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Sample records for chella historic site

  1. Experiential Learning for Teacher Professional Development at Historic Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Denice J.

    2016-01-01

    Historic sites provide a variety of professional development (PD) programs for classroom teachers. Little is known, however, about the pedagogical approaches used by historic site professionals in educating their teacher audiences. Using data from PD websites and questionnaires completed by historic site professionals, two studies examine the…

  2. Historical genesis of Hanford Site wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper acquaints the audience with historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, and with the generation of the major waste streams of concern in Hanford Site clean-up today. The paper also describes the founding and basic operating history of the Hanford Site, including World War 11 construction and operations, three major postwar expansions (1947-55), the peak years of production (1956-63), production phase downs (1964-the present), and some past suggestions and efforts to chemically treat, open-quotes fractionate,close quotes and/or immobilize Hanford's wastes. Recent events, including the designation of the Hanford Site as the open-quotes flagshipclose quotes of Department of Energy (DOE) waste remediation efforts and the signing of the landmark Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), have generated new interest in Hanford's history. Clean-up milestones dictated in this agreement demand information about how, when, in what quantities and mixtures, and under what conditions, Hanford Site wastes were generated and released. This paper presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. The earliest, 1940s knowledge base, assumptions and calculations about radioactive and chemical discharges, as discussed in the memos, correspondence and reports of the original Hanford Site (then Hanford Engineer Works) builders and operators, are reviewed. The growth of knowledge, research efforts, and subsequent changes in Site waste disposal policies and practices are traced. Finally, the paper places the current Hanford Site waste remediation endeavors in the broad context of American and world history

  3. Location of Historical Buildings (points) at Fort Davis National Historic Site, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a point shapefile showing where historic buildings were located at Fort Davis National Historic Site. The remnants or foundations of these buildings where...

  4. EAARL Topography-Thomas Stone National Historic Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first surface elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model or DEM) of Thomas Stone National Historic Site was produced from remotely-sensed,...

  5. EAARL Topography-Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of the Sagamore Hill National Historic Site were produced from remotely-sensed,...

  6. Historic Sites and Grave Markers at Litttle Bighorn Battlefield, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector point file showing the historic sites and grave markers at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument (LIBI). The coordinates for this dataset...

  7. Hanford Site Climatological Summary 2004 with Historical Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoitink, Dana J.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Ramsdell, James V.; Shaw, William J.

    2005-06-03

    This document presents the climatological data measured on the DOE Hanford Site for calendar year 2004. This report contains updated historical information for temperature, precipitation, wind, and normal and extreme values of temperature, and precipitation.

  8. Historical research in the Hanford site waste cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will acquaint the audience with role of historical research in the Hanford Site waste cleanup - the largest waste cleanup endeavor ever undertaken in human history. There were no comparable predecessors to this massive waste remediation effort, but the Hanford historical record can provide a partial road map and guide. It can be, and is, a useful tool in meeting the goal of a successful, cost-effective, safe and technologically exemplary waste cleanup. The Hanford historical record is rich and complex. Yet, it poses difficult challenges, in that no central and complete repository or data base exists, records contain obscure code words and code numbers, and the measurement systems and terminology used in the records change many times over the years. Still, these records are useful to the current waste cleanup in technical ways, and in ways that extend beyond a strictly scientific aspect. Study and presentations of Hanford Site history contribute to the huge educational and outreach tasks of helping the Site's work force deal with 'culture change' and become motivated for the cleanup work that is ahead, and of helping the public and the regulators to place the events at Hanford in the context of WWII and the Cold War. This paper traces historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, and acquaints the audience with the generation of the major waste streams of concern in Hanford Site cleanup today. It presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. The earliest, 1940s knowledge base, assumptions and calculations about radioactive and chemical discharges, as discussed in the memos, correspondence and reports of the original Hanford Site (then Hanford Engineer Works) builders and operators, are reviewed. The growth of knowledge, research efforts, and subsequent changes in Site waste disposal policies and practices are traced. Examples of the strengths and limitations of the

  9. Fire Risks and Prevention Strategies for Architecture at Historic Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the features of China's architecture at historic sites with regard to fire protection, the causes of fire since 1949, reviewing their weaknesses in fire protection, and exploring modern technologies for fire prevention that are applicable to ancient buildings. We put forward suggestions to improve fire prevention and management: eliminating potential problems of fire, improving fire protection and establishing a better fire security system, which is especially important to protect ancient buildings.

  10. Universal Access in Heritage Sites: A Case Study on Historic Sites in Jaipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardia, Shweta; Khare, Rachna; Khare, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    A nation is recognized by a range of its significant historical, cultural and natural properties. These properties are generally preserved and maintained either by national administration or by private owners and charitable trusts due to higher value of their cultural inheritance and termed globally as heritage or historic sites. Heritage sites are a significant asset, a unique and irreplaceable resource which reflects a rich and diverse expression of past societies and forms an integral part of local, regional and national cultural identity. Today, heritage sites also play an important role in communication and knowledge exchange. Thus the rapidly increasing heritage tourism industry faces several challenges too. One of the challenges is that there is a segment of society who is not yet able to equally enjoy the visit to historic structures/sites and attractions, facilities and services. This paper aims to study the experience and develop understanding regarding the heritage structures/sites approached and interacted by diverse users. This study is an outcome of a hands on workshop conducted with diverse users at various historic sites in the city of Jaipur viz. at The City Palace Complex, Jaipur, Jaigarh Fort and the Haveli at Kanota near to Jaipur India. PMID:27534337

  11. The Current and Historical Distribution of Special Status Amphibians at the Livermore Site and Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattem, M V; Paterson, L; Woollett, J

    2008-08-20

    65 surveys were completed in 2002 to assess the current distribution of special status amphibians at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Livermore Site and Site 300. Combined with historical information from previous years, the information presented herein illustrates the dynamic and probable risk that amphibian populations face at both sites. The Livermore Site is developed and in stark contrast to the mostly undeveloped Site 300. Yet both sites have significant issues threatening the long-term sustainability of their respective amphibian populations. Livermore Site amphibians are presented with a suite of challenges inherent of urban interfaces, most predictably the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), while Site 300's erosion issues and periodic feral pig (Sus scrofa) infestations reduce and threaten populations. The long-term sustainability of LLNL's special status amphibians will require active management and resource commitment to maintain and restore amphibian habitat at both sites.

  12. Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places, Historic Sites data set for the MGRC Service Region., Published in 2009, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Middle Georgia RC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as...

  13. Closure report for CAU No. 450: Historical UST release sites, Nevada Test Site. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the closure of 11 historical underground storage tank (UST) release sites within various areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The closure of each hydrocarbon release has not been documented, therefore, this report addresses the remedial activities completed for each release site. The hydrocarbon release associated with each tank site within CAU 450 was remediated by excavating the impacted soil. Clean closure of the release was verified through soil sample analysis by an off-site laboratory. All release closure activities were completed following standard environmental and regulatory guidelines. Based upon site observations during the remedial activities and the soil sample analytical results, which indicated that soil concentrations were below the Nevada Administrative code (NAC) Action Level of 100 mg/kg, it is anticipated that each of the release CASs be closed without further action

  14. Historical site assessment, Saxton PWR, USA. Annex II-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: II-10.1. PROBLEM ENCOUNTERED. A competent historical site assessment (HSA) requires much time in reviewing records from construction era documents on up to the most recent plant records. Sometimes simply retrieving the records of interest can be daunting. Old records were sometimes filed using methods that have since been forgotten. This process can take a very long time. Most plant records, particularly older ones, are generally brief and lacking of very much explanatory narrative. Log books and other similar records were maintained by individuals who were highly familiar with the operations being carried out, and they were written for the benefit of other individuals who were equally as familiar with the particular operation or process. Consequently, many entries will be quite brief and will contain operation-specific jargon to such a degree as to make it very difficult for an HSA reviewer to extract useful information from these sources. II-10.2. ANALYSIS. When reviewing historical documents, it may be useful to obtain the services of someone who is familiar with the operations in question [II-10.1]. This type of individual may still be on the plant staff or may be available as a retiree or other former employee. In the case of Saxton, it was very useful to interview individuals who had actually taken part in various phases of decommissioning, in order to gain first-hand perspectives on the process. II-10.3. LESSONS LEARNED. Old records may generate as many questions as they answer. (author)

  15. Accuracy Assessment Points for Friendship Hill National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation classification and mapping of Friendship Hill National Historic Site.

  16. Hanford Site climatological data summary 1995 with historical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoitink, D.J.; Burk, K.W.

    1996-05-01

    This document presents the climatological data measured at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site for calendar year 1995. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory operates the Hanford Meteorology Station and the Hanford Meteorological Monitoring Network from which these data were collected. The information contained herein includes updated historical climatologies for temperature, precipitation, normal and extreme values of temperature and precipitation, and other miscellaneous meteorological parameters. Further, the data are adjunct to and update Hoitink and Burk (1994, 1995); however, Appendix B--Wind Climatology (1994) is excluded. 1995 was warmer than normal, averaging 54.7 F, 1.4 F above normal (53.3 F). For the 12-month period, 8 months were warmer than normal, and 4 were cooler than normal. 1995 was the wettest year on record. Precipitation totaled 12.31 in., 197% of normal (6.26 in.); snowfall totaled 7.7 in., compared to the normal of 13.8 in. The average wind speed during 1995 was 7.8 mph, 0.1 mph above normal (7.7 mph). The peak gust during the year was 61 mph from the south-southwest on December 12. There were 27 days with peak gusts {ge} 40 mph, compared to a yearly average of 26.

  17. Hanford Site climatological data summary 1995 with historical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the climatological data measured at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site for calendar year 1995. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory operates the Hanford Meteorology Station and the Hanford Meteorological Monitoring Network from which these data were collected. The information contained herein includes updated historical climatologies for temperature, precipitation, normal and extreme values of temperature and precipitation, and other miscellaneous meteorological parameters. Further, the data are adjunct to and update Hoitink and Burk (1994, 1995); however, Appendix B--Wind Climatology (1994) is excluded. 1995 was warmer than normal, averaging 54.7 F, 1.4 F above normal (53.3 F). For the 12-month period, 8 months were warmer than normal, and 4 were cooler than normal. 1995 was the wettest year on record. Precipitation totaled 12.31 in., 197% of normal (6.26 in.); snowfall totaled 7.7 in., compared to the normal of 13.8 in. The average wind speed during 1995 was 7.8 mph, 0.1 mph above normal (7.7 mph). The peak gust during the year was 61 mph from the south-southwest on December 12. There were 27 days with peak gusts ≥ 40 mph, compared to a yearly average of 26

  18. Hanford Site climatological data summary 1999 with historical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the climatological data measured at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site for calendar year 1999. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory operates the Hanford Meteorology Station and the Hanford Meteorological Monitoring Network from which these data were collected. The information contained herein includes updated historical climatologies for temperature, precipitation, normal and extreme values of temperature and precipitation, and other miscellaneous meteorological parameters. Further, the data are adjunct to and update Hoitink et al. (1999), and Hoitink and Burk (1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998); however, Appendix B-Wind Climatology (1994) is excluded. 1999 was warmer than normal at the Hanford Meteorology Station with an average temperature of 54.4 F, 1.1 F above normal (53.3 F). The hottest temperature was 105 F on July 28, while the coldest was 18 F on January 3. The maximum temperature of 64 F on August 30 was the lowest maximum temperature ever recorded in August, while the maximum temperature of 76 F on November 13 was the highest maximum temperature ever recorded in November. For the 12-month period, 6 months were warmer than normal and 6 were cooler than normal. 1999 was the fourth driest year on record. Precipitation totaled 3.75 inches, 60% of normal (6.26 inches); snowfall totaled 0.6 inch, the least calendar year snowfall on record (compared to the normal of 13.8 inches). 1999 was the windiest year on record with an average wind speed of 8.8 mph, 1.1 mph above normal (7.7 mph). There were 48 days with peak gust ge 40 mph, compared to a yearly average of 26 mph. The peak gust during the year was 65 mph on February 6. The heating-degree days for 1998--1999 were 4,802 (8% below the 5,231 normal). Cooling-degree days for 1999 were 891 (10% below the 994 normal)

  19. National Register of Historic Places multiple property documentation form -- Historic, archaeological, and traditional cultural properties of the Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickens, P.R.

    1997-08-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site encompasses an area of 560 square miles on the Columbia River in southeastern Washington. Since 1943, the Hanford Site has existed as a protected area for activities primarily related to the production of radioactive materials for national defense uses. For cultural resources on the Hanford Site, establishment of the nuclear reservation as a high security area, with public access restricted, has resulted in a well-protected status, although no deliberate resource protection measures were in effect to mitigate effects of facilities construction and associated activities. Thus, the Hanford Site contains an extensive record of aboriginal archaeological sites and Native American cultural properties, along with pre-Hanford Euro-American sites (primarily archaeological in nature with the removal of most pre-1943 structures), and a considerable number of Manhattan Project/Cold War era buildings and structures. The recent mission change from production to clean up and disposal of DOE lands created a critical need for development and implementation of new and different cultural resource management strategies. DOE-RL has undertaken a preservation planning effort for the Hanford Site. The intent of this Plan is to enable DOE-RL to organize data and develop goals, objectives, and priorities for the identification, evaluation, registration, protection, preservation, and enhancement of the Site`s historical and cultural properties. Decisions made about the identification, evaluation, registration and treatment of historic properties are most aptly made when relationships between individual properties and other similar properties are considered. The historic context and the multiple property documentation (NTD) process provides DOE-RL the organizational framework for these decisions. Once significant patterns are identified, contexts developed, and expected properties are defined, the NTD process provides the foundation for future

  20. Field Plot Points for Fort Larned National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2005 vegetation data points (spatial database) created from the sample vegetation plots collected at Fort Larned National Historic Site.

  1. Golden Spike National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project - 2006 True Color Orthophotography

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This imagery dataset was used to map the vegetation at Golden Spike National Historic Site. This data set contains imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery...

  2. Sea Floor Topography and Backscatter Intensity of the Historic Area Remediation Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes topography and backscatter intensity of the sea floor of the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS), located offshore of New York and New...

  3. Field Plot Points for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of vegetation sampling plots used to collect data for vegetation classification and mapping at Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site. In this...

  4. Spatial Vegetation Data for Weir Farm National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is a vegetation map of Weir Farm National Historic Site, Connecticut. A map showing the locations of the vegetation associations within the park was...

  5. True Color Orthorectified Image for Saugus Ironworks National Historical Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Orthorectified true color image of Saugus Ironworks National Historical Site. Sanborn Colorado L.L.C. of Colorado Springs, CO, flew the photography in April 2005....

  6. Spatial Vegetation Data for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National...

  7. Spatial Vegetation Data for Sagamore Hill National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is the final vegetation map of Sagamore Hill National Historic Site that provides local names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the...

  8. Color Infrared Orthorectified Photomosaic for Friendship Hill National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Orthorectified color infrared ERDAS Imagine image of Friendship Hill National Historic Site. Produced from 18 color infrared photos taken April 13, 2003....

  9. Spatial Vegetation Data for Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is an association-level vegetation map of Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site developed by NatureServe for the National Park Service. The map is...

  10. Accuracy Assessment Points for Washita Battlefield National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2006 accuracy assessment points (spatial database) created from the sample points collected at Washita Battlefield National Historic Site.

  11. Wetlands at Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site and Surrounding Areas, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector polygon coverage of wetlands at and surronding Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site, Texas. Roughly 20% of the park can be classified as...

  12. Pu`ukohola Heiau National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project - Spatial Vegetation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) , Island of Hawai'i and surrounding areas....

  13. Field Plot Points for Weir Farm National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile shows the location of vegetation sampling plots used for vegetation classification and mapping at Weir Farm National Historic Site.

  14. Ankara Historic City Centre Restoration Site Conservation Plan, its Characteristics, and Rationales for its Revocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tuncer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a comprehensive evaluation of the 1: 5000 Ankara Historic City Centre Restoration Site Conservation Master Development Plan and the 1: 1000 Conservation Implementation Plans, which have become a matter of litigation against the Ankara Metropolitan Municipality, filed by various non-governmental organizations, universities, the Union of Chambers of Turkish Architects and Engineers (TMMOB and public institutions; in terms of the environment, transportation and traffic as regards the entirety of the planned location, and the integrity of the plan, based on conservation-reclamation planning essentials and public interest. Thus the Ulus Ankara Historic City Centre Restoration Site Conservation Master Development and Implementation Plan and Plan Notes as ratified by the Ankara Metropolitan Municipality and Conservation Board, are examined in this context in terms of restoration site, protected site, conservation site, interaction and transition sites and historic and cultural properties.

  15. Geological evolution, palaeoclimate and historical development of the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederbaeck, Bjoern (ed.)

    2008-06-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations started in 2002 and were completed in 2007. The analysis and modelling of data from the site investigations, which have taken place during and after these investigations, provide a foundation for the development of an integrated, multidisciplinary site descriptive model (SDM) for each of the two sites. A site descriptive model constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere, as well as those natural processes that affect or have affected their long-term development. Hitherto, a number of reports presenting preliminary site descriptive models for Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp have been published. In these reports, the evolutionary and historical aspects of the site were included in a separate chapter. The present report comprises a further elaboration of the evolutionary and historical information included in the preliminary SDM reports, but presented here in a separate, supplementary report to the final site description, SDM-Site. The report is common to the two investigated areas, and the overall objective is to describe the long-term geological evolution, the palaeoclimate, and the post-glacial development of ecosystems and of the human population at the two sites. The report largely consists of a synthesis of information derived from the scientific literature and other sources not related to the site investigations. However, considerable information from the site investigations that has contributed to our understanding of the past development at each site is also included. This unique synthesis of both published information in a regional perspective and new site-specific information breaks new ground in our understanding

  16. Geological evolution, palaeoclimate and historical development of the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is undertaking site characterization at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site investigations started in 2002 and were completed in 2007. The analysis and modelling of data from the site investigations, which have taken place during and after these investigations, provide a foundation for the development of an integrated, multidisciplinary site descriptive model (SDM) for each of the two sites. A site descriptive model constitutes a description of the site and its regional setting, covering the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere, as well as those natural processes that affect or have affected their long-term development. Hitherto, a number of reports presenting preliminary site descriptive models for Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp have been published. In these reports, the evolutionary and historical aspects of the site were included in a separate chapter. The present report comprises a further elaboration of the evolutionary and historical information included in the preliminary SDM reports, but presented here in a separate, supplementary report to the final site description, SDM-Site. The report is common to the two investigated areas, and the overall objective is to describe the long-term geological evolution, the palaeoclimate, and the post-glacial development of ecosystems and of the human population at the two sites. The report largely consists of a synthesis of information derived from the scientific literature and other sources not related to the site investigations. However, considerable information from the site investigations that has contributed to our understanding of the past development at each site is also included. This unique synthesis of both published information in a regional perspective and new site-specific information breaks new ground in our understanding

  17. Mineralogy and environmental geochemistry of historical iron slag, Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Pennsylvania, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site in southeastern Pennsylvania, which features an Fe smelter that was operational in the 18th and 19th centuries, is dominated by three slag piles. Pile 1 slag, from the Hopewell Furnace, and pile 2 slag, likely from the nearby Cornwall Furnace, were both produced in cold-blast charcoal-fired smelters. In contrast, pile 3 slag was produced in an anthracite furnace. Ore samples from the nearby Jones and Hopewell mines that fed the smelter are mainly magnetite-rich with some sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite) and accessory silicates (quartz, garnet, feldspar, and clay minerals). Slag piles 1 and 2 are similar mineralogically containing predominantly skeletal and dendritic aluminian diopside and augite, skeletal forsteritic olivine, glass, rounded blebs of metallic Fe, and exotic quartz. Olivine is a major phase in all samples from pile 2, whereas it occurs in only a few samples from pile 1. Samples of the 2O3 (8.5–16.2 wt.%), CaO (8.2–26.2 wt.%), MgO (4.2–24.7 wt.%), and SiO2 (36.4–59.8 wt.%), constituting between 81% and 97% of the mass of the samples. Piles 1 and 2 are chemically similar; pile 1 slag overall contains the highest Fe2O3, K2O and MnO, and the lowest MgO concentrations. Pile 3 slag is high in Al2O3, CaO and S, and low in Fe2O3, K2O and SiO2 compared to the other piles. In general, piles 1 and 2 are chemically similar to each other, whereas pile 3 is distinct – a conclusion that reflects their mineralogy. The similarities and differences among piles in terms of mineralogy and major element chemistry result from the different smelting conditions under which the slag formed and include the fuel source, the composition of the ore and flux, the type of blast (cold versus hot), which affects the furnace temperature, and other beneficiation methods. The three distinct slag piles at Hopewell are enriched in numerous trace elements, such as As (up to 12 mg/kg), Cd (up to 0.4 mg/kg), Co (up to 31.8 mg

  18. Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places, This is an SDE feature class of State of Wisconsin Historical Markers present in Rock County., Published in 2006, Rock County Planning, Economic, and Community Development Agency.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. It is described as 'This is an...

  19. Phenomenon of perceiving and memorizing historical buildings and sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alihodžić Rifat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactive relationship between psychology and architecture is still being neglected when the possibilities potentially obtainable by perceiving and memorizing architectural forms and space are considered . The contemporary architects, or a part of them are well aware of these possibilities while designing their buildings, and it is of great interest to ascertain how professionals and ordinary people perceived and memorized buildings and sites through history. The paper presents certain psychological methods that could be very helpful in this research. One of those methods have The Gestalt principle is the initial method of one such method, because the memorizing process strongly relies on the concept of 'crystallization' of a perceived event with the passage of time. Some examples, well known through building history have been analyzed and compared in order to demonstrate how the interaction between psychology and architectural forms and spaces.

  20. The Hanford Site N Reactor buildings task identification and evaluation of historic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New Production Reactor complex at Hanford (hereafter referred to as N Reactor) is proposed to be deactivated, decommissioned, and demolished in the coming years. Recognizing that the Hanford Site has been important to the nation, state, and local community, a task was funded to examine the effects that these activities may have on the historic properties of N Reactor. The objectives of the N Reactor buildings task were to identify potential historic properties at N Reactor, to complete Historic Property Inventory forms for all structures considered eligible and ineligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, and to prepare a Memorandum of Agreement that identifies the measures required to mitigate any adverse effects

  1. 40 CFR 230.54 - Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites, and similar preserves. 230.54 Section 230.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b)(1) GUIDELINES FOR SPECIFICATION OF...

  2. Atoms in Appalachia. Historical report on the Clinch River Breeder Reactor site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffer, D

    1982-01-01

    The background information concerning the acquisition of the land for siting the Clinch River Breeder Reactor is presented. Historical information is also presented concerning the land acquisition for the Oak Ridge facilities known as the Manhattan Project during World War II.

  3. A vegetation management plan for Fort Union Trading Post National Historic Site: Final report for interagency agreement number F154910005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: This report provides Fort Union Trading Post National Historic Site, a small NPS unit on the border of Montana and North Dakota, a framework and reasonable tools for future vegetation management at the site in the context of probable historic, current, and desired future vegetation.

  4. TL dating of ancient pottery of Yarang historical site Amphur Yarang Pattani Province

    OpenAIRE

    Changkian, S.; Kaewtubtim, P.

    1999-01-01

    The dating of the ancient pottery from Banjalae number 3, Yarang Historical Site, Amphur Yarang, Pattani Province was performed using Thermoluminescence (TL) Technique. Samples including stupa and bricks were crushed into small pieces with grain size of 100-300 μm, etched with 48% hydrofluoric acid before separated this contaminated crystals by precipitating in liquid of high specific qravity (Tetrabromoethane, Dipropylene glycol). The crystals were washed until a clean quartz was obtained. ...

  5. A Cold War Battlefield: Frenchman Flat Historic District, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, William Gray [DRI; Holz, Barbara A [DRI; Jones, Robert [DRI

    2000-08-01

    This report provides the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office with the documentation necessary to establish the Frenchman Flat Historic District on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It includes a list of historic properties that contribute to the eligibility of the district for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and provides contextual information establishing its significance. The list focuses on buildings, structures and features associated with the period of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons on the NTS between 1951 and 1962. A total of 157 locations of buildings and structures were recorded of which 115 are considered to be eligible for the NRHP. Of these, 28 have one or more associated features which include instrumentation supports, foundations, etc. The large majority of contributing structures are buildings built to study the blast effects of nuclear weaponry. This has resulted in a peculiar accumulation of deteriorated structures that, unlike most historic districts, is best represented by those that are the most damaged. Limitations by radiological control areas, surface exposure and a focus on the concentration of accessible properties on the dry lake bed indicate additional properties exist which could be added to the district on a case-by-case basis.

  6. Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places, National Register of Historic Places - NRHP is a list of properties identified by the Federal Government as significant in American history and culture. These properties include districts, buildings, sites and objects of significance to the nation, etc., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Department of Planning.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as...

  7. Compilation of historical radiological data collected in the vicinity of the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiological Baseline Program (RBP) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been implemented to characterize the radiological conditions at the site prior to receipt of radioactive wastes. Because southeastern New Mexico was the site of an underground nuclear test in 1961, various sampling programs have intermittently monitored background and elevated radiation levels in the vicinity of the WIPP. In addition, radiological characterization of the site region was performed during the 1970's in support of the WIPP Environmental Impact Statement. The historical data are drawn primarily from monitoring activities of the US Public Health Service (PHS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Geological Survey (USGS) and Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA). Information on air and water quality, meat, milk, biota and vegetation is included in the report. This survey is intended to provide a source of reference for historical data on radiological conditions in the vicinity of the WIPP site prior to the establishment of a systematic Radiological Baseline Program. 31 refs., 1 fig

  8. Knowledge and Valorization of Historical Sites Through 3d Documentation and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farella, E.; Menna, F.; Nocerino, E.; Morabito, D.; Remondino, F.; Campi, M.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents the first results of an interdisciplinary project related to the 3D documentation, dissemination, valorization and digital access of archeological sites. Beside the mere 3D documentation aim, the project has two goals: (i) to easily explore and share via web references and results of the interdisciplinary work, including the interpretative process and the final reconstruction of the remains; (ii) to promote and valorize archaeological areas using reality-based 3D data and Virtual Reality devices. This method has been verified on the ruins of the archeological site of Pausilypon, a maritime villa of Roman period (Naples, Italy). Using Unity3D, the virtual tour of the heritage site was integrated and enriched with the surveyed 3D data, text documents, CAAD reconstruction hypotheses, drawings, photos, etc. In this way, starting from the actual appearance of the ruins (panoramic images), passing through the 3D digital surveying models and several other historical information, the user is able to access virtual contents and reconstructed scenarios, all in a single virtual, interactive and immersive environment. These contents and scenarios allow to derive documentation and geometrical information, understand the site, perform analyses, see interpretative processes, communicate historical information and valorize the heritage location.

  9. Public safety risk management at socio-economic and / or historic-cultural significant dam sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, Gordon D.; Ryan, Katherine; Pyykonen, Nicole K.; Pitts, Lucas [Otonabee Region Conservation Authority, Peterborough, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Lang Dam and adjoining gristmill, located near Peterborough are integral parts of the Lang Pioneer Village museum. Activities occurring within close proximity to the dam have led to safety issues. The owner (ORCA) has developed and implemented public safety management plans (PSMPs) for each of its water control structures, including the Lang Dam. ORCA gave special attention to the social, economic, aesthetic, historic and cultural dimensions associated the implementation of public safety management plans. These factors play a significant role in how well public safety measures (PSMs) are received by stakeholder groups and the general public. This paper reported the challenges of developing and implementing a PSMP for the Lang Dam, with the focus on property site-specific PSMS while preserving socio-economic and historic-cultural character and values. It was demonstrated that the dam owners, regulatory authorities, control agencies and preservationists need to come together to develop a holistic public safety management process.

  10. A Historical Evaluation of the U15 Complex, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drollinger, Harold [DRI; Holz, Barbara A [DRI; Bullard, Thomas F [DRI; Goldenberg, Nancy G [Carey & Co; Ashbaugh, Laurence J [DRI; Griffin, Wayne R [DRI

    2014-01-09

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U15 Complex on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Three underground nuclear tests and two underground nuclear fuel storage experiments were conducted at the complex. The nuclear tests were Hard Hat in 1962, Tiny Tot in 1965, and Pile Driver in 1966. The Hard Hat and Pile Driver nuclear tests involved different types of experiment sections in test drifts at various distances from the explosion in order to determine which sections could best survive in order to design underground command centers. The Tiny Tot nuclear test involved an underground cavity in which the nuclear test was executed. It also provided data in designing underground structures and facilities to withstand a nuclear attack. The underground nuclear fuel storage experiments were Heater Test 1 from 1977 to 1978 and Spent Fuel Test - Climax from 1978 to 1985. Heater Test 1 was used to design the later Spent Fuel Test - Climax experiment. The latter experiment was a model of a larger underground storage facility and primarily involved recording the conditions of the spent fuel and the surrounding granite medium. Fieldwork was performed intermittently in the summers of 2011 and 2013, totaling 17 days. Access to the underground tunnel complex is sealed and unavailable. Restricted to the surface, four buildings, four structures, and 92 features associated with nuclear testing and fuel storage experiment activities at the U15 Complex have been recorded. Most of these are along the west side of the complex and next to the primary access road and are characteristic of an industrial mining site, albeit one with scientific interests. The geomorphological fieldwork was conducted over three days in the

  11. Digital Geologic Map of Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site and vicinity, Texas (NPS, GRD, GRE, PAAL, PAAL digital map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site and vicinity, Texas is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.2 layer (.LYR)...

  12. Waste site characterization through digital analysis of historical aerial photographs at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical aerial photographs are used to provide a physical history and preliminary mapping information for characterizing hazardous waste sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. The examples cited show how imagery was used to accurately locate and identify previous activities at a site, monitor changes that occurred over time, and document the observable of such activities today. The methodology demonstrates how historical imagery (along with any other pertinent data) can be used in the characterization of past environmental damage

  13. Roles of Historical Photography in Waste Site Characterization, Closure, and Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Over 40,000 frames of vertical historical photography from 1938 to 1996 and over 10,000 frames of oblique photography from 1981 to 1991 of the 777-square kilometer Savannah River Site in south central South Carolina were reviewed, cataloged, and referenced utilizing ARCView and associated ArcInfo tools. This allows environmental reviews of over 400 potential waste units on the SRS to be conducted in a rapid fashion to support preparation of work plans, characterization, risk assessments, and closure of the waste units in a more cost effective manner.

  14. Roles of Historical Photography in Waste Site Characterization, Closure, and Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 40,000 frames of vertical historical photography from 1938 to 1996 and over 10,000 frames of oblique photography from 1981 to 1991 of the 777-square kilometer Savannah River Site in south central South Carolina were reviewed, cataloged, and referenced utilizing ARCView and associated ArcInfo tools. This allows environmental reviews of over 400 potential waste units on the SRS to be conducted in a rapid fashion to support preparation of work plans, characterization, risk assessments, and closure of the waste units in a more cost effective manner

  15. 3D Information System of Historical Site – Proposal and Realisation of a Functional Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hodač

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of methods for 3D data acquisition, together with progress in information technologies raises the question of creating and using 3D models and 3D information systems (IS of historical sites and buildings. This paper presents the current state of the “Live Theatre” project. The theme of the project is the proposal and realisation of a 3D IS of the baroque theatre at Eeský Krumlov castle (UNESCO site.The project is divided into three main stages – creation of a 3D model, proposal of a conception for a 3D IS, and realisation of a functional prototype. 3D data was acquired by means of photogrammetric and surveying methods. An accurate 3D model (photo-realistic, textured was built up with MicroStation CAD system. The proposal of a conception of a 3D IS was the main outcome of the author’s dissertation. The essential feature of the proposed conception is the creation of subsystems targeted on three spheres – management, research and presentation of the site. The functionality of each subsystem is connected with its related sphere; however, each subsystem uses the same database. The present stage of the project involves making a functional prototype (with sample data. During this stage we are working on several basic technological topics. At present we are concerned with 3D data, its formats, format conversions (e.g. DGN _ VRML and its connection to other types of data. After that, we will be seeking a convenient technical solution based on network technologies (Internet and an appropriate layout for the data (database. The project is being carried out in close co-operation with the administration of the castle and some other partners. This stage of the project will be completed in December 2005.A functional prototype and the information acquired by testing it will form the basis for the final proposal of a complex IS of a historical site. The final proposal and appropriate technology will be the outcome of the project. The

  16. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  17. Siting landfills and incinerators in areas of historic unpopularity: Surveying the views of the next generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Feo, Giovanni, E-mail: g.defeo@unisa.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Williams, Ian D. [Waste Management Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Opinions and knowledge of young people in Italy about waste were studied. • Historic opposition to construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome. • Awareness of waste management develops with knowledge of environmental issues. • Many stakeholders’ views are needed when siting a new waste management facility. • Respondents’ opinions were influenced by their level of environmental knowledge. - Abstract: The Campania Region in Southern Italy has suffered many problems with municipal solid waste management since the mid-1990s, leading to significant public disturbances and subsequent media coverage. This paper reports on the current views and knowledge of young people (university students) in this region about waste management operations and facilities, specifically the siting of landfills and incinerators. By means of a structured questionnaire, opinion and knowledge were systematically examined by degree type and course year. The study took place in 2011 at the University of Salerno campus. A sample of 900 students, comprising 100 students for each of the nine considered faculties, and 20 students for every academic course year, was randomly selected. Only about a quarter of respondents were not opposed to the siting of a landfill or an incinerator in their city. This clearly highlights that historic opposition to the construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome and that distrust for previous poor management or indiscretions is long-lived and transcends generations. Students from technical faculties expressed the most reasonable opinion; opinion and knowledge were statistically related (Chi-square test, p < 0.05) to the attended faculty, and the knowledge grew linearly with progression through the university. This suggests that awareness of waste management practices develops with experience and understanding of environmental issues. There is general acceptance that many stakeholders – technicians, politicians

  18. Siting landfills and incinerators in areas of historic unpopularity: Surveying the views of the next generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Opinions and knowledge of young people in Italy about waste were studied. • Historic opposition to construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome. • Awareness of waste management develops with knowledge of environmental issues. • Many stakeholders’ views are needed when siting a new waste management facility. • Respondents’ opinions were influenced by their level of environmental knowledge. - Abstract: The Campania Region in Southern Italy has suffered many problems with municipal solid waste management since the mid-1990s, leading to significant public disturbances and subsequent media coverage. This paper reports on the current views and knowledge of young people (university students) in this region about waste management operations and facilities, specifically the siting of landfills and incinerators. By means of a structured questionnaire, opinion and knowledge were systematically examined by degree type and course year. The study took place in 2011 at the University of Salerno campus. A sample of 900 students, comprising 100 students for each of the nine considered faculties, and 20 students for every academic course year, was randomly selected. Only about a quarter of respondents were not opposed to the siting of a landfill or an incinerator in their city. This clearly highlights that historic opposition to the construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome and that distrust for previous poor management or indiscretions is long-lived and transcends generations. Students from technical faculties expressed the most reasonable opinion; opinion and knowledge were statistically related (Chi-square test, p < 0.05) to the attended faculty, and the knowledge grew linearly with progression through the university. This suggests that awareness of waste management practices develops with experience and understanding of environmental issues. There is general acceptance that many stakeholders – technicians, politicians

  19. Development of Historical Water Table Maps of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site (1950-1970)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Teena M.; McDonald, John P.

    2006-09-15

    A series of detailed historical water-table maps for the 200-West Area of the Hanford Site was made to aid interpretation of contaminant distribution in the upper aquifer. The contaminants are the result of disposal of large volumes of waste to the ground during Hanford Site operations, which began in 1944 and continued into the mid-1990s. Examination of the contaminant plumes that currently exist on site shows that the groundwater beneath the 200-West Area has deviated from its pre-Hanford west-to-east flow direction during the past 50 years. By using historical water-level measurements from wells around the 200-West Area, it was possible to create water-table contour maps that show probable historic flow directions. These maps are more detailed than previously published water-table maps that encompass the entire Hanford Site.

  20. Development of Historical Water Table Maps of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site (1950-1970)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of detailed historical water-table maps for the 200-West Area of the Hanford Site was made to aid interpretation of contaminant distribution in the upper aquifer. The contaminants are the result of disposal of large volumes of waste to the ground during Hanford Site operations, which began in 1944 and continued into the mid-1990s. Examination of the contaminant plumes that currently exist on site shows that the groundwater beneath the 200-West Area has deviated from its pre-Hanford west-to-east flow direction during the past 50 years. By using historical water-level measurements from wells around the 200-West Area, it was possible to create water-table contour maps that show probable historic flow directions. These maps are more detailed than previously published water-table maps that encompass the entire Hanford Site.

  1. Historical wetlands mapping and GIS processing for the Savannah River Site Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New policies regarding the open-quotes no net lossclose quotes of wetlands have presented resource managers and GIS analysts with a challenging ecological application. Historical aerial photography provides a temporal record of conditions over time, beneficial when appraising wetland gain and loss because man-made disturbances can have both short and long term effects on wetland communities. This is particularly true when assessing existing communities for restoration and reclamation of the ecologic structure and function of the community prior to a disturbance. Remediation efforts can be optimized when definitive documentation exists of the original communities. The Geographic Information System (GIS) is a powerful tool for integrating these data sets and performing spatial and temporal analyses in support of ecological applications. On the Savannah River Site (SRS) temporal analysis of multispectral scanner data has shown where wetlands were impacted by reactor operation, such as thermal discharge into creeks and swamps, and where wetlands were removed due to the construction of facilities. The GIS database was used to determine how the distribution and composition of wetland classes have changed over time. Historic black and white aerial photography of SRS as well as color infrared aerial photography as recent as 1989was used to develop a more current land cover database. Six wetland classes were photointerpreted. The historical data layer was then used in spatial analyses to aid in deriving potential viable and cost effective management technique alternatives for remediation of wetlands influenced by past reactor operations and has provided acreage estimates of wetlands lost. Acreage values can be used to estimate the potential costs of wetland remediation. This application of temporal analysis using a GIS demonstrates the utility of documenting prior conditions before remediation actually commences and how to maximize cost effective remediation efforts

  2. Sustainability assessment, rating systems and historical buildings Case study: Rehabilitated construction in a university site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadrykia Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the indicators and different factors that “rating systems for green projects” concentrates on, and principles and factors considered in the rehabilitation of historical buildings. In recent years, different methods and systems concerned and improved for assessing environmental sustainability. LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design and BREEAM (Building Research Establishment (BRE Environmental Assessment Method are two most commonly used rating systems, established in U.S and UK. These systems comprise some categories and different factors to achieve environmentally responsible design. Firstly, this study focuses on the list of rating systems indicators and criteria. Secondly this paper investigates a historical rehabilitated building in the site of Tabriz Art University, as a case study and has tried to compile its green design elements. Finally, this work intends to compare mentioned elements with indicators and factors of building rating systems. Findings of the study revealed that “Materials and Resources”, “indoor environmental quality” and also “Sustainable Sites” ,the most significant indicator of rating systems, had major and important role in the rehabilitation of the building. Beyond this materials’ life cycle was considerable in construction.

  3. Astronomical orientation analysis of three proto-historical sites in Friuli - Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Patat, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of an archaeoastronomical survey of three proto-historical sites located in the high Friulian plain (Galleriano, Gradisca and Savalons), dating from the end of the Early Bronze Age (1900 B.C.) to the end of the Late Bronze Age (950 B.C.). These structures, commonly indicated as castellieri, are earthworks of quadrangular shape, with sides ranging from 140 to 250 m. At present the perimetrical earthen embankments reach a maximum base width of 18 m and an elevation of more than 5 m the surrounding plain in their best preserved parts. These three sites were often reported in the literature to have the corners aligned to the cardinal directions. Aveni and Romano (1986) included two of them (Galleriano and Gradisca) in their study of earthworks in Veneto and Friuli (Italy), tentatively proposing astronomically relevant alignments for some sides and diagonals. Inspired by this pioneering work and by the renovated archaeological interest for these sites, we obtained digital eleva...

  4. Estimating groundwater dynamics at a Colorado River floodplain site using historical hydrological data and climate information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinsong; Hubbard, Susan S.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Ficklin, Darren L.

