis, this T-RFLP method could differentiate between twelve species and genotypes of spirorchiid flukes in turtles. It was applied to 151 tissue samples and successfully identified the spirorchiid species present. It was found to be more sensitive than visual diagnosis, detecting infections in 28 of 32 tissues that were negative on histology. Spirorchiids were present in 96.7% of tissues tested, with Neospirorchis genotype 2 being the most prevalent, present in 93% of samples. Mixed infections were common, being present in 60.7% of samples tested. The method described here is, to our knowledge, the first use of the T-RFLP technique on host tissues or in an animal ecology context, and describes a significant advancement in the clinical capacity to diagnose a common cause of illness in our environment. It is proven as a sensitive, specific and cost-efficient means of identifying spirorchiid flukes and ova in turtles, with the potential to contribute valuable information to epidemiological and pathological studies as well as future diagnostics for this poorly understood disease. PMID:27579605

  3. Methods of Developing User-Friendly Keys to Identify Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas L. from Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane R. Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying individual animals is important in understanding their ecology and behaviour, as well as providing estimates of population sizes for conservation efforts. We produce identification keys from photographs of green sea turtles to identify them while foraging in Akumal Bay, Mexico. We create three keys, which (a minimise the length of the key, (b present the most obvious differential characteristics first, and (c remove the strict dichotomy from key b. Keys were capable of identifying >99% of turtles in >2500 photographs during the six-month study period. The keys differed significantly in success rate for students to identify individual turtles, with key (c being the best with >70% success and correctly being followed further than other keys before making a mistake. User-friendly keys are, therefore, a suitable method for the photographic identification of turtles and could be used for other large marine vertebrates in conservation or behavioural studies.

  4. In vitro biology of fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus and host cells in Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Dagenais, J.; Balazs, G.H.; Schumacher, J.; Lewis, T.D.; Leong, J.-A.C.; Casey, R.N.; Casey, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Fibropapillomatosis (FP) of green turtles has a global distribution and causes debilitating tumours of the skin and internal organs in several species of marine turtles. FP is associated with a presently non-cultivable alphaherpesvirus Chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus (CFPHV). Our aims were to employ quantitative PCR targeted to pol DNA of CFPHV to determine (i) if DNA sequesters by tumour size and/or cell type, (ii) whether subculturing of cells is a viable strategy for isolating CFPHV and (iii) whether CFPHV can be induced to a lytic growth cycle in vitro using chemical modulators of replication (CMRs), temperature variation or co-cultivation. Additional objectives included determining whether non-tumour and tumour cells behave differently in vitro and confirming the phenotype of cultured cells using cell-type-specific antigens. CFPHV pol DNA was preferentially concentrated in dermal fibroblasts of skin tumours and the amount of viral DNA per cell was independent of tumour size. Copy number of CFPHV pol DNA per cell rapidly decreased with cell doubling of tumour-derived fibroblasts in culture. Attempts to induce viral replication in known CFPHV-DNA-positive cells using temperature or CMR failed. No significant differences were seen in in vitro morphology or growth characteristics of fibroblasts from tumour cells and paired normal skin, nor from CFPHV pol-DNA-positive intestinal tumour cells. Tumour cells were confirmed as fibroblasts or keratinocytes by positive staining with anti-vimentin and anti-pancytokeratin antibodies, respectively. CFPHV continues to be refractory to in vitro cultivation.

  5. Chelonia: A self-healing, replicated storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelonia is a novel grid storage system designed to fill the requirements gap between those of large, sophisticated scientific collaborations which have adopted the grid paradigm for their distributed storage needs, and of corporate business communities gravitating towards the cloud paradigm. Chelonia is an integrated system of heterogeneous, geographically dispersed storage sites which is easily and dynamically expandable and optimized for high availability and scalability. The architecture and implementation in term of web-services running inside the Advanced Resource Connector Hosting Environment Dameon (ARC HED) are described and results of tests in both local -area and wide-area networks that demonstrate the fault tolerance, stability and scalability of Chelonia will be presented. In addition, example setups for production deployments for small and medium-sized VO's are described.

  6. Magnetite in Black Sea Turtles (Chelonia agassizi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Garduño, V.; Sanchez, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2004-12-01

    Previous studies have reported experimental evidence for magnetoreception in marine turtles. In order to increase our knowledge about magnetoreception and biogenic mineralization, we have isolated magnetite particles from the brain of specimens of black sea turtles Chelonia agassizi. Our samples come from natural deceased organisms collected the reserve area of Colola Maruata in southern Mexico. The occurrence of magnetite particles in brain tissue of black sea turtles offers the opportunity for further studies to investigate possible function of ferrimagnetic material, its mineralogical composition, grain size, texture and its location and structural arrangement within the host tissue. After sample preparation and microscopic examination, we localized and identified the ultrafine unidimensional particles of magnetite by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Particles present grain sizes between 10.0 to 40.0Mm. Our study provides, for the first time, evidence for biogenic formation of this material in the black sea turtles. The ultrafine particles are apparently superparamagnetic. Preliminary results from rock magnetic measurements are also reported and correlated to the SEM observations. The black turtle story on the Michoacan coast is an example of formerly abundant resource which was utilized as a subsistence level by Nahuatl indigenous group for centuries, but which is collapsing because of intensive illegal commercial exploitation. The most important nesting and breeding grounds for the black sea turtle on any mainland shore are the eastern Pacific coastal areas of Maruata and Colola, in Michoacan. These beaches are characterized by important amounts of magnetic mineral (magnetites and titanomagnetites) mixed in their sediments.

  7. Balancing Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  8. Egg Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... viruses for the flu vaccine are grown in chicken eggs. If you have an egg allergy, ask your ... In some cases, positive results of skin and blood tests aren't enough to prove that a person's symptoms are definitely caused by eggs. So doctors may use what's called a food ...

  9. Egg proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Lechevalier, Valérie; Anton, Marc; Nau, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Hen egg was categorised by Baldwin in 1986 as a polyfunctional ingredient, as it can simultaneously realise several technological functions in the same formulated foodstuff. Its emulsifying, foaming, gelling, thickening, colouring and aromatic properties make it still today a universal basic ingredient for the domestic kitchen and the food processing industry. Whereas egg yolk is well recognised for its emulsifying properties, egg white (or albumen) is a reference in terms o...

  10. 绿海龟消化道组织学观察%Histological observation of the digestive rrack of green turtle (Chelonia mydas)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘文强; 张晓雁; 乔健; 丁天健; 尹菲; 李星寓; 赵炜; 周向梅

    2011-01-01

    通过常规组织学切片方法,对绿海龟的消化道进行组织学观察.结果发现除口腔和泄殖腔外,消化道均由黏膜层、黏膜下层、肌层和外膜层组成.消化道各段的结构差异主要集中在黏膜层和肌层.其中食管黏膜存在特殊的高度角化倒齿结构,而非常见的皱襞,且食管黏膜层下有较发达的纵行骨骼肌.食道的黏膜上皮为复层扁平上皮,胃、小肠和大脑均为单层柱状上皮.除食管外,消化道各殷的肌层均由内环外纵的平滑肌组成,且环形肌均较纵行肌发达.肠道各段黏膜固有层中均有见弥散的淋巴组织.

  11. The Effects of Feeding on Hematological and Plasma Biochemical Profiles in Green (Chelonia mydas and Kemp's Ridley (Lepidochelys kempii Sea Turtles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, lipemic blood from sampling too soon after an animal feeds can have substantial effects on biochemical values. Plasma biochemical values in reptiles may be affected by species, age, season, and nutritional state. However, fasting status is not routinely considered when sampling reptile blood. In this paper, we evaluated 2-hour postprandial blood collection in two sea turtle species to investigate the effects of feeding on hematological and plasma biochemical values. Feeding had no significant effects on hematological values in either species, nor did it have an effect on plasma biochemistry values in Kemp's ridley sea turtles. In postprandial green turtles, total protein, albumin, ALP, AST, ALT, amylase, and cholesterol increased significantly, and chloride decreased significantly. Although statistically significant changes were observed, the median percent differences between pre- and postprandial values did not exceed 10% for any of these analytes and would not likely alter the clinical interpretation.

  12. Delicious Eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ONE day I learned a new method to cook eggs from one of my neighbors. The ingredients are two or three eggs and about 100 grams of tofu. First, beat the eggs in a bowl until they am Well mixed. Add some salt. Cut the tofu into small cubes and put them into the bowl as well. Then put the bowl in a steamer and steam for about ten minutes. When the eggs become a soft jelly, turn off the stove and let the dish cool before garnishing it with minced coriander, scallion and a teaspoon of sesame oil (or chili oil if you prefer). Serve. I served the steamed eggs with tofu to my family at supper. The appealing

  13. Trichuris trichiura egg (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the classical appearance of the Trichuria (whipworm) egg. The eggs are highly infectious. After a person eats contaminated food, the worms hatch from the eggs and live in the intestine, causing vomiting and ...

  14. The Egg Joust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-01-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops, the egg walk, and the great Canadian egg race, as well as the mousetrap cars, have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate students. Students at…

  15. Mosquito, egg raft (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquitoes of the Culex species lay their eggs in the form of egg rafts that float in ... feed on micro-organisms before developing into flying mosquitoes. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control ...

  16. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  17. Eggs: good or bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes. PMID:27126575

  18. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen...

  19. Histologie comparée des fosses nasales de quelques Tortues marines (Dermochelys coriacea et Chelonia mydas) et d’eaux douces (Emys orbicularis et Pseudemys scripta) (Reptilia, Dermochelyidae, Cheloniidae, Emydidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saint-Girons, H.

    1991-01-01

    Comparative histological studies carried out on the nasal cavity of four species of turtles showed that the sea turtles have a more or less regressed olfactive epithelium compared to that of the Emydidae but that their vomeronasal epithelium is more developed. The location of the vomeronasal epithel

  20. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  1. Symbolism in "The Egg"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤艳娟

    2007-01-01

    Sherwood Anderson is one of the most prominent writers in American literary history. This paper deals with the abundant symbolic meanings in his famous short story "The Egg". Symbolism makes a literary work profound. The various depressing fates awaiting the eggs simultaneously come true on the father and the son, exposing the unreality of the American dream for the poor to be rich.

  2. Egg Bungee Jump!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Brand, Lance

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an egg bungee jumping activity. This activity introduces students to ways that engineers might apply calculations of failure to meet a challenge. Students are required to use common, everyday materials such as rubber bands, string, plastic bags, and eggs. They will apply technological problem solving, material…

  3. Eggs and Foodborne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table eggs and eggshells may be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms, although the only significant threat to human health related to eggs in recent history has been from the bacterium Salmonella. Salmonella is currently the leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the U.S. with 16 ...

  4. THE EGG-THE WINNER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳睿

    2008-01-01

    In Sherwood Anderson's short fictions, one of the most successful is The Egg in which the author applied the means of symbolism.This paper aims to analyze the symbolic egg and interpret characters in The Egg.

  5. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the domestic... liquid eggs free of viable Salmonella microorganisms, and that are not food additives as defined...

  6. Egg protein hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amerongen, van A.; Beelen, M.J.C.; Wolbers, L.A.M.; Gilst, van W.H.; Buikema, J.H.; Nelissen, J.W.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention provides egg-protein hydrolysates with DPP-IV inhibitory activity which are particularly suited for the treatment of diabetes. Particularly advantageous is to use hydrolysate of lysozyme for the treatment of diabetes.

  7. The fish egg microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp. The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia Emerging oomycete pathogens increasingly threaten biodiversity and food security. This thesis describes the study of the microbiome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) eggs and analyses of the effects of infections by the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia ...

  8. Drosophila egg chamber elongation

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Julie

    2012-01-01

    As tissues and organs are formed, they acquire a specific shape that plays an integral role in their ability to function properly. A relatively simple system that has been used to examine how tissues and organs are shaped is the formation of an elongated Drosophila egg. While it has been known for some time that Drosophila egg elongation requires interactions between a polarized intracellular basal actin network and a polarized extracellular network of basal lamina proteins, how these interac...

  9. Factors Affecting Egg Processing Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggs are designed to limit bacterial contamination of egg contents as well as to protect and nourish a developing embryo; these qualities contribute to eggs being wholesome and nutritious for humans. When eggs are involved in human enteritis, there is usually temperature abuse and pooling of raw pr...

  10. Effects of cryogenic cooling of shell eggs on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Tharrington, J B; Curtis, P A; Anderson, K E; Keener, K M; Jones, F T

    2002-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of cryogenic cooling on shell egg quality. Gaseous nitrogen (GN), liquid nitrogen (LN), and gaseous carbon dioxide (GC) were utilized to rapidly cool eggs in a commercial egg processing facility and were compared to traditional cooling (TC). A modified food freezer was attached to existing egg processing equipment in order to expose eggs to the selected cryogen. In Experiment 1, eggs were treated with GN, LN, and TC then stored and tested over 10 wk. Experiment 2 eggs were treated (GC and TC) and evaluated for 12 wk. Quality factors that were measured included Haugh units, vitelline membrane strength and deformation at rupture, and USDA shell egg grades for quality defects. Haugh unit values were greater for cryogenically treated eggs as compared to traditionally cooled eggs (Experiment 1: 73.27, GN; 72.03, LN; and 71.4, TC and Experiment 2: 74.42, GC and 70.18, TC). The percentage of loss eggs in the GN treatment was significantly (P membrane strength was greater for the cryogenically cooled eggs versus traditional processing. Vitelline membrane breaking strength decreased over storage time. Vitelline membrane deformation at rupture was significantly (P eggs compared to the traditional eggs in each experiment. Use of the technology could allow for egg quality to be maintained for a longer time, which could increase international markets and potentially lead to extended shelf lives. PMID:12033425

  11. Dynamic egg color mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Daniel; Šulc, Michal; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Honza, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the function of eggshell phenotypes, from solar protection through mimicry, have implicitly assumed that eggshell appearance remains static throughout the laying and incubation periods. However, recent research demonstrates that egg coloration changes over relatively short, biologically relevant timescales. Here, we provide the first evidence that such changes impact brood parasite-host eggshell color mimicry during the incubation stage. First, we use long-term data to establish how rapidly the Acrocephalus arundinaceus Linnaeus (great reed warbler) responded to natural parasitic eggs laid by the Cuculus canorus Linnaeus (common cuckoo). Most hosts rejected parasitic eggs just prior to clutch completion, but the host response period extended well into incubation (~10 days after clutch completion). Using reflectance spectrometry and visual modeling, we demonstrate that eggshell coloration in the great reed warbler and its brood parasite, the common cuckoo, changes rapidly, and the extent of eggshell color mimicry shifts dynamically over the host response period. Specifically, 4 days after being laid, the host should notice achromatic color changes to both cuckoo and warbler eggs, while chromatic color changes would be noticeable after 8 days. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the perceived match between host and cuckoo eggshell color worsened over the incubation period. These findings have important implications for parasite-host coevolution dynamics, because host egg discrimination may be aided by disparate temporal color changes in host and parasite eggs. PMID:27516874

  12. Genetic characterization of egg weight, egg production and age at first egg in quails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marubayashi Hidalgo, A.; Martins, E.N.; Santos, A.L.; Quadros, T.C.O.; Ton, A.P.S.; Teixeira, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters for the traits egg weight, egg production in 189 days and age at first egg in three laying quails and one meat line of quails. Data was analyzed by Bayesian procedures using Gibbs sampling. The heritability estimates for egg weight, e

  13. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. PMID:25965316

  14. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  15. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belchiolina Beatriz Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  16. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  17. The Egg model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.; Van Essen, G.M.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The "Egg Model" is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four producers. It has been used in numerous publications to demonstrate

  18. Egg Formation in Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    William H. Telfer

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive biology in the Twentieth Century produced comprehensive descriptions of the mechanisms of egg formation in most of the major orders of insects. While many general principles of ovarian development and physiology emerged, every order turned out to have a set of its own special motifs. Discovery of the lepidopteran motifs is summarized in this essay. The emphasis is on developmental mechanisms, beginning with the early growth and differentiation of female germ cells and ending, aft...

  19. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg whites. 160.145 Section 160.145 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.145 Dried egg whites. (a) The food dried egg whites, egg white solids, dried egg albumen, egg albumen solids...

  20. Naturalistic Elements in The Egg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠菲菲

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the naturalistic elements in The Egg, which is taken from the collection of short stories, The Triumph of the Egg. The study states the ideology and technique of naturalism and then exams how naturalistic ele-ments are revealed in the fiction. Then it comes to the conclusion that the family is defeated by the egg and the life of human be-ings is under control of complicated forces from both inside and outside.

  1. The Symplectic Egg

    CERN Document Server

    de Gosson, Maurice A

    2012-01-01

    We invite the reader (presumably an upper level undergraduate student) to a journey leading from the continent of Classical Mechanics to the new territories of Quantum Mechanics. We'll be riding the symplectic camel and have William of Occam as travel companion, so no excess baggage is allowed. The first part of our trip takes us from the symplectic egg to Gromov's non-squeezing theorem and its dynamical interpretation. The second part leads us to a symplectic formulation of the quantum uncertainty principle, which opens the way to new discoveries.

  2. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A;

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  3. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  4. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by freezing... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  5. Effect of egg shell color on some egg quality in table eggs during storage at refrigerator temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days of storage at 5 °C. A total of 100 fresh eggs (60-65 g) were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in brown shell color eggs significantly (Peggs at 21 days of storage, but no significant differences were observed among groups other storage periods. The brown shell color eggs showed lower levels of specific gravity than white shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21, but there were no significant differences between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs at day 28. The albumen height and Haugh unit of white shell color eggs was significantly (Peggs during the storage periods. There were no significant differences in yolk index and albumen pH between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs during the storage periods. The yolk pH of white shell color eggs was significantly (Peggs at day 7, 14, and 21 of storage period. The results indicated that the white shell color eggs showed better quality than brown shell color eggs at 5 °C for the entire storage period.

  6. Eggspectation : organic egg verification tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 RIKILT conducted a study on about 2,000 eggs to evaluate three different analytical verification methods: carotenoid profiling, fatty acid profiling and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The eggs were collected from about 50 Dutch farms. The selection was based on the farms’ location and size

  7. The Eagle's EGGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    VLT ISAAC Looks for Young Stars in the Famous "Pillars of Creation" Summary Through imaging at infrared wavelengths, evidence has been found for recent star formation in the so-called "Pillars of Creation" in the Eagle Nebula (also known as Messier 16 ), made famous when the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) obtained spectacular visible-wavelength images of this object in 1995. Those huge pillars of gas and dust are being sculpted and illuminated by bright and powerful high-mass stars in the nearby NGC 6611 young stellar cluster . The Hubble astronomers suggested that perhaps even younger stars were forming inside. Using the ISAAC instrument on the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory , European astronomers have now made a wide-field infrared image of the Messier 16 region with excellent spatial resolution, enabling them to penetrate the obscuring dust and search for light from newly born stars . Two of the three pillars are seen to have very young, relatively massive stars in their tips. Another dozen or so lower-mass stars seem to be associated with the small "evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs)" that the Hubble astronomers had discovered scattered over the surface of the pillars. These findings bring new evidence to several key questions about how stars are born . Was the formation of these new stars triggered as the intense ultraviolet radiation from the NGC 6611 stars swept over the pillars, or were they already there? Will the new stars be prematurely cut off from surrounding gas cloud, thus stunting their growth? If the new stars have disks of gas and dust around them, will they be destroyed before they have time to form planetary systems? PR Photo 37a/01 : Full wide-field ISAAC image of the Eagle Nebula. PR Photo 37b/01 : Close-up view of the ISAAC image , showing the famous "Pillars of Creation". PR Photo 37c/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 1 . PR Photo 37d/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 2 . PR Photo 37e/01

  8. Egg to Fry - Chinook Egg-to-Fry Survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Few estimates of Chinook egg-to-fry survival exist despite the fact that this is thought to be one of the life stages limiting production of many listed Chinook...

  9. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg yolks. 160.185 Section 160.185 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.185 Dried egg yolks. (a) Dried egg yolks, dried yolks is the food prepared by drying egg yolks that conform...

  10. Mechanical Hatching Egg Sanitization: A Fresh Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three to four decades ago, hatching egg sanitization was done by immersion of eggs in an egg-gathering basket (plastic-coated metal wire) into a small vat with a heating element and disinfectant solution. This procedure failed miserably for several reasons. First, the eggs were not subjected to the...

  11. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

  12. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required... INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled. (a) All shell eggs packed into containers destined for the ultimate consumer shall be labeled...

  13. It’s what’s inside that counts: Egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Mark; Ackerman, Josh; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Hartman, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm3) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6–13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w .

  14. Dealing with multicollinearity in predicting egg components from egg weight and egg dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek M. Shafey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 174 eggs from meat-type breeder flock (Ross at 36 weeks of age were used to study the problem of multicollinearity (MC instability in the estimation of egg components of yolk weight (YKWT, albumen weight (ALBWT and eggshell weight (SHWT. Egg weight (EGWT, egg shape index (ESI=egg width (EGWD*100/egg length (EGL and their interaction (EGWTESI were used in the context of un-centred vs centred data and principal components regression (PCR models. The pairwise phenotypic correlations, variance inflation factor (VIF, eigenvalues, condition index (CI, and variance proportions were examined. Egg weight had positive correlations with EGWD and EGL (r=0.56 and 0.50, respectively; P<0.0001 and EGL had a negative correlation with ESI (r=-0.79; P<0.0001. The highest correlation was observed between EGWT and ALBWT (r=0.94; P<0.0001, while the lowest was between EGWD and SHWT (r=0.33; P<0.0001. Multicollinearity problems were found in EGWT, ESI and their interaction as shown by VIF (>10, eigenvalues (near zero, CI (>30 and high corresponding proportions of variance of EGWT, ESI and EGWTESI with respect to EGWTESI. Results from this study suggest that mean centring and PCR were appropriate to overcome the MC instability in the estimation of egg components from EGWT and ESI. These methods improved the meaning of intercept values and produced much lower standard error values for regression coefficients than those from un-centred data.

  15. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Andersen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk.

  16. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  17. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  18. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were literature and, among 17 species studied, mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  19. Salmonella enteritidis in Quail Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğrul, Özlem Turgay

    2002-01-01

    The presence of Salmonella enteritidis was investigated in 123 liquid whole quail eggs. Salmonella strains were identified and sero-grouped by coagglutination test and slide agglutination test. Seven (5.69%) of 123 whole quail eggs were in group D1 and were sero-typed as Salmonella enteritidis. It was found that in phage-typing of Salmonella enteritidis, three of 7 strains were Salmonella enteritidis PT4 , two of them were PT1, one of them was PT7, and one of them was indefinite.

  20. Antimicrobial potential of egg yolk ovoinhibitor, a multidomain Kazal-like inhibitor of chicken egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourin, Marie; Gautron, Joël; Berges, Magali; Attucci, Sylvie; Le Blay, Gwenaelle; Labas, Valérie; Nys, Yves; Rehault-Godbert, Sophie

    2011-12-14

    Chicken egg ovoinhibitor is a multidomain Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor with unknown function. Comparison of expression between different tissues indicated that ovoinhibitor is highly expressed in the magnum and liver followed by the uterus, which secrete egg white, egg yolk, and eggshell precursors, respectively. The results also revealed that ovoinhibitor expression is increased in the liver during sexual maturation followed by a subsequent decrease in mature hens. Ovoinhibitor was purified from the egg yolk plasma from nonfertilized eggs using two consecutive affinity chromatographies and gel filtration. Purified egg yolk ovoinhibitor was shown to inhibit trypsin and subtilisin. It was shown that purified egg yolk ovoinhibitor exhibited antimicrobial activities against Bacillus thuringiensis . The results suggest that this anti-protease plays a significant role in antibacterial egg defense against Bacillus spp., preventing contamination of table eggs (nonfertilized eggs) and protecting the chick embryo (fertilized eggs).

  1. Why cuckoos should parasitize parrotbills by laying eggs randomly rather than laying eggs matching the egg appearance of parrotbill hosts?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Canchao; Yang; Fugo; Takasu; Wei; Liang; Anders; P; M?ller

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary interaction between cuckoos and their hosts has been studied for a long time, but to date some puzzles still remain unsolved. Whether cuckoos parasitize their hosts by laying eggs randomly or matching the egg morphs of their hosts is one of the mysteries of the cuckoo problem. Scientists tend to believe that cuckoos lay eggs matching the appearance of host eggs due to selection caused by the ability of the hosts to recognize their own eggs.In this paper, we first review previous empirical studies to test this mystery and found no studies have provided direct evidence of cuckoos choosing to parasitize host nests where egg color and pattern match. We then present examples of unmatched cuckoo eggs in host nests and key life history traits of cuckoos, e.g. secretive behavior and rapid egg-laying and link them to cuckoo egg laying behavior. Finally we develop a conceptual model to demonstrate the egg laying behaviour of cuckoos and propose an empirical test that can provide direct evidence of the egg-laying properties of female cuckoos. We speculate that the degree of egg matching between cuckoo eggs and those of the host as detected by humans is caused by the ability of the hosts to recognize their own eggs, rather than the selection of matching host eggs by cuckoos. The case of Common Cuckoos(Cuculus canorus) and their parrotbill hosts(Paradoxornis alphonsianus), where it has been shown that both have evolved polymorphic eggs(mainly blue and white), was used to develop a conceptual model to demonstrate why cuckoos should utilize parrotbill hosts by laying eggs randomly rather than laying eggs matching the appearance of host eggs.In conclusion, we found no evidence for the hypothesis that cuckoos lay eggs based on own egg color matching that of the parrotbill-cuckoo system. We argue theoretically that laying eggs matching those of the hosts in this system violates a key trait of the life history of cuckoos and therefore should be maladaptive.

  2. Why cuckoos should parasitize parrotbills by laying eggs randomly rather than laying eggs matching the egg appearance of parrotbill hosts?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Canchao Yang; Fugo Takasu; Wei Liang; Anders P Mller

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary interaction between cuckoos and their hosts has been studied for a long time, but to date some puzzles stil remain unsolved. Whether cuckoos parasitize their hosts by laying eggs randomly or matching the egg morphs of their hosts is one of the mysteries of the cuckoo problem. Scientists tend to believe that cuckoos lay eggs matching the appearance of host eggs due to selection caused by the ability of the hosts to recognize their own eggs. In this paper, we first review previous empirical studies to test this mystery and found no studies have provided direct evidence of cuckoos choosing to parasitize host nests where egg color and pattern match. We then present examples of unmatched cuckoo eggs in host nests and key life history traits of cuckoos, e.g. secretive behavior and rapid egg-laying and link them to cuckoo egg laying behavior. Finally we develop a conceptual model to demonstrate the egg laying behaviour of cuckoos and propose an empirical test that can provide direct evidence of the egg-laying properties of female cuckoos. We speculate that the degree of egg matching between cuckoo eggs and those of the host as detected by humans is caused by the ability of the hosts to recognize their own eggs, rather than the selection of matching host eggs by cuckoos. The case of Common Cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) and their parrotbill hosts (Paradoxornis alphonsianus), where it has been shown that both have evolved polymorphic eggs (mainly blue and white), was used to develop a conceptual model to demonstrate why cuckoos should utilize parrotbill hosts by laying eggs randomly rather than laying eggs matching the appearance of host eggs. In conclusion, we found no evidence for the hypothesis that cuckoos lay eggs based on own egg color matching that of the parrotbill-cuckoo system. We argue theoretically that laying eggs matching those of the hosts in this system violates a key trait of the life history of cuckoos and therefore should be maladaptive.

  3. Poultry and Egg Statistics, 1960-85

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Allen; Armstrong, Eunice

    1986-01-01

    The statistical bulletin summarizes historical data for the poultry and egg industries. Data for production, prices, foreign trade, and storage of broilers, turkeys, and eggs are reported for the periods 1960-85.

  4. Contaminant concentrations in Florida raptor eggs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Inviable eggs from the nests of Florida bald eagles and ospreys were collected opportunistically from 1987 through 1989. Egg contents were analyzed for...

  5. Shell Eggs from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in eggs? Federal and state governments, the egg industry, and the scientific community are working together to solve the problem. Involved government agencies include: USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and the Animal ...

  6. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, J.A.; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming

  7. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  8. A calorimetric study of egg white proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, M; Hofer, C; Raemy, A.

    1997-01-01

    Egg white is of great interest for many culinary and industrial applications. Egg white is used for coating, gluing, thickening and so on in pasta, desserts, etc. There is thus a great interest from the industrial point of view to better know this raw material, used in very large amounts in the dessert production for example, and to obtain egg white fractions with different functional properties. Various egg white fractions prepared by selected procedures were analyzed by differential scan...

  9. Molecular genetics of chicken egg quality

    OpenAIRE

    Honkatukia, Mervi

    2010-01-01

    Faultless quality in eggs is important in all production steps, from chicken to packaging, transportation, storage, and finally to the consumer. The egg industry (specifically transportation and packing) is interested in robustness, the consumer in safety and taste, and the chicken itself in the reproductive performance of the egg. High quality is commercially profitable, and egg quality is currently one of the key traits in breeding goals. In conventional breeding schemes, the more traits th...

  10. Dinosaur egg structure investigated by MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Mcjury, M; Clark, N.D.L.; Liston, J; Condon, B

    1994-01-01

    In July 1993, the Hunterian Museum of the University of Glasgow was offered a sandstone block with a clutch of intact dinosaur eggs, from Hunan Province, China. Later, a number of single eggs were also acquired. An inter-disciplinary project began to investigate the structure of these eggs. Investigations carried out included egg shell structure analysis, protein analysis, and a program of imaging including CT|, neutron radiography, and MRI. In this poster, the results of imaging the ...

  11. The Egg as a Symbol——Analysis of Sherwood Anderson's The Egg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙慧春; 李伟

    2009-01-01

    @@ A naive narrator in Sherwood Anderson's The Egg leads the reader to witness the various experiences of his family related with eggs.The egg is a dominant theme in their living and an inseparable part of their family.The egg means something that he could only feel directly as a na(i)ve boy.

  12. Becoming a morther by non-anonymous egg donation: secrecy and the relationship between egg recipient, egg donor and egg donation child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, D.A.M. van; Candido, A.; Pijffers, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    The object of the study was to investigate secrecy in non-anonymous egg donation, to explore some characteristics of this kind of egg donation arrangement and the relationship of the recipient with her non-genetic child. Forty-four egg recipients and 62 IVF patients with a child conceived through eg

  13. "Egg Races" and Other Practical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This article presents ideas behind science and technology challenges and shares experiences of "egg races." Different challenges were set, but there was always the need to transport an egg across some obstacle course without breaking it. It was so popular in the 1980s that the term "egg race" came to mean any kind of simple…

  14. In vitro hatching of Trichuris suis eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejzagic, Nermina; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Kringel, Helene;

    2015-01-01

    after inoculation with a known number of eggs. To minimize testing in animal models, development of an in vitro egg hatching assay is proposed as a reliable, cost-effective, and a faster alternative to test the egg viability. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of different chemical...

  15. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  16. Enterobacteria isolation in ostrich eggs (Struthio Camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Knöbl

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the presence of enterobacteria in the eggs of ostriches reared on a farm with a history of reproductive failure. Ninety samples from twenty eggs were submitted to bacteriological tests. The results showed Enterobacteria growth in 100% of the eggs. The microorganisms isolated were Hafnia alvei in 50% (10/20, Serratia spp. in 20% (4/20, Escherichia coli in 15% (3/20, and Citrobacter freundii in 15% (3/20. All eggs presented poor eggshell quality, which favored enterobacteria contamination. Hafnia alvei was present only in the internal egg structures (albumen and yolk sac, suggesting the possibility of vertical infection.

  17. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts.

  18. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  19. Salmonella and Eggs: From Production to Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella contamination of eggs and egg shells has been identified as a public health concern worldwide. A recent shift in consumer preferences has impacted on the egg industry, with a push for cage-free egg production methods. There has also been an increased desire from consumers for raw and unprocessed foods, potentially increasing the risk of salmonellosis. In response to these changes, this review explores the current literature regarding Salmonella contamination of eggs during the production processing through to food handling protocols. The contamination of eggs with Salmonella during the production process is a complex issue, influenced by many variables including flock size, flock age, stress, feed, vaccination, and cleaning routines. Currently there is no consensus regarding the impact of caged, barn and free range egg production has on Salmonella contamination of eggs. The literature regarding the management and control strategies post-collection, during storage, transport and food handling is also reviewed. Pasteurisation and irradiation were identified as the only certain methods for controlling Salmonella and are essential for the protection of high risk groups, whereas control of temperature and pH were identified as potential control methods to minimise the risk for foods containing raw eggs; however, further research is required to provide more detailed control protocols and education programs to reduce the risk of salmonellosis from egg consumption.

  20. Egg baked in product open oral food challenges are safe in selected egg-allergic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Buelow, Becky J.; Lee, Carrie; Zafra, Heidi T.; Dasgupta, Mahua; Hoffmann, Ray G.; Vasudev, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in children. Most egg-allergic children are able to tolerate egg baked in product (EBP) and will likely outgrow his/her egg allergy. By introducing EBP in the diet of an egg-allergic child, diet can be expanded and family stress can be reduced. Recent evidence suggests that children who tolerate EBP and continue to consume it will have quicker resolution of egg allergy than those who strictly avoid EBP; therefore, we aimed to evaluate the e...

  1. Effect of storage temperature on egg quality traits in table eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of storage temperature on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days. A total of 100 fresh eggs were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (5 °C and 22 °C; 10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 5 and 22 °C. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in eggs stored at 5 °C significantly (Peggs stored at 22 °C group for the entire storage period. The eggs stored at 5 °C showed higher levels of specific gravity than eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage (Peggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (Peggs stored at 22 °C during the storage periods. The albumen pH of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (Peggs stored at 22 °C during storage period. The results indicated that the eggs stored at 5 °C are better off in terms of protecting quality compared to the eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage.

  2. Are cuckoos maximizing egg mimicry by selecting host individuals with better matching egg phenotypes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Antonov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Avian brood parasites and their hosts are involved in complex offence-defense coevolutionary arms races. The most common pair of reciprocal adaptations in these systems is egg discrimination by hosts and egg mimicry by parasites. As mimicry improves, more advanced host adaptations evolve such as decreased intra- and increased interclutch variation in egg appearance to facilitate detection of parasitic eggs. As interclutch variation increases, parasites able to choose hosts matching best their own egg phenotype should be selected, but this requires that parasites know their own egg phenotype and select host nests correspondingly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared egg mimicry of common cuckoo Cuculus canorus eggs in naturally parasitized marsh warbler Acrocephalus palustris nests and their nearest unparasitized conspecific neighbors having similar laying dates and nest-site characteristics. Modeling of avian vision and image analyses revealed no evidence that cuckoos parasitize nests where their eggs better match the host eggs. Cuckoo eggs were as good mimics, in terms of background and spot color, background luminance, spotting pattern and egg size, of host eggs in the nests actually exploited as those in the neighboring unparasitized nests. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We reviewed the evidence for brood parasites selecting better-matching host egg phenotypes from several relevant studies and argue that such selection probably cannot exist in host-parasite systems where host interclutch variation is continuous and overall low or moderate. To date there is also no evidence that parasites prefer certain egg phenotypes in systems where it should be most advantageous, i.e., when both hosts and parasites lay polymorphic eggs. Hence, the existence of an ability to select host nests to maximize mimicry by brood parasites appears unlikely, but this possibility should be further explored in cuckoo-host systems where the host has evolved

  3. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. McNamara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  4. Ectopic Schistosoma mansoni Eggs Inside a Lipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Kelly Renata; Nunes, Maurício Buzelin; Petroianu, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic schistosomiasis is uncommon and tends to occur when the parasite's eggs or adult forms are located far from their normal site. This report presents the first described case of ectopic Schistosoma mansoni eggs inside a subcutaneous lipoma far from the tissues of this worm's life cycle and with no connection to either portal veins or any other vascular system. These eggs were found inside giant cells surrounded by inflammatory cells. In conclusion, in humans, ectopic S. mansoni eggs can be found far from the tissues of the described life cycle of this worm, with no connection to portal veins or other blood vessels used for their migration. PMID:26598562

  5. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  6. Baked milk- and egg-containing diet in the management of milk and egg allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Kim, Jennifer S; Groetch, Marion; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Cow's milk (CM) and hen's egg allergies are among the most common food allergies in children. With evidence of increasing food allergy prevalence and more persistent disease, it has become vital to improve the management of CM and egg allergies. The ability to tolerate baked milk or egg, such as in a cake or muffin, has been associated with an increased chance of tolerance development. Studies report that about 70% of CM- and egg-allergic children can tolerate baked milk or egg and that incorporating baked milk or egg into the diet is well tolerated. Being able to add baked milk or egg into the diet can also increase quality of life by expanding the diet, boosting nutrition, and promoting inclusion in social activities. There is some debate over how baked milk and egg should be introduced, at home or in a supervised setting. Anaphylaxis and treatment with epinephrine during baked milk or egg challenges have been reported. Study of potential biomarkers to predict tolerability of baked milk and egg, such as serum specific IgE levels and skin prick test wheal diameters, is ongoing. Many parents can reliably report that their CM- or egg-allergic child is already consuming baked goods without symptoms. However, for those who cannot report such tolerance, the most prudent approach is to perform a supervised oral food challenge to determine the tolerability of baked milk and egg. The purpose of this article was to review the pathophysiology, clinical data, and safety of baked milk and egg and provide a practical guide to managing CM allergy and/or egg allergy. Recipes for baked milk and egg challenges and guidance on how to add baked milk and egg if tolerated to the child's regular diet are provided.

