Sample records for cheerleading fall-related injuries

  1. Implementing Athletic Trainers for the Management of Cheerleading Injuries (United States)

    Nakajima, Mikiko; Valdez, Josepha M.


    Cheerleading used to be about standing on the sidelines waving pom-poms. Now, cheerleaders are thrown 10 feet in the air and perform high-level gymnastics skills. For this reason, cheerleading has become the leading cause of catastrophic sport injuries in the United States. Football, which is one of the most dangerous sports, has abundant access…

  2. Fall-related injuries in elderly cancer patients treated with neurotoxic chemotherapy: A retrospective cohort study


    Ward, PR; Wong, MD; Moore, R.; Naeim, A


    Background: Fall-related injuries are a well-described cause of morbidity and mortality in the community-dwelling elderly population, but have not been well described in patients with cancer. Cancer treatment with chemotherapy can result in many unwanted side effects, including peripheral neuropathy if the drugs are potentially neurotoxic. Peripheral neuropathy and other side effects of chemotherapy may lead to an increased risk of fall-related injuries. Methods: We conducted a retrospective ...

  3. Depression in older people after fall-related injuries: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scaf-Klomp, W.; Sanderman, R.; Ormel, J.; Kempen, G.I J M


    Background: objectives of the study were i) to describe changes in depression in independently living people aged 57 or older with fall-related injuries, and ii) to examine the effect of incomplete recovery of physical functions on depression one year post-injury. Method: prospective cohort-study, i

  4. Compliant flooring to prevent fall-related injuries: a scoping review protocol (United States)

    Lachance, Chantelle C; Jurkowski, Michal P; Dymarz, Ania C; Mackey, Dawn C


    Introduction Fall-related injuries can have serious consequences for older adults, including increased risk of dependence in daily activities and mortality. Compliant flooring is a passive intervention that may reduce the incidence and severity of fall-related injuries in healthcare settings, including acute and long-term care, but few sites have implemented compliant flooring, in part because synthesised evidence about key performance aspects has not been available. Methods and analysis We will conduct a scoping review to address the question: what is presented about the biomechanical efficacy, clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and workplace safety associated with compliant flooring systems that aim to prevent fall-related injuries? We will conduct a comprehensive and systematic literature search of academic databases (AgeLine, CINAHL, EBM Reviews, MEDLINE (Ovid), SportDiscus and Web of Science) and grey literature (clinical trial registries, theses/dissertations, abstracts/conference proceedings and relevant websites). 2 team members will independently screen records (first titles and abstracts, then full text) and extract data from included records. Numerical and narrative analyses will be presented by theme (biomechanical efficacy, clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, workplace safety). Ethics and dissemination This scoping review responds to the information needs of healthcare decision-makers tasked with preventing fall-related injuries. This review will summarise evidence about compliant flooring as a potential intervention for preventing fall-related injuries in older adults and identify gaps in evidence and new avenues for research. Results will be especially useful in long-term care, but also applicable in acute care, assisted living and home care. We will disseminate the review's findings via open-access publications, conference presentations, a webinar, a Stakeholder Symposium and a Knowledge-to-Action Report. PMID:27531731

  5. "Extreme" or tariff sports: their injuries and their prevention (with particular reference to diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating). (United States)

    Foley, E C; Bird, H A


    The interface between sports medicine and performing arts medicine is closest for "tariff" sports, where the sportsperson can select their own programme of varying difficulty with the more complex skills carrying potential for higher marks. Inevitably, some performers over-reach themselves. Examples of injuries and prevention strategies to avoid such injuries are discussed in a preliminary analysis of four sports: diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating.

  6. Nationwide time trends and risk factors for in-hospital falls-related major injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T S H; Hansen, A H; Sahlberg, Marie Irene Elisabeth


    -related major injuries. METHODS: Using administrative databases, patients aged 65+ years with in-hospital falls causing fractures or head injuries with need for surgery or intensive observation were identified as cases and were individually matched with five controls. Joinpoint regression was used to examine...... fracture (61.55%). For individuals aged 65-74 and 75+ years, the incidence of in-hospital falls-related major injuries per 100,000 hospital days increased significantly in 2000-2012 (average annual change: 3.2%, CI: 0.6-5.8) and 2007-2012 (average annual change: 11.4%, CI: 5.7-17.5), respectively....... Significantly increased OR for in-hospital fall-related major injuries were found for individuals with dementia (OR = 2.34, CI: 1.87-2.92), osteoporosis (OR = 1.68, CI: 1.43-1.99), stroke (OR = 1.63, CI: 1.41-1.88), depression (OR = 1.24, CI: 1.09-1.41), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR = 1.18, CI: 1...

  7. Characteristics and outcomes of fall-related open-globe injuries in pseudophakic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavoussi SC


    Full Text Available Shaheen C Kavoussi,1 Martin D Slade,2 Seth W Meskin,1 Ron A Adelman11Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 2Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA Aim: We aimed to identify the characteristics and prognostic indicators of poor visual and anatomic outcome in pseudophakic patients with fall-related open-globe (OG injuries. We used a case series design, for a total of 26 patients.Methods: Charts of consecutive pseudophakic patients with fall-related OG injury at a single institution were reviewed. Demographics, ophthalmic history, circumstances of injury, initial best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, examination findings, surgical interventions, and follow-up BCVA were tabulated for statistical analysis with unpaired t-tests and Fisher’s exact tests.Results: Nineteen patients (73% were women. Mean (± standard deviation age was 80.6±4.6 years (range: 61–97 years. Initial BCVA was <20/400 in 24 of 25 patients (96%. Mean ocular trauma score (OTS was 38.54±10.95. OTS was lower (P=0.0017, P<0.0001, and P=0.0240 and wound size was larger (P=0.0440, 0.0145, and 0.0026 in patients with final BCVA <20/40, <20/400, and phthisis at final follow-up, respectively; compared to patients with BCVA ≥20/40, 20/400, and no phthisis at final follow-up, respectively. Final BCVA <20/400 was associated with 360° subconjunctival hemorrhage (SCH, retinal detachment, and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (P=0.0498, 0.0181, and 0.0310, respectively. Total hyphema, intraocular lens (IOL damage, and IOL expulsion were associated with needing multiple surgical interventions (P=0.0345, P<0.0001, and P=0.0023, respectively.Conclusion: Large wound size, low OTS, 360° SCH, total hyphema, posterior injury, and IOL damage are common findings that are also prognostic of poor visual and anatomic outcome in pseudophakic patients with fall-related OG injuries. Ophthalmologists dealing primarily

  8. Examining Contextual Influences on Fall-Related Injuries Among Older Adults for Population Health Management. (United States)

    Hoffman, Geoffrey J; Rodriguez, Hector P


    The objectives were to assess the associations between fall-related injuries (FRIs) treated in the emergency department (ED) among older adults in California and contextual county-level physical, social, and economic characteristics, and to assess how county-level economic conditions are associated with FRIs when controlling for other county-level factors. Data from 2008 California ED discharge, Medicare Impact File, and County Health Rankings were used. Random effects logistic regression models estimated contextual associations between county-level factors representing economic conditions, the built environment, community safety, access to care, and obesity with patient-level FRI treatment among 1,712,409 older adults, controlling for patient-level and hospital-level characteristics. Patient-level predictors of FRI treatment were consistent with previous studies not accounting for contextual associations. Larger and rural hospitals had higher odds of FRI treatment, while teaching and safety net hospitals had lower odds. Better county economic conditions were associated with greater odds (ß=0.73, P=0.001) and higher county-level obesity were associated with lower odds (ß=-0.37, P=0.004), but safer built environments (ß=-0.31, P=0.38) were not associated with FRI treatment. The magnitude of association between county-level economic conditions and FRI treatment attenuated with the inclusion of county-level obesity rates. FRI treatment was most strongly and consistently related to more favorable county economic conditions, suggesting differences in treatment or preferences for treatment for FRIs among older individuals in communities of varying resource levels. Using population health data on FRIs, policy makers may be able to remove barriers unique to local contexts when implementing falls prevention educational programs and built environment modifications.

  9. Validation of a risk stratification tool for fall-related injury in a state-wide cohort (United States)

    McCoy, Thomas H; Castro, Victor M; Cagan, Andrew; Roberson, Ashlee M; Perlis, Roy H


    Objective A major preventable contributor to healthcare costs among older individuals is fall-related injury. We sought to validate a tool to stratify such risk based on readily available clinical data, including projected medication adverse effects, using state-wide medical claims data. Design Sociodemographic and clinical features were drawn from health claims paid in the state of Massachusetts for individuals aged 35–65 with a hospital admission for a period spanning January–December 2012. Previously developed logistic regression models of hospital readmission for fall-related injury were refit in a testing set including a randomly selected 70% of individuals, and examined in a training set comprised of the remaining 30%. Medications at admission were summarised based on reported adverse effect frequencies in published medication labelling. Setting The Massachusetts health system. Participants A total of 68 764 hospitalised individuals aged 35–65 years. Primary Measures Hospital readmission for fall-related injury defined by claims code. Results A total of 2052 individuals (3.0%) were hospitalised for fall-related injury within 90 days of discharge, and 3391 (4.9%) within 180 days. After recalibrating the model in a training data set comprised of 48 136 individuals (70%), model discrimination in the remaining 30% test set yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.74 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.76). AUCs were similar across age decades (0.71 to 0.78) and sex (0.72 male, 0.76 female), and across most common diagnostic categories other than psychiatry. For individuals in the highest risk quartile, 11.4% experienced fall within 180 days versus 1.2% in the lowest risk quartile; 57.6% of falls occurred in the highest risk quartile. Conclusions This analysis of state-wide claims data demonstrates the feasibility of predicting fall-related injury requiring hospitalisation using readily available sociodemographic and clinical

  10. Patterns of comorbidity in community-dwelling older people hospitalised for fall-related injury: A cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finch Caroline F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-dwelling older people aged 65+ years sustain falls frequently; these can result in physical injuries necessitating medical attention including emergency department care and hospitalisation. Certain health conditions and impairments have been shown to contribute independently to the risk of falling or experiencing a fall injury, suggesting that individuals with these conditions or impairments should be the focus of falls prevention. Since older people commonly have multiple conditions/impairments, knowledge about which conditions/impairments coexist in at-risk individuals would be valuable in the implementation of a targeted prevention approach. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the prevalence and patterns of comorbidity in this population group. Methods We analysed hospitalisation data from Victoria, Australia's second most populous state, to estimate the prevalence of comorbidity in patients hospitalised at least once between 2005-6 and 2007-8 for treatment of acute fall-related injuries. In patients with two or more comorbid conditions (multicomorbidity we used an agglomerative hierarchical clustering method to cluster comorbidity variables and identify constellations of conditions. Results More than one in four patients had at least one comorbid condition and among patients with comorbidity one in three had multicomorbidity (range 2-7. The prevalence of comorbidity varied by gender, age group, ethnicity and injury type; it was also associated with a significant increase in the average cumulative length of stay per patient. The cluster analysis identified five distinct, biologically plausible clusters of comorbidity: cardiopulmonary/metabolic, neurological, sensory, stroke and cancer. The cardiopulmonary/metabolic cluster was the largest cluster among the clusters identified. Conclusions The consequences of comorbidity clustering in terms of falls and/or injury outcomes of hospitalised patients

  11. Implications of Drug Testing Cheerleaders (United States)

    Trachsler, Tracy A.; Birren, Genevieve


    With the untimely death of a University of Louisville cheerleader due to an accidental drug overdose in the summer of 2014, the athletic department representatives took steps to prevent future incidents by adding cheerleaders to the randomized drug testing protocols conducted at the university for the student-athletes involved in National…

  12. Unexplained Falls Are Frequent in Patients with Fall-Related Injury Admitted to Orthopaedic Wards: The UFO Study (Unexplained Falls in Older Patients). (United States)

    Chiara, Mussi; Gianluigi, Galizia; Pasquale, Abete; Alessandro, Morrione; Alice, Maraviglia; Gabriele, Noro; Paolo, Cavagnaro; Loredana, Ghirelli; Giovanni, Tava; Franco, Rengo; Giulio, Masotti; Gianfranco, Salvioli; Niccolò, Marchionni; Andrea, Ungar


    To evaluate the incidence of unexplained falls in elderly patients affected by fall-related fractures admitted to orthopaedic wards, we recruited 246 consecutive patients older than 65 (mean age 82 ± 7 years, range 65-101). Falls were defined "accidental" (fall explained by a definite accidental cause), "medical" (fall caused directly by a specific medical disease), "dementia-related" (fall in patients affected by moderate-severe dementia), and "unexplained" (nonaccidental falls, not related to a clear medical or drug-induced cause or with no apparent cause). According to the anamnestic features of the event, older patients had a lower tendency to remember the fall. Patients with accidental fall remember more often the event. Unexplained falls were frequent in both groups of age. Accidental falls were more frequent in younger patients, while dementia-related falls were more common in the older ones. Patients with unexplained falls showed a higher number of depressive symptoms. In a multivariate analysis a higher GDS and syncopal spells were independent predictors of unexplained falls. In conclusion, more than one third of all falls in patients hospitalized in orthopaedic wards were unexplained, particularly in patients with depressive symptoms and syncopal spells. The identification of fall causes must be evaluated in older patients with a fall-related injury.