    2016-03-01

    Long-term prediction of groundwater dynamics is important for assessing water resources and their impacts on biogeochemical cycling. However, estimating future groundwater dynamics is challenging due to the wide range of spatiotemporal scales in hydrological processes and uncertainty in future climate conditions. In this study, we develop a Bayesian model to combine small-scale historical hydrological data with large-scale climate information to estimate groundwater dynamics at a floodplain site in Rifle, Colorado. Although we have only a few years of groundwater elevation measurements, we have 47 years of streamflow data from a gaging station approximately 43 km upstream and long-term climate prediction on the Upper Colorado River Basin. To estimate future daily groundwater dynamics, we first develop a time series model to downscale the monthly streamflow derived from climate information to daily streamflow, and then transform the daily streamflow to groundwater dynamics at the downstream floodplain site. We use Monte Carlo methods to estimate future groundwater dynamics at the site through sampling from the joint posterior probability distribution. The results suggest that although future groundwater levels are expected to be similar to the current levels, the timing of the high groundwater levels is predicted to occur about 1 month earlier. The developed framework is extendable to other sites to estimate future groundwater dynamics given disparate data sets and climate projections. Additionally, the obtained estimates are being used as input to a site-specific watershed reactive transport models to predict how climate-induced changes will influence future biogeochemical cycling relevant to a variety of ecosystem services.

  5. Standing tree assessment for the maintenance of historic wooden buildings: a case study of a World Heritage site in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yin W; Yamamoto H.

    2013-01-01

    Historic wooden buildings are a symbol of China’s “culture of wood” and require extraction of forest resources for their renovation. In the 21st century, natural resources are limited globally, and sustainable solutions are needed. In this study, we established a new method to connect building and forest sites for efficient utilization of limited forest resources for the renovation of historic buildings. We obtained measurements of large wooden components from Shenyang Imperial Palace. We als...

  6. Inventory of Amphibians and Reptiles at Manzanar National Historic Site, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Trevor B.; Nowak, Erika M.; Hillard, Scott

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a baseline inventory for amphibians and reptiles at Manzanar National Historic Site (MANZ), Inyo County, California, in 2002-3. Objectives for this inventory were to: 1) inventory and document the occurrence of reptile and amphibian species at MANZ, with the goal of documenting at least 90% of the species present; 2) provide one voucher specimen for each species identified; 3) provide a GIS-referenced list of sensitive species that are known to be federally- or state-listed, rare, or worthy of special consideration that occur at MANZ; 4) describe park-wide distribution of federally- or state-listed, rare, or special concern species; 5) enter all species data into the National Park Service NPSpecies database; and 6) provide all deliverables as outlined in the Mojave Network Biological Inventory Study Plan. Survey methods included time-area constrained searches, lizard line transects, general surveys, nighttime road driving, and pitfall trapping. We documented the occurrence of ten reptile species (seven lizards and three snakes), but found no amphibians. Based on our findings, as well as literature review and searches for museum specimen records, we estimate inventory completeness for Manzanar to be 50%. Although the distribution and relative abundance of common lizard species is now known well enough to begin development of a monitoring protocol for that group, additional inventory work is needed in order to establish a baseline of species occurrence of amphibians and snakes at Manzanar. Key Words: amphibians, reptiles, Manzanar National Historic Site, Inyo County, California, Owens Valley, Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, inventory.

  7. Landsat evaluation of trumpeter swan historical nesting sites in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Laura Elizabeth

    The trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) has historically nested in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem of Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Declines in habitat quality may be limiting the growth of the Tri-State Flock. The purpose of this study was to map historical nesting areas for trumpeter swans in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and evaluate Landsat images for changes to habitat. Historical nesting sites were evaluated through image classification and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and compared to field conditions. Swan nesting records were analyzed in comparison to drought index and human visitation rates to determine if these factors may contribute to the decline of trumpeter swans nesting in YNP. Vegetation type and water quality were evaluated at 36 wetlands identified as historical nesting locations. Potamogetonaceae was the largest family represented in plant samples and had the highest frequency of occurrence in samples. There was no significant difference in whether swans were present or absent in wetlands with regards to water quality parameters tested or physical parameters identified. There was an association between certain drought index values and the number of cygnets fledged and the number of territories occupied by swan pairs. I was unsuccessful in using image classification to define pixel characteristics common among historical nesting territories of swans in YNP based on 5 Landsat images from 1975, 1979, 1990, 1999, and 2005. I was also unable to distinguish aquatic plant species composition, emergent and submergent plants, open water versus aquatic vegetation, wetland classification, or swan preference using image classification. No relationship was found in a regression model of NDVI values and swan pair occupancy or number of swans fledged, with the exception of a weak, positive relationship between pair occupancy and positive NDVI values, and a strong, positive relationship between swan fledge rates and positive NDVI values

  8. Decommissioning an Active Historical Reactor Facility at the Savannah River Site - 13453

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is an 802 square-kilometer United States Department of Energy (US DOE) nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina, where Management and Operations are performed by Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS). In 2004, DOE recognized SRS as structure within the Cold War Historic District of national, state and local significance composed of the first generation of facilities constructed and operated from 1950 through 1989 to produce plutonium and tritium for our nation's defense. DOE agreed to manage the SRS 105-C Reactor Facility as a potentially historic property due to its significance in supporting the U.S. Cold War Mission and for potential for future interpretation. This reactor has five primary areas within it, including a Disassembly Basin (DB) that received irradiated materials from the reactor, cooled them and prepared the components for loading and transport to a Separation Canyon for processing. The 6,317 square meter area was divided into numerous work/storage areas. The walls between the individual basin compartments have narrow vertical openings called 'slots' that permit the transfer of material from one section to another. Data indicated there was over 830 curies of radioactivity associated with the basin sediments and approximately 9.1 M liters of contaminated water, not including a large quantity of activated reactor equipment, scrap metal, and debris on the basin floor. The need for an action was identified in 2010 to reduce risks to personnel in the facility and to eliminate the possible release of contaminants into the environment. The release of DB water could potentially migrate to the aquifer and contaminate groundwater. DOE, its regulators [U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)-Region 4 and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC)] and the SC Historical Preservation Office (SHPO) agreed/concurred to perform a non-time critical removal

  9. Heavy metal migration in soils and rocks at historical smelting sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskall, J; Whitehead, K; Thornton, I

    1995-09-01

    The vertical migration of metals through soils and rocks was investigated at five historical lead smelting sites ranging in age between 220 and 1900 years. Core samples were taken through metal-contaminated soils and the underlying strata. Concentration profiles of lead and zinc are presented from which values for the distances and rates of migration have been derived. Slag-rich soil horizons contain highly elevated metal concentrations and some contamination of underlying strata has occurred at all sites. However, the amounts of lead and zinc that have migrated from soils and been retained at greater depths are comparatively low. This low metal mobility in contaminated soils is partly attributed to the elevation of soil pH by the presence of calcium and carbonate originating from slag wastes and perhaps gangue minerals. Distances and rates of vertical migration were higher at those sites with soils underlain by sandstone than at those with soils underlain by clay. For sites with the same parent material, metal mobility appears to be increased at lower soil pH. The mean migration rates for lead and zinc reach maxima of 0.75 and 0.46 cm yr(-1) respectively in sandstone at Bole A where the elements have moved mean distances of 4.3 and 2.6 m respectively. There is some evidence that metal transport in the sandstone underlying Bole A and Cupola B occurs preferentially along rock fractures. The migration of lead and zinc is attenuated by subsurface clays leading to relatively low mean migration rates which range from 0.03 to 0.31 cm yr(-1) with many values typical of migration solely by diffusion. However, enhanced metal migration in clays at Cupola A suggest a preferential transport mechanism possibly in cracks or biopores. PMID:24194183

  10. 75 FR 63851 - Draft General Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement, Hampton National Historic Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... 21204; Baltimore County Tourism Office and Towson Chamber of Commerce, 44 West Chesapeake Avenue, Towson.... Historic structures and cultural landscapes would be rehabilitated, to the greatest extent possible, to... century through today, to rehabilitate select historic structures and cultural landscapes...

  11. Electrokinetic-Fenton technology for the remediation of hydrocarbons historically polluted sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, Ciprian; Popescu, Marius; Rosales, Emilio; Bocos, Elvira; Pazos, Marta; Lazar, Gabriel; Sanromán, M Angeles

    2016-08-01

    The feasibility of the electrokinetic-Fenton technology coupled with surfactants in the treatment of real historically hydrocarbons polluted soils has been studied. The characterisation of these soils from Spain and Romania was performed and identified as diesel and diesel-motor oil spillages, respectively. Moreover, the ageing of the spillages produced by the soil contamination was estimated showing the historical pollution of the sites (around 11 and 20 years for Romanian and Spanish soils, respectively). An ex-situ electrochemical treatment was performed to evaluate the adequacy of surfactants for the degradation of the hydrocarbons present in the soils. It was found an enhancement in the solubilisation and removal of TPHs with percentages increasing from 25.7 to 81.8% by the presence of Tween 80 for Spanish soil and from 15.1% to 71.6% for Triton X100 in Romanian soil. Therefore, the viability of coupling enhanced electrokinetic and Fenton remediation was evaluated through a simulated in-situ treatment at laboratory scale. The results demonstrated that the addition of the selected surfactants improved the solubilisation of the hydrocarbons and influenced the electroosmotic flow with a slight decrease. The efficiency of the treatment increased for both considered soil samples and a significant degradation level of the hydrocarbons compounds was observed. Buffering of pH coupled with the addition of a complexing agent showed to be important in the treatment process, facilitating the conditions for the degradation reactions that take place into the soil matrix. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the selected techniques for remediation of the investigated soils. PMID:27183337

  12. Siting landfills and incinerators in areas of historic unpopularity: surveying the views of the next generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo, Giovanni De; Williams, Ian D

    2013-12-01

    The Campania Region in Southern Italy has suffered many problems with municipal solid waste management since the mid-1990s, leading to significant public disturbances and subsequent media coverage. This paper reports on the current views and knowledge of young people (university students) in this region about waste management operations and facilities, specifically the siting of landfills and incinerators. By means of a structured questionnaire, opinion and knowledge were systematically examined by degree type and course year. The study took place in 2011 at the University of Salerno campus. A sample of 900 students, comprising 100 students for each of the nine considered faculties, and 20 students for every academic course year, was randomly selected. Only about a quarter of respondents were not opposed to the siting of a landfill or an incinerator in their city. This clearly highlights that historic opposition to the construction of waste facilities is difficult to overcome and that distrust for previous poor management or indiscretions is long-lived and transcends generations. Students from technical faculties expressed the most reasonable opinion; opinion and knowledge were statistically related (Chi-square test, p<0.05) to the attended faculty, and the knowledge grew linearly with progression through the university. This suggests that awareness of waste management practices develops with experience and understanding of environmental issues. There is general acceptance that many stakeholders - technicians, politicians and citizens - all have to be part of the decision process when siting a new waste management facility. The opinions of the young respondents were significantly influenced by their level of environmental knowledge. PMID:24054780

  13. Antimony distribution and environmental mobility at an historic antimony smelter site, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A historic antimony smelter site at Endeavour Inlet, New Zealand has smelter residues with up to 17 wt.% antimony. Residues include coarse tailings (cm scale particles, poorly sorted), sand tailings (well sorted) and smelter slag (blocks up to 30 cm across). All of this material has oxidised to some degree over the ca. 100 years since the site was abandoned. Oxidation has resulted in acidification of the residues down to pH 2-5. Smelter slag contains pyrrhotite (FeS) and metallic antimony, and oxidation is restricted to surfaces only. The coarse tailings are the most oxidised, and few sulfide grains persist. Unoxidised sand tailings contain 10-20 vol.% stibnite (Sb2S3) containing up to 5% As, with subordinate arsenopyrite (FeAsS), and minor pyrite (FeS2). The sand tailings are variably oxidised on a scale of 2-10 cm, but original depositional layering is preserved during oxidation and formation of senarmontite (Sb2O3). Oxidation of sand tailings has resulted in localised mobility of both Sb and As on the cm scale, resulting in redistribution of these metalloids with iron oxyhydroxide around sand grain boundaries. Experiments demonstrate that Sb mobility decreases with time on a scale of days. Attenuation of both As and Sb occurs due to adsorption on to iron oxyhydroxides which are formed during oxidation of the smelter residues. There is no detectable loss of Sb or As from the smelter site into the adjacent river, <50 m away, which has elevated Sb (ca. 20 μg/l) and As (ca. 7 μg /l) from mineralised rocks upstream. Despite the high concentrations of Sb and As in the smelter residues, these metalloids are not being released into the environment. - High levels of antimony in primitive smelter soils remain largely immobile on the metre scale

  14. Antimony distribution and environmental mobility at an historic antimony smelter site, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, N J; Craw, D; Hunter, K

    2004-05-01

    A historic antimony smelter site at Endeavour Inlet, New Zealand has smelter residues with up to 17 wt.% antimony. Residues include coarse tailings (cm scale particles, poorly sorted), sand tailings (well sorted) and smelter slag (blocks up to 30 cm across). All of this material has oxidised to some degree over the ca. 100 years since the site was abandoned. Oxidation has resulted in acidification of the residues down to pH 2-5. Smelter slag contains pyrrhotite (FeS) and metallic antimony, and oxidation is restricted to surfaces only. The coarse tailings are the most oxidised, and few sulfide grains persist. Unoxidised sand tailings contain 10-20 vol.% stibnite (Sb2S3) containing up to 5% As, with subordinate arsenopyrite (FeAsS), and minor pyrite (FeS2). The sand tailings are variably oxidised on a scale of 2-10 cm, but original depositional layering is preserved during oxidation and formation of senarmontite (Sb2O3). Oxidation of sand tailings has resulted in localised mobility of both Sb and As on the cm scale, resulting in redistribution of these metalloids with iron oxyhydroxide around sand grain boundaries. Experiments demonstrate that Sb mobility decreases with time on a scale of days. Attenuation of both As and Sb occurs due to adsorption on to iron oxyhydroxides which are formed during oxidation of the smelter residues. There is no detectable loss of Sb or As from the smelter site into the adjacent river, <50 m away, which has elevated Sb (ca. 20 microg/l) and As (ca. 7 microg/l) from mineralised rocks upstream. Despite the high concentrations of Sb and As in the smelter residues, these metalloids are not being released into the environment. PMID:14987811

  15. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 464: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the site characterization of two historical underground storage tank petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified by Corrective Action Site (CAS) Numbers 02-02-03 and 09-02-01. The sites are located at the Nevada Test Site in Areas 2 and 9 and are concrete bunker complexes (Bunker 2-300, and 9-300). Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of petroleum hydrocarbons at release site 2-300-1 (CAS 02-02-03). Based on site observations, the low hydrocarbon concentrations detected, and the delineation of the vertical and lateral extent of subsurface hydrocarbons, an ''A through K'' evaluation was completed to support a request for an Administrative Closure of the site

  16. Archaeology, historical site risk assessment and monitoring by UAV: approaches and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecci, Antonio; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    multiple overlapping images. The usefulness of UAV-based investigations has been given by its integrability with other methods of remote sensing including geophysics, optical and SAR satellite remote sensing. The presentation deals with the methodological approaches and the results in three historical sites for different applications such as: 1) archaeological site discovery, 2) the study and observation of archaeological looting and 3) the 3d reconstruction of building and sites. In the case 1) UAV has been used for the creation of orthophotos and digital elevantion models (DEMs) as well as the identification of archaeological marks and microrelief, as proxy indicators of the presence of archaeological buried remains. The obtained information have been compared and integrated with those provided by georadar and geomagnetic prospections. The investigated site is a medieval settlement, including a benedectine monastery, dated to 12-15th century. It is San Pietro a Cellaria, located in the territory of Calvello, in Basilicata (Southern Italy). The multisensor integrated approach allowed to identify several features referable to buried structures of the monastery (Leucci et al. 2015; Roubis et al. 2015). In the case 2) UAVs have been used for the identification and analysis of traces of grave robbers, in the territory of Anzi (Basilicata). Since the end of the 18th century to the first half of the 20th century, hundreds of tombs of the Archaic, Lucan and Roman age have been destroyed and stolen. The case 3) is related to the ceremonial centre of Pachacamac in Peru, which was investigated for several years by the international mission ITACA (Italian scientific mission for heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics) of IBAM/IMAA CNR of Potenza (Italy) (Lasaponara et al. 2016b). For more than 2,000 years, Pachacamac was one of the main centers of religious cult keeping this role unchanged in different historical periods and for different cultures such as Chavin, Lima, Huari

  17. Appetite for danger - genetic potential for PCP degradation at historically polluted groundwater sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Anu; Yläranta, Kati; Tiirola, Marja; Romantschuk, Martin; Sinkkonen, Aki

    2016-04-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a priority pollutant of exclusively anthropogenic origin. Formerly used commonly in timber preservatives, PCP has persisted at polluted groundwater sites decades after its use was banned, typically as the last detectable contaminant component. Notorious for its toxicity and poor biodegradability, little is known about the genetic potential and pathways for PCP degradation in the environment. The only fully characterized mineralization pathway is initiated by the enzyme coded by chromosomal pcpB gene, previously detected in PCP degrading Sphingomonadaceae bacteria isolated at two continents. However, there is no information about the abundance or diversity of any PCP degradation related gene at contaminated sites in situ. Our aim was to assess whether pcpB and/or sphingomonads seem to play a role in in situ degradation of PCP, by studying whether pcpB i) is detectable at chlorophenol-polluted groundwater sediments, ii) responds to PCP concentration changes, and iii) shows correlation with the abundance of sphingomonads or a specific sphingomonad genus. Novel protocols for quantification and profiling of pcpB, with primers covering full known diversity, were developed and tested at two sites in Finland with well-documented long-term chlorophenol contamination history: Kärkölä and Pursiala. High throughput sequencing complemented characterization of the total bacterial community and pcpB gene pool. The relative abundance of pcpB in bacterial community was associated with spatial variability in groundwater PCP concentration in Pursiala, and with temporal differences in groundwater PCP concentration in Kärkölä. T-RFLP fingerprinting results indicated and Ion Torrent PGM and Sanger sequencing confirmed the presence of a single phylotype of pcpB at both geographically distant, historically contaminated sites, matching the one detected previously in Canadian bioreactor clones and Kärkölä bioreactor isolates. Sphingomonad abundance

  18. The role of historical operations information for supporting remedial investigation work at the former Harshaw Chemical Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early stages of hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste (HTRW) site investigations, basic record searches are performed to help direct the agencies investigating contaminated sites to areas of concern and to identify contaminants of interest (COI). Plans developed on the basis of this preliminary research alone are often incomplete and result in unexpected discoveries either while in the field investigating the site or after the reports have been written. Many of the sites investigated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action program (FUSRAP) have complex histories that are slowly uncovered over the life of the project. Because of programmatic constraints, nuances of these sites are often discovered late in their programs and result in increased expenditures in order to fully characterize the site, perform a robust feasibility study, and recommend appropriate alternatives for remediation. By identifying resources for public records, classified records, historic aerial photographs, and other sources of site-specific historical information, a process can be established to optimize the collection of information and to develop efficient and complete project plans. In many cases, interviews with past site employees are very useful tools. In combining what is found in the records, observed on historic aerial photographs, and heard from former employees and family members, teams investigating these sites can begin to compile sound and more complete conceptual site models (CSMs). The former Harshaw Chemical Site (HCS) illustrates this discovery process. HCS is part of FUSRAP. Preliminary investigations by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in the 1970s provided an initial CSM of activities that had taken place that may have resulted in contamination. The remedial investigation (RI) conducted by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) was designed around this CSM. The RI work, however, identified a number of site conditions that were unexpected, including new

  19. Field Plot Points for Washita Battlefield National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2005 vegetation data points (spatial database) created from the sample vegetation plots collected at Washita Battlefield National Historic...

  20. Field Plot Points for Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile contains vegetation classification sampling points used to develop the alliance-level vegetation map of Hopewell Furnace National Historic Park. The...

  1. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 452: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the site characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 25-3101-1, 25-3102-3, and 25-3152-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 25 at Buildings 3101, 3102, and 3152. The characterization was completed to support administrative closure of the sites. Characterization was completed using drilling equipment to delineate the extent of hydrocarbon impact. Clean closure had been previously attempted at each of these sites using backhoe equipment without success due to adjacent structures, buried utilities, or depth restrictions associated with each site. Although the depth and extent of hydrocarbon impact was determined to be too extensive for clean closure, it was verified through drilling that the sites should be closed through an administrative closure. The Nevada Administrative Code ''A Through K'' evaluation completed for each site supports that there is no significant risk to human health or the environment from the impacted soils remaining at each site

  2. Commemoration, Race, and World War II: History and Civil Rights at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site

    OpenAIRE

    Renée Ater

    2015-01-01

    History and civil rights are intertwined at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site at Moton Field in Tuskegee, Alabama. Moton Field was a training flight facility for African American pilot candidates in the U.S. Army Air Corps during World War II, operating from 1941–45. Through the extant buildings and interpretive exhibits, the National Park Service commemorates the Tuskegee Airmen’s contributions to World War II, recognizing the first African American military aviators and their strug...

  3. Archaeology, historical site risk assessment and monitoring by UAV: approaches and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecci, Antonio; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    multiple overlapping images. The usefulness of UAV-based investigations has been given by its integrability with other methods of remote sensing including geophysics, optical and SAR satellite remote sensing. The presentation deals with the methodological approaches and the results in three historical sites for different applications such as: 1) archaeological site discovery, 2) the study and observation of archaeological looting and 3) the 3d reconstruction of building and sites. In the case 1) UAV has been used for the creation of orthophotos and digital elevantion models (DEMs) as well as the identification of archaeological marks and microrelief, as proxy indicators of the presence of archaeological buried remains. The obtained information have been compared and integrated with those provided by georadar and geomagnetic prospections. The investigated site is a medieval settlement, including a benedectine monastery, dated to 12-15th century. It is San Pietro a Cellaria, located in the territory of Calvello, in Basilicata (Southern Italy). The multisensor integrated approach allowed to identify several features referable to buried structures of the monastery (Leucci et al. 2015; Roubis et al. 2015). In the case 2) UAVs have been used for the identification and analysis of traces of grave robbers, in the territory of Anzi (Basilicata). Since the end of the 18th century to the first half of the 20th century, hundreds of tombs of the Archaic, Lucan and Roman age have been destroyed and stolen. The case 3) is related to the ceremonial centre of Pachacamac in Peru, which was investigated for several years by the international mission ITACA (Italian scientific mission for heritage Conservation and Archaeogeophysics) of IBAM/IMAA CNR of Potenza (Italy) (Lasaponara et al. 2016b). For more than 2,000 years, Pachacamac was one of the main centers of religious cult keeping this role unchanged in different historical periods and for different cultures such as Chavin, Lima, Huari

  4. Historical seismicity in France. Its role in the assessment of seismic risk on French nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1975 in order to be in conformity with the requirements of the French nuclear program, a review of historical seismicity was undertaken in France. The assessment of seismic hazard for the safety of nuclear plants is in fact based upon a seismotectonic approach which needs to take into account the seismic activity over as long a period of time as possible. The method adopted for reviewing historical earthquakes entails a systematic consultation of the original sources and a critical analysis there of in the light of the historical, geographical and political contexts of the time. The same standards apply where the acquisition of new elements of information is involved. Each item of information is assigned a degree of reliability, then compiled in a computer file, up-dated annually; this file currently contains more than 4.500 events covering a period of time of about a millenary

  5. (Re)Construction Site of German Historical National Accounts : German Agricultural Employment, Production and Labour Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fremdling, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on agricultural performance in 1936 as part of a comprehensive project to (re)construct a new and reliable benchmark for revising German historical national accounts. The new estimates presented here confirm the poor agricultural performance of Germany compared with other develope

  6. On Site Investigation and Health Monitoring of a Historic Tower in Mantua, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Saisi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the strategy adopted to assess the structural condition of the tallest historic tower in Mantua (Italy after the Italian seismic sequence of May–June 2012 and exemplifies the application of health monitoring using (automated operational modal analysis. The post-earthquake survey (including extensive visual inspection, historic and documentary research, non-destructive (ND material testing, and ambient vibration tests highlighted the poor state of preservation of the upper part of the tower; subsequently, a dynamic monitoring system (consisting of a few accelerometers and one temperature sensor was installed in the building to address the preservation of the historic structure, and automated modal identification was continuously performed. Despite the low levels of vibration that existed in operational conditions, the analysis of data collected over a period of about 15 months allowed to assess and model the effects of changing temperature on modal frequencies and to detect the occurrence of abnormal behavior and damage under the changing environment. The monitoring results demonstrate the potential key role of vibration-based structural health monitoring, implemented through low-cost hardware solutions and appropriate software tools, in the preventive conservation and the condition-based maintenance of historic towers.

  7. Commemoration, Race, and World War II: History and Civil Rights at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Ater

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available History and civil rights are intertwined at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site at Moton Field in Tuskegee, Alabama. Moton Field was a training flight facility for African American pilot candidates in the U.S. Army Air Corps during World War II, operating from 1941–45. Through the extant buildings and interpretive exhibits, the National Park Service commemorates the Tuskegee Airmen’s contributions to World War II, recognizing the first African American military aviators and their struggle for civil rights during the 1940s. This essay examines the way in which race, personal narratives, historical objects, and sensorial experience (sight, sound, touch, and smell are used at the historic site to suggest the significance of the Tuskegee Airmen. Despite the segregation and racism that they experienced in the U.S. military, the African American pilots and the men and women who worked alongside them believed staunchly in the idea of service to the nation as a means of participating in democracy and gaining full citizenship.

  8. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 12-B-1, 12-B-3, and 12-COMM-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 12 at B Tunnel and a former Communications/Power Maintenance Shop. Release Site 12-B-1 was not able to be clean-closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. However, hydrocarbon impacted soils were excavated down to bedrock. Release Site 12-B-3 was evaluated to verify that the identified release was not associated with the UST removed from the site. Analytical results support the assumption that wood or possibly a roof sealant used as part of the bunker construction could have been the source of hydrocarbons detected. Release Site 12-COMM-1 was not clean closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. The vertical extent of impacted soils was determined not to extend below a depth of 2.7 m (9 ft) below ground surface (bgs). The lateral extent could not be defined due to the presence of a discontinuous lens of hydrocarbon-impacted soil

  9. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 454: Historical underground storage tank release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report addresses the characterization of three historical underground storage tank (UST) petroleum hydrocarbon release sites identified as 12-B-1, 12-B-3, and 12-COMM-1. The sites are located within the Nevada Test Site in Area 12 at B Tunnel and a former Communications/Power Maintenance Shop. Release Site 12-B-1 was not able to be clean-closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. However, hydrocarbon impacted soils were excavated down to bedrock. Release Site 12-B-3 was evaluated to verify that the identified release was not associated with the UST removed from the site. Analytical results support the assumption that wood or possibly a roof sealant used as part of the bunker construction could have been the source of hydrocarbons detected. Release Site 12-COMM-1 was not clean closed as proposed in the SAFER Plan. The vertical extent of impacted soils was determined not to extend below a depth of 2.7 m (9 ft) below ground surface (bgs). The lateral extent could not be defined due to the presence of a discontinuous lens of hydrocarbon-impacted soil.

  10. A Historical Evaluation of the U16a Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, robert C [DRI; Drollinger, Harold [DRI; Bullard, Thomas F [DRI; Ashbaugh, Laurence J [DRI; Griffin, Wayne R [DRI

    2013-06-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U16a Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U16a Tunnel was used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Shoshone Mountain in Area 16 of the Nevada National Security Site. Six nuclear tests were conducted in the U16a Tunnel from 1962 to 1971. These tests are Marshmallow, Gum Drop, Double Play, Ming Vase, Diamond Dust, and Diamond Mine. The U.S. Department of Defense Threat Reduction Agency, with participation from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Las Alamos National Laboratory, sponsored the tests. Fifteen high explosives tests were also conducted at the tunnel. Two were calibration tests during nuclear testing and the remaining were U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency tunnel defeat tests. The U16a Tunnel complex is on the top and slopes of Shoshone Mountain, encompassing an area of approximately 16.7 hectares (41.1 acres). Major modifications to the landscape are a result of three principal activities, road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, and site preparation for activities related to testing. Forty-seven cultural features were recorded at the portal and on the slopes of Shoshone Mountain. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general every day operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, equipment pads, and rail lines. Features on the slopes above the tunnel relate to tunnel ventilation, borehole drilling, and data recording. Feature types include soil-covered bunkers, concrete foundations, instrument cable holes, drill holes, and ventilation shafts. The U16

  11. A Historical Evaluation of the U16a Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Roberrt C [DRI; Drollinger, Harold [DRI

    2013-06-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U16a Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U16a Tunnel was used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Shoshone Mountain in Area 16 of the Nevada National Security Site. Six nuclear tests were conducted in the U16a Tunnel from 1962 to 1971. These tests are Marshmallow, Gum Drop, Double Play, Ming Vase, Diamond Dust, and Diamond Mine. The U.S. Department of Defense Threat Reduction Agency, with participation from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Las Alamos National Laboratory, sponsored the tests. Fifteen high explosives tests were also conducted at the tunnel. Two were calibration tests during nuclear testing and the remaining were U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency tunnel defeat tests. The U16a Tunnel complex is on the top and slopes of Shoshone Mountain, encompassing an area of approximately 16.7 hectares (41.1 acres). Major modifications to the landscape are a result of three principal activities, road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, and site preparation for activities related to testing. Forty-seven cultural features were recorded at the portal and on the slopes of Shoshone Mountain. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general every day operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, equipment pads, and rail lines. Features on the slopes above the tunnel relate to tunnel ventilation, borehole drilling, and data recording. Feature types include soil-covered bunkers, concrete foundations, instrument cable holes, drill holes, and ventilation shafts. The U16

  12. PUHE_BenthicHabitats - Benthic habitat of the coral reef ecosystem off the coast of Puukohola Heiau (PUHE) National Historic Site on the Kona Coast of Hawaii.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A benthic habitat polygon coverage has been created of the coral reef ecosystem off the coast of Pu'ukohola Heiau (PUHE) National Historic Site on the Kona Coast of...

  13. Off-site medical activities, Nevada Test Site and the medical liaison officer network: a historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''off-site'' was originally defined as ''that area surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for a radius of about 300 miles.'' Prior to 1954, the off-site radiological safety activities were conducted by the Atomic Energy Commission. In 1954, the Public Health Service was given the responsibility for off-site monitoring, and, in addition, a physician was also on temporary assignment. This physician, in addition to functioning as a monitor, also functioned part time as a physical liaison in regard to possible or alleged radiation injury. Medical concern was based upon two crude guidelines: possible radiation ''overexposure'' based upon extrapolation from surface and air radiological monitoring; and determination of actual radiation injury based upon signs and symptoms among people alleging radiation injury. The area of concern expanded to 13 areas surrounding the Nevada Test Site, and in 1956, the first Medical Liaison Officer Network (MLON) was initiated. Over the years, MLON increased to a point where there was a representative from every state in the Union; the area of concern expanded to include the entire United States, parts of the South Pacific, Hawaii, and Alaska; and sophisticated methods of evaluation were added--urine sampling, thyroid scanning, blood counts, and whole-body counting. Epidemiological studies were initiated on body burdens of radionuclides and certain disease clusters

  14. Assessing the impact of historical coastal landfill sites on sensitive ecosystems: A case study from Dorset, Southern England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njue, C. N.; Cundy, A. B.; Smith, M.; Green, I. D.; Tomlinson, N.

    2012-12-01

    Uncontrolled landfill disposal can cause the release of significant contamination. In Southern England and in other parts of the UK, historical landfills are located along many coastal and estuarine marshes and mudflats. At these sites waste, often significantly contaminated with heavy metals and other contaminants, was dumped with little engineering control and without regard to the surrounding environment. The aim of this study is to investigate the degree to which heavy metals from these historical sites may have contaminated adjacent marshes and mudflats, using the Lodmoor marsh, Dorset, UK as a test site. Surface and sediment core samples were collected from brackish marsh and mudflat areas around the former landfill at Lodmoor, which was operational between 1949 and 1990. Sediment samples were investigated for metallic pollutants, grain size, and mineralogy, and core samples dated via 137Cs and 210Pb. To examine the transfer of heavy metals through the food chain, Phragmites australis leaves were analysed for metallic pollutants. Geochemical data revealed that sediments from the Lodmoor marsh are probably contaminated with Pb. 137Cs dating indicates that concentration maxima for heavy metals correlate to the 1950s and 1960s when landfill activities commenced in Lodmoor. Shallow electromagnetic surveys indicate potential continued leaching from the historic landfill complex. This study indicates the potential for possible landfill-derived contaminants to persist in coastal systems for decades after landfill closure. Over the longer term, it is possible that salinisation and enhanced coastal erosion may cause significant metal release from the landfills and their surrounding sedimentary systems into adjacent ecosystems.

  15. Use of Historical Pump-and-Treat Data to Enhance Site Characterization and Remediation Performance Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Brusseau, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater withdrawal and contaminant concentration data are routinely collected for pump-and-treat operations conducted at hazardous waste sites. These data sets can be mined to produce a wealth of information to support enhanced site characterization, optimization of remedial system operations, and improved decision making regarding long-term site management and closure. Methods that may be used to analyze and interpret pump-and-treat data to produce such assessments are presented, along w...

  16. Use of Historical Pump-and-Treat Data to Enhance Site Characterization and Remediation Performance Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, Mark L

    2013-10-01

    Groundwater withdrawal and contaminant concentration data are routinely collected for pump-and-treat operations conducted at hazardous waste sites. These data sets can be mined to produce a wealth of information to support enhanced site characterization, optimization of remedial system operations, and improved decision making regarding long-term site management and closure. Methods that may be used to analyze and interpret pump-and-treat data to produce such assessments are presented, along with a brief illustration of their application to a site. The results presented herein illustrate that comprehensive analysis of pump-and-treat data is a powerful, cost-effective method for providing higher-resolution, value-added characterization of contaminated sites. PMID:24587562

  17. Analysis of abandoned potential CERCLA hazardous waste sites using historic aerial photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerial photographs of varying scale from federal agencies and commercial aerial service companies covering the years 1938, 1942, 1948, 1952, 1957, 1960, 1970, 1971, 1977, and 1986 of the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, (Gunpowder Neck 7.5 Minute United States Geological Survey Topographic Quadrangle Map) were evaluated for identification of potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) hazardous waste sites and land use changes for approximately 1500 acres (610 hectares) used in the testing of military-related chemicals and munitions on Carroll Island and Graces Quarters. Detailed testing records exist only for July 1964 to December 1971, thus making the interpretation of aerial photographs a valuable tool in reconstructing past activities from the late 1930s to June 1964 and guiding future sampling locations in the multiphased CERCLA process. Many potential test sites were activated by either clear-cutting tracks of vegetation or using existing cleared land until final abandonment of the site(s) circa 1974-1975. Ground inspection of open-quotes land scarringclose quotes at either known or suspected sites was essential for verifying the existence, location, and subsequent sampling of potential CERCLA sites. Photomorphic mapping techniques are described to delineate and compare different land use changes in past chemical and munitions handling and testing. Delineation of features was based on photographic characteristics of tone, pattern, texture, shape, shadow, size, and proximity to known features. 7 refs., 9 figs

  18. 古遗址目标提取方法研究%The extraction methods of the historical site targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳琳; 王旭红; 李春锋; 杨旭艳

    2012-01-01

    Aim To extract the physical property of the remains effectively from the background image according to the remote sensing information acquired. Methods Based on analyzing the spectral features of the site on image in the research area, hyperspectral analysis technology was used to get the target spectrum curve, eventually, remain targets were isolated from background features by constrained energy minimization method (CEM). Results CEM based on the physical model can be valid for spectrum extraction, historical site target identification and detection when historical site, whose spectral features are discernible from their background, can cause significant spectrum abnomal. Conclusion CEM algorithm combined with the hyperspectra analysis is an effective method to extract information of historical sites, and the effect of detection is relevant to the MNF dimensions, choosing the bands combination, whose characteristic value is larger, to participate the operation of CEM, can effectively avoid noise to the target detection of interference and improve the detection.%目的 研究根据获取的遥感信息从背景“影”像中有效识别和提取文物遗存的方法.方法 分析研究区遗址影像波谱特征基础上,运用高光谱分析技术获得已知遗址目标波谱曲线,最终利用约束能量最小化(CEM)算法,从背景地物中分离遗址目标.结果 当遗址与周围背景物性差异明显,引起明显的光谱异常时,CEM算法能够基于真实的物理模型进行波谱提取、识别和探测古遗址目标.结论 CEM算法提取古遗址信息是可行性强的一种方法,且识别效果与MNF变换后图像的维数有关,选择特征值较大的波段组合参与CEM运算,能有效地避免噪声对目标探测的干扰,使得探测率提高.

  19. POINT CLOUD MAPPING METHODS FOR DOCUMENTING CULTURAL LANDSCAPE FEATURES AT THE WORMSLOE STATE HISTORIC SITE, SAVANNAH, GEORGIA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Jordana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Documentation of the three-dimensional (3D cultural landscape has traditionally been conducted during site visits using conventional photographs, standard ground surveys and manual measurements. In recent years, there have been rapid developments in technologies that produce highly accurate 3D point clouds, including aerial LiDAR, terrestrial laser scanning, and photogrammetric data reduction from unmanned aerial systems (UAS images and hand held photographs using Structure from Motion (SfM methods. These 3D point clouds can be precisely scaled and used to conduct measurements of features even after the site visit has ended. As a consequence, it is becoming increasingly possible to collect non-destructive data for a wide variety of cultural site features, including landscapes, buildings, vegetation, artefacts and gardens. As part of a project for the U.S. National Park Service, a variety of data sets have been collected for the Wormsloe State Historic Site, near Savannah, Georgia, USA. In an effort to demonstrate the utility and versatility of these methods at a range of scales, comparisons of the features mapped with different techniques will be discussed with regards to accuracy, data set completeness, cost and ease-of-use.

  20. Point Cloud Mapping Methods for Documenting Cultural Landscape Features at the Wormsloe State Historic Site, Savannah, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordana, T. R.; Goetcheus, C. L.; Madden, M.

    2016-06-01

    Documentation of the three-dimensional (3D) cultural landscape has traditionally been conducted during site visits using conventional photographs, standard ground surveys and manual measurements. In recent years, there have been rapid developments in technologies that produce highly accurate 3D point clouds, including aerial LiDAR, terrestrial laser scanning, and photogrammetric data reduction from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) images and hand held photographs using Structure from Motion (SfM) methods. These 3D point clouds can be precisely scaled and used to conduct measurements of features even after the site visit has ended. As a consequence, it is becoming increasingly possible to collect non-destructive data for a wide variety of cultural site features, including landscapes, buildings, vegetation, artefacts and gardens. As part of a project for the U.S. National Park Service, a variety of data sets have been collected for the Wormsloe State Historic Site, near Savannah, Georgia, USA. In an effort to demonstrate the utility and versatility of these methods at a range of scales, comparisons of the features mapped with different techniques will be discussed with regards to accuracy, data set completeness, cost and ease-of-use.

  1. 77 FR 132 - General Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement for Lincoln Home National Historic Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... General Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement (GMP/EIS) will remain available for public... Site. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: We, the National Park Service, prepared a draft GMP/EIS for the park... summaries of the draft GMP/EIS. In addition to the distribution, the draft GMP/EIS was also made...

  2. Estimation of plutonium in Hanford Site waste tanks based on historical records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An estimation of plutonium in the Hanford Site waste storage tanks is important to nuclear criticality concerns. A reasonable approach for estimating the plutonium in the tanks can be established by considering the recovery efficiency of the chemical separation plants on the plutonium produced in the Hanford reactors. The waste loss from the separation processes represents the bulk of the plutonium in the waste tanks. The lesser contributor of plutonium to the waste tanks was the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). When the PFP waste is added to the plutonium waste from separations, the result is the total estimated amount of plutonium discharged to the waste tanks at the Hanford Site. This estimate is for criticality concerns, and therefore is based on conservative assumptions (giving higher plutonium values). The estimate has been calculated to be ∼981 kg of plutonium in the single- and double-shell high-level waste tanks

  3. Soil Contamination at the Historical Zn-Pb Ore Mining Sites (Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander-Kwaterczak U.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of metals analyses in soil profiles sampled at two 18/19th century mine shafts of the Trzebinia lead-zinc ore mining region in southern Poland are presented. Waste dump sites located at these shafts exhibit initial pedogenesis with clear differences in zinc and cadmium content between soil horizons which changes in depth across each of the investigated dump. The highest metal concentrations occur in horizons containing excavated ore-bearing Triassic dolomites, soils buried beneath are less polluted whereas, initial A0 soil horizons are virtually unpolluted. Relatively low downward metal migration in profiles to the horizons underlying the dumps is related to alkaline pH of soils. Migration appear to be important in the more acidic soils of outer zones in the two dump sites overgrown either with coniferous and deciduous trees.