  7. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Igic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection.

  8. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igic, Branislav; Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E; Shawkey, Matthew D; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin's brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins' rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection. PMID:26038720

  9. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and dimini...

  10. FEMALE PREFERENCE FOR NESTS WITH EGGS IS BASED ON THE PRESENCE OF THE EGGS THEMSELVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRAAK, SBM; GROOTHUIS, TGG; Kraak, Sarah B.M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    1994-01-01

    In many fish species of which males care for eggs in a nest, including Aidablennius sphynx, females prefer to mate with males that already guard eggs. In this paper we present two aquarium experiments with this Mediterranean blenny to determine whether the females actually use the presence of eggs a

  11. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of shipping containers of... PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation. (a) Shipping containers of foreign product which are shipped to the United...

  12. Research on the plasma biochemistry of cardiac function, liver function and renal function from healthy larval green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in captivity%绿海龟健康幼体心肝肾功能血液生化指标参考值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成奇; 潘连德

    2016-01-01

    采集了39只人工养殖的健康幼体绿海龟(1.5~2.5龄)、6只健康成体绿海龟(10~ 20龄)和3只野生成体绿海龟,用Beckman AU5800和TNI BECKMAN Access 2测定和分析了反映绿海龟心肝肾功能的17项血液生化指标,结果发现野生个体的生化指标与人工养殖的绿海龟差异较大,谷草转氨酶(P =0.002)、白蛋白(P =0.015)、碱性磷酸酶(P=O.010)、谷丙转氨酶(P=O.OIO)等均有明显差异,人工养殖绿海龟除碱性磷酸酶与年龄呈负相关外没有明显差异,不同性别的个体在生化指标上差异不显著.本实验结果与野生绿海龟各研究结果对比发现,野生个体的指标差异非常显著,难以作为健康指标的参考.本研究建立了人工绿海龟的心肝肾功能血液生化指标参考值,为野生绿海龟血液生化研究提供参考,为指导绿海龟养殖过程中的疾病早期诊断和预防提供依据.

  13. Egg-laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Yee, Julie L; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-06-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intraclutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. The authors examined the influence of egg-laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last eggs laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg-laying order were inconsistent among species, and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were nests would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained nests (20% accuracy). Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1458-1469. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. PMID:26505635

  14. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food. (a) No person shall buy, sell, or transport... not intended for use as human food. 590.45 Section 590.45 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY...

  15. Ethical motivation of Dutch egg consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrell, A.M.; Vrieze, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses a representative sample of 356 Dutch egg consumers in order to measure the extent to which ethical principles concerning the welfare of hens in different rearing systems are translated into egg purchasing intentions, and the extent to which declared intentions are expressed in ac

  16. Indirect calorimetry during incubation of hatching eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Kemp, B.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry can be used during incubation of avian eggs to monitor the quality of the incubation process, the development of the embryo and the utilization of nutrients. Indirect calorimetry has several benefits above direct calorimetry, particularly in hatching eggs. However, to obtain rel

  17. Factors affecting egg ratios in planktonic rotifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarma, S.S.S.; Gulati, R.D.; Nandini, S.

    2005-01-01

    Edmondson’s egg ratio (number of amictic eggs per female) is an important life history variable, which has been in wide use to understand and predict patterns of population growth in planktonic rotifers under field conditions. It is also useful as an indicator of the health of rotifers under culture

  18. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little attention

  19. A model for persistency of egg production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossman, M.; Gossman, T.N.; Koops, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to propose a new definition for persistency of egg production and to develop a mathematical model to describe the egg production curve, one that includes a new measure for persistency, based on the proposed definition, for use as a selection criterion to improve tota

  20. On eggs of some British Guyana Birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, C.G.

    1889-01-01

    They make no nest but lay their eggs in a depression in the ground where it is dry, on the beds of cultivated land, on the high dams between plantations, on the bare rocks up the rivers, and on the savannahs in the They lay two or three eggs.

  1. Female Zebra Finches Smell Their Eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Golüke

    Full Text Available Parental investment in unrelated offspring seems maladaptive from an evolutionary perspective, due to the costs of energy and resources that cannot be invested in related offspring at the same time. Therefore selection should favour mechanisms to discriminate between own and foreign offspring. In birds, much emphasis has been placed on understanding the visual mechanisms underlying egg recognition. However, olfactory egg recognition has almost been completely ignored. Here, we investigated whether female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata are able to discriminate between their own and a conspecific egg based on olfactory cues alone. Zebra finches are colonial-breeding songbirds. Eggs are monomorphic, i.e. without any spotting pattern, and intraspecific brood parasitism frequently occurs. In a binary choice experiment, female zebra finches were given the choice between the scent of their own and a conspecific egg. After the onset of incubation, females chose randomly and showed no sign of discrimination. However, shortly before hatching, females preferred significantly the odour of their own egg. The finding that females are capable to smell their own egg may inspire more research on the potential of olfaction involved in egg recognition, especially in cases where visual cues might be limited.

  2. Microbiology and Safety of Table Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter describes the microbiology of table eggs, effects of processing, regulatory influences, relative risk of egg-borne disease, and the role of retail and consumer practices in outbreaks. Effects of washing, refrigeration, and facility sanitation in US commercial facilities will be describe...

  3. Description of the egg of Aedeomyia squamipennis (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, J L; Linley, J R

    1995-11-01

    The egg of Aedeomyia squamipennis (Lynch Arribalzaga) is described with the aid of scanning electron micrographs. This study allows separation of the eggs of Ad. squamipennis from the eggs of other mosquitoes inhabiting similar aquatic vegetation. PMID:8551515

  4. Energy density of marine pelagic fish eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis-Vestergaard, J.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the literature on pelagic fish eggs enabled generalizations to be made of their energy densities, because the property of being buoyant in sea water appears to constrain the proximate composition of the eggs and thus to minimize interspecific variation. An energy density of 1.34 J mul......(-1) of total egg volume is derived for most species spawning eggs without visible oil globules. The energy density of eggs with oil globules is predicted by (σ) over cap = 1.34 + 40.61 x (J mul(-1)) where x is the fractional volume of the oil globule. (C) 2002 The Fisheries Society of the British...... Isles. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved...

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on some characteristics of shell eggs and mayonnaise prepared from irradiated eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shell eggs were irradiated at doses of 0.0, 0,5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Immediately after irradiation, microbiological, physical and chemical analyses of eggs and sensory evaluation of mayonnaise prepared from irradiated eggs were done. The results indicated that all doses of gamma irradiation reduced the total counts of mesophilic bacteria and total coli form of yolk eggs. Irradiated eggs with 1.5 kGy maybe suitable microbiologically to prepare safe mayonnaise. There are no significant differences on saturated fatty acids and TBA values between yolk fat extracted from irradiated and that of non-irradiated eggs. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between mayonnaise prepared from irradiated and non-irradiated eggs. (Author)

  6. Bioresonance method influencing the egg quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At 2 poultry yards with capacity of 30 thousand laying hens an experiment was undertaken to study the bioresonance effect on 18-week-old poultry (experimental poultry yard, EPY) to obtain eggs of high biological value by activating the assimilation by poultry of a microelement complex from food. At the EPY hens received a vitamin-mineral complex Lifepac senior (produced in France) treated with electromagnetic radiation. At the control poultry yard (CPY) this method was not used. The first egg collection was conducted from hens at the age of 28 weeks, the second one – at the age of 3-4 weeks and the third one – at the age of 52 weeks. The keeping and feeding conditions at the two poultry yards were the same. The contents of water, protein, fat in the eggs of CPY and EPY were practically the same, but the level of microelements in the EPY eggs was higher than in CPY eggs. It was observed so as to maintain high level of microelements in eggs it is required to a bioresonance effect throughout the egg laying period. So, the level of manganese in eggs of EPY and CPY at week 52 was 0.024 and 0.003 mg%, iron – 3.74 and 1.48 mg%, zinc – 1.23 and 0.87 mf%, copper – 0.078 and 0.069 mg%, respectively. The transition of microelements from food into eggs also was % to the control: iron – 2.55, manganese – 10.0, zinc – 1.44, copper – 1.35, potassium – 1.33, calcium – 1.05, phosphorus – 1.15, sodium – 1.16. Thus, the bioresonance method for keeping laying hens makes it possible to obtain food eggs of the desired chemical composition

  7. What determines hatchling weight: breeder age or incubated egg weight?

    OpenAIRE

    AB Traldi; Menten JFM; CS Silva; PV Rizzo; PWZ Pereira; J Santarosa

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine which factor influences weight at hatch of broiler chicks: breeder age or incubated egg weight. In Experiment 1, 2340 eggs produced by 29- and 55-week-old Ross® broiler breeders were incubated. The eggs selected for incubation weighed one standard deviation below and above average egg weight. In Experiment 2, 2160 eggs weighing 62 g produced by breeders of both ages were incubated. In both experiments, 50 additional eggs within the weight interval...

  8. Factors affecting egg predation in Black-tailed Gulls

    OpenAIRE

    Kazama, Kentaro

    2007-01-01

    In colonial seabirds, nesting density, egg-laying date and nest microhabitat affect the probability of eggs being taken by avian predators. Jungle Crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) are dominant predators of eggs of Black-tailed Gulls (Larus crassirostris). Factors affecting the probability of gulls allowing the crows to attack their nests or depredate their eggs and the probability of eggs being taken were studied by direct observation and egg census, respectively. The effect of vegetation heights...

  9. Enumeration of Salmonellae in Table Eggs, Pasteurized Egg Products, and Egg-Containing Dishes by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakočiūnė, Džiuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares;

    2014-01-01

    of salmonellae in two egg-containing dishes, long egg and tiramisu, at abused refrigeration temperatures, and results indicated the growth of bacteria over a 1-week period. In conclusion, enrichment qPCR was shown to be reliable for enumeration of salmonellae in different egg products.......Salmonellae are a major cause of food-borne outbreaks in Europe, with eggs and egg products being identified as major sources. Due to the low levels of salmonellae in eggs and egg products, direct quantification is difficult. In the present study, enrichment quantitative real-time PCR (q......PCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between...

  10. Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, Christy A. [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom); Elliott, John E. [Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, 5421 Robertson Road, Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada); Ormerod, Stephen J., E-mail: ormerod@cf.ac.u [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in delta{sup 13}C (C. cinclus) or delta{sup 15}N (C. mexicanus) in female plasma relative to red blood cells indicated a dietary shift during laying that was not observed in males. Eurasian dippers increased prey consumption as breeding approached, shifting from primarily trichopteran insect larvae to ephemeropterans and plecopterans. In American dippers, egg-laying females switched to feeding at a higher trophic level by consuming more fish. Eggs derived from higher trophic level diets contained more mercury (American dipper), polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorines, especially DDT metabolites. The results demonstrate how dietary changes during egg laying accompany the demands for egg production with consequences for contaminant deposition in avian eggs. - Changes in laying diet influences contaminant deposition in bird eggs.

  11. The Effect of Oregano Essential Oil and Pollen on Egg Production and Egg Yolk Qualitative Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytobiotics are defined as products derived from plants, which may have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oil and pollen extract addition on egg production and physical egg yolk parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks with diets with oregano essential oil and pollen supplemented. In the control group hens received feed mixture with no additions. The diets in the first experimental groups was supplemented with 0.25 g/kg oregano essential oil. The feed for second experimental groups of birds consisted of basal diet supplemented with pollen extract of the same dose at 0.4 g/kg. Number of eggs per hen during the reporting period in order of the groups: 135.6, 136.7 and 138.5 units, at an average intensity of laying 90.4, 91.13 and 92.33%. The results suggest that the egg production, egg mass, egg weight and all of qualitative parameters of egg yolk (egg yolk weight (g, egg yolk index, egg yolk colour (°HLR were not significantly influenced with oregano oil or pollen addition (P>0.05.

  12. As the egg turns: monitoring egg attendance behavior in wild birds using novel data logging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Scott A; Clatterbuck, Corey A; Kelsey, Emma C; Naiman, Alex D; Young, Lindsay C; VanderWerf, Eric A; Warzybok, Pete; Bradley, Russell; Jahncke, Jaime; Bower, Geoff C

    2014-01-01

    Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz) was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial) accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1-7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1) turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h(-1)) than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1-10° most common), (2) displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h(-1)) despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3) demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4 °C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding.

  13. As the egg turns: monitoring egg attendance behavior in wild birds using novel data logging technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Shaffer

    Full Text Available Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1-7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1 turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h(-1 than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1-10° most common, (2 displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h(-1 despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3 demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4 °C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding.

  14. Predation on lake trout eggs and fry: A modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Bowen, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    A general model was developed to examine the effects of multiple predators on survival of eggs and fry of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, associated with spawning reefs. Three kinds of predation were simulated: epibenthic egg predators consuming eggs on the substrate surface during spawning, interstitial egg predators that can move in rocky substrate and consume incubating eggs, and fry predators. Also simulated was the effect of water temperature on predation rates. The model predicted that interstitial predation on eggs accounted for most (76 to 81%) of the predation on early life history stages of lake trout; epibenthic egg predation (12 to 19%) and fry predation (0 to 12%) had less effect on lake trout survival. Initial predation conditions chosen for the model were: epibenthic egg predation peaked at 2 eggs/mA?/d over 30 d, insterstitial egg predation at 2 eggs/mA?/d over 180 d, and fry predation at 1 fry/mA?/d over 60 d. With a starting egg density of 100 eggs/mA? and initial predation conditions, no lake trout were estimated to survive to swim-up. At egg densities of 250 eggs/mA?, 36% of the lake trout survived. At the highest egg densities examined, 500 to 1,000 eggs/mA?, estimated survival increased to about 70 to 80%. Simulated survival rates of lake trout decreased dramatically as predation rate increased but were not as sensitive to increases in the duration of predation.

  15. Egg shape changes at the theropod–bird transition, and a morphometric study of amniote eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Deeming, D Charles; Ruta, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    The eggs of amniotes exhibit a remarkable variety of shapes, from spherical to elongate and from symmetrical to asymmetrical. We examine eggshell geometry in a diverse sample of fossil and living amniotes using geometric morphometrics and linear measurements. Our goal is to quantify patterns of morphospace occupation and shape variation in the eggs of recent through to Mesozoic birds (neornithe plus non-neornithe avialans), as well as in eggs attributed to non-avia...

  16. Imaging Calcium in Drosophila at Egg Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, Christopher J; York-Andersen, Anna H; Weil, Timothy T

    2016-01-01

    Egg activation is a universal process that includes a series of events to allow the fertilized egg to complete meiosis and initiate embryonic development. One aspect of egg activation, conserved across all organisms examined, is a change in the intracellular concentration of calcium (Ca(2+)) often termed a 'Ca(2+) wave'. While the speed and number of oscillations of the Ca(2+) wave varies between species, the change in intracellular Ca(2+) is key in bringing about essential events for embryonic development. These changes include resumption of the cell cycle, mRNA regulation, cortical granule exocytosis, and rearrangement of the cytoskeleton. In the mature Drosophila egg, activation occurs in the female oviduct prior to fertilization, initiating a series of Ca(2+)-dependent events. Here we present a protocol for imaging the Ca(2+) wave in Drosophila. This approach provides a manipulable model system to interrogate the mechanism of the Ca(2+) wave and the downstream changes associated with it. PMID:27584955

  17. How To Boil the Perfect Egg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    小雨

    2007-01-01

    A British inventor says he has cracked(破解)the age-old riddle(难题)of how to boil the perfect egg,get rid of(摆脱)the water. Simon Rhymes uses powerful light bulbs instead of boiling water to cook the egg. The gadget(小发明)does the job in six minutes,and then chons off(削)the top of

  18. Gestagens and glucocorticoids in chicken eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Rettenbacher, S.; Moestl, E.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2009-01-01

    Avian eggs contain a variety of steroid hormones, which have been attributed as a tool for maternal phenotypic engineering. The majority of studies focuses on androgens, but also significant amounts of progesterone as well as other steroid hormones have been measured. The question if corticosterone is also present in eggs of chickens is currently under debate. The only analytical validation performed so far has failed to demonstrate corticosterone in the yolk of chickens, suggesting that anti...

  19. Composition of and cholesterol in Araucana and commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D W; Lilyblade, A; Clifford, C K; Ernst, R; Clifford, A J; Dunn, P

    1978-01-01

    Araucana eggs from six sources and commercial-type white eggs of two major supermarket brands and from the University of California flock were collected and analyzed for cholesterol content of the yolk. The yolks of Araucana eggs were significantly higher in cholesterol than those of commercial white eggs. PMID:563887

  20. Non-transferable signals on ant queen eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Tofilski, Adam; Heinze, Jürgen;

    2006-01-01

    , selfish individuals may evade policing. What factors prevent individuals from being able to evade policing? In the ant Pachycondyla inversa, workers kill (police) worker-laid eggs. Because the colony keeps eggs in piles and worker-laid and queen-laid eggs are chemically distinct, worker-laid eggs might...

  1. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  2. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks that... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  3. Molecular diagnosis of egg allergy: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokshi, Niti Y; Sicherer, Scott H

    2015-01-01

    Hen's egg allergy affects up to 2.5% of young children and is potentially life-threatening. Several phenotypes of egg allergy have been identified, including those who tolerate extensively heated egg in bakery products. Diagnosis and monitoring for resolution often requires oral food challenges, which can result in anaphylaxis. Newer approaches, such as component-resolved diagnostics, microarray analysis and epitope mapping, are being evaluated to determine if these strategies can replace or reduce the need for oral food challenges. Studies suggest that elevated levels of ovomucoid IgE indicate an inability to tolerate extensively heated forms of egg. Egg protein-specific IgE/IgG4 ratios may be helpful in predicting tolerance. Additionally, patients with conformational epitopes to hen's egg are more likely to resolve their allergy compared with those with IgE binding to sequential epitopes. The pairing of microarray technology to epitope mapping is a potential tool to improve diagnosis. This review examines the current body of literature on these tools. PMID:25975845

  4. Aeromonas chitinase degrades chironomid egg masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviad, Sivan; Golan, Amnon; Shaked, Tamar; Vaizel-Ohayon, Dalit; Halpern, Malka; Pick, Elah

    2016-02-01

    Chironomids are freshwater insects that undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages. Chironomid egg masses can be degraded by Vibrio cholerae and some Aeromonas species. Egg mass degradation by V. cholerae requires haemagglutinin protease activity. Our aim was to identify the egg mass degrading (EMD) factor secreted by Aeromonas dhkanesis 3K1C15. Following the hypothesis that the EMD factor of A. dhkanesis is also a protease, secreted proteases were screened, but none of them proved to have the same properties as the EMD factor. Using conventional protein purification methods, we found that the active fraction included chitinases. We further confirmed chitin as a building block of the egg masses. Interestingly, by supplementing bacterial growth media with chitin, we observed unexpected EMD factor activity in Aeromonas isolates that initially were not able to degrade egg masses. Accordingly, we concluded that although strain 3K1C15 secretes chitinases constitutively, most Aeromonas strains secrete chitinases inductively. Induction of chitinases in nature presumably occurs when bacteria are attached to the egg mass habitat, in which chitin is abundant. Considering that chitinases are highly conserved across bacteria phyla, we assume that the role of this enzyme in the bacteria-insect interplay could be wider than is currently thought. PMID:26472256

  5. Prevalence of Pathogens Associated with Eggs and the Environment of Conventional Cage and Free Range Egg Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative egg production methods are becoming more popular with US consumers. As the drive to expand the retail shell egg market to accommodate consumer shifts proceeds, a need arises for additional information to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A study ...

  6. Transfer of flubendazole and tylosin at cross contamination levels in the feed to egg matrices and distribution between egg yolk and egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Delahaut, P; Pierret, G; De Backer, P; Daeseleire, E; Croubels, S

    2012-05-01

    Chemical residues may be present in eggs from laying hens' exposure to drugs or contaminants. These residues may pose risks to human health. In this study, laying hens received experimental feed containing flubendazole or tylosin at cross contamination levels of 2.5, 5, and 10% of the therapeutic dose. Eggs were collected daily and analysis of the whole egg, egg white, and egg yolk was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Highest concentrations of the parent molecule flubendazole, as well as the hydrolyzed and the reduced metabolite, were detected in egg yolk. Residue concentrations of the parent molecule were higher compared with those of the metabolites in all egg matrices. No tylosin residue concentrations were detected above the limit of quantification for all concentration groups and in all egg matrices. Neither molecule exceeded the set maximum residue limits.

  7. Egg size, egg composition and reproductive success in the Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, TD; Hulscher, JB; Kersten, M

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between egg size and composition and their subsequent effects on hatching and fledging success in Eurasian Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus on the island of Schiermonnikoog (53 degrees 30'N, 06 degrees 10'E) in the Dutch Wadden Sea between 1986 and 1990. Egg size

  8. Artificial incubation of muscovy duck eggs : Why some eggs hatch and others do not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harun, MAS; Veeneklaas, RJ; Visser, GH; Van Kampen, M

    2001-01-01

    This study was designed to gain insight into the influence of spraying and cooling, during artificial incubation, on the embryo metabolic rate and hatching ability of Muscovy duck eggs. Three times a week 93 incubated eggs were sprayed and cooled for 0.5 h at room temperature. Daily embryo metabolic

  9. Increasing hatchability of turkey eggs by matching incubator humidity to shell conductance of individual eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, M; Nir, A; Ar, A

    1984-08-01

    One of the most important factors determining hatchability of avian eggs is the proper water balance of the eggs during incubation. In turkey eggs, a total diffusive water loss (F) of 12 +/- 1% SD initial egg mass in 28 days, yielded maximal hatchability irrespective of the combination of eggshell water vapor conductance (G) and incubator humidity (PI), which brought about this water loss. A good correlation was found between G as obtained at the beginning of incubation and the final F in a given PI. The G in a random sample of 1256 fresh turkey eggs was normally distributed around the mean of 18.70 +/- 2.87 SD milligrams (100 g X day X torr)-1 (Coefficient of variation = 15.3%). The distribution of G in eggs with dead in the shell embryos had, in addition, two more peaks of G values [around 22.5 and 13.0 mg (100 g X day X torr)-1]. When eggs were sorted into low (less than 17), medium (17 to 20), and high (greater than 20) G categories, and incubated at low (19.4), medium (26.6), and high (33.9) torr PI, respectively, hatchability increased by a factor of 1.08. Poor hatchabilities were obtained in mismatching humidities and conductances. It seems that hatchability success may be experimentally improved if a correct rate of water loss is fitted to sorted eggs during incubation.

  10. Egg and Egg-Derived Foods: Effects on Human Health and Use as Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eggs are sources of protein, fats and micronutrients that play an important role in basic nutrition. However, eggs are traditionally associated with adverse factors in human health, mainly due to their cholesterol content. Nowadays, however, it is known that the response of cholesterol in human serum levels to dietary cholesterol consumption depends on several factors, such as ethnicity, genetic makeup, hormonal factors and the nutritional status of the consumer. Additionally, in recent decades, there has been an increasing demand for functional foods, which is expected to continue to increase in the future, owing to their capacity to decrease the risks of some diseases and socio-demographic factors such as the increase in life expectancy. This work offers a brief overview of the advantages and disadvantages of egg consumption and the potential market of functional eggs, and it explores the possibilities of the development of functional eggs by technological methods.

  11. Calcium Signaling in Mammalian Eggs at Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Hideki; Kikuchi, Takashi; Ito, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    The innovation and development of live-cell fluorescence imaging methods have revealed the dynamic aspects of intracellular Ca2+ in a wide variety of cells. The fertilized egg, the very first cell to be a new individual, has long been under extensive investigations utilizing Ca2+ imaging since its early days, and spatiotemporal Ca2+ dynamics and underlying mechanisms of Ca2+ mobilization, as well as physiological roles of Ca2+ at fertilization, have become more or less evident in various animal species. In this article, we illustrate characteristic patterns of Ca2+ dynamics in mammalian gametes and molecular basis for Ca2+ release from intracellular stores leading to the elevation in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, and describe the identity and properties of sperm-borne egg-activating factor in relation to the induction of Ca2+ waves and Ca2+ oscillations, referring to its potential use in artificial egg activation as infertility treatment. In addition, a possible Ca2+ influx-driven mechanism for slow and long-lasting Ca2+ oscillations characteristic of mammalian eggs is proposed, based on the recent experimental findings and mathematical modeling. Cumulative knowledge about the roles of Ca2+ in the egg activation leading to early embryogenesis is summarized, to emphasize the diversity of functions that Ca2+ can perform in a single type of cell.

  12. Egg-laying rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Manjunatha; Shantala Hari Dass; Vijay Kumar Sharma

    2008-12-01

    Extensive research has been carried out to understand how circadian clocks regulate various physiological processes in organisms. The discovery of clock genes and the molecular clockwork has helped researchers to understand the possible role of these genes in regulating various metabolic processes. In Drosophila melanogaster, many studies have shown that the basic architecture of circadian clocks is multi-oscillatory. In nature, different neuronal subgroups in the brain of D. melanogaster have been demonstrated to control different circadian behavioural rhythms or different aspects of the same circadian rhythm. Among the circadian phenomena that have been studied so far in Drosophila, the egg-laying rhythm is unique, and relatively less explored. Unlike most other circadian rhythms, the egg-laying rhythm is rhythmic under constant light conditions, and the endogenous or free-running period of the rhythm is greater than those of most other rhythms. Although the clock genes and neurons required for the persistence of adult emergence and activity/rest rhythms have been studied extensively, those underlying the circadian egg-laying rhythm still remain largely unknown. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the circadian egg-laying rhythm in D. melanogaster, and the possible molecular and physiological mechanisms that control the rhythmic output of the egg-laying process.

  13. 9 CFR 590.840 - Identification of inedible, unwholesome, or adulterated egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., unwholesome, or adulterated egg products. 590.840 Section 590.840 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for...

  14. 9 CFR 590.26 - Egg products entering or prepared in official plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products entering or prepared in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.26 Egg products entering or prepared in official plants. Eggs...

  15. Chemical residue content and hatchability of screech owl eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, E.E.; Swineford, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    Eggs of wild Screech Owls were collected from nests in northwestern Ohio in 1973. One egg was taken from each of 19 nests near the start of incubation. Mean shell thickness in these 19 eggs and mean thickness of 16 unhatched eggs did not differ from 49 archival eggs collected in Ohio and Pennsylvania prior to the widespread use of organochlorine pesticides. Residues were generally low although all eggs contained DDE and PCB?s. No relationship was found between hatching failures and the presence of organochlorine residues. Low residues are consistent with a long history of good nesting success and a stable population.

  16. How would you like your egg?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dimitri Cizanitis

    2009-01-01

    @@ A 50 year old librarian and her husband were on an overnight cruise from Helsinki to Stockholm. Apart from being allergic to egg yolk, she enjoyed good health, In the morning they visited the ship's dining room with its bountiful breakfast buffet. The woman was careful not to select any food that might contain egg yolk, but a short time later she developed itching and urticaria that became evident over areas of her face, neck, chest, and arms. With their holiday now dampened, the couple returned to the dining room to unscramble the mystery.

  17. How to evade a coevolving brood parasite: egg discrimination versus egg variability as host defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spottiswoode, Claire N; Stevens, Martin

    2011-12-01

    Arms races between avian brood parasites and their hosts often result in parasitic mimicry of host eggs, to evade rejection. Once egg mimicry has evolved, host defences could escalate in two ways: (i) hosts could improve their level of egg discrimination; and (ii) negative frequency-dependent selection could generate increased variation in egg appearance (polymorphism) among individuals. Proficiency in one defence might reduce selection on the other, while a combination of the two should enable successful rejection of parasitic eggs. We compared three highly variable host species of the Afrotropical cuckoo finch Anomalospiza imberbis, using egg rejection experiments and modelling of avian colour and pattern vision. We show that each differed in their level of polymorphism, in the visual cues they used to reject foreign eggs, and in their degree of discrimination. The most polymorphic host had the crudest discrimination, whereas the least polymorphic was most discriminating. The third species, not currently parasitized, was intermediate for both defences. A model simulating parasitic laying and host rejection behaviour based on the field experiments showed that the two host strategies result in approximately the same fitness advantage to hosts. Thus, neither strategy is superior, but rather they reflect alternative potential evolutionary trajectories.

  18. Effect of selenium-enriched probiotics on laying performance, egg quality, egg selenium content, and egg glutathione peroxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Cuiling; Zhao, Yuxin; Liao, Shengfa F; Chen, Fu; Qin, Shunyi; Wu, Xianshi; Zhou, Hong; Huang, Kehe

    2011-11-01

    A 35-day experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of selenium-enriched probiotics (SP) on laying performance, egg quality, egg selenium (Se) content, and egg glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity. Five hundred 58-week-old Rohman laying hens were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments of 100 each. Each treatment had 5 replicates, and each replicate had 5 cages with 4 hens per cage. The SP was supplemented to a corn-soybean-meal basal diet at 3 different levels that supplied total Se at 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg. The basal diet served as a blank control, while the basal diet with supplemental probiotics served as a probiotics control. The results showed that dietary SP supplementation not only increased (p hen and human health with the probiotics benefit for laying hen production performance. It was also suggested that the eggs from hens fed this SP can serve as a nutraceutical food with high Se and low cholesterol contents for both healthy people and patients with hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, or cardiovascular disease. PMID:21942342

  19. Enumeration of salmonellae in table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes by using quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakociune, Dziuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares; Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Klein, Günter; Manfreda, Gerardo; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2014-03-01

    Salmonellae are a major cause of food-borne outbreaks in Europe, with eggs and egg products being identified as major sources. Due to the low levels of salmonellae in eggs and egg products, direct quantification is difficult. In the present study, enrichment quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between the numbers of salmonellae and the quantification cycle (Cq) values for all matrices used, with the exception of pasteurized egg white. Standard curves were constructed by using both stationary-phase cells and heat-stressed cells, with similar results. Finally, this method was used to evaluate the fate of salmonellae in two egg-containing dishes, long egg and tiramisu, at abused refrigeration temperatures, and results indicated the growth of bacteria over a 1-week period. In conclusion, enrichment qPCR was shown to be reliable for enumeration of salmonellae in different egg products.

  20. Enumeration of salmonellae in table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes by using quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakociune, Dziuginta; Pasquali, Frédérique; da Silva, Cristiana Soares; Löfström, Charlotta; Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Klein, Günter; Manfreda, Gerardo; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2014-03-01

    Salmonellae are a major cause of food-borne outbreaks in Europe, with eggs and egg products being identified as major sources. Due to the low levels of salmonellae in eggs and egg products, direct quantification is difficult. In the present study, enrichment quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was employed for enumeration of salmonellae in different matrices: table eggs, pasteurized egg products, and egg-containing dishes. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Tennessee were used to artificially contaminate these matrices. The results showed a linear regression between the numbers of salmonellae and the quantification cycle (Cq) values for all matrices used, with the exception of pasteurized egg white. Standard curves were constructed by using both stationary-phase cells and heat-stressed cells, with similar results. Finally, this method was used to evaluate the fate of salmonellae in two egg-containing dishes, long egg and tiramisu, at abused refrigeration temperatures, and results indicated the growth of bacteria over a 1-week period. In conclusion, enrichment qPCR was shown to be reliable for enumeration of salmonellae in different egg products. PMID:24362433

  1. Physical quality and composition of retail shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Musgrove, M T; Anderson, K E; Thesmar, H S

    2010-03-01

    There are a number of specialty shell eggs available to consumers in the US retail market. A survey consisting of white and brown large shell eggs with various production and nutritional differences (traditional, cage-free, free-roaming, pasteurized, nutritionally enhanced, and fertile) was conducted to determine if physical quality and compositional differences exist. Identical brands of eggs were purchased from the same retail outlets on 3 occasions (replicates) in a single city. The average range of time from processing to purchase for all eggs was 7.67 to 25.33 d, with traditional white eggs in retail having the shortest time. Haugh unit values ranged from 66.67 (cage-free, docosahexaenoic acid, and n-3 enhanced) to 84.42 (traditional white). Albumen height followed a similar pattern. Egg weight was greater for brown eggs (61.12 vs. 58.85 g). Brown eggs also had greater static compression shell strength than white eggs (4,130.61 vs. 3,690.31 g force). Vitelline membrane strength was greatest for traditional brown eggs (2.24 g force). Percentage of total solids and crude fat was greatest in the cage-free, n-3-enhanced white eggs (25.07 and 11.71%, respectively). Although significant differences were found between white and brown shell eggs and production methods, average values for quality attributes varied without one egg type consistently maintaining the highest or lowest values. PMID:20181877

  2. BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS (BEA IN EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Deže

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A conducted research analyzes two systems of egg production, the conventional, commercial egg production and the egg production with a higher nutritive value - PUFA n-3 enriched eggs. Financial result of eggs production with PUFA n-3 is significantly higher than that of the conventional production - profitability of the conventional production was 19.29% and the one with PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 36.10%. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the efficiency of the use of capital based on the profitability of capital that is in the conventional egg production 23.9%, and in the production of PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 56.1%. According to the results of investigation, it is necessary to produce 258 eggs in the conventional egg production, whereas in the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 breakeven point (BEP is lower and amounts 204 eggs per laying hen per year. A higher cover rate with a difference of 10% (42.99±53.07 confirms that the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 is economically more efficient.

  3. Non-transferable signals on ant queen eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Tofilski, Adam; Heinze, Jürgen; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2006-03-01

    How biological systems resolve internal conflicts is a major evolutionary question. Social insect workers cooperate but also pursue individual interests, such as laying male eggs. The rewards of this individual selfishness can be reduced by policing, such as by killing worker-laid eggs. However, selfish individuals may evade policing. What factors prevent individuals from being able to evade policing? In the ant Pachycondyla inversa, workers kill (police) worker-laid eggs. Because the colony keeps eggs in piles and worker-laid and queen-laid eggs are chemically distinct, worker-laid eggs might become more acceptable once placed in the egg pile by odour transfer from touching queen-laid eggs. Here, we show that such “cue scrambling” does not occur. Worker-laid eggs that were sandwiched between three queen-laid eggs for 45 min were not more acceptable in a policing bioassay than control worker-laid eggs. Chemical analyses also showed that the surface hydrocarbon profile of these eggs was unchanged. Policing, therefore, is stable against this potential cheating mechanism probably because queen-laid eggs are made chemically distinct using chemicals, that are not easily transferred by physical contact.

  4. Egg size matching by an intraspecific brood parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemons, Patrick R.; Sedinger, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Avian brood parasitism provides an ideal system with which to understand animal recognition and its affect on fitness. This phenomenon of laying eggs in the nests of other individuals has classically been framed from the perspective of interspecific brood parasitism and host recognition of parasitic eggs. Few examples exist of strategies adopted by intraspecific brood parasites to maximize success of parasitic eggs. Intraspecific brood parasitism within precocial birds can be a risky strategy in that hatch synchrony is essential to reproductive success. Given that egg size is positively correlated with incubation time, parasitic birds would benefit by recognizing and selecting hosts with a similar egg size. Intraspecific brood parasitism is an alternative reproductive strategy in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans), a colonial nesting goose with precocial young. Based on a randomization test, parasitic eggs in this study differed less in size from eggs in their host's nests than did random eggs placed in random nests. Parasitic eggs were remarkably similar in size to hosts’ eggs, differing by parasitic brant match the egg size of hosts in our study supports our hypothesis that brant match egg size of hosts, thereby maximizing hatching success of their parasitic eggs.