  13. Unexplained Falls Are Frequent in Patients with Fall-Related Injury Admitted to Orthopaedic Wards: The UFO Study (Unexplained Falls in Older Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussi Chiara


    Full Text Available To evaluate the incidence of unexplained falls in elderly patients affected by fall-related fractures admitted to orthopaedic wards, we recruited 246 consecutive patients older than 65 (mean age 82±7 years, range 65–101. Falls were defined “accidental” (fall explained by a definite accidental cause, “medical” (fall caused directly by a specific medical disease, “dementia-related” (fall in patients affected by moderate-severe dementia, and “unexplained” (nonaccidental falls, not related to a clear medical or drug-induced cause or with no apparent cause. According to the anamnestic features of the event, older patients had a lower tendency to remember the fall. Patients with accidental fall remember more often the event. Unexplained falls were frequent in both groups of age. Accidental falls were more frequent in younger patients, while dementia-related falls were more common in the older ones. Patients with unexplained falls showed a higher number of depressive symptoms. In a multivariate analysis a higher GDS and syncopal spells were independent predictors of unexplained falls. In conclusion, more than one third of all falls in patients hospitalized in orthopaedic wards were unexplained, particularly in patients with depressive symptoms and syncopal spells. The identification of fall causes must be evaluated in older patients with a fall-related injury.

  14. Cheerleading. A Handbook for Teacher-Sponsors. (United States)

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    The high school cheerleader has the opportunity to set the stage for sportsmanship, school spirit, and the mood of the athletic program. A carefully planned program is essential to leading cheerleading sections into feelings of good fellowship and interschool rapport. This handbook is designed to assist teacher-sponsors and administrators in the…

  15. Falls incidence underestimates the risk of fall-related injuries in older age groups: A comparison with the FARE (Falls risk by exposure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, A.; Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Heuvelen, M.J.G. van; Chorus, A.; Hopman-Rock, M.


    Background: up till now, the risk of falls has been expressed as falls incidence (i.e. the number of falls or fallers per 100 person-years). However, the risk of an accident or injury is the probability of having an accident or injury per unit of exposure. The FARE (Falls risk by Exposure) is a meas

  16. Falls incidence underestimates the risk of fall-related injuries in older age groups : a comparison with the FARE (Falls risk by Exposure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, Astrid; Wijlhuizen, Gert Jan; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Chorus, Astrid; Hopman-Rock, Marijke


    Background: up till now, the risk of falls has been expressed as falls incidence (i.e. the number of falls or fallers per 100 person-years). However, the risk of an accident or injury is the probability of having an accident or injury per unit of exposure. The FARE ( Falls risk by Exposure) is a mea

  17. The Cheerleader and the Football Player. (United States)

    Patil, Malati


    Describes an activity in physics using a narrative about a bet between a cheerleader who claims she can lift a 300-pound football player off the ground. Includes questions, teaching notes, and solutions. (MM)

  18. Frequency of fall-related injuries of female patients referred to the trauma center in the city of Kashan from years 2005 to 2008

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    Sayyah Mansour


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: Falls are one of the life events leading to injury and in serious cases cause high morbidity and mortality. This research was conducted to determine the fall incidence among female population of Kashan city from the years 2005 to 2008. Methods: This was a retrospective research using existing data from the data bank of trauma center of Kashan University of Medical Sciences. Records of all the female patients treated at local hospitals with complete hospitalisation kept at the center were examined for 4 con-secutive years from 2005 to 2008. Results: A total of 2 094 female patients’ records were examined. A significantly higher incidence of injuy occurred in 2008 compared to 2005 (P<0.0001. In addition, the highest frequency of injury occurred in age group above 65 years (31.9% and in group with elementary education level (42.8%. Conclusion: The results showed that fall incidences occurred in the old age group above 65 years. Fall injuries at this age may cause disability. Therefore, preventive mea-sures should be taken, such as increasing the awareness of the aging population about the seriousness of fall incidence and encouraging the aged individuals to get involved in fitness program to remain physical fit and healthy. Key words: Accidental falls; Wounds and injuries; Female

  19. Frequency of fall-related injuries of female patients referred to the trauma center in the city of Kashan from years 2005 to 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansour Sayyah; Gholamreza Khosravi; Manzardokht Bigdeli


    Objective:Falls are one of the life events leading to injury and in serious cases cause high morbidity and mortality.This research was conducted to determine the fall incidence among female population of Kashan city from the years 2005 to 2008.Methods:This was a retrospective research using existing data from the data bank of trauma center of Kashan University of Medical Sciences.Records of all the female patients treated at local hospitals with complete hospitalisation kept at the center were examined for 4 consecutive years from 2005 to 2008.Results:A total of 2 094 female patients' records were examined.A significantly higher incidence of injuy occurred in 2008 compared to 2005 (P<0.0001).In addition,the highest frequency of injury occurred in age group above 65 years (31.9%)and in group with elementary education level (42.8%).Conclusion:The results showed that fall incidences occurred in the old age group above 65 years.Fall injuries at this age may cause disability.Therefore,preventive measures should be taken,such as increasing the awareness of the aging population about the seriousness of fall incidence and encouraging the aged individuals to get involved in fitness program to remain physical fit and healthy.

  20. Motivation. Becoming a cheerleader for yourself, your profession. (United States)

    Turner, N J


    Being a cheerleader simply means having an affirmative attitude about people, events, and circumstances. When a cheerleader is confronted with an obstacle, he or she views it as an opportunity and tries to deal with it constructively. Credibility is an essential characteristic of a cheerleader. The people with whom the cheerleader works must admire and respect him or her for his or her skills as well as inspirational ability. Cheerleaders are to be cherished and celebrated because they can make positive things happen in the work setting. They are able to release the power and potential in people with whom they work. Cheerleaders seem to enable people to grow and help them become more than they would have otherwise.

  1. Flip Skirt Fatales: How Media Fetish Sidelines Cheerleaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Tom


    Full Text Available Cheerleading is a highly commodified and mass mediated feminised spectacle which attracts intense vitriol from a range of ostensibly disparate social groups. These include feminists, social conservatives, cultural elites, sports administrators and fans, mainstream media commentators and members of the general public. Complicating these negative framings is the fact that cheerleaders are simultaneously sexually fetishised in pornography, pop culture and the news media. That a relatively unremarkable feminine athletic endeavour provokes such intense cultural anxiety and sexual obsession makes cheerleading a singularly revealing object of study. This article uses textual analysis, and fetish, antifandom, scapegoating and anti-Americanism theory to make sense of the ambivalence, obsession, contradiction, sexualisation and disavowal so often associated with cheerleading. It shows that cheerleading occupies a provocative and liminal cultural status in so far as it has been both stripped yet also hyper-invested with meaning via a range of fetishistic logics. The news media’s obsession (and fetishistic disavowals of its obsession with cheerleaders reveals the oppressive and disempowering ramifications of contemporary cultural responses to young women whose sexualities are both coveted and despised. It also shows that the critical discourse generated by groups traditionally associated with female oppression and that generated by many feminists can intersect in an ideological pincer movement which leaves young women associated with activities such as cheerleading sidelined and largely without allies.

  2. Study on the epidemical characteristics and disease burden of fall-related injury among community-dwelling elderly adults in Changning District, Shanghai%上海市长宁区老年人跌倒伤害流行病学及疾病负担研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜玉; 夏庆华; 胡嘉; 周鹏; 张步


    Objective To study the incidence of fall-related injuries and disease burden among community-dwelling older adults in Changning District, Shanghai. Methods Stratified random sampling was applied in this study. Elderly adults aged 60 and above from communities of Changning District were recruited, and self-designed questionnaire and care-giver burden scale (CBS) were applied in this survey. Results In this survey, 1 801 elderly adults were included. A-mong those interviewees, the incidence of falls, fall-related injuries and fracture in the past one year were 20. 7% , 17. 3% and 5. 3% , respectively. After a fall, 46.0% needed out-patient medical treatment, and 11.6% were hospitalized for treatment. About 5. 9% elderly people who fell needed ambulance services. Among those suffered from fall-related injuries , the median medical expense was 680 yuan. The expenses of inpatient treatment accounted for 89. 6% of total medical costs. The median cost on cares for those who injured in a fall was 1 500 yuan. Among those who suffered from fall-related injuries, 9. 6% thought the medical expenses spent were too expensive to afford. After a fall, 36. 0% needed care and 14. 9% of those who gave cares felt a heavy burden. Women suffered a significant higher rate of falls, fall-related injuries and fractures than men, their usage of outpatient and inpatient treatment also higher than men. There' s a significant upward trend of the rate of falls, fall-related injuries and fractures and the use of ambulance service, out-patient treatment and hospitalization with age. Fall-related fractures accounted for 90. 7% of all hospitalized elderly adults who suffered from falls. The expenses of treatment for fracture accounted for 92. 4% of total medical costs. Conclusions Because of high fall incidence and severe consequence, fall significantly poses heavy burden on family and society. More emphasis should be laid on female elderly adults and the senior.%目的 了解上海市长宁区社

  3. Short Skirts and Breast Juts: Cheerleading, Eroticism and Schools (United States)

    Bettis, Pamela J.; Adams, Natalie Guice


    Cheerleading, an American invention, has 3.8 million participants in the United States, 97% of whom are female. It is an adult-sanctioned and typically school-affiliated activity that remains popular in spite of the increase in sports' opportunities for girls in schools. Drawing from popular culture and a middle school ethnography, the authors…

  4. A Qualitative Investigation of Need Fulfillment and Motivational Profiles in Collegiate Cheerleading (United States)

    Raabe, Johannes; Readdy, Tucker


    Purpose: Cheerleading is one of the fastest-growing sports in the United States. Members of spirit squads play an undeniable role in developing a university's athletic image, and participation in cheer has the potential to affect adolescents and young adults in a positive manner. Yet, cheerleaders also encounter stereotypes, constant…

  5. Fall-related injuries among youth under 20 years old who were treated in Nicaraguan emergency departments, 2004 Lesiones relacionadas con caídas en menores de 20 años de edad que fueron tratados en departamentos de emergencias de Nicaragua, 2004

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    María de Lourdes Martínez-Trujillo


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the circumstances of fall-related injuries among youth 0-19 years treated in emergency departments in Nicaragua; to estimate the incidence rates (IR of falls; and, to identify areas for prevention efforts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients OBJETIVO: Describir las lesiones relacionadas con caídas entre los niños y adolescentes menores de 20 años de edad que fueron tratados en departamentos de emergencia de Nicaragua, 2004. Describir las circunstancias y estimar la tasa de incidencia (TI de las caídas entre niños y adolescentes de 0-19 años atendidos en las salas de emergencia en Nicaragua. Además, identificar áreas dónde dirigir los esfuerzos de prevención. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron todos los pacientes (6593 de 0-19 años lesionados por caídas atendidos en emergencia por el Sistema de Vigilancia de Lesiones en 2004 en las ciudades de Managua, León, Jinotepe y Ciudad Sandino. RESULTADOS: En 2004, la TI para caídas en niños y adolescentes 0-19 años fue 104.2 por 10000 habitantes. La TI en varones fue dos veces más alta que en mujeres. Los principales objetos involucrados fueron árboles (23.3% y camas (15.2%. La principal naturaleza de lesión fue fractura (35.7%. CONCLUSIONES: Mobiliario, lugares de recreación y ambiente físico fueron las áreas identificadas. Desarrollar intervenciones incluyendo cambios en el ambiente del hogar y áreas recreacionales, así como programas educacionales, resulta muy útil para adolescentes y cuidadores.