  4. Historical records of radioactive contamination in biota at the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.R.; Markes, B.M.; Schmidt, J.W.; Shah, A.N.; Weiss, S.G.; Wilson, K.J.

    1994-06-01

    This document summarizes and reports a literature search of 85 environmental monitoring records of wildlife and vegetation (biota) at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site since 1965. These records were published annually and provided the majority of the data in this report. Additional sources of data have included records of specific facilities, such as site characterization documents and preoperational environmental surveys. These documents have been released for public use. Records before 1965 were still being researched and therefore not included in this document. The intent of compiling these data into a single source was to identify past and current concentrations of radionuclides in biota at specific facilities and waste sites within each operable unit that may be used to help guide cleanup activities in the 200 Areas to be completed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA). The 200 East Area and 200 West Area were the locations of the Hanford Site separation and process facilities and waste management units. For the purposes of this document, a sample was of interest if a Geiger-Mueller counter equipped with a pancake probe-indicated beta/gamma emitting radioactivity above 200 counts per minute (cpm), or if laboratory radioanalyses indicated a radionuclide concentration equaled or exceeded 10 picocuries per gram (pCi/g). About 4,500 individual cases of monitoring for radionuclide uptake or transport in biota in the 200 Areas environs were included in the documents reviewed. About 1,900 (i.e., 42%) of these biota had radionuclide concentrations in excess of 10 pCi/g. These radionuclide transport or uptake cases were distributed among 45 species of wildlife (primarily small mammals and feces) and 30 species of vegetation. The wildlife species most commonly associated with radioactive contamination were the house mouse and the deer mouse and of vegetation species, the Russian thistle.

  5. Presentist historical narratives in and about heritage sites in Poland. The case of the Krakow region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guichard-Marneur, Maud Camille

    understandings of the past while at the same time they offer an understanding of how heritage time and space may function in the memory landscape. These analyses reveal how the national, the trauma of World War Two, Polish-Jewish relations and the communist past are being addressed and worked in in the heritage...... landscape and, meanwhile, how existing heritage sites may impact on these very narratives....

  6. Historical records of radioactive contamination in biota at the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes and reports a literature search of 85 environmental monitoring records of wildlife and vegetation (biota) at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site since 1965. These records were published annually and provided the majority of the data in this report. Additional sources of data have included records of specific facilities, such as site characterization documents and preoperational environmental surveys. These documents have been released for public use. Records before 1965 were still being researched and therefore not included in this document. The intent of compiling these data into a single source was to identify past and current concentrations of radionuclides in biota at specific facilities and waste sites within each operable unit that may be used to help guide cleanup activities in the 200 Areas to be completed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA). The 200 East Area and 200 West Area were the locations of the Hanford Site separation and process facilities and waste management units. For the purposes of this document, a sample was of interest if a Geiger-Mueller counter equipped with a pancake probe-indicated beta/gamma emitting radioactivity above 200 counts per minute (cpm), or if laboratory radioanalyses indicated a radionuclide concentration equaled or exceeded 10 picocuries per gram (pCi/g). About 4,500 individual cases of monitoring for radionuclide uptake or transport in biota in the 200 Areas environs were included in the documents reviewed. About 1,900 (i.e., 42%) of these biota had radionuclide concentrations in excess of 10 pCi/g. These radionuclide transport or uptake cases were distributed among 45 species of wildlife (primarily small mammals and feces) and 30 species of vegetation. The wildlife species most commonly associated with radioactive contamination were the house mouse and the deer mouse and of vegetation species, the Russian thistle

  7. Processes of attenuation of dissolved arsenic downstream from historic gold mine sites, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffert, Laura; Craw, Dave

    2008-11-01

    Mine and processing sites in the mesothermal gold deposits of the Reefton gold field, New Zealand, generate extremely high dissolved As concentrations (up to 59 mg/L). Attenuation of these waters takes place by at least one of the three mechanisms: (1) precipitation of the secondary arsenic mineral scorodite, (2) chemisorption onto iron oxyhydroxide (HFO) and (3) dilution with regional catchment water. The presence and effectiveness of these mechanisms vary among the three studied catchments. A strong physiochemical control on arsenic attenuation was identified due to a chemical gradient within the gold field itself and processing methods, which can generate site specific arsenic minerals, such as arsenolite. Precipitation of scorodite only occurs in the presence of dissolving arsenolite, which is a roasting by-product present at two of the studied sites. Abundant HFO is generated in the pyritic mesothermal part of the gold field, and here chemisorption onto HFO is the dominant attenuation process. In the non-pyritic part of the gold field, HFO is mainly produced as a result of ankerite dissolution but only where sufficiently exposed mineralised rock is present. In the absence of significant adsorption sites, dissolved As is attenuated only via less effective dilution and ecosystem guidelines are exceeded over kilometres downstream from the mineralised zone until drainage waters are diluted by regional catchment water. Catchment morphology was identified as a major control on dilution. Despite the presence of strong As point sources upstream, mine-related As contributes <10% to the regional As river load in all three catchments. On a regional scale As mobility across a wide range of pH regimes reveals a strong control of scorodite, which has already been observed locally. PMID:18691740

  8. Historical review of long-term soil sampling for environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil samples have been collected routinely from the environs of the Hanford Site and analyzed since 1971. Correct interpretation of results depends on samples being collected from the same locations, the locations remaining relatively undisturbed, and collection and analytical procedures remaining the same or being equivalent. Historical files, documents, and annual environmental reports were reviewed to evaluate these factors. It was determined that 20 soil sampling locations, 11 onsite and 9 offsite, were established between 1971 and 1977 and represent long-term sampling locations. Sample collection and analytical procedures have remained essentially the same since 1971. The physical ecological attributes of each long-term soil sampling location were evaluated. During the review of historical records, a few results for 1970, 1971, and 1972 were noted as previously unreported in annual or special reports. These results are included in Appendix A. To complete the record, results previously reported in annual environmental reports are given in Appendix B. Global Positioning System (GPS) reading for 20 long-term soil sampling locations are provided in Appendix C

  9. Historical review of long-term soil sampling for environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site and vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1997-08-01

    Soil samples have been collected routinely from the environs of the Hanford Site and analyzed since 1971. Correct interpretation of results depends on samples being collected from the same locations, the locations remaining relatively undisturbed, and collection and analytical procedures remaining the same or being equivalent. Historical files, documents, and annual environmental reports were reviewed to evaluate these factors. It was determined that 20 soil sampling locations, 11 onsite and 9 offsite, were established between 1971 and 1977 and represent long-term sampling locations. Sample collection and analytical procedures have remained essentially the same since 1971. The physical ecological attributes of each long-term soil sampling location were evaluated. During the review of historical records, a few results for 1970, 1971, and 1972 were noted as previously unreported in annual or special reports. These results are included in Appendix A. To complete the record, results previously reported in annual environmental reports are given in Appendix B. Global Positioning System (GPS) reading for 20 long-term soil sampling locations are provided in Appendix C.

  10. Standing tree assessment for the maintenance of historic wooden buildings: a case study of a World Heritage site in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin W

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Historic wooden buildings are a symbol of China’s “culture of wood” and require extraction of forest resources for their renovation. In the 21st century, natural resources are limited globally, and sustainable solutions are needed. In this study, we established a new method to connect building and forest sites for efficient utilization of limited forest resources for the renovation of historic buildings. We obtained measurements of large wooden components from Shenyang Imperial Palace. We also performed morphometric analyses on 47 thinned, old-growth larch trees to determine the relative taper curve, and selected 108 standing trees for simulation of the tree-height curve in the Mt. Changbai area, Jinlin Province, Northeast China. On the basis of forest metrology, we established an upper tree prediction method. By measuring the diameter at breast height (DBH alone, we could compare size information (e.g., diameter, length for standing trees and wooden building components. This method was then applied to estimate the required DBH class of standing trees for the renovation of Shenyang Imperial Palace.

  11. Digitally-Assisted Stone Carving of a Relief Sculpture for the Parliament Buildings National Historic Site of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J.; Fai, S.; Kretz, S.; Ouimet, C.; White, P.

    2015-08-01

    The emerging field of digital fabrication is a process where three-dimensional datasets can be directly transferred to fabrication equipment to create models or even 1:1 building elements. In this paper, we will discuss the results of a collaboration between the Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS), the Dominion Sculptor of Canada, and the Heritage Conservation Directorate (HCD) of Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC), that utilizes digital fabrication technologies in the development of a digitally-assisted stone carving process. The collaboration couples the distinguished skill of the Dominion Sculptor with the latest digital acquisition and digital fabrication technologies for the reconstruction of a deteriorated stone bas-relief on the façade of the East Block building of the Parliament Buildings National Historic Site of Canada. The intention of the research is to establish a workflow of hybrid digital/analogue methodologies from acquisition through rehabilitation and ultimately to the fabrication of stone elements.

  12. An Inventory of Terrestrial Mammals at National Parks in the Northeast Temperate Network and Sagamore Hill National Historic Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, A.T.; O'Connell, A.F., Jr.; Annand, E.M.; Talancy, N.W.; Sauer, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    An inventory of mammals was conducted during 2004 at nine national park sites in the Northeast Temperate Network (NETN): Acadia National Park (NP), Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park (NHP), Minute Man NHP, Morristown NHP, Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Site (NHS), Saint-Gaudens NHS, Saugus Iron Works NHS, Saratoga NHP, and Weir Farm NHS. Sagamore Hill NHS, part of the Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network (NCBN), was also surveyed. Each park except Acadia NP was sampled twice, once in the winter/spring and again in the summer/fall. During the winter/spring visit, indirect measure (IM) sampling arrays were employed at 2 to 16 stations and included sampling by remote cameras, cubby boxes (covered trackplates), and hair traps. IM stations were established and re-used during the summer/fall sampling period. Trapping was conducted at 2 to 12 stations at all parks except Acadia NP during the summer/fall period and consisted of arrays of small-mammal traps, squirrel-sized live traps, and some fox-sized live traps. We used estimation-based procedures and probabilistic sampling techniques to design this inventory. A total of 38 species was detected by IM sampling, trapping, and field observations. Species diversity (number of species) varied among parks, ranging from 8 to 24, with Minute Man NHP having the most species detected. Raccoon (Procyon lotor), Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana), Fisher (Martes pennanti), and Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris) were the most common medium-sized mammals detected in this study and White-footed Mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), Northern Short-tailed Shrew (Blarina brevicauda), Deer Mouse (P. maniculatus), and Meadow Vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) the most common small mammals detected. All species detected are considered fairly common throughout their range including the Fisher, which has been reintroduced in several New England states. We did not detect any state or federal endangered or threatened species.

  13. Recurrence of Mexican long-tongued bats (Choeronycteris mexicana) at historical sites in Arizona and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, P.M.; Bogan, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The Mexican long-tongued bat (Choeronycteris mexicana) is 1 of 3 migratory, nectarivorous bats that seasonally occur in the extreme southwestern United States (US); the other 2 species are Leptonycteris curasoae and L. nivalis. Unlike the species of Leptonycteris, C. mexicana is not known to form large maternity colonies and is rarely encountered in groups of more than 12 individuals (Hoffmeister 1986). Possibly because of a propensity to form small roosting groups, the number of C. mexicana historically encountered is relatively low compared to other bat species. Although the range of C. mexicana extends from the southwestern United States into Honduras, less than 1500 individuals have been documented since its discovery in 1844 (Petryszyn and Cockrum In Press). Roosting and habitat needs of C. mexicana are poorly understood and it is unclear how such requirements might influence the apparent scarcity of these bats. Choeronycteris mexicana is known to roost in a variety of situations, typically in shallow caves or near the entrances of more extensive structures (Arroyo-Cabrales et al. 1987). Roost sites have been reported from various vegetation zones, including tropical deciduous forests at southern latitudes (Davis and Russell 1954), but roosts are frequently found in oak-conifer woodlands in the northern part of its range (Hoffmeister 1986). Mexican long-tongued bats are known to feed on nectar, pollen, or fruit of various flowering plants throughout their range (Gardner 1977). Although mutualistic relationships likely exist between C. mexicana and its food plants, very little is known about the role that this species plays as a pollinator or seed disperser of such plants. The identification and elucidation of mutualistic relationships are necessary steps toward effectively conserving ecosystems in the southwestern US (Allen-Wardell et al. 1998). Given the potential importance of C. mexicana as a pollinator and its apparent scarcity in the southwest US, current

  14. A Historical Evaluation of the U12n Tunnel, Nevada national Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Part 2 of 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drollinger, Harold [DRI; Jones, Robert C [DRI; Bullard, Thomas F [DRI; Ashbaugh, Laurence J [DRI; Griffin, Wayne R

    2011-06-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12n Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12n Tunnel was one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. A total of 22 nuclear tests were conducted in the U12n Tunnel from 1967 to 1992. These tests include Midi Mist, Hudson Seal, Diana Mist, Misty North, Husky Ace, Ming Blade, Hybla Fair, Mighty Epic, Diablo Hawk, Miners Iron, Huron Landing, Diamond Ace, Mini Jade, Tomme/Midnight Zephyr, Misty Rain, Mill Yard, Diamond Beech, Middle Note, Misty Echo, Mineral Quarry, Randsburg, and Hunters Trophy. DTRA sponsored all tests except Tomme and Randsburg which were sponsored by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Midnight Zephyr, sponsored by DTRA, was an add on experiment to the Tomme test. Eleven high explosive tests were also conducted in the tunnel and included a Stemming Plan Test, the Pre-Mill Yard test, the two seismic Non-Proliferation Experiment tests, and seven Dipole Hail tests. The U12n Tunnel complex is composed of the portal and mesa areas, encompassing a total area of approximately 600 acres (240 hectares). Major modifications to the landscape have resulted from four principal activities. These are road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, site preparation for activities related to testing, and construction of retention ponds. A total of 202 cultural features were recorded for the portal and mesa areas. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general everyday operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, ventilation

  15. A Historical Evaluation of the U12n Tunnel, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drollinger, Harold [DRI; Jones, Robert C [DRI; Bullard, Thomas F [DRI; Ashbaugh, Laurence J [DRI; Griffin, Wayne R [DRI

    2011-06-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12n Tunnel on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12n Tunnel was one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests in Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. A total of 22 nuclear tests were conducted in the U12n Tunnel from 1967 to 1992. These tests include Midi Mist, Hudson Seal, Diana Mist, Misty North, Husky Ace, Ming Blade, Hybla Fair, Mighty Epic, Diablo Hawk, Miners Iron, Huron Landing, Diamond Ace, Mini Jade, Tomme/Midnight Zephyr, Misty Rain, Mill Yard, Diamond Beech, Middle Note, Misty Echo, Mineral Quarry, Randsburg, and Hunters Trophy. DTRA sponsored all tests except Tomme and Randsburg which were sponsored by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Midnight Zephyr, sponsored by DTRA, was an add on experiment to the Tomme test. Eleven high explosive tests were also conducted in the tunnel and included a Stemming Plan Test, the Pre-Mill Yard test, the two seismic Non-Proliferation Experiment tests, and seven Dipole Hail tests. The U12n Tunnel complex is composed of the portal and mesa areas, encompassing a total area of approximately 600 acres (240 hectares). Major modifications to the landscape have resulted from four principal activities. These are road construction and maintenance, mining activities related to development of the tunnel complex, site preparation for activities related to testing, and construction of retention ponds. A total of 202 cultural features were recorded for the portal and mesa areas. At the portal area, features relate to the mining, construction, testing, and general everyday operational support activities within the tunnel. These include concrete foundations for buildings, ventilation

  16. Metals other than uranium affected microbial community composition in a historical uranium-mining site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitte, Jana; Löffler, Sylvia; Burkhardt, Eva-Maria; Goldfarb, Katherine C; Büchel, Georg; Hazen, Terry C; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-12-01

    To understand the links between the long-term impact of uranium and other metals on microbial community composition, ground- and surface water-influenced soils varying greatly in uranium and metal concentrations were investigated at the former uranium-mining district in Ronneburg, Germany. A soil-based 16S PhyloChip approach revealed 2358 bacterial and 35 archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTU) within diverse phylogenetic groups with higher OTU numbers than at other uranium-contaminated sites, e.g., at Oak Ridge. Iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB), which have the potential to attenuate uranium and other metals by the enzymatic and/or abiotic reduction of metal ions, were found at all sites. Although soil concentrations of solid-phase uranium were high, ranging from 5 to 1569 μg·g (dry weight) soil(-1), redundancy analysis (RDA) and forward selection indicated that neither total nor bio-available uranium concentrations contributed significantly to the observed OTU distribution. Instead, microbial community composition appeared to be influenced more by redox potential. Bacterial communities were also influenced by bio-available manganese and total cobalt and cadmium concentrations. Bio-available cadmium impacted FeRB distribution while bio-available manganese and copper as well as solid-phase zinc concentrations in the soil affected SRB composition. Archaeal communities were influenced by the bio-available lead as well as total zinc and cobalt concentrations. These results suggest that (i) microbial richness was not impacted by heavy metals and radionuclides and that (ii) redox potential and secondary metal contaminants had the strongest effect on microbial community composition, as opposed to uranium, the primary source of contamination. PMID:26122566

  17. A Cultural Resources Inventory and Historical Evaluation of the Smoky Atmospheric Nuclear Test, Areas 8, 9, and 10, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Robert C. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); King, Maureen L. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Beck, Colleen M. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Falvey, Lauren W. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Menocal, Tatianna M. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report presents the results of a National Historic Preservation Act Section 106 cultural resources inventory and historical evaluation of the 1957 Smoky atmospheric test location on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The Desert Research Institute (DRI) was tasked to conduct a cultural resources study of the Smoky test area as a result of a proposed undertaking by the Department of Energy Environmental Management. This undertaking involves investigating Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550 for potential contaminants of concern as delineated in a Corrective Action Investigation Plan. CAU 550 is an area that spatially overlaps portions of the Smoky test location. Smoky, T-2c, was a 44 kt atmospheric nuclear test detonated at 5:30 am on August 31, 1957, on top of a 213.4 m (700 ft) 200 ton tower (T-2c) in Area 8 of the NNSS. Smoky was a weapons related test of the Plumbbob series (number 19) and part of the Department of Defense Exercise Desert Rock VII and VIII. The cultural resources effort involved the development of a historic context based on archival documents and engineering records, the inventory of the cultural resources in the Smoky test area and an associated military trench location in Areas 9 and 10, and an evaluation of the National Register eligibility of the cultural resources. The inventory of the Smoky test area resulted in the identification of structures, features, and artifacts related to the physical development of the test location and the post-test remains. The Smoky test area was designated historic district D104 and coincides with a historic archaeological site recorded as 26NY14794 and the military trenches designed for troop observation, site 26NY14795. Sites 26NY14794 and 26NY14795 are spatially discrete with the trenches located 4.3 km (2.7 mi) southeast of the Smoky ground zero. As a result, historic district D104 is discontiguous and in total it covers 151.4 hectares (374 acres). The Smoky test location, recorded as historic

  18. Remediation of acid mine drainage at the friendship hill national historic site with a pulsed limestone bed process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, P.L.; Watten, B.; Boone, T.

    2003-01-01

    A new process utilizing pulsed fluidized limestone beds was tested for the remediation of acid mine drainage at the Friendship Hill National Historic Site, in southwestern Pennsylvania. A 230 liter-per-minute treatment system was constructed and operated over a fourteen-month period from June 2000 through September 2001. Over this period of time, 50,000 metric tons of limestone were used to treat 50 million liters of water. The influent water pH was 2.5 and acidity was 1000 mg/L as CaCO3. Despite the high potential for armoring at the site, effluent pH during normal plant operation ranged from 5.7 to 7.8 and averaged 6.8. As a result of the high influent acidity, sufficient CO2 was generated and recycled to provide a net alkaline discharge with about 50 mg/L as CaCO3 alkalinity. Additions of commercial CO2 increased effluent alkalinity to as high as 300 mg/L, and could be a useful process management tool for transient high flows or acidities. Metal removal rates were 95% for aluminum (60 mg/L in influent), 50 to 90% for iron (Fe), depending on the ratio of ferrous to ferric iron, which varied seasonally (200 mg/L in influent), and process in treatment of acid impaired waters that were previously not amenable to low cost limestone treatment.

  19. Integrated GPR and ERT as Enhanced Detection for Subsurface Historical Structures Inside Babylonian Houses Site, Uruk City, Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khersan, Emad H.; Al-Ani, Jassim M. T.; Abrahem, Salah N.

    2016-03-01

    Uruk archaeological site, which located in Al-Muthanna Governorate southern Iraq, was investigated by integrated geophysical methods, ground penetration radar (GPR) and electric resistivity tomography (ERT) to image the historical buried structures. The GPR images show large radar attributes characterized by its continuous reflections having different widths. GPR attributes at shallower depth are mainly representing the upper part of Babylonian Houses that can often be found throughout the study area. In addition, radargrams characterized objects such as buried items, buried trenches and pits which were mainly concentrated near the surface. The ERT results show the presence of several anomalies at different depths generally having low resistivities. It is clear that the first upper zone can be found throughout the whole area and it may represent the top zone of the Babylonian houses. This zone is characterized by its dry clay and sandy soil containing surface broken bricks and slag mixed with core boulders. The second one underneath the top shows a prominent lower resistivity zone. It is probably caused by the moisture content that reduces the resistivity. The thickness of this zone is not equal at all parts of the site. The third deeper zone typically represents the archaeological walls. Most of the main anomalies perhaps referred to the buried clay brick walls. The map of the archaeological anomalies distribution and 3D view of the foundations at the study area using GPR and ERT techniques clearly show the characteristics of the Babylonian remains. A contour map and 3D view of Uruk show that the archaeological anomalies are concentrated mainly at the NE part of the district with higher values of wall height that range between 6 and 8 m and reach to more than 10 m. At the other directions, there are fewer walls with lower heights of 4-6 m and reach in some places the wall foot.

  20. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 6 of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  1. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 1 of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  2. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 4 of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  3. A Historical Evaluation of the U12t Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Volume 5 of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold Drollinger; Robert C. Jones; and Thomas F. Bullard; Desert Research Institute, Laurence J. Ashbaugh, Southern Nevada Courier Service and Wayne R. Griffin, Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture

    2009-02-01

    This report presents a historical evaluation of the U12t Tunnel on the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada. The work was conducted by the Desert Research Institute at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office and the U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The U12t Tunnel is one of a series of tunnels used for underground nuclear weapons effects tests on the east side of Rainier and Aqueduct Mesas. Six nuclear weapons effects tests, Mint Leaf, Diamond Sculls, Husky Pup, Midas Myth/Milagro, Mighty Oak, and Mission Ghost, and one high explosive test, SPLAT, were conducted within the U12t Tunnel from 1970 to 1987. All six of the nuclear weapons effects tests and the high explosive test were sponsored by DTRA. Two conventional weapons experiments, Dipole Knight and Divine Eagle, were conducted in the tunnel portal area in 1997 and 1998. These experiments were sponsored by the Defense Special Weapons Agency. The U12t Tunnel complex is composed of the Portal and Mesa Areas and includes an underground tunnel with a main access drift and nine primary drifts, a substantial tailings pile fronting the tunnel portal, a series of discharge ponds downslope of the tailings pile, and two instrumentation trailer parks and 16 drill holes on top of Aqueduct Mesa. A total of 89 cultural features were recorded: 54 at the portal and 35 on the mesa. In the Portal Area, cultural features are mostly concrete pads and building foundations; other features include the portal, rail lines, the camel back, ventilation and cooling system components, communication equipment, and electrical equipment. On the mesa are drill holes, a few concrete pads, a loading ramp, and electrical equipment.

  4. A field site for SIT control of Anopheles arabiensis in Northern State, Sudan: Analysis of historical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A field site suitable for SIT will have a single vector population that is isolated, unstructured, relatively small and low density. Disease transmission potential should be established and the cost benefit analysis of SIT should be favourable for the local community, nationally and regionally. Today's technology greatly facilitates the comprehensive and rapid assessment of these criteria, even if starting from zero, but an historical perspective is necessary. This paper researches data relevant to development of SIT for control of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Northern State, Sudan. The field site is primarily the Dongola Reach of the Nile extending from the Fourth Cataract to the Third Cataract. An. arabiensis is dependent on the river and the human population and is isolated by the desert. Northern State has an ancient history with important archaeological sites dating back to the Neolithic (4,500-3,500 BC). This has generated information on human health, settlement patterns and climate up to the medieval Christian and Islamic periods. The accounts of travellers and military historians provide data from the nineteenth century. In the early twentieth century there are detailed entomological and epidemiological records from the Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories in Khartoum and later the Sudan Medical Service. Vector population studies increasingly rely on molecular genetic markers. These often have multiple interpretations that can be resolved by independent historical data that, for example, may infer the age of the current Northern State An. arabiensis population and how well isolated it has been. Entomological and hospital malaria records confirm the presence of A. arabiensis as early as 1906 and as far north as Wadi Halfa. It may have reached 150 km further north, at Ed Derr, in 1919 and certainly reached Asyut, 850 km into Egypt, in 1942. It was eradicated from Upper Egypt by 1945 and did not appear north of Ferka (250 km south

  5. Environmental geochemistry of the polymetallic ore deposits: Case studies from the Rude and the Sv. Jakob historical mining sites, NW Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Strmić Palinkaš, Sabina; A. Palinkaš, Ladislav; Kuzmanović, Maja; Martinić, Maša; Kampić, Štefica; Dogančić, Dragana; Obhođaš, Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the sampling surveys carried out in order to evaluate the environmental impact of the Rude and the Sv. Jakob historical mining sites, NW Croatia. The studied polymetallic ore deposits are differing in the mineralogical and geochemical features as well as in the host rock lithology. The Rude Fe-Cu-Pb-Zn-Ba deposit is hosted by Permian siliciclastic sediments. Siderite, hematite, galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, barite and gypsum are the major ore mi...

  6. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the use of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site (FVNHS) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) into the agencies’ fleet. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to EV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles) could fulfill the mission requirements. FVNHS identified three vehicles in its fleet for consideration. While the FVNHS vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and pool missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The logged vehicles included a pickup truck and a minivan. This report will show that BEVs and PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for both mission categories, because each has sufficient range for individual trips and time available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These charging events could occur at the vehicle’s home base, high-use work areas, or in intermediate areas along routes that the vehicles frequently travel. Replacement of vehicles in the current fleet would result in

  7. Historical and Religious Archeological Sites and Their Role in the Process of Touristic Attraction in Jordan (Madaba as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nayef ALsarayreh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to identify the current situation of historical and religious archeological tourism and their role in the process of touristic attraction (Madaba case study, and investigate the different kinds of hindrances and difficulties that face this form of tourism, and how their consequences affect the development this form of tourism.The objective of this study is capturing results that help in identifying and understanding the historical and religious archeological tourism and their role in the process of touristic attraction (Madaba case study in Jordan, moreover how to develop and to expand historical and religious archeological tourism in addition to and publish more touristic information about Jordan.This study belongs to exploratory analytical studies and it approaches the method of data collection and analysis to reach results. It applies a carefully designed survey form to collect data and information to see the trends and views of the study sample, which respond to the questions, posed by the study, and reflect its objectives. A questionnaire of 120 copies was distributed to a number of tourists in Madaba governorate, 110 copies returned and 10 copies were excluded, so the study relied on the 100 copies from returned from the tourists whose data were collected through the questionnaire and represent the population and the sample of the study.The results of the study showed that there is a positive relationship between the existence of historical and religious archeological sites in Madaba and its role in the process of touristic attraction, and there is a negative relationship between the existence of touristic companies specialized in performing programs of historical and religious archeological tourism and their role in the process of touristic attraction in Jordan, which means that there is no touristic companies specialized in performing programs of historical and religious archeological tourism in Jordan. On the other hand

  8. [Characterization of historical infiltration in the unsaturated zone at the Nevada Test Site using chloride, bromide, and chlorine-36 as environmental tracers]. [Final subcontract report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is an end-of-contract report, prepared by Hydro Geo Chem for Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract number 9-XDD-6329F-1. The ultimate goal of this work is to characterize historical infiltration and unsaturated flow in the Yucca Mountain area of the Nevada Test Site. Work on this contract has focused on using chloride, bromide, stable chlorine isotopes, and chlorine-36 distributions to evaluate the depth of infiltration in the unsaturated zone. Effort in support of this work has included developing analytical procedures, exploring ways in which to separate the. meteoric component from the rock component, and meeting quality assurance requirements

  9. Use of historical information in extreme surge frequency estimation: case of the marine flooding on the La Rochelle site in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hamdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plants located in the French Atlantic coast are designed to be protected against extreme environmental conditions. The French authorities remain cautious by adopting a strict policy of nuclear plants flood prevention. Although coastal nuclear facilities in France are designed to very low probabilities of failure (e.g. 1000 year surge, exceptional surges (outliers induced by exceptional climatic events had shown that the extreme sea levels estimated with the current statistical approaches could be underestimated. The estimation of extreme surges then requires the use of a statistical analysis approach having a more solid theoretical motivation. This paper deals with extreme surge frequency estimation using historical information (HI about events occurred before the systematic record period. It also contributes to addressing the problem of the presence of outliers in data sets. The frequency models presented in the present paper have been quite successful in the field of hydrometeorology and river flooding but they have not been applied to sea levels data sets to prevent marine flooding. In this work, we suggest two methods of incorporating the HI: the Peaks-Over-Threshold method with HI (POTH and the Block Maxima method with HI (BMH. Two kinds of historical data can be used in the POTH method: classical Historical Maxima (HMax data, and Over a Threshold Supplementary (OTS data. In both cases, the data are structured in historical periods and can be used only as complement to the main systematic data. On the other hand, in the BMH method, the basic hypothesis in statistical modeling of HI is that at least one threshold of perception exists for the whole period (historical and systematic and that during a giving historical period preceding the period of tide gauging, only information about surges above this threshold have been recorded or archived. The two frequency models were applied to a case study from France, at the La Rochelle

  10. DETECTION OF HISTORICAL PIPELINE LEAK PLUMES USING NON-INTRUSIVE SURFACE-BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR SITE WASHINGTON USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKORSKA MB; FINK JB; RUCKER DF; LEVITT MT

    2010-12-02

    Historical records from the Department of Energy Hanford Nuclear Reservation (in eastern WA) indicate that ruptures in buried waste transfer pipelines were common between the 1940s and 1980s, which resulted in unplanned releases (UPRs) of tank: waste at numerous locations. A number of methods are commercially available for the detection of active or recent leaks, however, there are no methods available for the detection of leaks that occurred many years ago. Over the decades, leaks from the Hanford pipelines were detected by visual observation of fluid on the surface, mass balance calculations (where flow volumes were monitored), and incidental encounters with waste during excavation or drilling. Since these detection methods for historic leaks are so limited in resolution and effectiveness, it is likely that a significant number of pipeline leaks have not been detected. Therefore, a technology was needed to detect the specific location of unknown pipeline leaks so that characterization technologies can be used to identify any risks to groundwater caused by waste released into the vadose zone. A proof-of-concept electromagnetic geophysical survey was conducted at an UPR in order to image a historical leak from a waste transfer pipeline. The survey was designed to test an innovative electromagnetic geophysical technique that could be used to rapidly map the extent of historical leaks from pipelines within the Hanford Site complex. This proof-of-concept test included comprehensive testing and analysis of the transient electromagnetic method (TEM) and made use of supporting and confirmatory geophysical methods including ground penetrating radar, magnetics, and electrical resistivity characterization (ERC). The results for this initial proof-of-concept test were successful and greatly exceeded the expectations of the project team by providing excellent discrimination of soils contaminated with leaked waste despite the interference from an electrically conductive pipe.

  11. Soils from sites of historical metal mining in western Małopolska (S Poland are strongly contaminated with Zn, Pb and Cd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanowicz A. M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in soils developed at 63 sites of historical metal mining in western Małopolska (S Poland were estimated. Heavy metal concentrations were measured with an atomic absorption spectrometer after wet digestion in hot HClO4 (total forms, extraction in 0.1 M BaCl2 (exchangeable forms or in water (water-soluble forms. Basic soil properties such as texture, C, N, Ca contents and pH were also measured. Total concentrations of Cd in soil varied from 4.4 to 392, Pb from 72.8 to 16931 and Zn from 322 to 41860 mg kg−1. Exchangeable Cd, Pb and Zn extended from 0 to 19.3 %, from 0 to 0.2 % and from 0 to 3.5 % of the total metal forms, respectively, indicating that Cd is the most mobile and potentially bioavailable metal. In turn, water-soluble metal forms did not exceed 1 % of the total. Our study showed that soils developed at sites of historical metal mining are severely polluted with heavy metals. Old heaps threaten not only the environment, but also local inhabitants, as they are often located in a close proximity to houses or agricultural fields.

  12. Detecting changes in wetland morphology using a geographic information system: Historical database application at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christel-Rose, L.M. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Remote Sensing Lab.; Mackey, H.E. Jr. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    New policies regarding the ``no net loss`` of wetlands has presented resource managers and GIS analysts with a challenging ecological application. Historical aerial photography provides a temporal record of conditions over time. Access to temporal data sources is beneficial when appraising wetland gain and loss because man-made disturbances can have both short and long term effects on wetland communities. This is particularly true when trying to assess the existing communities for the specific purpose of restoration and reclamation of the ecologic structure and function of the community prior to a disturbance. Remediation efforts can be optimized when definitive documentation exists of the original communities. The Geographic Information System (GIS) is a powerful tool for integrating these data sets and performing spatial and temporal analyses in support of ecological applications.

  13. Detecting changes in wetland morphology using a geographic information system: Historical database application at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New policies regarding the ''no net loss'' of wetlands has presented resource managers and GIS analysts with a challenging ecological application. Historical aerial photography provides a temporal record of conditions over time. Access to temporal data sources is beneficial when appraising wetland gain and loss because man-made disturbances can have both short and long term effects on wetland communities. This is particularly true when trying to assess the existing communities for the specific purpose of restoration and reclamation of the ecologic structure and function of the community prior to a disturbance. Remediation efforts can be optimized when definitive documentation exists of the original communities. The Geographic Information System (GIS) is a powerful tool for integrating these data sets and performing spatial and temporal analyses in support of ecological applications

  14. Programmatic agreement among the USDOE/RL Operations Office, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, and the WA State Historic Preservation Office for the maintenance, deactivation, alteration and demolition of the built environment on the Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, D.W.

    1997-08-01

    This Programmatic Agreement (PA) addresses the built environment (i.e., buildings and structures) constructed during the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era periods of Hanford`s operational history. As such it encompasses the years 1943 through 1990. The identification, evaluation, and treatment of buildings and historic archeological remains on the Hanford Site predating 1943 will be accomplished through Sections 800.4 through 800.6 of the Council`s regulations. This PA will be in effect from the date of signature until September 30, 2000. Completion of the Sitewide Treatment Plan established under this PA satisfies all Section 106 requirements for identification, evaluation, and treatment necessary for all undertakings, up to and including demolition which may affect Manhattan Project and Cold War Era properties. This PA may be extended if the Sitewide Treatment Plan has not been completed by the end of FY 2000. Identification, evaluation, and treatment of properties constructed on the Hanford Site after 1990 will be handled pursuant to the regulations in effect at the time such properties are eligible for review.

  15. Programmatic agreement among the USDOE/RL Operations Office, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, and the WA State Historic Preservation Office for the maintenance, deactivation, alteration and demolition of the built environment on the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Programmatic Agreement (PA) addresses the built environment (i.e., buildings and structures) constructed during the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era periods of Hanford's operational history. As such it encompasses the years 1943 through 1990. The identification, evaluation, and treatment of buildings and historic archeological remains on the Hanford Site predating 1943 will be accomplished through Sections 800.4 through 800.6 of the Council's regulations. This PA will be in effect from the date of signature until September 30, 2000. Completion of the Sitewide Treatment Plan established under this PA satisfies all Section 106 requirements for identification, evaluation, and treatment necessary for all undertakings, up to and including demolition which may affect Manhattan Project and Cold War Era properties. This PA may be extended if the Sitewide Treatment Plan has not been completed by the end of FY 2000. Identification, evaluation, and treatment of properties constructed on the Hanford Site after 1990 will be handled pursuant to the regulations in effect at the time such properties are eligible for review

  16. Prediction and evaluation of nonlinear site response with potentially liquefiable layers in the area of Nafplion (Peloponnesus, Greece for a repeat of historical earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Karastathis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine the possible non-linear behaviour of potentially liquefiable layers at selected sites located within the expansion area of the town of Nafplion, East Peloponnese, Greece. Input motion is computed for three scenario earthquakes, selected on the basis of historical seismicity data, using a stochastic strong ground motion simulation technique, which takes into account the finite dimensions of the earthquake sources. Site-specific ground acceleration synthetics and soil profiles are then used to evaluate the liquefaction potential at the sites of interest. The activation scenario of the Iria fault, which is the closest one to Nafplion (M=6.4, is found to be the most hazardous in terms of liquefaction initiation. In this scenario almost all the examined sites exhibit liquefaction features at depths of 6–12 m. For scenario earthquakes at two more distant seismic sources (Epidaurus fault – M6.3; Xylokastro fault – M6.7 strong ground motion amplification phenomena by the shallow soft soil layer are expected to be observed.

  17. 3-D Resistivity Tomography for Cliff Stability Study at the D-Day Pointe du Hoc Historic Site in Normandy, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udphuay, S.; Everett, M. E.; Guenther, T.; Warden, R. R.

    2007-12-01

    The D-Day invasion site at Pointe du Hoc in Normandy, France is one of the most important World War II battlefields. The site remains today a valuable historic cultural resource. However the site is vulnerable to cliff collapses that could endanger the observation post building and U.S. Ranger memorial located just landward of the sea stack, and an anti-aircraft gun emplacement, Col. Rudder's command post, located on the cliff edge about 200 m east of the observation post. A 3-D resistivity tomography incorporating extreme topography is used in this study to provide a detailed site stability assessment with special attention to these two buildings. Multi-electrode resistivity measurements were made across the cliff face and along the top of the cliff around the two at-risk buildings to map major subsurface fracture zones and void spaces that could indicate possible accumulations and pathways of groundwater. The ingress of acidic groundwater through the underlying carbonate formations enlarges pre-existing tectonic fractures via limestone dissolution and weakens the overall structural integrity of the cliff. The achieved 3-D resistivity tomograms provide diagnostic subsurface resistivity distributions. Resistive zones associated with subsurface void spaces have been located. These void spaces constitute a stability geohazard as they become significant drainage routes during and after periods of heavy rainfalls.

  18. Research on jet mixing of settled sludges in nuclear waste tanks at Hanford and other DOE sites: A historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, M.R.; Onishi, Y.; Shekarriz, R.

    1997-09-01

    Jet mixer pumps will be used in the Hanford Site double-shell tanks to mobilize and mix the settled solids layer (sludge) with the tank supernatant liquid. Predicting the performance of the jet mixer pumps has been the subject of analysis and testing at Hanford and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. One important aspect of mixer pump performance is sludge mobilization. The research that correlates mixer pump design and operation with the extent of sludge mobilization is the subject of this report. Sludge mobilization tests have been conducted in tanks ranging from 1/25-scale (3 ft-diameter) to full scale have been conducted at Hanford and other DOE sites over the past 20 years. These tests are described in Sections 3.0 and 4.0 of this report. The computational modeling of sludge mobilization and mixing that has been performed at Hanford is discussed in Section 5.0.