  5. Recovery of Salmonella from eggshell wash, eggshell crush, and egg internal contents of unwashed commercial shell eggs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chousalkar, K K; Roberts, J R

    2012-07-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the prevalence of Salmonella spp. on the eggshell surface, eggshell membranes or pores, and in egg internal contents from unwashed eggs collected from commercial caged layer farms in Australia. Eggshell rinsate, shell crush, and egg internal contents (yolk and albumen) of eggs were processed for Salmonella spp. Salmonella Infantis and Salmonella subspecies 1, serotype 4,12:d were isolated from the eggshell surface. Salmonella spp. were not isolated from any eggshell crush or egg internal contents. It would appear that the occurrence of Salmonella in the Australian egg industry is low. PMID:22700522

  6. 7 CFR 57.720 - Disposition of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the egg meat. Except that, lots of eggs containing significant percentages of blood spots or meat... permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B shall be identified as required in §§...

  7. Ostrich (Struthio camelus Egg Embryonic Death During Artificial Incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha E. Faki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of ostrich farming revealed that egg hatchability was remarkably lower than the wild. This review considers the factors leading to, as pertaining to the ostrich, egg and incubator. Ostrich genotype, age, season and congenital problems affect clutch and egg sizes and egg quality- fertility to lead a successful hatch. Egg treatment prior incubation can later reduce hatchability, affected by storage conditions and duration. Most detrimental factors lie in the incubator and hatcher management. Egg correct positioning and turning in the appropriate incubator humidity and temperature are likely to yield high hatch. Variability in egg size, shell quality, pore sizes and numbers govern the water loss and exchange of gases. The hatcher management is important when chicks need intervention. Dead-in-shell embryos, early or late were likely to be affected by all of the above factors plus egg microbial contamination or be merely nutritional.

  8. Moorhens have an internal representation of their own eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Marion; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2009-03-01

    How do birds recognize their own eggs? Do they have a stored template for their own egg characteristics, or do they use another mechanism? Intraspecific brood parasitism is considered to be an additional reproductive tactic where females can increase their own reproductive success. Because of the costs involved in rearing young that are not their own, it will pay females to detect and reject the eggs of a parasite, although it is not known how they do this. Here, we show experimentally that moorhens will cease laying in a nest when their first egg is replaced with another hen’s egg but not when it is replaced with their own egg taken from an earlier clutch. This provides good evidence that birds have an internal representation of their own eggs and use this in decisions about whether to reject foreign eggs.

  9. Sanitation in the Shell Egg Processing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past, most of the regulations regarding egg processing are concerned with quality rather than safety. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) will be required by retailers or by the federal government. GMPs (Good Manufacturing Practices) and SSOPs (Sanitation Standard Operating P...

  10. Frog egg growth, experiment S003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. S.; Tremor, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The objective of experiment was to determine the effect of weightlessness on the ability of a fertilized frog egg to divide normally and to differentiate and form a normal embryo. This experiment was first attempted on the Gemini 8 mission and was completed only partially because of the early termination of that mission.

  11. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  12. Bald eagle predation on common loon egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Stephen; McCarthy, Kyle P.; Laskowski, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The Common Loon (Gavia immer) must defend against many potential egg predators during incubation, including corvids, Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), raccoons (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), fisher (Martes pennanti), and mink (Neovison vison) (McIntyre 1988, Evers 2004, McCann et al. 2005). Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) have been documented as predators of both adult Common Loons and their chicks (Vliestra and Paruk 1997, Paruk et al. 1999, Erlandson et al. 2007, Piper et al. 2008). In Wisconsin, where nesting Bald Eagles are abundant (.1200 nesting pairs, .1 young/pair/year), field biologists observed four instances of eagle predation of eggs in loon nests during the period 2002–2004 (M. Meyer pers. comm.). In addition, four cases of eagle predation of incubating adult loons were inferred from evidence found at the loon nest (dozens of plucked adult loon feathers, no carcass remains) and/or loon leg, neck, and skull bones beneath two active eagle nests, including leg bones containing the bands of the nearby (,25 m) incubating adult loon. However, although loon egg predation has been associated with Bald Eagles, predation events have yet to be described in peer-reviewed literature. Here we describe a photographic observation of predation on a Common Loon egg by an immature Bald Eagle as captured by a nest surveillance video camera on Lake Umbagog, a large lake (32 km2) at Umbagog National Wildlife Refuge (UNWR) in Maine.

  13. Gestagens and glucocorticoids in chicken eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rettenbacher, S.; Moestl, E.; Groothuis, T. G. G.

    2009-01-01

    Avian eggs contain a variety of steroid hormones, which have been attributed as a tool for maternal phenotypic engineering. The majority of studies focuses on androgens, but also significant amounts of progesterone as well as other steroid hormones have been measured. The question if corticosterone

  14. Social order and egg production of hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, van E.H.; Groeneveld, J.; Brat, L.C.; Kleijn, L.J.K.; Schenk, P.M.

    1968-01-01

    1. For two flocks of 48 and 40 hens, consisting of the F1 of Rhode Island Red males and White Leghorn females, peck-order, aggressiveness and egg production were determined. Flock I was built up step by step by continually adding a group of 8 hens to the hens already present in the testing pen. Floc

  15. eggNOG v3.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, S.; Trachana, K.; Letunic, I.;

    2012-01-01

    ranges enabling much more fine-grained orthology assignments; and (iii) the newly designed web page is considerably faster with more functionality. In total, eggNOG v3 contains 721,801 orthologous groups, encompassing a total of 4,396,591 genes. Additionally, we updated 4873 and 4850 original COGs...

  16. Field study on broiler eggs hatchability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yassin, H.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Boerjan, M.; Riel, van J.W.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore factors that are related with hatchability in the field. Data from 3 Dutch hatcheries for the years 2004, 2005, and 2006 were analyzed using a random regression model with the method of restricted maximum likelihood. In total, 24,234 batches of 724,750,444 egg

  17. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food-grade baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The quantity of yeast used and the time of...) Enzyme procedure. A glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation and hydrogen peroxide solution are added to the... glucose content of the liquid eggs. The glucose-oxidase-catalase preparation used is one that is...

  18. Infections may select for filial cannibalism by impacting egg survival in interactions with water salinity and egg density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-07-01

    In aquatic environments, externally developing eggs are in constant contact with the surrounding water, highlighting the significance of water parameters and pathogens for egg survival. In this study we tested the impact of water salinity, egg density and infection potential of the environment on egg viability in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a small fish that exhibits paternal egg care and has a marine origin, but which in the Baltic Sea lives in brackish water. To manipulate the infection potential of the environment, we added either a Saprolegnia infection vector into UV-filtered water or a fungicide into natural Baltic Sea water. Saprolegnia are widely spread water moulds that are a key cause of egg mortality in aquatic organisms in fresh- and brackish water. We found that increased water salinity indeed decreased the egg infection rate and had a positive effect on egg viability, while high egg density tended to have the opposite effect. However, the different factors influenced egg viability interactively, with a higher egg density having negative effects at low, but not in high, salinity. Thus, the challenges facing marine organisms adapting to lower salinity levels can be amplified by Saprolegnia infections that reduce egg survival in interaction with other environmental factors. Our results support the hypothesis that suppressing egg infections is an important aspect of parental care that can select for filial cannibalism, a common but poorly understood behaviour, especially in fish with parental care. PMID:25676104

  19. Effect of egg storage length on hatchability and weight loss in incubation of egg and meat type Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Romao

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The quail raising in Brazil has increased through the last years and the incubation procedures are important to maintenance and improvement of quail egg production. To obtain a sufficient number of eggs to fill an incubator, eggs are usually accumulated in storage over a period from 1 day up to 3 weeks before incubation. The objective of this research was to verify the effect of egg storage on hatchability and egg weight loss for two lineages of Japanese quails. Sixty four Japanese quails were divided in two groups: G1 (n=32 for meat production and G2 (n=32 for egg production. They were used for serial egg collections that were performed every day, during 15 consecutively days, totaling 600 eggs. After collection they were placed in refrigerated room (20°C and 60% of relative humidity and submitted to different periods of storage, from 0 day until 14 days, according to their collection day. The incubation occurred at 37.6°C and 60% RH. The weight measurements were done during storage, incubation and hatching. The results showed that for Meat type and Egg type quails, the egg hatchability was around 84% until 10 days of storage, and then this rate decreased significantly. Both types of quail eggs presented similar weight loss during storage and incubation. The research showed that quail eggs present great hatchability until 10 days of storage and that eggs submitted to storage present a reduced weight loss during incubation.

  20. Antimicrobial secondary metabolites from marine gastropod egg capsules and egg masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaviarasan T; Siva Sankar R; Yogamoorthi A

    2012-01-01

    Marine organisms have attracted special attention in the last three decades for their ability to produce interesting pharmacological active compounds. Even though all marine organisms have the potential to produce antimicrobial secondary metabolites, the gastropod has the vital sources of secondary metabolites particularly their egg capsule which has the promising antimicrobial secondary metabolites. In the present review, we intend to focus on marine secondary metabolites from marine gastropod egg capsule. The following compounds i.e. Kabiramid C, Aplysianin E, Aplysianin A, Thisaplysianin E and Tyrian purple have been documented in egg capsule of various gastropod and most of the antimicrobial secondary metabolites have not been isolated from the egg capsule because of the odious, and complex chemical structure. Stability of the compounds is unknown.

  1. Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lauren K; Harrison, Mark A; Berrang, Mark E; Jones, Deana R

    2016-07-01

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures were evaluated for Salmonella reduction: pH 11 at 48.9°C (industry standard), pH 11 at ambient temperature (∼20°C), pH 6 at 48.9°C, and pH 6 at ambient temperature. Alkaline washes contained potassium hydroxide-based detergent, while pH 6 washes contained approximately 200 ppm of chlorine and a proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128). When eggs were inoculated by immersion in a cell suspension of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, all treatments resulted in a slight and similar reduction of Salmonella numbers (approximately 0.77 log CFU/ml of shell emulsion reduction). When eggs were inoculated by droplet on the shell surface, Salmonella counts were reduced by approximately 5 log CFU when washed with chlorine plus the chlorine stabilizer at both temperatures and with the alkaline wash at the high temperature. The reductions in Salmonella by these treatments were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from each other but were significantly (P < 0.05) more than the reduction observed for the 20°C alkaline treatment and 20°C control water treatments. Ambient temperature acidic washes reduced Salmonella contamination to the same degree as the standard pH 11 warm water wash and may be a viable option to reduce cost, increase shelf life, and slow pathogen growth in and on shell eggs.

  2. Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lauren K; Harrison, Mark A; Berrang, Mark E; Jones, Deana R

    2016-07-01

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures were evaluated for Salmonella reduction: pH 11 at 48.9°C (industry standard), pH 11 at ambient temperature (∼20°C), pH 6 at 48.9°C, and pH 6 at ambient temperature. Alkaline washes contained potassium hydroxide-based detergent, while pH 6 washes contained approximately 200 ppm of chlorine and a proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128). When eggs were inoculated by immersion in a cell suspension of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, all treatments resulted in a slight and similar reduction of Salmonella numbers (approximately 0.77 log CFU/ml of shell emulsion reduction). When eggs were inoculated by droplet on the shell surface, Salmonella counts were reduced by approximately 5 log CFU when washed with chlorine plus the chlorine stabilizer at both temperatures and with the alkaline wash at the high temperature. The reductions in Salmonella by these treatments were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from each other but were significantly (P water treatments. Ambient temperature acidic washes reduced Salmonella contamination to the same degree as the standard pH 11 warm water wash and may be a viable option to reduce cost, increase shelf life, and slow pathogen growth in and on shell eggs. PMID:27357042

  3. Factors that Affect the Microbiology of Commercial Shell Egg Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intact shell eggs are designed to limit bacterial contamination of egg contents, protecting a developing embryo, but also contributing to their wholesomeness as human food. In order for eggs to be involved in human enteritis, there is often temperature abuse of raw product followed by consumption o...

  4. Organochlorine and heavy metal residues in bald eagle eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, W.C.; Mulhern, B.M.; Bagley, G.E.; Sprunt, A., IV; Ligas, F.J.; Robertson, W.B., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Bald eagle eggs collected in 1968 from nests in Wisconsin, Maine, and Florida all contained residues of DDE, DDD, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Many also contained traces of DDT. Eggs from five nonproductive nests sampled in Maine contained much higher residues than did eggs collected from either productive or nonproductive nests in Wisconsin and Florida.

  5. 9 CFR 147.22 - Hatching egg sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hatching egg sanitation. 147.22... AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT AUXILIARY PROVISIONS ON NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN Sanitation Procedures § 147.22 Hatching egg sanitation. Hatching eggs should be collected from the nests at...

  6. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization facilities... liquid egg product shall include a holding tube, an automatic flow diversion valve, thermal controls,...

  7. 7 CFR 1250.517 - Remittance to Egg Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remittance to Egg Board. 1250.517 Section 1250.517... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Assessments, Collections, and Remittances § 1250.517 Remittance to Egg Board. (a)...

  8. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF H5/H7 LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been...

  9. 7 CFR 1250.305 - Egg producer or producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg producer or producer. 1250.305 Section 1250.305... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.305 Egg producer or producer. Egg producer or producer... laying hens is in some other party to the contract. In the event the party to an oral contract...

  10. Consumption of bird eggs by invasive Burmese Pythons in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Carla J.; Reed, Robert N.; Snow, Ray W.

    2012-01-01

    Burmese Pythons (Python molurus bivittatus or P. bivittatus) have been reported to consume 25 species of adult birds in Everglades National Park, Florida (Dove et al. 2011), but until now no records documented this species eating bird eggs. Here we report three recent cases of bird-egg consumption by Burmese Pythons and discuss egg-eating in basal snakes.

  11. Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Salmonella from Eggs

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-19

    Eggs are one of nature's most nutritious and economical foods, but you must take special care when handling and preparing fresh eggs and egg products to avoid food poisoning.  Created: 8/19/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases (NCEZID/DFWED).   Date Released: 8/19/2010.

  12. Irregularly calcified eggs and eggshells of Caiman latirostris (Alligatoridae: Crocodylia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Mariela Soledad; Simoncini, Melina Soledad; Dyke, Gareth

    2013-05-01

    We describe irregularly calcified egg and eggshell morphologies for the first time in nests of the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris. Research is based on detailed descriptions of 270 eggs from a total sample of 46,800 collected between 2005 and 2011 in Santa Fe Province, Argentina, and encompasses animals from both natural habitats and held in captivity. We discuss possible reasons for the occurrence of eggs with different mineralisation patterns in our extensive C. latirostris field sample and its conservation significance; the chemistry of egg laying in amniotes is sensitive to environmental contamination which, in turn, has biological implications. Based on our egg sample, we identify two caiman eggshell abnormalities: (1) regularly calcified eggs with either calcitic nodules or superficial wrinkles at one egg end and (2) irregularly calcified eggs with structural gaps that weaken the shell. Some recently laid clutches we examined included eggs with most of the shell broken and detached from the flexible membrane. Most type 1 regularly calcified eggs lost their initial calcified nodules during incubation, suggesting that these deposits do not affect embryo survival rates. In contrast, irregularly calcified caiman eggs have a mean hatching success rate of 8.9 % (range 0-38 %) across our sample compared to a mean normal success of 75 %. Most irregularly calcified caiman eggs probably die because of infections caused by fungi and bacteria in the organic nest material, although another possible explanation that merits further investigation could be an increase in permeability, leading to embryo dehydration.

  13. Factors that affect Commercial Shell Egg Processing Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intact shell eggs are designed to limit bacterial contamination of egg contents, protecting a developing embryo, but also contributing to their wholesomeness as human food. In order for eggs to be involved in human enteritis, there is often temperature abuse of raw product followed by consumption o...

  14. Relationship between specific IgE to egg components and natural history of egg allergy in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gradman, Josefine; Mortz, Charlotte G; Eller, Esben;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of egg-allergic children develop tolerance over time. However, it may take numerous of consecutive egg challenges to get there as no good indices to predict tolerance exist. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether serial measurements of specific IgE to egg white, ovomucoid......, ovalbumin, conalbumin, lysozyme, and egg yolk could improve the specificity of the diagnostic workup and aid in the decision when to rechallenge egg-allergic children. METHODS: The outcome of oral food challenges with hen's egg and corresponding specific IgE levels were evaluated in children referred...... to The Allergy Center within an 8-year period. The egg-allergic children were rechallenged and had specific IgE levels measured once a year. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 26 months, 287 challenges and corresponding 287 serum analyses were performed in 130 children. Of the 130 children, 99 were egg...

  15. A saltwater flotation technique to identify unincubated eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devney, C.A.; Kondrad, S.L.; Stebbins, K.R.; Brittingham, K.D.; Hoffman, D.J.; Heinz, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Field studies on nesting birds sometimes involve questions related to nest initiation dates, length of the incubation period, or changes in parental incubation behavior during various stages of incubation. Some of this information can be best assessed when a nest is discovered before the eggs have undergone any incubation, and this has traditionally been assessed by floating eggs in freshwater. However, because the freshwater method is not particularly accurate in identifying unincubated eggs, we developed a more reliable saltwater flotation method. The saltwater method involves diluting a saturated saltwater solution with freshwater until a salt concentration is reached where unincubated eggs sink to the bottom and incubated eggs float to the surface. For Laughing Gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla), floating eggs in freshwater failed to identify 39.0% (N = 251) of eggs that were subsequently found by candling to have undergone incubation prior to collection. By contrast, in a separate collection of gull eggs, no eggs that passed the saltwater test (N = 225) were found by a later candling to have been incubated prior to collection. For Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), floating eggs in freshwater failed to identify 15.6% (N = 250) of eggs that had undergone incubation prior to collection, whereas in a separate collection, none of the eggs that passed the saltwater test (N = 85) were found by a later candling to have been incubated prior to collection. Immersion of eggs in saltwater did not affect embryo survival. Although use of the saltwater method is likely limited to colonial species and requires calibrating a saltwater solution, it is a faster and more accurate method of identifying unincubated eggs than the traditional method of floating eggs in freshwater.

  16. 9 CFR 590.24 - Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products plants requiring..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Scope of Inspection § 590.24 Egg products plants requiring continuous inspection. No plant...

  17. Transfer of the coccidiostats monensin and lasalocid from feed at cross-contamination levels to whole egg, egg white and egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Huyghebaert, G; Delahaut, P; Pierret, G; De Backer, P; Croubels, S; Daeseleire, E

    2012-01-01

    Recent legislation has addressed the unavoidable carry-over of coccidiostats and histomonostats in feed, which may lead to the presence of residues of these compounds in eggs. In this study, laying hens received cross-contaminated feed at a ratio of 2.5%, 5% and 10% of the therapeutic dose of monensin and lasalocid for broilers. The eggs were collected during the treatment and depletion period and were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The different egg matrices were separated and analysed during the plateau phase. High lasalocid concentrations, which exceeded the maximum residue level, and low monensin concentrations were found in whole egg. Plateau levels were reached at days 7-9 for lasalocid and at days 3-5 for monensin. For lasalocid, the highest concentrations were measured in egg yolk; residue concentrations in egg white were very low.

  18. Luminescence color as a characteristic for selection in poultry eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybalova, Natalya B.; Vasiljeva, Ludmilia T.; Zamorskaja, Tatjana; Bychajev, Al.

    1996-12-01

    This work concerns luminescence of egg shell and chick down and livability and egg production of hens. It was established that the best layers showed orange color of egg shell luminescence at the beginning of the laying period. Yellow color of chick down luminescence indicates on the chicken's good development especially concerning its digestive and circulatory systems, and connects with its future high livability and egg production. So the use of the color of luminescence is advisable as an additional characteristic providing good possibility to forecast the development of a chicken, its resistance for stressors, its livability and egg production afterwards.

  19. Consumer confidence in Food Safety and the 2010 egg recall

    OpenAIRE

    Pouliot, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Iowa egg producers recalled nearly 500 million eggs in August 2010. The typical effect of a recall is to cause a decline in the demand for the affected product, yielding a decrease in the price. In the case of August 2010 egg recall, the price of eggs increased in the following weeks. This essay investigates the market effects of the egg recall. I estimate a system of simultaneous equations that includes supply and demand equations for the two main segments of the US industry. This essay offe...

  20. Industrially processed oilseed rape in the production of table eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g. Egg white weight was calculated. The thickness and strength of the egg shell were measured from the dried samples at 55 °C. From each egg shell were cut 3 pcs of samples in the equatorial plane, one sample from the blunt end and one sample from the sharp end. Egg shell thickness was measured by test instrument SOME, type 60/0.01mm with a range of 0 - 10 mm. Egg shell strength was measured according to test instrument Instron with the small body, having a diameter 4.48 mm to exert pressure on the egg shell. The obtained data were assessed in the program system SAS, version 8.2. Based on the results observed in egg weight of our experiment we can conclude that in the group with share 5% of rape cakes was non-statistically significant (p >0.05 decreased egg weight compared to the control group. Egg weight was reduced in the group with share 10% of rape cakes, which confirmed a statistically significant difference compared to egg weight of control group (p ˂0.05. The differences among experimental groups with share 5% and 10% of rape cakes in feed mixture and as well as to control group were not statistically significant (p >0.05 in weight of egg yolk, egg white, egg shell and egg shell strength. Egg shell thickness was no statistically significant (p >0.05 increased in experimental group with share 5% of rape cakes and decreased in experimental group with share 10% of rape cakes versus control group. Increase of egg shell thickness in experimental group with

  1. Egg Drop Competition Involving Only Toothpicks and Glue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, Stephen

    2004-04-01

    The Winston Science Egg Drop Competition is held annually in November, one of a large group of science competitions organized by Lehman Marks of the Winston School in Dallas, TX. The rules for the competition state that the egg package may be constructed of toothpicks and glue only, with a mass limit of 50 g, not including the egg. Once the egg is placed inside the package, it is dropped from a height of 8 m. The winning entry is the one that makes impact in the least amount of time while still protecting the egg. Timing is electronic.

  2. Hen Egg as an Antioxidant Food Commodity: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamila Nimalaratne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intake of antioxidants through diet is known to be important in reducing oxidative damage in cells and improving human health. Although eggs are known for their exceptional, nutritional quality, they are not generally considered as antioxidant foods. This review aims to establish the importance of eggs as an antioxidant food by summarizing the current knowledge on egg-derived antioxidants. Eggs have various natural occurring compounds including the proteins ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme in egg white, as well as phosvitin, carotenoids and free aromatic amino acids in egg yolk. Some lipophilic antioxidants such as vitamin E, carotenoids, selenium, iodine and others can be transferred from feed into egg yolk to produce antioxidant-enriched eggs. The bioactivity of egg antioxidants can be affected by food processing, storage and gastrointestinal digestion. Generally thermal processing methods can promote loss of antioxidant properties in eggs due to oxidation and degradation, whereas gastrointestinal digestion enhances the antioxidant properties, due to the formation of new antioxidants (free amino acids and peptides. In summary, in addition to its well-known nutritional contribution to our diet, this review emphasizes the role of eggs as an important antioxidant food.

  3. Effects of some pesticides on development of Ascaris suum eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong-Man; Kim, Jin-Won; Na, Won-Seok; Youn, Young-Nam; Choi, In-Wook; Lee, Young-Ha

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of pesticides to parasite eggs, Ascaris suum eggs were incubated with 5 different pesticides (1:1,500-1:2,000 dilutions of 2% emamectin benzoate, 5% spinetoram, 5% indoxacarb, 1% deltamethrin, and 5% flufenoxuron; all v/v) at 20℃ for 6 weeks, and microscopically evaluated the egg survival and development on a weekly basis. The survival rate of A. suum eggs incubated in normal saline (control eggs) was 90±3% at 6 weeks. However, the survival rates of eggs treated with pesticides were 75-85% at this time, thus significantly lower than the control value. Larval development in control eggs commenced at 3 weeks, and 73±3% of eggs had internal larvae at 6 weeks. Larvae were evident in pesticide-treated eggs at 3-4 weeks, and the proportions of eggs carrying larvae at 6 weeks (36±3%-54±3%) were significantly lower than that of the control group. Thus, pesticides tested at levels similar to those used in agricultural practices exhibited low-level ovicidal activity and delayed embryogenesis of A. suum eggs, although some differences were evident among the tested pesticides.

  4. Characteristics of reared game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Guidobono Cavalchini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and physical characteristics of game pheasant (Phasianus colchicus’s egg were studied and compared with domesticfowl (Gallus gallus domesticus’s egg. The birds were housed in individual cages in a environmentally controlled room(T=18÷20°C; 16L:8D and fed ad libitum standard breeder diet. A sample of thirty eggs was analysed for each phase of thelaying period (beginning, peak and end. The following chemico-physical parameters: egg, albumen, yolk and shell weight;yolk colour; egg and shell dry matter (DM; shell thickness (blunt end, pointed end and middle part were measured. Theprotein, lipid, and cholesterol content was evaluated; the fatty acid (FA profile analysed. We observed: egg weight averageof 34.5g ; a high proportion of yolk (37% in the whole egg (Y/E, consequently, a high lipid content of 13.9%; a protein contentDM of 44.3%; the fatty acid composition was similar to that of chicken egg and the oleic acid (36.4% was the majorproportion of the total fatty acids, as in the domestic fowl. The rearing pheasant’s egg has a high nutritive concentration, dueto high ratio yolk/whole egg, with biological and nutritional characteristics similar to domestic fowl’s egg.

  5. Ballistocardiogram of avian eggs determined by an electromagnetic induction coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, H; Akiyama, R; Sakamoto, Y; Pearson, J T; Tazawa, H

    1997-07-01

    As an avian embryo grows within an eggshell, the whole egg is moved by embryonic activity and also by the embryonic heartbeat. A technical interest in detecting minute biological movements has prompted the development of techniques and systems to measure the cardiogenic ballistic movement of the egg or ballistocardiogram (BCG). In this context, there is interest in using an electromagnetic induction coil (solenoid) as another simple sensor to measure the BCG and examining its possibility for BCG measurement. A small permanent magnet is attached tightly to the surface of an incubated egg, and then the egg with the magnet is placed in a solenoid. Preliminary model analysis is made to design a setup of the egg, magnet and solenoid coupling system. Then, simultaneous measurement with a laser displacement measuring system, developed previously, is made for chicken eggs, indicating that the solenoid detects the minute cardiogenic ballistic movements and that the BCG determined is a measure of the velocity of egg movements. PMID:9327626

  6. The Eagle's EGGs fertile or sterile?

    CERN Document Server

    McCaughrean, M J; Caughrean, Mark J. Mc; Andersen, Morten

    2002-01-01

    We present a deep, high spatial resolution (0.35 arcsec FWHM), near-infrared (1-2.5 micron) imaging survey of the Eagle Nebula, M16, made with the VLT, centred on the famous elephant trunks. We compare these data with the existing HST optical images to search for evidence of ongoing or recent star formation in the trunks, and in particular in the 73 small evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs) on their surface. We find that two of the three HST trunks have relatively massive YSOs in their tips. Most of the EGGs appear to be empty, but some 15% of them do show evidence for associated young low-mass stars or brown dwarfs: in particular, there is a small cluster of such sources seen at the head of the largest trunk.

  7. The Walking Egg non-profit organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, N

    2011-01-01

    The Walking Egg non-profit organisation (npo) was founded in 2010 by scientists and an artist to realise the Arusha Project which strives to implement accessible infertility programmes in resource-poor countries. Right from the start The Walking Egg has opted for a multidisciplinary and global approach towards the problem of infertility and in cooperation with the Special Task Force (STF) on "Developing countries and infertility" of the European Society of Human reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and the WHO, it gathers medical, social and economical scientists and experts along with artists to discuss and work together towards its goal. The project aims to raise awareness -surrounding childlessness in resource-poor countries and to make infertility care in all its aspects, including assisted reproductive technologies, available and accessible for a much larger part of the population.

  8. Bird communities of contrasting semi-natural habitats of Lac bay, Bonaire, during the fall migration season, 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Bemmelen, van R.S.A.; Ligon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The mangrove and seagrass lagoon of Lac Bay on Bonaire covers an area of roughly 700 ha. It is home to endangered green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, and the Caribbean queen conch, Strombus gigas, and is a roosting and breeding area for several birds. Based on its nature values this 7 km2 bay has bee

  9. Marine megaherbivore grazing may increase seagrass tolerance to high nutrient loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christianen, M.J.A.; Govers, L.L.; Bouma, T.J.; Kiswara, Wawan; Roelofs, J.G.M.; Lamers, L.P.M.; van Katwijk, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    1. Populations of marine megaherbivores including green turtle (Chelonia mydas) have declined dramatically at a global scale as a result of overharvesting and habitat loss. This decline can be expected to also affect the tolerance of seagrass systems to coastal eutrophication. Until now, however, si

  10. Marine megaherbivore grazing may increase seagrass tolerance to high nutrient loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christianen, M.J.A.; Govers, L.L.; Bouma, T.J.; Kiswara, W.; Roelofs, J.G.M.; Lamers, L.P.M.; Van Katwijk, M.

    2012-01-01

    1.Populations of marine megaherbivores including green turtle (Chelonia mydas) have declined dramatically at a global scale as a result of overharvesting and habitat loss. This decline can be expected to also affect the tolerance of seagrass systems to coastal eutrophication. Until now, however, sim

  11. Turtle mimetic soft robot with two swimming gaits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sung-Hyuk; Kim, Min-Soo; Rodrigue, Hugo; Lee, Jang-Yeob; Shim, Jae-Eul; Kim, Min-Cheol; Chu, Won-Shik; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a biomimetic turtle flipper actuator consisting of a shape memory alloy composite structure for implementation in a turtle-inspired autonomous underwater vehicle. Based on the analysis of the Chelonia mydas, the flipper actuator was divided into three segments containing a scaffold structure fabricated using a 3D printer. According to the filament stacking sequence of the scaffold structure in the actuator, different actuating motions can be realized and three different types of scaffold structures were proposed to replicate the motion of the different segments of the flipper of the Chelonia mydas. This flipper actuator can mimic the continuous deformation of the forelimb of Chelonia mydas which could not be realized in previous motor based robot. This actuator can also produce two distinct motions that correspond to the two different swimming gaits of the Chelonia mydas, which are the routine and vigorous swimming gaits, by changing the applied current sequence of the SMA wires embedded in the flipper actuator. The generated thrust and the swimming efficiency in each swimming gait of the flipper actuator were measured and the results show that the vigorous gait has a higher thrust but a relatively lower swimming efficiency than the routine gait. The flipper actuator was implemented in a biomimetic turtle robot, and its average swimming speed in the routine and vigorous gaits were measured with the vigorous gait being capable of reaching a maximum speed of 11.5 mm s(-1). PMID:27145061

  12. Turtle mimetic soft robot with two swimming gaits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sung-Hyuk; Kim, Min-Soo; Rodrigue, Hugo; Lee, Jang-Yeob; Shim, Jae-Eul; Kim, Min-Cheol; Chu, Won-Shik; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-05-04

    This paper presents a biomimetic turtle flipper actuator consisting of a shape memory alloy composite structure for implementation in a turtle-inspired autonomous underwater vehicle. Based on the analysis of the Chelonia mydas, the flipper actuator was divided into three segments containing a scaffold structure fabricated using a 3D printer. According to the filament stacking sequence of the scaffold structure in the actuator, different actuating motions can be realized and three different types of scaffold structures were proposed to replicate the motion of the different segments of the flipper of the Chelonia mydas. This flipper actuator can mimic the continuous deformation of the forelimb of Chelonia mydas which could not be realized in previous motor based robot. This actuator can also produce two distinct motions that correspond to the two different swimming gaits of the Chelonia mydas, which are the routine and vigorous swimming gaits, by changing the applied current sequence of the SMA wires embedded in the flipper actuator. The generated thrust and the swimming efficiency in each swimming gait of the flipper actuator were measured and the results show that the vigorous gait has a higher thrust but a relatively lower swimming efficiency than the routine gait. The flipper actuator was implemented in a biomimetic turtle robot, and its average swimming speed in the routine and vigorous gaits were measured with the vigorous gait being capable of reaching a maximum speed of 11.5 mm s(-1).

  13. Twelve new polymorphic microsatellite markers from the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) and crossspecies amplification on other marine turtle species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monzón-Argüello, Catalina; Muñoz, Joaquin; Marco, Adolfo;

    2008-01-01

    from 3 to 13 (average of 7.33) and the values of observed heterozygosities from 0.32 to 0.80 (average of 0.61). Cross-species amplification on three other marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, Eretmochelys imbricata and Dermochelys coriacea, revealed polymorphism and variability at eight, eleven and three...

  14. Sea Turtle Conservation on Bonaire. Sea Turtle Club Bonaire 1995 Project Report and Long Term Proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkering, N.P.; Nugteren, Van P.; Eijck, Van T.J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Bonaire (12°12’N, 68°77’W), Netherlands Antilles, is famous for its unspoiled coral reefs. Reefs and lush sea grass provide forage and refuge for two species of endangered sea turtle, the green turtle ( Chelonia mydas) and the hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata). Loggerhead ( Caretta caretta ) and le

  15. Hatching distribution of eggs varying in weight and breeder age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chicks from one incubator hatch within long periods of time, which leads to dehydration and reduction in yolk sac reserves of those chicks that have hatched earlier and potentially impairs early performance. The present research investigated the hatching distribution at intervals of incubation using eggs of different weights within one breeder age or eggs from widely different breeder ages. Eggs from breeders at 27 and 59 weeks of age (54 and 69 g and from breeders at 40 weeks of age, which were graded as light (58 g and heavy (73 g, were placed in a commercial incubator. There were a total of 1,184 eggs distributed in four treatments and eight replicates: eggs from 27-week-old breeders (27B, eggs from 59-week-old breeders (59B, light eggs from 40-week-old breeders (40BL and heavy eggs from 40-week-old breeders (40BH. Replicates were comprised of 37 eggs that were placed in each incubator tray. The treatments were physically separated from each other using a plate. Eggs were transferred to a hatcher after 432 hours of incubation and the first chick hatched at 449 hours of incubation. Afterwards, the number of completely hatched chicks from each replicate was recorded at six-hour intervals until 503 hours of incubation, when the hatchings stopped. Hatched chicks were removed from the trays after each measurement. Data were submitted to an analysis of variance with repeated measures. There was a significant interaction between breeder age and incubation length. The hatching onset of eggs from the old breeders was later compared to young breeders. Hatchability (%incubated eggs was lower for the old breeders; however, differences in hatchability as a percentage of the hatched eggs were not so evident. Complete hatchability occurred only at 503 hours of incubation; however, more than 90% eggs had hatched 18 hours earlier.

  16. Comparison of the egg flotation and egg candling techniques for estimating incubation day of Canada Goose nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Both egg flotation and egg candling have been used to estimate incubation day (often termed nest age) in nesting birds, but little is known about the relative accuracy of these two techniques. We used both egg flotation and egg candling to estimate incubation day for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) nesting near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, from 2000 to 2007. We modeled variation in the difference between estimates of incubation day using each technique as a function of true incubation day, as well as, variation in error rates with each technique as a function of the true incubation day. We also evaluated the effect of error in the estimated incubation day on estimates of daily survival rate (DSR) and nest success using simulations. The mean difference between concurrent estimates of incubation day based on egg flotation minus egg candling at the same nest was 0.85 ?? 0.06 (SE) days. The positive difference in favor of egg flotation and the magnitude of the difference in estimates of incubation day did not vary as a function of true incubation day. Overall, both egg flotation and egg candling overestimated incubation day early in incubation and underestimated incubation day later in incubation. The average difference between true hatch date and estimated hatch date did not differ from zero (days) for egg flotation, but egg candling overestimated true hatch date by about 1 d (true - estimated; days). Our simulations suggested that error associated with estimating the incubation day of nests and subsequently exposure days using either egg candling or egg flotation would have minimal effects on estimates of DSR and nest success. Although egg flotation was slightly less biased, both methods provided comparable and accurate estimates of incubation day and subsequent estimates of hatch date and nest success throughout the entire incubation period. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  17. Effects of different dietary vitamin combinations on the egg quality and vitamin deposition in the whole egg of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Zang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary vitamin combinations on the egg quality and vitamin concentrations in the eggs of commercial laying hens. A total of 1,800 25-week-old Lohman pink-shell hens were randomly assigned to four dietary vitamin treatments as follows: NRC(1994 level, NRC (1994 level with Hy.D® (25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol, Local level (current average industry level in China and OVN® level (optimum vitamin nutrition level, with 10 replicates per treatment and 45 layers per replicate. Hens were housed in commercial laying cages with three birds per cage and given ad libitum access to feed. Results showed the hens that received the fortified vitamin levels in the OVN® treatment had a significantly (p<0.05 lower number of cracked (.47% and dirty eggs (.27%, and increased egg deposition of vitamin B12, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, 25-OH-D3, vitamin E, vitamin B1, biotin and pantothenate (p<0.05. Treatments had no significant effect on egg-shape index, egg specific gravity, Haugh units and eggshell thickness. Hens fed the NRC-Hy.D® combination also experienced a significant decrease in cracked and dirty eggs (.70% and .44%, respectively and an increased deposition of 25-OH-D3 in comparison with the NRC treatment. Results of the present study suggest that that the Local treatment was able to improve egg quality parameters of laying hens, but resulted in more cracked and dirty eggs. OVN® reduced the number of cracked eggs and dirty eggs, and improved the deposition of several vitamins in eggs. With the addition of Hy.D®, eggshell strength and 25-OH-D3 deposition in eggs were also improved, and cracked and dirty egg rates declined.