  6. Fall-related admissions after fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty - cause of concern or consequence of success?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Kehlet, Henrik; Hansen, Torben Bæk


    Total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) are common procedures in elderly persons, who are at potential increased risk of postoperative fall due to loss of muscle strength and impaired balance. Fast-track surgery with early mobilization and opioid-sparing analgesia have improved outcomes after...... these procedures, but early mobilization and short hospitalization length of stay (LOS) could potentially increase the risk of falls after discharge. We investigated injuries, circumstances, and the timing of fall-related hospital admissions 90 days after fasttrack THA and TKA....

  7. Dietary patterns associated with fall-related fracture in elderly Japanese: a population based prospective study

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    Yaegashi Nobuo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diet is considered an important factor for bone health, but is composed of a wide variety of foods containing complex combinations of nutrients. Therefore we investigated the relationship between dietary patterns and fall-related fractures in the elderly. Methods We designed a population-based prospective survey of 1178 elderly people in Japan in 2002. Dietary intake was assessed with a 75-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, from which dietary patterns were created by factor analysis from 27 food groups. The frequency of fall-related fracture was investigated based on insurance claim records from 2002 until 2006. The relationship between the incidence of fall-related fracture and modifiable factors, including dietary patterns, were examined. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the relationships between dietary patterns and incidence of fall-related fracture with adjustment for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI and energy intake. Results Among 877 participants who agreed to a 4 year follow-up, 28 suffered from a fall-related fracture. Three dietary patterns were identified: mainly vegetable, mainly meat and mainly traditional Japanese. The moderately confirmed (see statistical methods groups with a Meat pattern showed a reduced risk of fall-related fracture (Hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.13 - 0.94 after adjustment for age, gender, BMI and energy intake. The Vegetable pattern showed a significant risk increase (Hazard ratio = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.03 - 6.90 after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. The Traditional Japanese pattern had no relationship to the risk of fall-related fracture. Conclusions The results of this study have the potential to reduce fall-related fracture risk in elderly Japanese. The results should be interpreted in light of the overall low meat intake of the Japanese population.

  8. Dance and Cheerleading as Competitive Sports: Making a Case for OCR Sport Recognition & NCAA Emerging Sport Designation. (United States)

    Hennefer, April; Sowder, Kristina; Pemberton, Cynthia Lee A.; Easterly, Debra M.

    During the 2001-02 academic year, Idaho State University engaged a nationwide study to investigate the prevalence of dance and cheerleading programs among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) D-I schools. The goal of the study was to build a case for Office for Civil Rights (OCR) and NCAA sport recognition and designation. The study…

  9. Increase in fall-related hospitalizations in the United States, 2001-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Hartholt (Klaas); J.A. Stevens (Judy); S. Polinder (Suzanne); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa); P. Patka (Peter)


    textabstractBACKGROUND: The objective was to determine secular trends in unintentional fall-related hospitalizations in people aged 65 years and older in the United States. MATERIALS: Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of emergency department visits from January 1, 2001, to D

  10. Risk Factors for Falls and Fall-related Fractures in the Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ziere (Gijsbertus)


    textabstractFalls are among the most common and serious problems facing older persons and are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. They often lead to reduced functioning and nursing home admissions. The incidence of falls as well as the severity of fall-related complications rises s

  11. Influence of cheerleading exercises on mental health of college students%高校啦啦操教学探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任淑慧; 单姣


    University teaching goal is to develop high quality talents of physical and mental health, rich knowledge and comprehensive development.Diverse forms of cheerleading and strong music, favored by today's young adults, are especially popular with college students.Strengthening the cheerleading teaching in colleges and universities helps students build up their body and develop good mental quality.%高校的教学目标是培养身心健康、知识丰富的高层次、高素质人才。啦啦操以多样的形式、强劲的音乐深受大学生的欢迎。加强啦啦操教学,有助于大学生强健体魄、锻炼意志力。

  12. Fall-related admissions after fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty - cause of concern or consequence of success?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen CC


    Full Text Available Christoffer C Jørgensen,1,2 Henrik Kehlet1,2 On behalf of the Lundbeck Foundation Centre for Fast-track Hip and Knee Replacement Collaborative Group 1Section of Surgical Pathophysiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2The Lundbeck Foundation Centre for Fast-track Hip and Knee Replacement, Copenhagen, Denmark Background: Total hip (THA and knee arthroplasty (TKA are common procedures in elderly persons, who are at potential increased risk of postoperative fall due to loss of muscle strength and impaired balance. Fast-track surgery with early mobilization and opioid-sparing analgesia have improved outcomes after these procedures, but early mobilization and short hospitalization length of stay (LOS could potentially increase the risk of falls after discharge. We investigated injuries, circumstances, and the timing of fall-related hospital admissions 90 days after fast-track THA and TKA. Methods: This was a prospective, descriptive multicenter study on fall-related hospital admissions, in 5145 elective fast-track THA and TKA patients, with complete 90-day follow up through the Danish National Patient registry and medical charts. Results: Of 83 (1.6% fall-related hospital admissions, 43 (51.8% were treated in the Emergency Room and 40 (48.2% were admitted to a regular ward. The median LOS after surgery was 3 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 2-3 in fallers versus (vs 2 days (IQR: 2-3 (P=0.022 in patients without falls. Injuries were classified as "none" or minor in 39.8%, moderate in 9.6%, and major in 50.6%. Most falls (54.8% occurred within 1 month of discharge. Falls due to physical activity (12.0% and extrinsic factors (14.5% occurred later than did surgery-related falls (73.5%, contributing to 40% of all falls >30 days after discharge. In multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.08 (P=0.001, living alone (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.20-3.62 (P=0.009, and psychiatric disease (OR

  13. 基于视听美学的舞蹈拉拉队编排的研究%Study on Choreography of Dance- Cheerleading Based on Visual Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本研究运用文献资料法、问卷调查法、视频分析法、专家访谈法等综合研究方法,旨在寻找提高舞蹈拉拉队成套创编视听效果的有效途径,为我国舞蹈拉拉队项目的发展提供参考和借鉴。%Through using the method of literature review, questionnaire, video analysis and expert interview, this paper tries to find out the effective way for improving visual and audio effects of dance - cheerleading. The main purpose is to provide the reference for development of dance - cheerleading program in China.

  14. Comparison of the Validity of Four Fall-Related Psychological Measures in a Community-Based Falls Risk Screening (United States)

    Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Kosma, Maria; Fabre, Jennifer M.; McCarter, Kevin S.; Wood, Robert H.


    We examined the measurement properties of fall-related psychological instruments with a sample of 133 older adults (M age = 74.4 years, SD = 9.4). Measures included the Comprehensive Falls Risk Screening Instrument, Falls-efficacy Scale-International (FES-I), Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC), modified Survey of Activities and Fear of…

  15. Etiology of Fall-Related Injuries in the Army: Review of Narrative Incident Reports, January to December 2011 (United States)


    479 Instrumentalities of War-Enemy 480 - 499 Instrumentalities of War-Self 500 - 599 Guns , explosives 600 - 699 Machinery, tools 700 - 799...required/notes Rail Accidents E804.X Boarding/alighting, fall out/in .0 Employee .1 Passenger .2 Pedestrian .3 Pedal cyclist .4 Other

  16. Balance confidence was associated with mobility and balance performance in older people with fall-related hip fracture: a cross-sectional study.


    Portegijs, Erja; Edgren, Johanna; Salpakoski, Anu; Kallinen, Mauri; Rantanen, Taina; Alen, Markku; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Sihvonen, Sanna; Sipilä, Sarianna


    Objective: To study the relationship between balance confidence, a concept closely related to fear of falling, mobility and balance performance, and perceived mobility limitation in older people after a fall-related hip fracture. Design: Cross-sectional analyses of pretrial data of 2 randomized controlled trials of physical rehabilitation. Setting: University research center. Participants: Community-dwelling people aged over 60 years, 6 weeks to 7.5 years after a fall-related hip ...

  17. On the dance Cheerleading difficulty in choreography and selection%论舞蹈啦啦操难度的编排

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 李悦


    舞蹈啦啦操成套中难度分为三类,分别是转体类、跳跃类、平衡与柔韧类。整体编排中难度的选择和编排尤其重要在我国。舞蹈啦啦操发展较为缓慢,其原因是多方面的,然而影响成套整体质量最为关键的还是难度的选择和编排。本文采用文献资料法、专家访谈法、录像分析法,根据比赛中运动员难度完成的质量及整个成套难度的选择编排问题进行分析,加上自己一定的实践经验,帮助运动员及教练员能够在成套中更好的完成难度,以提高整体质量。%Particularly important in the overall arrangement of the difficulty of the selection and arrangement, is the center, is the key. Dance Cheerleading Complete in the difficulty divided into three categories, namely, the twist class, class jump, balance and flexibility classes. In China, the development of the Dance Cheerleading is relatively slow, the reason is the difficulty of the selection and arrangement, thus affecting the entire set of completed quality and viewing.In this paper, the literature, logical analysis, video analysis, quality and set the difficulty to select the difficulty of the game athletes completed choreography for analysis, Plus some practical experience to help athletes and coaches to the completion of the difficulty of complete sets in order to improve the overall quality.

  18. Influence of Cheerleading Practice Group on Female College Students’ Self-esteem%团体啦啦操练习对女大学生身体自尊的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王君如; 姚丽琴


    目的:为全面地认识团体啦啦操练习对身体自尊的影响。方法:本研究采用实验法对湖州师范学院17名在校女大学生进行身体自尊研究。结果:短期内团体啦啦操练习对身体自尊的影响不存在显著差异,但对身体自尊中的身体吸引力和身体自尊总分有明显的影响。结论:通过啦啦操练习,对女大学生的身体形态、表现力和自信心全面提升。%Objective:To fully understand the impact on the community cheerleading practice physical self -es-teem.Methods:In this study, experimental method is adopted on 17 female students from Huzhou Teachers Col-lege at the school for physical self -esteem research .Results: The short -term impact of exercise on the body corporate Cheerleading esteem there is no significant difference , but there is a significant impact on the physical attractiveness of physical self -esteem and body esteem scores .Conclusion: Through cheerleading practice , the body shape and the performance of power and self -confidence of female college students can be fullyenhanced .

  19. The Cheerleaders' Mock Execution (United States)

    Trujillo-Jenks, Laura


    The fervor of student speech is demonstrated through different mediums and venues in public schools. In this case, a new principal encounters the mores of a community that believes in free speech, specifically student free speech. When a pep rally becomes a venue for hate speech, terroristic threats, and profanity, the student code of conduct…

  20. The Stimulating and Cultivating of Body Consciousness---Practice Analysis Based on the Somaesthetics Value of Cheerleading%身体意识的激发与培养--基于啦啦操运动身体美学价值的实践分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本研究通过文献资料法,对身体美学中身体意识培养的要义进行整理,又通过对啦啦操运动员、教练员从啦啦操的项目特征、技术特点和啦啦操运动的心理干预功能方面进行访谈,剖析啦啦操的身体美学优势,以啦啦操独特的内、外部特征阐述啦啦操在身体意识激发与培养方面的实践价值与意义,得出以下结论:1)啦啦操激发与培养身体意识是该运动的固有功能;2)身体意识的培养对身体维度的修正具有积极意义;3)啦啦操是促进青少年身心健康的优势项目。%This study summarizes the essence of body awareness cultivating in somaesthetics with the method of literature.The study also conducts interview with cheerleading athletes and coaches from aspects of program features,technical characteristics and psychological intervention function of cheerleading sport to explore the somaesthetic advantage of cheerleading and elaborates on the practical value and significance of the unique interior and exterior features of cheerleading in stimulating and cultivating body consciousness.The paper concludes that it is the inherent function of cheerleading to stimulate and cultivate body consciousness;the cultivation of body consciousness has positive significance in correcting body dimensions;cheerleading is an advantageous program in promoting teenagers’physical and mental health.