  19. Research on jet mixing of settled sludges in nuclear waste tanks at Hanford and other DOE sites: A historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jet mixer pumps will be used in the Hanford Site double-shell tanks to mobilize and mix the settled solids layer (sludge) with the tank supernatant liquid. Predicting the performance of the jet mixer pumps has been the subject of analysis and testing at Hanford and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. One important aspect of mixer pump performance is sludge mobilization. The research that correlates mixer pump design and operation with the extent of sludge mobilization is the subject of this report. Sludge mobilization tests have been conducted in tanks ranging from 1/25-scale (3 ft-diameter) to full scale have been conducted at Hanford and other DOE sites over the past 20 years. These tests are described in Sections 3.0 and 4.0 of this report. The computational modeling of sludge mobilization and mixing that has been performed at Hanford is discussed in Section 5.0

  20. Field quantification and characterisation of extreme arsenic concentrations at a historic mine processing site, Waiuta, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining and roasting of the arsenopyrite ore in the Waiuta area (c. 30 km south of Reefton, Westland) has left a legacy of arsenic-rich material. The scale and extent of elevated arsenic concentrations were established with field portable X-ray fluorescence measurements. The principal source of environmental arsenic at the Prohibition Mill site is the roasting by-product arsenolite, which is very toxic and more environmentally mobile than arsenopyrite in original ore. Resultant arsenic-rich run-off (c. 30 mg/L) is temporarily immobilised by the formation of the secondary arsenic mineral scorodite, which cements the ground around the roaster system. Within the roaster system and the scorodite-rich substrate, arsenic concentrations can be up to 40 and 30 wt%, respectively, and high levels (wt% scale) can persist below 60 cm depth of the substrate. Arsenic in the soil surrounding the site can still exceed 0.1 wt%, and this arsenic is derived from atmospheric fall-out of arsenolite dust, rather than dispersion of arsenolite. The arsenolite dust in the soils has dissolved over the past 60 yr resulting in persistent elevated levels of arsenic adsorbed onto natural iron oxyhydroxide in the soil. An area of c. 32 500 m2 around the Prohibition Mill site has arsenic levels above the recommended guideline for commercial/industrial sites of 0.05 wt%. On a regional scale, arsenic concentrations do not generally exceed the guideline for commercial/industrial sites, with the exception of a few localised anomalies related to arsenopyrite-rich waste rock. (author). 26 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Comparison of Two Surface Contamination Sampling Techniques Conducted for the Characterization of Two Pajarito Site Manhattan Project National Historic Park Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Tammy Ann [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Technical Area-18 (TA-18), also known as Pajarito Site, is located on Los Alamos National Laboratory property and has historic buildings that will be included in the Manhattan Project National Historic Park. Characterization studies of metal contamination were needed in two of the four buildings that are on the historic registry in this area, a “battleship” bunker building (TA-18-0002) and the Pond cabin (TA-18-0029). However, these two buildings have been exposed to the elements, are decades old, and have porous and rough surfaces (wood and concrete). Due to these conditions, it was questioned whether standard wipe sampling would be adequate to detect surface dust metal contamination in these buildings. Thus, micro-vacuum and surface wet wipe sampling techniques were performed side-by-side at both buildings and results were compared statistically. A two-tail paired t-test revealed that the micro-vacuum and wet wipe techniques were statistically different for both buildings. Further mathematical analysis revealed that the wet wipe technique picked up more metals from the surface than the microvacuum technique. Wet wipes revealed concentrations of beryllium and lead above internal housekeeping limits; however, using an yttrium normalization method with linear regression analysis between beryllium and yttrium revealed a correlation indicating that the beryllium levels were likely due to background and not operational contamination. PPE and administrative controls were implemented for National Park Service (NPS) and Department of Energy (DOE) tours as a result of this study. Overall, this study indicates that the micro-vacuum technique may not be an efficient technique to sample for metal dust contamination.

  2. Hydrogeology and historical assessment of a classic sequential-land use landfill site, Illinois, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Colin J.; Vagt, Peter J.

    1990-05-01

    The Blackwell site in northeastern Illinois was a classic sequential-use project combining land reclamation, a sanitary landfill, and a recreational park. This paper adds a recent assessment of leachate generation and groundwater contamination to the site's unfinished record. Hydrogeological studies show that (1) the landfill sits astride an outwash aquifer and a till mound, which are separated from an underlying dolomite aquifer by a thin, silty till; (2) leachate leaks from the landfill at an estimated average rate between 48 and 78 m3/d; (3) the resultant contaminant plume is virtually stagnant in the till but rapidly diluted in the outwash aquifer, so that no off-site contamination is detected; (4) trace VOC levels in the dolomite probably indicate that contaminants have migrated there from the landfill-derived plume in the outwash. Deviations from the original landfill concepts included elimination of a leachate collection system, increased landfill size, local absence of a clay liner, and partial use of nonclay cover. The hydrogeological setting was unsuitable for the landfill as constructed, indicating the importance of detailed geological consideration in landfill and land-use planning.

  3. Airborne gamma survey of the historic Sleisbeck mine area in the Northern Territory, Australia, and its use for site rehabilitation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An airborne γ-survey provided information about the extent of radioactive contamination around the historic Sleisbeck mine. Quickbird satellite data were acquired to relate airborne measurements to land cover features. Enhanced equivalent uranium (eU) levels were found to be confined to the mine and low grade waste rock dumps. The average terrestrial background radiation dose rate estimated from the airborne gamma survey data was 0.10-0.14 μGy h-1 while the area around the mine exhibited a maximum of ∼2.3 μGy h-1, but measurements on the ground indicate that this maximum is exceeded in some localized areas. Rehabilitation of the site is likely to result in a threefold reduction in radiation doses to people accessing the area

  4. Verification Survey of the Building 4059 Site (Phase B); Post Historical Site Assessment Sites, Block 1; and Radioactive Materials Handling Facility Holdup Pond (Site 4614), Santa Susana Field Laboratory, The Boeing Company, Ventura County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Confirm that the final radiological conditions were accurately and adequately described in the FSS documentation, relative to the established release criteria. The objective of the verification survey was to confirm that the final radiological conditions were accurately and adequately described in the FSS documentation, relative to the established release criteria. This objective was achieved via multiple verification components which included document reviews and independent measurements and sampling. Specifically, documentation of the planning, implementation, and results of the FSS are evaluated; a comparison is performed of the mean residual radionuclide concentrations; site areas are evaluated relative to appropriate FSS classification; and areas are assessed for residual, undocumented contamination

  5. A Study on Tourist Cognition of Urban Memory in Historic Sites:A Case Study of Alley Nanluogu Historic Site in Beijing%基于游客认知的历史地段城市记忆研究——以北京南锣鼓巷历史地段为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪芳; 严琳; 熊忻恺; 吴必虎

    2012-01-01

    城市记忆是城市特色形成的重要源泉,而历史地段则盛载着与城市的前世今生所相关的城市记忆.因而,探讨人们对历史地段城市记忆的认知规律,将为有效保存城市记忆、有机更新历史地段提供重要思路.本文选取北京南锣鼓巷历史地段作为研究对象,归纳游客对城市记忆的认知变量,构建了由信息和载体2个一级变量衍生而得的20个二级变量、89个三级变量组成的城市记忆认知测量的指标体系,通过问卷对历史地段城市记忆的游客认知进行调查.基于调查数据统计,采用序次Logistic回归模型,分析影响游客城市记忆认知水平的相关因素,构建城市记忆认知程度公式,归纳游客认知规律,以便为历史地段和城市旅游的规划、管理提供参考.%Urban memory is the significant source of the formation of urban features, including historic sites related with the past and present of the city. Thus, research on the rules of how people recognize urban memory in historic sites will provide a new method for conservation of urban memory and renewal of historic sites. According to a case study of Alley Nanluogu Historic Site in Beijing and questionnaire by the tourists onsite and online, the paper sums up the cognition variables correlated urban memory of tourists and establishes a cognition-measuring index system of two level-one variables (including two variables of information and carrier), 20 level-two variables and 89 level-three variables. On a sample pool of 272 pieces of available dates, the orderly Logistic regression model is used to examine the relevant factors influencing cognitive degree of urban memory and then induce the characteristics of tourist cognition of urban memory. The result shows that tourist age and visiting time have a strong positive relationship with high cognition level of urban memory while the shopping motivation has a significant negative one with it. The detailed analysis

  6. Mammal Inventory of the Mojave Network Parks-Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Manzanar National Historic Site, and Mojave National Preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Charles A.; Hart, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the results of a mammal inventory study of National Park Service units in the Mojave Desert Network, including Death Valley National Park, Joshua Tree National Park, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Manzanar National Historic Site, and Mojave National Preserve. Fieldwork for the inventory focused on small mammals, primarily rodents and bats. Fieldwork for terrestrial small mammals used trapping with Sherman and Tomahawk small- and medium-sized mammal traps, along with visual surveys for diurnal species. The majority of sampling for terrestrial small mammals was carried out in 2002 and 2003. Methods used in field surveys for bats included mist-netting at tanks and other water bodies, along with acoustic surveys using Anabat. Most of the bat survey work was conducted in 2003. Because of extremely dry conditions in the first two survey years (and associated low mammal numbers), we extended field sampling into 2004, following a relatively wet winter. In addition to field sampling, we also reviewed, evaluated, and summarized museum and literature records of mammal species for all of the Park units. We documented a total of 59 mammal species as present at Death Valley National Park, with an additional five species that we consider of probable occurrence. At Joshua Tree, we also documented 50 species, and an additional four 'probable' species. At Lake Mead National Recreation Area, 57 mammal species have been positively documented, with 10 additional probable species. Manzanar National Historic Site had not been previously surveyed. We documented 19 mammal species at Manzanar, with an additional 11 probable species. Mojave National Preserve had not had a comprehensive list previously, either. There are now a total of 50 mammal species documented at Mojave, with three additional probable species. Of these totals, 23 occurrences are new at individual park units (positively documented for the first time), with most of these being at Manzanar

  7. Historical Argumentation and Writing Historical Historical Argumentation and Writing Historical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza KELEŞ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Writing a historical essay in argumentative genre is an important activity in learning and understanding the history. Argumentation is the symbol of good writing. In historical argumentation, what is expected from students is not to put the events into a chronologicalorder but to put a claim and then give a detailed discussion of the their claim based on evidence. In the present study, based on Toulmin’s argumentation model, general argumentation and historical argumentation are dealt with and features and importance of writing historical argumentation in history courses are emphasized. Moreover, sample activities that can be used to encourage students to write historical argumentation texts and evaluation criteria for a historical text in argumentative genre are presented.

  8. Historical Argumentation and Writing Historical Historical Argumentation and Writing Historical

    OpenAIRE

    KELEŞ, Hamza; KİRİŞ, Ayten

    2010-01-01

    Writing a historical essay in argumentative genre is an important activity in learning and understanding the history. Argumentation is the symbol of good writing. In historical argumentation, what is expected from students is not to put the events into a chronologicalorder but to put a claim and then give a detailed discussion of the their claim based on evidence. In the present study, based on Toulmin’s argumentation model, general argumentation and historical argumentation are dealt with an...

  9. Historical Fictions

    OpenAIRE

    Eve, Martin Paul

    2015-01-01

    The historical novel is a major presence in the contemporary literary landscape. Why should this genre possess such appeal? And how can we best define it? Joe Brooker (Birkbeck) and Martin Eve (Lincoln) will explore the fascination of historical fiction today with Caroline Magennis (Salford)

  10. Alternative axiomatics and complexity of deliberative STIT theories

    CERN Document Server

    Balbiani, Philippe; Troquard, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    We propose two alternatives to Xu's axiomatization of the Chellas STIT. The first one also provides an alternative axiomatization of the deliberative STIT. The second one starts from the idea that the historic necessity operator can be defined as an abbreviation of operators of agency, and can thus be eliminated from the logic of the Chellas STIT. The second axiomatization also allows us to establish that the problem of deciding the satisfiability of a STIT formula without temporal operators is NP-complete in the single-agent case, and is NEXPTIME-complete in the multiagent case, both for the deliberative and the Chellas' STIT.

  11. Historical and Religious Archeological Sites and Their Role in the Process of Touristic Attraction in Jordan (Madaba as a Case Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Nayef ALsarayreh; Marwan Ataf AL Dalaeen

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to identify the current situation of historical and religious archeological tourism and their role in the process of touristic attraction (Madaba case study), and investigate the different kinds of hindrances and difficulties that face this form of tourism, and how their consequences affect the development this form of tourism.The objective of this study is capturing results that help in identifying and understanding the historical and religious archeological tourism and thei...

  12. 城市历史街区旅游改造中的文化与市场融合问题研究%Research on the fusion of culture and market in the tourism transformation of the historic site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周磊; 舒伯阳

    2012-01-01

    国内历史街区旅游改造的一般规律和成功路径的关键在于文化传承与旅游市场需求的融合度。文化传承是从城市街区历史文化演进的内在规律入手,关注的是城市历史街区的特色与风貌、历史厚重感及与当地居民沟通互动性等游客感知层面;市场配套关注的是在旅游改造过程中旅游产业要素供给、服务功能实现等游客需求满足层面。基于游客满意和地方经济可持续发展的文化与市场融合模式是城市历史街区旅游改造的一种更加全面和优化的方法。%The key to the common rules and successful ways of the tourism transformation of the historic sites in China is to analyze the degree of the fusion of the cultural heritage and the need of travel market. Culture heritage starts from the internal rules of the cultural evolution of the historic site, focusing on the stage of the perception of tourists, including the features and views of the historic sites, the heavy sense of history and the local folk. The support of market focuses on the stage of meeting the need of tourists, including the supply of factors of the tourism industry during the tourism transformation of historic sites and the fulfillment of service function. A fusion of the culture heritage and market based on the demand of tourists and sustainable development of local economy will be a more comprehensive and more optimized method in tourism transformation of the historic sites.

  13. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 2. LLNL Annual Site-specific Data, 1953 - 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Historical information about tritium released routinely and accidentally from all Livermore Site Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities and from the Tritium Research Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) between 1953 through 2005 has been compiled and summarized in this report. Facility-specific data (annual release rates and dilution factors) have been derived from the historical information. These facility-specific data are needed to calculate annual doses to a hypothetical site-wide maximally exposed individual from routine releases of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) to the atmosphere. Doses can also be calculated from observed air tritium concentrations, and mean annual values for one air tritium sampling location are presented. Other historical data relevant to a dose reconstruction (e.g., meteorological data, including absolute humidity and rainfall) are also presented. Sources of information are carefully referenced, and assumptions are documented. Uncertainty distributions have been estimated for all parameter values. Confidence in data post-1974 is high.

  14. Historical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a historical review of the development of ion beam microanalysis. A description is given of the analysis and imaging techniques. The development of the two different sorts of microbeam system, collimated and focused, is described, along with their associated equipment. A brief outline of the use of microbeams is given. (UK)

  15. Archaeology and Anthropology Sites, The Maryland Historical Trust, the Maryland SHPO, has created a vector layer of the approximate locations of the archeological sites recorded in the state of Maryland. Sites are confidential and are protected from release under state law., Published in 2011, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Historical Trust (SHPO)/Maryland Department of Planning.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Archaeology and Anthropology Sites dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2011. It...

  16. Historic land use dynamics in and around Natura2000 sites as indicators for impact on biodiversity; Phase 1 of the BIOPRESS project for the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Hazeu, G.W.; Mücher, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    BIOPRESS is a EC-FP5 research project to support GMES `Global Monitoring for Environment and Security¿. It aims to provide the EU-user community with quantitative information on how changes in land cover and land use have affected the environment and biodiversity in Europe. This report is dealing with the results of the first phase of the BIOPRESS project for the Netherlands. The report concentrates on the selection, acquisition, processing and interpretation of recent and historical aerial p...

  17. Unpublished Digital Surficial Geology Map of Herbert Hoover National Historic Site and Vicinity, Iowa (NPS, GRD, GRI, HEHO, HEHO digital map) adapted from Iowa Geological Survey Open-File Report Maps by Quade et. al. (2008), Krieg et. al. (2004) and Tassier-Surine et. al. (2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Digital Surficial Geology Map of Herbert Hoover National Historic Site and Vicinity, Iowa is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3...

  18. Unpublished Digital Bedrock Geology Map of Herbert Hoover National Historic Site and Vicinity, Iowa (NPS, GRD, GRI, HEHO, HHBR digital map) adapted from Iowa Geological Survey Open-File Report Maps by Witzke et. al. (2010) and Witzke and Anderson (2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Digital Bedrock Geology Map of Herbert Hoover National Historic Site and Vicinity, Iowa is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3...

  19. Spatial and temporal distribution patterns of Anopheles arabiensis breeding sites in La Reunion Island - multi-year trend analysis of historical records from 1996-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lempérière Guy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An often confounding facet of the dynamics of malaria vectors is the aquatic larval habitat availability and suitable conditions under which they can thrive. Here, we investigated the impact of environmental factors on the temporal and spatial distribution of larval habitats of Anopheles arabiensis in different locations on La Reunion Island. Methods A retrospective examination was made from archival data which provided the complete enumeration of An. arabiensis breeding habitats in three distinct geographic zones - extending North-east, West and South of the island over 14 years, from January 1996 to December 2009. Data on the occurrence and the number of active larval habitats at each of a total of 4376 adjacent ellipsoid grid cells (216,506 square meters each were used (1 to provide the geographic extent of breeding site availability from year to year and (2 to analyze associations with prevailing environmental factors, habitat types, and locations. Results Anopheles arabiensis utilized a spectrum of man-made and natural aquatic habitats, most of which were concentrated primarily in the rock pools located in ravines and river fringes, and also in the large littoral marshes and within the irrigated agricultural zones. The numbers of breeding site per sampling grid differed significantly in different parts of the island. In contrast to an originally more widespread distribution across the island in the 1950s, detailed geographic analyses of the data obtained in the period extending from 1996-2009 showed an intriguing clustered distribution of active breeding sites in three discontinuous geographic zones, in which aquatic habitats availability fluctuates with the season and year. Seasonality in the prevalence of anopheles breeding sites suggests significant responsiveness to climatic factors. Conclusions The observed retreat of An. arabiensis distribution range to lower altitudinal zones (

  20. Digitally Available Interval-Specific Rock-Sample Data Compiled from Historical Records, Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Wood

    2009-10-08

    Between 1951 and 1992, underground nuclear weapons testing was conducted at 828 sites on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to and following these nuclear tests, holes were drilled and mined to collect rock samples. These samples are organized and stored by depth of borehole or drift at the U.S. Geological Survey Core Library and Data Center at Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada Test Site. From these rock samples, rock properties were analyzed and interpreted and compiled into project files and in published reports that are maintained at the Core Library and at the U.S. Geological Survey office in Henderson, Nevada. These rock-sample data include lithologic descriptions, physical and mechanical properties, and fracture characteristics. Hydraulic properties also were compiled from holes completed in the water table. Rock samples are irreplaceable because pre-test, in-place conditions cannot be recreated and samples cannot be recollected from the many holes destroyed by testing. Documenting these data in a published report will ensure availability for future investigators.

  1. Quantifying uranium transport rates and storage of fluvially eroded mine tailings from a historic mine site in the Grand Canyon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, K.; Benthem, A. J.; Walton-Day, K. E.; Jolly, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Grand Canyon region contains a large number of breccia pipes with economically viable uranium, copper, and silver concentrations. Mining in this region has occurred since the late 19th century and has produced ore and waste rock having elevated levels of uranium and other contaminants. Fluvial transport of these contaminants from mine sites is a possibility, as this arid region is susceptible to violent storms and flash flooding which might erode and mobilize ore or waste rock. In order to assess and manage the risks associated with uranium mining, it is important to understand the transport and storage rates of sediment and uranium within the ephemeral streams of this region. We are developing a 1-dimensional sediment transportation model to examine uranium transport and storage through a typical canyon system in this region. Our study site is Hack Canyon Mine, a uranium and copper mine site, which operated in the 1980's and is currently experiencing fluvial erosion of its waste rock repository. The mine is located approximately 40km upstream from the Colorado River and is in a deep, narrow canyon with a small watershed. The stream is ephemeral for the upper half of its length and sediment is primarily mobilized during flash flood events. We collected sediment samples at 110 locations longitudinally through the river system to examine the distribution of uranium in the stream. Samples were sieved to the sand size and below fraction (waste rock and contribute to understanding the risks associated with fluvial mobilization of uranium mine waste.

  2. Historical prologue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organizations and machines engaged in a severe nuclear crisis would be its tangible and partially quantifiable factors. For that reason they often dominate our thinking about superpower confrontations. Military organizations, however, are not automatons that can run amok on their own. The perceptions of leaders and populations propel the course of events, and their mindsets are shaped by what experience, history, and myth claim to say about war. Since there has never been combat between nuclear-armed states, it is debatable whether the past has any relevance to what we now face. But the part is all we have to go on. Thus soldiers and statesmen are still haunted by the manner in which this century's two great wars began, and the past thereby influences the thoughts that lead to weapons, to military plans, and to decisions that could turn peace into war. It is therefore essential to have some appreciation for the historical roots that nourish our expectations about international conflict. This paper describes some of these roots

  3. Quantifying uranium transport rates and storage of fluvially eroded mine tailings from a historic mine site in the Grand Canyon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, K.; Benthem, A. J.; Walton-Day, K. E.; Jolly, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Grand Canyon region contains a large number of breccia pipes with economically viable uranium, copper, and silver concentrations. Mining in this region has occurred since the late 19th century and has produced ore and waste rock having elevated levels of uranium and other contaminants. Fluvial transport of these contaminants from mine sites is a possibility, as this arid region is susceptible to violent storms and flash flooding which might erode and mobilize ore or waste rock. In order to assess and manage the risks associated with uranium mining, it is important to understand the transport and storage rates of sediment and uranium within the ephemeral streams of this region. We are developing a 1-dimensional sediment transportation model to examine uranium transport and storage through a typical canyon system in this region. Our study site is Hack Canyon Mine, a uranium and copper mine site, which operated in the 1980's and is currently experiencing fluvial erosion of its waste rock repository. The mine is located approximately 40km upstream from the Colorado River and is in a deep, narrow canyon with a small watershed. The stream is ephemeral for the upper half of its length and sediment is primarily mobilized during flash flood events. We collected sediment samples at 110 locations longitudinally through the river system to examine the distribution of uranium in the stream. Samples were sieved to the sand size and below fraction (uranium was measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Sediment storage zones were also examined in the upper 8km of the system to determine where uranium is preferentially stored in canyon systems. This information will quantify the downstream transport of constituents associated with the Hack Canyon waste rock and contribute to understanding the risks associated with fluvial mobilization of uranium mine waste.

  4. Historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A historical perspective of the nuclear waste issue is presented, beginning from the Atoms for Peace Legislation which made nuclear technology available to private industry in 1953 to 1954. Once the nuclear process had been demonstrated to be a technically and economically feasible method to convert thermal energy for electric power generation, commercial application began. The issue of nuclear waste management did not keep up with higher priorities. As early as 1957, research into storing the waste in geological structures was conducted by the National Academy of Sciences, and considerable technical progress was made in the 60's. During the 60's and 70's, numerous legislative actions (e.g., Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Environmental Policy Act) had a significant impact on nuclear waste dipsosal decisions. In 1971 to 1972 the Atomic Energy Commission authorized a nuclear waste repository in Kansas, a decision which was amended the following year and finally abandoned altogether in 1974. The OPEC oil embargo and ensuing price actions moved nuclear power into a more prominent position in the United States' plans for energy independence. This increased the stress between environmental concerns and economic need. The Carter Administration indefinitely deferred reprocessing of spent fuel and initiated a government-wide review of nuclear policy issues. The Congress did not actively begin to fashion a nuclear waste program until February 1980. The legislation which passed the Senate in the Spring of '82, and a compromise version pending before the House, may resolve the issue by establishing a long-term stable policy which will contain milestones, goals and specific decision making processes; it will include a mechanism for the public and the states to be involved; and it will insure adequate financing provisions

  5. Digitally Available Interval-Specific Rock-Sample Data Compiled from Historical Records, Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye County, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Wood

    2007-10-24

    Between 1951 and 1992, 828 underground tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to and following these nuclear tests, holes were drilled and mined to collect rock samples. These samples are organized and stored by depth of borehole or drift at the U.S. Geological Survey Core Library and Data Center at Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada Test Site. From these rock samples, rock properties were analyzed and interpreted and compiled into project files and in published reports that are maintained at the Core Library and at the U.S. Geological Survey office in Henderson, Nevada. These rock-sample data include lithologic descriptions, physical and mechanical properties, and fracture characteristics. Hydraulic properties also were compiled from holes completed in the water table. Rock samples are irreplaceable because pre-test, in-place conditions cannot be recreated and samples cannot be recollected from the many holes destroyed by testing. Documenting these data in a published report will ensure availability for future investigators.

  6. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic...

  7. The HRA-SOLARIUM project: processing of historical waste on the Belgoprocess site (Belgium): project description and lessons learned after 3 years operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of the 80's, the Belgian State ordered an inventory of the liabilities of the Belgian nuclear programme, to be fully or partially financed by them. ONDRAF/NIRAS (National Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials) was entrusted with the management of the waste and the development of a programme for the clearance of the identified liabilities. One of these liabilities is the treatment and conditioning of some 200 m3 of widely varying high- and medium level waste. The gross volume of primary and secondary packages amounts to 2,600 m3. As the waste is stored in vaults or in concrete shielding containers and no appropriate treating and conditioning facilities are in operation, the HRA/SOLARIUM project was launched. The bulk of these wastes, of which 95% are solids, the remainder consisting of mainly solidified liquids, have been produced between 1967 and 1988. They originate from various research programmes and reactor operation at the Belgian nuclear energy research centre SCK.CEN, isotope production, decontamination and dismantling operations. About 4,800 packages of various types are concerned and must be treated (standard steel barrels, special containers, shielded overpacks,... ); they contain medium-active wastes (solid or liquid), radium bearing or not, β/γ or α/β/γ, and special wastes (Al, spent resins, Na/Nak,...). The new HRA/SOLARIUM facilities, located on site 2 of Belgoprocess in Mol, have been commissioned in the 2. semester 2003. The paper describes the project itself and focuses on the lessons learned from first operation years. (authors)

  8. Geomorphic changes caused by the 2011 flood at selected sites along the lower Missouri River and comparison to historical floods: Chapter H in 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of recent and historical U.S. Geological Survey streamgage information was used to assess geomorphic changes caused by the 2011 flood, in comparison to selected historical floods, at three streamgage sites along the lower Missouri River—Sioux City, Iowa; Omaha, Nebraska; and Kansas City, Missouri. Channel-width change was not evident at the three streamgage sites following the 2011 flood and likely was inhibited by bank stabilization. Pronounced changes in channel-bed elevation were indicated. At Sioux City and Omaha, the geomorphic effects of the 2011 flood were similar in terms of the magnitude of channelbed scour and recovery. At both sites, the 2011 flood caused pronounced scour (about 3 feet) of the channel bed; however, at Omaha, most of the channel-bed scour occurred after the flood had receded. More than 1 year after the flood, the channel bed had only partially recovered (about 1 foot) at both sites. Pronounced scour (about 3 feet at Sioux City and about 1.5 feet at Omaha) also was caused by the 1952 flood, which had a substantially larger peak discharge but was much shorter in duration at both sites. Again, at Omaha, most of the channel- bed scour occurred after the flood had receded. At Sioux City, substantial recovery of the channel bed (about 2.5 feet) was documented 1 year after the 1952 flood. Recovery to the pre-flood elevation was complete by April 1954. The greater recovery following the 1952 flood, compared to the 2011 flood, likely was related to a more abundant sediment supply because the flood predated the completion of most of the main-stem dam, channelization, and bank stabilization projects. At Omaha, following the 1952 flood, the channel bed never fully recovered to its pre-flood elevation. The geomorphic effect of the 2011 flood at Kansas City was fill (about 1 foot) on the channel bed followed by relative stability. The 1952 flood, which had a substantially larger peak discharge but was much shorter in duration, caused

  9. Analysis and radiological assessment of residues containing NORM materials resulting from earlier activities including modelling of typical industrial residues. Pt. 1. Historical investigation of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and concepts for site identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radionuclides are part of the human environment and of the raw materials used. Technical processes may cause their accumulation in residues, and the result will be so-called NORM materials (Naturally occurring radioactive material). The amended Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV 2001) specifies how the public should be protected, but there are also residues dating back before the issuing of the StrlSchV 2001, the so-called NORM residues. The project intended to assess the risks resulting from these residues. It comprises four parts. Part 1 was for clarification of the radiological relevance of NORM residues and for the development of concepts to detect them. The criterion for their radiological relevance was their activity per mass unit and the material volume accumulated through the centuries. The former was calculated from a wide bibliographic search in the relevant literature on radiation protection, while the mass volume was obtained by a detailed historical search of the consumption of materials that may leave NORM residues. These are, in particular, residues from coal and ore mining and processing. To identify concrete sites, relevant data sources were identified, and a concept for identification of concrete NORM residues was developed on this basis. (orig.)

  10. Central High School National Historic Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  11. Democracy and Historical Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we try to clarify the relationship between democracy and historical writing. The strategy is first exploring the general relationship between democracy and historical awareness, and then, studying the relationship between democracy and historical writing itself to find out whether dem

  12. Rural and historical tourism in Dobrugea

    OpenAIRE

    Sima, Elena

    2014-01-01

    By its geographical location, the rural area from Dobrudgea has a diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrasting natural environmental factors, ranging from the oldest to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, balneary resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. This potential can be used under various forms in the rural area: cultural tourism, historical tourism, religious tourism, ecot...

  13. Rural and historical tourism in Dobrogea

    OpenAIRE

    Sima, Elena

    2014-01-01

    By its geographical location, the rural area from Dobrudgea has a diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrasting natural environmental factors, ranging from the oldest to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, balneary resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. This potential can be used under various forms in the rural area: cultural tourism, historical tourism, religious tourism, ecot...

  14. Historical Slovenian Language Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaž Erjavec

    2013-01-01

    EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The paper presents three language resources enabling better full-text access to digitised printed historical Slovenian texts: a hand-annotated corpus, a hand-annotated lexicon of historical words and a collection of transcribed texts. The aim of the resources is twofold: on one hand they support empirical linguistic research (corpus, collection) and represent a reference tool for the research of historical Slovenian (lexicon) while on the other hand they may serve as trainin...

  15. HMI - historical flashback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brochure is based on a paper read at a HMI colloquium on 14 Juni 1993. The historical information is based on a detailed historical study published in book form under the title ''Industrial-scale Research in Berlin''. (orig./HSCH)

  16. Historically defined autobiographical periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Lee, Peter J.;

    2012-01-01

    The chapter reviews a research programme that has demonstrated the existence of historically defined autobiographical periods and identified the conditions that bring them about. Data from four samples of World War II-generation adults show that historically defined autobiographical periods endure...

  17. Management of Historic Centres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš

    London, New York : SPON PRESS, 2000 - (Pickard, R.), s. 62-83 ISBN 0-419-23290-7 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : historic city * urban planning * built cultural heritage * conservation policy * management * regeneration * tourism in historic city Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  18. Historical Topics in Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.

    This is a reprint of the historical capsules dealing with algebra from the 31st Yearbook of NCTM,"Historical Topics for the Mathematics Classroom." Included are such themes as the change from a geometric to an algebraic solution of problems, the development of algebraic symbolism, the algebraic contributions of different countries, the origin and…

  19. Oak Ridge Health Studies Phase 1 report, Volume 2: Part A, Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. Tasks 1 and 2, A summary of historical activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation with emphasis on information concerning off-site emissions of hazardous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, G.M.; Buddenbaum, J.E.; Lamb, J.K.; Widner, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    The Phase I feasibility study has focused on determining the availability of information for estimating exposures of the public to chemicals and radionuclides released as a result of historical operation of the facilities at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The estimation of such past exposures is frequently called dose reconstruction. The initial project tasks, Tasks 1 and 2 were designed to identify and collect information that documents the history of activities at the ORR that resulted in the release of contamination and to characterize the availability of data that could be used to estimate the magnitude of the contaminant releases or public exposures. A history of operations that are likely to have generated off-site releases has been documented as a result of Task 1 activities. The activities required to perform this task involved the extensive review of historical operation records and interviews with present and past employees as well as other knowledgeable individuals. The investigation process is documented in this report. The Task 1 investigations have led to the documentation of an overview of the activities that have taken place at each of the major complexes, including routine operations, waste management practices, special projects, and accidents and incidents. Historical activities that appear to warrant the highest priority in any further investigations were identified based on their likely association with off-site emissions of hazardous materials as indicated by the documentation reviewed or information obtained in interviews.

  20. History of Historical Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Schuyler

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available On Sunday April 19, 1998 Jean Carl Harrington (known to the profession as J.C. or "Pinky" Harrington passed away at his home in Richmond, Virginia. At 96 Harrington's life almost spanned the 20th century and did encompass the rise and establishment of professional Historical Archaeology in North America. Many consider Harrington to be the founder or "father" of Americanist Historical Archaeology. In 1936 he took over the newly created NPS-CCC project at Jamestown, Virginia and that event is arguably the inception of Historical Archaeology as an organized, scholarly discipline.

  1. The historical supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, David H

    2013-01-01

    The Historical Supernovae is an interdisciplinary study of the historical records of supernova. This book is composed of 12 chapters that particularly highlight the history of the Far East. The opening chapter briefly describes the features of nova and supernova, stars which spontaneously explode with a spectacular and rapid increase in brightness. The succeeding chapter deals with the search for the historical records of supernova from Medieval European monastic chronicles, Arabic chronicles, astrological works etc., post renaissance European scientific writings, and Far Eastern histories and

  2. Historical Survey Data Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To preserve NEFSC historical data, images of biological and oceanographic data sheets (1948-1975) were scanned to digital format and can be queried through a portal...

  3. Historical Climatology Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Climatology Series (HCS) is a set of climate-related publications published by NOAA's National Climatic Data Center beginning in 1978. HCS is...

  4. Premier Hospital Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To provide a historical overview of the participating hospitals, before the first project report, Premier Healthcare Informatics has used data already available for...

  5. Iowa Historic Cemeteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file represents Iowa Historic Cemeteries. Originally it was based on an Iowa DNR point file marking cemetery locations as found on 7.5 min. USGS quad...

  6. National Health Expenditures - Historical

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Expenditure Accounts (NHEA) are the official estimates of total health care spending in the United States. Historical spending measures annual...

  7. HISTORICAL TRANSFORMATION OF HERMENEUTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Emre ÖZTÜRK

    2009-01-01

    In this article, it is aimed to describe the history of hermeneutics briefly and to find out the funcitons of it throught the history, it is tried to reveal historical turning points of it at the base of historical period and continuity. Each usage style of hermeneutics is not inconsequent with other ways of usage and not unrelated with features of period which introduced it. In this work, it is tried to execute hermeneutics with the characteristics has gained from the period of Greek god Her...

  8. Historical film processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Suter, David

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes work using historical film material, including what is believed to be the world's first feature length film. The digital processing of historical film material permits many new facilities: digital restoration, electronic storage, automated indexing, and electronic delivery to name a few. Although the work aims ultimately to support all of the previously mentioned facilities, this paper concentrated upon automatic scene change detection, brightness correction, and frame registration. These processes are fundamental to a more complete and complex processing system, but, by themselves, could be immediately used in computer-assisted film cataloging.

  9. Efficient Snapshot Retrieval over Historical Graph Data

    CERN Document Server

    Khurana, Udayan

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of managing historical data for large evolving information networks like social networks or citation networks, with the goal to enable temporal and evolutionary queries and analysis. We present the design and architecture of a distributed graph database system that stores the entire history of a network and provides support for efficient retrieval of multiple graphs from arbitrary time points in the past, in addition to maintaining the current state for ongoing updates. Our system exposes a general programmatic API to process and analyze the retrieved snapshots. We introduce DeltaGraph, a novel, extensible, highly tunable, and distributed hierarchical index structure that enables compactly recording the historical information, and that supports efficient retrieval of historical graph snapshots for single-site or parallel processing. Along with the original graph data, DeltaGraph can also maintain and index auxiliary information; this functionality can be used to extend the structure to ...

  10. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 2. LLNL Annual Site-specific Data, 1953 - 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S R

    2005-03-07

    It is planned to use the tritium dose model, DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium), to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of tritiated water (HTO) and tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) from all Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) facilities and from the Sandia National (SNL) Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years. DCART has been described in Part 1 of ''Historical Doses From Tritiated Water And Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released To The Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)'' (UCRL-TR-205083). This report (Part 2) summarizes information about annual routine releases of tritium from LLNL (and SNL) since 1953. Historical records were used to derive facility-specific annual data (e.g., source terms, dilution factors, ambient air concentrations, meteorological data, including absolute humidity and rainfall, etc.) and their associated uncertainty distributions. These data will be used as input to DCART to calculate annual dose for each year of LLNL operations. Sources of information are carefully referenced, and assumptions are documented. Confidence on all data post-1974 is quite high. Prior to that, further adjustment to the estimated uncertainty may have to be made if more information comes to light.

  11. LA ARQUEOLOGÍA HISTÓRICA EN CANARIAS. EL YACIMIENTO SEPULCRAL DE LA IGLESIA DE NUESTRA SEÑORA DE LA CONCEPCIÓN DE SANTA CRUZ DE TENERIFE (Historical archaeology in the Canaries. The burial site of the church of Our Lady of the Conception in Santa Cruz de Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Arnay de la Rosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio revisamos la situación actual de la Arqueología Histórica en las Islas Canarias, disciplina que, a diferencia de la americana, estaba poco desarrollada en las islas hasta hace unos 20 años. El reciente estudio de yacimientos históricos importantes ha modificado esta situación. Como ejemplo, comentamos algunos resultados derivados de la excavación de la iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, en cuyo subsuelo se enterró a la población de Santa Cruz de Tenerife durante siglos. Pese a la pobre preservación de los esqueletos, ha sido posible inferir hábitos dietéticos, estado nutricional, exposición a tóxicos, y realizar estudios de DNA mitocondrial. El material recuperado (cerámica, pipas, crucifijos y adornos varios permite establecer estrechas relaciones con la colonización española del Nuevo Mundo. ENGLISH: This study includes an updated review of the current status of Historical Archaeology in the Canary Islands. Traditionally, in contrast with the situation in America, archaeological activity was devoted to studies on the prehistoric remains of population. In the last 20 years, excavation of some important historical sites has allowed the development of Historical Archaeology. As an example, we comment some results obtained from the excavation of the floor of the church of Our Lady of the Conception, where the deads of Santa Cruz de Tenerife were interred during centuries. Despite the poor preservation of the skeletons, it has been possible to infer dietary habits, toxic exposure, nutritional status and genetic lineages (mitochondrial DNA. Smoking pipes, ceramics and adornments associated with interments show a high similitude with those from colonial sites of the New World.

  12. Integration of Jeddah Historical BIM and 3D GIS for Documentation and Restoration of Historical Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, A.; Yaagoubi, R.; Boehm, J.

    2015-08-01

    This work outlines a new approach for the integration of 3D Building Information Modelling and the 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) to provide semantically rich models, and to get the benefits from both systems to help document and analyse cultural heritage sites. Our proposed framework is based on the Jeddah Historical Building Information Modelling process (JHBIM). This JHBIM consists of a Hijazi Architectural Objects Library (HAOL) that supports higher level of details (LoD) while decreasing the time of modelling. The Hijazi Architectural Objects Library has been modelled based on the Islamic historical manuscripts and Hijazi architectural pattern books. Moreover, the HAOL is implemented using BIM software called Autodesk Revit. However, it is known that this BIM environment still has some limitations with the non-standard architectural objects. Hence, we propose to integrate the developed 3D JHBIM with 3D GIS for more advanced analysis. To do so, the JHBIM database is exported and semantically enriched with non-architectural information that is necessary for restoration and preservation of historical monuments. After that, this database is integrated with the 3D Model in the 3D GIS solution. At the end of this paper, we'll illustrate our proposed framework by applying it to a Historical Building called Nasif Historical House in Jeddah. First of all, this building is scanned by the use of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and Close Range Photogrammetry. Then, the 3D JHBIM based on the HOAL is designed on Revit Platform. Finally, this model is integrated to a 3D GIS solution through Autodesk InfraWorks. The shown analysis presented in this research highlights the importance of such integration especially for operational decisions and sharing the historical knowledge about Jeddah Historical City. Furthermore, one of the historical buildings in Old Jeddah, Nasif Historical House, was chosen as a test case for the project.

  13. Historicity in development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyra, Maria C. D. P.; Valsiner, Jaan

    2011-01-01

    Human development entails the establishment, widening, and abbreviation of new behavioural and psychological phenomena. This leads to the central role of historicity in developmental science—a look at presently happening events in terms of their constructive borrowing from the past and anticipati...

  14. Historical dictionary of librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, Mary Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Dictionary of Librarianship focuses on librarianship as a modern, organized profession, emphasizing the period beginning in the mid-nineteenth century. Author Mary Ellen Quinn relates the history of this profession through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography.