  18. Effects of extended storage on egg quality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Musgrove, M T

    2005-11-01

    Eggs were collected from a single inline processing facility weekly for 3 wk (replicates). The eggs were stored at 4 degrees C and 80% RH. Sampling began the day after collection and continued each week for 10 wk. During analysis, 24 eggs were examined for egg weight, albumen height, Haugh units (HU), shell strength, and vitelline membrane strength for each replicate. Egg weight decreased (P Eggs from the second replicate were significantly (P eggs in replicate 2 compared with the other replicates (P shell strength between replicates or during extended storage. A significant difference (P membrane strength between replicates, but this difference was less than 0.05 g. The elasticity of the vitelline membrane decreased during storage (P egg weight, albumen height, and HU. However, average HU values were still within the range for grade A. Shell strength was not affected by extended storage. Vitelline membrane elasticity also decreased, which could lead to yolks more easily rupturing as consumers crack the eggs. The results indicated that although the physical quality factors monitored in this study decreased during storage, egg quality was still acceptable beyond current recommended shelf life guidelines. PMID:16463976

  19. Evaluating factors that influence egg production at Konsoni Poultry Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muje Gjonbalaj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this research is to evaluate the factors thought to influence the monthly egg production of Konsoni Poultry Company. The linear regression employing different variables of interest is used to predict the future monthly egg production of the largest poultry farm in Kosovo. The general purpose of multiple regressions (the term was first used by Pearson, 1908 is to learn more about the relationship between egg price, local competitors and egg imports as independent or predictor variables (xi and dependent or criterion variable, egg production (y. Y = B0 + B1*X1 + B2*X2 + …Bn*XnThe results of the research come from the observed fluctuations in egg production at Konsoni Poultry Company during the period of 24 months. Many factors that effect egg production are poorly understood from managers of Konsoni Poultry Company. This study examines the statistical results and identifies the relationships between depended and independent variables. The study shows that there is a strong relationships between depend variably (y and independent variables (xi. and low correlations among independent variables The adjusted R2 of the multiple linear regression model is 0.48 which tells us that 48% of variation in egg production are explained by evaluated variables.Konsoni Poultry Company covers 20% of the market share for eggs in Kosovo. In general, multiple regression is used to answer the general question what is the best predictor of Konsoni egg production.

  20. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Anderson, K E

    2013-08-01

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implications for alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth Rock hens in conventional cage, cage-free, and free range egg production systems on shell microbiology. Eggs were collected at 4 sampling periods. Egg shell emulsion pools were formed and enumerated for total aerobic organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, and yeast and mold counts. Hy-Line Brown and Hy-Line Silver Brown hens produced eggs with significantly (P cages had significantly different (P hen strain with Hy-Line Silver Brown having the greatest (4.57 log cfu/mL). Hy-Line Brown and Barred Plymouth Rock hens produced eggs with significantly different (P caged eggs having the lowest level of contamination for the hen strains. There were no differences within each strain among housing systems for yeast and mold contamination. The study shows that hen strain has an effect on egg microbial levels for various housing systems, and egg safety should be considered when making hen strain selections for each housing system. PMID:23873573

  1. Characteristics and incidence of large eggs in Trichuris muris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Koichi

    2013-05-01

    The production of small numbers of large eggs among the standard-sized eggs of Trichuris trichiura is well known. Large eggs have also been observed in Trichuris muris, but they have not been studied previously. This paper compares the characteristics of the large eggs (LEs, ≥74.5 μm long) and standard-sized eggs (SEs, <74.5 μm long) in cultures of T. muris. Among 112,554 cultured eggs, LEs occurred at very low frequency (0.03 %, i.e., about three large eggs per 10(4) cultured eggs). Embryonated eggs represented 93.72 % of SEs, but only 25.00 % of LEs were embryonated. Embryonated LEs and SEs contained fully matured larvae. An atypical category of unembryonated egg, which contained an incompletely developed larva, an abnormal larva, or granular components, was common among the LEs. However, similar atypical unembryonated SEs were rarely observed. These observations suggest that the LEs that occur very infrequently in T. muris result from an abnormality of embryonation (larval development).

  2. Reciprocal crosses between Alabio and Mojosari ducks : early egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H Prasetyo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available alternative to increasing productivity and production efficiency. Crossbreeding has been used widely for increasing productivity, and in this experiment Alabio and Mojosari ducks were crossed reciprocally in order to evaluate their egg production and egg quality, when compared to their parental breeds. Four genotypes AA, AM, MA and MM were compared and each consisted of 50 layer ducks. Each animal was kept in individual cage, and individual egg production and egg quality were recorded. They were given layer feed containing 20% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg metabolisable energy. Results showed that the crossbred ducks (AM and MA laid eggs earlier than their parental breeds (AA and MM, and MA laid earlier than AM. The weight of first eggs of the crossbreeds did not differ significantly, AM was the same as MM and MA the same as AA. For the body weight at first lay, MA and AM weighed in between their parental breeds, AA was the heaviest and then followed by MA, AM and MM. For the 3-month egg production, MA ducks laid significantly more egg than the other 3 genotypes, and this is related to the age of first lay being the earliest. In terms of egg quality such as egg weight, yolk color, weight and thickness of shell, weight of the white and HU value, the crossbred ducks showed quality in between AA and MM. The AM ducks tended to be closer to MM and MA closer to AA, and this shows a strong influence of maternal effects. The average level of heterosis for weight of first egg is 2.41% and for 3-month egg production is 2.1%, but for MA cross the heterosis level is 11.69% for egg production. The overall results showed that crossbreeds between Alabio and Mojosari have the potential in improving production traits in the effort to increase productivity and production efficiency.

  3. Metabolic effects of quail eggs in diabetes-induced rats: comparison with chicken eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lontchi-Yimagou, Eric; Tanya, Agatha; Tchankou, Carine; Ngondi, Judith; Oben, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Background Quail eggs as a food item have recently been introduced into the diet of some Cameroonians. These eggs are being sold in local markets, but with many unfounded health claims. One claim is that quail eggs can reduce blood glucose levels in diabetics. It was therefore necessary to evaluate the effect of consuming quail eggs on blood glucose levels, lipid profiles, and oxidative stress parameters in diabetes-induced rats. Methods Twenty Wistar rats weighing, on average, 250 g were divided into four groups of five rats each. Group 1 consisted of rats with normal blood glucose, and the other three groups (2, 3, and 4) consisted of diabetes-induced rats achieved by intravenous injection of streptozotocin. During 16 days, rats in groups 1 and 2 received distilled water; and rats in groups 3 and 4 received quail and chicken eggs, respectively, with gastroesophageal probe at a dose of 1 mL/200 g body weight. Fasting blood glucose levels were determined in all the groups on the 1st, 7th, 14th, and 17th days after induction of diabetes. On the 17th day, the fasting rats were sacrificed, and blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical analyses. Results In 17 days, the consumption of quail and chicken eggs had no effect on blood glucose levels of diabetic rats. Total cholesterol levels were higher in groups 3 (75.59 mg/dL) and 4 (59.41 mg/dL) compared to group 2 (55.67 mg/dl), although these differences were not significant (all p>0.05). Triglyceride levels were significantly higher (pdiabetic rats at the tested dose had no effect on blood glucose level and oxidative stress parameters and may have a negative effect on lipid profile. PMID:27717410

  4. Comparative Study on the Protease Inhibitors from Fish Eggs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ustadi; K.Y.Kim; S.M.Kim

    2005-01-01

    The protease inhibitor was purified from five different fish eggs. The molecular weights of Pacific herring, chum salmon, pond smelt, glassfish, and Alaska pollock egg protease inhibitors were 120, 89, 84.5, 17, and 16.8kDa, respectively. The specific inhibitory activity of glassfish egg protease inhibitor was the highest followed by those of Pacific herring and Alaska pollock in order. The specific inhibitory activity and purity of glassfish egg protease inhibitor were 19.70 U mg-1 protein and 164.70 folds of purification, respectively. Glassfish egg protease inhibitor was reasonably stable at 50 - 65 ℃ and pH 8,which was more stable at high temperature and pH than protease inhibitors from the other fish species. Glassfish egg protease inhibitor was noncompetitive with inhibitor constant (Ki) of 4.44 nmol L-1.

  5. Heartbeat, embryo communication and hatching synchrony in snake eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubret, Fabien; Blanvillain, Gaëlle; Bignon, Florent; Kok, Philippe J R

    2016-01-01

    Communication is central to life at all levels of complexity, from cells to organs, through to organisms and communities. Turtle eggs were recently shown to communicate with each other in order to synchronise their development and generate beneficial hatching synchrony. Yet the mechanism underlying embryo to embryo communication remains unknown. Here we show that within a clutch, developing snake embryos use heart beats emanating from neighbouring eggs as a clue for their metabolic level, in order to synchronise development and ultimately hatching. Eggs of the water snake Natrix maura increased heart rates and hatched earlier than control eggs in response to being incubated in physical contact with more advanced eggs. The former produced shorter and slower swimming young than their control siblings. Our results suggest potential fitness consequences of embryo to embryo communication and describe a novel driver for the evolution of egg-clustering behaviour in animals. PMID:26988725

  6. Sampling efficiency of the Moore egg collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Mueller, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative studies focusing on the collection of semibuoyant fish eggs, which are associated with a pelagic broadcast-spawning reproductive strategy, are often conducted to evaluate reproductive success. Many of the fishes in this reproductive guild have suffered significant reductions in range and abundance. However, the efficiency of the sampling gear used to evaluate reproduction is often unknown and renders interpretation of the data from these studies difficult. Our objective was to assess the efficiency of a modified Moore egg collector (MEC) using field and laboratory trials. Gear efficiency was assessed by releasing a known quantity of gellan beads with a specific gravity similar to that of eggs from representatives of this reproductive guild (e.g., the Arkansas River Shiner Notropis girardi) into an outdoor flume and recording recaptures. We also used field trials to determine how discharge and release location influenced gear efficiency given current methodological approaches. The flume trials indicated that gear efficiency ranged between 0.0% and 9.5% (n = 57) in a simple 1.83-m-wide channel and was positively related to discharge. Efficiency in the field trials was lower, ranging between 0.0% and 3.6%, and was negatively related to bead release distance from the MEC and discharge. The flume trials indicated that the gellan beads were not distributed uniformly across the channel, although aggregation was reduced at higher discharges. This clustering of passively drifting particles should be considered when selecting placement sites for an MEC; further, the use of multiple devices may be warranted in channels with multiple areas of concentrated flow.

  7. Embryonic growth and antioxidant provision in avian eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Deeming, D Charles; Pike , Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Avian embryos undergo extremely rapid development over a relatively short period of time, and so are likely to suffer high levels of oxidative damage unless this is mitigated by sufficient maternal allocation of appropriate antioxidants. At a species level, it is therefore predicted that antioxidants should be allocated to eggs according to the rate of embryonic growth, such that eggs containing embryos that grow faster are furnished with higher antioxidant levels, independent of egg size. We...

  8. Egg laying site preferences in Pterostichus melanarius Illiger (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Trefas, H.; Lenteren, van, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    In the case of ground beetles, the number of studies investigating the effects plant-related structure and microclimate on the selection of egg laying sites is very limited. The egg laying site preference of Pterostichus melanarius, an important carabid beetle in agricultural fields, was studied under laboratory conditions. The effects of wet/dry substrate, light/shadow and structured/unstructured environment on the number of eggs laid were investigated, as well as the influence of the presen...

  9. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS PACKED UNDER MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Giampietro-Ganeco; Hirasilva Borba; Aline Mary Scatolini-Silva; Marcel Manente Boiago; Pedro Alves de Souza; Juliana Lolli Malagoli de Mello

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are perishable foods and lose quality quickly if not stored properly. From the moment of posture to the marketing of egg, quality loss occurs through gas exchange and water through the pores of the shell with the external environment and thus, studies involving modified atmosphere packaging are extremely important. The aim of the present study is to assess the internal quality of eggs packed under modified atmosphere and stored at room temperature. Six hundred and twelve fresh commercial...

  10. Compositional analysis and structural elucidation of glycosaminoglycans in chicken eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhangguo; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; LI, GUOYUN; He, Wenqing; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have numerous applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and foods. GAGs are also critically important in the developmental biology of all multicellular animals. GAGs were isolated from chicken egg components including yolk, thick egg white, thin egg white, membrane, calcified shell matrix supernatant, and shell matrix deposit. Disaccharide compositional analysis was performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spec...

  11. Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches

    OpenAIRE

    Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific brood parasitism represents a prime example of the coevolutionary arms race where each party has evolved strategies in response to the other. Here, we investigated whether common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) actively select nests within a host population to match the egg appearance of a particular host clutch. To achieve this goal, we quantified the degree of egg matching using the avian vision modelling approach. Randomization tests revealed that cuckoo eggs in naturally parasitiz...

  12. The Economics of Regulated Changes to the Australian Egg Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Trewin, Ray

    2001-01-01

    The Australian egg industry is facing adjustment pressures including from animal welfare developments. Production and consumption of free-range eggs are rising in response. However, considerations have been given to banning the dominant conventional cage production as in Switzerland. Consideration has also been given to compulsory labelling eggs by their form of production. A focus of the research is to develop possible future scenarios and to value any associated animal welfare benefits agai...

  13. Enzymatic Hydrolysis Conditions for Egg White Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Yujie; Tian, Bo; Sun, Bo; Guo, Mingruo

    2006-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins in egg white by Alcalase was systematically studied through dual quadratic rotary, orthogonal and regressive design. The optimum conditions of hydrolysis were determined. The results showed that the optimum temperature was 68.5℃, pH 8.21 at the substrate concentration of 5.5%. The regression equation, Y=42.6994+0.3344X1+7.53X2-0.0086X1X2-0.001X21-0.4726X22 (Y-nitrogen recovery rate, NR; X1-enzyme concentration /substrate concentration, E/S; X2-hydrolytic t...

  14. eggNOG v4.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, Sean; Forslund, Kristoffer; Szklarczyk, Damian Milosz;

    2013-01-01

    ) from complete genomes, and then applies a comprehensive characterization and analysis pipeline to the resulting gene families. Compared with the previous version, we have more than tripled the underlying species set to cover 3686 organisms, keeping track with genome project completions while...... on the multiple alignments generated during the process and (vi) implementation of quality control procedures throughout the entire pipeline. As in previous versions, eggNOGv4 provides multiple sequence alignments and maximum-likelihood trees, as well as broad functional annotation. Users can access the complete...

  15. Suitability of non-fertilized eggs of Homalodisca vitripennis for the egg parasitoid Gonatocerus morrili

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonatocerus morrili (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) is a natural enemy used in California, USA to control glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Virgin GWSS females deposit non-fertilized eggs and mated females can exhaust sperm reserves for ...

  16. Effects of No. 2 fuel oil on common eider eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Szaro, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    An oil spill near a breeding colony could result in the transfer of oil from the plumage and feet of incubating birds to their eggs. Microlitre amounts of No. 2 fuel oil were applied externally to common eider eggs in an island breeding colony in Maine. Clutches of eggs treated with 20 ?l of fuel oil had significantly greater embryonic mortality than the control clutches when they were examined 7 days after treatment. The results are similar to those of an earlier study of artificially incubated common eider eggs and indicate that nest site conditions do not affect embryotoxicity of No. 2 fuel oil.

  17. Does host immunity influence helminth egg hatchability in the environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, K A; Pathak, A K; Cattadori, I M

    2015-07-01

    Transmission success for helminths with free-living stages depends on the ability of eggs and larvae to develop and survive once in the environment. While environmental conditions are often suggested to influence egg phenology and hatching rate, immunity against parasite eggs might also play a role. We examined this hypothesis using the gastrointestinal helminths Trichostrongylus retortaeformis and Graphidium strigosum, two common infections of the European rabbit. Changes in egg hatching rate and volume were examined in relation to specific antibodies in the serum and bound to eggshells, using eggs shed in host faeces over a 15-week period. Hatching rate was consistently higher for T. retortaeformis than G. strigosum and no changes were observed between weeks. Egg volume increased for G. strigosum but decreased for T. retortaeformis. We did find evidence of egg-specific antibody responses and fewer antibodies were bound to eggs of T. retortaeformis compared to G. strigosum. Little to no association was found between antibodies and hatchability, or volume, for both helminths. We suggest that host antibodies play a relatively minor role in the egg hatching rate of these gastrointestinal helminths.

  18. Recent Progress in the Study of Dinosaur Eggs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiang; WANG Xiaolin; ZHAO Zikui

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dinosaur eggs are a special type of vertebrate fossils.Despite their varied shapes,all dinosaur eggs are composed of eggshells,though the thickness of the shell may also vary.Dinosaur eggshells consist primarily of the mineral calcite(calcium carbonate).By studying dinosaur eggs,we can infer the reproductive system and behavior of dinosaurs and even the palaeoenvironment,palaeoclimate,palaeoecology in which they lived.Moreover,dinosaur eggs are useful for stratigraphic division and correlation as well as paleobiogeographic interpretations.

  19. Ultrastructural studies on the nematode Xiphinema diversicaudatum: Egg shell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleve-Zacheo, T; Melillo, M T; Zacheo, G

    1993-06-01

    The ultrastructure of the formation of the egg shell in the longidorid nematode Xiphinema diversicaudatum is described. Upon fertilization a vitelline membrane, which constitutes the vitelline layer of the egg shell, is formed. The chitinous layer is secreted in the perivitelline space, between the vitelline layer and the egg cell membrane. On completion of the chitinous layer, the material of the lipid layer is extruded from the egg cytoplasm to the outer surface, through finger-like projections. Both chitinous and lipid layers are secreted by granules in the egg cytoplasm that disappear as the layers are completed. Chitinous and lipid layers are formed during the passage of the egg through the oviduct. The vitelline layer is enriched with secretions produced by the oviduct cells and then by phospholipids secreted by the cells of the pars dilatata oviductus. The inner uterine layer is also formed by deposition of secretory products apposed on the egg shell in the distal uterine region and Z-differentiation. In the proximal part of the uterus, the egg has a discontinuous electron-dense layer, the external uterine layer. Tangential sections between chitinous and uterine layers revealed the presence of holes, possibly egg pores, delimited by the two uterine layers.

  20. Foul Play and the Case of the Organic Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    PAULL, JOHN

    2008-01-01

    The demand for organic food is often reported as exceeding supply. When faced with just such a shortfall in supply, Australian egg supplier G. O. Drew Pty Ltd substituted non-organic eggs to fill the supply gap. That deception has cost the company $295,000, the egg business has been sold, and the owners are no longer egg suppliers or packers. The 2007 case of ACCC v G. O. Drew Pty Ltd is a milestone for the Australian organic sector - it is the first Australian case where the Australian C...

  1. Industrially processed oilseed rape in the production of table eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Mária Angelovičová; Michal Angelovič; Zdenko Tkáč; Juraj Jablonický; Marek Angelovič

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of feed mixtures with varying proportions of rape cakes to the weight of table eggs, its components, thickness and strength of egg shell. The eggs were from the final laying hybrid ISA Brown reared in the enriched cage system under experimental conditions. An age of laying hens was from 48 to 54 weeks. Egg weight and its components were measured on scales type KERN 440-35N, with an accuracy of 0.01 g and a maximum weight of 400 g....

  2. Compositional analysis and structural elucidation of glycosaminoglycans in chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhangguo; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; Li, Guoyun; He, Wenqing; Linhardt, Robert J

    2014-11-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have numerous applications in the fields of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, and foods. GAGs are also critically important in the developmental biology of all multicellular animals. GAGs were isolated from chicken egg components including yolk, thick egg white, thin egg white, membrane, calcified shell matrix supernatant, and shell matrix deposit. Disaccharide compositional analysis was performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results of these analyses showed that all four families of GAGs were detected in all egg components. Keratan sulfate was found in egg whites (thick and thin) and shell matrix (calcified shell matrix supernatant and deposit) with high level. Chondroitin sulfates were much more plentiful in both shell matrix components and membrane. Hyaluronan was plentiful in both shell matrix components and membrane, but was only present in a trace of quantities in the yolk. Heparan sulfate was plentiful in the shell matrix deposit but was present in a trace of quantities in the egg content components (yolk, thick and thin egg whites). Most of the chondroitin and heparan sulfate disaccharides were present in the GAGs found in chicken eggs with the exception of chondroitin and heparan sulfate 2,6-disulfated disaccharides. Both CS and HS in the shell matrix deposit contained the most diverse chondroitin and heparan sulfate disaccharide compositions. Eggs might provide a potential new source of GAGs. PMID:25218438

  3. DIAGNOSIS OF EGG MARKETING CONDITION IN SINOP - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ribeiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The eggs, when manipulated in inadequate sanitary conditions, are considered as ways for development and multiplication of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the microbiological quality of eggs marketed out at Sinop – MT, through the identification of Salmonella spp., count of aerobic mesophile bacteria and enterobacteria. We collected 12 eggs from each establishment, three supermarkets and three fairs. Were not identified Salmonella spp. in egg shells and internal content. Escherichia coli was isolated from the internal contents of eggs come from an street fair. In aerobic mesophilic counts were obtained from eggs supermarkets counts CFU/g/egg shell of 5,8 x 105, 1,21 x 105 e 4,7 x 103. In relation to the fairs, the counts were 7,2 x 104, 5,66 x 104 e 8,7 x 103. The absence of Salmonella spp. the evaluated eggs classifies them as fit for consumption for compliance with current legislation. However, the presence of E. coli and the values of aerobic mesophilic counts and Enterobacteriaceae highlight the need to establish measures to reduce bacterial contamination of shell eggs sold out at Sinop, MT.

  4. Abnormal Trichuris trichiura eggs detected during an epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Rodríguez, Iván; Kozek, Wieslaw J

    2007-09-01

    Abnormal eggs of Trichuris trichiura were found in the stools of one of the patients during a study on the prevalence of intestinal parasitoses among an institutionalized population. The abnormalities observed included great variation in shape, size, and color. Similar atypical whipworm eggs have been reported in patients after treatment with mebendazole, thiabendazole, tetracloroethylene, and dithiazanine. Apparently some anthelminthics have an effect on the reproductive system of female T. trichiura, resulting in production of abnormal eggs, which could lead to misdiagnosis of the infection, since they can be mistaken as eggs of other parasites or artifacts.

  5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROLACTIN HORMONE LEVEL, MOLTING AND DUCK EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Susanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to obtain information on the mechanism of molting and the prolactin hormone levels affecting egg production. The study utilized AP (crossbred of Alabio ♂ with Peking ♀ and PA (crossbred of Peking ♂ and Alabio ♀ ducks with a total of 180 birds. The observed variables were the duration of cessation of egg production before and after molting, the prolactin hormone level in the period of molting, the egg production period before and after molting. The data was analyzed using ANOVA, regression and correlation. The results showed that AP crossbred had fewer molting (23.33% compared to PA (50.00%. The mechanism of molting is always preceded by cessation of egg production, molting and relaying. The prolactin hormone concentrations of AP and PA in the period before and after molting were significantly higher than in the period of molting. At the egg production period before molting, the prolactin hormone concentration of AP ducks was higher than the PA ducks. So that the egg production of AP before molting (0-16 weeks was higher than the PA. The egg production of AP was higher than PA, 256.66±6.00 vs 232.22±6.64 eggs for 48 weeks. So it can be concluded that the prolactin hormone affects the molting and egg production.

  6. Egg forensics: an appraisal of DNA sequencing to assist in species identification of illegally smuggled eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, Megan L; White, Nicole E; Parkinson, Liza; Haile, James; Spencer, Peter B S; Bunce, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos) are charismatic birds, their plumage and capacity for learning make them highly sought after pets. The illegal trade in parrots and cockatoos poses a serious threat to the viability of native populations; in addition, species transported to non-endemic areas may potentially vector disease and genetically 'pollute' local native avifauna. To reduce the logistical difficulties associated with trafficking live birds, smugglers often transport eggs. This creates a problem for authorities in elucidating accurate species identification without the laborious task of incubation and hand rearing until a morphological identification can be made. Here, we use 99 avian eggs seized from carriers coming into and within Australia, as a result of suspected illegal trade. We investigate and evaluate the use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to accurately identify eggs to family, genus or species level. However, Identification of a species based on percentage mtDNA similarities is difficult without good representations of the inter- and intra-levels of species variation. Based on the available reference database, we were able to identify 52% of the eggs to species level. Of those, 10 species from eight genera were detected, all of which belong to the parrot (Psittacidae) and cockatoo (Cacatuidae) families. Of the remaining 48%, a further 36% of eggs were identified to genus level, and 12% identified to family level using our assignment criteria. Clearly the lack of validated DNA reference sequences is hindering our ability to accurately assign a species identity, and accordingly, we advocate that more attention needs to be paid to establishing validated, multi locus mtDNA reference databases for exotic birds that can both assist in genetic identifications and withstand legal scrutiny. PMID:21741338

  7. Development of a Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator to evaluate the transport and dispersion of Asian carp eggs in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2013-01-01

    Asian carp are migrating towards the Great Lakes and are threatening to invade this ecosystem, hence there is an immediate need to control their population. The transport of Asian carp eggs in potential spawning rivers is an important factor in its life history and recruitment success. An understanding of the transport, development, and fate of Asian carp eggs has the potential to create prevention, management, and control strategies before the eggs hatch and develop the ability to swim. However, there is not a clear understanding of the hydrodynamic conditions at which the eggs are transported and kept in suspension. This knowledge is imperative because of the current assumption that suspension is required for the eggs to survive. Herein, FluEgg (Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator), a three-dimensional Lagrangian model capable of evaluating the influence of flow velocity, shear dispersion and turbulent diffusion on the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs is presented. The model's variables include not only biological behavior (growth rate, density changes) but also the physical characteristics of the flow field, such as mean velocities and eddy diffusivities. The performance of the FluEgg model was evaluated using observed data from published flume experiments conducted in China with water-hardened Asian carp eggs as subjects. FluEgg simulations show a good agreement with the experimental data. The model was also run with observed data from the Sandusky River in Ohio to provide a real-world demonstration case. This research will support the identification of critical hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., flow velocity, depth, and shear velocity) to maintain eggs in suspension, assist in the evaluation of suitable spawning rivers for Asian carp populations and facilitate the development of prevention, control and management strategies for Asian carp species in rivers and water bodies.

  8. Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lurthu Reetha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes. All the birds were challenged at 52 weeks of age with 0.5 ml dose of 104.0 egg infectious dose 50 virulent ND field virus. 10 eggs from each group were randomly collected during the last 3 days of 8 weeks interval period from 28 to 52 weeks of age and were used to measure the egg quality parameters. The production performance of each group was assessed at 4 weeks interval period from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Results: In all the six treatment groups with respect to egg production, no significant difference (p≥0.05 was noticed from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Similarly, in egg weight, egg shape index and specific gravity, no significant difference (p≥0.05 was noticed from 28 to 52 weeks of age. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that the administration of ND oral pellet vaccine to desi chicken does not affect the egg production performance, egg weight, egg shape index, and specific gravity of egg.

  9. 7 CFR 56.37 - Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs. 56.37... (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Identifying and Marking Products § 56.37 Lot marking of officially identified shell eggs. Shell eggs identified with the grademarks shown...

  10. 7 CFR 57.801 - Nest run or washed ungraded eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. 57.801 Section 57... Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 57.801 Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. Nest run or washed ungraded eggs are exempt from the labeling provisions in §...

  11. Application of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled to chemometrics for dried egg-pasta characterization and egg content quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Marta; Bucci, Remo; Materazzi, Stefano; Marini, Federico

    2013-10-15

    Dried egg pasta is an important and traditional food in the Italian cuisine, and the eggs in pasta improve its nutritional value and organoleptic properties. For this reason the percentage of eggs present in the products sold as "egg pasta" has to always be clearly reported in the label. In this respect, the present research addresses the possibility of developing a method which would allow fast, simple and economic determination of egg content in dried egg-pasta, using near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. However, as it is very likely that the spectroscopic fingerprint can also be affected by the manufacturing process of this product, in particular by drying temperature and time, the effect of the manufacturing process on the spectral profile of egg-pasta samples was thoroughly investigated, using experimental design coupled to a multivariate exploratory data analytical technique called ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA). Moreover, once confirmed the significance of the drying effect on spectral shape, with the aim of building a calibration model to quantify the egg content in pasta samples irrespective of the manufacturing protocol adopted, a non-linear approach based on local regression, namely LWR-PLS, was investigated. This method allowed the determination of the egg content in external validation samples with low error (RMSEP=1.25), resulting in predictions more accurate and precise than those obtained by a global PLS model.

  12. Quality of spelt pasta enriched with eggs and identification of eggs using 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Jelena S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of spelt pasta enriched with eggs. Eggs were added to spelt farina in the quantity of 0, 124 or 248 g/kg (equivalent to 0, 3 or 6 eggs, respectively. Post-hoc Tukey’s HSD test at 95% confidence limit showed significant differences between various samples. Relatively low coefficients of variation have been obtained for each applied assay (1.25-12.42%, which confirmed the high accuracy measurements and statistically significant results. Standard score analysis is applied for accessing the contribution of eggs content to spelt pasta quality. Maximum scores regarding quality (0.89 and chemical characteristics (0.70, have been obtained for 6 eggs spelt pasta formulation. It is also shown that the presence of eggs in pasta can be clearly confirmed by 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy. Simultaneous increase in area of peak positioned at 29.5 and 176 ppm is directly associated with the increase in the content of added eggs in the corresponding samples. Pertinent data point at positive contribution of eggs to the spelt pasta and also that NMR spectrum can be used in the egg quantity control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TRI 46005 i br. TR 31029

  13. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Cayan, H.; Erener, G.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effe...

  14. Transcriptional Profiling of Egg Allergy and Relationship to Disease Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosoy, Roman; Agashe, Charuta; Grishin, Alexander; Leung, Donald Y.; Wood, Robert A.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Jones, Stacie M.; Burks, A. Wesley; Davidson, Wendy F.; Lindblad, Robert W.; Dawson, Peter; Merad, Miriam; Kidd, Brian A.; Dudley, Joel T.; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies of childhood. There is a lack of information on the immunologic basis of egg allergy beyond the role of IgE. Objective To use transcriptional profiling as a novel approach to uncover immunologic processes associated with different phenotypes of egg allergy. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from egg-allergic children who were defined as reactive (BER) or tolerant (BET) to baked egg, and from food allergic controls (AC) who were egg non-allergic. PBMCs were stimulated with egg white protein. Gene transcription was measured by microarray after 24 h, and cytokine secretion by multiplex assay after 5 days. Results The transcriptional response of PBMCs to egg protein differed between BER and BET versus AC subjects. Compared to the AC group, the BER group displayed increased expression of genes associated with allergic inflammation as well as corresponding increased secretion of IL-5, IL-9 and TNF-α. A similar pattern was observed for the BET group. Further similarities in gene expression patterns between BER and BET groups, as well as some important differences, were revealed using a novel Immune Annotation resource developed for this project. This approach identified several novel processes not previously associated with egg allergy, including positive associations with TLR4-stimulated myeloid cells and activated NK cells, and negative associations with an induced Treg signature. Further pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes comparing BER to BET subjects showed significant enrichment of IFN-α and IFN-γ response genes, as well as genes associated with virally-infected DCs. Conclusions Transcriptional profiling identified several novel pathways and processes that differed when comparing the response to egg allergen in BET, BER, and AC groups. We conclude that this approach is a useful hypothesis-generating mechanism to identify novel immune processes associated

  15. Chondrichthyan egg cases from the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabragaña, E; Figueroa, D E; Scenna, L B; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Colonello, J H; Delpiani, G

    2011-11-01

    Egg cases of 21 oviparous chondrichthyan species from the south-west Atlantic Ocean are described and compared. The catshark Schroederichthys bivius has a cigar-shaped egg case with curled tendrils only at the posterior end. Egg cases of the elephant fish Callorhinchus callorynchus are spindle-shaped with anterior and posterior tubular extensions and lateral flanges. The skate Amblyraja doellojuradoi presents medium-sized egg cases (71 mm in length) with a lateral keel extending to the first portion of the horns. The endemic skate species of the genus Atlantoraja have medium to large egg cases (69-104 mm in length) and present relatively large posterior horns. Egg cases of the genus Bathyraja have a medium size, 75-98 mm in length, and are characterized by a very similar morphology, a relatively smooth to rough surface case and posterior horns strongly curved inwards. Egg cases of the genera Dipturus and Zearaja are very large, 115-230 mm in length, and have a well-developed posterior apron. Despite the problematical identification of skates at species level, the egg capsules of the endemic genus Psammobatis are easily diagnosed; the capsules are small (25-53 mm in length), those of Psammobatis rutrum being the smallest known to date in the world. Egg cases of Rioraja agassizi have a medium size, 61-68 mm in length, relatively straight sides, a smooth surface and silky attachment fibres placed in the lateral keel next to each horn. Those of the genus Sympterygia are small to medium sized, 51-86 mm in length, and display the thickest lateral keel and the longest posterior horns among the skates of the world. Egg cases can be a useful tool for identifying species and egg-laying areas; therefore, a provisional key for the south-west Atlantic Ocean chondrichthyan capsules is presented. PMID:22026605

  16. Prevalence of coliforms, Salmonella, Listeria, and Campylobacter associated with eggs and the environment of conventional cage and free range egg production

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a desired by US consumers for eggs produced by hens in alternative production systems. As the retail shell egg market offers these products to accommodate consumer demands, additional information is needed to ensure processing methodologies result in safe eggs from all egg sources. A stud...

  17. Irradiation of Poultry and Egg Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poultry and egg products may be treated advantageously with various kinds of irradiation process, in different circumstances. Where contamination with Salmonella is a problem, 'radicidation' may be carried out with doses of the order of 0.5 Mrad. This is particularly valuable for frozen products, such as whole egg and some kinds of poultry, especially duck. Dried-egg products may be treated also in this way. This application is described in detail by other authors (Ley, Mossel [2,3]). The treatment of poultry carcasses so that they can be stored indefinitely, or 'radappertization', can be achieved by doses of 4,5 Mrad. However, other processes must be associated with the irradiation, to prevent undesirable off-flavours. These can include pre-heating to inactivate enzymes, irradiation in the frozen state, in vacuum or nitrogen packs, or with activated charcoal included in the pack, and particular methods of cooking are sometimes recommended. These methods are of interest for army use, and have been extensively studied for the research programme of the United States Army. The 'radurization' process for poultry, i.e. increase in storage life by inactivation of most of the spoilage microorganisms, is of interest for commercial use. Doses ranging from 0.15 to 0.25 Mrad may be used without adverse effects on flavour, and will extend the periodjbefore microbial spoilage by 1.5- to 3-fold. Storage at chill temperatures (5°C or below) is necessary, and changes in flavour during storage may limit the extension of this period, so that 20 days at 1°C is about i the most obtainable without quality deterioration. The mechanism of these changes is not understood, but they are not due to microbial spoilage or to the irradiation. The eventual microbial spoilage of irradiated chickens at chill temperatures is due to non-pathogenic bacteria, which are normally present in the spoilage flora, though sometimes the proportions of different kinds of these bacteria may be altered, giving

  18. Daily variability of strongyle fecal egg counts in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Helena; Larsen, Lene; Ritz, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses and constitute a potential threat to equine health. Feces were collected from six horses four times daily over a period of 5 days. Fecal egg counts (FECs) were performed to identify any diurnal rhythms in strongyle egg shedding and to quantify ...... for evaluating anthelmintic efficacy. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  19. Foraging behavior of egg parasitoids exploiting chemical information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Dicke, M.; Mumm, R.; Meiners, T.; Hilker, M.

    2008-01-01

    Female parasitic wasps seek hosts for their offspring often in a dynamic environment. Foraging egg parasitoids rely on a variety of chemical cues originating from the adult host, host products, or the host plant rather than from the attacked host stage¿the insect egg itself. Besides pupae, insect eg

  20. Egg Activation at Fertilization by a Soluble Sperm Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Karl; Lai, F Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The most fundamental unresolved issue of fertilization is to define how the sperm activates the egg to begin embryo development. Egg activation at fertilization in all species thus far examined is caused by some form of transient increase in the cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration. What has not been clear, however, is precisely how the sperm triggers the large changes in Ca(2+) observed within the egg cytoplasm. Here, we review the studies indicating that the fertilizing sperm stimulates a cytosolic Ca(2+) increase in the egg specifically by delivering a soluble factor that diffuses into the cytosolic space of the egg upon gamete membrane fusion. Evidence is primarily considered in species of eggs where the sperm has been shown to elicit a cytosolic Ca(2+) increase by initiating Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores. We suggest that our best understanding of these signaling events is in mammals, where the sperm triggers a prolonged series of intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations. The strongest empirical studies to date suggest that mammalian sperm-triggered Ca(2+) oscillations are caused by the introduction of a sperm-specific protein, called phospholipase C-zeta (PLCζ) that generates inositol trisphosphate within the egg. We will discuss the role and mechanism of action of PLCζ in detail at a molecular and cellular level. We will also consider some of the evidence that a soluble sperm protein might be involved in egg activation in nonmammalian species.