  1. Comparative Study of Artistic Gymnastics and Cheerleading Gymnastics%艺术体操与啦啦操的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云; 王萍


    文章以艺术体操和啦啦操作为强身健体及表演的重要内容为依据,采用文献资料法、观察法、访谈调查法进行分析和研究,着重对艺术体操与啦啦操之间存在的共性与异性进行探讨分析,使练习者正确认识二者之间的关系,提高鉴赏力,培养持久的兴趣和爱好,为实现终身体育打下良好基础。%Artistic Gymnastics and cheerleading gymnastics are two important forms of physical training and performance. This paper analyzes and researches the difference and commonness between the two forms by documents, interviews and helps exerciser improve their appreciation and interests, finally lays a good foundation for lifelong physical training.

  2. Effects of cheerleading dance exercise on sleep quality of female college students%舞蹈啦啦操锻炼对女大学生睡眠质量的干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    OBJECTIVE To study the effect of cheerleading dance exercises on sleep quality of female college students.METHODS 72 female college students were collected and their sleep quality before and after participating in cheerleading dance exercise was surveyed and analyzed by the questionnaire of PSQI.RESULTS the PSQI of female college students after cheerleading dance exercise had positive benefits compared with that before exercise and the sleep efficiency had a statistical difference before and after participating in cheerleading dance compared before and after participated in cheerleading dance (P < 0.01).Sleep quality,enter sleep time and sleeping pills had a statistical differences (P < 0.05).Sleep time,sleep disturbance and daytime function had no statistical difference (P > 0.05).The PSQI scores had statistical differences (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION The moderate cheerleading dance exercise can obviously improves the sleep quality of female college students and plays an active role of the mental health of female college students.%目的 探讨舞蹈啦啦操锻炼对女大学生睡眠质量的影响.方法 运用标准化量表匹兹堡睡眠质量指数,对72名女大学生在参加舞蹈啦啦操锻炼前后的睡眠质量进行调查,通过分析,探求舞蹈啦啦操锻炼对女大学生睡眠质量的影响.结果 经过9周舞蹈啦啦操的锻炼,受试者睡眠质量的各因子均有积极效益,在睡眠效率因子上,锻炼前后差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);在睡眠质量、入睡时间和安眠药物3个因子方面,锻炼前后比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);睡眠时间、睡眠障碍和日间功能这3个因子虽然锻炼后平均值都有所降低,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);运动后PSQI总分与运动前比较有较显著性的下降,且差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 通过9周舞蹈舞蹈啦啦操学习能够有效提高或改善女大学生的睡眠质量,对女大学生的心理健康起到积极的作用.

  3. The Feasibility of the Spread “The National Cheerleading Class Routine”%“全国啦啦操等级规定套路”在学校推广的可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Through the investigation and study result shows,cheerleading as an emerging sports has been in our country school physical education in schools is revealed,has now become a highly representative of the campus culture."National Cheerleading Routine" is effective way to carry out " National Fitness Program",and promote the spiritual civilization construction of the school and the construction of campus sports culture,and comprehensively promote the large,primary and secondary school students quality education,as well as strengthen the work of physical education as an important measure.The spread of "National Cheerleading routine" in physical education teaching in China as a fitness course is feasible.%啦啦操运动作为一项新兴体育运动已在我国部分学校得以开展,现已成为一种极具代表性的校园文化。"全国啦啦操规定套路"既是有效贯彻与实施"全民健身计划",促进学校精神文明建设和校园体育文化建设的重要途径,又是全面推进大、中、小学生素质教育,加强学校体育工作的一个重要举措。实践证明,把"全国啦啦操等级规定套路"作为国内体育教学中一门体育健身课进行推广是可行的。

  4. Analysis on the Special Quality of the Elite Cheerleading Players%优秀技巧啦啦操运动员专项素质特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    采用测量法与数理统计法对20名我国优秀技巧啦啦操运动员与普通技巧啦啦操运动员专项素质8项指标进行测试,得出优秀技巧啦啦操男、女运动员与对照组运动员各项指标上均存在显著性差异。在专项素质8项指标中提取了三个主因素,即速度力量素质、柔韧素质、速度耐力素质,累计贡献率为91.083%。研究提示:主因素分析可全面反映技巧啦啦操优秀运动员专项素质特征。%The paper adopts the method of measurement and mathematical statistics on the 20 high-level skills of athletes and ordinary skills Cheerleading eight indicators to test physical fitness,skill level of the male and female cheerleading athletes and control group of athletes with eight indicators.There are three principle components in the eight indicators,namely,the speed power quality,flexibility quality and speed endurance.Their cumulative contribution rate is 91.083%.The research suggests that the principal component analysis techniques can fully reflect the special elite cheerleading physical characteristics.

  5. 南京高校技巧啦啦操发展现状的调查与分析%Analysis and Investigation on College Cheerleading Skill Development in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    技巧啦啦操是一项注重团队合作、互帮互助的运动,它符合当今世界的主旋律“合作”,团结合作的精神有利于高校学生今后更好地走向社会。该项目也是一项从国外引进的新兴项目,符合高校体育改革不断创新,需要向多样化、生活化、娱乐化、终身化方向发展。对促进学生身心发展,团结合作,丰富校园文化生活,加强校园精神文明建设都具有积极的意义。本研究采用了文献资料法、访谈法、问卷调查法,对南京开展技巧啦啦操项目的高校发展现状进行了调查与分析,主要调查了教练员、运动员和队伍的情况,找出影响我国技巧啦啦操项目发展的主要原因,并提出相应的建议,为我国技巧啦啦操项目更好的发展提供理论参考。%Cheerleading is a focus on teamwork , mutual aid movement , it is consistent with the theme of “the cooperation”, the spirit of unity and cooperation is beneficial to college students will move toward a better society . The project is also an emerging from abroad project , with the reform of university physical education innovation , the need for diversification , life, entertainment , lifelong development .To promote students'physical and mental development , solidarity and cooperation , enrich the cultural life of the campus , is of great significance to strengthenthe construction of campus spiritual civilization .This study adopts literature method, interview method, questionnaire survey method of university development skills Cheerleading in Nanjing conducted a survey and analysis, the main survey of the coaches , athletes and team situation, find out the main reason of influencing China's cheerleading in project development , and puts forward some corresponding suggestions , provided theory the reference for our skills cheerleading better development .

  6. Falling while walking: A hidden contributor to pedestrian injury. (United States)

    Oxley, Jennifer; O'Hern, Steve; Burtt, Duane; Rossiter, Ben


    Walking is a sustainable mode of transportation which is beneficial to both individuals and to the broader community, however, there are risks and it is essential that road design and operation provides safe conditions for walking. In Victoria, pedestrians represent one of the most vulnerable road user groups, accounting for approximately 12% of all road fatalities and serious injuries. These figures largely represent injuries where the pedestrian has been struck by a vehicle with the extent of pedestrian-only injuries largely un-reported. Falling while walking may be a significant contributor to pedestrian only injuries. Indeed, the World Health Organisation has identified falls generally as the second leading cause of unintentional injury death in older populations. Despite the prevalence of fall-related injuries, there has been relatively little research undertaken to address the issues surrounding falls that occur while walking for transport and in public spaces. This study, therefore, aimed to address this gap in our knowledge. Analyses of various data sources were undertaken to enhance our understanding of fall-related injuries while walking in Victoria. Two sources of data were accessed: Only 85 fall-related incidents were reported in the crash-based data, however, pedestrian falls while walking in the road environment accounted for an average of 1680 hospital admissions and 3545 emergency department presentations each year, and this number is rising. The findings in this study show clearly that Police data is of little use when attempting to understand issues of safe travel for pedestrians other than vehicle-pedestrian incidents. However, analysis of hospital data provides a more realistic indication of the extent of pedestrian fall-related injuries and highlights the significant number of pedestrian fall-related injuries that occur each year. Moreover, the findings identified that older pedestrians are significantly over-represented amongst fall-related

  7. SWOT Analysis on Performance Market Development of China’s Cheerleading Competition%我国啦啦操竞赛表演市场开发的SWOT分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Using SWOT analysis to analyze performance market of Chinese cheerleading competition. The study points out that the process has its own strengths, weakness, opportunity and threats although market resources development of Chinese cheerleading competition performance has started. It provides some suggestions such as enhancing the professional level of competition performers, building a harmonious partnership with sponsors, and promoting media publicity.%应用SWOT分析方法,对我国啦啦操竞赛表演市场进行分析,指出:我国啦啦操竞赛表演的市场资源开发已经起步,在这个发展的过程中存在一定的优势、劣势、机会和弱点。建议在发展的过程中要加强竞赛表演人员的专业水平,与赞助商建立和谐的伙伴关系,加大媒体宣传的力度等。

  8. 啦啦操运动对高校校园体育文化影响的研究%Research on the Influence of Cheerleading Sport on Campus's Sports Culture in Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    运用文献资料法、调查问卷法、数理统计法等研究方法,通过啦啦操运动对高校体育文化影响的调查分析,结果表明,啦啦操运动对大学生自身认识的体育价值观、体育健康观、体育意识、体育精神、体育行为习惯有着不同程度的影响,据此提出相应的对策与相关建议。%Using the method of literature,questionnaire,mathematical statistics and other research methods,through the investigation and study of the influence of cheerleading sport on sports culture in universities,the results shows that cheerleading sport has different effects on the view of sports value of their own understanding of college students,sports health education,sports consciousness,sports spirit and sports behavior.Then it puts forward the corresponding countermeasures and suggestions.

  9. Study on the Construction of Dance Cheerleading Sports Team Training Content System%舞蹈啦啦操运动队训练内容体系构建的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本文运用文献资料法、专家访谈法和逻辑分析法对舞蹈啦啦操运动队训练内容体系进行构建。研究结果显示:舞蹈啦啦操运动队的训练内容体系分两个部分,一是理论教育部分,二是实践部分。本文的研究对进一步促进舞蹈啦啦操在我国的发展,丰富校园文化生活,加强舞蹈啦啦操运动队的训练水平,提高我国舞蹈啦啦操竞技水平具有重要的意义。%Through using the method of literature review,expert interview and logical analysis,this paper makes study on construction of dance cheerleading sports team training content system.The result shows that dance cheerleading sport team training content system has two parts,one is the theory education part,two is to practice. Research of this paper to further promote the dance exercise in the development of our country,enrich campus culture life,strengthen dance the sport training level,improve the competitive level of our country dance.

  10. The Influence of Cheerleading Teaching on Self-Confidence of Female College Students%啦啦操教学对女大学生自信的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    By using the methods of teaching experiment and mathematical statistics, this paper research the influence of cheerleading teaching on self-confidence of female college students. The results shows that the level of their overall self-confidence, school self-confidence, physical self-confidence and social self-confidence had significant difference (P<0.05) compared with which before the 12 weeks' experiment, and we can see the overall self-confidence, physical self-confidence and social self-confidence level of female college students among cheerleading group, sports dancing teaching and aerobics teaching group had significant differences (P<0.01) through the multiple comparisons. It is means that the cheerleading group has the most remarkable effect on improving female students overall self-confidence,physical self-confidence and social self-confidence compared with the other two groups.%采用教学实验、数理统计等方法,研究啦啦操教学对女大学生自信的影响。研究结果表明:经过12周的啦啦操教学,女大学生在整体自信、学业自信、身体自信和社交自信上差异显著(P约0.05),啦啦操教学组与健美操和体育舞蹈教学组女大学生的整体自信、身体自信和社交自信水平差异显著(P约0.01)。啦啦操教学对女大学生的整体自信、身体自信和社交自信几个维度上的自信水平影响显著,并且与健美操和体育舞蹈教学相比,对提升女大学生整体自信、身体自信和社交自信上的效果更显著。

  11. Menstrual Irregularity and Musculoskeletal Injury in Female High School Athletes (United States)

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Carr, Kathleen E.; Loud, Keith J.; McGuine, Timothy A.