  15. Expiration of Historical Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David

    2001-01-01

    We present a technique for automatic expiration of data in a historical data warehouse that preserves answers to a known and fixed set of first-order queries. In addition, we show that for queries with output size bounded by a function of the active data domain size (the number of values that hav...

  16. Mobility and accessibility in historic cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Carla; Paschoalin, Rachel Filgueiras; Castañon, José Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The historic cities of Brazil, despite its colonial structure, don't fail to go through transformations that affect contemporary cities, which is the main source of problems, leading to new approaches to urban issues such as mobility and accessibility. The uncontrolled growth of tourism in the historic cities can be considered as a big problem, because at the same time, they have committed to the conservation of its built heritage and demand control of the activities that occur in their areas without harm. Then, a permanent dialogue between conservatives and planners could be accomplished by joining the various sectoral policies. The study of urban mobility in historical sites was in fact the focus of this work because of their peculiarities, such as its specific characteristics of urban structure, morphology and occupation. In fact, the development of tourism in historic centers generates specific demands, such as adaptation to new uses of the houses, intensive movement of people and vehicles, illegal parking, among others. Beyond threatening the city preservation, does not provide mobility and accessibility to tourists, because these cities were not designed for the tourism conditions and needs of contemporary life. Characteristic features of Brazilian baroque cities, such as topography , the narrow streets, narrow or nonexistent sidewalks, steep turns and ramps strong, are not suitable for heavy vehicles, traffic and pedestrian circulation. Thus, studies concerning conservation urban integrated are aimed at an approach to interaction between historic preservation of the environment with the dynamic socio-economic of the local. PMID:22317715

  17. Unrealized Architectural Projects in Lithuania: Historical Development

    OpenAIRE

    Indrė Gudelytė

    2012-01-01

    The “unrealized architectural projects” are the building projects, carried out under the specific design task and intended to be built in a particular place (site), though, for certain reasons and circumstances, have never been constructed. However, up to the present day, the topic of the “unbuilt” has been analyzed just episodically in literature and sources. The article touches upon the historical development of unrealized architectural works, as well as their artistic value and role within...

  18. Historic Eastern Canadian earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants licensed in Canada have been designed to resist earthquakes: not all plants, however, have been explicitly designed to the same level of earthquake induced forces. Understanding the nature of strong ground motion near the source of the earthquake is still very tentative. This paper reviews historical and scientific accounts of the three strongest earthquakes - St. Lawrence (1925), Temiskaming (1935), Cornwall (1944) - that have occurred in Canada in 'modern' times, field studies of near-field strong ground motion records and their resultant damage or non-damage to industrial facilities, and numerical modelling of earthquake sources and resultant wave propagation to produce accelerograms consistent with the above historical record and field studies. It is concluded that for future construction of NPP's near-field strong motion must be explicitly considered in design

  19. APFO Historical Availability of Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The APFO Historical Availability ArcGIS Online web map provides an easy to use reference of what historical imagery is available by county from the Aerial...

  20. What Is Linked Historical Data?

    OpenAIRE

    Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Hoekstra, Rinke; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Schlobach, Stefan; Lambrix, Patrick; Hyvönen, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Datasets that represent historical sources are relative new- comers in the Linked Open Data (LOD) cloud. Following the standard LOD practices for publishing historical sources raises several questions: how can we distinguish between RDF graphs of primary and secondary sources? Should we treat archived and online RDF graphs differently in historical research? How do we deal with change and immutability of a triplified History? To answer these fundamental questions, we model historical primary ...

  1. Y-12 National Security Complex National Historic Preservation Act Historic Preservation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-09-30

    The Historic Preservation Plan (HPP) recognizes that the Y-12 National Security Complex is a vital and long-term component of DOE and NNSA. In addition to NNSA missions, the Office of Science and Energy, the Office of Nuclear Energy, and the Office of Environmental Management have properties located at Y-12 that must be taken into consideration. The HPP also recognizes that the challenge for cultural resource management is incorporating the requirements of NNSA, SC, NE, and EM missions while preserving and protecting its historic resources. The HPP seeks to find an effective way to meet the obligations at Y-12 for historic and archeological protection while at the same time facilitating effective completion of ongoing site mission activities, including removal of obsolete or contaminated facilities, adaptive reuse of existing facilities whenever feasible, and construction of new facilities in order to meet site mission needs. The Y-12 Historic Preservation Plan (HPP) defines the preservation strategy for the Y-12 National Security Complex and will direct efficient compliance with the NHPA and federal archaeological protection legislation at Y-12 as DOE and NNSA continues mission activities of the site.

  2. The Historical Justification of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Matti

    2008-01-01

    The article deals with various aspects of justifying music historically. In Matti Huttunen's opinion Western music culture has been strongly historical since the nineteenth century. The article attempts to elucidate the historical nature of music, as well as the canon of music, the selective nature of music history, and the influence of aesthetic…

  3. Algal and cyanobacterial biofilms on calcareous historic buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispim, Cezar A; Gaylarde, Peter M; Gaylarde, Christine C

    2003-02-01

    Major microorganisms in biofilms on external surfaces of historic buildings are algae, cyanobacteria, bacteria, and fungi. Their growth causes discoloration and degradation. We compared the phototrophs on cement-based renderings and limestone substrates at 14 historic locations (47 sites sampled) in Europe and Latin America. Most biofilms contained both cyanobacteria and algae. Single-celled and colonial cyanobacteria frequently constituted the major phototroph biomass on limestone monuments (32 sites sampled). Greater numbers of phototrophs, and especially of algae and of filamentous morphotypes, were found on cement-based renderings (15 sites), probably owing to the porosity and small pore size of the latter substrates, allowing greater entry and retention of water. All phototrophic groups were more frequent on Latin American than on European buildings (20 and 27 sites, respectively), with cyanobacteria and filamentous phototrophs showing the greatest differences. The results confirm the influence of both climate and substrate on phototroph colonization of historic buildings. PMID:12520359

  4. Perception of Sacredness at Heritage Religious Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Daniel; Kocher, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Tourism at historic religious sites requires balancing the needs of historic preservation, the tourist experience, and community use of the site. The sacredness of these places is defined by the behaviors that occur there, the experience of users and visitors, and the meanings associated with the place by various groups. This research examines the…

  5. Identification and classification of Serbia's historic floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prohaska Stevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available River flooding in Serbia is a natural phenomenon which largely exceeds the scope of water management and hydraulic engineering, and has considerable impact on the development of Serbian society. Today, the importance and value of areas threatened by floods are among the key considerations of sustainable development. As a result, flood protection techniques and procedures need to be continually refined and updated, following innovations in the fields of science and technology. Knowledge of high flows is key for sizing hydraulic structures and for gauging the cost-effectiveness and safety of the component structures of flood protection systems. However, sizing of hydraulic structures based on computed high flows does not ensure absolute safety; there is a residual flood risk and a risk of structural failure, if a flood exceeds computed levels. In hydrological practice, such floods are often referred to as historic/loads. The goal of this paper is to present a calculation procedure for the objective identification of historic floods, using long, multiple-year series of data on high flows of natural watercourses in Serbia. At its current stage of development, the calculation procedure is based on maximum annual discharges recorded at key monitoring stations of the Hydro-Meteorological Service of Serbia (HMS Serbia. When applied, the procedure results in the identification of specific historic maximum stages/floods (if any at all gauge sites included in the analysis. The probabilistic theory is then applied to assess the statistical significance of each identified historic flood and to classify the historic flood, as appropriate. At the end of the paper, the results of the applied methodology are shown in tabular and graphic form for various Serbian rivers. All identified historic floods are ranked based on their probability of occurrence (i.e., return period.

  6. World Heritage Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠云

    2004-01-01

    If you think about World Heritage Sites, you probably think of places associated with ancient art and culture, historical buildings and monuments. And of course, many of these are on the World Heritage List (WHL) (世界遗产名录).

  7. Spaces of collaboration: The poetics of place and historical consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna R. McLean

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of engaging students in the negotiation of their place in historical landscapes is vitalized through the development of historical consciousness as a pedagogical tool for instruction in social studies. This study uses student reflection collected from a graduate course to examine how historical consciousness is understood and expressed through experiential interaction with historical sites and the role of people, places, and historical events in the creation of social history. The participants in the study reflected on how public memory is constructed and individualized within grand and personal narratives of their chosen area of commemoration. The study’s participants showed an eagerness to incorporate interactive technology to express their understanding of historical events, further highlighting technology’s role in democratizing information through digital historical narratives. The student-participants also internalized and articulated their experiences with history through artistic means, which permitted a free expression across multiple media. As prospective educators, the participants negotiated the role of historical consciousness in the development and extension of curricular practices, including the critical examination of official narratives in favour of a socialized history.

  8. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer trademark, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made

  9. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulis, L.; Wilson, G.; Jacobson, R.

    1997-09-01

    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer{trademark}, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made.

  10. Historical Slovenian Language Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erjavec

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The paper presents three language resources enabling better full-text access to digitised printed historical Slovenian texts: a hand-annotated corpus, a hand-annotated lexicon of historical words and a collection of transcribed texts. The aim of the resources is twofold: on one hand they support empirical linguistic research (corpus, collection and represent a reference tool for the research of historical Slovenian (lexicon while on the other hand they may serve as training data for the development of Human Language Technologies enabling better full-text search in digital libraries containing Slovenian written cultural heritage, modernisation of historical texts, and the development of better technological solutions for text recognition and scanning. The hand annotated corpus of historical Slovenian contains the text from 1,000 pages sampled from the years 1750 to 1900, two texts date to the end of the 16th or 17th century. The corpus contains a little more than 250,000 word tokens; each of them being annotated with hand validated linguistic features: modernised form, lemma or base form, and morhpo-syntactic description. Thus the word token »ajfram« is annotated with the normalised form »ajfrom«, by the lemma »ajfer« and morphosyntactic description »Som« or »Samostalnik« (noun, »občni« (common, »moški« (masculine and a modernised form »gorečnost« (fervour. At first the corpus was annotated automatically and then manually verified and corrected. The lexicon was created automatically from the hand-annotated corpus. It contains only attested word-forms and examples of use. The word-forms are ordered under their modern equivalents. All the modern forms of a particular word constitute a dictionary entry, defined by its lemma with conjoint information i.e. the morpho-syntactic description and the closest contemporary synonyms. Thus the entry »ajfrer/Som/gorečnost« is annotated by two modernised words »ajfra

  11. Historical Contingencies in Microbial Responses to Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, C.; Waring, B.; Rocca, J.; Kivlin, S.; Giauque, H.; Averill, C.

    2014-12-01

    Although water is a primary controller of microbial function and we expect climate change to alter water availability in the future, our understanding of how microbial communities respond to a change in moisture and what that means for soil carbon cycling remain poorly understood. In part, this uncertainty arises from a lack of understanding of microbial response mechanisms and how those lead to aggregate soil function. Environmental tracking would be facilitated if microbial communities respond to new climatic conditions via rapid physiological acclimatization, shifts in community composition, or adaptation. In contrast, historical contingencies could be created by dispersal limitation or local adaptation to previous conditions. To address environmental tracking vs. legacies, we examined how soil microbial communities were affected by precipitation at multiple scales and asked whether rainfall was a primary driver of the observed responses. We leveraged a local steep rainfall gradient with field surveys, lab incubations, reciprocal transplants, and rainfall manipulations to approach this problem. Across a steep rainfall gradient, we found that soil microbial communities were strongly associated with historical rainfall, with two-thirds of the variation in community composition explained by mean annual precipitation. In 12-month experimental lab manipulations of soil moisture, soil functional responses were constrained by historical rainfall, with greater activity in soils subjected to their original moisture condition. The constraints of historical rainfall held even after 18 months in reciprocal transplant common gardens along the rainfall gradient and with manipulated dispersal of regional microbial communities. Yet, when water was manipulated at a single site over 4 years, legacies did not develop. Overall, these findings are consistent with long-term rainfall acting as a strong habitat filter and resulting in a legacy of both microbial community composition

  12. The Historical Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. H.; Stephenson, F. R.

    1982-11-01

    A survey was made of pretelescopic astronomical records from Europe, China, Korea, Japan, Babylon, and the Arab countries to search for historical evidence of supernovae. A Roman, Claudian, reported a new star in 393 AD, the same year that Chinese astronomers noted a new star, together with its location and duration. Most European records were made in monasteries after 1000 AD, and one supernova was sighted in 1006 AD. A similar sighting was made in the Arab world at the same time. A total of twenty candidate events were found in the nearly 2000 yr of Chinese records. An analysis of the recorded events characteristics indicates that in 185, 393, 1006, 1054, 1181, 1572, and 1604 AD supernovae were seen. The 1054 AD explosion was corroborated by Arab records, while all others (except for the 393 AD and 1006 AD supernovae) were confined to Oriental observations.

  13. PRIMEROS RESULTADOS DEL ANÁLISIS ZOOARQUEOLÓGICO DEL SITIO HISTÓRICO EL SANTUARIO I (MAGDALENA, PROVINCIA DE BUENOS AIRES/First results of the zooarchaeological analysis of El Santuario I historical site (Magdalena, Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad García

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los primeros resultados del análisis de una muestra de restos faunísticos provenientes del sitio El Santuario I (partido de Magdalena, provincia de Buenos Aires. El registro arqueológico del sitio se compone mayoritariamente de materiales vítreos pertenecientes a recipientes de bebidas alcohólicas y restos faunísticos. En menor proporción se registraron pipas de caolín y elementos metálicos. El análisis del contexto permite ubicar la ocupación en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. A partir de las evidencias tanto documentales como arqueológicas, se interpreta al sitio como un área de consumo y descarte de grupos criollos, relacionado con las tareas pecuarias desarrolladas en el establecimiento productivo. Las evidencias de la utilización antrópica en el material óseo (marcas de corte, fracturas intencionales y señales de termoalteración se registran exclusivamente en la fauna doméstica, Ovis aries y Bos taurus. Estas especies son las de mayor representación en la muestra y se infiere un uso diferencial de las mismas. Este trabajo permite una aproximación a la caracterización de foodways de los sectores rurales abordados y las estrategias de explotación del ganado implementadas. Abstract We present the results of the analysis of faunal remains from El Santuario I (district of Magdalena, Buenos Aires. The archaeological record of the site mainly consists of glass from alcoholic beverage containers and faunal remains. Kaolin pipes and metal elements were less abundant. The analysis of the assemblage allows determining the occupation in the second half of the 19th century. From documentary and archaeological evidence, we identify the site as an area of consumption and disposal related to livestock activities developed in the productive establishment of Creole groups. Evidence of human use (cut marks, intentional fractures and thermal alterations was recorded only in domestic animals, Ovis aries and Bos taurus. These

  14. FEMA Historical Disaster Declarations - shp

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Historical Disaster Declarations provides geospatial view to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (referred to as the Stafford...

  15. Historic Preservation Information CFM Website

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA Historic Preservation Office keeps information about VA's programs to comply with Federal preservation requirements, and also interesting information about...

  16. Integration of Jeddah Historical BIM and 3D GIS for Documentation and Restoration of Historical Monument

    OpenAIRE

    A. Baik; Yaagoubi, R.; J. Boehm

    2015-01-01

    This work outlines a new approach for the integration of 3D Building Information Modelling and the 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) to provide semantically rich models, and to get the benefits from both systems to help document and analyse cultural heritage sites. Our proposed framework is based on the Jeddah Historical Building Information Modelling process (JHBIM). This JHBIM consists of a Hijazi Architectural Objects Library (HAOL) that supports higher level of details (LoD)...

  17. Adaptive Re-Use Principles in Historic Hotel Buildings in Melaka And George Town

    OpenAIRE

    Ab Wahab Lilawati; Mohd.Hamdan Noor Aishah; Lop Nor Suzila; Mohd Kamar Izatul Faritta

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive re-use of historic buildings is a process of changing the original function of the historic buildings to another function that can optimise the use of existing historic buildings. The selection of appropriate new function is an important factor in determining the success of adaptive re-use of historic buildings. However, adaptive re-use work done on historic buildings on the World Heritage Site is not an easy task due to rules and principles outlined by local and international charte...

  18. Historicity and theology, and the quest for historical Jesus1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Geyser

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of history and historicity is reviewed in this article. The efforts of New Historicism is brought to bear on this question in an effort to find a way out of the impasse created by the modernist demand for objectivity and the postmodern resignation to radical relativism. The possibility of historiography is explored in conjunction with the pragmatic approach and leads to the conclusion that a kind of historical knowledge is attainable which can be described as useful even if not perfect. The author concurs with Crossan and his working definition of history as the past reconstructed interactively by the present through argued evidence in public discourse. The intersubjective nature of any historical enterprise leads the author to the conclusion that the search for the historical Jesus can only be done in the dialectical approach of a both ... and: both the historical Jesus and the kerygmatic Christ

  19. In Situ Preservation of Historic Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, R.; Brooks, R.

    The loss of the Mir space station is shown to symbolize a new consciousness of the value of space artefacts. The reasons why such artefacts as Mir become historic objects worthy of preservation are examined. Preservation of space vehicles in situ is discussed, with particular reference to safety, monitoring and long term costs. An argument is made for a wider definition for World Heritage designations to include material beyond the surface of the Earth, and for international bodies to assess, monitor and oversee these projects. Such heritage sites are seen as an economic driver for the development of space tourism in the 21st century.

  20. Brief historical background of Miamisburg Indian Mound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Lorraine M. [comp.

    1960-01-01

    The construction of Mound Laboratory was completed in 1948. The name Mound Laboratory was chosen for this installation because of the major Indian Mound which is immediately adjacent to the Plant site. Frequent inquiries of visitors to Mound Lab concerning the Indian Mounds in general and specifically Miamisburg's Indian Mound has indicated an area of "outside interest". We, therefore, thought it would be appropriate to furnish this brief historical background to all of the attendees at the Twentieth Meeting of the Mechanical Equipment Management Subgroup.

  1. What Is Linked Historical Data?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Hoekstra, Rinke; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Schlobach, Stefan; Lambrix, Patrick; Hyvönen, Eero

    2014-01-01

    Datasets that represent historical sources are relative new- comers in the Linked Open Data (LOD) cloud. Following the standard LOD practices for publishing historical sources raises several questions: how can we distinguish between RDF graphs of primary and secondary sources? Should we treat archiv

  2. What is Linked Historical Data?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Meroño-Peñuela; R. Hoekstra

    2014-01-01

    Datasets that represent historical sources are relative newcomers in the Linked Open Data (LOD) cloud. Following the standard LOD practices for publishing historical sources raises several questions: how can we distinguish between RDF graphs of primary and secondary sources? Should we treat archived

  3. 資訊素養融入國小四年級社會學習領域教學:小小古蹟解說員的培訓研究 Integrating Information Literacy into Fourth-Grade Social Studies: A Student Guide Education for Historical Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ching Chen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available 本研究旨在利用Big6模式將資訊素養融入國小社會學習領域「小小古蹟解說員」課程,並探討學生的學習表現,課程實施的困難和因應之道。整個研究進行一年,以協同行動研究法為架構,配合參與觀察、訪談、文件分析,及問卷調查等多元方法。研究結果顯示大部分學生認同此課程,藉由親身體驗古蹟,他們更加了解古蹟的價值。就主題探索的學習表現來說,學生無論在基本能力、古蹟解說和評論提出等方面都有進步。但在口齒、對答等進一步口語表達則仍須再加強。學生基本能力不足,以及學科老師與媒體專家合作不易則是在實踐資訊素養融入教學時,遭遇的兩大難題。因此,發展一套循序漸進的資訊素養融入課程,設計多元且合宜的探索任務,並營造學校老師合作設計融入課程的氣氛是未來須再努力的方向。The purposes of this study are threefold, first, to develop an integrated information literacy in elementary social studies on the basis of Big6 model; secondly, to investigate students’ learning performance; third, to find obstacles and solutions for implementing this curriculum. The collaborative action research is used as a framework in this study, which lasts for a year. Research data are gathered through the methods of participatory observation, interview, document analysis, as well as surveys. The research results show that most students have positive attitudes toward the integrated information literacy curriculum. Through exploring historical sites in person, students are more aware of the value of historical sites. Students are making good progress in basic information literacy skills and commentary on historical sites, while oral expression skills need to be improved. Students’ lack of basic information literacy skills, and few chances for professional collaboration among teachers are two

  4. Estudio del patrimonio y territorio asociado a la canal de Navarrés desde Chella hasta Enguera

    OpenAIRE

    PIQUERAS ARRIAGA, ESTER

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este Proyecto Final de Grado es inventariar, analizar y catalogar el patrimonio ubicado en torno a los Ríos Anna, Sellent y Mínguez, para contribuir a la difusión, protección y conservación, tanto del patrimonio en sí como de su territorio. Los objetivos específicos consisten en; localizar los elementos de interés patrimonial para realizar el inventariado de los bienes asociados a los ríos Anna, Sellent y Minguez; ubicarlos en el mapa mediante la obtención de las coo...

  5. The Challenges of Preserving Historic Resources During the Deactivation and Decommissioning of Highly Contaminated Historically Significant Plutonium Process Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Manhattan Project was initiated to develop nuclear weapons for use in World War II. The Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) was established in eastern Washington State as a production complex for the Manhattan Project. A major product of the HEW was plutonium. The buildings and process equipment used in the early phases of nuclear weapons development are historically significant because of the new and unique work that was performed. When environmental cleanup became Hanford's central mission in 1991, the Department of Energy (DOE) prepared for the deactivation and decommissioning of many of the old process facilities. In many cases, the process facilities were so contaminated, they faced demolition. The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) requires federal agencies to evaluate the historic significance of properties under their jurisdiction for eligibility for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places before altering or demolishing them so that mitigation through documentation of the properties can occur. Specifically, federal agencies are required to evaluate their proposed actions against the effect the actions may have on districts, sites, buildings or structures that are included or eligible for inclusion in the National Register. In an agreement between the DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL), the Washington State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP), the agencies concurred that the Hanford Site Historic District is eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places and that a Site-wide Treatment Plan would streamline compliance with the NHPA while allowing RL to manage the cleanup of the Hanford Site. Currently, many of the old processing buildings at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) are undergoing deactivation and decommissioning. RL and Fluor Hanford project managers at the PFP are committed to preserving historical artifacts of the plutonium production process. They

  6. Historical Vignettes of Epicanthoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Hun

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to summarize historical vignettes in regards to epicanthoplasty, systematically.In a PubMed search and a Scopus search, the search terms (epicanthal) AND (fold)and (epicanthoplasty) were used, which resulted in 389 titles found. Among the 480 titles, 74 titles, which were duplicated between PubMed and Scopus were excluded. Excluding 352 titles from the remaining 406 titles, 54 abstracts discussing at least 1 surgical method correcting epicanthal folds were reviewed. By excluding further 6 abstracts, 48 full articles, were reviewed. Finally, 6 mined articles were added, in which 4 studies were excluded resulting in 46 articles being analyzed.Forty-three articles studied eliminating epicanthal folds (93.5%) and 3 discussed reconstructing removed epicanthal folds (6.5%). The methods were categorized into Z-plasty, advancement, skin redraping, excision, and others. Among the 48 methods analyzed, the Z-plasty (21, 43.8%) was written most frequently followed by advancement (14, 29.2%), and excision (7, 14.6%). Redraping was relatively rare (4, 8.3%). The Z-plasty is employed frequently and is increasingly used. Excision has decreased in use and no more articles have been written recently. Advancement has continuously increased but has stabilized from 2010. Redraping has increased recently apparently after Oh's 2007 article was published.Excessive performance of epicanthoplasty causes unwanted results, including overcorrection. Subsequently, reconstruction of the over-corrected cases was needed and restoration methods are now being published. It is expected that new modifications of Z-epicanthoplasty or skin redraping technique will appear. Reconstruction methods will also be developed. PMID:27192634

  7. Renewing Historical Ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    History was made when Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao kicked off his seven-nation Africa tour in June in Cairo, attending a gala at the foot of the Pyramids of Giza to mark 50 years of China-Egypt diplomatic relations in the company of his Egyptian counterpart Ahmed Nazef. This is the first time the world heritage site has ever been used for such an occasion. Following on the heels of the two ancient civilizations consolidating their relationship, Egyptian Ambassador to China Mahmoud Allam shared his visions ...

  8. Exploring historical trends using taxonomic name metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schenk Ryan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Authority and year information have been attached to taxonomic names since Linnaean times. The systematic structure of taxonomic nomenclature facilitates the ability to develop tools that can be used to explore historical trends that may be associated with taxonomy. Results From the over 10.7 million taxonomic names that are part of the uBio system 4, approximately 3 million names were identified to have taxonomic authority information from the years 1750 to 2004. A pipe-delimited file was then generated, organized according to a Linnaean hierarchy and by years from 1750 to 2004, and imported into an Excel workbook. A series of macros were developed to create an Excel-based tool and a complementary Web site to explore the taxonomic data. A cursory and speculative analysis of the data reveals observable trends that may be attributable to significant events that are of both taxonomic (e.g., publishing of key monographs and societal importance (e.g., world wars. The findings also help quantify the number of taxonomic descriptions that may be made available through digitization initiatives. Conclusion Temporal organization of taxonomic data can be used to identify interesting biological epochs relative to historically significant events and ongoing efforts. We have developed an Excel workbook and complementary Web site that enables one to explore taxonomic trends for Linnaean taxonomic groupings, from Kingdoms to Families.

  9. 36 CFR 72.40 - Historic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Historic Preservation procedures described in 36 CFR 800, “Protection of Historic and Cultural Properties... and Innovation § 72.40 Historic properties. Properties listed in or determined eligible for listing...

  10. 2nd Historic Mortars Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, John; Groot, Caspar; Historic Mortars : Characterisation, Assessment and Repair

    2012-01-01

    This volume focuses on research and practical issues connected with mortars on historic structures. The book is divided into four sections: Characterisation of Historic Mortars, Repair Mortars and Design Issues, Experimental Research into Properties of Repair Mortars, and Assessment and Testing. The papers present the latest work of researchers in their field. The individual contributions were selected from the contributions to the 2nd Historic Mortars Conference, which took place in Prague, September, 22-24, 2010. All papers were reviewed and improved as necessary before publication. This peer review process by the editors resulted in the 34 individual contributions included in here. One extra paper reviewing and summarising State-of-the-Art knowledge covered by this publication was added as a starting and navigational point for the reader. The editors believe that having these papers in print is important and they hope that it will stimulate further research into historic mortars and related subjects. 

  11. Historical and Documentary Data Sets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past climate and environment from historical references and documentary evidence such as church records, harvest dates, and diaries. Parameter keywords...

  12. Historical sociology of the city

    OpenAIRE

    Isin, Engin F.

    2003-01-01

    About the book: This Handbook consists of 26 chapters on historical sociology. It is divided into three parts. Part One is devoted to Foundations and covers Marx, Weber, evolutionary and functionalist approaches, the Annales School, Elias, Nelson and Eisenstadt. Part Two moves on to consider major approaches, such as modernization approaches, late Marxist approaches, historical geography, institutional approaches, cultural history, intellectual history, postcolonial and genealogical approache...

  13. Social history and historical sociology

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Knöbl

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with exchanges and misunderstandings between the German school of social history (most prominently represented by scholars from the University of Bielefeld (such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler) and Anglo-American trends in historical sociology (exemplified by the works of Barrington Moore, Theda Skocpol and Michael Mann). The social historians tended to dismiss historical sociology as too dependent on modernization theory, without taking into account the critique of that tradition by ...

  14. HISTORICAL PROCESS AND GLOBALIZATION METHODOLOGICAL

    OpenAIRE

    Musayelyan, Lyeva

    2013-01-01

    Globalization is one of the most popular concept, but it still is indistinct. There are a lot of related publications, but most of them eliminate the problem of correlation between historical process and globalization. In this paper we make an attempt to bring to light such a correlation and point out its anthropological aspects. In the first paper we gave consideration to the correlation between «color revolutions», democratization of society and historical process and its objective laws. Mo...

  15. John Muir National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  16. Fort Larned National Historic SiteTract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  17. Fort Bowie National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  18. Whitman Mission National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  19. Washita Battlefield National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  20. Nicodemus National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  1. Andrew Johnson National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  2. Washita Battlefield National Historic SiteTract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  3. Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  4. Friendship Hill National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  5. Longfellow National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  6. Fort Vancouver National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  7. Minuteman MIssile National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that were created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  8. Fort Smith National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  9. Martin Van Buren National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  10. Maggie L. Walker National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  11. Lincoln Home National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  12. Springfield Armory National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  13. Herbert Hoover National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  14. Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  15. Fort Davis National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  16. Saint Paul's Church National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  17. Andersonville National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  18. Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  19. Clara Barton National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  20. Teacher's Packet to the Golden Spike National Historic Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    One reason the Mormons, who wanted to be left alone, migrated to the Utah territory was its isolation. But that changed in 1869, when the new transcontinental railroad came to Utah. The completion of the transcontinental railroad not only made it easier to transport people and goods across the country, it also put an end to the hard work of…

  1. Jimmy Carter National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  2. Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  3. Golden Spike National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  4. Hampton National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  5. Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  6. First Ladies National Historic Site Tract and Boundary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — These ESRI shape files are of National Park Service tract and boundary data that was created by the Land Resources Division. Tracts are numbered and created by the...

  7. Social History and Historical Sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knöbl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with exchanges and misunderstandings between the German school of social history (most prominently represented by scholars from the University of Bielefeld (such as Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Anglo-American trends in historical sociology (exemplified by the works of Barrington Moore, Theda Skocpol and Michael Mann. The social historians tended to dismiss historical sociology as too dependent on modernization theory, without taking into account the critique of that tradition by authors who brought processes of state formation and revolutionary change into the debate. On the other side, mainstream historical sociology worked with assumptions that limited its ability to change the terms and directions of sociological discourse, and to assimilate lessons from history. Among these inbuilt biases, organizational realism and materialism - particularly pronounced in the work of Michael Mann - stand out as particularly important. The paper closes with arguments in favour of bringing more history into historical sociology, with particular emphasis on three sets of problems. There is a need for more historical approaches to differentiation, less dependent on functionalist premises than the hitherto prevalent paradigm. A more explicit thematization of temporality in history and society would, among other things, help to clarify issues linked to the notion of path dependency. Finally, a reconsideration of the models and types of explanation in historical sociology would place more emphasis on their interpretive dimension.

  8. Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places - MO 2010 Architectural Surveys (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set depicts the boundaries of localized architectural surveys maintained by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of State Parks, State...

  9. Spatial Vegetation Data for Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — his metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Lydon B. Johnson National Historical Site and surrounding areas. This project is authorized...

  10. Worldwide historical hurricane tracks from 1848 through the previous hurricane season

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Historical Hurricane Tracks web site provides visualizations of storm tracks derived from the 6-hourly (0000, 0600, 1200, 1800 UTC) center locations and...

  11. Methodology and procedures for compilation of historical earthquake data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared subsequent to the recommendations of the project initiation meeting in Vienna, November 25-29, 1985, under the IAEA Interregional project INT/9/066 Seismic Data for Nuclear Power Plant Siting. The aim of the project is to co-ordinate national efforts of Member States in the Mediterranean region in the compilation and processing of historical earthquake data in the siting of nuclear facilities. The main objective of the document is to assist the participating Member States, especially those who are initiating an NPP siting programme, in their effort to compile and process historical earthquake data and to provide a uniform interregional framework for this task. Although the document is directed mainly to the Mediterranean countries using illustrative examples from this region, the basic procedures and methods herein described may be applicable to other parts of the world such as Southeast Asia, Himalayan belt, Latin America, etc. 101 refs, 7 figs

  12. Historical tank content estimate for the southeast quadrant of the Hanford 200 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides historical evaluations of the radioactive and mixed waste stored in the Hanford site underground double-shell tanks. A Historical Tank Content Estimate has been developed by reviewing the process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical characterization data from various Department of Energy and Department of Defense contractors. The historical data will supplement information that is currently being gathered from core sampling. Historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, and sampling data have been compiled for this report and supporting documents

  13. Historical earthquake investigations in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Makropoulos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The active tectonics of the area of Greece and its seismic activity have always been present in the country?s history. Many researchers, tempted to work on Greek historical earthquakes, have realized that this is a task not easily fulfilled. The existing catalogues of strong historical earthquakes are useful tools to perform general SHA studies. However, a variety of supporting datasets, non-uniformly distributed in space and time, need to be further investigated. In the present paper, a review of historical earthquake studies in Greece is attempted. The seismic history of the country is divided into four main periods. In each one of them, characteristic examples, studies and approaches are presented.

  14. How to read historical mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Wardbaugh, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Writings by early mathematicians feature language and notations that are quite different from what we're familiar with today. Sourcebooks on the history of mathematics provide some guidance, but what has been lacking is a guide tailored to the needs of readers approaching these writings for the first time. How to Read Historical Mathematics fills this gap by introducing readers to the analytical questions historians ask when deciphering historical texts. Sampling actual writings from the history of mathematics, Benjamin Wardhaugh reveals the questions that will unlock the meaning and significa

  15. Real Analysis A Historical Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, Saul

    2011-01-01

    A provocative look at the tools and history of real analysis This new edition of Real Analysis: A Historical Approach continues to serve as an interesting read for students of analysis. Combining historical coverage with a superb introductory treatment, this book helps readers easily make the transition from concrete to abstract ideas. The book begins with an exciting sampling of classic and famous problems first posed by some of the greatest mathematicians of all time. Archimedes, Fermat, Newton, and Euler are each summoned in turn, illuminating the utility of infinite, power, and trigonome

  16. The Hanford Site: An anthology of early histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics: Memories of War: Pearl Harbor and the Genesis of the Hanford Site; safety has always been promoted at the Hanford Site; women have an important place in Hanford Site history; the boom and bust cycle: A 50-year historical overview of the economic impacts of Hanford Site Operations on the Tri-Cities, Washington; Hanford's early reactors were crucial to the sites's history; T-Plant made chemical engineering history; the UO3 plant has a long history of service. PUREX Plant: the Hanford Site's Historic Workhorse. PUREX Plant Waste Management was a complex challenge; and early Hanford Site codes and jargon

  17. Analysis of Traditional Historical Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Schmidt, A. L.; Petersen, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    A recurrent problem for scholars who investigate traditional and historical clothing is the measuring of items of clothing and subsequent pattern construction. The challenge is to produce exact data without damaging the item. The main focus of this paper is to present a new procedure for establis...

  18. Integrated Curriculum in Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vars, Gordon F.

    1991-01-01

    Organizing a school staff to deliver a core curriculum has historically taken three forms: the all-school theme approach, interdisciplinary teamwork, and the block time or self-contained class models. The ultimate in student-centered integrative curriculum is the unstructured core approach, which involves teacher and student cooperation in…

  19. Developing Historical Thinking through Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viator, Martha Graham

    2012-01-01

    The social studies classroom can and should be a place where students learn critical thinking skills, but too often, especially in the middle grades, students are asked to focus on discrete facts on which they can be tested. The purpose of this article is to suggest that sixth graders can learn the critical thinking skills of "historical thinking"…

  20. Energy Sources: An Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Constance M.

    1983-01-01

    Putting the present energy situation into an historical perspective provides meaning to today's energy concerns and demonstrates how important energy has always been to our life style. Primary energy sources of the United States from 1850 to the present are examined. (RM)

  1. Historical Bibliography and Library History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummel, D. W.

    2000-01-01

    Considers relationships between the fields of library history and historical bibliography. Topics include the act of reading versus the cultural institutions of reading; description and cataloging; book production; paradigm shifts; classification systems; electronic libraries; and the need for theory to grow out of practice. (LRW)

  2. Jeddah Historical Building Information Modelling "JHBIM" - Object Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, A.; Alitany, A.; Boehm, J.; Robson, S.

    2014-05-01

    The theory of using Building Information Modelling "BIM" has been used in several Heritage places in the worldwide, in the case of conserving, documenting, managing, and creating full engineering drawings and information. However, one of the most serious issues that facing many experts in order to use the Historical Building Information Modelling "HBIM", is creating the complicated architectural elements of these Historical buildings. In fact, many of these outstanding architectural elements have been designed and created in the site to fit the exact location. Similarly, this issue has been faced the experts in Old Jeddah in order to use the BIM method for Old Jeddah historical Building. Moreover, The Saudi Arabian City has a long history as it contains large number of historic houses and buildings that were built since the 16th century. Furthermore, the BIM model of the historical building in Old Jeddah always take a lot of time, due to the unique of Hijazi architectural elements and no such elements library, which have been took a lot of time to be modelled. This paper will focus on building the Hijazi architectural elements library based on laser scanner and image survey data. This solution will reduce the time to complete the HBIM model and offering in depth and rich digital architectural elements library to be used in any heritage projects in Al-Balad district, Jeddah City.

  3. INTRA URBAN AIR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTIONS IN HISTORIC URBAN CENTER

    OpenAIRE

    Elmira Jamei; Dilshan Remaz Ossen

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates the urban heat island effect in Malaysian historic town Malacca through seven mobile traverses, as carried out on 10 December 2011. It aims to identify the intra-urban air temperature differences between heritage core zone, new development area and outskirts of the city. Air temperature variations were also analyzed across three different zones; namely the outskirts, the heritage site and the city center district. Heat index values were then calculated based on air temp...

  4. Problems regarding the application of internet in the historical research

    OpenAIRE

    Fostikov, Aleksandra; Milenović, Nenad

    2004-01-01

    The text consists of two different parts – theoretical and practical one Theoretical part implies several problems regarding the application of Internet during the historical research: its significance and its positive sides, various problems a historian encounters during the course of such applications, its prospects in the future, etc. On the other hand, practical part of this text comprises the review of a number of various Internet sites significant for...

  5. Statics of Historic Masonry Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of much of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. This book aims to help fill this demand presenting a comprehensive new statics of masonry constructions. The book, result of thirty years of research and professional experience, gives the fundamentals of statics of the masonry solid, then applied to the study of statics of arches, piers and vaults. Further, combining engineering and architecture and through an interdisciplinary approach, the book investigates the statical behaviour of many historic monuments, as the Pantheon, the Colosseum,  the domes of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence and of St. Peter in Rome, the Tower of Pisa, the Gothic Cathedrals and the Masonry Buildings under seismic actions.

  6. Systematic musicology meets historical musicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.

    Background. Research has used the normalised Pairwise Variability Index (nPVI) to examine relationships between musical rhythm and durational variability in composers’ native languages (Patel & Daniele, 2003a, 2003b; Huron & Ollen, 2003). Syllable-timed languages like Italian and French have low n......PVI while stress-timed languages like German have higher nPVI. Recent analyses of historical developments have ascribed linearly increasing nPVI in Austro-German, but not Italian music to waning Italian and increasing German influence on Austro-German music after the Baroque (Daniele & Patel, 2013). This is......, however, a post-hoc hypothesis (VanHandel, 2005), and since we cannot perform controlled experiments on historical data, replication with more sensitive methods and new repertoires is required. Turning to French music, we hypothesise both an initial increase and a subsequent decrease in nPVI, based on...

  7. Taming power: Generative historical consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, David G

    2016-04-01

    Power is a necessary dimension of all human enterprises. It can inspire and illuminate, but it can also corrupt, oppress, and destroy. Therefore, taming power has been a central moral and political question for most of human history. Writers, theorists, and researchers have suggested many methods and mechanisms for taming power: through affiliation and love, intellect and reason, responsibility, religion and values, democratic political structures, and separation of powers. Historical examples and social science research suggest that each has some success, but also that each is vulnerable to being hijacked by power itself. I therefore introduce generative historical consciousness (GHC) as a concept and measure that might help to secure the benefits of power while protecting against its outrages and excesses. I conclude by discussing the role that GHC may have played in the peaceful resolution of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. PMID:26011649

  8. International Polar Year Historical Data and Literature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The International Polar Year Historical Data and Literature collection (formerly known as the Discovery and Access of Historic Literature from the IPYs (DAHLI)...

  9. Historical spaces of social psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Kalampalikis, Nikos; Delouvée, Sylvain; Pétard, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    An extensive analysis of all social psychology textbooks published, in french, between 1947 and 2001, including a history chapter, provides a rich corpus for the study of the history of social psychology. In this article we choose to study the historical spaces of social psychology, in order to show how the discipline was located in geographical, urban, institutional and collective spaces. We argue that, into this specific corpus, spaces are essentially related to some solitary and consensual...

  10. Industrialization as a Historical Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Grubler, A

    1995-01-01

    Industrialization is shown as a time-specific and spatially heterogeneous process. The description of industrialization paths uses two concepts along a functional/temporal and a spatial dimension: Technology clusters, i.e., a set of interrelated technological, institutional and social innovations, drive particular (historical) periods of industrial output and productivity growth. A spatial taxonomy reflects the different degrees of development and intensiveness of industrialization among core...