  1. Egg structural characteristics of Pygmy Cormorant (Microcarbo pygmaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris A. Al-Obaidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine egg morphology characteristics and component of Pygmy Cormorant (Microcarbo pygmaeus in Iraq. Freshly Pygmy Cormorant eggs without developed embryo were collected from Al- Tarmiya lakes north of Baghdad city to determined egg morphology characteristics including egg shape dimensions: weight, volume, specific gravity, shell, yolk, albumin weight as well as percentage of shell, yolk and albumin. Results revealed that average values egg breadth, length, shape index, weight, volume, specific gravity, shell weight, yolk weight, albumin weight, egg shell percentage, egg yolk percentage and egg albumin percentage were: 3.11±0.45 (cm, 4.59±0.24 (cm, 67.75±1.07, 12.77±0.55 (gm, 22.64±0.74 (cm3 3 , 0.56±0.1 (gm/cm , 0.87±0.15 (gm, 2.76±0.27 (gm, 9.15±0.59 (gm, 6.80±0.25 (%, 21.58±0.55 (% and 71.62±2.32 (% respectively. This report provides important information that can help the avian taxonomists in species classification.

  2. EGG YOLK AND LDL: POSSIBILITIES FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN EQUINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor F. Canisso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The world horse industry exerts an important role as a job and income generation source. Reproductive technologies arises as an important tool in the service of world equine growth. Artificial insemination (AI is perhaps the biotechnology with greater impact on equine breeding; a stallion can leave hundreds of offsprings over his reproductive life if AI is efficiently used. In some countries, egg yolk is frequently used as part of equine seminal extenders. The egg yolk provides the spermatozoa “resistance factors’’ when it is added. The protective fraction of the egg yolk probably is the low density lipoproteins (LDL. Several studies have reported successful results with the addition and replacement of egg yolk by LDL. There are many citations about the use of egg yolk in seminal extenders for stallion’s cooled and frozen semen, and in the equine reproduction practice. The egg yolk dilutors are used with good fertility results. New research is needed for the better understanding of the protective effects of egg yolk and the LDL for stallion semen. The LDL would be a great solution for dilutors to artificial insemination in horse. This review discusses the use and the advantages of egg yolk and LDL as constituents of equine semen extenders.

  3. Protein and cholesterol content of Araucana chicken eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somes, R G; Francis, P V; Tlustohowicz, J J

    1977-09-01

    Comparative data collected over two years are presented which refute the popular press claims that blue-shelled eggs of Araucana chickens have higher protein levels and lower cholesterol levels than market eggs. These comparisons were made between the eggs from the strains of Araucanas and those of White Leghorns and Sex-links. None of the differences found between test groups in % protein/g. albumen and % protein/g. yolk were shown to be consistently related to any one test group type. However, all Araucana test groups were significantly (P less than .01) lower in their total egg protein content than either control group by from 2.8--6.5%. This lower total protein content was the result of a consistent increase in the yolk/albumen ratio of the Araucana eggs over the market eggs. The Araucana eggs were consistently higher in their cholesterol levels on a mg./g. yolk basis than either of the market eggs. These increased concentrattions ranged from 2.0--6.9%. PMID:564510

  4. Comparative toxicity of two Iodophors to rainbow trout eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, Donald F.

    1974-01-01

    Toxicity of Wescodyne(R) and Betadine(R) to eyed eggs was not adversely affected by water hardness (as calcium and magnesium) or by exposure periods up to 60 min. Both iodophors were much more toxic below pH 6.0 than at pH 8.0. In general Wescodyne was slightly more toxic than Betadine. Significant egg loss occurred if freshly fertilized eggs were water-hardened in either iodophor at 100 ppm of iodine, but egg loss at 25 ppm of iodine or at 100 ppm if the eggs were disinfected 30 min after water hardening was comparable to the control. Also, there was no effect on the egg mortality or fry development following single or multiple exposures after eggs were water hardened. At pH 6.0 and above, Wescodyne and Betadine at 100 ppm iodine in a 15-min dip would be safe to use on rainbow trout eggs at any stage of development after water hardening. Recommendations and precautions for hatchery use are given.

  5. MMR vaccination of children with egg allergy is safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorthe Vestergård; Jørgensen, Inger Merete

    2013-01-01

    Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination is part of the Danish Childhood Vaccination Programme. It is known that children may react with anaphylaxis to MMR vaccines containing traces of egg protein. In Denmark, national clinical guidelines recommend that children with egg allergy be referred to...

  6. Effects of oil transferred from incubating gulls to their eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K.A.; LeFever, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    No. 2 fuel oil, or water, was applied to the breast feathers of incubating laughing gulls trapped at their nest site on an island colony in Texas. Gulls were released after treatment and allowed to incubate their eggs for 5 days. Oil was transferred from the feathers of incubating adults to their eggs and resulted in 41% embryo mortality compared with 2% in controls.

  7. DDE in eggs of two crocodile species from Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T H; Rainwater, T R; Platt, S G; McMurry, S T; Anderson, T A

    2000-12-01

    Organochlorine (OC) residues were recently detected in nonviable Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from northern Belize. To further the assessment of contaminant exposure in Belizean crocodiles, nonviable Morelet's crocodile eggs (n = 11) from southern Belize and American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) eggs (n = 12) from the coastal zones of Belize were screened for 20 OCs. Results indicated p,p-DDE to be the most prevalent OC (96% occurrence) in eggs examined, with concentrations ranging from 5 to 372 ng/g. These concentrations are similar to those observed in crocodile eggs (10-180 ng/g) from northern Belize. A general trend toward higher DDE concentrations in Morelet's crocodile eggs (mean = 103 ppb) compared with American crocodile eggs (mean = 31 ppb) was observed. However, this trend may be due to site-specific contamination rather than differences in interspecific susceptibility to chemical exposure. Other OCs detected in crocodile eggs included the parent compound, p,p-DDT, and its metabolite, p, p-DDD. PMID:11141295

  8. Mercury in Morelet's crocodile eggs from northern Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, T R; Adair, B M; Platt, S G; Anderson, T A; Cobb, G P; McMurry, S T

    2002-04-01

    Recent studies have examined mercury accumulation in crocodilians. However, though most researchers have focused on tissue concentrations, few have examined mercury levels in crocodilian eggs. In July 1995, we analyzed mercury in 31 nonviable Morelet's crocodile ( Crocodylus moreletii) eggs collected from eight nests across three localities in northern Belize. All eggs were found to contain mercury. Based on an individual egg basis, mean concentration of mercury for all three localities was among the lowest reported for any crocodilian species. When localities were examined separately, mean concentrations for Laguna Seca and Gold Button Lagoon were comparable to those observed in other studies, and the mean for Sapote Lagoon was the lowest ever reported. Based on mean nest concentrations, mercury in eggs from Laguna Seca was approximately two- and tenfold higher than for Gold Button Lagoon and Sapote Lagoon, respectively. Variability in mercury concentrations among localities is likely the result of site-specific differences in mercury input, bioavailabilty, and bioaccumulation. Mercury concentrations were relatively uniform in eggs from the same nest and among nests from the same localities. The presence of mercury in Morelet's crocodile eggs suggests exposure in adult females, developing embryos, and neonates. However, crocodiles in these areas show no overt signs of mercury toxicity, and no indication of population decline is evident. A paucity of data on the effects of mercury on crocodilians precludes meaningful speculation as to the biological significance of tissue and egg concentrations. Controlled laboratory studies and long-term population monitoring are needed to address these questions. PMID:11910460

  9. Safety of copper sulfate to channel catfish eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used in the catfish industry to control saprolegniasis (caused by watermolds) on eggs. This study was designed to establish the safety of CuSO4 when applied to hatching troughs containing channel catfish eggs in 26 degrees C flow-through well water at 10, 30, and ...

  10. Housing system and laying hen strain impacts on egg microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative hen housing is becoming more commonplace in the egg market. However, a complete understanding of the implication of alternative housing systems on egg safety has not been achieved. The current study examines the impact of housing Hy-Line Brown, Hy-Line Silver Brown, and Barred Plymouth...

  11. Microbiology of Shell Egg Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant proportion of human illnesses caused by Salmonella are linked to the consumption of contaminated eggs. Substantial government and industry resources have been committed to comprehensive Salmonella testing and risk reduction programs for commercial egg-laying flocks. The implementation ...

  12. Morphology and identification of fly eggs: application in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanit, S; Sribanditmongkol, P; Sukontason, K L; Moophayak, K; Klong-Klaew, T; Yasanga, T; Sukontason, K

    2013-06-01

    Fly eggs found in corpses can be used as entomological evidence in forensic investigation. This study aims to investigate the morphology of forensically important fly eggs. Eggs of Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Chrysomya nigripes, Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini, Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia porphyrina and Musca domestica were examined using 1% potassium permanganate solution for 1 min. Morphometric analysis revealed that the mean length of Hy. tumrasvini (1.63 mm) and C. pinguis (1.65 mm) eggs was the longest, followed by that of L. porphyrina (1.45 mm), C. rufifacies (1.34 mm). The egg length, width of median area and darkness staining of hatching pleats were distinctive features. Four categories of median area were proposed, based on width; (1) distinctly wide (Megaselia scalaris, Synthesiomyia nudiseta); (2) wide (C. nigripes, M. domestica); (3) slightly widening (Hy. tumrasvini, L. cuprina, L. porphyrina); and (4) narrow (C. rufifacies, C. albiceps, C. megacephala, C. pinguis). Four species were examined using SEM, i.e., C. megacephala, C. pinguis, Hy. tumrasvini and L. porphyrina. The eggs of C. megacephala demonstrated swollen hatching pleats. Inside, the hexagon of the chorion appeared as a sponging bumpy feature. The egg of C. pinguis was similar to C. megacephala, except for the sponging bumpy feature on the outer surface of the hatching pleats. Regarding Hy. tumrasvini and L. porphyrina, their island structure was apparent at the inner surface of the upright hatching pleats. The key for identifying these eggs together with other reported species in Thailand has been updated.

  13. Helminth Egg Removal Capacity of UASB Reactors under Subtropical Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaya-Beas, R.E.; Ayala-Limaylla, C.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Van Lier, J.B.; Zeeman, G.

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the anaerobic sludge filtration capacity regarding helminth egg removal in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. Two 25 L lab-scale UASB reactors were operated at an ambient temperature which varied between 17.1 and 28.6 °C. Ascaris suum egg was select

  14. How long does it take to boil an egg? Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buay, D [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Foong, S K [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Kiang, D [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Kuppan, L [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Centre for Research in Pedagogy and Practice, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Liew, V H [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1, Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore)

    2006-01-01

    How long does it take to boil an egg? Theoretical prediction, based on a simple adaptation of the solution to the exact thermal diffusion equation for a sphere, is consistent with experiments. The experimental data are also used to estimate an average value for the thermal diffusivity of an egg.

  15. Environmental impacts and sustainability of egg production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a systemic assessment toward social sustainability of egg production, we have reviewed current knowledge about the environmental impacts of egg production systems and identified topics requiring further research. Currently, we know that 1) high-rise cage houses generally have poorer air q...

  16. Maximizing carbon dioxide content of shell eggs by rapid cooling treatment and its effect on shell egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, P; Keener, K M

    2012-06-01

    Rapid cooling of shell eggs using liquid CO₂ has been shown to cool eggs to 7°C within minutes, as opposed to days required by traditional cooling treatments. This quick-cooling technique is component in the maintenance of egg quality and extended shelf life beyond the current 30- to 45-d period. The hypothesis for the current study was that maximizing CO₂ content of the eggs during cooling may increase Haugh units and thus extend shelf life (physical quality factors). The objective of this study was to maximize CO₂ content of shell eggs during rapid cooling with liquid CO₂ and determine its effect on egg quality during 12 wk of refrigerated storage. Three cooling conditions selected for the study were -45°C for 18 min (treatment A), -60°C for 15 min (treatment B), and -75°C for 12 min (treatment C). After rapid-cooling treatment, it took approximately 25 min for the internal temperature of eggs to equilibrate to 7°C. The Haugh units of the rapidly cooled eggs were significantly higher than the traditionally cooled (control) eggs. After 12 wk of refrigerated (5-7°C) storage, control eggs were only 37% AA-grade, 57% A-grade, and 6% B-grade. In comparison, all the rapidly cooled eggs averaged to 80% AA-grade and 20% A-grade. After 6 wk, the average quality of control eggs reduced to grade A, whereas rapid cooling treatment was able to maintain AA quality up to 12 wk. The CO₂ content of the rapidly cooled eggs (1.8 mg of CO₂/g of albumen) showed no difference between treatments A, B, and C, but it was significantly higher than the control (1.3 mg of CO₂/g of albumen). In addition, the vitelline membrane strength of the control decreased 65% during storage and was between 30 and 50% of the vitelline membrane strength of CO₂-cooled eggs at 12 wk. Rapid cooling with liquid CO₂ extends shelf life of shell eggs. PMID:22582306

  17. Effect of Egg Shape Index on Hatching Characteristics in Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Aşcı

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of egg shape index on hatching characteristics (fertility rate, embryo mortality, hatchability of fertile eggs and hatchability, egg weight loss, chick weight, sex ratio and quality of chicks were investigated. A total of 960 eggs of ATAK- S hybrid parents obtained from Ankara Poultry Research Station were divided into three different groups (SI≤71, 72≤SI≤76, SI≤77 based on shape index and were used. A significant relationship between fertility rate and late embryonic mortality was found in the shape index groups. On the other hand, no differences were found in the rate of weight loss at 18 day, early and middle embryonic mortality, malposition rate, hatchability, sex ratio and chick quality among the shape index groups. It was concluded that shape index affected the hatching results and also that eggs of abnormal shape index should not be used for hatching.

  18. Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 :l/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose?response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this orientation

  19. The egg consumption of the average household in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Migliorati

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted over a one-year period by means of telephone interviews with 7 991 Italian households to establish the domestic consumption of eggs, the distribution by source of supply, seasonal variations and storage and preparation methods used. Eggs are mainly purchased from large retailers (53%, followed by small retailers (25.2%, direct purchase from producers (16%, and local or itinerant markets (5.8%. It was found that 69.9% of households buy packaged eggs; 92% of households store them in the refrigerator, although this percentage varies considerably, according to the type of presentation (packaged or loose and the number of eggs bought. Italian households mainly eat eggs cooked (48.9%, followed by partly cooked (35.0% and raw (16.1%.

  20. The egg consumption of the average household in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prencipe, Vincenza; Rizzi, Valentina; Giovannini, Armando; Migliorati, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    A survey was conducted over a one-year period by means of telephone interviews with 7 991 Italian households to establish the domestic consumption of eggs, the distribution by source of supply, seasonal variations and storage and preparation methods used. Eggs are mainly purchased from large retailers (53%), followed by small retailers (25.2%), direct purchase from producers (16%), and local or itinerant markets (5.8%). It was found that 69.9% of households buy packaged eggs; 92% of households store them in the refrigerator, although this percentage varies considerably, according to the type of presentation (packaged or loose) and the number of eggs bought. Italian households mainly eat eggs cooked (48.9%), followed by partly cooked (35.0%) and raw (16.1%). PMID:20857379

  1. Environmental challenges for the Egg Processing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram; Hald, Mie

    Environmental regulation within the European Union and its Member States has evolved from command-and-control regulation to more complex ways of regulation. Different industries may be more or less ‘vulnerable’ towards an increased level of environmental regulation. The food industry is among those...... industries having a large consumption of natural resources (water and energy) and produces significantly amounts of residue (waste water, carbon dioxide and biodegradable waste). As such it is only natural that the food industry is governed by environmental regulation. In this book the Egg......-processing industry has been selected as a case study in order to be capable of illustrating the impact of such regulation on industry...

  2. Salted and preserved duck eggs: a consumer market segmentation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jennifer; Wiseman, Kelleen; Cheng, K M

    2015-08-01

    The combination of increasing ethnic diversity in North America and growing consumer support for local food products may present opportunities for local producers and processors in the ethnic foods product category. Our study examined the ethnic Chinese (pop. 402,000) market for salted and preserved duck eggs in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. The objective of the study was to develop a segmentation model using survey data to categorize consumer groups based on their attitudes and the importance they placed on product attributes. We further used post-segmentation acculturation score, demographics and buyer behaviors to define these groups. Data were gathered via a survey of randomly selected Vancouver households with Chinese surnames (n = 410), targeting the adult responsible for grocery shopping. Results from principal component analysis and a 2-step cluster analysis suggest the existence of 4 market segments, described as Enthusiasts, Potentialists, Pragmatists, Health Skeptics (salted duck eggs), and Neutralists (preserved duck eggs). Kruskal Wallis tests and post hoc Mann-Whitney tests found significant differences between segments in terms of attitudes and the importance placed on product characteristics. Health Skeptics, preserved egg Potentialists, and Pragmatists of both egg products were significantly biased against Chinese imports compared to others. Except for Enthusiasts, segments disagreed that eggs are 'Healthy Products'. Preserved egg Enthusiasts had a significantly lower acculturation score (AS) compared to all others, while salted egg Enthusiasts had a lower AS compared to Health Skeptics. All segments rated "produced in BC, not mainland China" products in the "neutral to very likely" range for increasing their satisfaction with the eggs. Results also indicate that buyers of each egg type are willing to pay an average premium of at least 10% more for BC produced products versus imports, with all other characteristics equal. Overall

  3. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND AMINO ACID PROFILES OF EGG TOFU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maizura Murad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tofu contains high quality protein source and antioxidant which could reduce risk of cancer. This research aims to determine the effect of soymilk and egg ratios on the antioxidant capacity, daidzein and genistein content and amino acid profiles of egg tofu. Egg tofu was prepared using soymilk and fresh egg in ratios of 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. Glucono-Delta-Lactone (GDL was added in the egg tofu to act as a coagulating agent. Increased of soymilk at all ratios had significantly (p<0.05 increased in Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP, daidzein and genistein content of egg tofu. Conversely, decreased in soymilk ratio had significantly (p<0.05 increased the radical scavenging activities of the 2,2-Azino-Bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid (ABTS and 2,2-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH in egg tofu. Increased of soymilk ratio up to 3:1 caused decreased in amino acid methionine (met and cystein (cys significantly (p<0.05. A significant (p<0.01 and a positive correlation was observed between Total Phenolic Content (TPC and FRAP (r = 0.93. However, there was a negative (p<0.01 correlation between TPC and DPPH (r = -0.83. The antioxidant capacity of egg tofu in DPPH assay showed a positive and significant (p<0.01 correlation with cysteine, methionine and tryptophan with r value of 0.92, 0.93 and 0.96 respectively. Higher content of egg in egg tofu had contributed to the increased of antioxidant capacity as indicated in DPPH assay and ABTS assay as well as amino acid methionine and cysteine.

  4. Salted and preserved duck eggs: a consumer market segmentation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jennifer; Wiseman, Kelleen; Cheng, K M

    2015-08-01

    The combination of increasing ethnic diversity in North America and growing consumer support for local food products may present opportunities for local producers and processors in the ethnic foods product category. Our study examined the ethnic Chinese (pop. 402,000) market for salted and preserved duck eggs in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. The objective of the study was to develop a segmentation model using survey data to categorize consumer groups based on their attitudes and the importance they placed on product attributes. We further used post-segmentation acculturation score, demographics and buyer behaviors to define these groups. Data were gathered via a survey of randomly selected Vancouver households with Chinese surnames (n = 410), targeting the adult responsible for grocery shopping. Results from principal component analysis and a 2-step cluster analysis suggest the existence of 4 market segments, described as Enthusiasts, Potentialists, Pragmatists, Health Skeptics (salted duck eggs), and Neutralists (preserved duck eggs). Kruskal Wallis tests and post hoc Mann-Whitney tests found significant differences between segments in terms of attitudes and the importance placed on product characteristics. Health Skeptics, preserved egg Potentialists, and Pragmatists of both egg products were significantly biased against Chinese imports compared to others. Except for Enthusiasts, segments disagreed that eggs are 'Healthy Products'. Preserved egg Enthusiasts had a significantly lower acculturation score (AS) compared to all others, while salted egg Enthusiasts had a lower AS compared to Health Skeptics. All segments rated "produced in BC, not mainland China" products in the "neutral to very likely" range for increasing their satisfaction with the eggs. Results also indicate that buyers of each egg type are willing to pay an average premium of at least 10% more for BC produced products versus imports, with all other characteristics equal. Overall

  5. Egg weights, egg component weights, and laying gaps in Great Tits (Parus major) in relation to ambient temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Dingemanse, N.J.; Both, C.; Blem, C.

    2002-01-01

    We collected 328 freshly laid Great Tit (Parus major) eggs from 38 clutches in 1999 to determine the relationship of whole egg weight, wet yolk weight, wet albumen weight, dry shell weight, and the occurrence of laying gaps with mean ambient temperature in the three days preceding laying, while cont

  6. Pallisentis rexus from the Chiang Mai Basin, Thailand: ultrastructural studies on egg envelope development and the mechanism of egg expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkham, W; Whitfield, P J

    2004-03-01

    Pallisentis rexus Wongkham & Whitfield, 1999 (Eoacanthocephala: Quadrigyridae) infects the freshwater snakehead fish, Channa striata, in the Chiang Mai Basin, Thailand. All stages of egg development within the body cavity of the female parasite were observed, using transmission electron microscopy. Changes in mature eggs after contact with water were also investigated. The mature egg has five egg envelopes separated from each other by four gaps. The fertilization membrane, which is formed first, is pushed centrifugally by other, subsequently formed, envelopes and gaps, which produces a final total shell thickness of 8-36 microm around the acanthor. The disappearance of the outermost layer and the unpleating of an adjacent inner layer causes the expansion of eggs on contact with water. The volume of an expanded egg is approximately 27 times that of an unexpanded one, but the density of eggs is reduced from a value greater than water to one almost equal to water. This is believed to aid the dispersion of eggs. PMID:14972041

  7. Vitellogenin knockdown strongly affects cotton boll weevil egg viability but not the number of eggs laid by females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Roberta R; de Souza Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Firmino, Alexandre A P; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Fonseca, Fernando C A; Terra, Walter R; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice; da Silva, Maria Cristina M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg), a yolk protein precursor, is the primary egg nutrient source involved in insect reproduction and embryo development. The Cotton Boll weevil (CBW) Anthonomus grandis Boheman, the most important cotton pest in Americas, accumulates large amounts of Vg during reproduction. However, the precise role of this protein during embryo development in this insect remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of vitellogenin (AgraVg) knockdown on the egg-laying and egg viability in A. grandis females, and also characterized morphologically the unviable eggs. AgraVg transcripts were found during all developmental stages of A. grandis, with highest abundance in females. Silencing of AgraVg culminated in a significant reduction in transcript amount, around 90%. Despite this transcriptional reduction, egg-laying was not affected in dsRNA-treated females but almost 100% of the eggs lost their viability. Eggs from dsRNA-treated females showed aberrant embryos phenotype suggesting interference at different stages of embryonic development. Unlike for other insects, the AgraVg knockdown did not affect the egg-laying ability of A. grandis, but hampered A. grandis reproduction by perturbing embryo development. We concluded that the Vg protein is essential for A. grandis reproduction and a good candidate to bio-engineer the resistance against this devastating cotton pest. PMID:27419079

  8. Vitellogenin knockdown strongly affects cotton boll weevil egg viability but not the number of eggs laid by females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta R. Coelho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitellogenin (Vg, a yolk protein precursor, is the primary egg nutrient source involved in insect reproduction and embryo development. The Cotton Boll weevil (CBW Anthonomus grandis Boheman, the most important cotton pest in Americas, accumulates large amounts of Vg during reproduction. However, the precise role of this protein during embryo development in this insect remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of vitellogenin (AgraVg knockdown on the egg-laying and egg viability in A. grandis females, and also characterized morphologically the unviable eggs. AgraVg transcripts were found during all developmental stages of A. grandis, with highest abundance in females. Silencing of AgraVg culminated in a significant reduction in transcript amount, around 90%. Despite this transcriptional reduction, egg-laying was not affected in dsRNA-treated females but almost 100% of the eggs lost their viability. Eggs from dsRNA-treated females showed aberrant embryos phenotype suggesting interference at different stages of embryonic development. Unlike for other insects, the AgraVg knockdown did not affect the egg-laying ability of A. grandis, but hampered A. grandis reproduction by perturbing embryo development. We concluded that the Vg protein is essential for A. grandis reproduction and a good candidate to bio-engineer the resistance against this devastating cotton pest.

  9. 9 CFR 94.6 - Carcasses, parts or products of carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... seq.) and regulations thereunder (9 CFR part 381), including requirements that the poultry or poultry... Register citations affecting § 94.6, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... carcasses, and eggs (other than hatching eggs) of poultry, game birds, or other birds; importations...

  10. Examination of egg number and egg weight variables and their effects on daily management in aviary systems for laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, C.; Keen, A.

    1995-01-01

    1. Characteristics of egg numbers and mean egg weight were examined for their usefulness in the daily management of aviary systems for laying hens. 2. A number of 3238 brown Isabrown/Warren hens were housed in 1 compartment, a separated part of the house where the hens could move around freely, of a

  11. External characteristic determination of eggs and cracked eggs identification using spectral signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chuanqi; He, Yong

    2016-02-01

    This study was carried out to use hyperspectral imaging technique for determining color (L*, a* and b*) and eggshell strength and identifying cracked chicken eggs. Partial least squares (PLS) models based on full and selected wavelengths suggested by regression coefficient (RC) method were established to predict the four parameters, respectively. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and RC-partial least squares-discriminant analysis (RC-PLS-DA) models were applied to identify cracked eggs. PLS models performed well with the correlation coefficient (rp) of 0.788 for L*, 0.810 for a*, 0.766 for b* and 0.835 for eggshell strength. RC-PLS models also obtained the rp of 0.771 for L*, 0.806 for a*, 0.767 for b* and 0.841 for eggshell strength. The classification results were 97.06% in PLS-DA model and 88.24% in RC-PLS-DA model. It demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging technique has the potential to be used to detect color and eggshell strength values and identify cracked chicken eggs.

  12. Egg and a lot of science: an interdisciplinary experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Gayer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Egg and a lot of science: an interdisciplinary experimentGayer, M.C.1,2;Rodrigues, D.T.1,2; Escoto, D.F.1; Denardin, E.L.G.2, Roehrs, R.1,21Interdisciplinary Research Group on Teaching Practice, Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, Brazil2Laboratory of Physicochemical Studies and Natural Products, Post Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Unipampa, RS, BrazilIntroduction: How to tell if an egg is rotten? How to calculate the volume of an egg? Because the rotten egg float? Why has this characteristic rotten egg smell? Because the gray-green color is formed on the surface of the cooked egg yolk? These issues are commonplace and unnoticed in day-to-day. Our grandmothers know how to tell if an egg is rotten or not, you just put the egg in a glass of water. If it is rotten floating, sinking is good. But why this happens? That they do not know answer. With only one egg chemical reactions work, macromolecules (proteins, density, membranes and conservation of matter. Hydrogen sulphide is responsible for the aroma of a freshly cooked egg. This gas as they break down the molecules of albumin, a protein present in the egg is formed. The color comes from a sulfide precipitation, this time with the Fe2+ ion contained in the yolk (Fe2+ + S2  FeS. The use of simple and easy to perform experiments, correlating various knowledge proves a very useful tool in science education. Objectives: Develop multidisciplinary learning contents through the problem. Materials and methods: The teacher provides students with a boiled egg, salt, a syringe and a cup, a plate and water. The teacher lays the aforementioned issues for students and allows them to exchange information with each other, seeking answers through experimentation. Results and discussion: Students engaged with the activity and interaction of groups in order to solve the proposed problem. Still, through trial and error have sought in various ways to find the answers. This tool takes the student to

  13. Temperature effects on copepod egg hatching: does acclimatization matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume; Kozmér, A.;

    2010-01-01

    This report investigates female sizes, egg sizes and egg hatching rates in relation to temperature for the near-shore calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa cultured at 6, 9, 14 and 24°C for several generations to achieve acclimatization. Inverse size relationships of eggs and females were revealed...... with increasing temperature. Eggs produced at 6°C were 85 ± 4 µm in diameter, but decreased to 80 ± 3 µm at 24°C. Female cephalothorax length was 840 ± 52 and 692 ± 39 µm at 9 and 24°C, respectively. Parallel hatching experiments were performed between non-acclimatized and acclimatized cultures across a range...... of temperatures reflecting natural conditions in Danish waters. A greater fraction of eggs enter quiescence as temperature declines. Eggs were able to hatch at temperatures as low as 1.5°C. Final egg hatching success increased with temperature. Acclimatization of the copepods resulted in a lower maximum hatching...

  14. Organochlorine contaminants in Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) eggs from Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T H; Rainwater, T R; Platt, S G; McMurry, S T; Anderson, T A

    2000-03-01

    Non-viable eggs of Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) were collected from Gold Button (GBL) and New River lagoons (NRL) in northern Belize and screened for organochlorine (OC) compounds using gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD). All egg samples from both lagoons (n = 24) tested positive for one or more OCs. Primary contaminants were p,p-DDE and methoxychlor, detected in 100% and 29% of the eggs examined, respectively. Concentrations of individual OC contaminants ranged from 1 ppb (ng chemical/g egg) to > 0.5 ppm (microgram chemical/g egg). Total concentrations of OCs (sum of all OCs) for one egg collected from a nest at GBL reached as high as 0.7 ppm. Sediment samples from both lagoons also tested positive for OCs (lindane, aldrin, methoxychlor, heptachlor epoxide, p,p-DDT, among others). Nest media (soil and plant material) collected from crocodile nests at GBL were positive for p,p-DDT, methoxychlor, aldrin, endosulfan II, and endrin aldehyde. Based on the 24 egg samples analyzed to date, crocodiles from both lagoons are being exposed to OCs. Such exposure may present a health threat to populations of crocodiles in Central America. PMID:10705543

  15. Portable EGG recording system based on a digital voice recorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J-K; Shieh, M-J; Kuo, T-S; Jaw, F-S

    2009-01-01

    Cutaneous electrogastrogram (EGG) recording offers the benefit of non-invasive gastrointestinal diagnosis. With long-term ambulatory recording of signals, researchers and clinicians could have more opportunities to investigate and analyse paroxysmal or acute symptoms. A portable EGG system based on a digital voice recorder (DVR) is designed for long-term recording of cutaneous EGG signals. The system consists of electrodes, an EGG amplifier, a modulator, and a DVR. Online monitoring and off-line acquisition of EGG are handled by software. A special design employing an integrated timer circuit is used to modulate the EGG frequency to meet the input requirements of the DVR. This approach involves low supply voltage and low power consumption. Software demodulation is used to simplify the complexity of the system, and is helpful in reducing the size of the portable device. By using surface-mount devices (SMD) and a low-power design, the system is robust, compact, and suitable for long-term portable recording. As a result, researchers can record an ambulatory EGG signal by means of the proposed circuits in conjunction with an up-to-date voice-recording device.

  16. Trichogramma parasitoids alter the metabolic physiology of Manduca eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Kristen A; Woods, H Arthur

    2012-09-01

    Egg parasitoids face unique developmental constraints. First, they have exceptionally limited resources to support themselves and their siblings through three life stages. Second, they develop within the physiological system of another species, which they modify to their own ends. We examined how these constraints affect the metabolic physiology of egg parasitism, and whether parasitoids retool their host eggshell to account for their different metabolic demands. Higher-conductance eggshells allow more oxygen to reach the developing parasitoids, but also allow more water to leave the egg. We used Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) eggs and Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids from southeastern AZ, USA. Compared with unparasitized Manduca eggs, eggs parasitized by Trichogramma had lower peak metabolic rates and approximately 50 per cent lower metabolic efficiency. However, developing Trichogramma were far more efficient than typical transfer efficiencies between tropic levels (approx. 10%). Even within a few hours of parasitization, eggs containing more Trichogramma had lower per-parasitoid metabolic rates, suggesting that parasitoid larvae have mechanisms for rapidly adjusting their metabolic rates based on number of siblings. Parasitoids also appear to control the conductance of their host eggshell: their different metabolic demands were mirrored by shifts in rates of water loss. PMID:22719035

  17. Bioactive amines and internal quality of commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, T C; Viegas, R P; Lara, L J C; Baião, N C; Souza, M R; Heneine, L G D; Cançado, S V

    2013-05-01

    The physicochemical and microbiological qualities of commercial eggs produced by layer hens of different ages (approximately 30 and 60 wk old) were submitted to storage under room temperature or refrigeration for 28 d. A total of 600 eggs were subjected to microbiological analyses of their inner contents and another 600 to a determination of Haugh units (HU) and bioactive amine content. A decrease in the quality of the inner contents of the eggs was observed during the experiment, mainly in the eggs from the 60-wk-old layers, which presented the worst HU values when stored at room temperature (P Pseudomonas spp., mesophilic aerobic bacteria, and fungi were also recorded. The chromatographic analysis of bioactive amines detected the presence of phenylethylamine in all albumens (38.0 mg/kg) and spermidine in the yolks (1.02 mg/kg). It was concluded that the age of the hens and the time and temperature of storage influenced the quality parameters of the eggs (P < 0.05). Furthermore, despite the low levels of microbial contamination found, phenylethylamine was detected in the albumen. It was not possible to establish index of quality of eggs using bioactive amines present in the yolk and albumen of eggs. PMID:23571349

  18. Efficacy and toxicity of iodine disinfection of Atlantic salmon eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Ketola, H.G.; Starliper, C.E.; Gallagher, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in the restoration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Great Lakes has given rise to new culture techniques and management programs designed to reduce pathogen transmission while stabilizing and enhancing wild populations. We examined the toxicity of iodine to Atlantic salmon eggs and its effectiveness as a disinfectant against bacteria on egg surfaces. We spawned and fertilized eight gravid Atlantic salmon from Cayuga Lake, New York, and exposed their eggs to 10 concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, 100, 500, 750, 1,000, 5,000, and 7,500 mg/L) for 30 min during water hardening. An additional subsample of unfertilized eggs was also exposed to some of the same concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to determine the efficiency of disinfection. Viable eggs were only obtained from four females. Survival of eggs to the eyed stage and hatch tended to be reduced at iodine concentrations of 50 and 75 mg/L and was significantly reduced at concentrations of 100 mg/L iodine or more. We calculated the concentrations of iodine that killed 50% of the Atlantic salmon eggs at eye-up and hatch to be 175 and 85 mg/L, respectively. Aeromonas veronii, A. schubertii, A. hydrophila, A. caviae, Plesiomonas shiggeloides, and Citrobacter spp. were the predominant bacteria present on the surface of green eggs and were significantly reduced by an iodine immersion. The use of iodine as a disinfectant on Atlantic salmon eggs was effective at low concentrations (50–75 mg/L), for which toxicity to Atlantic salmon was minimal.