    Context: The female athlete triad describes the interrelatedness of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone density. Although associations between triad components and musculoskeletal injury (INJ) have been reported in collegiate athletes, limited information exists about menstrual irregularity (MI) and INJ in the high school population. Objective: To determine the prevalence of and relationship between MI and INJ in high school athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: High schools. Patients or Other Participants: The sample consisted of 249 female athletes from 3 high schools who competed in 33 interscholastic, school-sponsored sport teams, dance teams, and cheerleading or pom-pon squad during the 2006–2007 school year. Each athlete remained on the roster throughout the season. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants completed a survey regarding injury type, number of days of sport participation missed, and menstrual history in the past year. Results: The prevalences of MI and INJ were 19.7% and 63.1%, respectively. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries (missing ≥22 days of practice or competition) than did athletes who reported normal menses. Although the trend was not significant, athletes with MI were almost 3 times more likely to sustain an injury resulting in 7 or more days of time lost from sport (odds ratio = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 8.8) than those who sustained an injury resulting in 7 or fewer days of time lost. Conclusions: The incidences of MI and INJ in this high school population during the study period were high. Athletes who reported MI sustained a higher percentage of severe injuries than did athletes who reported normal menses. Education programs to increase knowledge and improve management of MI and its potential effects on injury in female high school athletes are warranted. PMID:22488233

  12. Fall-related factors among less and more active older outpatients Fatores associados a quedas em pacientes idosos ambulatoriais menos ativos e mais ativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica R. Perracini


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fall-related factors in older adults with different levels of physical activity, within a multidimensional approach, have not been widely investigated. OBJECTIVE: To explore fall-related factors among older adults with different physical activity levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional, exploratory study with 118 older adult outpatients. Participants who reported at least one fall in the previous 12 months were considered fallers. The activity level was assessed through the Human Activity Profile. A cutoff of 54 points was used to define the less active group and the more active group. A multidimensional questionnaire and a set of physical functioning tests were applied. RESULTS: Fall prevalence was lower among the more active older adults (47.4% when compared with the less active older adults (71.4% (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Fatores relacionados a quedas em idosos com diferentes níveis de atividade física, por meio de uma abordagem multidimensional, não têm sido amplamente investigados. OBJETIVO: Explorar os fatores relacionados a quedas em idosos com diferentes níveis de atividade física. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal exploratório com 118 pacientes idosos ambulatoriais. Participantes que relataram ao menos uma queda nos últimos 12 meses foram considerados caidores. O nível de atividade física foi avaliado por meio do Perfil de Atividade Humana (PAH. O ponto de corte de 54 pontos foi usado para definir o grupo menos ativo e o grupo mais ativo. Um questionário multidimensional e uma bateria de testes físico-funcionais foram utilizados. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de quedas foi menor no grupo de idosos mais ativos (47,4% quando comparada à dos idosos menos ativos (71,4% (p<0,013. A análise de regressão logística multivariada identificou que, no grupo mais ativo, ter caído estava associado a sintomas depressivos (OR=0,747, IC95%=0,575-0,970; p=0,029, preocupação em cair (OR=1,17, IC95%=1,072-1,290; p=0,001 e velocidade de

  13. Obama Plays Cheerleader for STEM (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.


    Amid a struggling economy, a raft of foreign-policy headaches, and the tail end of a heated campaign season, President Barack Obama carved out time in his schedule last month to watch students in the State Dining Room demonstrate a solar-powered model car, a water-purification system, and a soccer-playing robot. The science fair was the fifth…

  14. Back Injuries (United States)

    ... extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, ... back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains ...

  15. Sports Injuries (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  16. Eye Injuries (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  17. Injury Statistics (United States)

    ... Certification Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury ...

  18. Exercise and risk of injurious fall in home-dwelling elderly


    Iinattiniemi, Sari; Jokelainen, Jari; Luukinen, Heikki


    OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between different types of physical exercise and the risk of subsequent fall-related injury. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study of the home-dwelling elderly. METHODS: A population sample of home-dwelling subjects aged 85 years or older (n = 512) in northern Finland participated in the study. Baseline data were collected by home-nursing staff through postal questionnaires and clinical tests. Frequency and times of physical exercise--that is, walking exe...

  19. Visceral injuries. (United States)

    Wisner, D H; Blaisdell, F W


    Abdominal visceral injuries are encountered by every surgeon who deals with trauma. It is simple and useful to divide abdominal visceral injuries into those caused by penetrating mechanisms of injury and those due to blunt mechanisms. Determination of the need for operative intervention is generally easier after penetrating trauma. Gunshot wounds to the abdomen should be explored, as should stab wounds to the anterior abdomen that penetrate the fascia. A midline incision is the standard approach to abdominal visceral injuries because of its ease and versatility. Abdominal exploration should be consistent and systemic so as not to miss significant injuries. Hollow viscus injury is most common after penetrating injury, while blunt injury most often results in injury to solid viscera. Diagnostic and operative aspects of the treatment of specific visceral injuries are reviewed.

  20. 高校公共体育课设置啦啦操选项课的可行性分析——以济宁学院为例%The Feasibility Analysis for Choosing Cheerleading as an Elective Course for Public Physical Education in Universities -- Take Jining University for Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Cheerleading is a burgeoning sport. Beijing Olympic Games and the media play a very important role in the developing of this sport, and make La La drilling become a sport of greater concern in the society and university. Choosing Cheerleading as an elective course for public physical education in university can develop the students' integrative quality and their teamwork spirits, enrich the content of courses for P. E. elective course in colleges, at the same time, it is suitable for the development trend and characteristics of physical education in university, and it can supply the demand for the needs of students'physical and mental health and the needs of the society.%啦啦队运动是一项新兴的体育项目,北京奥运会的举办与媒体的宣传将我国啦啦队运动推上了新的平台,使其成为社会和学校瞩目的一项体育活动.在高校公共体育课设置啦啦操选项课有助于培养学生的综合素质和团队精神,丰富公共体育选项课的教学内容,适应高校体育教育的发展趋势和特点,极大的满足学生身心健康的需要和社会需求.

  1. Head Injuries (United States)

    ... ATV) Safety Balance Disorders Knowing Your Child's Medical History First Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay Safe: Baseball Concussions Concussions: Getting Better Sports and Concussions Dealing ...

  2. Ear Injury (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  3. Genital injury (United States)

    ... each side of a bar, such as a monkey bar or the middle of a bicycle Symptoms ... Names Scrotal trauma; Straddle injury; Toilet seat injury Images Female reproductive anatomy Male reproductive anatomy Normal female ...

  4. Knee Injuries (United States)

    ... bursitis . Symptoms of bursitis in the knee include warmth, tenderness, swelling, and pain on the front of ... injury without the aid of a television screen. Physical Therapy Depending on the type of knee injury ...

  5. Orienteering injuries


    Folan, Jean M.


    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering.

  6. Gait efficiency on an uneven surface is associated with falls and injury in older subjects with a spectrum of lower limb neuromuscular function: a prospective study (United States)

    Zurales, Katie; DeMott, Trina K.; Kim, Hogene; Allet, Lara; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Richardson, James K.


    Objective To determine which gait measures on smooth and uneven surfaces predict falls and fall-related injuries in older subjects with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Design Twenty-seven subjects (12 women) with a spectrum of peripheral nerve function ranging from normal to moderately severe DPN walked on smooth and uneven surfaces, with gait parameters determined by optoelectronic kinematic techniques. Falls and injuries were then determined prospectively over the following year. Results Seventeen subjects (62.9%) fell and 12 (44.4%) sustained a fall-related injury. As compared to non-fallers, the subject group reporting any fall, as well as the subject group reporting fall-related injury, demonstrated decreased speed, greater step width (SW), shorter step length (SL) and greater step-width-to-step-length ratio (SW:SL) on both surfaces. Uneven surface SW:SL was the strongest predictor of falls (pseudo-R2 = 0.65; p = .012) and remained so with inclusion of other relevant variables into the model. Post-hoc analysis comparing injured with non-injured fallers showed no difference in any gait parameter. Conclusion SW:SL on an uneven surface is the strongest predictor of falls and injuries in older subjects with a spectrum of peripheral neurologic function. Given the relationship between SW:SL and efficiency, older neuropathic patients at increased fall risk appear to sacrifice efficiency for stability on uneven surfaces. PMID:26053187

  7. Bicycling injuries. (United States)

    Silberman, Marc R


    Bicycling injuries can be classified into bicycle contact, traumatic, and overuse injuries. Despite the popularity of cycling, there are few scientific studies regarding injuries. Epidemiological studies are difficult to compare due to different methodologies and the diverse population of cyclists studied. There are only three studies conducted on top level professionals. Ninety-four percent of professionals in 1 year have experienced at least one overuse injury. Most overuse injuries are mild with limited time off the bike. The most common site of overuse injury is the knee, and the most common site of traumatic injury is the shoulder, with the clavicle having the most common fracture. Many overuse and bicycle contact ailments are relieved with simple bike adjustments.

  8. Injury - kidney and ureter (United States)

    Kidney damage; Toxic injury of the kidney; Kidney injury; Traumatic injury of the kidney; Fractured kidney; Inflammatory injury of the kidney; Bruised kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, ...

  9. The hip strength:ankle proprioceptive threshold ratio predicts falls and injury in diabetic neuropathy (United States)

    Richardson, James K.; DeMott, Trina; Allet, Lara; Kim; Ashton-Miller, James A.


    Introduction We determined lower limb neuromuscular capacities associated with falls and fall-related injuries in older people with declining peripheral nerve function. Methods Thirty-two subjects (67.4 ± 13.4 years; 19 with type 2 diabetes), representing a spectrum of peripheral neurologic function, were evaluated with frontal plane proprioceptive thresholds at the ankle, frontal plane motor function at the ankle and hip, and prospective follow-up for 1 year. Results Falls and fall-related injuries were reported by 20 (62.5%) and 14 (43.8%) subjects, respectively. The ratio of hip adductor rate of torque development to ankle proprioceptive threshold (HipSTR/AnkPRO) predicted falls (pseudo-R2 = .726) and injury (pseudo-R2 = .382). No other variable maintained significance in the presence of HipSTR/AnkPRO. Discussion Fall and injury risk in the population studied is related inversely to HipSTR/AnkPRO. Increasing rapidly available hip strength in patients with neuropathic ankle sensory impairment may decrease risk of falls and related injuries. PMID:24282041

  10. Maxillofacial Fractures due to Falls: does Fall Modality Determine the Pattern of Injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Roccia


    Full Text Available Objectives: In several epidemiological studies of maxillofacial trauma, falls were one of the most frequent causes of facial injury. The aim of this study is to analyse the patterns of fall-related maxillofacial injuries based on the height of the fall. Material and Methods: Using a systematic computer-assisted database of patients hospitalised with maxillofacial fractures, only those with fall-related injuries were considered. The falls were divided into four groups: falls from slipping, tripping or stumbling (STSF, loss of consciousness (LOCF, stairs (SAF, and height (HF. Data on the age, gender, fracture site, Facial Injury Severity Scale (FISS, facial lacerations, associated lesions, type of treatment, and length of hospital stay were also analysed. Results: This study included 557 patients (338 males, 219 females; average age 51.5 years [range 4 - 99 years]. In the over 60 age group, females were more prevalent in STSF than males. According to aetiology, STSF was the most frequent cause of maxillofacial fractures (315 patients; 56.5% followed by LOCF (157; 28.2%, HF (55; 9.9%, and SAF (30; 5.4%. The middle third of the face was affected most frequently. After LOCF, however, the inferior third was prevalently involved. The majority of associated fractures, as well as the most severe injuries and greatest rate of facial lacerations, occurred secondary to HF. Conclusions: This study showed that fracture severity and site are influenced not only by patient age, but also by the nature of the fall.

  11. Paragliding injuries.


    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W


    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during st...

  12. Paragliding injuries. (United States)

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W


    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries.