  11. Japan 2006 in historical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Michiko Tanaka Nishishima

    2007-01-01

    Readings of the current Japanese politics with the historic and social insight through analysis of four facts registered in 2006: the visit of the prime minister Koizumi to the Yasukuni shrine; the election of Abe Shinzo as the president of Liberal Democratic Party and the formation of Abe cabinet; the Atomic bomb experimentation by the North Corea; the publication of the book of feminist counteroffensive against the numerous rightist conservative harassment.

  12. 'Protestantism' as a historical category.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryrie, Alec

    2016-01-01

    The term ‘Protestant’ itself is a historical accident, but the category of western Christians who have separated from Rome since 1517 remains a useful one. The confessionalisation thesis, which has dominated recent Reformation historiography, instead posits the two major Protestant confessions and Tridentine Catholicism as its categories, but this can produce a false parallelism in which the nature of relationship between the confessions is oversimplified. Instead, this paper proposes we thin...

  13. Japan 2006 in historical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Tanaka Nishishima

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Readings of the current Japanese politics with the historic and social insight through analysis of four facts registered in 2006: the visit of the prime minister Koizumi to the Yasukuni shrine; the election of Abe Shinzo as the president of Liberal Democratic Party and the formation of Abe cabinet; the Atomic bomb experimentation by the North Corea; the publication of the book of feminist counteroffensive against the numerous rightist conservative harassment.

  14. Flood protection in historical towns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nedvědová, Klára

    Vol. 168. Southampton: WIT Press, 2015 - (Brebbia, C.), s. 757-762 ISBN 978-1-78466-157-1. [Sustainable Development and Planning 2015 /7./. Istanbul (TR), 19.05.2015-21.05.2015] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV009 Keywords : cultural heritage * flood protection systems * interdisciplinarity * flooding * historic towns Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.witpress.com/elibrary/wit-transactions-on-the-built-environment/168/34812

  15. A Historical Approach to Assertiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Ivelina Peneva; Stoil Mavrodiev

    2013-01-01

    A very important personal quality is to be able to advocate for yourself - your own positions, to achieve your objectives, to overcome difficulties,to be determined, but without harming the rights of others and to be able to control the aggressive impulses. The concept, which expressesthese personal characteristics, is called "assertiveness". Assertiveness is a part of the personal potential. It is a prerequisite for self-actualization.The goal we set in this historical-psychological paper is...

  16. Historical Sunspot Observations: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Vaquero

    2007-01-01

    Early observations of sunspot were realised by the naked eye. Possible utilization of these records for studying the long-term change in the Sun is discussed here. Other historical sunspot observations with camera obscuras are also discussed. Moreover, the best record of the behaviour of the Sun exists for the last four centuries thanks to the observations of sunspots with telescope. These observations should allow us to know the number, position, and area of sunspots as well as some relevant...

  17. Historical Medical Value of Donguibogam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Keun Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oriental medicine, since its origin in China, has had a long history extending over 2000 years. Today, it comprises several types of medicine predominately practiced in East Asia, including traditional Chinese, traditional Korean, and Kampo medicine. The distinctive medical system of traditional Korean medicine was established shortly after the publication of Donguibogam by Dr. Heo Jun in 1613. Donguibogam is highly acclaimed across East Asia; in 2009, in light of its historical medical value, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization registered the book on its cultural heritage list. Here, we review the historical medical value of Donguibogam. The findings confirm that Donguibogam developed a unique and independent form of traditional Korean medicine and innovatively reformed the disease classification system. Moreover, Donguibogam emphasized the importance of disease prevention and medical pragmatism. This book also accelerated the development of folk medicine. Owing to its historical medical value, Donguibogam is now considered the 'bible' of Oriental medicine. Its wide acceptance has contributed to the expansion of Korean medicine utilization among the general public. Donguibogam has also played an important role in the establishment of traditional Korean medicine as a universally valid and original form of medicine, independent of traditional Chinese medicine.

  18. Historical Medical Value of Donguibogam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bong-Keun; Won, Jin-Hee; Kim, Sungchul

    2016-03-01

    Oriental medicine, since its origin in China, has had a long history extending over 2000 years. Today, it comprises several types of medicine predominately practiced in East Asia, including traditional Chinese, traditional Korean, and Kampo medicine. The distinctive medical system of traditional Korean medicine was established shortly after the publication of Donguibogam by Dr. Heo Jun in 1613. Donguibogam is highly acclaimed across East Asia; in 2009, in light of its historical medical value, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization registered the book on its cultural heritage list. Here, we review the historical medical value of Donguibogam. The findings confirm that Donguibogam developed a unique and independent form of traditional Korean medicine and innovatively reformed the disease classification system. Moreover, Donguibogam emphasized the importance of disease prevention and medical pragmatism. This book also accelerated the development of folk medicine. Owing to its historical medical value, Donguibogam is now considered the 'bible' of Oriental medicine. Its wide acceptance has contributed to the expansion of Korean medicine utilization among the general public. Donguibogam has also played an important role in the establishment of traditional Korean medicine as a universally valid and original form of medicine, independent of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:27280045

  19. Mind's historicity: its hidden history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarroso, Noemí

    2013-02-01

    Whereas psychological research can hardly accept the idea of a changing psychological architecture, mind's historicity seems to be commonplace among historians of psychology, at least in recent decades. Attempts to promote a convergence between psychology and history have always existed, though mainly in the margins of both disciplines. Among these attempts, there is a tradition in French psychology that remains quite marginal even to the history of the discipline and is practically unknown out of the French context. Our goal is to introduce this approach, through the work of its main architect, Ignace Meyerson, to an English speaking reader, in the light of current pleas for historicity. Developed within the core of the discipline of psychology, though in dialogue with many others disciplines, Meyerson's historical psychology appears to be more ambitious than other attempts, as it aims at studying psychological activity itself, beyond the history of its conceptualizations. It is concerned not with the analysis of fragmented, isolated, and mechanistic behaviors or cognitive process, but with the study of mind in its functioning through the multiple and changing fields of experience where human beings are involved. PMID:23394174

  20. Historical earthquake investigation and research in China

    OpenAIRE

    J. Wang

    2004-01-01

    China is one of the countries with the longest tradition of culture and has suffered many earthquake disasters, so many earthquake documents have therefore been conserved. In this paper we try to outline some basic information of historical earthquake investigation and research in China, such as collection of historical earthquake data from archives, historical earthquake catalogues, seismic intensity scales. We introduce briefly the huge accomplishments of historical research and discuss ...

  1. Contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term 'Contaminated sites' refers to soil and groundwater contamination caused by local sources such as landfills or industrial sites. As of July 2002, there were in Austria 2,372 sites registered as potentially contaminated sites, from them: 165 sites required remediation, for 55 sites non remedial measures were necessary and to date 65 sites were remediated with a cost of 700,000 M Euro. An overview about funding of remedial measures, estimation of the extent of the problem (remediation requirements, chlorinated hydrocarbons accidents), deficits (lack of legal harmonization, slow implementation of remedial measures, etc.) is presented. Table 1. (nevyjel)

  2. Urban Sustainable Development Solutions by Creating Dynamic Tourism Pedestrian Passagea in Historical Textures (Case Study: Sepah Street in Qazvin)

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. One of the solutions to achieve sustainable growth in urban areas, attracting tourists and creating local and national revenue solution, is to provide a chance of visiting the urban historical attractions in the form of pedestrian tourism axis. Creating this axis provides a chance to preserve and mend historical sites and revive urban environment. Also in addition to reduction of traffic and air pollution issue, helps tourists to better understand historical attractions and increase...

  3. Durability of renderings of historical buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Gomdenn, Prayash

    2016-01-01

    Historical, cultural and architectural values of historical buildings and structures signify the importance of their conservation. Several deterioration mechanisms associated with different environmental or weather conditions are responsible for damaging rendering mortars of historical buildings. These deterioration mechanisms may act individually or jointly, making it important to understand each deterioration mechanism and their coupled effects. This research investigated the deteriorati...

  4. Issues in Designing Assessments of Historical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercikan, Kadriye; Seixas, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Similar to educators in mathematics, science, and reading, history educators around the world have mobilized curricular reform movements toward including complex thinking in history education, advancing historical thinking, developing historical consciousness, and teaching competence in historical sense making. These reform movements, including…

  5. Site study plan for cultural resources, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    The Cultural Resources Site Study Plan describes a field program to identify and evaluate the archaeological, historical, and Native American Indian resources of the site on local and regional perspectives; monitor and manage discovered cultural resources; and establish a worker education program. The archaeological field program consists of three pedestrian surveys: Survey 1 includes two EDBH seismic survey lines and the area within the exploratory shaft facility (ESF); Survey 2 includes the remainder of the site plus a 1/4 to 3/4-mi border area; and Survey 3 includes an assortment of offsite areas. The historical studies will identify and evaluate known and discovered historical sites and structures and the Native American Indian will identify and evaluate cultural and religious concerns expressed by Indian tribal groups. Prehistoric and historic sites will be evaluated to determine if they meet eligibility criteria for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. This site study plan describes the need for each study; its design and design rationale; analysis, management, and use of data; schedule of field activities; organization of field personnel and sample management; and quality assurance requirements. The cultural resource studies will provide data for satisfying the Programmatic Agreement, engineering design needs, and SRP requirements for permits and approvals, and for minimizing effects to any cultural properties discovered during site characterization. 75 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Site study plan for cultural resources, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cultural Resources Site Study Plan describes a field program to identify and evaluate the archaeological, historical, and Native American Indian resources of the site on local and regional perspectives; monitor and manage discovered cultural resources; and establish a worker education program. The archaeological field program consists of three pedestrian surveys: Survey 1 includes two EDBH seismic survey lines and the area within the exploratory shaft facility (ESF); Survey 2 includes the remainder of the site plus a 1/4 to 3/4-mi border area; and Survey 3 includes an assortment of offsite areas. The historical studies will identify and evaluate known and discovered historical sites and structures and the Native American Indian will identify and evaluate cultural and religious concerns expressed by Indian tribal groups. Prehistoric and historic sites will be evaluated to determine if they meet eligibility criteria for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. This site study plan describes the need for each study; its design and design rationale; analysis, management, and use of data; schedule of field activities; organization of field personnel and sample management; and quality assurance requirements. The cultural resource studies will provide data for satisfying the Programmatic Agreement, engineering design needs, and SRP requirements for permits and approvals, and for minimizing effects to any cultural properties discovered during site characterization. 75 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  7. History of the Hanford Site: 1943-1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Harvey

    2000-09-01

    This booklet was developed to highlight the national and international historical events that occurred in association with the development of the Hanford Site. The purpose of the booklet is to increase the awareness Hanford Site employees have of the historical significance of the Site's contributions and missions during the Manhattan Project (1943-1946) and Cold War era (1946-1990). By increasing knowledge and understanding of the Site's unique heritage, it is hoped this publication will help generate an appreciation of the Site's historic buildings and structures, and, thus, instill a sense of ''ownership'' in these buildings. One cannot appreciate the historic significance of a place or building without first knowing its story.

  8. Preliminary Assessment of Remote Wind Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal, Muhammad; Araya, Guillermo; Birkelund, Yngve

    2015-01-01

    Wind energy is becoming a reliable and affordable source of clean energy and is rapidly expanding to remote places around the world. A crucial input for wind farming prospect is the assessment of potential wind sites. Sites, especially remotely located, often do not have a wind resource map and thus lack credible historical records of wind resources. Measurement campaigns to map these sites are costly and time consuming. In this paper, a method for preliminary wind resource assess...

  9. A Historical Approach to Assertiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelina Peneva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A very important personal quality is to be able to advocate for yourself - your own positions, to achieve your objectives, to overcome difficulties,to be determined, but without harming the rights of others and to be able to control the aggressive impulses. The concept, which expressesthese personal characteristics, is called "assertiveness". Assertiveness is a part of the personal potential. It is a prerequisite for self-actualization.The goal we set in this historical-psychological paper is to explore the genesis, development and stabilization of the term "assertiveness". Inthis context, we will examine, compare and analyze the positions of the leading authors on this issue.

  10. Summary inside IBM's historic turnaround

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This work offers a summary of the book "WHO SAYS ELEPHANTS CAN'T DANCE? Inside IBM's Historic Turnaround" by Louis Gerstner.In nine years as the chairman and CEO of International Business Machine Corporation (IBM), Louis Gerstner brought about a dramatic change in the company's fortunes. When he took charge, IBM was on the verge of extinction as the victim of rapid changes in the computer industry. However, instead of breaking up IBM as most analysts were suggesting, Gerstner and his management team turned the company around and restored it to a position of power and influence within the indu

  11. Historical Astrolexicography and Old Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Terry J.

    I describe how the principles of lexicography have been applied in limited ways in astronomy and look at the revision work under way for the third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, which, when completed, will contain the widest and most detailed coverage of the astronomical lexicon in the English language. Finally, I argue the need for a dedicated historical dictionary of astronomy based rigorously on a corpus of quotations from sources published in English from the beginnings of written English to the present day.

  12. Historical Development of Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the historical development of the field of radiation preservation of foods from the basis of a sequence of ideas. The debt owed by the New World to the Old, in terms of the origin and discovery of radiation, isotopes, and X-rays, and the development of these into potentially useful processes, are described. The author also shows that these discoveries would not have been possible without the knowledge acquired in this subject and outlines the potential impact of these new developments on improving man's estate in the future. The important milestones passed at an international level are described and their influence discussed. (author)

  13. Thermoluminescence dating of historical buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating of ceramic materials is nowadays a consolidated and powerful archaeometric technique. The Luminescence Dating Laboratory of the Department of Material Science (Milano Bicocca University) started its activity in this field in 1980 and since then several thousands of samples have been successfully dated. In recent years TL dating has been extensively and systematically applied to bricks sampled from historical buildings spanning from Roman period to the late XVIII century. This particular application of TL dating technique is presented, and its potential and specificity are illustrated and discussed. (author)

  14. The Role of Water and Climate Change in the Conservation of Historic Gardens of Central Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Ghinassi, Graziano; Matteini, Tessa; Ferrise, Roberto; GROSSONI, PAOLO

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of global climate change are also clearly apparent in the Berlin-Brandenburg region: extreme weather events with storms and cloudbursts, and increasingly frequent droughts, are new environmental phenomena that affect the conservation and care of the gardens in the World Heritage Site, ‘Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin’, and other historic gardens. ‘Historic Gardens and Climate Change – Recommendations for Preservation’ addresses these issues. Experts in the most variou...

  15. Introduction to the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report discusses the Site mission and provides general information about the site. The U.S. DOE has established a new mission for Hanford including: Management of stored wastes, environmental restoration, research and development, and development of new technologies. The Hanford Reservation is located in south central Washington State just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. The approximately 1,450 square kilometers which comprises the Hanford Site, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas within the site which have historically been used for the production of nuclear materials, radioactive waste storage, and radioactive waste disposal.

  16. Adaptive Re-Use Principles in Historic Hotel Buildings in Melaka And George Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Wahab Lilawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive re-use of historic buildings is a process of changing the original function of the historic buildings to another function that can optimise the use of existing historic buildings. The selection of appropriate new function is an important factor in determining the success of adaptive re-use of historic buildings. However, adaptive re-use work done on historic buildings on the World Heritage Site is not an easy task due to rules and principles outlined by local and international charters that must be abide by. This research is conducted to gather the true picture of applied adaptive re-use principles that has been done on heritage hotels available in Melaka and George Town World Heritage Sites. This research is started with an inventory that led to the discovery of 35 hotels which applied the principle of adaptive re-use of historic buildings. Based on this finding, 4 historic hotels from adaptive re-use applications have been selected as the case studies. Results of the case studies carried out show that the level of conservation of heritage hotel is moderate and measures of control should be taken to ensure the privileges of heritage hotel. As a result of this research, a number of suggestions are made to ensure that adaptive re-use work done in the future will be conducted as optimum as possible according to the adaptive re-use and conservation principles.

  17. 06491 Summary -- Digital Historical Corpora- Architecture, Annotation, and Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Burnard, Lou; Dobreva, Milena; Fuhr, Norbert; Lüdeling, Anke

    2007-01-01

    The seminar "Digital Historical Corpora" brought together scholars from (historical) linguistics, (historical) philology, computational linguistics and computer science who work with collections of historical texts. The issues that were discussed include digitization, corpus design, corpus architecture, annotation, search, and retrieval.

  18. Historical and Current Concepts of Fibrillogenesis and In Vivo Amyloidogenesis: Implications of Amyloid Tissue Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eKisilevsky

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Historical and current concepts of in vitro fibrillogenesis are considered in the light of disorders in which amyloid is deposited at anatomic sites remote from the site of synthesis of the corresponding precursor protein. These clinical conditions set constraints on the interpretation of information derived from in vitro fibrillogenesis studies. They suggest that in addition to kinetic and thermodynamic factors identified in vitro, fibrillogenesis in vivo is determined by site specific factors most of which have yet to be identified.

  19. Historical and Current Concepts of Fibrillogenesis and In vivo Amyloidogenesis: Implications of Amyloid Tissue Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisilevsky, Robert; Raimondi, Sara; Bellotti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Historical and current concepts of in vitro fibrillogenesis are considered in the light of disorders in which amyloid is deposited at anatomic sites remote from the site of synthesis of the corresponding precursor protein. These clinical conditions set constraints on the interpretation of information derived from in vitro fibrillogenesis studies. They suggest that in addition to kinetic and thermodynamic factors identified in vitro, fibrillogenesis in vivo is determined by site specific factors most of which have yet to be identified. PMID:27243018

  20. Historical transformation and epistemological discontinuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Močnik Rastko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from recent formulas of EU bureaucracy for subordinating scientific and educational apparatuses to the needs of the capital and to the requests of its political representatives, the article analyses the interconnection between the historical transformation of the ideological state apparatuses (universities, higher education institutions, research institutes etc. and the epistemological discontinuity provoked by the triumph of technosciences. The hypothesis to be tested is the following: While the crisis of West European-North American capitalism requires an ever tighter submission of ideological state apparatuses, and especially of scientific and academic apparatuses to the needs of the capital, theoretical practices in the humanities and social sciences have come to the point where they entered into an open conflict with the domination of the capital and have, as a consequence, started to subvert their own institutional supports in the ideological apparatuses of the capitalist state. For this purpose, the article reconsiders social sciences as a compromise formation and, eventually, reassesses the historical materialism as a non-Cartesian modern science.

  1. Regulatory challenges of historic uranium mines in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radium and uranium mining industry began in Canada in 1930 with the discovery of the Port Radium deposit in the Northwest Territories. During the 1950s more uranium mines opened across Canada. Most of these mines ceased operation by the end of the 1960s. Some were remediated by their owners, while others were abandoned. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), predecessor to the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), was created in 1946. However, it was not until the mid-1970s that the AECB took an active role in regulating health, safety and environmental aspects of uranium mining; so many of the older mines have never been licensed. With the coming into force of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) in May 2000, this situation has been reviewed. The NSCA requires a licence for the possession of nuclear substances (including uranium mine tailings), or the decommissioning of nuclear facilities (including uranium mines and mills). Furthermore, governments (federal and provincial) are also subject to the NSCA, a change from the previous legislation. The CNSC has an obligation to assess these sites, regardless of ownership, and to proceed with licensing or other appropriate regulatory action. The CNSC has reviewed the status of the twenty sites in Canada where uranium milling took place historically. Eight are already licensed. Licensing actions are being pursued at the other sites. A review of nearly 100 small uranium mining or exploration sites is also underway to determine the most appropriate regulatory approach. This paper focuses on regulatory issues surrounding the historic mining and milling sites, and the regulatory approach being taken, including licensing provincial and federal government bodies who own some of the sites, and ensuring the safe management of sites that were abandoned. (author)

  2. Integrated Historical Tsunami Event and Deposit Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; McCullough, H. L.

    2010-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) provides integrated access to historical tsunami event, deposit, and proxy data. The NGDC tsunami archive initially listed tsunami sources and locations with observed tsunami effects. Tsunami frequency and intensity are important for understanding tsunami hazards. Unfortunately, tsunami recurrence intervals often exceed the historic record. As a result, NGDC expanded the archive to include the Global Tsunami Deposits Database (GTD_DB). Tsunami deposits are the physical evidence left behind when a tsunami impacts a shoreline or affects submarine sediments. Proxies include co-seismic subsidence, turbidite deposits, changes in biota following an influx of marine water in a freshwater environment, etc. By adding past tsunami data inferred from the geologic record, the GTD_DB extends the record of tsunamis backward in time. Although the best methods for identifying tsunami deposits and proxies in the geologic record remain under discussion, developing an overall picture of where tsunamis have affected coasts, calculating recurrence intervals, and approximating runup height and inundation distance provides a better estimate of a region’s true tsunami hazard. Tsunami deposit and proxy descriptions in the GTD_DB were compiled from published data found in journal articles, conference proceedings, theses, books, conference abstracts, posters, web sites, etc. The database now includes over 1,200 descriptions compiled from over 1,100 citations. Each record in the GTD_DB is linked to its bibliographic citation where more information on the deposit can be found. The GTD_DB includes data for over 50 variables such as: event description (e.g., 2010 Chile Tsunami), geologic time period, year, deposit location name, latitude, longitude, country, associated body of water, setting during the event (e.g., beach, lake, river, deep sea), upper and lower contacts, underlying and overlying material, etc. If known, the tsunami source mechanism

  3. Environmental waste site characterization utilizing aerial photographs and satellite imagery: Three sites in New Mexico, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Pope, P.; Becker, N.; Wells, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Lewis, A.; David, N. [Environmental Research Inst. of Michigan, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The proper handling and characterization of past hazardous waste sites is becoming more and more important as world population extends into areas previously deemed undesirable. Historical photographs, past records, current aerial satellite imagery can play an important role in characterizing these sites. These data provide clear insight into defining problem areas which can be surface samples for further detail. Three such areas are discussed in this paper: (1) nuclear wastes buried in trenches at Los Alamos National Laboratory, (2) surface dumping at one site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and (3) the historical development of a municipal landfill near Las Cruces, New Mexico.

  4. Environmental waste site characterization utilizing aerial photographs and satellite imagery: Three sites in New Mexico, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proper handling and characterization of past hazardous waste sites is becoming more and more important as world population extends into areas previously deemed undesirable. Historical photographs, past records, current aerial satellite imagery can play an important role in characterizing these sites. These data provide clear insight into defining problem areas which can be surface samples for further detail. Three such areas are discussed in this paper: (1) nuclear wastes buried in trenches at Los Alamos National Laboratory, (2) surface dumping at one site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and (3) the historical development of a municipal landfill near Las Cruces, New Mexico

  5. Site organization and site arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with criteria for the choice of a production unit or power plant site, the organization and development of a site in terms of its particular characteristics and takes into account personnel considerations in site organizations as well as the problem of integrating the architecture into the environment. (RW)

  6. BIM applied in historical building documentation and refurbishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H.-M.; Yang, W.-B.; Yen, Y.-N.

    2015-08-01

    Historical building conservation raises two important issues which are documentation and refurbishing. For the recording and documentation, we already have developed 3d laser scanner and such photogrammetry technology those represent a freeze object of virtual reality by digital documentation. On the other hand, the refurbished engineering of historic building is a challenge for conservation heritage which are not only reconstructing the damage part but also restoring tangible cultural heritage. 3D digital cultural heritage models has become a topic of great interest in recent years. One reason for this is the more widespread use of laser scanning and photogrammetry for recording cultural heritage sites. These technologies have made it possible to efficiently and accurately record complex structures remotely that would not have been possible with previous survey methods. In addition to these developments, digital information systems are evolving for the presentation, analysis and archival of heritage documentation.

  7. Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) in southeastern Oregon: A survey of historical localities, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Chistopher A.; Galvan, Stephanie K.; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome

    2010-01-01

    The Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) occupies a large range in western North America and is comprised of at least three genetic units. Concern exists regarding the status of the Great Basin populations in Oregon, Idaho, and Nevada. We surveyed target and nearby alternate sites on public lands in southeastern Oregon where there was evidence that Columbia spotted frogs were historically present. We found the species at 59.5 percent (25 of 42) of target or nearby alternate sites. They were in 15 of 23 permanent streams and 8 of 13 intermittent streams. Our surveys do not provide evidence of widespread population losses in our sites. Interpretation of status of Columbia spotted frogs in this study is limited by a lack of precision in some of the historical locations and by our inability to determine if locations where only adults were indicated in the historical record once had breeding populations. Our results support the need for continued investigation of these populations.

  8. Climatological data summary 1994, with historical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the climatological data measured at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site for calendar year 1994. Pacific Northwest Laboratory operates the Hanford Meteorology Station and the Hanford Meteorological Monitoring Network from which these data were collected. The information contained herein includes updated historical climatologies for temperature, precipitation, normal and extreme values of temperature and precipitation, and other miscellaneous meteorological parameters. Further, the data are adjunct to and update Hoitink et al. (1994); however, Appendix B-Wind Climatology is excluded. 1994 was the second warmest year on record, averaging 56.2 degrees F, 2.9 degrees F above normal (53.3 degrees F). For the 12-month period, 10 were warmer than normal (7 were at least 3.5 degrees F and 2 were more than 5.0 degrees F above normal). Precipitation totaled 6.12 in., 98% of normal (6.26 in.); snowfall totaled 5.2 in., compared to the normal of 13.8 in. The average wind speed during 1994 was 7.3 mph, 0.4 mph below normal (7.7 mph). The peak gust during the year was 52 mph from the south-southwest on February 13. There were 29 days with peak gusts ≥40 mph, compared to a yearly average of 26

  9. Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalloua, Pierre A.; Platt, Daniel E.; El Sibai, Mirvat; Khalife, Jade; Makhoul, Nadine; Haber, Marc; Xue, Yali; Izaabel, Hassan; Bosch, Elena; Adams, Susan M.; Arroyo, Eduardo; López-Parra, Ana María; Aler, Mercedes; Picornell, Antònia; Ramon, Misericordia; Jobling, Mark A.; Comas, David; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Wells, R. Spencer; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Phoenicians were the dominant traders in the Mediterranean Sea two thousand to three thousand years ago and expanded from their homeland in the Levant to establish colonies and trading posts throughout the Mediterranean, but then they disappeared from history. We wished to identify their male genetic traces in modern populations. Therefore, we chose Phoenician-influenced sites on the basis of well-documented historical records and collected new Y-chromosomal data from 1330 men from six such sites, as well as comparative data from the literature. We then developed an analytical strategy to distinguish between lineages specifically associated with the Phoenicians and those spread by geographically similar but historically distinct events, such as the Neolithic, Greek, and Jewish expansions. This involved comparing historically documented Phoenician sites with neighboring non-Phoenician sites for the identification of weak but systematic signatures shared by the Phoenician sites that could not readily be explained by chance or by other expansions. From these comparisons, we found that haplogroup J2, in general, and six Y-STR haplotypes, in particular, exhibited a Phoenician signature that contributed > 6% to the modern Phoenician-influenced populations examined. Our methodology can be applied to any historically documented expansion in which contact and noncontact sites can be identified. PMID:18976729

  10. Assessing the completeness of Italian historical earthquake data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rebez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the completeness of historical earthquake data (such as, for instance, parametric earthquake catalogues has usually been approached in seismology - and mainly in Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment(PSHA - by means of statistical procedures. Such procedures look «inside» the data set under investigation and compare it to seismicity models, which often require more or less explicitly that seismicity is stationary. They usually end up determining times (Ti, from which on the data set is considered as complete above a given magnitude (Mi; the part of the data set before Ti is considered as incomplete and, for that reason, not suitable for statistical analysis. As a consequence, significant portions of historical data sets are not used for PSHA. Dealing with historical data sets - which are incomplete by nature, although this does not mean that they are of low value - it seems more appropriate to estimate «how much incomplete» the data sets can be and to use them together with such estimates. In other words, it seems more appropriate to assess the completeness looking «outside » the data sets; that is, investigating the way historical records have been produced, preserved and retrieved. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out in Italy, according to historical methods. First, the completeness of eighteen site seismic histories has been investigated; then, from those results, the completeness of areal portions of the catalogue has been assessed and compared with similar results obtained by statistical methods. Finally, the impact of these results on PSHA is described.

  11. Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project : Final Siting Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, James M.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of satellite and release facilities for the Umatilla Basin hatchery program. The Umatilla Basin hatchery program consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in the Umatilla River as defined in the Umatilla master plan approved in 1989 by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult salmon broodstock holding and spawning facilities, facilities for recovery, acclimation, and/or extended rearing of salmon juveniles, and development of river sites for release of hatchery salmon and steelhead. The historic and current distribution of fall chinook, summer chinook, and coho salmon and steelhead trout was summarized for the Umatilla River basin. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Twenty seven sites were evaluated for the potential and development of facilities. Engineering and environmental attributes of the sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  12. Digitization of Historical Astronomical Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, B. G.; Coletti, D. J.

    In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, much of the important research in astronomy generally appeared in observatory publications which were distributed by observatories throughout the world. Much of the data is still in demand (observations of variable stars, cometary observations, solar phenomena, etc.), but complete sets of these publications are held by few libraries. The information is often not easily accessible because significant portions of the material are brittle and in danger of being lost. The U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) Library, and the Harvard College Observatory's Wolbach Library (HCO) hold almost complete sets of these series in their collections. Digitization of these historical collections will preserve them for posterity, improve access, reduce retrieval time, and reduce the risk of the information disappearing through disintegration, mutilation, or theft. A pilot project is currently in progress.

  13. Analyzing and Interpreting Historical Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipping, Matthias; Wadhwani, Dan; Bucheli, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    on social scientific methods as well as the practice and reflections of historians, the chapter describes analytical and interpretive process based on three basic elements, illustrating them with exemplars from management research: source criticism to identify possible biases and judge the extent to......This chapter outlines a methodology for the interpretation of historical sources, helping to realize their full potential for the study of organization, while overcoming their challenges in terms of distortions created by time, changes in context, and selective production or preservation. Drawing...... which a source can be trusted to address the research question; triangulation with additional sources to confirm or question an interpretation and strengthen the overall findings; hermeneutics to relate sources to their original contexts and make their interpretation by a researcher today more robust...

  14. Piezoelectric Transformers: An Historical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Vazquez Carazo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric transformers (PTs are solid-state devices that transform electrical energy into electrical energy by means of a mechanical vibration. These devices are manufactured using piezoelectric materials that are driven at resonance. With appropriate design and circuitry, it is possible to step up and step down the voltages between the input and output sections of the piezoelectric transformer, without making use of magnetic materials and obtaining excellent conversion efficiencies. The initial concept of a piezoelectric ceramic transformer was proposed by Charles A. Rosen in 1954. Since then, the evolution of piezoelectric transformers through history has been linked to the relevant work of some excellent researchers as well as to the evolution in materials, manufacturing processes, and driving circuit techniques. This paper summarizes the historical evolution of the technology.

  15. Training Analysis: A Historical View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sarracino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The obligatory nature of training analysis, i.e. of the personal analysis of every candidate analyst, was adopted by all psychoanalytic institutes in Freud’s lifetime. But what had initially been a not particularly burdensome addition to training was subsequently transformed into something quite different. Years of analysis: hundreds of hours at vast expense to the candidate, in the face of a basic unconcern on the part of the schools about undertaking empirical studies or even just examining more closely the theoretical justification (apart from the constantly reasserted need for completeness for such a commitment. The considerable resistance to questioning this practice goes hand in hand with the persistent circulation of a series of legends about its origin. An accurate historical review should offer interesting matter for consideration, showing how the custom of requiring training analysis is underpinned by reasons of an institutional nature rather than by theoretical necessity or empirical findings.

  16. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicianova, Martina

    2015-08-01

    Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God's judgment in Europe). The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System), functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception. PMID:27247675

  17. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Vicianova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God’s judgment in Europe. The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System, functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception.

  18. Historical Sunspot Observations: A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Vaquero, J M

    2007-01-01

    Early observations of sunspot were realised by the naked eye. Possible utilization of these records for studying the long-term change in the Sun is discussed here. Other historical sunspot observations with camera obscuras are also discussed. Moreover, the best record of the behaviour of the Sun exists for the last four centuries thanks to the observations of sunspots with telescope. These observations should allow us to know the number, position, and area of sunspots as well as some relevant episodes (Maunder Minimum, optical flares, etc.). Rudolf Wolf developed the first reconstruction of solar activity in the 19th century. The next reconstruction was made by Hoyt and Schatten in 1998 by improving the database and using a new methodological approach. Here some mistakes, pending tasks and minor improvements are discussed.

  19. Statics of historic masonry constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Como, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This successful book, which is now appearing in its second edition, presents a comprehensive new Statics of Masonry Constructions. Masonry constructions are the great majority of the buildings in Europe’s historic centres and the most important monuments in its architectural heritage. Given the age of these constructions, the demand for safety assessments and restoration projects is pressing and constant. The book you hold in hands contributes to fill this demand. The second edition integrates the original text of the first edition with new developments, widening and revisions, due to recent research studies achievements. The result is a book that gives a complete picture of the behaviour of the Masonry Constructions. First of all, it gives the fundamentals of its Statics, based on the no-tension assumption, and then it develops the Limit Analysis for the Masonry Constructions. In this framework, through an interdisciplinary approach combining Engineering and Architecture, the book also investigates the sta...

  20. Historical Evolution of Spatial Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical evolution and cross-cultural differences in spatial abilities are analyzed. Spatial abilities have been found to be significantly associated with the complexity of geographical conditions and survival demands. Although impaired spatial cognition is found in cases of, exclusively or predominantly, right hemisphere pathology, it is proposed that this asymmetry may depend on the degree of training in spatial abilities. It is further proposed that spatial cognition might have evolved in a parallel way with cultural evolution and environmental demands. Contemporary city humans might be using spatial abilities in some new, conceptual tasks that did not exist in prehistoric times: mathematics, reading, writing, mechanics, music, etc. Cross-cultural analysis of spatial abilities in different human groups, normalization of neuropsychological testing instruments, and clinical observations of spatial ability disturbances in people with different cultural backgrounds and various spatial requirements, are required to construct a neuropsychological theory of brain organization of spatial cognition.

  1. Historical developments in singular perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Malley, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    This engaging text describes the development of singular perturbations, including its history, accumulating literature, and its current status. While the approach of the text is sophisticated, the literature is accessible to a broad audience. A particularly valuable bonus are the historical remarks. These remarks are found throughout the manuscript. They demonstrate the growth of mathematical thinking on this topic by engineers and mathematicians. The book focuses on detailing how the various methods are to be applied. These are illustrated by a  number and variety of examples. Readers are expected to have a working knowledge of elementary ordinary differential equations, including some familiarity with power series techniques, and of some advanced calculus. Dr. O'Malley  has written a number of books on singular perturbations.  This book has developed from many of his works in the field of perturbation theory.

  2. Democracy is a historical urgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synek, Miroslav

    2015-03-01

    Survival of humanity, on this planet, may depend, heavily, on coping with advancing technology of nuclear missiles. Let us consider critical alternatives of powerful governments: democracy, as an alternative to dictatorship. Democracy is based on free elections, as a government of the people, by the people and for the people. Democracy is a historical urgency, in the age of inter-continental nuclear missiles, computerized on a push-button, conceivably controllable by a very powerful, miscalculating and/or insane, dictator, capable of producing global nuclear holocaust, on our entire planet. Diplomacy, together with supporting activities, should be utilized, to help, in important steps, at this time, for achieving democracy in critical areas.

  3. Mathematical Analysis of the Historical Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Ron W

    2015-01-01

    Data describing historical economic growth are analysed. Included in the analysis is the world and regional economic growth. The analysis demonstrates that historical economic growth had a natural tendency to follow hyperbolic distributions. Parameters describing hyperbolic distributions have been determined. A search for takeoffs from stagnation to growth produced negative results. This analysis throws a new light on the interpretation of the mechanism of the historical economic growth and s...

  4. The SME (site margin earthquake)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology is proposed for assessing the seismic safety margin of existing CANDU nuclear generating stations. The available seismic margin assessment approaches and the unique features of the CANDU system, were appraised. The proposed methodology includes: the characterization of the site margin earthquake, the definition of the performance criteria for the elements of a success path and determination of its seismic withstand capacity. It is proposed that the margin earthquake be established on the basis of a combined approach of using historical records and regional seismotectonic and site specific evaluations. The ability of the components and systems to withstand the margin earthquake is determined by database comparisons, inspection and analysis. (author)

  5. The pedagogy of memorial sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Kończyk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Memorial site pedagogy is a term describing the practice and theory of historico-political education in museums in former nazi concentration camps. It combines gaining and deepening historical knowledge on the topic of World War II with self-development and shaping socially desirable attitudes, through usage of non-formal educational methods. Pedagogy of memorial sites aims at, among other things, learning tolerance and respect for diversity and shaping reflective and active members of society. It offers an answer to the needs of contemporary European societies in the area of strengthening democratic attitudes.

  6. Nuclear science of Kazakhstan and former nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This abstract contains short historical notes on the genesis of Kazakhstan nuclear science, on Semipalatinsk former test site, information on main directions of investigations in Kazakhstan National Nuclear Centre, on activity of the centre on non-proliferation problems

  7. Historical Literature in the ADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, G.; Kurtz, M. J.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.

    1997-12-01

    The Astrophysics Data System at http://adswww.harvard.edu is in the process of scanning the historical astronomical literature and making it available through the World Wide Web. We have scanned several volumes from the early 1800's of the "Astronomische Nachrichten", and the "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society", the two oldest astronomical journals. We also have several of the early volumes of the "Astrophysical Journal" and the "Astronomical Journal" available. For all the journals that we cover, we have scanned volume 1. These early volumes can be accessed on a page-by-page basis. We plan to continue to scan this historical literature and complete these journals within the next year. We are also collaborating with a preservation project at Harvard University. This project will microfilm selected parts of astronomical Observatory reports. We plan to scan these microfilms to produce electronic images of these reports and put them on-line in the ADS. We hope to eventually cover most of the astronomical literature. In order to organize the scanned pages into articles, we need tables of contents (ToC). The early issues of the journals did not have printed ToC pages, so this needs to be done by hand. We do not have the financial resources to build these ToCs. We are looking for collaborators who would be willing to work with us in building these ToCs for the older journals and observatory reports. If you are interested in such a project, please contact the first author at gei@cfa.harvard.edu.

  8. Site operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter is a discussion of the management and operations practices used at the Barnwell Waste Management Facility in Barnwell, SC. The following topics are discussed: (1) Waste receiving and inspection, including manifest and certificates of compliance, radiological surveys, disposition of nonconforming items, and decontamination and disposition of secondary waste streams; (2) Waste disposal, including Title 10 CFR 61 requirements, disposal area evaluations, shipment offloading, container emplacement, and radiation protection; (3) Trench closure, including trench backfilling, trench capping, and permanent markers; (4) Site maintenance and stabilization, including trench maintenance, surface water management, and site closure activities; (5) Site monitoring programs, including operational monitoring, and environmental monitoring program; (6) Personnel training and qualifications, including basic training program, safety training program, special skills training, and physical qualifications; (7) Records management, including waste records, personnel training records, personnel dosimetry records, site monitoring records, trench qualification and construction records, and site drawings and stabilization records; (8) Site security; (9) Emergency response plans; and (10) Quality assurance

  9. Historical earthquake investigation and research in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available China is one of the countries with the longest tradition of culture and has suffered many earthquake disasters, so many earthquake documents have therefore been conserved. In this paper we try to outline some basic information of historical earthquake investigation and research in China, such as collection of historical earthquake data from archives, historical earthquake catalogues, seismic intensity scales. We introduce briefly the huge accomplishments of historical research and discuss some problems encountered. Through examples, we illustrate the solutions to some typical problems. There are some suggestions on further work.

  10. 36 CFR 910.14 - Historic preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regard to height, scale, proportion, rhythm, texture, materials, architectural detail, and the amount of... ensure that these structures maintain their historic or architectural integrity, but will not...

  11. US Forest Service LANDFIRE Historical Fire Regimes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — Historical fire regimes, intervals, and vegetation conditions are mapped using the Vegetation Dynamics Development Tool (VDDT). These data support fire and...