  19. Freeze-drying behaviour of pasteurized whole egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because it provides full nutritional and certain desirable functional attributes, egg products are widely used as ingredients in many food products. Dried egg is especially valuable for being stable, easily mixable and having a long shelf life. It is necessary to know the effects of drying conditions onto the moisture removal behaviour and the functional properties of the powder product, to serve the egg powder as an alternative. An experimental study was conducted to achieve an understanding of the freeze-drying behaviour of pasteurized whole egg having 24% dry solids. In order to determine the moisture removal behaviour; the percent moisture loss (w/w), the average moisture content and the drying rates were obtained, the drying curves were developed and total drying times were determined, also the movement of the dry-wet boundary between the frozen layer and the dry porous layer formed by sublimation of ice crystals were investigated during a complete process. The physical properties of pasteurized whole egg such as; colour, water activity (aw), the morphological structure (through SEM analysis) and functional properties (foam stability and dissolubility) were determined. The net colour change (ΔE) was about 22, independent of layer thickness. The water activity decreased to 0.22 at the end of drying. The SEM images of freeze-dried and slightly milled egg powder samples at magnification levels of 500 and 1000 showed the porous structure caused by sublimation of ice crystals generated within the egg structure during air blast freezing. The dissolubility and foaming capacity of powder egg were observed to be lower compared to those of pasteurized liquid egg. (author)

  20. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EGGS PACKED UNDER MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Giampietro-Ganeco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eggs are perishable foods and lose quality quickly if not stored properly. From the moment of posture to the marketing of egg, quality loss occurs through gas exchange and water through the pores of the shell with the external environment and thus, studies involving modified atmosphere packaging are extremely important. The aim of the present study is to assess the internal quality of eggs packed under modified atmosphere and stored at room temperature. Six hundred and twelve fresh commercial eggs from 38-week old Hisex White laying hens were used. The present study was conducted in a completely randomized experimental design in a 4 x 4 + 1 factorial arrangement [vacuum, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 absorbents, vacuum with oxygen gas (O2 absorbent and carbon dioxide (CO2 gas generator; storage times (7, 14, 21 and 28 days, control group (fresh eggs], with three repetitions (12 eggs each. The following factors were assessed: weight maintenance during storage; Haugh unit; color and yolk index. The modified atmosphere packaging maintained the weight of the eggs during a period of 28 days. Vacuum packaging with O2 absorbent and CO2 gas generator was more efficient in maintenance of egg quality, based on the values ​​of Haugh unit and yolk index. The luminosity of the yolk was preserved during the 28 storage days in all of the packaging types used. The vacuum packaging with O2 gas absorbent and CO2 gas generator provide an increase in internal egg quality.

  1. Effect of fermented earthworm cast on egg production and egg quality as well as removal of odor in feces from egg laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jae-Sung; Park, Byung-Sung

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of feeding fermented earthworm casts (EEC) to layers on egg-laying performance, blood lipid profiles, cecal microflora, and fecal odor removing performance. A total of 200 Hyline Brown layer chicks at 33-week-old were used in this study. They were randomly assigned to two numerically equal groups with 100 replications per treatment for 10 weeks. All the birds were caged individually. The control group was not treated with EEC. The EEC group was treated with top dressing containing 3.5% EEC. The present study revealed that egg production and egg weight were increased after feeding diet containing EEC at the top dressing level. Haugh unit, eggshell thickness, and eggshell breaking strength of EEC group were higher than those of control group. Egg yolk was determined for fatty acid profiling. It was found that EEC group had higher ratio of unsaturated- to saturated fatty acid as compared to control group. Lower ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids were found in the egg yolk of EEC group. Plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol contents were lower in the EEC group. However, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol content was higher in the EEC group as compared to that in control group. The number of cecal Lactobacillus was increased while the population of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria decreased in the EEC group. Fecal ammonia and hydrogen sulfide contents were lower in the EEC group as compared to those in control group. Taken together, these results suggested that EEC could improve egg production and egg quality. In addition, it could remove odour from laying-hen manure. PMID:27498506

  2. Egg Development of Paralichthys orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1839

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Ronzani Cerqueira

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Eggs of the Southern Brazilian flounder Paralichthys orbignyanus were obtained through spawning induction and reared in laboratory. The eggs released were free-floating or pelagic. Other important characteristics were: spherical shape, smooth chorion, narrow perivitelline space, and a single oil globule. Egg and oil globule diameter were about 0.792 ± 0.008 mm and 0.114 ± 0.003 mm, respectively. The blastodisc was observed approximately 1 h after fertilization and followed by blastodisc cleavage. Blastula stage started after about 5 h and gastrula stage after 9 h. Approximately 20 h after fertilization, blastopore closure was observed. Neurula or early embryo occurred after 24 h. Cardiac beats and movements of the free embryonic tail were recorded after 40 h of incubation. Hatching occurred after an incubation period of 40-50 h at temperatures ranging from 18 to 20 ºC. Newly hatched larvae were about 2.04 ± 0.024 mm long and quite undeveloped, with a large yolk sac with a posterior oil globule and sparse pigmentation. These results were greatly similar to those obtained by previous studies regarding congener species. This is one of the first steps towards the artificial propagation of this species under controlled conditions.Através do cultivo de ovos do linguado Paralichthys orbignyanus, obtidos de reprodução induzida em laboratório, foram descritos pela primeira vez seus estádios de desenvolvimento. O ovo era livre e flutuante, caracteristicamente pelágico. Além disso, tinha formato esférico, córion liso, espaço perivitelino estreito, vitelo homogêneo, e uma única gota de óleo. Seu diâmetro médio era de 0,792 ± 0,008 mm e o da gota de óleo de 0,114 ± 0,003 mm. Cerca de 1 h após a fecundação observou-se o blastodisco e em seguida a segmentação celular. A blástula iniciou após cerca de 5 h e a gástrula após 9 h. Com aproximadamente 20 h observou-se o fechamento do blastóporo. A nêurula ou embrião na fase inicial

  3. 9 CFR 590.930 - Imported egg products; retention in customs custody; delivery under bond; movement prior to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported egg products; retention in..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.930 Imported egg products; retention in customs custody; delivery under...

  4. Fish and egg specific immunoglobin e in multiple sclerosis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Fereshteh Ashtari; Fatemeh Jamshidi; Raheleh Shokouhi Shoormasti; Zahra Pourpak; Mojtaba Akbari; Faiborz Zandieh

    2013-01-01

    Background: The effect of nutrition in the course of multiple sclerosis (MS) is a topic of great interest. The present study was aimed to evaluate the immunoglobin E (IgE) against egg and fish in MS patients compared to healthy controls. Methods: Between March 2012 and July 2012, 48 MS patients were selected and compared with 48 healthy subjects to assess the frequency of IgE against egg and fish in MS patients compared to healthy control. Fish and Egg specific IgE was determined by Immuno CA...

  5. MMR vaccination of children with egg allergy is safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorthe Vestergård; Jørgensen, Inger Merete

    2013-01-01

    Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination is part of the Danish Childhood Vaccination Programme. It is known that children may react with anaphylaxis to MMR vaccines containing traces of egg protein. In Denmark, national clinical guidelines recommend that children with egg allergy be referred...... to vaccination at a paediatric ward despite changed recommendations in other countries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether children with egg allergy presented with anaphylactic/allergic reactions to MMR vaccination and to discuss whether Danish recommendations should be upheld....

  6. The egg consumption of the average household in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Migliorati; Armando Giovannini; Valentina Rizzi; Vincenza Prencipe

    2010-01-01

    A survey was conducted over a one-year period by means of telephone interviews with 7 991 Italian households to establish the domestic consumption of eggs, the distribution by source of supply, seasonal variations and storage and preparation methods used. Eggs are mainly purchased from large retailers (53%), followed by small retailers (25.2%), direct purchase from producers (16%), and local or itinerant markets (5.8%). It was found that 69.9% of households buy packaged eggs; 92% of household...

  7. Chemical Compositions of Egg Yolks and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Synbiotic Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shirley Gee Hoon; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Yong, Su Ting; Wong, Hee Kum; Ho, Yin Wan

    2015-08-01

    A 16-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), a probiotic, PrimaLac®, and their combination as a synbiotic on the chemical compositions of egg yolks and the egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and sixty 16-wk-old Hisex Brown pullets were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet + 1% IMO (PRE), (iii) basal diet + 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO), and (iv) basal diet + 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN). PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation not only significantly (P old) and total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), but also significantly (P old), total omega 6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid levels in the eggs (28-wk-old). However, the total lipids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the egg yolks were similar among all dietary treatments in the 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old hens. Egg quality (Haugh unit, relative weights of the albumen and yolk, specific gravity, shell thickness, and yolk color) was not affected by PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation. The results indicate that supplementations with IMO and PrimaLac® alone or in combination as a synbiotic might be useful for improving the cholesterol content and modifying the fatty acid compositions of egg yolk without affecting the quality of eggs from laying hens between 24 and 36 wk of age.

  8. An antisperm monoclonal antibody inhibits sperm fusion with zona-free hamster eggs but not homologous eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primakoff, P; Hyatt, H

    1986-09-01

    The zona-free hamster egg penetration assay (HEPA) was evaluated as a test for identifying fertilization-blocking antibodies. A monoclonal antibody, AH-20, that binds to the surface of guinea pig sperm was used to test antibody inhibition of sperm-egg fusion. AH-20 strongly inhibited guinea pig sperm fusion with zona-free hamster eggs but had no effect on guinea pig sperm fusion with zona-free guinea pig eggs. No inhibition by AH-20 was found in the homologous fusion assay over a wide range of sperm concentration, fertilization rate, and fertilization index. The results suggest that although guinea pig sperm can fuse with both hamster and guinea pig eggs, some aspect of the fusion mechanism is different in the two cases. The findings also indicate that HEPA, which is frequently used to assess the fertility potential of human sperm, can identify as blockers of sperm-egg fusion antibodies that have no effect on homologous sperm-egg fusion. PMID:3527769

  9. Adult nutrition and butterfly fitness: effects of diet quality on reproductive output, egg composition, and egg hatching success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Klaus H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Lepidoptera it was historically believed that adult butterflies rely primarily on larval-derived nutrients for reproduction and somatic maintenance. However, recent studies highlight the complex interactions between storage reserves and adult income, and that the latter may contribute significantly to reproduction. Effects of adult diet were commonly assessed by determining the number and/or size of the eggs produced, whilst its consequences for egg composition and offspring viability were largely neglected (as is generally true for insects. We here specifically focus on these latter issues by using the fruit-feeding tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana, which is highly dependent on adult-derived carbohydrates for reproduction. Results Adult diet of female B. anynana had pronounced effects on fecundity, egg composition and egg hatching success, with butterflies feeding on the complex nutrition of banana fruit performing best. Adding vitamins and minerals to a sucrose-based diet increased fecundity, but not offspring viability. All other groups (plain sucrose solution, sucrose solution enriched with lipids or yeast had a substantially lower fecundity and egg hatching success compared to the banana group. Differences were particularly pronounced later in life, presumably indicating the depletion of essential nutrients in sucrose-fed females. Effects of adult diet on egg composition were not straightforward, indicating complex interactions among specific compounds. There was some evidence that total egg energy and water content were related to hatching success, while egg protein, lipid, glycogen and free carbohydrate content did not seem to limit successful development. Conclusion The patterns shown here exemplify the complexity of reproductive resource allocation in B. anynana, and the need to consider egg composition and offspring viability when trying to estimate the effects of adult nutrition on fitness in this

  10. Rare earth element-enriched yeast improved egg production and egg quality in laying hens in the late period of peak egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, L; Nyachoti, C M; Hancock, J D; Lee, J Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, D H; Kim, I H

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rare earth element-enriched yeast (RY) on egg production, coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD), egg quality, excreta gas emission and excreta microbiota of laying hens. A total of 216 ISA brown laying hens of 52 weeks of age were used in a 5-week feeding trial and data were collected every week. Birds were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments each with six replicates and 12 hens per replicate. Each cage (38 cm width × 50 cm length × 40 cm height) contained one hen. Treatments consisted of corn-soya bean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 500 or 1000 mg/kg of RY. From weeks 55 to 56, inclusion of RY linearly increased (p hens. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with RY improved egg production and CTTAD of nitrogen and slightly improved egg quality in laying hens of the late period of peak egg production. PMID:26250098

  11. Bunker C. fuel oil reduces mallard egg hatchability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaro, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    Assessment of the effect of Bunker C fuel oil on artificially-incubated mallard eggs. Eggshell applications of 5-50 ul of Bunker C fuel oil were made on day 8 of incubation; measured hatching success.

  12. Egg mortality: predation and hydrography in the central Baltic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, R.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Stepputtis, D.;

    2011-01-01

    during the egg phase to be of critical importance. Two years of extensive field investigations in the Bornholm Basin, central Baltic Sea, were undertaken. In 2002, a typical stagnation situation characterized by low salinity and poor oxygen conditions was investigated, and in early 2003, a major inflow...... of North Sea water completely changed the hydrographic conditions by increasing salinity and oxygen content, thereby altering ecological conditions. The goal was to quantify egg mortality caused by predation and hydrography, and to compare these estimates with independent estimates based on cohort analysis....... Results indicated high intra-annual variability in egg mortality. Cod and sprat egg mortality responded differently to the major Baltic inflow: mortality related to hydrographic conditions increased for sprat and decreased for cod. On the other hand, predation mortality during peak spawning decreased...

  13. Contaminant concentrations in peregrine falcon eggs from Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the 1991 breeding season, three addled peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs were collected from two sites in Vermont (Figure 1). At one site (Deer Leap),...

  14. Calanus finmarchicus egg production at its northern border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Eva Friis; Bohr, Magnus; Kjellerup, Sanne;

    2016-01-01

    How the distribution of Calanus finmarchicus and its potential northward expansion will be affected by climate changes depends on the mechanisms and processes constraining their reproduction, recruitment and survival. Here we present measurements of C. finmarchicus egg production rates during...... the spring bloom in 2008, 2010 and 2011 in Disko Bay, West Greenland and validate four independently derived metabolic models to predict egg production rates. The spring bloom in 2008 was short and intense and supported lower cumulated specific egg production of C. finmarchicus than the longer blooms...... rates during the spring in Disko Bay, while the low temperature in the Bay explained why the egg production rate here is much lower than at more southerly localities despite high food concentrations. This study suggests that an increase in magnitude of the Arctic phytoplankton spring bloom...

  15. Values and public acceptability dimensions of sustainable egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P B; Appleby, M; Busch, L; Kalof, L; Miele, M; Norwood, B F; Pajor, E

    2011-09-01

    The attributes of egg production that elicit values-based responses include the price and availability of eggs, environmental impacts, food safety or health concerns, and animal welfare. Different social groups have distinct interests regarding the sustainability of egg production that reflect these diverse values. Current scientifically based knowledge about how values and attitudes in these groups can be characterized is uneven and must be derived from studies conducted at varying times and using incomplete study methods. In general, some producer and consumer interests are translated through markets and are mediated by market mechanisms, whereas others are poorly reflected by economic behavior. An array of survey and focus group research has been performed to elicit consumer and activist beliefs about performance goals they would expect from an egg production system. These studies provide evidence that consumers' market behavior may be at odds with their ethical and political beliefs about performance goals. PMID:21844278

  16. RNA synthesis during cleavage of the Lymnaea egg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biggelaar, J.A.M. van den

    1971-01-01

    In eggs of Lymnaea RNA synthesis can be detected autoradiographically from the 8- to the 16-cell stage. From the 16- to the 24-cell stage distinct nucleoli reappear which are immediately engaged in RNA synthesis.

  17. Factors Affecting Microbial Contamination of Market Eggs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodová J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the review was to analyze the ways of microbial contamination, the protective mechanism of egg, and factors that affect the quantity of contamination and microbial penetration. Eggs can be contaminated during their formation in the infected reproductive organs of hens or after laying, when eggs are exposed to contaminated environment. The eggs are equipped against microbial contamination by several protective mechanisms comprising the presence of cuticle, eggshell, eggshell membranes, occurrence of some antibacterial proteins, and high pH value of albumen. There are several factors that affect the quantity of microbial contamination and penetration such as species of bacteria, the amount of microorganisms, storage conditions, quality of eggshell or number of pores.

  18. Forecasting of the Egg Price Based on EEMD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan; WANG; Yucheng; HE

    2015-01-01

    In the transitional period of " new normal",the target price is put forward to deepen the reform system of agricultural product price. Egg is the main agricultural product and its price has fluctuated violently in recent years. Setting up a target price for egg will reduce the price fluctuations. This article brings up a three-step agricultural price forecasting model based on EEMD and applies it to the analysis of egg price. It shows that the upward trend can be divided into three stages,and the fluctuation is greater than that of food consumer price in the foreseeable future. The volatility of egg price is bad for the development of the fresh market and stable life of the residents. This article finally puts forward some recommendations.

  19. Study on the sterilization of egg white powder by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article studied the killing microorganism result, the influence of main essential nutrient and sense organ of egg white powder by Co-60 γ-ray irradiation. The microorganism index of the egg white powder samples can meet the government food sanitation standard by 4 kGy irradiation, and the killing microorganism rare can reach 100%. The irradiation dose from 4 to 10 kGy has little influence to the egg white powder protein, crude fiber and amino acids contras ting to comparison, and the sensory quality such as color and luster, scent has little change below 6 kGy irradiation. Synthesizing the results of physical chemistry and sense organ, the optimal irradiation dose of egg white powder killing microorganism is 4 to 6 kGy. (authors)

  20. Inventory of sea turtle eggs for contaminant analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an inventory of the bags of sea turtle eggs/hatchlings collected on St. Vincent NWR in 1996 and transferred to the Panama City Field Office for contaminants...

  1. Continuous Underway Fish-Egg Sampler (CUFES) Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pelagic eggs collected using the CUFES during cruises conducted by the SWFSC Fisheries Resources Division from 1996 to present. Data are typically collected every...

  2. Controlling egg dioxin levels from laying hens with outdoor run

    OpenAIRE

    Kijlstra, Prof. Dr. Aize; Hoogenboom, Dr. Ron; Traag, Dr. Wim

    2008-01-01

    After the first news items concerning raised dioxin levels in eggs from hens with outdoor access were published in the summer of 2001, Wageningen UR carried out intensive research activities to understand the problem and to find a way to manage the problem. In 2004 the first Wageningen UR report on this issue was published. It described the possible factors that were associated with high egg dioxin levels in organic poultry farms. The most striking feature was the number of laying hens on ...

  3. Organic poultry and egg production in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bestman, Monique

    2011-01-01

    There are over 1 million organic laying hens in the Netherlands. Organic eggs are in high demand on the domestic market. Dutch organic poultry meat has a small but growing market share. To facilitate organic poultry farmers, Wageningen UR and Louis Bolk Institute carry out a variety of research aimed specifically at organic poultry meat and egg production. Hot topics are the protein content of poultry feed, organic rearing and animal health. The report contains sector facts, sector aspirat...

  4. Heartbeat, embryo communication and hatching synchrony in snake eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Fabien Aubret; Gaëlle Blanvillain; Florent Bignon; Kok, Philippe J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Communication is central to life at all levels of complexity, from cells to organs, through to organisms and communities. Turtle eggs were recently shown to communicate with each other in order to synchronise their development and generate beneficial hatching synchrony. Yet the mechanism underlying embryo to embryo communication remains unknown. Here we show that within a clutch, developing snake embryos use heart beats emanating from neighbouring eggs as a clue for their metabolic level, in ...

  5. Lead exposure from backyard chicken eggs: a public health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Adrienne C; Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Although the USA has made significant strides in reducing lead exposure, new and emerging sources are raising cause for public concern. Recent reports of finding lead in eggs from chickens raised in urban gardens has highlighted the need to consider the potential health risks of consuming eggs from backyard chickens. Following the detection of 0.33 μg/g lead in the edible portion of eggs submitted for lead analysis from a backyard chicken owner, further investigation was conducted to determine the source and extent of lead exposure in the flock. Several birds, almost two dozen eggs, and environmental samples were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory for further testing. Lead was detected in the blood, liver, kidney, and bone at varying concentrations in all birds but was not detected in the muscle tissue. All egg shells contained detectable amounts of lead, while only a little over half of the edible portion of the eggs contained lead. The detected concentrations in the edible portion approached or exceeded the recommended threshold of lead consumption per day that should not be exceeded by young children if a child consumed one average-sized egg. Peeling paint from a wooded structure adjacent to the flock's coop was the likely lead source containing 3,700 μg/g lead. Thus, removal of the chickens from the source and periodic testing of eggs for lead were recommended. This case illustrates the need for consumers and health care workers to be aware of potential sources for lead exposure such as backyard chickens. PMID:24943230

  6. Hen's egg as a source of valuable biologically active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Herman, Marta; Starostecka, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show current knowledge concerning valuable substances biologically active present in hen eggs and underline important nutritive role of hen eggs. Hen egg is a good source of nutrients such as proteins, vitamins (A, B2, B6, B12, D, E, K), minerals and lipids. The significant part of lipids is a group of unsaturated phospholipids, which are components of cell membranes, act protectively on the cardiovascular system and contribute to a decrease of cholesterol level and blood pressure. Therefore, the consumption of unsaturated phospholipids is recommended especially in patients suffering from diseases of the cardiovascular system. Another important substance is egg cystatin, which has a wide spectrum of biological functions, for example the ability to stimulate cell growth, inhibit inflammatory processes and has antibacterial and antiviral properties. Other substance presented in the egg white which helps fight bacteria is lysozyme. It is used in medicine as an aid in antibiotic therapy and analgesic in the course of infection, as well as in tumor malignancies. Among the components contained in the egg yolk there is also immunoglobulin Y which due to its therapeutic importance deserves special attention. Its use offers the possibility of replacing chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of bacterial infections of digestive system, as well as an opportunity for the development of medicine associated with passive immunization of patients. The egg is a rich source of retinol which gradual depletion in the organism causes many eye pathologies. A very important and useful part of the egg, used in medicine is a shell and its membranes, due to the high collagen content relevant in the treatment of connective tissue diseases. PMID:27383572

  7. Trichogramma parasitoids alter the metabolic physiology of Manduca eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Kristen A.; Woods, H. Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Egg parasitoids face unique developmental constraints. First, they have exceptionally limited resources to support themselves and their siblings through three life stages. Second, they develop within the physiological system of another species, which they modify to their own ends. We examined how these constraints affect the metabolic physiology of egg parasitism, and whether parasitoids retool their host eggshell to account for their different metabolic demands. Higher-conductance eggshells ...

  8. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Jyothi B; Dhanashri V Kulkarni; V L Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symp...

  9. The egg quality and performance of laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Skálová, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Many factors affect on egg quality and performance of laying hens. There are external factors, for example the housing system, and internal factors, for example the age of laying hens. This thesis discusses about the statement. There are known results, conclusions and conducted research on the issue influencing egg quality and performance of laying hens from Czech and foreign authors. Literature review contains a description of alternative housing systems and equipment of these systems. Th...

  10. 7 CFR 57.840 - Identification of inedible, unwholesome, or adulterated egg products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... adulterated egg products. 57.840 Section 57.840 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations...

  11. 7 CFR 57.45 - Prohibition on eggs not intended for use as human food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs not intended for use as human food...) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Regulations Governing the Inspection of...

  12. 7 CFR 57.700 - Prohibition on disposition of restricted eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... any business in commerce any restricted eggs, except as authorized in §§ 57.100 and 57.720. (b) No egg... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on disposition of restricted eggs. 57.700... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  13. Quality of foraging material and the effect on hens feed intake, egg production and - quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Hammershøj, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August......In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August...

  14. Motion compensated image processing and optimal parameters for egg crack detection using modified pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell eggs with microcracks are often undetected during egg grading processes. In the past, a modified pressure imaging system was developed to detect eggs with microcracks without adversely affecting the quality of normal intact eggs. The basic idea of the modified pressure imaging system was to ap...

  15. 50 CFR 21.50 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... geese nests and eggs. 21.50 Section 21.50 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.50 Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs. (a... nests and eggs, and what is its purpose? The nest and egg depredation order for resident Canada...

  16. Factors from production to packaging that affect the microbiology of commercial shell egg processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggs are designed to limit bacterial contamination of egg contents as well as to protect and nourish a developing embryo; these qualities contribute to eggs being wholesome and nutritious for humans. When eggs are involved in human enteritis, there is usually temperature abuse and pooling of raw pr...

  17. Gendering gametes: The unequal contributions of sperm and egg donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Rosanna; Nelson, Margaret K; Kramer, Wendy

    2015-12-01

    This paper compares three groups of gestational mothers who relied on gametes from donors they did not know. The three groups are women who have conceived with donor sperm and their own eggs, women who have conceived with donor eggs and a partner's sperm, and women who have conceived with embryos composed of both donor eggs and donor sperm. The paper explores three issues. First, it considers whether intending parents select sperm and egg donors for different attributes both when they are chosen as the only donor and when they are chosen as donors contributing to an entire embryo. Second, it examines how women imagine the donor. Finally, it looks at how women conceptualize the donor as an individual who contributes to their child's characteristics. Two significant findings emerged in this analysis of survey data. First, the data show that gametes are gendered with different attributes both when those gametes are separate and even more so when seen as complementary parts of a whole. Second, the data show that women minimize the impact of the egg donor (both when a sole contribution and especially when part of the complementary whole) and thus ignore the influence or impact of the egg donor relative to how they make sense of the influence or impact of the sperm donor. The data for this study comes from an online survey developed by the authors.

  18. The development of regional markets of eggs production in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal'ya Anatol'evna Alekseeva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current state of regional markets development and the production of eggs and egg products for a long period — from 1990 to 2009 — is reviewed in this paper. The main research method is the method of statistical groupings. The variable amount of egg production was chosen as the grouping characteristic, since this figure fits well into research goals and has the property of the prevalence in the aggregate / total. To analyze the trends of the Russian regional markets involved into egg production, official statistics on consumer prices was used as well as producer prices, the volume of egg production per capita based on food import and export products. This allowed to group regions for comparison with average values of indicators carried out by different criteria, and to draw conclusions about trends in the development of regional markets. The most relevant factors influencing the development of egg production, among which the factor of vertical integration of production was especially noticed: building own plants and feed mills, joining the land in order to ensure the needs for higher quality raw materials and other activities were identified.

  19. EXPERIMENTS OF FORTIFIED EGG YOLK POWDER IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Kiss

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The egg contains inorganic binding nutrients, which are essential in human feeding. Besides a great number of nutrients, vitamins and microelements can be accumulated in egg yolk. The enrichment of vitamins and carotinoids in egg yolk can be achieved by addition of desired supplementary compounds to the feed. Fortified egg yolk can be a good source of different carotenoids, and vitamin C. Carotenoids have protecting effect as follows: antioxidant activity, immunostimulation effect and antimutagenous effect. The ascorbic acid’s biological effect is ability of oxidation-reduction. It has reduction capacity, and takes part in regeneration after glutation oxidation. In our experiment BALBc mice were fed by fortified egg yolk powder. Carotenoid, lutein, lycopene, and vitamin C were mixed into the egg yolk before lyophilisation (lutein 0.014 %; vitamin C 0.035 %, likopin 0.035 % in food. The other mice group was fed with syntetic form of lutein, lycopene and vitamin C. Mice were bled at 5th and 10th day of experiment. Blood and liver concentrations of lutein, lycopene and vitamin C were measured by HPLC method. In our experiment we compared utilization of lutein, lycopene and vitamin C concentration in different fortified food of BALBc mice.

  20. Influence of Dietary Isoflavonoids on Stability of Egg Yolk Lipids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Jing-dong; QI Guang-hai; ZHENG Jun-jie; HUO Qi-guang

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary tea polyphenol (TP) and daidzein (DA) on lipid stability of egg yolk. Two-hundred and seventy 27-week-old Hisex Brown laying hens were divided into nine groups, fed a diet supplemented with 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 mg kg-1 TP and 5, 10, 20, 40 mg kg- 1 DA respectively for a period of 8 weeks ad libitum. The dietary addition of TP and DA both could reduce egg yolk LPO content significantly at the end of 4-week experiment (P < 0.05) and keep egg yolk lipid stable at the supplemental dose of 10 mg kg- 1 diet respectively. A significant liner reduction in egg yolk LPO content was found with the increasing of dietary TP and DA. The egg yolk LPO content was decreased by 23.1 and 27.0% (P< 0.05) with the supplementation of TP and DA respectively at 40 mg kg-1 diet. The LPO contents in liver, plasma and egg yolk were decreased significantly with the dietary addition of TP or DA respectively ( P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the effects of TP and DA on improvement of layers' antioxidative capacity. The dietary TP and DA both could improve the bird's antioxidative level directly irrelevant to SOD and GSH-Px actiVities.

  1. Application of the FluEgg model to predict transport of Asian carp eggs in the Saint Joseph River (Great Lakes tributary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, P. Ryan; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) is a three-dimensional Lagrangian model that simulates the movement and development of Asian carp eggs until hatching based on the physical characteristics of the flow field and the physical and biological characteristics of the eggs. This tool provides information concerning egg development and spawning habitat suitability including: egg plume location, egg vertical and travel time distribution, and egg-hatching risk. A case study of the simulation of Asian carp eggs in the Lower Saint Joseph River, a tributary of Lake Michigan, is presented. The river hydrodynamic input for FluEgg was generated in two ways — using hydroacoustic data and using HEC-RAS model data. The HEC-RAS model hydrodynamic input data were used to simulate 52 scenarios covering a broad range of flows and water temperatures with the eggs at risk of hatching ranging from 0 to 93% depending on river conditions. FluEgg simulations depict the highest percentage of eggs at risk of hatching occurs at the lowest discharge and at peak water temperatures. Analysis of these scenarios illustrates how the interactive relation among river length, hydrodynamics, and water temperature influence egg transport and hatching risk. An improved version of FluEgg, which more realistically simulates dispersion and egg development, is presented. Also presented is a graphical user interface that facilitates the use of FluEgg and provides a set of post-processing analysis tools to support management decision-making regarding the prevention and control of Asian carp reproduction in rivers with or without Asian carp populations.

  2. Different temperature and cooling patterns at the blunt and sharp egg poles reflect the arrangement of eggs in an avian clutch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav E Šálek

    Full Text Available Incubation is an energetically demanding process during which birds apply heat to their eggs to ensure embryonic development. Parent behaviours such as egg turning and exchanging the outer and central eggs in the nest cup affect the amount of heat lost to the environment from individual eggs. Little is known, however, about whether and how egg surface temperature and cooling rates vary among the different areas of an egg and how the arrangement of eggs within the clutch influences heat loss. We performed laboratory (using Japanese quail eggs and field (with northern lapwing eggs experiments using infrared imaging to assess the temperature and cooling patterns of heated eggs and clutches. We found that (i the sharp poles of individual quail eggs warmed to a higher egg surface temperature than did the blunt poles, resulting in faster cooling at the sharp poles compared to the blunt poles; (ii both quail and lapwing clutches with the sharp poles oriented towards the clutch centre (arranged clutches maintained higher temperatures over the central part of the clutch than occurred in those clutches where most of the sharp egg poles were oriented towards the exterior (scattered clutches; and (iii the arranged clutches of both quail and lapwing showed slower cooling rates at both the inner and outer clutch positions than did the respective parts of scattered clutches. Our results demonstrate that egg surface temperature and cooling rates differ between the sharp and blunt poles of the egg and that the orientation of individual eggs within the nest cup can significantly affect cooling of the clutch as a whole. We suggest that birds can arrange their eggs within the nest cup to optimise thermoregulation of the clutch.

  3. Effects of No. 2 fuel oil on hatchability of marine and estuarine bird eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; King, K.A.; Coon, N.C.

    1979-01-01

    Eggs of Louisiana herons, sandwich terns, and laughing gulls were oiled with either 0, 5, or 20 microliter of No. 2 fuel oil in the field and in the laboratory. After 5 days of natural incubation, field-oiled and control eggs were opened and embryonic mortality was determined. No. 2 fuel oil produced 61% mortality in Louisiana heron eggs, 56% in sandwich tern eggs, and 83% in laughing gull eggs. Hatching success of artificially incubated, oiled eggs appeared to be lower than in control eggs. However, stress during shipment to the laboratory and problems within the incubator probably contributed to reduced hatchability in both groups.

  4. Rheological Properties and Oxidative Stability of Baked Sponge Cake Using Silky Fowl Egg

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiyuki Toyosaki; Yasuhide Sakane

    2013-01-01

    Baked sponge cakes using silky fowl egg and those using hen eggs were prepared, respectively. The rheological properties, lipid peroxidation and water content of the baked sponge cakes using silky fowl egg compared with those of the cakes using hen egg. The height of the baked sponge cake using silky fowl egg became higher than that of the sponge cake using hen egg. The baked sponge cake using silky fowl egg showed hardly change in hardness and adhesion of the cake for 10 days at room tempera...

  5. A New and Simple Method for Collecting Eggs of the Striped Stemborer,Chilo suppressalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jun-hui; LIU Guang-jie

    2004-01-01

    The method for collecting eggs of the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis using plastic bags was studied in comparison with using caged rice plants. There was no significant difference in fecundity of C. suppressalis at 279 eggs/moth and in percentage of hatched eggs at 95% between in plastic bags and on rice plants. More egg masses were collected on plastic bags than on rice plants, whereas more smaller egg masses (less than 100 eggs per mass) in plastic bags than on rice plants. The advantages in collecting eggs of C. suppressalis and other insects by using plastic bags were also discussed.

  6. The application of superweak bioluminescence on freshness degree of chicken egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The luminescence of chicken egg in storage is studied by a detection system of superweak bioluminescence. The results show that egg has the strongest vigour on the third day after it is laid, subsequently the luminescence presents decay with oscillation. These eggs, which have been stored for 3 days, are most suitable for hatching. Different eggs have different luminescence intensities depending on the vigour of the egg. The stronger the vigour of the egg is, the more intensive the luminescence is. Superweak bioluminescence as a comprehensive index of biology and biochemistry response can be used for inspecting the freshness degree of the egg, and the test is nondestructive and sensitive

  7. Impact of transgenerational immune priming on the defence of insect eggs against parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauer-Kizilelma, Ute; Hilker, Monika

    2015-07-01

    Insects are known to prime the immune state of their offspring. However, although the beginning of insect life, the egg stage, is often greatly endangered by parasitism, no knowledge is available regarding whether transgenerational immune priming improves the immune responses of insect eggs to actual parasitoid attacks. Our study revealed suppression of the development of parasitoids in transgenerationally immune-primed Manduca sexta eggs and reduced emergence rates of parasitoids from these eggs. The higher defence efficiency of immune-primed M. sexta eggs against parasitoids was in agreement with the increased antibacterial activity and phenoloxidase activity of these eggs in response to parasitism compared to the eggs of control parents. Our study showed that immunochallenged insect parents could enable their offspring already in the egg stage to defend more efficiently against parasitic invaders. We discuss whether M. sexta benefits from transgenerational immune priming of eggs by limiting the population growth of egg parasitoids. PMID:25790896

  8. Nest Material Shapes Eggs Bacterial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Castellano, Cristina; Tomás, Gustavo; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Martín-Gálvez, David; Soler, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Selective pressures imposed by pathogenic microorganisms to embryos have selected in hosts for a battery of antimicrobial lines of defenses that includes physical and chemical barriers. Due to the antimicrobial properties of volatile compounds of green plants and of chemicals of feather degrading bacteria, the use of aromatic plants and feathers for nest building has been suggested as one of these barriers. However, experimental evidence suggesting such effects is scarce in the literature. During two consecutive years, we explored experimentally the effects of these nest materials on loads of different groups of bacteria (mesophilic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus and Enterococcus) of eggshells in nests of spotless starlings (Sturnus unicolor) at the beginning and at the end of the incubation period. This was also explored in artificial nests without incubation activity. We also experimentally increased bacterial density of eggs in natural and artificial nests and explored the effects of nest lining treatments on eggshell bacterial load. Support for the hypothetical antimicrobial function of nest materials was mainly detected for the year and location with larger average values of eggshell bacterial density. The beneficial effects of feathers and plants were more easily detected in artificial nests with no incubation activity, suggesting an active role of incubation against bacterial colonization of eggshells. Pigmented and unpigmented feathers reduced eggshell bacterial load in starling nests and artificial nest boxes. Results from artificial nests allowed us to discuss and discard alternative scenarios explaining the detected association, particularly those related to the possible sexual role of feathers and aromatic plants in starling nests. All these results considered together confirm the antimicrobial functionality mainly of feathers but also of plants used as nest materials, and highlight the importance of temporally and geographically

  9. Estimating the age of Calliphora vicina eggs (Diptera: Calliphoridae): determination of embryonic morphological landmarks and preservation of egg samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Vega, Daniel; Hall, Martin J R

    2016-05-01

    Blow fly eggs may sometimes be the only entomological evidence recovered in a forensic case, especially in cooler weather when hatching might take several days: hence, a method for estimating their age is greatly needed. However, developmental data on blow fly eggs are mainly limited to records of the time to larval hatching. The current paper describes the morphological changes occurring during embryogenesis of the blow fly Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and their timing in relation to temperature, in order to determine those characters which can be used for simple egg age estimation using light microscopy. At 7.3 and 25 °C, 15 easily visualised morphological landmarks were determined in C. vicina living embryos, allowing for their age estimation with a resolution of 10-20% of total egg developmental time. The observed age intervals were compared to the embryonic stages described for the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, which are used as reference data in multiple developmental studies. Moreover, current guidelines for preservation of egg samples, which recommend the placement of living eggs directly into 80% ethanol, were tested against the hot water killing (HWK) method prior to preservation in 80% ethanol, recommended for larval and pupal specimens. Direct placement of eggs into 80% ethanol caused marked decomposition of samples, and no morphological landmarks were discernible. On the other hand, HWK fixation prior to preservation in 80% ethanol enabled visualisation of 11 of the 15 age-specific morphological landmarks that were discernible in living embryos. Therefore, HWK fixation prior to preservation in 80% ethanol is recommended for egg samples, thus unifying the protocols for collecting entomological evidence.