  13. Whiplash injuries. (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard; Peter, Jason


    Whiplash injuries are very common and usually are associated with rear-end collisions. However, a whiplash injury can be caused by any event that results in hyperextension and flexion of the cervical spine. These injuries are of serious concern to all consumers due to escalating cost of diagnosis, treatment, insurance, and litigation. Most acute whiplash injury cases respond well to conservative treatments, which result in resolution of symptoms usually within weeks to a few months after the injury occurred. Chronic whiplash injuries often are harder to diagnose and treat and often result in poor outcomes. Current research shows that various structures in the cervical spine receive nociceptive innervation and potentially may be the cause of chronic pain symptoms. One potential pain generator showing promise is the facet or zygapophyseal joints. Various researchers have proven that these joints are injured during whiplash injuries and that diagnosis and temporary pain relief can be obtained with facet joint injections. The initial evaluation of any patient should follow an organized and stepwise approach, and more serious causes of neck pain must first be ruled out through the history, physical examination, and diagnostic testing. Treatment regimens should be evidence-based, focusing on treatments that have proven to be effective in treating acute and chronic whiplash injuries.

  14. Ocular Injury (United States)

    ... eye and face protection is essential to prevent injuries. Sports such as hockey, baseball, racquet ball, squash, and shooting require protective goggles or full face mask wear at all times. Do fireworks still cause eye injuries? Each year hundreds of individuals (often children) sustain ...

  15. Relationship between location and activity in injurious falls: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendriks Marike RC


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the circumstances under which injurious falls occur could provide healthcare workers with better tools to prevent falls and fall-related injuries. Therefore, we assessed whether older persons who sustain an injurious fall can be classified into specific fall types, based on a combination of fall location and activity up to the moment of the fall. In addition, we assessed whether specific injurious fall types are related to causes of the fall, consequences of the fall, socio-demographic characteristics, and health-related characteristics. Methods An exploratory, cross-sectional study design was used to identify injurious fall types. The study population comprised 333 community-dwelling Dutch elderly people aged 65 years or over who attended an accident and emergency department after a fall. All participants received a self-administered questionnaire after being discharged home. The questionnaire comprised items concerning circumstances of the injurious fall, causes of the fall, consequences of the fall, socio-demographic characteristics and health-related characteristics. Injurious fall types were distinguished by analyzing data by means of HOMALS (homogeneity analysis by means of alternating least squares. Results We identified 4 injurious fall types: 1 Indoor falls related to lavatory visits (hall and bathroom; 2 Indoor falls during other activities of daily living; 3 Outdoor falls near the home during instrumental activities of daily living; 4 Outdoor falls away from home, occurring during walking, cycling, and shopping for groceries. These injurious fall types were significantly related to age, cause of the fall, activity avoidance and daily functioning. Conclusion The face validity of the injurious fall typology is obvious. However, we found no relationship between the injurious fall types and severity of the consequences of the fall. Nevertheless, there appears to be a difference between the prevalence of

  16. Facial Sports Injuries (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News media interested in ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports injuries ...

  17. Birth Injury (United States)

    ... Commentary Recent News Scientists Working on Solar-Powered Prosthetic Limbs Exercise a Great Prescription to Help Older Hearts Bavencio Approved for Rare Skin Cancer Older Mothers May Raise Better-Behaved Kids, Study ... lying in an abnormal position in the uterus before birth. Overall, the rate of birth injuries is much lower now than in previous decades because of improved ...

  18. Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries (United States)

    ... Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Tips for ... cfm?topic=A00132. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Overuse injury. The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. ...

  19. Preventive Effects of Safety Helmets on Traumatic Brain Injury after Work-Related Falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Chul Kim


    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related traumatic brain injury (TBI caused by falls is a catastrophic event that leads to disabilities and high socio-medical costs. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of safety helmets on clinical outcomes and to compare the effect across different heights of fall. Methods: We collected a nationwide, prospective database of work-related injury patients who visited the 10 emergency departments between July 2010 and October 2012. All of the adult patients who experienced work-related fall injuries were eligible, excluding cases with unknown safety helmet use and height of fall. Primary and secondary endpoints were intracranial injury and in-hospital mortality. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs of safety helmet use and height of fall for study outcomes, and adjusted for any potential confounders. Results: A total of 1298 patients who suffered from work-related fall injuries were enrolled. The industrial or construction area was the most common place of fall injury occurrence, and 45.0% were wearing safety helmets at the time of fall injuries. The safety helmet group was less likely to have intracranial injury comparing with the no safety helmet group (the adjusted odds ratios (ORs (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.42 (0.24–0.73, however, there was no statistical difference of in-hospital mortality between two groups (the adjusted ORs (95% CI: 0.83 (0.34–2.03. In the interaction analysis, preventive effects of safety helmet on intracranial injury were significant within 4 m height of fall. Conclusions: A safety helmet is associated with prevention of intracranial injury resulting from work-related fall and the effect is preserved within 4 m height of fall. Therefore, wearing a safety helmet can be an intervention for protecting fall-related intracranial injury in the workplace.

  20. A time series analysis of falls and injury in the inpatient rehabilitation setting. (United States)

    Frisina, Pasquale G; Guellnitz, Rita; Alverzo, Joan


    The purpose of this study is to assess whether falls and injuries are influenced by a temporal pattern (defined as a pattern based on the time of day) in the inpatient acute rehabilitation unit/hospital (IRU/H) setting. A retrospective chart review and analysis of falls and injuries among inpatients admitted to our facility during a 9-month period was performed. The sample consisted of 367 patients who had fallen at least once; 71 had repeated falls, bringing the total number of falls to 438. Significant variation in the prevalence of falls (chi2 = 24.1, p <. 01) and injuries (chi2 = 12.90, p < .01) based on time of day and shift was observed. In addition, a temporal pattern of fall-related injuries with patients who had sustained stroke and brain injury (chi2 = 12.74, p = .045) was also observed. The findings from this study allow for the development of interventions that are appropriate when falls and injury are most prevalent for different clinical populations in the IRU/H setting.

  1. Brain injury - discharge (United States)

    ... and caregivers. the Home . Accessed December 8, 2016. ... Caregiver Alliance; National Center on Caregiving. Traumatic brain injury. ... . Accessed ...

  2. Growth Plate Injuries (United States)

    ... Growth Plate Injuries? Key Words Information Box The Salter-Harris Classification of Growth Plate Injuries What Is ... of Growth Plate Injuries? Since the 1960s, the Salter-Harris classification, which divides most growth plate fractures ...

  3. Dealing with Sports Injuries (United States)

    ... for falling accidents, such as horseback riding and gymnastics. Head injuries include fractures, concussions , contusions (bruises), and ... hockey, or in weightlifting, rowing, golf, figure skating, gymnastics, and dancing. Sex Organ Injuries Injuries to the ...

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  5. "Floating shoulder" injuries. (United States)

    Heng, Kenneth


    "Floating shoulder" is a rare injury complex resulting from high-energy blunt force trauma to the shoulder, resulting in scapulothoracic dissociation. It is commonly associated with catastrophic neurovascular injury. Two cases of motorcyclists with floating shoulder injuries are described.

  6. Eye Injuries in Sports (United States)

    ... in Sports Which sports cause the most eye injuries?Sports cause more than 40,000 eye injuries each ... and racquet sports.When it comes to eye injuries, sports can be classified as low risk, high risk ...

  7. Preventing Knee Injuries (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes ... this PDF Share this page: WHAT ARE COMMON KNEE INJURIES? Pain Syndromes One of the most common ...

  8. Injuries in orienteering. (United States)

    Linde, F


    In a one-year prospective study of 42 elite orienteers, 73 recent injuries (1.7 per runner per year) were found. Acute injuries totalled 52% and 48% were due to overuse. Ankle sprains made up 37% of acute injuries while the remaining were mainly contusions caused by falls or bumps against branches or rocks. Medial shin pain, Achilles peritendinitis, peroneal tenosynovitis and iliotibial band friction syndrome were the most frequent overuse injuries. All overuse injuries were located in the lower extremity while 18% of acute injuries was located elsewhere. Acute injuries were most frequent in the competitive season while overuse injuries occurred most often during the continuous training period.

  9. Sports injuries of the ear. (United States)

    Wagner, G A


    The author describes common sports injuries involving the ear. Such injuries include hematoma, lacerations, foreign bodies (tattoo), and thermal injuries. Ear canal injuries include swimmer's ear and penetrating injuries. Tympanum injuries include tympanic membrane perforations, ossicular discontinuity, eustachian tube dysfunction, temporal bone fractures and traumatic facial nerve palsy. Inner ear injuries include traumatic sensorineural deafness. The author emphasizes the management of these injuries.

  10. Managing iatrogenic tracheal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Goonasekera C


    Full Text Available We present three cases of iatrogenic tracheal injury. Two patients suffered acute tracheal injuries during anesthesia/surgery, one was managed surgically and the other conservatively. The third case is a delayed tracheal injury presenting as a fistula. The reasons for surgical vs conservative management of tracheal injuries and preventive measures are discussed.

  11. Patterns of work injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt;


    To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA).......To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA)....

  12. Nonfatal occupational injuries associated with slips and falls in the United States. (United States)

    Yoon, Hoon-Yong; Lockhart, Thurmon E


    The purpose of this study was to examine nonfatal occupational injury data associated with slip and fall accidents by extracting the latest information from the database of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Systematic information on the cost and causes of industrial slip and fall accidents are not readily available from statistical and survey data sources, as such, detailed information regarding the slip-/fall-related injuries in US industries categorized by various factors are presented in this study. Nonfatal injuries resulting in days lost from work due to fall and slip were categorized by the number and incidence rate by various characteristics such as major US industry, nature of injury, source of injury, types of fall, occupation, part of body injured, age of the injured, gender of the injured and number of lost workdays utilizing the BLS database. Additionally, cost per claim associated with industrial slip and fall accidents are reviewed using the National Safety Council database. This information may be used to focus our attention toward most relevant intervention strategies associated with workplace slip and fall accidents.

  13. Injury in rugby league. (United States)

    Hoskins, W; Pollard, H; Hough, K; Tully, C


    It was the purpose of this review to document the range, incidence, location and mechanism of injury occurring in the sport of rugby league. Rugby league is a collision sport played in Europe and the Pacific regions including Australia. The sport is well established and has competitions ranging from junior to elite professional. Due to the contact nature of the game, injury is relatively common. The most common injuries are musculotendinous in nature and afflict the lower limb more frequently than elsewhere. Despite the high incidence of minor (sprains/strains) to moderate musculoskeletal injury (fracture, ligament and joint injury) and minor head injuries such as lacerations, nasal fractures and concussions, rare more serious spinal cord and other injuries causing death have also been recorded. The literature on rugby league injury is small but growing and suffers from a lack of consistent definition of what an injury is, thereby causing variability in the nature and incidence/prevalence of injury. Information is lacking on the injury profiles of different age groups. Importantly, there has been little attempt to establish a coordinated injury surveillance program in rugby league in the junior or professional levels. The implementation of such programs would require a universal definition of injury and a focus on important events and competitions. The implementation could provide important information in the identification and prevention of risk factors for injury.

  14. Rehabilitation of basketball injuries. (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard A; Chimes, Gary P


    Basketball is one of the most popular sports in the United States and throughout the world, and therefore represents one of the most common sources of sports-related injuries. Basketball injuries should be managed by the same general rehabilitation principles as other sports injuries. Additionally, the clinician should be aware not only of general sports injuries but of those injuries most commonly seen in basketball players. By maintaining knowledge of the most common basketball injuries as well as their diagnosis and treatment, the clinician can help to optimize the athlete's return to play and enjoyment of the sport.

  15. Maxillofacial injuries in sport. (United States)

    Echlin, Paul; McKeag, Douglas B


    Maxillofacial injuries occur in contact and noncontact sports. Despite advancements in protective equipment and rule changes, there is still an unacceptably high rate of maxillofacial injuries. These injuries are clinically challenging. The significant morbidity, deformity, and disability associated with these injuries can be avoided by their prompt diagnosis and appropriate management. It is important for the sports medicine professional to be competent in the correct diagnosis and management of maxillofacial injuries. This article reviews some of the major maxillofacial injuries, along with their emergent examinations and treatments.