  12. Olomouc - Possibilities of Geovisualization of the Historical City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Popelka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Olomouc, nowadays a city with 100,000 inhabitants, has always been considered as one of the most prominent Czech cities. It is a social and economical centre, which history started just about the 11th century. The present appearance of the city has its roots in the 18th century, when the city was almost razed to the ground after the Thirty years’ war and a great fire in 1709. After that, the city was rebuilt to a baroque military fortress against Prussia army. At the beginning of the 20th century the majority of the fortress was demolished. Character of the town is dominated by the large number of churches, burgher’s houses and other architecturally significant buildings, like a Holy Trinity Column, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Aim of this project was to state the most suitable methods of visualization of spatial-temporal change in historical build-up area from the tourist’s point of view, and to design and evaluate possibilities of spatial data acquisition. There are many methods of 2D and 3D visualization which are suitable for depiction of historical and contemporary situation. In the article four approaches are discussed comparison of historical and recent pictures or photos, overlaying historical maps over the orthophoto, enhanced visualization of historical map in large scale using the third dimension and photorealistic 3D models of the same area in different ages. All mentioned methods were geolocalizated using the Google Earth environment and multimedia features were added to enhance the impression of perception. Possibilities of visualization, which were outlined above, were realized on a case study of the Olomouc city. As a source of historical data were used rapport plans of the bastion fortress from the 17th century. The accuracy of historical maps was confirmed by cartometric methods with use of the MapAnalyst software. Registration of the spatial-temporal changes information has a great potential in urban planning or

  13. Site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the construction of nuclear power stations, comprehensive site investigations are required to assure the adequacy and suitability of the site under consideration. The site investigations cover mainly the following matters: 1) hydrology; 2) geology; 3) seismology; 4) meteorology. Site investigations for nuclear power stations are carried out in stages in increasing detail and to an appreciable depth in order to assure the soundness of the project, and, in particular, to determine all measures required to assure the safety of the nuclear power station and the protection of the population against radiation exposure. (orig./RW)

  14. Thermoluminescence dating of a pottery sample from Hutmura: an archaeological site in Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence dating of a pottery sample from Hutmura, an archaeological site in Kashmir, establishes the historical records of the site. The age estimated matches with the age as indicated by these records and excavated artifacts. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs

  15. Reconnaissance survey of site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center, Savannah River Site, Aiken County, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabak, M.A.; Beck, M.L.; Gillam, C.; Sassaman, K.E.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the archaeological investigation of Site 7 of the proposed Three Rivers Regional Landfill and Technology Center in Aiken County on the United States Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina. Pedestrian and subsurface survey techniques were used to investigate the 1,403-acre project area. Survey resulted in the discovery of 23 previously unrecorded sites and 11 occurrences; six previously recorded sites were also investigated. These sites consist of six prehistoric sites, nine historic sites, and 14 sites with both prehistoric and historic components. Sites locations and project area boundaries are provided on a facsimile of a USGS 7.5 topographic map. The prehistoric components consist of very small, low-density lithic and ceramic scatters; most contain less than 10 artifacts. Six of the prehistoric components are of unknown cultural affiliation, the remaining prehistoric sites were occupied predominately in the Woodland period. The historic sites are dominated by postbellum/modem home places of tenant and yeoman farmers but four historic sites were locations of antebellum house sites (38AK136, 38AK613, 38AK660, and 38AK674). The historic sites also include an African-American school (38AK677).

  16. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed....

  17. 18 CFR 420.45 - Historical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Historical use. 420.45... MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Charges; Exemptions § 420.45 Historical use. A person who or which could not for any reason use, take, withdraw or divert waters of the basin from the place...

  18. Historic Methods for Capturing Magnetic Field Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    I investigated two late 19th-century methods for capturing magnetic field images from iron filings for historical insight into the pedagogy of hands-on physics education methods, and to flesh out teaching and learning practicalities tacit in the historical record. Both methods offer opportunities for close sensory engagement in data-collection…

  19. Historic Methods for Capturing Magnetic Field Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Alistair

    2016-03-01

    I investigated two late 19th-century methods for capturing magnetic field images from iron filings for historical insight into the pedagogy of hands-on physics education methods, and to flesh out teaching and learning practicalities tacit in the historical record. Both methods offer opportunities for close sensory engagement in data-collection processes.

  20. Negotiating the Process of Historical Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endacott, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    Historical empathy scholarship has evolved to the point where further progress necessitates empirical examinations from a variety of perspectives. Prior studies on historical empathy have largely focused on teachers' pedagogical approach and student outcomes. This qualitative study focuses on students as they engage in the process of…

  1. Representing Historical Knowledge in Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossner, Karl Eric

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of historical scholars in social science and humanities fields are using geographic information systems (GIS) to help investigate spatial questions and map their findings. The nature of historical data and historiographic practices present several challenges in using GIS that have been addressed only partially to date. For…

  2. Escaping Myopia: Teaching Students about Historical Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    There are so many aspects to teaching history that are vital to creating well-rounded historical thinkers, but one of the most fundamental and most overlooked elements is the idea of causality. Far too many students do not understand the idea of causation, that there are multiple reasons for why historical events occurred and transpired in the way…

  3. MEASURING HISTORICAL RISK IN QUARTERLY MILK PRICES

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Beth Pride; Musser, Wesley N.; Yonkers, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    Various methods have been used to estimate risk indices with historical data. An industry perception of increasing milk price risk over time provides a standard for evaluating several techniques used to measure historical risk. Risk measures from a regression model and an ARIMA model were consistent with the perception of increasing risk.

  4. An Historical Phenomenology of Mean and Median

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arthur; Gravemeijer, Koeno P. E.

    2006-01-01

    Using Freudenthal's method of historical phenomenology, the history of statistics was investigated as a source of inspiration for instructional design. Based on systematically selected historical examples, hypotheses were formulated about how students could be supported in learning to reason with particular statistical concepts and graphs. Such a…

  5. Historic physics reprints come home

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    In a surprise happy ending, six boxes of historic reprints have returned home to CERN - more than 30 years after they went missing! The 146 items had been part of the personal library of the Nobel prize-winning physicist, Wolfgang Pauli. After his death in 1958, Pauli's widow bequeathed his scientific legacy to CERN, and part of this valuable archival collection was stored in Salle Pauli, the room dedicated to his memory. In those trustful days the room was always left open so that Pauli's Library could be freely consulted; but then 170 preprints by Born, Bohr, Heisenberg and others - some with dedications to Pauli from the author - disappeared in 1972. Regretfully, the room was then locked. Use of the collection was henceforth ‘by appointment only', but it was assumed that the damage was done and the missing items had gone forever. However, in 2002 the CERN Archivist was surprised by a phone call from a representative of Christie's, New York, who explained that some reprints bearing the stamp of the CERN...

  6. Dermatotoxicology: Historical perspective and advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental principles underlying the study of dermatotoxicology were developed by Arnold Lehman and John Draize over a half century ago and remain applicable today. This discipline has proven indispensable for addressing the problems associated with skin exposure to chemicals. The 55th anniversary of Lehman's landmark publication on safety factors presents the opportunity to reflect upon the historical beginnings of dermatotoxicology and the role of regulatory policies on the development of this field over the years. The complexity and sheer volume of information that has been collected makes it difficult to comprehensively cover all aspects of this vast discipline. This overview will touch upon the general concepts of ADME, the various forms of contact dermatitis, and transdermal drug delivery systems. The traditional tests performed in animals and humans to identify allergic or irritant potential of chemicals, in addition to alternative methods such as QSAR modeling will be discussed. The subspecialties of infant and occupational dermatotoxicology, as well as dermatotoxicology of aged and ethnic skin, and skin of the vulva and vagina will also be noted.

  7. The INIS Thesaurus: historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The INIS Thesaurus is a controlled terminological knowledge base that has been developed over the years through the contribution of INIS Member States in all areas of peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology, which is also the subject scope of the INIS Collection. The thesaurus is primarily used for subject indexing of input into the INIS system and for retrieval of information from the database. Thanks to the vital support of INIS Member States, the thesaurus has been translated into eight languages (i.e. all IAEA official languages plus German and Japanese) and is available online to assist our global users as a tool for retrieval and for general reference. It is a dynamic information resource that is continually updated to cater to new developments of terminologies in nuclear science and technology. Since its inception in the 1960’s, it was decided that the subject analysis for INIS input preparation be based on its own subject categories, which also determines its scope, and keyword indexing using a thesaurus. This article briefly describes the development of the INIS Thesaurus from a historical perspective

  8. The historical contingency of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevles, D J

    2000-01-01

    The principles of bioethics have been historically contingent, a product of social values, circumstances, and experience. During the early twentieth century, they rested on a doctor-knows-best autonomy that permitted physicians to perform research on human subjects with a minimum degree, if any, of informed consent. The eugenics movement of the period embraced an implicit bioethics by presuming to sterilize individuals for the sake of a larger social benefit, a practice and doctrine that helped lead to the Nazi medical experiments and death camps. After World War II, the promulgation of the Nuremberg Code failed to halt eugenic sterilization and risky human experimentation without informed consent either in civilian or military venues. However, beginning in the 1960s, these practices came under mounting critical scrutiny, partly because of the increasing attention given to individual rights. By now, it is widely understood that concern for individual rights rather than an appeal to some national good belongs at the heart of bioethics. PMID:11936137

  9. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology. PMID:27117799

  10. Assessment of Eligibility to National Register of Historic Places Building 431 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M A; Ullrich, R A

    2003-05-07

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) proposes to demolish the original sections of Building 431 at its main site in Livermore, California. As this action will constitute an undertaking within the regulatory constraints of the National Historic Preservation Act, LLNL arranged for an assessment of the building's historic significance. This report provides a brief history of the magnetic fusion energy research activities housed in Building 431 and a historic assessment of the building. The final recommendation of the report is that, although Building 431 housed some significant breakthroughs in accelerator technology and magnetic mirror plasma confinement, it lacks integrity for the periods of significance of those developments. It is, therefore, not eligible to the National Register of Historic Places.

  11. Sea level trends in the Southern Ocean over the last century from historical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testut, Laurent; Martin-Miguez, Belén.; Watson, Christopher; Wöppelmann, Guy; Coleman, Richard; Creach, Ronan; Brolsma, Henk; Handsworth, Roger; Pouvreau, Nicolas; Legrésy, Benoit

    2010-05-01

    It is well known that the spatial distribution of sea level measurements throughout the Southern Ocean is sparse and mostly consists of datasets with short records. The PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level) has only a few sea level time series below 45° South and most of them are shorter than twenty years. The lack of observations constrains the ability to determine or reconstruct global estimates of mean sea level change over the past century. For this reason, any available historical information becomes invaluable for deriving long-term estimates of sea level change in this part of the world. The aim of this presentation is to describe the way we have recovered and analysed the available historic sea level observations made in few sites of the Southern Ocean and to propose new reliable long term sea level trend estimates in this region. The first site is Saint-Paul, a small island of the Southern Indian Ocean where historical measurements were done in 1874 and connected to the permanent GLOSS tide gauge. The two other historical observations were recorded by the Australasian Antarctic Expedition lead by Sir Douglas Mawson in 1912 at Maquarie Island and Cap Denison (Antarctica). The last site concerned by this presentation is the Dumont d'Urville (Antarctica) where historical information from the beginning of the 1950's were found and analysed.

  12. Characterization of historic mortars and earthen building materials in Abu Dhabi Emirate, UAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Abu Dhabi Authority for Culture and Heritage (ADACH) is responsible for the conservation and management of historic buildings and archaeological sites in the Emirate. Laboratory analysis has been critical for understanding the composition of historic materials and establishing appropriate conservation treatments across a wide variety of building types, ranging from Iron Age earthen archaeological sites to late-Islamic stone buildings. Analysis was carried out on historic sites in Al Ain, Delma Island and Liwa Oasis using techniques such as micro-x-ray fluorescence (MXRF), scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), polarized light microscopy (PLM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Testing was conducted through consultant laboratories and in collaboration with local universities. The initial aim of the analysis was to understand historic earthen materials and to confirm the suitability of locally sourced clays for the production of mud bricks and plasters. Another important goal was to characterize materials used in historic stone buildings in order to develop repair mortars, renders and grouts.

  13. Double tracks test site characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of site characterization activities performed at the Double Tracks Test Site, located on Range 71 North, of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in southern Nevada. Site characterization activities included reviewing historical data from the Double Tracks experiment, previous site investigation efforts, and recent site characterization data. The most recent site characterization activities were conducted in support of an interim corrective action to remediate the Double Tracks Test Site to an acceptable risk to human health and the environment. Site characterization was performed using a phased approach. First, previously collected data and historical records sere compiled and reviewed. Generalized scopes of work were then prepared to fill known data gaps. Field activities were conducted and the collected data were then reviewed to determine whether data gaps were filled and whether other areas needed to be investigated. Additional field efforts were then conducted, as required, to adequately characterize the site. Characterization of the Double Tracks Test Site was conducted in accordance with the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER)

  14. Double tracks test site characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of site characterization activities performed at the Double Tracks Test Site, located on Range 71 North, of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in southern Nevada. Site characterization activities included reviewing historical data from the Double Tracks experiment, previous site investigation efforts, and recent site characterization data. The most recent site characterization activities were conducted in support of an interim corrective action to remediate the Double Tracks Test Site to an acceptable risk to human health and the environment. Site characterization was performed using a phased approach. First, previously collected data and historical records sere compiled and reviewed. Generalized scopes of work were then prepared to fill known data gaps. Field activities were conducted and the collected data were then reviewed to determine whether data gaps were filled and whether other areas needed to be investigated. Additional field efforts were then conducted, as required, to adequately characterize the site. Characterization of the Double Tracks Test Site was conducted in accordance with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  15. Methodological Approach to the Energy Analysis of Unconstrained Historical Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Burattini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal set by the EU of quasi-zero energy buildings is not easy to reach for a country like Italy, as it holds a wide number of UNESCO sites and most of them are entire historical old towns. This paper focuses on the problem of the improvement of energy performance of historical Italian architecture through simple interventions that respect the building without changing its shape and structure. The work starts from an energy analysis of a building located in the historic center of Tivoli, a town close to Rome. The analysis follows the recommendations of the UNI TS 11300-Part1, which indicates how to evaluate the energy consumptions. The calculations were performed only on the building envelope, based on passive solutions and alternatives. Four passive strategies were examined and applied based on the location of the building and the non-alteration of the structure and the landscape. The obtained results impacted positively on the energy performance of the building: the annual energy saving reached a maximum value of 25%. This work shows how it is possible to improve the energy performance of an existing building achieving a significant energy saving with the respect of the building architecture, shape, function and the surrounding landscape.

  16. Site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO2 content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate

  17. Social News Sites as Democratic Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, András

    This thesis presents an empirical analysis and normative theoretical evaluation of Reddit, a social news website, focusing on its coverage of the 2012 US presidential election campaign. It explores the site's structural features and organization, and evaluates its coverage by standards derived from...... three different ideal concepts of democracy. In all three theoretical settings, the study finds Reddit's performance lacking, while also identifying praiseworthy aspects of the site's operation. The thesis concludes by putting the mostly disappointing results into broader historical and technological...

  18. Implementing Solar PV Projects on Historic Buildings and in Historic Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Walker, A.; Buddenborg, J; Lindberg, J.

    2011-09-01

    Many municipalities, particularly in older communities of the United States, have a large amount of historic buildings and districts. In addition to preserving these historic assets, many municipalities have goals or legislative requirements to procure a certain amount of energy from renewable sources and to become more efficient in their energy use; often, these requirements do not exempt historic buildings. This paper details findings from a workshop held in Denver, Colorado, in June 2010 that brought together stakeholders from both the solar and historic preservation industries. Based on these findings, this paper identifies challenges and recommends solutions for developing solar photovoltaic (PV) projects on historic buildings and in historic districts in such a way as to not affect the characteristics that make a building eligible for historic status.

  19. The Hanford Site: An anthology of early histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1993-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Memories of War: Pearl Harbor and the Genesis of the Hanford Site; safety has always been promoted at the Hanford Site; women have an important place in Hanford Site history; the boom and bust cycle: A 50-year historical overview of the economic impacts of Hanford Site Operations on the Tri-Cities, Washington; Hanford`s early reactors were crucial to the sites`s history; T-Plant made chemical engineering history; the UO{sub 3} plant has a long history of service. PUREX Plant: the Hanford Site`s Historic Workhorse. PUREX Plant Waste Management was a complex challenge; and early Hanford Site codes and jargon.

  20. Historical records, sources and spatial trends of PCBs along the Rhone River (France)

    OpenAIRE

    Mourier, B.; M. Desmet; Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.; Perrodin, Y.; Roux, G.; Bedell, J.P.; Lefèvre, I.; Babut, M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite bans on PCB use since 1975 (open systems) and 1987 (closed systems), concentrations of PCBs in riverinefish in France continue to exceed regulatory levels. We present historical records of PCB concentrations in sediment cores from eight sites on the Rhône River, from Lake Geneva to the Mediterranean Sea. Maximum PCB concentrations (sum of seven indicator PCBs) increase downstream, from 11.50 µg/kg at the most upstream site to 417.1 µg/kg at the most downstream site. At some sites peak...

  1. Quantitative historical hydrology in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, G.; Brázdil, R.; Herget, J.; Machado, M. J.

    2015-08-01

    In recent decades, the quantification of flood hydrological characteristics (peak discharge, hydrograph shape, and runoff volume) from documentary evidence has gained scientific recognition as a method to lengthen flood records of rare and extreme events. This paper describes the methodological evolution of quantitative historical hydrology under the influence of developments in hydraulics and statistics. In the 19th century, discharge calculations based on flood marks were the only source of hydrological data for engineering design, but were later left aside in favour of systematic gauge records and conventional hydrological procedures. In the last two decades, there has been growing scientific and public interest in understanding long-term patterns of rare floods, in maintaining the flood heritage and memory of extremes, and developing methods for deterministic and statistical application to different scientific and engineering problems. A compilation of 46 case studies across Europe with reconstructed discharges demonstrates that (1) in most cases present flood magnitudes are not unusual within the context of the last millennium, although recent floods may exceed past floods in some temperate European rivers (e.g. the Vltava and Po rivers); (2) the frequency of extreme floods has decreased since the 1950s, although some rivers (e.g. the Gardon and Ouse rivers) show a reactivation of rare events over the last two decades. There is a great potential for gaining understanding of individual extreme events based on a combined multiproxy approach (palaeoflood and documentary records) providing high-resolution time flood series and their environmental and climatic changes; and for developing non-systematic and non-stationary statistical models based on relations of past floods with external and internal covariates under natural low-frequency climate variability.

  2. The Historical Origins of Spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Scott

    The idea of spacetime investigated in this chapter, with a view toward understanding its immediate sources and development, is the one formulated and proposed by Hermann Minkowski in 1908. Until recently, the principle source used to form historical narratives of Minkowski's discovery of spacetime has been Minkowski's own discovery account, outlined in the lecture he delivered in Cologne, entitled Space and time [1]. Minkowski's lecture is usually considered as a bona fide first-person narrative of lived events. According to this received view, spacetime was a natural outgrowth of Felix Klein's successful project to promote the study of geometries via their characteristic groups of transformations. Or as Minkowski expressed the same basic thought himself, the theory of relativity discovered by physicists in 1905 could just as well have been proposed by some late-nineteenth-century mathematician, by simply reflecting upon the groups of transformations that left invariant the form of the equation of a propagating light wave. Minkowski's publications and research notes provide a contrasting picture of the discovery of spacetime, in which group theory plays no direct part. In order to relate the steps of Minkowski's discovery, we begin with an account of Poincaré's theory of gravitation, where Minkowski found some of the germs of spacetime. Poincaré's geometric interpretation of the Lorentz transformation is examined, along with his reasons for not pursuing a four-dimensional vector calculus. In the second section, Minkowski's discovery and presentation of the notion of a world line in spacetime is presented. In the third and final section, Poincaré's and Minkowski's diagrammatic interpretations of the Lorentz transformation are compared.

  3. Dearfield Dream Project: Developing an Interdisciplinary Historical/Cultural Research Network

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Brunswig; George Junne; Gillian Bowser; Erin Renfrew; Ellyn Dickmann; Amanda Purnell; Mark Brown

    2013-01-01

    The Dearfield Dream Project is a collaborative research initiative to conduct historical, cultural, archaeological, and environmental studies on the early 20th Century African-American colony site of Dearfield, Colorado, USA. Because the breadth and significance of the Dearfield Project requires an interdisciplinary research team, a network of research collaborators has been assembled. This research network seeks to discover, preserve, and disseminate knowledge of the site and its surrounding...

  4. Evaluation and cataloging of Korean historical earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kew Hwa; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Jun Hui; Park, Ji Eok; Na, Kwang Wooing; Shin, Byung Ju [The Reaearch Institute of Basic Sciences, Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    In order to systematically collect and analyze the historical earthquake data of the Korean peninsula which are very important in analyzing the seismicity and seismic risk of the peninsula by seismologist and historian, extensive governmental and private historical documents are investigated and relative reliabilities of these documents are examined. This research unearthed about 70 new earthquake records and revealed the change in the cultural, political and social effects of earthquakes with time in Korea. Also, the results of the vibration test of the Korean traditional wooden house are obtained in order to better estimate intensities of the historical earthquakes.

  5. Radium in consumer products: an historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper demonstrates in historical and technical perspective how radium began to be used in consumer products and how changing conditions in technology and regulations have greatly modified the use of radium. In addition, the various uses of radium that have been tried or have been used in consumer products have been described, and whenever possible, the historical perspective has been used to show when devices were needed and when changing conditions caused the products to be no longer required. The historical perspective attitude is again used in the evaluation of the risks and benefits of radium in comparison to radium substitutes

  6. 77 FR 40897 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items: Gregg County Historical Museum, Longview, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    .... 3001. This notice is published as part of the National Park Service's administrative responsibilities... Master of Arts thesis (Buddy Calvin Jones, ``The Kinsloe Focus: A Study of Seven Historic Caddoan Sites in Northeast Texas,'' Master of Arts thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of...

  7. Current and Historic Vegetation of Refuge Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This collection of vegetation maps was created by a biologist working at Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge. Historic vegetation is illustrated in 14...

  8. Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Historical Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory contains measured and estimated data on ambient air pollution for use in assessing air quality, assisting in...

  9. Special Stamps:Historical Relic Beacons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In May 2002, the State Postal Bureau issued a set of five stamps picturing historical relic beacons. They are the Mao Beacon, the Jiangxinyu Twin Beacon, the Huaniaoshan Beacon, the Laotieshan Beacon, and

  10. Historical Tsunami Event Locations with Runups

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Global Historical Tsunami Database provides information on over 2,400 tsunamis from 2100 BC to the present in the the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans; and...

  11. Historical Collections in Psychiatry and Psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylenki, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Describes historical collections of major psychoanalytic libraries--American Psychiatric Association, Boston Psychoanalytic Society, Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis, Insititue of Living, Los Angeles Psychoanalytic Society, Menninger Foundation, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Payne Whitney Psychiatric Clinic, Pittsburgh Psychoanalytic…

  12. Alaska Federal Oil and Gas Historical Leases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the outlines for historic (i.e., relinquished or inactive) federal oil and gas leases in the Alaska OCS Region through sale 193. They...

  13. 36 CFR 13.310 - Historical operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... which the park area was established as determined by the Director, the Director will offer to renew the...) Revocation of an authorization for historic types and levels of visitor services for failure to comply...

  14. Topography Restoration of Historic City Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ho, L. Sung; soo, H. Dong

    2015-08-01

    The preservation of historic cities requires a balance between conservation and development because the urban structures of the old and new city are interwoven on same space. Existing restoration plans rely on old records and excavation reports and are based on the present topography. However, historic cities have undergone significant natural and anthropogenic topographic changes such as alluvial sediment accumulation and uneven terrain construction. Therefore, considering only the present topography is misleading. Thus, to understand a historic city's structure more appropriately, it is necessary to comprehend the ancient geographic environment. This study provides an analysis and GIS visualization of the ancient topography of a historic city, Sabi capital city of the Baekje Dynasty, which collapsed 1,500 years ago.

  15. Digitized Historical Geomagnetic Publications in PDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A catalog of 732 historical geomagnetic publications that were at risk of loss have been digitized and converted in pdf documents.

  16. Historical aspects of the nuclear right development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the historical aspects of the nuclear right development. It makes the evolution of the fundamental principles of nuclear right, in special, the civil responsibility for nuclear damages. (author)

  17. Electric Vehicles--A Historical Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Most people don't realize that the history of electric vehicles (EVs) predates the Civil War. This article provides a historical snapshot of EVs to spark the interest of both teachers and students in this important transportation technology.

  18. Color features for dating historical color images

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Basura; Muselet, Damien; Khan, Rahat; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2014-01-01

    Fernando B., Muselet D., Khan R., Tuytelaars T., ''Color features for dating historical color image'', IEEE international conference on image processing - ICIP 2014, 5 pp., October 27-30, 2014, Paris, France.

  19. Historical Aspects in Tolerance Phenomenon Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janat A. Karmanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the historical aspect of the tolerance phenomenon research, particularly the study of tolerance in the age of Antiquity, Middle Ages, New Times, Enlightenment. It is remarkable that the problem of tolerance, emerged in Western civilization on religious grounds, laid the foundation for all other freedoms, attained in many countries. Besides, the article attaches special attention to the researchers of the East, such as Abu Nasr al-Farabi, Khoja Ahmed Yasawi, studies the historical aspect of works by Kazakhstan thinkers A. Kunanbayev, C. Valikhanova, K.B. Zharikbayev, S.K. Kaliyev, A.N. Nysanbayev, A.I. Artemev and others. The analysis of historical research of the tolerance phenomenon brings the author to the conclusion that religious freedom was the starting point for the emergence of new areas of tolerance display. The content of this phenomenon changed according to the historical peculiarities of the societies’ development

  20. Modeling of Degradation Processes in Historical Mortars

    OpenAIRE

    Sýkora, J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of presented paper is modeling of degradation processes in historical mortars exposed to moisture impact during freezing. Internal damage caused by ice crystallization in pores is one of the most important factors limiting the service life of historical structures. Coupling the transport processes with the mechanical part will allow us to address the impact of moisture on the durability, strength and stiffness of mortars. This should be accomplished with the help of a complex thermo-h...

  1. Updating flood records using historic water profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Pohl, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    The statistical evaluation of flood records requires long data series to extrapolate reliable peak discharges and related recurrence intervals. Often the records are extended with historical information concerning the water level. As the distribution functions are usually fitted to the discharge values historic stage-discharge-relations must be found to convert these values. Regarding the Elbe river at the Dresden gauge the history of a water course and its morphology is investigated. Usin...

  2. A HISTORICAL OVERWIEW OF ACCOUNTING IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim MERT

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article was to review the historical evolution of accounting in the late Ottoman Empire and the modern Republic of Turkey. Prior Work: This paper is trying to extant a research to observe the historical development of accounting practices in Turkey. During the analyses around 2 authors’ books were related to this paper. Approach: During the study it was focused to collect information observation through published academic books and articles. Results: The empiri...

  3. Tourism Development: Issues for Historic Walled Towns

    OpenAIRE

    Tomi Brezovec; David Bruce

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses issues in tourism development and visitor management in historic walled towns. Historic towns and walled towns in particular, attract tourists that enjoy the preserved medieval ambience, architecture and picturesque streets. Tourism has an impact on economic and social life as well as on the urban and natural environment. Walled towns and cities with their obvious barriers exemplify and crystallise issues, challenges, and opportunities critical to the development of touri...

  4. Social Psychology in Malawi: Historical or Developmental?

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart C. Carr

    1996-01-01

    It is now over two decades since Gergen (1973) argued that social psychology is historical, and this paper re-examines his arguments in the light of more recent social changes in Tropical Africa. Malawi has experienced major sociopolitical upheavals and from the outside, with much of the agenda based on foreign historical foundations, Gergen's hypothesis implies that social psychology should be radically inappropriate. From the inside, however, the discipline has garnered substantial student ...

  5. Shelta: an historical and contemporary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Binchy, Alice

    1985-01-01

    Travellers, have historically been separated from the larger group of Irish society; customs and practices emphasise the division and reinforce Travellers' internal security: the main symbol of their difference, their linguistic code, which operates as a secret or protective language, is known variously as Shelta, Gammon or Cant. The Thesis provides a critical examination of the historical and academic analysis to date of Shelta and reports on the results of an empirical ...

  6. Latino Identity in Allende's Historical Novels

    OpenAIRE

    Ries, Olga

    2011-01-01

    In her article "Latino Identity in Allende's Historical Novels" Olga Ries analyzes the concept of individual and group identity found in five historical novels by Isabel Allende. Ries argues that while Allende's protagonists come from different backgrounds and different epochs, they share a process of psychological transformation and that affects their identity formation. The result is the formation of a transnational "Hispanic" identity, group as well as individual. In Ries's reading of Alle...

  7. Historical analysis of vocational education in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Sheel Manju

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze the vocational education plans of Nepal through an historical study by identifying their successes and failures. The specific objectives of the study were (a) to provide an historical background of general education and vocational education, (b) to analyze the strengths and inadequacies of the vocational education systems implemented in Nepal since 1950, (c) to review vocational education components implemented in other developing ...

  8. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  9. Site Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Eric C.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a guide to planning and building a Web site, with an emphasis on setting up a Web server. Discussion includes hiring a consultant, contracts and payment, assembly of teams, training, development of a business plan, registration of domain name, purchase of hardware and software, local area networks, and types of Internet connection. (JKP)

  10. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

  11. FILM AS A RESOURCE FOR DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT: LINKS OF HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY AND HISTORICAL

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Calvo Tuleski; Marta Chaves; Hilusca Alves Leite; Paulo Sérgio Pereira Ricci; Maria Aparecida Santiago da Silva; Jéssica Elise Echs Lucena

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the methodological process and results of a research project in which the main objective was to verify the development of scientific concepts in participants by analyzing human history using movies from different historical periods. The discussions hereby exposed are a product of seven years of teaching, researching and extracurricular activities. The study was based on the foundations of Cultural-Historical Psychology and Critical-Historical Pedagogy, defending the idea t...

  12. Excavating Chinese America in the Delta: Race and the historical archaeology of the Isleton Chinese American community

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Kelly Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a historical archaeological study of the Chinese American community in Isleton, California during the first half of the 20th century. I utilize excavated material culture from the Bing Kong Tong site, documentary research, and oral histories to investigate everyday life in this community. In my analysis, I employ an interdisciplinary perspective that draws from Asian American Studies and historical archaeology to interpret materials in light of Asian American Studies hi...

  13. Assessment of buffer zones in a world heritage site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Algreen-Ussing, Gregers

    2005-01-01

    Paper presented at International conference on traditional Tibetan architecture and murals conservation. From year to year, the nimber of historical areas designated as World Heritage Sites is increasing. The result is not only, that monuments and outstanding phenomenon's are due to restrictions...... assessing developing historical areas as buffer zones. Finally, I will point to the Principles for the Conservation of Heritage Sites in China, as exceptional carefully composed guidelines. The purpose of the first approach is to establish an assessment of the existing building culture in a given site...

  14. Historic American engineering record. Nevada national security site, Bren Tower Complex. Written historical and descriptive data and field records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Susan R. [Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Goldenberg, Nancy [Carey & Co Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The BREN (Bare Reactor Experiment, Nevada) Tower Complex is significant for its role in the history of nuclear testing, radiation dosimetry studies, and early field testing of the Strategic Missile Defense System designs. At the time it was built in 1962, the 1,527 ft (465 m) BREN Tower was the tallest structure west of the Mississippi River and exceeded the height of the Empire State Building by 55 ft (17 m). It remains the tallest ever erected specifically for scientific purposes and was designed and built to facilitate the experimental dosimetry studies necessary for the development of accurate radiation dose rates for the survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The tower was a key component of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission’s (ABCC) mission to predict the health effects of radiation exposure. Moved to its current location in 1966, the crucial dosimetry studies continued with Operation HENRE (High Energy Neutron Reactions Experiment). These experiments and the data they generated became the basis for a dosimetry system called the Tentative 1965 Dose or more commonly the T65D model. Used to estimate radiation doses received by individuals, the T65D model was applied until the mid-1980s when it was replaced by a new dosimetry system known as DS86 based on the Monte Carlo method of dose rate calculation. However, the BREN Tower data are still used for verification of the validity of the DS86 model. In addition to its importance in radiation heath effects research, the BREN Tower Complex is also significant for its role in the Brilliant Pebbles research project, a major component of the Strategic Defense Initiative popularly known as the “Star Wars” Initiative. Instigated under the Reagan Administration, the program’s purpose was to develop a system to shield the United States and allies from a ballistic missile attack. The centerpiece of the Strategic Defense System was space-based, kinetic-kill vehicles. In 1991, BREN Tower was used for the tether tests of the Brilliant Pebbles prototype vehicle at the earth’s surface prior to the more costly space testing program. The success of these tests established the Brilliant Pebbles program as an essential component of America’s space-based missile defense system even after the dismantling of the Soviet Union. Data from the Brilliant Pebbles research program continues to inspire current missile defense system research (Independent Working Group 2009).

  15. History of Hanford Site Defense Production (Brief)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper acquaints the audience with the history of the Hanford Site, America's first full-scale defense plutonium production site. The paper includes the founding and basic operating history of the Hanford Site, including World War II construction and operations, three major postwar expansions (1947-55), the peak years of production (1956-63), production phase downs (1964-the present), a brief production spurt from 1984-86, the end of the Cold War, and the beginning of the waste cleanup mission. The paper also delineates historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, past efforts to chemically treat, ''fractionate,'' and/or immobilize Hanford's wastes, and resulting major waste legacies that remain today. This paper presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. Finally, the paper places the current Hanford Site waste remediation endeavors in the broad context of American and world history

  16. Site descriptions: Cypress Creek, Davis Canyon, Deaf Smith, Hanford Reference, Lavender Canyon, Richton Dome, Swisher, Vacherie Dome, Yucca Mountain. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-04-01

    The following information is given about the various sites: location (state and county), terrain, climate, weather, endangered plants and animals; nearest town, population, nearest railway, nearest interstate highway, economy, density within 50 miles, owners, and historical sites. (LM)

  17. Application of passive sampling for measuring dissolved concentrations of organic contaminants in the water column at three marine superfund sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    At contaminated sediment sites, including U.S. EPA Superfund sites, it is critical to measure water column concentrations of freely dissolved contaminants to understand the complete exposure of aquatic organisms to hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). However, historically a...

  18. Site descriptions: Cypress Creek, Davis Canyon, Deaf Smith, Hanford Reference, Lavender Canyon, Richton Dome, Swisher, Vacherie Dome, Yucca Mountain. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following information is given about the various sites: location (state and county), terrain, climate, weather, endangered plants and animals; nearest town, population, nearest railway, nearest interstate highway, economy, density within 50 miles, owners, and historical sites. (LM)

  19. Heritage sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Tomáš

    Prague : Institute of theoretical and applied mechanics AS CR, v.v.i, 2011 - (Drdácký, M.; Binda, L.; Hennen, I.; Kőpp, C.; Lanza, L.), s. 138-141 ISBN 978-80-86246-37-6 Grant ostatní: evropská komise(XE) CHEF-SSPI-044251 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : flood * heritage sites * cultural heritage Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  20. Windows of opportunity: historical and ecological controls on Berberis thunbergii invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGasperis, Brian G; Motzkin, Glenn

    2007-12-01

    Attempts to determine characteristics that render habitats invasible to nonnative species have met with limited success. This may be because most studies focus on modern habitat conditions and do not consider invasibility in the context of a historically dynamic landscape in which both the abundance of a species and the invasibility of a site may change. We surveyed 159 currently forested sites for the occurrence and abundance of Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry), an invasive, nonnative shrub in forests of the northeastern United States, relative to modern environmental conditions, contemporary logging activity, and two periods of historical land use. Berberis thunbergii occurred more frequently and was more abundant in post-agricultural forests than in continuously wooded sites. This relationship was stronger for agricultural sites that were abandoned and reforested after B. thunbergii was introduced to the region than for sites that reforested prior to B. thunbergii introduction. In contrast, recent forest harvesting did not influence the occurrence or abundance of B. thunbergii. Modern soil fertility explained a significant portion of the variation in B. thunbergii occurrence, whereas site history considerably improved predictions of population density and helped evaluate potential invasion mechanisms. While land-use history covaries with soil fertility and distance to putative seed sources, the strong relationship between modern abundance patterns and historical agriculture suggests that B. thunbergii colonized recently abandoned agricultural lands in the early 20th century and then persisted and spread locally during subsequent reforestation. Our results indicate that interpretations of both native community composition and modern plant invasions must consider the importance of historical landscape changes and the timing of species introduction along with current environmental conditions. PMID:18229845

  1. Site characterisation methods and data interpretation. The Drigg site characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further site characterisation work is being undertaken to underpin the impact assessment of BNFL's Drigg low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. This site has been in operation for about forty years and is located approximately seven kilometres south of the Sellafield reprocessing plant in West Cumbria. The site accepts the majority of LLW produced in the U.K. which may be generated by hospitals and general industry as well as the nuclear industry itself. Historically, waste was tumble tipped into trenches which were then covered with an interim cap incorporating a plastic membrane. Waste is now placed in a concrete vault within steel Isofreight containers. This practice will continue through to the end of operations which is anticipated to be in the middle of the next century. Subsequently, a final closure cap will be emplaced over the disposal area. The five year Drigg Site Characterisation programme was, therefore, set up in order to improve and build upon our current understanding of the geology and hydrogeology of the site. The first one and a half years are devoted entirely to data acquisition with the greatest activity surrounding the drilling and geophysical aspects of the programme. Four years will be devoted to collecting a high quality time series data set of water levels, stream flows and meteorological variables and to produce a comprehensive interpretation of the hydrogeology of the site. The programme to date has been very successful and the acquired information has enabled us to start refining our geological model of the site which will then be used to underpin our eventual conceptual hydrogeological model. 3 refs

  2. Treatment and conditioning of historical radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the management of historical radioactive waste from the storage facility of Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant. The historical waste stored into storage facility of IFIN-HH consists of spent sealed radioactive sources, empty contaminated containers, wooden radioactive waste, low specific activity radioactive waste, contaminated waste as well as radioactive waste from operation of WWR-S research reactor. After decommissioning of temporary storage facility about 5000 packages with radioactive waste were produced and transferred to the disposal facility. A large amount of packages have been transferred and disposed of to repository but at the end of 2000 there were still about 800 packages containing cement conditioned radioactive waste in an advanced state of degradation declared by authorities as 'historical waste'. During the management of historical waste campaign there were identified: radium spent radioactive sources, containers containing other spent sealed radioactive sources, packages containing low specific activity waste consist of thorium scrap allow, 30 larger packages (316 L), packages with activity lower than activity limit for disposal, packages with activity higher than activity limit for disposal. At the end of 2008, the whole amount of historical waste which met the waste acceptance criteria has been conditioned and transferred to disposal facility. (authors)

  3. Teaching Historical Analysis and Thinking Using the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2008-01-01

    Historical thinking and historical analysis have become significant themes within the ranks of social studies educators. In this article, the author talks about the importance of teaching historical analysis and historical thinking using the Internet. He presents websites that both explain the two concepts and also provide lesson plans,…

  4. Addressing historic environmental exposures along the Alaska Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Duffy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. A World War II defense site at Northway, Alaska, was remediated in the 1990s, leaving complex questions regarding historic exposures to toxic waste. This article describes the context, methods, limitations and findings of the Northway Wild Food and Health Project (NWFHP. Objective. The NWFHP comprised 2 pilot studies: the Northway Wild Food Study (NWFS, which investigated contaminants in locally prioritized traditional foods over time, and the Northway Health Study (NHS, which investigated locally suspected links between resource uses and health problems. Design. This research employed mixed methods. The NWFS reviewed remedial documents and existing data. The NHS collected household information regarding resource uses and health conditions by questionnaire and interview. NHS data represent general (yes or no personal knowledge that was often second hand. Retrospective cohort comparisons were made of the reported prevalence of 7 general health problems between groups based on their reported (yes or no consumption of particular resources, for 3 data sets (existing, historic and combined with a two-tailed Fisher’s Exact Test in SAS (n=325 individuals in 83 households, 24 of which no longer exist. Results. The NWFS identified historic pathways of exposure to petroleum, pesticides, herbicides, chlorinated byproducts of disinfection and lead from resources that were consumed more frequently decades ago and are not retrospectively quantifiable. The NHS found complex patterns of association between reported resource uses and cancer and thyroid-, reproductive-, metabolic- and cardiac problems. Conclusion. Lack of detail regarding medical conditions, undocumented histories of exposure, time lapsed since the release of pollution and changes to health and health care over the same period make this exploratory research. Rather than demonstrate causation, these results document the legitimacy of local suspicions and warrant additional

  5. Historical GIS Projects: Spatial Data Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Parker

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The use of historical GIS (HGIS in humanities and social sciences research has added dimensions to scholarship in terms of both analysis and visualization. The construction of appropriate HGIS systems for the integration of historical data requires large investments in time, resources, and technical expertise. Fundamental to the success of such systems is the spatial data infrastructure (SDI that consists of crucial components including licensing, data formats, documentation, and standards of metadata. This paper examines the aspects of an SDI necessary for HGIS, particularly on the level of national endeavours, through use of the example of the Great Britain Historical GIS Project. The detailed facets of an effective SDI for a national HGIS can serve as a model for researchers in Canada interested in developing a similar resource.