  10. Retention of Coastal Cod Eggs in a Fjord Caused by Interactions between Egg Buoyancy and Circulation Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Myksvoll, Mari Skuggedal; Sundby, Svein; Ådlandsvik, Bjørn; Frode B Vikebø

    2011-01-01

    Norwegian coastal cod form a stationary population of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua consisting of several genetically separated subpopulations. A small-scale differentiation in marine populations with pelagic eggs and larvae is made possible by local retention of early life stages in coastal environments. A numerical model was used to simulate the circulation in a fjord system in northern Norway over 2 years with different river runoff patterns. The dispersal of cod eggs was calculated with a par...

  11. Using Lipase to Improve the Functional Properties of Yolk-Contaminated Egg Whites

    OpenAIRE

    Macherey, Laura Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Egg yolk contamination of egg whites continues to be a serious problem in the egg industry. The ability of egg whites to form stable and voluminous foams is greatly inhibited by accidental yolk contamination, even at extremely small levels. Experiments were conducted to determine if lipase can regenerate the functional properties of yolk-contaminated egg whites. Treatments included control, 0.2% yolk-contamination, and 0.2% yolk-contamination that was treated with lipase and colipase and h...

  12. Morphological and Physiological Characteristics that Contribute to Insecticide Resistance in Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L.) Eggs.

    OpenAIRE

    Delong, Brittany E

    2014-01-01

    Although bed bug eggs are a difficult life stage to control with our currently labeled insecticides, few studies have examined how bed bug egg morphology and physiology is potentially related to pesticide resistance in bed bug eggs. Bed bug egg morphological features were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the chorion and respiration structures were identified. Scanning electron microscopy photographs and bed bug egg measurements indicated there were no morphological differ...

  13. Effects of egg shell quality and washing on Salmonella Infantis penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah; Chousalkar, K K; Roberts, J R; Sexton, M; May, D; Kiermeier, A

    2013-07-15

    The vast majority of eggs in Australia are washed prior to packing to remove dirt and fecal material and to reduce the microbial contamination of the egg shell. The egg contents can be an ideal growth medium for microorganisms which can result in human illness if eggs are stored improperly and eaten raw or undercooked, and it is estimated that egg-related salmonellosis is costing Australia $44 million per year. Egg shell characteristics such as shell thickness, amount of cuticle present, and thickness of individual egg shell layers can affect the ease with which bacteria can penetrate the egg shell and washing could partially or completely remove the cuticle layer. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of egg washing on cuticle cover and effects of egg shell quality and cuticle cover on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. A higher incidence of unfavorable ultrastructural variables of the mammillary layer such as late fusion, type B bodies, type A bodies, poor cap quality, alignment, depression, erosion and cubics were recorded in Salmonella penetrated areas of egg shells. The influence of egg washing on the ability of Salmonella Infantis on the egg shell surface to enter the egg internal contents was also investigated using culture-based agar egg penetration and real-time qPCR based experiments. The results from the current study indicate that washing affected cuticle cover. There were no significant differences in Salmonella Infantis penetration of washed or unwashed eggs. Egg shell translucency may have effects on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. The qPCR assay was more sensitive for detection of Salmonella Infantis from egg shell wash and internal contents than traditional microbiological methods. The agar egg and whole egg inoculation experiments indicated that Salmonella Infantis penetrated the egg shells. Egg washing not only can be highly effective at removing Salmonella Infantis from the egg shell surface

  14. Effects of egg shell quality and washing on Salmonella Infantis penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah; Chousalkar, K K; Roberts, J R; Sexton, M; May, D; Kiermeier, A

    2013-07-15

    The vast majority of eggs in Australia are washed prior to packing to remove dirt and fecal material and to reduce the microbial contamination of the egg shell. The egg contents can be an ideal growth medium for microorganisms which can result in human illness if eggs are stored improperly and eaten raw or undercooked, and it is estimated that egg-related salmonellosis is costing Australia $44 million per year. Egg shell characteristics such as shell thickness, amount of cuticle present, and thickness of individual egg shell layers can affect the ease with which bacteria can penetrate the egg shell and washing could partially or completely remove the cuticle layer. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of egg washing on cuticle cover and effects of egg shell quality and cuticle cover on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. A higher incidence of unfavorable ultrastructural variables of the mammillary layer such as late fusion, type B bodies, type A bodies, poor cap quality, alignment, depression, erosion and cubics were recorded in Salmonella penetrated areas of egg shells. The influence of egg washing on the ability of Salmonella Infantis on the egg shell surface to enter the egg internal contents was also investigated using culture-based agar egg penetration and real-time qPCR based experiments. The results from the current study indicate that washing affected cuticle cover. There were no significant differences in Salmonella Infantis penetration of washed or unwashed eggs. Egg shell translucency may have effects on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. The qPCR assay was more sensitive for detection of Salmonella Infantis from egg shell wash and internal contents than traditional microbiological methods. The agar egg and whole egg inoculation experiments indicated that Salmonella Infantis penetrated the egg shells. Egg washing not only can be highly effective at removing Salmonella Infantis from the egg shell surface

  15. Temperature sequence of eggs from oviposition through distribution: processing--part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelkebeck, K W; Patterson, P H; Anderson, K E; Darre, M J; Carey, J B; Ahn, D U; Ernst, R A; Kuney, D R; Jones, D

    2008-06-01

    The Egg Safety Action Plan released in 1999 raised questions concerning egg temperature used in the risk assessment model. Therefore, a national study was initiated to determine the internal and external temperature sequence of eggs from oviposition through distribution. Researchers gathered data from commercial egg production, shell egg processing, and distribution facilities. The experimental design was a mixed model with 2 random effects for season and geographic region and a fixed effect for operation type (inline or offline). For this report, internal and external egg temperature data were recorded at specific points during shell egg processing in the winter and summer months. In addition, internal egg temperatures were recorded in pre- and postshell egg processing cooler areas. There was a significant season x geographic region interaction (P Marketing Service storage regulation of 7.2 degrees C) in the postshell egg processing area. However, the cooling rate was not different (P > 0.05) for eggs in the postshell egg processing cooler area in the summer vs. winter. Therefore, these data suggest that season of year and geographic location can affect the temperature of eggs during shell egg processing and should be a component in future assessments of egg safety. PMID:18493010

  16. Ultrastructure of the Mature Egg and Fertilization in the Fern Ceratopteris thafictroides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Guo Cao; Nai-Ying Yang; Quan-Xi Wang

    2009-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the mature egg and fertilization in the fern Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn. were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that the mature egg possesses an obvious egg membrane at the periphery of the egg. Furthermore, a fertilization pore was identified in the upper egg membrane of the mature egg. The structure of the pore is described for the first time. The fertilization experiment indicated that spermatozoids crowd into the cavity above the egg through the neck canal of the archegonium; however, only one of these can penetrate into the egg through the fertilization pore. Immediately on penetration of the spermatozoid, the egg begins to shrink. The volume of the fertilized egg decreases to almost one-half that of the unfertilized egg. As a result, the protoplasm of the fertilized egg becomes dense and opaque, which may lead to a situation where the organelles of both the egg and the fertilizing spermatozoid become indistinguishable. Simultaneously, abundant vesicles containing concentric membranes or opaque materials appear near the fertilization pore in the cytoplasm of the fertilized egg. These vesicles are considered to act as a barrier that prevents polyspermy. The present study provides a new insight into the ultrastructure of the mature egg and the cytological mechanism of fertilization in ferns.

  17. Effect of a commercial housing system on egg quality during extended storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Karcher, D M; Abdo, Z

    2014-05-01

    Egg producers in the United States are utilizing a variety of commercial egg production systems to provide consumer choice and meet legislative requirements. Consumer egg grades in the United States were developed for conventional cage production, and it is unclear what effect alternative production systems might have on egg quality during retail and consumer home storage. The current study was undertaken to determine what changes in egg quality characteristics occur during extended cold storage for commercially produced conventional cage, enriched colony cage, and cage-free aviary eggs. During 12 wk of cold storage, egg weight, albumen height, Haugh unit, static compression shell strength, vitelline membrane strength and deformation, yolk index, shell dynamic stiffness, and whole egg total solids were monitored. Overall, aviary and enriched eggs were significantly (P eggs. Static compression shell strength was greatest (P eggs compared with aviary. No overall housing system effects for yolk measurements, shell dynamic stiffness, or whole egg total solids were observed. Albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk quality measurements were all greatest at 0 and lowest at 12 wk of storage (P egg weight at 4 wk, no significant differences in the rate of quality decline were found among the housing systems. The results of the current study indicate that current US egg quality standards should effectively define quality for commercially produced conventional cage, enriched colony cage, and cage-free aviary eggs. PMID:24795324

  18. Deposition of carotenoids in egg yolk by short-term supplement of coloured carrot (Daucus carota) varieties as forage material for egg-laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    Hammershoj, Marianne; Kidmose, Ulla; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supplying egg-laying hens with different forage materials may influence egg production and quality. The aim of this study was to examine the short-term effects of standard feed plus 70 g day−1 per hen of three coloured carrot varieties (orange, yellow and purple) as forage material in comparison with a standard feed control on egg production, egg yolk colour and deposition of carotenoids in the yolk. RESULTS: Carrot supplementation reduced feed intakes significantly, but not...

  19. Inoculation of a Poultry Isolate Salmonella enteritidis on Egg Vitelline Membrane: Survival and Growth in Egg Components after Different Refrigeration Storage Times

    OpenAIRE

    Z. R. Howard; R. W. Moore; I. B. Zabala Diaz; Kim, W. K.; S. G. Birkhold; J. A. Byrd; L. F. Kubena; Nisbet, D. J.; Ricke, S C

    2007-01-01

    An in vitro study was designed to determine the extent of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis survival and growth permissiveness in egg components isolated from shell eggs held at refrigeration temperature over an 8 week time period. Eggs were collected from a commercial laying facility at one-week intervals for eight weeks and stored at refrigeration temperature. After storage, eggs were dipped in ethanol, cracked aseptically and separated into yolk and albumen samples. S. enteritidis re...

  20. A proposed mechanism for enhanced water-conservation in egg clutches of the Mexican Kingsnake, Lampropeltis mexicana (Serpentes: Colubridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Richard S. Phillips; Andrew J. Jajack; YODER, JAY A.

    2014-01-01

    Laying eggs on a wet substrate minimizes water stress for flexible-shelled reptile eggs because they absorb water through the permeable shell. This water gain contributes to reduced water-loss in aggregated eggs. This water-conserving feature is demonstrated in eggs of Lampropeltis mexicana in a water-balance experiment investigating both naturally laid clutches and eggs in arranged clusters. Water-loss rates of eggs decrease as more eggs are added to the aggregation, with a threshold at appr...

  1. Removal of small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) eggs and larvae by African honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera scutellata)

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Peter; Härtel, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    International audience The removal of small hive beetle [SHB] eggs and larvae was studied in seven Apis mellifera scutellata colonies. Because female beetles can protect their eggs by oviposition in small cracks we introduced unprotected eggs and protected eggs into these colonies. Whereas all unprotected eggs were removed within 24 hours, $66 \\pm 12$% of the protected eggs remained, showing that SHB eggs are likely to hatch in infested colonies. However, all larvae introduced into the sam...

  2. Pathogen prevalence and microbial levels associated with restricted shell eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D R; Musgrove, M T

    2007-09-01

    Restricted shell eggs that do not meet quality standards for retail but maintain acceptable quality for inclusion in further processed eggs are often diverted to further processing. A study was conducted to characterize the microbiological populations present on and in these eggs. On a single day, restricted eggs were collected from three shell egg processing plants a total of three times (replicates). Six shells or egg contents were combined to create a pool. Ten pools of shells and contents were formed for each plant per replicate. Shells and membranes were macerated in 60 ml of diluent. Contents were stomacher blended to form a homogeneous mixture. Total aerobic microorganisms and Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated. The prevalence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Listeria was determined by cultural methods. Average aerobic counts were 4.3 log CFU/ml for the shells and 2.0 log CFU/ml for the contents. There were plant x replicate differences for both (P shell was 2.4 log CFU/ml and less than 0.1 log CFU/ml for the egg contents, with 36.7% of the samples being positive. One shell sample (0.5% of total samples) was Campylobacter positive. Two shell samples (1.1% of total samples) were Salmonella positive. Twenty-one percent of samples were positive for Listeria (33 shells and 5 contents). Although current pasteurization guidelines are based on Salmonella lethality, the results of this study reiterate the need to revisit the guidelines to determine the effectiveness for other pathogenic species. PMID:17900075

  3. Helminth Egg Removal Capacity of UASB Reactors under Subtropical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa-Elena Yaya-Beas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to study the anaerobic sludge filtration capacity regarding helminth egg removal in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactors. Two 25 L lab-scale UASB reactors were operated at an ambient temperature which varied between 17.1 and 28.6 °C. Ascaris suum egg was selected as the model egg considering its similarity in terms of size and morphology to Ascaris lumbricoides, a human pathogen. Ascaris suum eggs were obtained from female parasites of infected pigs. The anaerobic sludge filtration capacity was performed applying upflow velocities between 0.09 and 0.68 m·h−1. Three sludge bed heights in the range of 0.30–0.40 m, 0.50–0.60 m and 0.60–0.70 m were applied. These sludge bed heights corresponded to 19%–25%, 31%–38% and 38%–44% of the total reactor height, respectively. Under the mentioned conditions, the average helminth egg removal efficiency was reciprocally correlated to the imposed upflow velocity. The studied lab-scale reactors reported an average helminth egg removal between 34%–100%, 30%–91% and 34%–56%, when the sludge bed in the UASB reactor was 19%–25%, 31%–38% and 38%–44% of the total reactor height, respectively. The decreased filtration capacity at increasing sludge bed heights might be likely related to biogas production and channeling formation. The average helminth egg removal efficiency in the control experiments performed without any sludge bed, by plain sedimentation, varied between 44% and 66%.

  4. Quantifying sources of environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, E R; Azam, D; Pegler, K

    2013-04-15

    A rich body of work has reported levels of infection with Toxocara species in definitive hosts, and the frequency of eggs in the environment, in many different regions and situations. These have greatly increased our understanding of the relationship between egg excretion from companion and wild animals and the risk of human infection by inadvertent ingestion of eggs from soil and other environmental reservoirs. Nevertheless, it is difficult to compare studies directly because of vagaries in sampling and laboratory methods, a preponderance of prevalence rather than abundance data, and a lack of studies that systematically sample different sympatric definitive host populations. Such comparisons could be instructive, for example to determine the relative contributions of different definitive host populations and categories to environmental contamination in specified areas, and hence guide priorities for control. In this article we use estimates of host density and infection levels in the city of Bristol, UK, as a case study to evaluate the relative contribution of sympatric cats, dogs and foxes to overall environmental contamination with eggs. Results suggest that dogs, especially those less than 12 weeks of age, dominate total egg output, but that this is modified by degree of access to public areas and removal of faeces, such that foxes could take over as the primary source of eggs. Results and conclusions are likely to differ among specific locations. The general aim is to show how an improved quantitative framework for epidemiological studies of Toxocara spp. egg contamination can help to advance understanding and the effectiveness of control strategies in future.

  5. A general solution for optimal egg size during external fertilization, extended scope for intermediate optimal egg size and the introduction of Don Ottavio 'tango'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhuizen, PC; Honkoop, PJC; Drent, J; van der Meer, J

    2004-01-01

    Egg sizes of marine invertebrates vary greatly, both within and between species. Among the proposed causes of this are a trade-off between egg size, egg number and survival probability of offspring, and a selection pressure exerted by sperm limitation during external fertilization. Although larger e

  6. Egg hatchability in high Arctic breeding wader species Charadriiformes is not affected by determining incubation stage using the egg flotation technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Jannik; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Reneerkens, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    Capsule By following the fate of both floated and non-floated eggs from individual clutches of four Arctic wader (shorebird) species, we show that the use of the flotation method for determining incubation stage of eggs (which involves both the submersion and handling of eggs) does not negatively af

  7. Rare earth element-enriched yeast improved egg production and egg quality in laying hens in the late period of peak egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, L; Nyachoti, C M; Hancock, J D; Lee, J Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, D H; Kim, I H

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of rare earth element-enriched yeast (RY) on egg production, coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD), egg quality, excreta gas emission and excreta microbiota of laying hens. A total of 216 ISA brown laying hens of 52 weeks of age were used in a 5-week feeding trial and data were collected every week. Birds were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments each with six replicates and 12 hens per replicate. Each cage (38 cm width × 50 cm length × 40 cm height) contained one hen. Treatments consisted of corn-soya bean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 500 or 1000 mg/kg of RY. From weeks 55 to 56, inclusion of RY linearly increased (p production. The CTTAD of nitrogen was increased (linear, p units were increased linearly (p production and CTTAD of nitrogen and slightly improved egg quality in laying hens of the late period of peak egg production.

  8. Using egg albumin foam to extinguish fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hytham A. Alsaati

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil, coal and chemical fires are often difficult to put out using water. In certain hydrocarbon fires, protein foam can extinguish fires better than water by keeping air (oxygen away from the flames and by ''blowing'' the flame away from its fuel source. Egg albumin is a relatively inexpensive protein and is representative of foaming proteins, which are candidates for use as fire suppression agents. This paper begins to deal with the effect of the foam bulk pH, foam protein concentration and generating air flow rate into the foam on the fire extinguishing time in laboratory experiments. A Bunsen burner was used to generate a small, controlled laboratory fire within a plastic container, which represented a point source in a partially open room in the experiments. The Bunsen burner represents a gaseous hydrocarbon fire, which can be difficult to extinguish. Both a low pH foam and one made with a high air flow rate favor a reduction in time required to put out the Bunsen burner flame.Chamas produzidas por óleo, carvão e produtos químicos (incêndios provocados são difíceis de ser extinguidos com água. Algumas chamas de hidrocarbonetos podem ser extinguidas por espumas protéicas melhor do que a manutenção de ar (oxigênio fora do alcance das chamas ou pelo sopramento da chama para longe da sua fonte. Albumina de ovo é uma proteína relativamente barata e é representativa dentre as proteínas usadas como espuma para a (supressão extinção de agentes causadores de incêndio. Este artigo trata do estudo do efeito do pH e concentração da espuma protéica, além da geração de ar no interior da espuma, sobre o tempo de extinção de incêndio em experimentos laboratoriais. Nos experimentos um bico de Bunsen foi usado para gerar uma pequena chama, controlada em um container de plástico, representando uma fonte pontual em um ambiente parcialmente aberto. A chama do bico de Bunsen representa uma chama gasosa de hidrocarbonetos, que são dif

  9. Patient experiences in advertising for an egg donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowoweiski, Sarah; Matic, Hayley; Foster, Penelope

    2011-06-01

    Advertising is a commonly used means of recruiting an egg donor within Australia. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and outcomes of people's attempts to recruit an egg donor through advertising in a printed publication, Melbourne's Child. Individuals and couples who placed a new advertisement between July 2007 and December 2008 were invited to participate (n = 84), and those who expressed interest were mailed a questionnaire specifically designed for the purposes of this study. Thirty-one advertisers (37%) agreed to be sent the questionnaire and 28 were completed and returned (33%). Results showed that over half (56%) of respondents successfully recruited an egg donor through their advertisement in Melbourne's Child, 75% received at least one genuine reply and most people received a response within 2 weeks (50%) or 1-2 months (32%) after publication. At the time of completing the questionnaire, 48% had undergone a treatment cycle using donor eggs. Advertising was recalled as a stressful experience and 79% of respondents felt that more information about the success of advertising would have been helpful prior to embarking on this process. Results will be used to inform current clinical practice in assisting patients to recruit an egg donor. PMID:21498120

  10. Study Added of Waste Chicken Egg Shell in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keng Wong Irwan Lie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil is the foundation of structure or construction that will receive the load transfer through to foundation. If the soil has a carrying capacity of small and cannot withstand the load transfer can result in the failure of construction. If the soil has a carrying capacity of small ground it is necessary to stabilize or improve the soil so that an increase in the carrying capacity of the land so that it can be used for construction. One material is commonly used for soil stabilization with the addition of lime. Waste chicken egg shell is waste that is still rarely used, the results of research [1], states that composition egg shell broadly consists of water (1,6% and dry material (98,4%. The total dry ingredients are there, in shell eggs contained mineral elements (95,1% and protein (3,3%. Based on the existing mineral composition, then the egg shells are composed of crystalline CaCO3 (98,43%, MgCO3 (0,84% and Ca3(PO42 (0,75%. This research was done by adding powdered chicken egg shell waste in clay with a composition of 5%, 7,5%, 10% and 14% with physical properties test and soil compaction test.

  11. The detection of avian bornavirus within psittacine eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Erin; Hoppes, Sharman; Guo, Jianhua; Tizard, Ian

    2012-09-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) is a known cause of proventricular dilatation disease in parrots and encephalitis in waterfowl and is a significant cause of both morbidity and mortality in captive birds. Transmission is thought to occur primarily by the fecal-oral route. In an aviary setting, controlling the disease involves a thorough understanding of the complete transmission cycle, including determining whether vertical transmission occurs. In this study, vertical transmission of ABV was evaluated by using 61 eggs obtained from birds in 2 aviaries where proventricular dilatation disease was prevalent, and the presence of ABV had been confirmed by fecal reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction by using a primer set designed to detect ABV M protein. The contents of these eggs were then tested for the presence of ABV RNA. Of the eggs tested, 10 were determined to contain ABV RNA. These eggs ranged from apparently nonviable to those that contained developing embryos. ABV was detected in the brain tissue of 2 embryos. It remains to be proven that infected chicks can hatch from these eggs to complete the vertical transmission cycle; however, these findings suggest that vertical transmission of ABV may occur. PMID:23156976

  12. The Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply project: An introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J C; Mench, J A; Karcher, D

    2015-03-01

    In the United States, empirical information on the sustainability of commercial-scale egg production is lacking. The passage of state regulations specific to hen housing created urgency to better understand the effects of different housing systems on the sustainability of the egg supply, and stimulated the formation of a coalition, the Coalition for a Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES), to conduct research on this topic. The CSES is a multi-stakeholder group with 27 members, including food manufacturers, research institutions, scientists, restaurants, food service, retail food companies, egg suppliers, and nongovernmental organizations. A commercial-scale study was developed to better understand the effect of 3 housing systems (conventional cage, enriched colony, and cage-free aviary) on 5 areas related to a sustainable egg supply. These 5 sustainability areas represent effects on people, animals, and the environment: animal health and well-being, environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and food affordability. Five teams of scientists, each associated with a sustainability area, conducted an integrated field study at a commercial site in the upper Midwest through 2 flock cycles in 3 housing systems. This paper provides a brief overview of the CSES project to serve as an introduction for the papers that follow in this volume of Poultry Science. PMID:25737565

  13. Hen egg yolk lipid fractions with antiatherogenic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasopoulou, Constantina; Gogaki, Vassiliki; Panagopoulou, Eleanna; Demopoulos, Constantinos; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2013-03-01

    Three different types of hen egg yolk, cage-free, organic and daily fresh, were tested for their antiatherogenic properties. Total lipids (TL) of all hen egg yolk samples were extracted by the method of Bligh and Dyer and further separated into total polar lipids (TPL) and total neutral lipids (TNL) by counter current distribution chromatography. TPL and TNL were further separated by preparative thin-layer chromatography (TLC). TL, TPL, TNL and the obtained polar and neutral lipid fractions after TLC separation were tested to determine whether they induce platelet activation or inhibit platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced platelet activation. All three hen egg yolk TL samples possessed strong inhibitory activity against PAF-induced platelet activation that was mainly attributed to TPL, especially to PL fraction 4. Cage-free hen egg yolk exhibited the most potent anti-PAF activity in all lipid classes (TL, TPL and TNL). Thus hen egg yolk contains PAF inhibitors that reinforce their nutritional value in terms of protection against cardiovascular diseases, since PAF is a crucial inflammatory phospholipid mediator that is implicated in the mechanism of atherogenesis. PMID:23480708

  14. Transfer of orally administrated iodine-131 into chicken eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uenak, Turan E-mail: unak@sci.ege.edu.tr; Yildirim, Yeliz; Avcibasi, U.; Cetinkaya, Berkan; Uenak, G

    2003-03-01

    Radioactive iodine-131 as both as free iodide (Na{sup 131}I) and covalently bound to aniline (aniline-{sup 131}I) was added to the drinking water of two Leghorn laying hens as a single dose and also as a cumulative dose over 1 week. The radioactivity of the principal parts of the eggs, i.e. shell, white, and yolk, was measured, and the radioactivity levels per gram material, and percent of the total radioactivity were calculated. The radioactivity measurements were continued for 1 month following the administration of {sup 131}I. In the case of the single dose administration, the results obtained showed that about 15% of the total radioactivity administered as Na{sup 131}I was transported into the egg structure; compared to only about 1% for aniline-{sup 131}I. After cumulative administration, about 15% of the total administered radioactivity was transported into the egg structure with both forms of {sup 131}I. This was probably because of metabolic cleavage of iodine bonds in the labeled aniline molecules during the longer period of exposure. These results also showed considerable accumulation of {sup 131}I in the egg yolks. In the case of the single dose administration, {sup 131}I can be detected in eggs up to about 20 days after administration, and up to about 30 days, in the case of the cumulative administration over 1 week.

  15. Efficacy of Several Pesticide Products on Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) Egg Sacs and Their Penetration Through the Egg Sac Silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Tarango, Jacob; Campbell, Kathleen A; Tham, Christine; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Information on pesticide effects on spiders is less common than for insects; similar information for spider egg sacs is scarcer in the open literature. Spider egg sacs are typically covered with a protective silk layer. When pesticides are directly applied to egg sacs, the silk might prevent active ingredients from reaching the eggs, blocking their insecticidal effect. We investigated the impact of six water-based pesticide sprays and four oil-based aerosol products against egg sacs of brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch. All water-based spray products except one failed to provide significant mortality to egg sacs, resulting in successful spiderling emergence from treated egg sacs at a similar rate to untreated egg sacs. In contrast to water-based sprays, oil-based aerosols provided almost complete control, with 94-100% prevention of spiderling emergence. Penetration studies using colored pesticide products indicated that oil-based aerosols were significantly more effective in penetrating egg sac silk than were the water-based sprays, delivering the active ingredients on most (>99%) of the eggs inside the sac. The ability of pesticides to penetrate spider egg sac silk and deliver lethal doses of active ingredients to the eggs is discussed in relation to the chemical nature of egg sac silk proteins. Our study suggests that pest management procedures primarily relying on perimeter application of water-based sprays might not provide satisfactory control of brown widow spider eggs. Determination of the most effective active ingredients and carrier characteristics warrant further research to provide more effective control options for spider egg sacs.

  16. Efficacy of Several Pesticide Products on Brown Widow Spider (Araneae: Theridiidae) Egg Sacs and Their Penetration Through the Egg Sac Silk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Tarango, Jacob; Campbell, Kathleen A; Tham, Christine; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Information on pesticide effects on spiders is less common than for insects; similar information for spider egg sacs is scarcer in the open literature. Spider egg sacs are typically covered with a protective silk layer. When pesticides are directly applied to egg sacs, the silk might prevent active ingredients from reaching the eggs, blocking their insecticidal effect. We investigated the impact of six water-based pesticide sprays and four oil-based aerosol products against egg sacs of brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch. All water-based spray products except one failed to provide significant mortality to egg sacs, resulting in successful spiderling emergence from treated egg sacs at a similar rate to untreated egg sacs. In contrast to water-based sprays, oil-based aerosols provided almost complete control, with 94-100% prevention of spiderling emergence. Penetration studies using colored pesticide products indicated that oil-based aerosols were significantly more effective in penetrating egg sac silk than were the water-based sprays, delivering the active ingredients on most (>99%) of the eggs inside the sac. The ability of pesticides to penetrate spider egg sac silk and deliver lethal doses of active ingredients to the eggs is discussed in relation to the chemical nature of egg sac silk proteins. Our study suggests that pest management procedures primarily relying on perimeter application of water-based sprays might not provide satisfactory control of brown widow spider eggs. Determination of the most effective active ingredients and carrier characteristics warrant further research to provide more effective control options for spider egg sacs. PMID:26530954

  17. Comparison between morphological and staining characteristics of live and dead eggs of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AK Sarvel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni eggs are classified, according to morphological characteristics, as follows: viable mature and immature eggs; dead mature and immature eggs, shells and granulomas. The scope of this study was to compare the staining characteristics of different morphological types of eggs in the presence of fluorescent labels and vital dyes, aiming at differentiating live and dead eggs. The eggs were obtained from the intestines of infected mice, and put into saline 0.85%. The fluorescent labels were Hoechst 33258 and Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide and vital dyes (Trypan Blue 0.4% and Neutral Red 1%. When labelled with the probe Hoechst 33258, some immature eggs, morphologically considered viable, presented fluorescence (a staining characteristic detected only in dead eggs; mature eggs did not present fluorescence, and the other types of dead eggs, morphologically defined, showed fluorescence. As far as Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide are concerned, either the eggs considered to be live, or the dead ones, presented staining with green color, and only the hatched and motionless miracidium was stained with an orange color. Trypan Blue was not able to stain the eggs, considered to be dead but only dead miracidia which had emerged out of the shell. Neutral Red stained both live and dead eggs. Only the fluorescent Hoechst 33258 can be considered a useful tool for differentiation between dead and live eggs.

  18. Fish as vectors in the dispersal of Bythotrephes cederstroemi: Diapausing eggs survive passage through the gut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnagin, S.T.; Swan, B.K.; Kerfoot, W.C.

    2000-01-01

    1. Bythotrephes cederstroemi (Crustacea: Onychopoda: Cercopagidae) is an introduced invertebrate predator currently spreading through the Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America. We examined a previously unsuspected way in which B. cederstroemi may be dispersed by fish by their consumption of diapausing eggs. 2. Ninety-four percentage of the mature B. cederstroemi diapausing eggs consumed by fish were egested apparently intact. This proportion is considerably above previous estimates for the ephippial eggs of Daphnia. The hatching success of diapausing eggs was compared among four categories: (a) eggs released naturally by B. cederstroemi (control, 73% hatched (b) eggs released during 'stressful confinement' (46% hatched) (c) eggs dissected from dead females (13% hatched) and (d) eggs recovered from faecal pellets following consumption by fish (viable gut passage experiment, 41% hatched). 3. Samples of small fish and B. cederstroemi were collected simultaneously. Examination of gut contents revealed that fish contained B. cederstroemi diapausing eggs and that B. cederstroemi bearing resting eggs were consumed selectively over those without eggs. Moreover, fish selected B. cederstroemi bearing mature rather than immature diapausing eggs. 4. The fact that diapausing eggs survive gut passage is important for the dispersal of B. cederstroemi. Fish often move between the pelagic and littoral zones of lakes and may thus disperse diapausing eggs widely. Fish may also move between lakes connected by river systems and can be caught and passively dispersed by anglers or piscivorous birds. Our results demonstrate the potential for fish to act as vectors in the spread of B. cederstroemi.

  19. The effects of temperature and light on the survival, development, and infectivity of Plagiorchis elegans eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakikhani, M; Rau, M E

    1998-12-01

    Plagiorchis elegans eggs were incubated at 0, 4, 10, 20, or 30 C under a 12-hr:12-hr (L:D) photoperiod for 120 days. Approximately one-quarter of the eggs had already initiated the process of embryonation when passed with the feces of the hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), the experimental definitive host. Eggs failed to embryonate at 0 C and died within 2 days. Incubation at 4 C allowed full embryonation, but the mean number of embryonated eggs per day (1.32+/-0.15) and the mean number of eggs available over the course of incubation (egg days) (219.00+/-2.24) remained low. These values increased progressively as incubation temperatures rose and reached levels of 3.59+/-0.30 and 1,467.50+/-4.56, respectively, at 20 C. Although incubation at 30 C further increased the mean number of eggs per day (5.45+/-0.56), the mean number of egg days declined sharply to 735.25+/-4.71, suggesting that elevated temperatures enhanced embryonation but lowered the survival of embryonated eggs. This was also reflected in the infectivity of eggs over time. Embryonated eggs incubated at 10 and 20 C remained infective significantly longer than eggs incubated at higher or lower temperatures. Incubation in constant light yielded significantly lower mean numbers of embryonated eggs per day (1.86+/-0.09) and mean number of egg days (96.25+/-0.99) than incubation in constant darkness (2.23+/-0.17 and 701.50+/-2.86 eggs, respectively) but did not affect the infectivity of embryonated eggs. The data suggest that at moderate temperatures and shielded from light, fully embryonated eggs of P. elegans may survive in the aquatic environment for a period of months. Such eggs may serve as a source of infection for populations of Stagnicola elodes and ensure the sustained production of the highly entomopathogenic cercariae required for mosquito control. PMID:9920308

  20. 9 CFR 590.945 - Foreign egg products offered for importation; reporting of findings to customs; handling of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign egg products offered for... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.945 Foreign...

  1. Functional responses of North Atlantic fish eggs to increasing temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsoukali, Stavroula; Visser, Andre; MacKenzie, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Temperature increase associated with global climate change can be expected to directly influence the spawning success of fish species, with implications for abundance and distribution. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate and compare responses of development time, cumulative degree......-days and survival of fish eggs from 32 populations of 17 species in the North Atlantic to different temperatures in order to determine potential consequences of global warming for these species. The response of development time exhibited a similar decreasing trend with respect to temperature across species...... of temperature on the eggs, and we propose that such effects are major factors leading to a close correspondence between the physiological optimal temperature for survival and observed temperature at spawning sites. Temperature during egg development appears to be a key evolutionary force affecting spawning time...

  2. Incubation times of dinosaur eggs via embryonic metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott A.

    2016-08-01

    The incubation times for the eggs of 21 dinosaurs are determined from an estimate of their embyronic metabolic rate and the mass of the hatchlings via a mass growth model based on conservation of energy. Embryos in extant birds and crocodiles are studied in order to determine the best model for embryonic metabolism and growth. These results are used to develop a theoretical model that predicts the incubation times of an egg. This model is applied to dinosaur eggs and provides a unique window into dinosaur reproduction. The dinosaurs studied come from both Saurischia and Ornithischia. The incubation times vary from about 28 days for Archaeopteryx lithographica to about 76 days for Alamosaurus sanjuanensis.

  3. Factorial estimation of energy requirement for egg production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André

    1992-01-01

    Based on balance and respiration measurements with 60 White Leghorns during the laying period from 27 to 48 wk of age, a factorial method for estimating the energy requirement for egg production is proposed. The present experiment showed that the deposition of fat and energy increased during...... the laying period, but protein deposition slightly decreased. It has been shown that the efficiency of ME utilization for fat energy deposition is higher than for protein energy deposition in the egg. Because the proportions of protein and fat differ during the laying period, and because energy utilization...... is different between protein and fat, the ME requirement was calculated as the sum of ME for maintenance and the partial requirements for protein, fat, and carbohydrate deposition. For practical applications, functions for prediction of protein (OP), fat (OF), and energy (OE) in eggs during the laying period...

  4. Calcium Signaling and Meiotic Exit at Fertilization in Xenopus Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Tokmakov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is a universal messenger that mediates egg activation at fertilization in all sexually reproducing species studied. However, signaling pathways leading to calcium generation and the mechanisms of calcium-induced exit from meiotic arrest vary substantially among species. Here, we review the pathways of calcium signaling and the mechanisms of meiotic exit at fertilization in the eggs of the established developmental model, African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. We also discuss calcium involvement in the early fertilization-induced events in Xenopus egg, such as membrane depolarization, the increase in intracellular pH, cortical granule exocytosis, cortical contraction, contraction wave, cortical rotation, reformation of the nuclear envelope, sperm chromatin decondensation and sister chromatid segregation.