  16. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System (United States)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  17. Lisfranc Joint Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa Chinn


    @@ The ankle and foot are the most common sites for athletic injuries.[1]Midfoot,or Lisfranc,injuries are the second most common foot injury and have a high in cidence in particular sports.They account for 4% of all football injuries per year,occurring frequently in linemen.[2]They are also common in equestrians,surfers,and windsurfers.[2]Lisfranc injuries are often misdiagnosed and if not treated properly can have lingering symptoms.It is estimated that Lisfranc joint injuries occur in 1 in every 55,000 persons every year.[3,4

  18. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (United States)

    ... Videos mild Traumatic Brain Injury 94447 reads Please Log in You must be logged in to access ... Brain Injury (DCoE) to promote the processes of building resilience, facilitating recovery and supporting reintegration of returning ...

  19. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries (United States)

    ... might not be possible to return to the sport without risking further injury. Because overuse injuries are characterized by swelling, a doctor may prescribe rest, medicines to ease inflammation, and physical therapy. When recovery is complete, your child's technique or ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury (United States)

    ... indicated by a total lack of sensory and motor function below the level of injury. People who survive a spinal cord injury will most likely have medical complications such as chronic pain and bladder and bowel ...

  1. What Are Sports Injuries? (United States)

    ... 06:02 Size: 11.7 MB November 2014 What Are Sports Injuries? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Research Is Being Done on Treating Sports Injuries? What’s the Difference Between an Acute and a Chronic ...

  2. Preventing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daksha Patel


    Full Text Available The main challenge in developing a strategy to prevent eye injuries is that there are so many different causes and situations that can lead to eye injuries, each requiring a different approach.

  3. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; Heurn, L.W. van; Snoeijs, M.G.


    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  4. Spinal Cord Injuries (United States)

    ... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... down on the nerve parts that carry signals. Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. With a complete ...

  5. Rotator Cuff Injuries. (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    We studied the long-term sequelae of hand injuries as a result of playing volleyball. In a retrospective study, 226 patients with injuries of the hand who were seen over a 5-year period at our Trauma Department, were investigated. Females accounted for 66 % of all injuries. The mean age was 26 years

  7. [Trampoline injuries in children]. (United States)

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Antila, Eeva; Korhonen, Jussi; Rättyä, Johanna; Serlo, Willy


    Trampolines for home use have become common in Finland during the past ten years, being especially favored by children. Trampoline jumping is beneficial and constructive physical exercise, but poses a significant risk for injuries. The most common injuries include sprains and strains. During summertime, trampoline injuries account for as many as 13% of children's accidents requiring hospital care. Fractures are by far the most common trampoline injuries requiring hospital care. Injuries can be prevented by using safety nets. Only one child at a time is allowed to jump on the trampoline.

  8. Biomechanics of whiplash injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hai-bin; King H YANG; WANG Zheng-guo


    Despite a large number of rear-end collisions on the road and a high frequency of whiplash injuries reported, the mechanism of whiplash injuries is not completely understood. One of the reasons is that the injury is not necessarily accompanied by obvious tissue damage detectable by X-ray or MRI. An extensive series of biomechanics studies, including injury epidemiology, neck kinematics,facet capsule ligament mechanics, injury mechanisms and injury criteria, were undertaken to help elucidate these whiplash injury mechanisms and gain a better understanding of cervical facet pain. These studies provide the following evidences to help explain the mechanisms of the whiplash injury: (1) Whiplash injuries are generally considered to be a soft tissue injury of the neck with symptoms such as neck pain and stiffness, shoulder weakness, dizziness, headache and memory loss, etc. (2) Based on kinematical studies on the cadaver and volunteers, there are three distinct periods that have the potential to cause injury to the neck. In the first stage, flexural deformation of the neck is observed along with a loss of cervical lordosis; in the second stage, the cervical spine assumes an S-shaped curve as the lower vertebrae begin to extend and gradually cause the upper vertebrae to extend; during the final stage, the entire neck is extended due to the extension moments at both ends. (3)The in vivo environment afforded by rodent models of injury offers particular utility for linking mechanics, nociception and behavioral outcomes. Experimental findings have examined strains across the facet joint as a mechanism of whiplash injury, and suggested a capsular strain threshold or a vertebral distraction threshold for whiplash-related injury,potentially producing neck pain. (4) Injuries to the facet capsule region of the neck are a major source of post-crash pain. There are several hypotheses on how whiplash-associated injury may occur and three of these injuries are related to strains within

  9. Biomechanics of whiplash injury. (United States)

    Chen, Hai-bin; Yang, King H; Wang, Zheng-guo


    Despite a large number of rear-end collisions on the road and a high frequency of whiplash injuries reported, the mechanism of whiplash injuries is not completely understood. One of the reasons is that the injury is not necessarily accompanied by obvious tissue damage detectable by X-ray or MRI. An extensive series of biomechanics studies, including injury epidemiology, neck kinematics, facet capsule ligament mechanics, injury mechanisms and injury criteria, were undertaken to help elucidate these whiplash injury mechanisms and gain a better understanding of cervical facet pain. These studies provide the following evidences to help explain the mechanisms of the whiplash injury: (1) Whiplash injuries are generally considered to be a soft tissue injury of the neck with symptoms such as neck pain and stiffness, shoulder weakness, dizziness, headache and memory loss, etc. (2) Based on kinematical studies on the cadaver and volunteers, there are three distinct periods that have the potential to cause injury to the neck. In the first stage, flexural deformation of the neck is observed along with a loss of cervical lordosis; in the second stage, the cervical spine assumes an S-shaped curve as the lower vertebrae begin to extend and gradually cause the upper vertebrae to extend; during the final stage, the entire neck is extended due to the extension moments at both ends. (3) The in vivo environment afforded by rodent models of injury offers particular utility for linking mechanics, nociception and behavioral outcomes. Experimental findings have examined strains across the facet joint as a mechanism of whiplash injury, and suggested a capsular strain threshold or a vertebral distraction threshold for whiplash-related injury, potentially producing neck pain. (4) Injuries to the facet capsule region of the neck are a major source of post-crash pain. There are several hypotheses on how whiplash-associated injury may occur and three of these injuries are related to strains

  10. Injuries in Irish dance. (United States)

    Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J


    Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury.

  11. Work injuries and disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Feveile, Helene


    PROBLEM: This study estimated the hazard ratio for disability pension retirement (DPR) for persons who have experienced a work injury causing absence lasting at least one day after the accidental injury occurred and to estimate the fraction of DPR attributable to work injuries. METHODS: A total...... of 4,217 male and 4,105 female employees from a national survey were followed up for subsequent DPR. RESULTS AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY AND GOVERNMENT: Having had a work injury was a strong predictor of DPR among men. After control for age, smoking, body mass index, body postures, and physical demands......, the hazard ratio (HR) among those employees who had ever experienced a work injury was 1.80 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-2.68). No association was found among women. SUMMARY: Having had a reportable work injury is a strong predictor of subsequent DPR for men....

  12. Soccer injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Anne [Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Radiology Department, Belfast (United Kingdom)


    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)

  13. Injuries in women's basketball. (United States)

    Trojian, Thomas H; Ragle, Rosemary B


    Women's basketball has changed over time. It is a faster paced game than it was 30 years ago. Greatplayers, like Anne Meyers,who was the first, and only, woman to be signed to an NBA contract, would agree today's game is different. The game is played mostly "below the rim" but with players like Candice Parker, Sylvia Fowles and Maya Moore able to dunk the ball, the game is still changing. The one thing that remains constant in basketball, especially women's basketball, is injury. The majority of injuries in women's basketball are similar to those in men's basketball. Studies at the high school and college level show similar injury rates between women and men. ACL injuries are one exception, with female athletes having atwo to four times higher rate ofACL injuries. In this article, we review the common injuries in women's basketball. We discuss treatment issues and possible preventive measures.

  14. Soccer injuries in children. (United States)

    Paterson, Anne


    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics.

  15. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie


    assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the socioeconomic costs of traffic injuries in Denmark, notably the healthcare costs and the productivity costs related to traffic injuries, in a bottom-up, register-based perspective. METHOD: Traffic injury victims were identified using national...... emergency room data and police records. Victims were matched with five controls per case by means of propensity score, nearest-neighbour matching. In the cohort, consisting of the 52 526 individuals that experienced a traffic injury in 2000 and 262 630 matched controls, attributable healthcare costs were...

  16. Injury Patterns in Youth Sports. (United States)

    Goldberg, Barry


    Presents statistics on injury patterns in youth sports, recommending that physicians who care for young athletes understand the kinds of injuries likely to be sustained. Awareness of injury patterns helps medical professionals identify variables associated with injury, anticipate or prevent injuries, plan medical coverage, and compare individual…

  17. Karate and karate injuries.


    McLatchie, G


    The origins of karate and its evolution as a sport are described. Karate injuries tend to occur in three main areas: the head and neck, the viscera, and the limbs. Effective legislation controlling karate, which could help prevent injuries, is lacking at the moment and should be established. Recommendations for the prevention of injury include the introduction of weight classes, mandatory provision of protective equipment such as padded flooring, and the outlawing of certain uncontrollable m...

  18. Study on the level of fall related knowledge mastering and fall preventative measure execution by caretakers of community vascular dementia patients who stay in home%社区居家血管性痴呆患者照料者跌倒知识掌握及预防执行情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玮; 李晨虎; 范静


    Objective To study the level of fall related knowledge mastering and fall preventative measure execution by caretakers of community vascular dementia patients who stay in home and analyze existing problems and to provide reference for education and execution plans of intervention techniques of fall prevention . Methods A convenience sampling survey was conducted between January and February of 2013 , in which 99 major caretakers of dementia patients participated in a questionnaire survey designed by the researcher .The questionnaire includes questions related to general information , fall related knowledge mastering and execution of fall preventative measures .Results A total of 101 questionnaires were released and 99 questionnaires were returned with a responsive rate of 98.0%.Ninety-nine caretakers answered on average 63% of all questions correctly, the lowest scoring aspect was fall risk assessment (2.39 ±2.12 ), the second lowest one fall danger and prevention(7.28 ±3.59) and the third was post-home-fall treatment (3.75 ±2.89).The execution of fall preventative measures was less than satisfactory , with participants scoring an average of (1.34 ±0.62 ) points. The aspect with the lowest compliance level was reparative environment (0.98 ±0.30).The second lowest was treatment and observation(1.23 ±0.55), third was living assistance and protection facility usage (1.44 ±0.71) and fourth was activity accompaniment(1.72 ±0.47).Conclusions Community caretakers of dementia patients lack more or less fall related knowledge and their execution level of fall prevention techniques has much room for improvement .%目的:通过调查社区居家老年血管性痴呆患者照料者对跌倒知识掌握及预防措施执行情况,分析其存在的问题,为制定针对性的预防跌倒教育及干预措施实施提供参考。方法采用方便抽样的方法,选取99例居家老年痴呆患者的主要照料者,采用自行设计的问卷对照料者的一

  19. Acute injuries in Taekwondo. (United States)

    Schlüter-Brust, K; Leistenschneider, P; Dargel, J; Springorum, H P; Eysel, P; Michael, J W-P


    Although Taekwondo is becoming an increasingly popular sport, there is a lack of reliable epidemiologic data on Taekwondo injuries. To perform an epidemiologic study on the variety of types of injury in professional and amateur Taekwondo athletes and to find a relation between Taekwondo style, skill level, weight-class and warm-up routine and the occurrence of injuries, we analysed the injury data using a 7-page questionnaire from a total of 356 Taekwondo athletes who were randomly selected. Overall, we registered a total of 2,164 injuries in 356 athletes. Most traumas were contusions and sprains in the lower extremities. Professional Taekwondo athletes have an increased risk of injury in comparison to recreational athletes. Taekwondo style, weight class and tournament frequency have an influence on the athlete's injury profile. Warm-up routines were found to have a positive effect on injury rates. Overall, Taekwondo may be considered a rather benign activity, if injuries during Taekwondo tournaments can be avoided. If not, Taekwondo can result in serious musculoskeletal problems.


    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee


    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best "treatment".