  6. Durability of Silicate Glasses: An Historical Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farges, Francois; /Museum Natl. Hist. Natur. /Stanford U., Geo. Environ. Sci.; Etcheverry, Marie-Pierre; /Marne la Vallee U.; Haddi, Amine; /Marne la Valle U.; Trocellier,; /Saclay; Curti, Enzo; /PSI, Villigen; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2007-01-02

    We present a short review of current theories of glass weathering, including glass dissolution, and hydrolysis of nuclear waste glasses, and leaching of historical glasses from an XAFS perspective. The results of various laboratory leaching experiments at different timescales (30 days to 12 years) are compared with results for historical glasses that were weathered by atmospheric gases and soil waters over 500 to 3000 years. Good agreement is found between laboratory experiments and slowly leached historical glasses, with a strong enrichment of metals at the water/gel interface. Depending on the nature of the transition elements originally dissolved in the melt, increasing elemental distributions are expected to increase with time for a given glass durability context.

  7. Historical and Conceptual Foundation of Diagrammatical Ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Uckelman, Sara L.; Schärfe, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    During the Renaissance there was a growing interest for the use of diagrams within conceptual studies. This paper investigates the historical and philosophical foundation of this renewed use of diagrams in ontology as well as the modern relevance of this foundation. We discuss the historical...... and philosophical background for Jacob Lorhard’s invention of the word ‘ontology’ as well as the scientific status of ontology in the 16th and 17th century. We also consider the use of Ramean style diagrams and diagrammatic ontology in general. A modern implementation of Lorhard’s ontology is discussed...... and this classical ontology is compared to some modern ontologies....

  8. [Vygotsky's Social-Historic Constructivism and nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thofehrn, Maira Buss; Leopardi, Maria Tereza

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect, in the theoretical scope, about the Vygotsky's socio-historical constructivism and the contributions from this Russian researcher to build the nursing knowledge. The Vygotskian approach has as its philosophical, epistemological and methodological purposes, the principles of the historical materialism, it emphasizes the social and cultural context in the working process, also in the use of instruments and in the dialectical interaction between human beings and environment. We understand that the ideas preconized by Vygotsky can represent an alternative method to the practical and theoretical studies, specially, as the subjective dimension of the working process near by the nursing staff. PMID:17340718

  9. THE CONCEPTION CULTURAL-HISTORICAL OF LITERACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire dos Santos Dangió

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article on screen calls into question the cultural-historical conception of literacy in order to point out the relationship between it and the psychic development process of individuals, arguing - in accordance with the theoretical assumptions of historical-cultural psychology, that literacy takes place within a broader process of cultural development and, consequently, a developmental education from an early age. Thus, we defend the thesis that the teacher literacy needs to know the internal connections between literacy, oral language development and the abstractive leap required for its conversion into written language.

  10. The natural constituents of historical textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ester S B; Hulme, Alison N; McNab, Hamish; Quye, Anita

    2004-07-30

    The sources and structures of dyes used to colour Western historical textiles are described in this tutorial review. Most blue and purple colours were derived from indigo--obtained either from woad or from the indigo plant--though some other sources (e.g. shellfish and lichens) were used. Reds were often anthraquinone derivatives obtained from plants or insects. Yellows were almost always flavonoid derivatives obtained from a variety of plant species. Most other colours were produced by over-dyeing--e.g. greens were obtained by over-dyeing a blue with a yellow dye. Direct analysis of dyes isolated from artefacts allows comparison with the historical record. PMID:15280965

  11. Evaluation and cataloging of Korean historical earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kew Hwa; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Jun Hui; Park, Ji Eok; Na, Kwang Wooing; Shin, Byung Ju [The Reaearch Institute of Basic Sciences, Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    Historical earthquake data of the Korean Peninsula which are very important is evaluating seismicity and seismic hazard of the peninsula were collected and analyzed by seismologist and historian. A preliminary catalog of Korean historical earthquake data translated in English was made. Felt places of 528 events felt at more than 2 places were indicated on maps and MMI III isoseismal were drawn for 52 events of MMI{>=}VII. Epicenters and intensities of these MMI{>=}VII events were estimated from these isoseismal maps.

  12. [Natural science and historicity in modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Engelhardt, D

    1977-09-29

    The history of science in modern times is the history of the loss of and gain in historicity. In contrast to the increasing historicizing of nature (as the objective dimension), the knowledge of nature (as the subjective dimension) after a time of parallelism between historical studies and scientific research (Enlightenment) and a time of integration (Idealism/Romanticism) was fundamentally dehistoricized during the positivistic 19th century. The history of science and science itself have since that time fallen apart--consciousness of science is restricted to consciousness of the presence. PMID:334653

  13. Evaluation and cataloging of Korean historical earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical earthquake data of the Korean Peninsula which are very important is evaluating seismicity and seismic hazard of the peninsula were collected and analyzed by seismologist and historian. A preliminary catalog of Korean historical earthquake data translated in English was made. Felt places of 528 events felt at more than 2 places were indicated on maps and MMI III isoseismal were drawn for 52 events of MMI≥VII. Epicenters and intensities of these MMI≥VII events were estimated from these isoseismal maps

  14. Introductory modern algebra a historical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, Saul

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""Stahl offers the solvability of equations from the historical point of view...one of the best books available to support a one-semester introduction to abstract algebra.""-CHOICE Introductory Modern Algebra: A Historical Approach, Second Edition presents the evolution of algebra and provides readers with the opportunity to view modern algebra as a consistent movement from concrete problems to abstract principles. With a few pertinent excerpts from the writings of some of the greatest mathematicians, the Second Edition uniquely facilitates the understanding of pi

  15. The studies of historical seismicity in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1975 in order to be in conformity with the requirements of the French nuclear program, a review of historical seismicity was undertaken in France. The method adopted for reviewing historical earthquakes who entails a systematic consultation of the original sources and their critical analysis in order to obtain a new interpretation, led to compile a computer file covering a period of time of about a millenary. The abundant contributions result of continuous researches involve annualy up-date of the file where macroseismic data each one assigned with a degree of reliability are recorded

  16. The Ellipse A Historical and Mathematical Journey

    CERN Document Server

    Mazer, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Explores the development of the ellipse and presents mathematical concepts within a rich, historical context The Ellipse features a unique, narrative approach when presenting the development of this mathematical fixture, revealing its parallels to mankind's advancement from the Counter-Reformation to the Enlightenment. Incorporating illuminating historical background and examples, the author brings together basic concepts from geometry, algebra, trigonometry, and calculus to uncover the ellipse as the shape of a planet's orbit around the sun. The book begins with a discussion that tells the st

  17. Structure and Process - Influence of Historical Agriculture of Linear Flow Paths by Extreme Rainfall in Brandenburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Detlef Deumlich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term erosion forecast can completely misinterpret in extreme events in plain regions. Flow paths are well represented in the plain using digital elevation models in the 1-m grid (DEM1. The scale of the erosion process models and the elevation models is comparable. With it instruments are available to improve the erosion simulation. Simulations, based on (RUSLE family and bigger grid width, are relevant for regional overviews, to the clarification of small scale relevant linear erosion forms, however, unsuitably. The cross-slope tillage has intensified the water erosion in the examined case with special area morphology. From historical sources furrows of the ridge and furrow system were identified as runoff ways. Historical and actual information sources allowed the clarification of especially regional erosion events. Site specific and climatic factors as well as the actual land management caused a high damage magnitude in particular with extreme rainstorms, modified by historical land use structures.

  18. Casting Light on the Darkening of Colors in Historical Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Pieve, F.; Hogan, C.; Lamoen, D.; Verbeeck, J.; Vanmeert, F.; Radepont, M.; Cotte, M.; Janssens, K.; Gonze, X.; Van Tendeloo, G.

    2013-11-01

    The degradation of colors in historical paintings affects our cultural heritage in both museums and archeological sites. Despite intensive experimental studies, the origin of darkening of one of the most ancient pigments known to humankind, vermilion (α-HgS), remains unexplained. Here, by combining many-body theoretical spectroscopy and high-resolution microscopic x-ray diffraction, we clarify the composition of the damaged paint work and demonstrate possible physicochemical processes, induced by illumination and exposure to humidity and air, that cause photoactivation of the original pigment and the degradation of the secondary minerals. The results suggest a new path for the darkening process which was never considered by previous studies and prompt a critical examination of their findings.

  19. Preservation of York Minster historic limestone by hydrophobic surface coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rachel A; Wilson, Karen; Lee, Adam F; Woodford, Julia; Grassian, Vicki H; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Rubasinghege, Gayan; Cibin, Giannantonio; Dent, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Magnesian limestone is a key construction component of many historic buildings that is under constant attack from environmental pollutants notably by oxides of sulfur via acid rain, particulate matter sulfate and gaseous SO(2) emissions. Hydrophobic surface coatings offer a potential route to protect existing stonework in cultural heritage sites, however, many available coatings act by blocking the stone microstructure, preventing it from 'breathing' and promoting mould growth and salt efflorescence. Here we report on a conformal surface modification method using self-assembled monolayers of naturally sourced free fatty acids combined with sub-monolayer fluorinated alkyl silanes to generate hydrophobic (HP) and super hydrophobic (SHP) coatings on calcite. We demonstrate the efficacy of these HP and SHP surface coatings for increasing limestone resistance to sulfation, and thus retarding gypsum formation under SO(2)/H(2)O and model acid rain environments. SHP treatment of 19th century stone from York Minster suppresses sulfuric acid permeation. PMID:23198088

  20. Teaching Geography and History through GIS: Application on Greek cultural sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skentos, Athanasios; Pavlopoulos, Kosmas; Galani, Apostolia; Theodorakopoulou, Katerina; Kritikos, Giorgos

    2013-04-01

    This study deals with the presentation of cultural succession in Greek space-time through a GIS application, associated with core concepts of geographic and historical education. Through the specific application students will be able to develop five distinct skills: sense of time-scale, historical and geographic comprehension, spatial analysis and interpretation, ability to perform geo-historical research, and procedure of geo-historical decision-making. The methodology is based on the calibration of a set of criteria for each cultural site that covers the topics of economy, geomorphology, society, religion, art and science. Further analysis of these data forms a geodatabase. In addition, palaeogeographic and historical maps of the cultural sites derived by the geodatabase provide information about temporal and spatial changes. As result, students will be able to develop a multidimensional and interdisciplinary approach, in order to reconstruct the evolution of the site.

  1. Study on relationship between historical volcanic eruptions and historical strong earthquakes in China and its adjacent regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This thesis lists and describes 6 pairs of tectonic events, i.e., historical volcanic eruptions associated with historical strong earthquakes, based on the analysis for the records of historical volcanic eruptions and historical strong earthquakes in China and its adjacent region since the first record. And discusses the relationship between historical eruptions and strong earthquakes by means of analyzing the characteristics of tectonic events themselves, plate movement, regional seismicity, and regional stress environment in China and its adjacent region.

  2. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products

  3. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

  4. Historical reconstruction of ocean acidification in the Australian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lenton

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases over the last 200 years has caused an increase in ocean acidity levels. Documenting how the ocean has changed is critical for assessing how these changes could impact marine ecosystems and for the management of marine resources. We use present day ocean carbon observations from shelf and offshore waters around Australia, combined with neural network mapping of CO2, to estimate the current seasonal and regional distributions of carbonate chemistry (pH and aragonite saturation state. These predicted changes in carbonate chemistry are combined with atmospheric CO2 concentration changes since to reconstruct pH and aragonite saturation state changes over the last 140 years (1870–2013. The comparison with data collected at Integrated Marine Observing System National Reference Station sites located on the shelf around Australia shows both the mean state and seasonality for the present day is well represented by our reconstruction, with the exception of sites such as the Great Barrier Reef. Our reconstruction predicts that since 1870 an average decrease in aragonite saturation state of 0.48 and of 0.09 in pH has occurred in response to increasing oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2. Our reconstruction shows that seasonality is the dominant mode of variability, with only small interannual variability present. Large seasonal variability in pH and aragonite saturation state occur in Southwestern Australia driven by ocean dynamics (mixing and in the Tasman Sea by seasonal warming (in the case of aragonite saturation state. The seasonal and historical changes in aragonite saturation state and pH have different spatial patterns and suggest that the biological responses to ocean acidification are likely to be non-uniform depending on the relative sensitivity of organisms to shifts in pH and saturation state. This new historical reconstruction provides an important to link to biological observations to help elucidate

  5. Historical reconstruction of ocean acidification in the Australian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Andrew; Tilbrook, Bronte; Matear, Richard J.; Sasse, Tristan P.; Nojiri, Yukihiro

    2016-03-01

    The ocean has become more acidic over the last 200 years in response increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. Documenting how the ocean has changed is critical for assessing how these changes impact marine ecosystems and for the management of marine resources. Here we use present-day ocean carbon observations, from shelf and offshore waters around Australia, combined with neural network mapping of CO2, sea surface temperature, and salinity to estimate the current seasonal and regional distributions of carbonate chemistry (pH and aragonite saturation state). The observed changes in atmospheric CO2 and sea surface temperature (SST) and climatological salinity are then used to reconstruct pH and aragonite saturation state changes over the last 140 years (1870-2013). The comparison with data collected at Integrated Marine Observing System National Reference Station sites located on the shelf around Australia shows that both the mean state and seasonality in the present day are well represented, with the exception of sites such as the Great Barrier Reef. Our reconstruction predicts that since 1870 decrease in aragonite saturation state of 0.48 and of 0.09 in pH has occurred in response to increasing oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2. Large seasonal variability in pH and aragonite saturation state occur in southwestern Australia driven by ocean dynamics (mixing) and in the Tasman Sea by seasonal warming (in the case of the aragonite saturation state). The seasonal and historical changes in aragonite saturation state and pH have different spatial patterns and suggest that the biological responses to ocean acidification are likely to be non-uniform depending on the relative sensitivity of organisms to shifts in pH and saturation state. This new historical reconstruction provides an important link to biological observations that will help to elucidate the consequences of ocean acidification.

  6. Mochovce site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Mochovce site the construction of four units of WWER 440 NPP with V-213 type of reactor is being carried out. The financing of Mochovce units completion was resolved in April 1996. The completion work commenced at the construction site under leadership of SKODA Prague, the general supplier. The completion work on building part and tests of constructional electric distributions and lightning constructors started. The revisions in technological part were finished, and final protocols from revisions are the basis for starting of completion work. The assembly of transport container anchorage,ventilation system in hermetic areas and hermetic coverage of pools for stored spent nuclear fuel is being carried out. The pre-completion tests of instrumentation and control of ventilation systems, individual dosimetric control in medical station, and tests of nuclear programme according to commissioning and assembling work schedule at the equipment for physical protection of the NPP area started. Inspection activities at Mochovce were performed in accordance with inspection plan for 1996. Evaluation of routine inspections was performed by means of quarterly protocols. Main findings from the inspections performed in Mochovce were in the following areas: (a) deficiencies in the knowledge of the respective regulation and conditions from the Resolution of the state regulatory body, concerning selected employees; (b) training of the selected employees; (c) aim of the measures imposes by inspectors is to eliminate deficiencies in preparation of programmes for pre-completion and completion testing. NRA SR assessment activities at Mochovce NPP were focused mainly on approving and inspecting of design modification to approving programmes for pre-completion and completion testing of system s and equipment and on approving quality assurance programmes. The suggestions of international missions, which reviewed Mochovce safety in the years, were taken into consideration in the programme

  7. Teaching Historical Memories in an Intercultural Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibel, Katrine Vinther; Wrochem, Oliver

    How can we approach historical remembrance in history teaching? This question lies at the heart of the three-year, EU-funded project TeacMem,which involves partners from Denmark, Germany and Norway. The participants (teacher trainers, historians, teachers, memorial educators, disseminators and st...

  8. Preserving the acoustical heritage of historical buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    The use of virtual reality and auralization techniques has opened new possibilities for the study of acoustical conditions in historic buildings. With reference to some recent and current projects the paper describes the steps in the process and how new technology may be used to overcome some of ...

  9. Non-destructive testing on historical monuments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heruc, S.

    1997-01-01

    Historic monuments are more than just old buildings or architectural importance. They are a symbol of our cultural indentity and in continuity a part of our heritage, and as such it is generally accepted that they should be maintained for so long as possible and without materially altering the fabri

  10. Child Language Disability: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Montfort Supple, Marie; Soderpalm, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    This article traces the historical foundations of the identification of language disorders in childhood through an international perspective. It describes the development of the profession of speech-language pathology, initially in Western Europe and later in North America. The roles played by key researchers in the area of child language are…

  11. Social Justice: An Historical and Philosophical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Sharon Kay

    2011-01-01

    Social justice in education concerns three questions: whom do we teach, what do we teach, and how do we teach? In this article the author briefly discusses social justice and its related concepts, its historical underpinnings, the social climate that brought about social change, and its effect on teaching physical activity. She also gives personal…

  12. Social solidarity: the projection of historical memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mchedlova Marina Miranovna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Historical memory which is constitutive for social identity becomes the collective value. Consolidation around the significant symbolical events of the past allows not only to support collective political and social practices of today but also to form the image of desired future thus defining designed identity.

  13. Against the Grain: Teaching Historical Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Many teachers and scholars have written about the importance of inquiry in effective history instruction. At its core, inquiry involves student investigation of a significant historical problem. Experienced teachers, however, often reveal their skill in purposely teaching against the grain. Skilled teachers help students appreciate historical…

  14. Intercultural Historical Learning: A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Kenneth; Johansson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a conceptual framework in order to systematically discuss the meaning of intercultural learning in history education and how it could be advanced. We do so by bringing together theories of historical consciousness, intercultural competence and postcolonial thinking. By combining these theories into one framework, we identify…

  15. Characterisation of historic mortars for conversation diagnosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hauková, Petra; Frankeová, Dita; Slížková, Zuzana

    Glasgow: University of the West of Scotland, 2013 - (Hughes, J.) ISBN 978-1-903978-44-3. [Historic mortars conference /3./. Glasgow (GB), 11.09.2013-13.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV018 Keywords : mortar analysis * mortar characterisation * binder * aggregate Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  16. Historical Development of Western Education in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Margaret Zoller

    This research project is part of a larger study that will culminate in a book entitled "Culture and Education: The Social Consequences of Westernization in Contemporary Swaziland." While the major focus of that book is concerned with present day Swaziland, this historical research was needed in order to place the present day study of children,…

  17. A Historical Perspective on Closing Achievement Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Although much has been written recently about gaps in the achievement of different groups of students, the problem has been with us for many years. This manuscript presents a historical perspective of the problem, viewing it as one of reducing variation in students' achievement. Specifically, it reviews the work of renowned educator Benjamin S.…

  18. Legal research using digitised historic newspapers.

    OpenAIRE

    Holley, Rose

    2010-01-01

    The presentation gives an overview of the Australian Newspapers service. It contains over 20 million digitised historic newspapers. The service is now being integrated with Trove. Librarians on the panel describe how they have used the information to solve legal cases. Most of these involve family names and history including ownership of property.

  19. A historical perspective on space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, W. Ray

    1991-01-01

    The historical development of space stations is presented through a series of various spacecraft configurations including: (1) Salut 6; (2) Skylab; (3) the Space Operations Center (SOC); (4) the Manned Science and Applications Space Platform; (5) Space Station Freedom; and (4) the Mir Space Station.

  20. Discoveries in Rubisco: a historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historic discoveries and key observations related to Rubisco (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), from 1947 to 2006, are presented. Currently, around 200 papers describing Rubisco research are published each year and the literature contains more than 5000 manuscripts on the subject. Wh...

  1. [Ludovico Geymonat: The problem of historical epistemology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minazzi, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    The study of the various inspirations of Ludovico Geymonat's epistemology (positivism and neopositivism, neorationalism, historicism and dialectical materialism) illustrates the way in which for the Italian philosopher the problem of objectivity of knowledge remains inseparable from the historicity of the sciences. Geymonat's epistemological approach associates scientific progress to its objectivity. PMID:21567307

  2. Eukaryotic diversity in historical soil samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moon-van der Staay, S.Y.; Tzeneva, V.A.; Staay, van der G.W.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Smidt, H.; Hackstein, J.H.P.

    2006-01-01

    The eukaryotic biodiversity in historical air-dried samples of Dutch agricultural soil has been assessed by random sequencing of an 18S rRNA gene library and by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Representatives of nearly all taxa of eukaryotic soil microbes could be identified, demonstrating

  3. Historical Photographs: A County-Wide Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Franciska

    This basic outline for the organization of photograph collections is designed for use by individual agencies as well as by people interested in a cooperative collection organization that can encompass a regional network. The working manual provides organizational techniques for the evaluation of historical, monetary, and other values of the…

  4. Simple Analysis of Historical Lime Mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Joa~o

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which a simple characterization of a historical lime mortar is made by the determination of its approximate composition by a gravimetric method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are also used for the qualitative characterization of the lime mortar components. These…

  5. Historic magmatism on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peate, David W.; Baker, Joel A.; Jakobssen, Sveinn P.; Waight, Tod Earle; Kent, Adam J.R.; Grassineau, Nathalie V.; Skovgaard, Anna Cecile

    2009-01-01

    We present new compositional data on a suite of historic lava flows from the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. They were erupted over a short time period between c. 940 and c. 1340 AD and provide a snap-shot view of melt generation and evolution processes beneath this onshore, 65 km long, ridge segment...

  6. Social solidarity: the projection of historical memory

    OpenAIRE

    Mchedlova Marina Miranovna

    2013-01-01

    Historical memory which is constitutive for social identity becomes the collective value. Consolidation around the significant symbolical events of the past allows not only to support collective political and social practices of today but also to form the image of desired future thus defining designed identity.

  7. Historical ecology: past, present and future

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 4 (2015), s. 997-1014. ISSN 1464-7931 Grant ostatní: European Research Council(XE) FP7/2007-2013 ERC Grant agreement no. 278065 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : interdisciplinarity * human-nature interactions * historical ecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 9.670, year: 2014

  8. HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF EVALUATION IN ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigidov Y. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of objects of accounting is important for obtaining objective information on an economic and financial position of the organization. At the solution of a question of assessment methods in modern conditions, it is necessary to know how these issues were resolved earlier. In this article, we consider historical aspects of an assessment in accounting. The retrospective of the solution of this question is given, beginning from the XIII century in various countries – Italy, France, Great Britain, Germany, Holland, the USA, etc. Various points of view on assessment questions are considered. It is specified, that with the advent of a monetary assessment there was a double record. Types of estimates are considered: at the acquisition price (historical, at the sale (market price, at prime cost, at recovery cost, at the reproduction price, a multiple assessment (for each asset of balance to use the base of an assessment, at fair value. Their positive and negative sides are given. The option of an assessment and revaluation of assets in the conditions of inflation with need to correct the wholesale prices of an inflation index is reflected. The main historical stages of development of an assessment – naturalistic, origin and distribution of a monetary assessment, distribution of market and historical estimates, development of variety of estimates, an assessment regulation, and association of various estimates in the category of “fair value” are formulated

  9. Transmission Models of Historical Ebola Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, John M; Bakach, Iurii; Just, Matthew R; O'Regan, Suzanne M; Gambhir, Manoj; Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai

    2015-08-01

    To guide the collection of data under emergent epidemic conditions, we reviewed compartmental models of historical Ebola outbreaks to determine their implications and limitations. We identified future modeling directions and propose that the minimal epidemiologic dataset for Ebola model construction comprises duration of incubation period and symptomatic period, distribution of secondary cases by infection setting, and compliance with intervention recommendations. PMID:26196358

  10. Transmission Models of Historical Ebola Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, John M.; Bakach, Iurii; Just, Matthew R.; O’Regan, Suzanne M.; Gambhir, Manoj; Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai

    2015-01-01

    To guide the collection of data under emergent epidemic conditions, we reviewed compartmental models of historical Ebola outbreaks to determine their implications and limitations. We identified future modeling directions and propose that the minimal epidemiologic dataset for Ebola model construction comprises duration of incubation period and symptomatic period, distribution of secondary cases by infection setting, and compliance with intervention recommendations.

  11. About research problems of historic territories

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš

    Istanbul: UTEA, 2005, s. 51-54 ISBN 975-395-866-8. [ICOMOS/CIVVIH Istanbul 2005. Istanbul (TR), 21.05.2005-24.05.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : European construction technology platform * research on historic cities and territories * 7th Framework Programme EC Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  12. Putting Barack Obama's Candidacy in Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ibram

    2008-01-01

    Senator Barack Obama's historic candidacy for president of the United States has generated an intense and thoughtful national discussion within Black America. His campaign has brought several issues to the fore. Recently, the author spoke with five of the most preeminent Black scholars in the nation to search out some of their thoughts on five key…

  13. 49 CFR 1105.8 - Historic Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS § 1105.8... combined with the Environmental Report where one is required. The purpose of the Historic Report is to... alterations, to the extent such information is known; (5) A brief narrative history of carrier operations...

  14. Research of archaeological and historical textiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Březinová, Helena; Bravermanová, M.

    Liberec: Technical University of Liberec, 2013. s. 22. ISBN 978-80-7372-989-9. [Textile Science /8./. 23.09.2013-25.09.2013, Liberec] Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : archaeological textiles * historical textiles * textile technology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  15. A Home Economist Does Historic Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Margaret N.

    1975-01-01

    The research director of the University of Iowa's Bicentennial "Old Capitol" restoration project discusses restoration rationale and employment possibilities for home economists, stressing that the most important training for students is in aesthetic responsibility and historical accuracy. She reviews step-by-step the restoration work done in one…

  16. Evocations of a Historical Night in Venice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    Venice is a big dream, at once ineffably meaningful and yet still intangible; not merely to the authors of this paper but to many others as well. Why? Not only are we drawn by its mystery and romance; Venice, this otherworldly city, unfolds an architectural nocturne that in many ways makes histor...

  17. The Practice of Sharing a Historical Muse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Sharing an imaginative energy for the storied landscape is one kind of pedagogical passion. The author had taken on the challenge of offering this particular passion to his fellow travellers. With students, the practice of peppering a trip with a historical muse involves focussed readings, in the moment stories, planned ceremonies and rituals and,…

  18. Current Problems of Historical-Pedagogical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravkin, Z. I.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that contemporary Russian historical research, particularly educational history research, faces complex problems. Asserts that this is a result of the transition from one dominant methodology and world view to pluralistic approaches. Argues that the methodological potential of Marxist teachings is far from exhausted. (CFR)

  19. Electrochemical desalination of historic Portuguese tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble salts cause severe decay of historic Portuguese tiles. Treatment options for removal of the salts to stop the decay are few. The present paper deals with development of a method for electrochemical desalination, where an electric DC field is applied to the tiles. Laboratory experiments were...

  20. 75 FR 5627 - National Register of Historic Places; Weekly Listing of Historic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ..., Listed, 11/10/09 LOUISIANA East Baton Rouge Parish Downtown Baton Rouge Historic District, 3rd between roughly Main St. and N. Blvd; 210-240 Laurel & 301-355 N. Blvd., Baton Rouge, 09000899, Listed,...

  1. The Historical Necessity for--and Difficulties with--New Historical Analysis in Introductory Literature Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brook

    1987-01-01

    Reflects on the role of New Historicism in teaching literature and remarks on the lack of historical awareness in students today. Offers suggestions for connecting history, as well as other disciplines, to literature to combat currently fragmented college educations. (JC)

  2. Dearfield Dream Project: Developing an Interdisciplinary Historical/Cultural Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brunswig

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Dearfield Dream Project is a collaborative research initiative to conduct historical, cultural, archaeological, and environmental studies on the early 20th Century African-American colony site of Dearfield, Colorado, USA. Because the breadth and significance of the Dearfield Project requires an interdisciplinary research team, a network of research collaborators has been assembled. This research network seeks to discover, preserve, and disseminate knowledge of the site and its surrounding farmsteads’ economic, social, political, and environmental history for better understanding and interpretation of its contributions to Colorado and U.S. history. Herein, we detail progress that has been made on this important historical/cultural research project. Further, we outline the future of the Dearfield research network along with our current and anticipated subjects of inquiry.

  3. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites 2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POINT locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  4. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites) Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POLYGON locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  5. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POINT locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  6. Historicity and theology, and the quest for historical Jesus1

    OpenAIRE

    P. A. Geyser

    1999-01-01

    The issue of history and historicity is reviewed in this article. The efforts of New Historicism is brought to bear on this question in an effort to find a way out of the impasse created by the modernist demand for objectivity and the postmodern resignation to radical relativism. The possibility of historiography is explored in conjunction with the pragmatic approach and leads to the conclusion that a kind of historical knowledge is attainable which can be described as useful even if not perf...

  7. [Historical causality and relative contemporaneity Einsteinian relativity in the historical sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontems, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The construction of historical frame of reference based on the distinction between and articulation of phenomenological and chronological times. As it relativises the notion of simultaneity and inverts its relation to causality, the special theory of relativity can induce analogous modes of reflection on the themes of "contemporaneity" in the history of art (Panofsky) and in epistemology (Bachelard). This "relativist" method, often misunderstood, sheds light on both historical and presentist methods. PMID:24871883

  8. Assessment of Missouri River floodplain invertebrates during historic inundation: implications for river restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Gosch N.J.C.; Miller M.L.; Dzialowski A.R.; Morris D.M.; Gemeinhardt T.R.; Bonneau J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Floodplain connectivity is important to aquatic organisms in large rivers. Anthropogenic alterations regulating the Missouri River have limited connectivity and negatively affected native fauna. Determining the biological response to rare inundation events may be important when considering potential restoration options on a regulated river; thus, we assessed benthic invertebrate and zooplankton communities at three floodplain sites during a historic Missouri River high-water event. Chironomid...

  9. Integrating Building Information Modeling and Augmented Reality to Improve Investigation of Historical Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Chionna; Francesco Argese; Vito Palmieri; Italo Spada; Lucio Colizzi

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental system to support investigation of historical buildings using Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Augmented Reality (AR). The system requires the use of an off-line software to build the BIM representation and defines a method to integrate diagnostic data into BIM. The system offers access to such information during site investigation using AR glasses supported by marker and marker-less technologies. The main innovation is the possibility to contextual...

  10. Pathoecology and paleodiet in Postclassic: Historic Maya from northern coastal Belize

    OpenAIRE

    Christine White; Jay Maxwell; Alexis Dolphin; Jocelyn Williams; Fred Longstaffe

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the synergism among diet, disease, and ecology at two related coastal Maya sites in Belize (Marco Gonzalez and San Pedro) for the Postclassic and Historic periods (1350-1650 AD), which immediately follow the Classic period collapse. Stable carbon- and nitrogen-isotope ratios in collagen and stable carbon-isotope ratios in structural carbonate were analysed for bones from 65 humans and a wide variety of faunal species. There are no apparent differences in whole diets or deg...

  11. Historical, observed, and modeled wildfire severity in montane forests of the Colorado Front Range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary L Sherriff

    Full Text Available Large recent fires in the western U.S. have contributed to a perception that fire exclusion has caused an unprecedented occurrence of uncharacteristically severe fires, particularly in lower elevation dry pine forests. In the absence of long-term fire severity records, it is unknown how short-term trends compare to fire severity prior to 20th century fire exclusion. This study compares historical (i.e. pre-1920 fire severity with observed modern fire severity and modeled potential fire behavior across 564,413 ha of montane forests of the Colorado Front Range. We used forest structure and tree-ring fire history to characterize fire severity at 232 sites and then modeled historical fire-severity across the entire study area using biophysical variables. Eighteen (7.8% sites were characterized by low-severity fires and 214 (92.2% by mixed-severity fires (i.e. including moderate- or high-severity fires. Difference in area of historical versus observed low-severity fire within nine recent (post-1999 large fire perimeters was greatest in lower montane forests. Only 16% of the study area recorded a shift from historical low severity to a higher potential for crown fire today. An historical fire regime of more frequent and low-severity fires at low elevations (<2260 m supports a convergence of management goals of ecological restoration and fire hazard mitigation in those habitats. In contrast, at higher elevations mixed-severity fires were predominant historically and continue to be so today. Thinning treatments at higher elevations of the montane zone will not return the fire regime to an historic low-severity regime, and are of questionable effectiveness in preventing severe wildfires. Based on present-day fuels, predicted fire behavior under extreme fire weather continues to indicate a mixed-severity fire regime throughout most of the montane forest zone. Recent large wildfires in the Front Range are not fundamentally different from similar events

  12. Documentation of archaeological sites in northern iraq using remote sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoušková, E.; Pavelka, K.; Nováček, K.; Starková, L.

    2015-08-01

    The MULINEM (The Medieval Urban Landscape in Northeastern Mesopotamia) project is aiming to investigate a Late Sasanian and Islamic urban network in the land of Erbil, historic province of Hidyab (Adiabene) that is located in the northern Iraq. The research of the hierarchical urban network in a defined area belongs to approaches rarely used in the study of the Islamic urbanism. The project focuses on the cluster of urban sites of the 6th-17th centuries A.D. This paper focuses on remote sensing analysis of historical sites with special interest of FORMOSAT-2 data that have been gained through a research announcement: Free FORMOSAT-2 satellite Imagery. Documentation of two archaeological sites (Makhmúr al-Qadima and Kushaf) are introduced. FORMOSAT-2 data results have been compared to historic CORONA satellite data of mentioned historical sites purchased earlier by the University of West Bohemia. Remote sensing methods were completed using in-situ measurements.

  13. Recording Earthen Architecture at the Peruvian Andes: the Case of KUÑO Tambo CHURCH'S Historic Wall Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, K.; Hanley, C.; Santana Quintero, M.; Fai, S.; Ouimet, C.; Cancino, C.; Rainer, L.; Villacorta-Santamato, L.

    2013-07-01

    According to UNESCO "Earthen architecture is one of the most original and powerful expressions of our ability to create a built environment with readily available resources. It includes a great variety of structures, ranging from mosques, palaces and granaries, to historic city centres, cultural landscapes and archaeological sites" (WHEAP, 2007). This contribution looks at developing effective methods for recording earthen historic structures for their rehabilitation and preservation using the Kuño Tambo church in Peru, which is a Peruvian national historic site that requires serious rehabilitation work, as a case study. This project describes the compilation of an effective metric record of the "state-of-conservation" - "as found" of wall paintings in this important and remote building using a toolbox of different "off-the-shelf" heritage recording techniques. This approach was applied by Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS), as part of the Earthen Architecture Initiative of the Getty Conservation Institute (GCI).

  14. Postmodernism, historical denial, and history education:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert John Parkes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available History educators frequently ignore, or engage only reluctantly and cautiously with postmodernism. This is arguably because postmodernism is frequently accused of assaulting the epistemological foundations of history as an academic discipline, fostering a climate of cultural relativism, encouraging the proliferation of revisionist histories, and providing fertile ground for historical denial. In the Philosophy of History discipline, Frank Ankersmit has become one of those scholars most closely associated with ‘postmodern history’. This paper explores Ankersmit’s ‘postmodern’ philosophy of history, particularly his key notion of ‘narrative substances’; what it might do for our approach to a problem such as historical denial; and what possibilities it presents for history didactics.

  15. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P;

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of these...... genes explicitly evaluated common variant hypotheses about schizophrenia. Our evaluation included a meta-analysis of the candidate gene literature, incorporation of the results of the largest genomic study yet published for schizophrenia, ratings from informed researchers who have published on these...... genes, and ratings from 24 schizophrenia geneticists. On the basis of current empirical evidence and mostly consensual assessments of informed opinion, it appears that the historical candidate gene literature did not yield clear insights into the genetic basis of schizophrenia. A likely reason why...

  16. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF HISTORICAL DIKE FAILURE MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. NAGY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistical evaluation of historical dike failure mechanism The failure mechanism of flood protection dikes includes physical (geotechnical, seepage processes leading to a dike breach. An awareness of the failure mechanism is required directly in dike stability calculations and indirectly for risk calculations. Statistics of historical data indicate among others the distribution and frequency of failure mechanisms associated with dikes. These data may be used in estimations of the expected likelihood of occurrence of non-quantifiable failure mechanisms. In addition to a comparative evaluation of statistics collected in several countries, this publication also presents data for the Carpathian Basin. One of the most important conclusions drawn from statistical information suggests that most dike breaches develop as a consequence of poor safety strategy

  17. Economics of Historic Preservation: Dollars and Sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April D. ALLEN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The built environment expresses diversity, identity, individuality, and differentiation. In economics, it is the differentiated product that commands a monetary premium. Historic preservation protects our diverse building stock while creating more construction jobs, returning under-utilized buildings to the tax rolls, attracting heritage tourists, and maximizing the use of existing infrastructure. It has been said that the greenest building is the one that is already built. Four out of five existing buildings will be renovated over the next generation while two new buildings are added. With an overwhelming vastness of existing building stock, this becomes the elephant in the room. We cannot build our way to sustainability but must conserve our way to it. Economically, this makes good sense. Historic preservation, sustainability and conservation go hand in hand to protect our built environment while providing healthy, aesthetically pleasing buildings in which to live, work, and play, thus growing the local economy.

  18. Aromatherapy and nursing: historical and theoretical conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rizzo Gnatta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aromatherapy is a Practical or Complementary Health Therapy that uses volatile concentrates extracted from plants called essential oils, in order to improve physical, mental and emotional well-being. Aromatherapy has been practiced historically and worldwide by nurses and, as in Brazil is supported by the Federal Nursing Council, it is relevant to discuss this practice in the context of Nursing through Theories of Nursing. This study of theoretical reflection, exploratory and descriptive, aims to discuss the pharmacognosy of essential oils, the historical trajectory of Aromatherapy in Nursing and the conceptions to support Aromatherapy in light of eight Nursing Theorists (Florence Nightingale, Myra Levine, Hildegard Peplau, Martha Rogers, Callista Roy, Wanda Horta, Jean Watson and Katharine Kolcaba, contributing to its inclusion as a nursing care practice.

  19. [Aromatherapy and nursing: historical and theoretical conception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnatta, Juliana Rizzo; Kurebayashi, Leonice Fumiko Sato; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Silva, Maria Júlia Paes da

    2016-02-01

    Aromatherapy is a Practical or Complementary Health Therapy that uses volatile concentrates extracted from plants called essential oils, in order to improve physical, mental and emotional well-being. Aromatherapy has been practiced historically and worldwide by nurses and, as in Brazil is supported by the Federal Nursing Council, it is relevant to discuss this practice in the context of Nursing through Theories of Nursing. This study of theoretical reflection, exploratory and descriptive, aims to discuss the pharmacognosy of essential oils, the historical trajectory of Aromatherapy in Nursing and the conceptions to support Aromatherapy in light of eight Nursing Theorists (Florence Nightingale, Myra Levine, Hildegard Peplau, Martha Rogers, Callista Roy, Wanda Horta, Jean Watson and Katharine Kolcaba), contributing to its inclusion as a nursing care practice. PMID:27007430

  20. Comparison of historical documents for writership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Gregory R.; Pu, Danjun; Stritmatter, Roger; Srihari, Sargur N.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last century forensic document science has developed progressively more sophisticated pattern recognition methodologies for ascertaining the authorship of disputed documents. These include advances not only in computer assisted stylometrics, but forensic handwriting analysis. We present a writer verification method and an evaluation of an actual historical document written by an unknown writer. The questioned document is compared against two known handwriting samples of Herman Melville, a 19th century American author who has been hypothesized to be the writer of this document. The comparison led to a high confidence result that the questioned document was written by the same writer as the known documents. Such methodology can be applied to many such questioned documents in historical writing, both in literary and legal fields.