  5. Fish egg size: a characteristic determined by parental care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana RM Mazzoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a trade-off between relative batch fecundity and egg size has been widely documented (e.g. Brown & Shine 2009. Studies on the evolution of parental care and its relationship with fish egg size were stimulated by the work of Shine (1978, who proposed several possible hypotheses, including one that predicted that the onset of parental care preceded the increase in egg size. This hypothesis has since been challenged by Nussbaum & Schultz (1989 and more recently by Summers et al. (2006, who proposed an alternative hypothesis in which the evolution of large eggs was said to precede the evolution of parental care and not the reverse. Here, we examined 313 species of bony fish, including 152 species with parental care (PC and 161 species without parental care (NPC, and found evidence that fully supports the hypothesis of Shine (1978. Additionally, we explain how strengthening this hypothesis could impact the development of phylogenies. We also make suggestions for future studies on gene regulatory mechanisms that could explain the evolution of parental care and egg size in bony fish within a more modern context of developmental ecology. Our analysis uses data describing the mean size of ripe eggs and the occurrence of parental care in 313 species of bony fish belonging to 53 families in 11 orders. Data for 22 of the 313 species were collected by us from the Tocantins River. Data for the remaining species were obtained from the literature: 6 species from the Paraná River (Suzuki et al. 2000, 149 species from large African lakes and some pelagic marine species (Duponchelle et al. 2008, 74 marine species (Pauly & Pullin 1988, and 65 species from the Tocantins River (Neuberger 2010. Of these 313 total species, 161 (51.4% are PC species and 152 (48.6% are NPC species. We analyzed a minimum of eight mature females from each of the 16 species we collected, and for each female, we measured 10 mature oocytes and derived the mean diameter of

  6. Characterization of high-pressure-treated egg albumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iametti, S; Donnizzelli, E; Pittia, P; Rovere, P P; Squarcina, N; Bonomi, F

    1999-09-01

    Addition of NaCl or sucrose to egg albumen prior to high-pressure treatment (up to 10 min at 800 MPa) prevented insolubilization or gel formation after pressure treatment. As a consequence of protein unfolding, the treated albumen had increased viscosity but retained its foaming and heat-gelling properties. Susceptibility of egg albumen proteins to hydrolysis by trypsin increased dramatically after pressure treatment. The S-form of ovalbumin, the presence of which is an index of egg aging, was not found in any of the pressure-treated samples, which also did not display evidence for covalent protein aggregation. However, recognition of ovalbumin by an anti-ovalbumin antiserum was reduced to 40% of that of untreated sample. PMID:10552693

  7. CFD simulation of mixing in egg-shaped anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binxin

    2010-03-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that characterizes mechanical draft tube mixing in egg-shaped anaerobic digesters was developed. Simulation of flow patterns were carried out with a propeller rotating from 400 to 750rpm, assuming liquid manure to be Newtonian (water) and non-Newtonian fluids depending on the total solids (TS) concentration. Power number and flow number of the propeller in water mixing were validated against lab specifications and experimental data from a field test. The rotational direction and placement of the propeller were examined to identify the primary pumping mode and the optimum position of the propeller fixed inside the tube. Quantitative comparisons of two mixing methods and two digester shapes indicated that mechanical draft tube mixing is more efficient than external pumped recirculation, and that the egg shape provides for more efficient mixing than the cylindrical shape. Furthermore, scale-up rules for mixing in egg-shaped digesters were investigated. PMID:19913870

  8. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi B Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis.

  9. Changes of the antigenic and allergenic properties of a hen's egg albumin in a cake with gamma-irradiated egg white

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.-W.; Seo, J.-H.; Kim, J.-H.; Lee, S.-Y.; Kim, K.-S.; Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@nanum.kaeri.re.kr

    2005-04-01

    Changes of the antigenicity and allergenicity of a hen's egg albumin (ovalbumin, OVA) in white layer cakes containing egg white gamma-irradiated with 10 or 20 kGy were monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), individually formatted with mouse anti-OVA IgG (mouse IgG) and with egg allergic patients' IgE. Mouse IgG recognized OVA in the cakes with irradiated egg white better than that in the control with a non-irradiated one. Whereas, the detected concentrations of intact OVA in the control significantly decreased in the treatments, when determined by IgE-based ELISA. The results appeared to indicate that the antigenicity of the OVA increased, but that the allergenicity was decreased by irradiation and processing. Egg white irradiated for reducing the egg allergy could be used for producing a safer cake from the egg allergy.

  10. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk....../kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced...... increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, and egg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest...

  11. Effect of gamma radiation on the eggs of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, V.K.; Sethi, G.R. (Indian Agricultural Research Inst., New Delhi. Nuclear Research Lab.)

    1984-09-01

    Studies on the susceptibility of eggs of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) to gamma radiation revealed that the radiosensitivity of eggs decreased with the increasing age of the embryo and the development of the embryo was arrested if the eggs were irradiated in the early stage of development (24-48 hr old). However, when 72-96 hr old eggs were irradiated, comparatively higher dose was required to render them nonviable. Mortality of the eggs of the same age group was directly related to the radiation dose. Survival of the insect to the adult stage was prevented by exposure to a dose of 8 Krad or more, irrespective of the age of the eggs.

  12. Comparative Study on the Nutritional Value of Pidan and Salted Duck Egg

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesan, P.; T. Kaewmanee; S. Benjakul; Baharin, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Pidan and salted duck eggs are of nutritional rich alternative duck egg products which are predominantly consumed in China, Thailand, South Korea and other Chinese migrated countries. Both eggs are rich in proteins, lipids, unsaturated fatty acids and minerals. A Pidan whole egg contains 13.1% of protein, 10.7% of fat, 2.25% of carbohydrate and 2.3% of ash, whereas the salted duck egg contains 14% of protein, 16.6% of fat, 4.1% of carbohydrate and 7.5% of ash. The fresh duck egg contains a ra...

  13. Egg production of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissling, Anders; Florin, Ann-Britt; Thorsen, Anders; Bergström, Ulf

    2013-11-01

    In the brackish water Baltic Sea turbot spawn at ~ 6-9 psu along the coast and on offshore banks in ICES SD 24-29, with salinity influencing the reproductive success. The potential fecundity (the stock of vitellogenic oocytes in the pre-spawning ovary), egg size (diameter and dry weight of artificially fertilized 1-day-old eggs) and gonad dry weight were assessed for fish sampled in SD 25 and SD 28. Multiple regression analysis identified somatic weight, or total length in combination with Fulton's condition factor, as main predictors of fecundity and gonad dry weight with stage of maturity (oocyte packing density or leading cohort) as an additional predictor. For egg size, somatic weight was identified as main predictor while otolith weight (proxy for age) was an additional predictor. Univariate analysis using GLM revealed significantly higher fecundity and gonad dry weight for turbot from SD 28 (3378-3474 oocytes/g somatic weight) compared to those from SD 25 (2343 oocytes/g somatic weight), with no difference in egg size (1.05 ± 0.03 mm diameter and 46.8 ± 6.5 μg dry weight; mean ± sd). The difference in egg production matched egg survival probabilities in relation to salinity conditions suggesting selection for higher fecundity as a consequence of poorer reproductive success at lower salinities. This supports the hypothesis of higher size-specific fecundity towards the limit of the distribution of a species as an adaptation to harsher environmental conditions and lower offspring survival probabilities. Within SD 28 comparisons were made between two major fishing areas targeting spawning aggregations and a marine protected area without fishing. The outcome was inconclusive and is discussed with respect to potential fishery induced effects, effects of the salinity gradient, effects of specific year-classes, and effects of maturation status of sampled fish.

  14. Social Egg Freezing: Developing Countries Are Not Exempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahbadia, Gautam N

    2016-08-01

    Non-medical egg freezing has only been available for about the last 5 years, as new vitrification techniques have made the success rates for actual conception more reliable than the earlier method of slow freezing. The improved outcomes of new technologies of vitrification and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) have led to the marketing of egg freezing for non-medical reasons, whereby women are offered the possibility of preserving their eggs until such time as they wish to have a child. For many women today, it is not cancer but the simple passage of time that robs them of their chance of motherhood. Social, educational, emotional and financial pressures often lead them to delay trying to start a family until their late thirties, by which time the chance of success is very low. Women at age 40 face a 40 % chance of miscarriage if they can get pregnant at all, and by the age of 45, the risk of miscarriage is 75 %. Donor eggs are not an option for many because of supply constraints and ethical and cultural concerns. Freezing a woman's eggs at age 30 literally "freezes in time" her fertility potential and gives her the chance of a healthy pregnancy at a time of her choosing. Despite the initial reactions of disapproval, more and more fertility clinics are now offering oocyte cryopreservation to healthy women in order to extend their reproductive options. This procedure is now becoming popular even in developing economies, and egg freezing in major Indian Metros is now routine. PMID:27382212

  15. Determination of selenium in egg by using GFAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Egg is one of the most consumed food in the world. Its importance and consumption are raising due to its nutritional value. Selenium-fortified eggs can easily find in the local markets and the determination of selenium fortification level in egg is important because of its toxicity and essentially. The main aim of this work was to provide a simple, fast and accurate method for selenium determination in both commercially available eggs and selenium-fortified eggs. A number of procedures exist for the determination of selenium. However, as selenium exists in volatile and unstable forms and because of inhomogeneity of many types of materials, the methods of sampling, preparation and storage are equally important as the applied analytical methods. Therefore, great care is necessary to avoid contamination or loss of the analyte. In this study, a very simple and fast alternative dissolution procedure with tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (THAH) was proposed. The samples simply mixed with a few millilitres of TMAH solution in an open flask. Dissolution was obtained in fifteen minutes with a low temperature heating which is around 60 deg C. Mild heating was found to be necessary not only for to reduce the dissolution time but also reduce the contamination risk. In the presence of modifiers (Pd, Pd+Mg as non permanent and Ru, Rh as permanent) selenium was analysed by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) technique. The results were compared with modified AOAC standard spectrophotometric method. In order to test the accuracy of the proposed method, standard reference material, whole egg powder NIST-SRM 8415 was analysed and result was found to be in good agreement with the certified value, according to the t-test for a 95% confidence level. In addition, interference effect of species such as Fe, Zn, Cu, Al, Mg, Mn and Pb were also examined.

  16. Egg consumption and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Ruohuang; Qu, Kunpeng; Jiang, Zebin; Yang, Xiaojun; Gao, Peng

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between egg consumption and breast cancer risk has been inconsistent, so it is necessary to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship. PubMed, EMBASE and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched to find cohort studies or case control studies that evaluated the relationship between egg consumption and breast cancer risk. A comprehensive meta-analysis software was used to conduct the meta-analysis. 13 studies were included. The meta-analysis results showed that egg consumption was associated with increased breast cancer risk (RR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.01-1.08). Subgroup analyses showed egg consumption was also associated with increased breast cancer risk based on cohort studies (RR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.00-1.08), among European population (RR 1.05, 95 % CI 1.01-1.09), Asian population (RR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.00-1.18), postmenopausal population (RR 1.06, 95 % CI 1.02-1.10), and those who consumed ≥2, ≤5/week (RR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.02-1.17), but not in case-control studies (RR 1.06, 95 % CI 0.97-1.15), among American population (RR 1.04, 95 % CI 0.94-1.16), premenopausal population (RR 1.04, 95 % CI 0.98-1.11) and those who consumed ≥1, 5 eggs/week (RR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.88-1.06). Egg consumption was associated with increased breast cancer risk among the European, Asian and postmenopausal population and those who consumed ≥2, ≤5/week. PMID:24504557

  17. Optimal Egg Size in Marine Invertebrates: Theory and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Critical Relationship between Egg Size and Development Time in Echinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan

    2000-08-01

    Life-history models for marine invertebrate larvae generally predict a dichotomy in egg size in different species: eggs should be either minimal in size or large enough to support development fully without larval feeding. This prediction is contradicted, however, by the empirical observation of wide, continuous variation in egg size between these extremes. The prediction of dichotomy rests on the assumption of a negative linear relationship between egg size and development time. Here, I present a simple model in which development time is inversely proportional to egg size. Incorporating this relationship into an optimality model produces predictions of intermediate rather than extreme egg size. Modeled variations in mortality, food availability, fertilization rates, and temperature all produce continuous shifts in the value of the intermediate optimal size, in direct contrast to those produced by previous models, which predict shifts between two extreme optima. Empirical data on echinoid egg size and development time strongly support the model's assumption of an inverse proportional relationship between egg size and development time. A composite phylogeny is constructed of the 37 species for which egg size, development time, water temperature, and phylogenetic relatedness are known. Independent contrasts are made of the evolutionary changes in egg size and development time. This analysis indicates that evolutionary shifts in development time are correlated with the inversely proportional shifts in egg size assumed in the model. The assumption of a negative linear relationship used in previous models is rejected. This model provides a potential explanation for intraspecific variation in egg size along environmental gradients, sympatric differences in egg size among species, and biogeographic trends in egg size and development mode across taxa.

  18. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  19. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagh, Jessy; Panigrahi, B.; Panda, N.; Pradhan, C. R.; Mallik, B. K.; Majhi, B.; Rout, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age). The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05) among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD) production or hen-housed egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white and gray in the

  20. Comparison of the Cholesterol Content in Hen Eggs,Duck Eggs and Quail Eggs%鸡蛋、鸭蛋、鹌鹑蛋中胆固醇含量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄德仙; 李江滨; 陈海文; 何月玲; 徐锦滨; 陈佛兰

    2013-01-01

      Object: To compare the cholesterol(Ch)content in hen eggs,duck eggs and quail eggs. Method: The eggs were divided into hen egg group,duck egg group and quail eggs group ,and Ch in egg white,egg yolk and egg without shell were determined by enzymatic method. Results: The average contents of Ch in egg white,egg yolk,and egg without shell were(0.29 ± 0.01)mg/g,(11.86 ± 0.80)mg/g,(7.55 ± 0.83)mg/g in hen eggs,(0.30 ± 0.02) mg/g,(13.15 ± 2.21)mg/g,(6.08 ± 1.06)mg/g in duck eggs and (0.28 ± 0.01) mg/g,(11.79 ± 1.46)mg/g,(6.18 ± 0.52) mg/g in quail eggs. The average Ch among the three kinds of eggs yolk were higher than egg white(P<0.000 1). Conclusion:The egg yolks among the three kinds of egg have more Ch than the egg white. The Ch content in the total eggs of hen eggs was higher than that of duck eggs and quail eggs.%  目的:比较鸡蛋、鸭蛋和鹌鹑蛋3种禽蛋中的胆固醇含量;方法:实验分为鸡蛋组、鸭蛋组和鹌鹑蛋组,用酶法对3种禽蛋中蛋清、蛋黄和去壳全蛋的胆固醇进行定量测定;结果:3种禽蛋中蛋清、蛋黄、去壳总蛋的胆固醇含量依次为:鸡蛋中:(0.29±0.01)、(11.86±0.80)、(7.55±0.83)mg/g,鸭蛋中:(0.30±0.02)、(13.15±2.21)、(6.08±1.06)mg/g,鹌鹑蛋中:(0.28±0.01)、(11.79±1.46)、(6.18±0.52)mg/g。3种禽蛋蛋黄中胆固醇含量均高于蛋清(P<0.0001),3种禽蛋中去壳总蛋组间比较,鸡蛋组中胆固醇含量高于其它两组(P<0.01)。结论:3种禽蛋中蛋黄胆固醇含量均大于蛋清,鸡蛋中胆固醇含量高于鸭蛋和鹌鹑蛋。

  1. Pharmacological Analyses of Protein Kinases Regulating Egg Maturation in Marine Nemertean Worms: A Review and Comparison with Mammalian Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Marquardt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For development to proceed normally, animal eggs must undergo a maturation process that ultimately depends on phosphorylations of key regulatory proteins. To analyze the kinases that mediate these phosphorylations, eggs of marine nemertean worms have been treated with pharmacological modulators of intracellular signaling pathways and subsequently probed with immunoblots employing phospho-specific antibodies. This article both reviews such analyses and compares them with those conducted on mammals, while focusing on how egg maturation in nemerteans is affected by signaling pathways involving cAMP, mitogen-activated protein kinases, Src-family kinases, protein kinase C isotypes, AMP-activated kinase, and the Cdc2 kinase of maturation-promoting factor.

  2. Bacterial Colonization of Cod (Gadus morhua L.) and Halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) Eggs in Marine Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Geir Høvik; Olafsen, Jan A.

    1989-01-01

    Aquaculture has brought about increased interest in mass production of marine fish larvae. Problems such as poor egg quality and mass mortality of fish larvae have been prevalent. The intensive incubation techniques that often result in bacterial overgrowth on fish eggs could affect the commensal relationship between the indigenous microflora and opportunistic pathogens and subsequently hamper egg development, hatching, larval health, and ongrowth. Little information about the adherent microflora on fish eggs is available, and the present study was undertaken to describe the microbial ecology during egg development and hatching of two fish species of potential commercial importance in marine aquaculture. Attachment and development of the bacterial flora on cod (Gadus morhua L.) eggs from fertilization until hatching was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The adherent microflora on cod (G. morhua L.) and halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) eggs during incubation was characterized and grouped by cluster analysis. Marked bacterial growth could be demonstrated 2 h after fertilization, and at hatching eggs were heavily overgrown. Members of the genera Pseudomonas, Alteromonas, Aeromonas, and Flavobacterium were found to dominate on the surface of both cod and halibut eggs. The filamentous bacterium Leucothrix mucor was found on eggs from both species. While growth of L. mucor on halibut eggs was sparse, cod eggs with a hairy appearance due to overgrowth by this bacterium close to hatching were frequently observed. Vibrio fischeri could be detected on cod eggs only, and pathogenic vibrios were not detected. Members of the genera Moraxella and Alcaligenes were found only on halibut eggs. Caulobacter and Seliberia spp. were observed attached to eggs dissected from cod ovaries under sterile conditions, indicating the presence of these bacteria in ovaries before spawning. Adherent strains did not demonstrate antibiotic resistance above a normal level. Attempts to

  3. Resuspension and settling of helminth eggs in water: Interactions with cohesive sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Mita E; Andersen, Thorbjørn J; Dalsgaard, Anders; Olsen, Annette; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2012-08-01

    Helminth parasite eggs in low quality water represent main food safety and health hazards and are therefore important indicators used to determine whether such water can be used for irrigation. Through sedimentation helminth eggs accumulate in the sediment, however resuspension of deposited helminth eggs will lead to increased concentration of suspended eggs in the water. Our study aimed to determine the erodibility (erosion rate and erosion threshold) and settling velocity of Ascaris and Trichuris eggs as well as cohesive sediment at different time points after incorporation into the sediment. Cohesive sediment collected from a freshwater stream was used to prepare a sediment bed onto which helminth eggs were allowed to settle. The erodibility of both sediment and helminth eggs was found to decrease over time indicating that the eggs were incorporated into the surface material of the bed and that this material was stabilized through time. This interaction between eggs and bulk sediment was further manifested in an increased settling velocity of suspended eggs when sediment was present in the suspension as compared to a situation with settling in clean water. The incorporation into the sediment bed and the aggregation with sediment particles decrease the mobility of both helminth egg types. Our findings document that helminth eggs should not be viewed as single entities in water systems when modelling the distribution of eggs since both erodibility and settling velocity of eggs are determined by mobility of the sediment present in the water stream. Recalculation of the erosion threshold for helminth eggs and sediment showed that even at relatively low current velocities i.e. 0.07-0.12ms(-1) newly deposited eggs will be mobile in open irrigation channels. These environmental factors affecting resuspension must be taken into account when developing models for sedimentation of helminth eggs in different water systems. PMID:22591818

  4. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTRO TECHNOLOGICAL OZONIZATION OF EGG STORES OF POULTRY FARMS

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    Voloshin A. P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sanitization of eggs is an essential way to fight bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms. Hatchability of eggs and the safety of day-old chicks are dependent on the quality of eggs processing. Leading scientists of our country have proved high efficacy of ozone application for processing of hatching eggs. To obtain a positive result by this method of sanitizing hatching eggs ozone, it is necessary to create a uniform concentration of ozone around the egg store volume. Decrease in ozone concentration from the set point may result in insufficient exposure to pathogens and because of this, may reduce hatchability. Significant excess of ozone concentration from the set point can kill the embryo. Because of mathematical modeling of electro eggs ozone treatment process, there was a mathematical model of the process of electroozonation of egg stores of poultry farms. This model takes into account decomposition of ozone on the surface of eggs and decomposition of ozone on the walls of an egg store. This mathematical model proves the desired control action at different initial data, such as: the required concentration of ozone in the egg store, the number of eggs, egg store geometric dimensions, the fan power, the design parameters of the discharge unit, the location of the ozone generator in the room

  5. Effects of rearing systems on performance, egg characteristics and immune response in two layer hen genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükyılmaz, Kamil; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Herken, Emine Nur; Cınar, Mustafa; Catlı, Abdullah Uğur; Bintaş, Erol; Cöven, Fethiye

    2012-04-01

    White (Lohmann LSL) and Brown (ATAK-S) laying hens, were reared under organic and conventional cage rearing systems, and the effects of the rearing system on performance parameters, egg production, egg characteristics, and immune response were investigated. For this purpose, a total of 832 laying hens of two commercial hybrids, i.e., 416 white (Lohmann LSL) and 416 Brown (ATAK-S) layers, were used. The experiment lasted between 23 and 70 wk of age. In this study, the white layers yielded more eggs as compared to the brown layers in both organic and conventional production systems. Egg weight exhibited a similar pattern to that of laying performance. However, the total hen-housed egg number for the white birds in the organic system was fewer than that of white birds in the conventional cage facility; conversely, a contradictory tendency was observed for the brown birds. Livability of the white layers in the organic system was remarkably lower (14%) than that of the brown line, whereas the white line survived better (3.42%) than their brown counterparts in conventional cages. The feed conversion ratio of the white hens was markedly inferior in the organic system as compared to that of the white hens in the conventional system, whereas relatively lower deterioration was reported in brown layers when reared in an organic system. The organic production system increased egg albumen height and the Haugh unit in eggs of the brown layers. The yolk color score of organic eggs was lower than that of conventional eggs for both brown and white hens. The egg yolk ratio of eggs from white layers was found to be higher in organic eggs as compared to those obtained in the conventional system. All organic eggs had heavier shells than those produced in the conventional system. Eggs from brown layers had more protein content than eggs from white layers. Neither housing systems nor genotype influenced egg yolk cholesterol concentration. When compared to conventional eggs, n-3 fatty

  6. Discrimination of gastrointestinal nematode eggs from crude fecal egg preparations by inhibitor-resistant conventional and real-time PCR.

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    Janina Demeler

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA isolation from feces and limited sensitivity since most kits use only small amounts of feces (<1 g. A direct PCR from crude egg preparations was designed for full compatibility with FLOTAC to accurately quantify eggs per gram feces (epg and determine species composition. Eggs were recovered from the flotation solution and concentrated by sieving. Lysis was achieved by repeated boiling and freezing cycles - only Trichuris eggs required additional mechanic disruption. Egg lysates were directly used as template for PCR with Phusion DNA polymerase which is particularly resistant to PCR inhibitors. Qualitative results were obtained with feces of goats, cattle, horses, swine, cats, dogs and mice. The finally established protocol was also compatible with quantitative real-time PCR in the presence of EvaGreen and no PCR inhibition was detectable when extracts were diluted at least fourfold. Sensitivity was comparable to DNA isolation protocols and spiked samples with five epg were reliably detected. For Toxocara cati a detection limit below one epg was demonstrated. It was possible to distinguish T. cati and Toxocara canis using high resolution melt (HRM analysis, a rapid tool for species identification. In human samples, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and HRM analysis were used to discriminate Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. The method is able to significantly improve molecular diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes by increasing speed and sensitivity while decreasing overall costs. For identification of species or resistance alleles, analysis of PCR products with many

  7. Microbial quality of industrial liquid egg white: assumptions on spoiling issues in egg-based chilled desserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techer, Clarisse; Daoud, Amina; Madec, Marie-Noëlle; Gautier, Michel; Jan, Sophie; Baron, Florence

    2015-02-01

    As a 1st step, this study aimed at investigating the microbial quality of liquid egg white in a French egg processing company. Thirty raw and 33 pasteurized liquid egg white samples were analyzed. Pasteurization was globally found efficient on mesophilic contaminants (1.7 ± 1.6 and 0.8 ± 0.9 log CFU/mL in raw and pasteurized samples, respectively), including for the control of Salmonella. However, Gram-positive enterococci were still detected in the pasteurized samples. As a 2nd step, a representative bacterial collection was built for exploring the spoilage issue in egg-based chilled desserts. Custard cream was chosen as growth medium since this food is widely used for the production of French chilled desserts. All of the 166 isolates of the bacterial collection were shown to be able to grow and to induce spoilage of the custard cream at refrigeration temperature (10 °C). Several spoilage types were highlighted in the custard cream, on the basis of changes regarding pH, consistency, production of holes or gas. As a 3rd step, bacterial enzymatic activities were explored on custard cream-based agar media. The bacterial collection was reduced to 43 isolates, based on further selection regarding the genera and the spoilage types previously highlighted. Albeit to different degrees, all these isolates were able to produce proteases. A large part of these isolates also expressed lipolytic and amylolytic activities. This study emphasizes the need to control egg white contamination and especially with Gram-positive heat-resistant Enterococi, in order to guarantee the shelf life of egg-based chilled desserts. PMID:25588552

  8. The anti-predator role of within-nest emergence synchrony in sea turtle hatchlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Hudson Tercio; Martins, Agnaldo Silva; Riul, Pablo; Bruno, Soraya Christina; Janzen, Fredric J.

    2016-01-01

    Group formation is a common behaviour among prey species. In egg-laying animals, despite the various factors that promote intra-clutch variation leading to asynchronous hatching and emergence from nests, synchronous hatching and emergence occurs in many taxa. This synchrony may be adaptive by reducing predation risk, but few data are available in any natural system, even for iconic examples of the anti-predator function of group formation. Here, we show for the first time that increased group size (number of hatchlings emerging together from a nest) reduces green turtle (Chelonia mydas) hatchling predation. This effect was only observed earlier in the night when predation pressure was greatest, indicated by the greatest predator abundance and a small proportion of predators preoccupied with consuming captured prey. Further analysis revealed that the effect of time of day was due to the number of hatchlings already killed in an evening; this, along with the apparent lack of other anti-predatory mechanisms for grouping, suggests that synchronous emergence from a nest appears to swamp predators, resulting in an attack abatement effect. Using a system with relatively pristine conditions for turtle hatchlings and their predators provides a more realistic environmental context within which intra-nest synchronous emergence has evolved. PMID:27383817

  9. Does polyandry really pay off? The effects of multiple mating and number of fathers on morphological traits and survival in clutches of nesting green turtles at Tortuguero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonzo Alfaro-Núñez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the long debate of whether or not multiple mating benefits the offspring, studies still show contradictory results. Multiple mating takes time and energy. Thus, if females fertilize their eggs with a single mating, why to mate more than once? We investigated and inferred paternal identity and number of sires in 12 clutches (240 hatchlings of green turtles (Chelonia mydas nests at Tortuguero, Costa Rica. Paternal alleles were inferred through comparison of maternal and hatchling genotypes, and indicated multiple paternity in at least 11 of the clutches (92%. The inferred average number of fathers was three (ranging from 1 to 5. Moreover, regression analyses were used to investigate for correlation of inferred clutch paternity with morphological traits of hatchlings fitness (emergence success, length, weight and crawling speed, the size of the mother, and an environmental variable (incubation temperature. We suggest and propose two different comparative approaches for evaluating morphological traits and clutch paternity, in order to infer greater offspring survival. First, clutches coded by the exact number of fathers and second by the exact paternal contribution (fathers who gives greater proportion of the offspring per nest. We found significant differences (P 0.05 for any of the traits. We conclude that multiple paternity does not provide any extra benefit in the morphological fitness traits or the survival of the offspring, when analysed following the proposed comparative statistical methods.

  10. Ecological knowledge and incidental capture of sea turtles in São João de Pirabas, Pará, Brazil

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    Tiago Pereira Brito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to register the ecological knowledge of fishermen from the municipality of São João de Pirabas, Pará, Brazil, regarding the occurrence of sea turtles on the Pará state coast, as well as measure their incidental capture when fishing; to do this, 50 semi-structured interviews were conducted with local fishermen. Fishing was practiced mostly by adult men, who used 7 fishing arts (gillnetting, hook and line, longline, fish corrals, net of tide canals, casting net, and basket trap, mainly aimed at catching king mackerel (Scomberomorus cavalla, serra Spanish mackerel (S. brasiliensis, king weakfish (Macrodon ancylodon, weakfish (Cynoscion spp., hake (Cynoscion spp., catfish (Bagre bagre, and mullet (Mugil spp.. Fishermen observed in the region 5 turtle species, with a more frequent occurrence of Chelonia mydas (100%, Dermochelys coriacea (66%, and Eretmochelys imbricata (46%; the less frequent species are Caretta caretta (16% and Lepidochelys olivacea (8%. The spawning areas of the 3 most common species demonstrate the significance of the Pará state coast for their conservation. Incidental capture was reported by 76% of fishermen, mainly occurring in net, longlines, and fish corrals. Usually, captured animals were released, although there is consumption of sea turtle meat and eggs by fishermen.

  11. Diversity, habitat distribution, and indigenous hunting of marine turtles in the Calamian Islands, Palawan, Republic of the Philippines

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    Christopher N.S. Poonian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available All of the world’s seven species of marine turtle are threatened by a multitude of anthropogenic pressures across all stages of their life history. The Calamian Islands, Palawan, Philippines provide important foraging and nesting grounds for four species: green turtles (Chelonia mydas, hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata, loggerheads (Caretta caretta, and leatherbacks (Dermochelys coriacea. This work aimed to assess the relative importance of turtle nesting beaches and local threats using a combination of social science and ecological research approaches. Endangered green turtles and critically endangered hawksbills were found to nest in the Calamianes. The most important nesting sites were located on the islands off the west of Busuanga and Culion, particularly Pamalican and Galoc and along the north coast of Coron, particularly Linamodio Island. Opportunistic hunting and egg collection, conducted legally by indigenous communities, is the most significant threat to sea turtles in the area. Sites particularly vulnerable to hunting were found to be Galoc Island, Pamalican Island, and Panlaitan Island. Raising awareness, community engagement, and understanding of socio-cultural drivers of sea turtle exploitation, particularly among indigenous communities, are essential to gain support for any effective conservation program. Additionally, more effective enforcement of laws related to the trade in sea turtle products is required to close the commercial and export markets.

  12. Fine-scale thermal adaptation in a green turtle nesting population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Sam B.; Broderick, Annette C.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Ellick, Jacqui; Godley, Brendan J.; Blount, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate warming on the reproductive success of ectothermic animals is currently a subject of major conservation concern. However, for many threatened species, we still know surprisingly little about the extent of naturally occurring adaptive variation in heat-tolerance. Here, we show that the thermal tolerances of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) embryos in a single, island-breeding population have diverged in response to the contrasting incubation temperatures of nesting beaches just a few kilometres apart. In natural nests and in a common-garden rearing experiment, the offspring of females nesting on a naturally hot (black sand) beach survived better and grew larger at hot incubation temperatures compared with the offspring of females nesting on a cooler (pale sand) beach nearby. These differences were owing to shallower thermal reaction norms in the hot beach population, rather than shifts in thermal optima, and could not be explained by egg-mediated maternal effects. Our results suggest that marine turtle nesting behaviour can drive adaptive differentiation at remarkably fine spatial scales, and have important implications for how we define conservation units for protection. In particular, previous studies may have underestimated the extent of adaptive structuring in marine turtle populations that may significantly affect their capacity to respond to environmental change. PMID:21937495

  13. The anti-predator role of within-nest emergence synchrony in sea turtle hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Robson G; Pinheiro, Hudson Tercio; Martins, Agnaldo Silva; Riul, Pablo; Bruno, Soraya Christina; Janzen, Fredric J; Ioannou, Christos C

    2016-07-13

    Group formation is a common behaviour among prey species. In egg-laying animals, despite the various factors that promote intra-clutch variation leading to asynchronous hatching and emergence from nests, synchronous hatching and emergence occurs in many taxa. This synchrony may be adaptive by reducing predation risk, but few data are available in any natural system, even for iconic examples of the anti-predator function of group formation. Here, we show for the first time that increased group size (number of hatchlings emerging together from a nest) reduces green turtle (Chelonia mydas) hatchling predation. This effect was only observed earlier in the night when predation pressure was greatest, indicated by the greatest predator abundance and a small proportion of predators preoccupied with consuming captured prey. Further analysis revealed that the effect of time of day was due to the number of hatchlings already killed in an evening; this, along with the apparent lack of other anti-predatory mechanisms for grouping, suggests that synchronous emergence from a nest appears to swamp predators, resulting in an attack abatement effect. Using a system with relatively pristine conditions for turtle hatchlings and their predators provides a more realistic environmental context within which intra-nest synchronous emergence has evolved. PMID:27383817

  14. Kepekaan Telur Spesific Pathogen Free dan Clean Egg Terhadap Virus Flu Burung (SENSITIVITY OF SPESIFIC PATHOGEN FREE EGGS AND CLEAN EGG TO THE AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUSES SUBTYPE H5N1

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    Gusti Ayu Yuniati Kencana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Avian Influenza which is  in Indonesia  known as Flu Burung  is caused by the avian influenza virussubtype H5N1 (AIV-H5N1. Vaccination is one of the major strategies for preventing and eradicatingAIV-H5N1 in Indonesia. Several factors can affect the potential vaccine such as viral content and mediaused for the propagation of the virus. One of the media commonly used to propagate  the virus is pathogenspecific free (SPF embryonated chicken eggs. However, as the SPF eggs production is limited and expensive,the use of clean embryonated chicken eggs as an alternative need to examined. This study aimed todetermine the sensitivity of SPF and clean embryonated chicken eggs to the AIV-H5N1. The virus usedwas seed avian influenza virus (A/ Chicken/West Java (Subang/29/2007  which haa previously werepropagated  in SPF eggs and the Clean Eggs. The virus titer was determined as Embryo infective Dose 50%(EID50 using Reed and Muench method. Sensitivity of SPF eggs and Clean Egg to the VAI-H5N1 wascompared using  Chi-square statistical analysis. The titers of Avian Influenza Virus subtype H5N1 were106.83EID50/0.1ml in SPF eggs and 106.17EID50/0.1 ml in the Clean Eggs. Statistical analysis showed that,the sensitivity of SPF Eggs and Egg Clean  for the propagation of the VAI-H5N1 was not significantlydifferent.

  15. Comparative fine structure of eggs of autogenous and anautogenous Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Belal A; Tewfick, Maha K; Wassim, Nahla M

    2014-12-01

    Culex (Cx.) pipiens is the potential vector human filariasis in Egypt. However, autogenous Cx. pipiens may be less efficient vector of Wuchereria (W.) bancrofti in endemic areas of Egypt compared to anautogenous counterparts. In this study, an attempt was made to differentiate eggs of autogenous and anautogenous Cx. pipiens using scanning electron micrographs. The results indicated that eggs of both species appear to be similar to great extent in surface morphology. Eggs of both forms are black and elongate-oval. Width is greatest at the anterior end. The posterior end is pointed. The micropylar disc is apparent with distinct edge. Exochorionic bridges are angular. Size of both eggs represented by length and width are comparable. In both eggs, length is greater than width. However, eggs of both forms can be distinguished from each other by the exochorionic bridges being longer and thinner in the autogenous eggs than in the anautogenous eggs. PMID:25643517

  16. Digital image analysis and identification of eggs from bovine parasitic nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, C.

    1996-01-01

    Computer-assisted microscopy and multivariate statistics were used to establish and evaluate a procedure for identification of bovine strongylid eggs. Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora, Haemonchus placei, Trichostrongylus axei, and Oesophagostomum radiatum eggs were obtained from faeces vo...

  17. Stage-specific mortality of Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai; Hinrichsen, H.H.; Grønkjær, P.

    2000-01-01

    A study on cod egg mortality was carried out in the Bornholm Basin (southern central Baltic Sea) toward the end of July 1996. An initial egg aggregation marked by a satellite-tracked drifter buoy was sampled repeatedly over an Ii-day period; profiles of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen...... were concurrently recorded. Three replicate estimates of mortality were obtained for each pair of subsequent developmental stages from newly spawned eggs to early larvae. A consistent pattern of stage-specific mortality coincided well with previous experimental observations. Average daily mortality...... rates were 7.2% (eggs IA/IB), 38.7% (eggs (IB/II), 25.6% (eggs II/III), 40.0% (eggs III/IV), and 42.3% (eggs IV/early larvae). The cumulative mortality until hatch amounted to 99.9%. Results from hydrodynamic modelling, however, indicated that the drifter's trajectory was influenced by wind stress...

  18. Salmonella Growth and Deposition Inside Eggs: Implications for Refrigeration as a Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent risk assessment for Salmonella Enteritidis contamination of eggs concluded that prompt refrigeration of freshly laid eggs was among the most promising disease mitigation strategies. ARS research has provided detailed information about the deposition, movement, and multiplication of Salmonel...

  19. Contaminants in Interior Least Tern and Snowy Plover Eggs from Quivira National Wildlife Refuge in 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Four flooded or abandoned eggs of interior least terns (Sterna anti11arum) and four flooded or abandoned eggs of snowy plovers (Charadrium aiexandrinus) that nested...

  20. Organochlorine compounds and mercury in bald eagle eggs, Penobscot River, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Four bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs from three nests on the Penobscot River, Maine, were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants and mercury. Eggs were...