  1. Lawnmower injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Nora


    OBJECTIVE: Power lawnmowers can pose significant danger of injury to both the operator and the bystander, from direct contact with the rotary blades or missile injury. Our objective was to review our experience with paediatric lawnmower-associated trauma, and the safety recommendations available to operators of power lawnmowers. METHODS: The patient cohort comprised paediatric (<16 years of age) patients treated for lawnmower-associated trauma, by the plastic surgery service, between 1996 and 2003. These patients were identified retrospectively. Age at the time of injury, location and extent of bony and soft tissue injuries sustained, treatment instituted and clinical outcome were recorded. Brochures and instruction manuals of six lawnmower manufacturers were reviewed, and safety recommendations noted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. The majority of injuries occurred from direct contact with the rotary blades (93%); the remaining child sustained a burn injury. Fourteen children (93%) required operative intervention. Seven patients (46%) sustained injuries resulting in amputation, two of whom had major limb amputations. All children, except the burns patient, underwent wound debridement and received antibiotic therapy. Reconstructive methods ranged from primary closure to free tissue transfer. Many patients required multiple procedures. In all instruction manuals, instructions to keep children and pets indoors or out of the yard when mowing were found. CONCLUSIONS: Lawnmower injuries can be devastating, particularly in children. Many victims have lasting deformities as a result of their injuries. Awareness of and stringent adherence to safety precautions during use of power lawnmowers can prevent many of these accidents.

  2. Cheerleading and Cynicism of Effective Mentoring in Current Empirical Research (United States)

    Crutcher, Paul A.; Naseem, Samina


    This article presents the results of a review of current empirical research of effective practices in teacher mentoring. Compiling literature published since 2000 in peer-reviewed journals, we examine arguments for mentoring practices to improve teacher candidate and novice teacher experiences and skills. The emergent "effective"…

  3. Hand injuries as an indicator of other associated severe injuries. (United States)

    Vossoughi, Faranak; Krantz, Brent; Fann, Stephen


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of disabling or life-threatening injuries in patients with hand injuries. Retrospective data were collected from a level 1 trauma center registry. A total of 472 patients with hand injuries were admitted to the trauma unit between January 2000 and March 2004. Forty-four per cent of patients with hand injuries had life-threatening injuries. Fifty-one per cent of them had motor vehicle crash-related injuries. Motorcycle crashes were the next most common cause followed by explosions, falls, gunshots, machinery, stabs, bites, crushes, and so on. Frequency of associated injuries was as follows: head injuries, 31 per cent, including skull fractures, 22 per cent; spine injuries, 18 per cent, including spine fractures 18 per cent; chest injuries, 36 per cent, including rib fractures, 15 per cent; and abdominal injuries, 13 per cent. The authors focused on the incidence of disabling or life-threatening injuries in patients with hand injuries. Motor vehicle crashes were most common cause of hand injuries. The most common organs to be injured were chest and head. The most common head injury was skull fracture. Other injuries in decreasing order were spine and rib fractures. These data may be helpful in assessing ambulatory patients in the emergency room, in those hand injuries maybe indicative of other simultaneous life-threatening or disabling injuries.

  4. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries (United States)

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) ... and Recovery Coping With an ACL Injury About ACL Injuries A torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is ...

  5. Maxillofacial injuries in the workplace. (United States)

    Burnham, Richard; Martin, Tim


    Over a 2-year period we reviewed patients who presented to a UK maxillofacial unit with facial injuries sustained at work. We looked at links between the mechanism, injury, and characteristics of such injuries.

  6. Acute kidney injury during pregnancy. (United States)

    Van Hook, James W


    Acute kidney injury complicates the care of a relatively small number of pregnant and postpartum women. Several pregnancy-related disorders such as preeclampsia and thrombotic microangiopathies may produce acute kidney injury. Prerenal azotemia is another common cause of acute kidney injury in pregnancy. This manuscript will review pregnancy-associated acute kidney injury from a renal functional perspective. Pathophysiology of acute kidney injury will be reviewed. Specific conditions causing acute kidney injury and treatments will be compared.

  7. Strangulation injuries in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sep, D.Ph.; Thies, K.C.


    In this article we present a case of fatal strangulation with playground equipment in a 4-year-old child and a review of the literature. Playground injuries are a major cause of injury in children but fatalities are rare. However, strangulation is the cause of death in more than 50% of all playgroun


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The causes of occupational injuries (N = 2,365) were investigated. Accidents with machinery and hand tools were the two main causes (49.9%). 89% of the patients with occupational injuries were male. The highest risk group were in the age category of 19 years or less (51.9%). This age group also show

  9. Ear Injuries (For Parents) (United States)

    ... head, sports injuries, and even listening to loud music can cause ear damage, which can affect hearing and balance. That's because the ear not ... Hearing Loss or Balance Problems Ear injuries can affect kids differently. ... sounds or music notes hearing only certain or muffled sounds ringing ...

  10. Mole gun injury. (United States)

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J


    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds.

  11. Prevention of running injuries. (United States)

    Fields, Karl B; Sykes, Jeannie C; Walker, Katherine M; Jackson, Jonathan C


    Evidence for preventive strategies to lessen running injuries is needed as these occur in 40%-50% of runners on an annual basis. Many factors influence running injuries, but strong evidence for prevention only exists for training modification primarily by reducing weekly mileage. Two anatomical factors - cavus feet and leg length inequality - demonstrate a link to injury. Weak evidence suggests that orthotics may lessen risk of stress fracture, but no clear evidence proves they will reduce the risk of those athletes with leg length inequality or cavus feet. This article reviews other potential injury variables, including strength, biomechanics, stretching, warm-up, nutrition, psychological factors, and shoes. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions to address any of these will help prevent running injury.

  12. An Unusual Laryngeal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kohli


    Full Text Available Blunt injuries to the anterior neck are most commonly due to road traffic accidents but the incidence of such types of injuries are decreasing probably due to stricter laws pertaining to seat belts and drunken driving. Experience in managing such injuries is limited due to their rarity. The mainstay of management revolves around establishing and maintaining a patent airway and integrity of the spine. Here we document a case of a 25 year old male who met with a Road traffic accident while driving a motorbike and sustained a clear cut linear wound on the right side of the neck with minimal airleak due to the helmet clip. On exploration, he was found to have massive epiglottic edema, mucosal abrasions, lacerations and a thyroid cartilage fracture. The mechanism of injury was probably a combination of penetrating and blunt trauma neck. This case highlights the mechanism of laryngeal injury, its presentation and management

  13. Ankle ligament injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per A.F.H. Renström


    Full Text Available Acute ankle ligament sprains are common injuries. The majority of these occur during athletic participation in the 15 to 35 year age range. Despite the frequency of the injury, diagnostic and treatment protocols have varied greatly. Lateral ligament complex injuries are by far the most common of the ankle sprains. Lateral ligament injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion, which is the position of maximum stress on the anterotalofibular liagment (ATFL. For this reason, the ATFL is the most commonly torn ligament during an inversion injury. In more severe inversion injuries the calcaneofibular (CFL, posterotalofibular (PTFL and subtalar ligament can also be injured. Most acute lateral ankle ligament injuries recover quickly with nonoperative management. The treatment program, called "functional treatment," includes application of the RICE principle (rest, ice, compression, and elevation immediately after the injury, a short period of immobilization and protection with an elastic or inelastic tape or bandage, and early motion exercises followed by early weight bearing and neuromuscular ankle training. Proprioceptive training with a tilt board is commenced as soon as possible, usually after 3 to 4 weeks. The purpose is to improve the balance and neuromuscular control of the ankle. Sequelae after ankle ligament injuries are very common. As much as 10% to 30% of patients with a lateral ligament injury may have chronic symptoms. Symptoms usually include persistent synovitis or tendinitis, ankle stiffness, swelling, and pain, muscle weakness, and frequent giving-way. A well designed physical therapy program with peroneal strengthening and proprioceptive training, along with bracing and/or taping can alleviate instability problems in most patients. For cases of chronic instability that are refractory to bracing and external support, surgical treatment can be explored. If the chronic instability is associated with subtalar instability

  14. Sports related ocular injuries. (United States)

    Mishra, Avinash; Verma, Ashok K


    Every year > 600,000 sports and recreation related eye injuries occur, out of which roughly 13,500 of these result in permanent loss of sight. Up to 90% of these sports related eye injuries are preventable by using adequate eye protection equipment. Protective eyewear is made of polycarbonate, a highly impact-resistant plastic which is now easily available as prescription and non-prescription eyewear and all players should be encouraged to use them. The medical officers by educating their patients regarding the risks of eye injuries in various sports and the confirmed benefits of using protective equipment have the potential to prevent injury to over thousands of eyes every year. The medical fraternity can also play a very important role in educating the coaches, parents, and children and thus put an end to unnecessary blindness and vision loss from sports related ocular injuries, therefore ensuring a lifetime of healthy vision.

  15. Tooth injury in anaesthesiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Brandão Ribeiro de Sousa


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dental injury is the most common complication of general anaesthesia and has significant physical, economic and forensic consequences. The aim of this study is to review on the characteristics of dental injury associated with anaesthesiology and existing methods of prevention. CONTENTS: In this review, the time of anaesthesia in which the dental injury occurs, the affected teeth, the most frequent type of injury, established risk factors, prevention strategies, protection devices and medico-legal implications inherent to its occurrence are approached. CONCLUSIONS: Before initiating any medical procedure that requires the use of classic laryngoscopy, a thorough and detailed pre-aesthetic evaluation of the dental status of the patient is imperative, in order to identify teeth at risk, analyze the presence of factors associated with difficult intubation and outline a prevention strategy that is tailored to the risk of dental injury of each patient.

  16. The KAP evaluation of intervention on fall-induced injuries among elders in a safe community in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-ling Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effect of an intervention on fall induced injuries of elderly people in a safe-community in Shanghai and to discuss an intervention model that is proper for the community to generalize. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five neighborhood areas in a Safe Community were purposively selected. All individuals aged 60 years or over in five neighborhoods were prospective participants. From randomly selected prospective households with elders, 2,889 (pre intervention and 3,021 (post intervention elderly people were included in the study. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Model (KAP questionnaires were used at the pre- and post-intervention phase for fall-induced injury prevention in the community. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were used. After the intervention, knowledge about the prevention of fall-induced injuries increased, as did attitudes, beliefs and good behaviors for fall prevention. Behavior modification was most notable with many behavior items changing significantly (p value<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: The integrated program for reducing fall-related injuries in the community was effective in improving fall prevention among the elderly, but the intervention still needs further improvement.

  17. Life Expectancy after Inpatient Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States. (United States)

    Harrison-Felix, Cynthia; Pretz, Christopher; Hammond, Flora M; Cuthbert, Jeffrey P; Bell, Jeneita; Corrigan, John; Miller, A Cate; Haarbauer-Krupa, Juliet


    This study characterized life expectancy after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The TBI Model Systems (TBIMS) National Database (NDB) was weighted to represent those ≥16 years of age completing inpatient rehabilitation for TBI in the United States (US) between 2001 and 2010. Analyses included Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs), Cox regression, and life expectancy. The US mortality rates by age, sex, race, and cause of death for 2005 and 2010 were used for comparison purposes. Results indicated that a total of 1325 deaths occurred in the weighted cohort of 6913 individuals. Individuals with TBI were 2.23 times more likely to die than individuals of comparable age, sex, and race in the general population, with a reduced average life expectancy of 9 years. Independent risk factors for death were: older age, male gender, less-than-high school education, previously married at injury, not employed at injury, more recent year of injury, fall-related TBI, not discharged home after rehabilitation, less functional independence, and greater disability. Individuals with TBI were at greatest risk of death from seizures; accidental poisonings; sepsis; aspiration pneumonia; respiratory, mental/behavioral, or nervous system conditions; and other external causes of injury and poisoning, compared with individuals in the general population of similar age, gender, and race. This study confirms prior life expectancy study findings, and provides evidence that the TBIMS NDB is representative of the larger population of adults receiving inpatient rehabilitation for TBI in the US. There is an increased risk of death for individuals with TBI requiring inpatient rehabilitation.

  18. Muscle strain injuries. (United States)

    Garrett, W E


    One of the most common injuries seen in the office of the practicing physician is the muscle strain. Until recently, little data were available on the basic science and clinical application of this basic science for the treatment and prevention of muscle strains. Studies in the last 10 years represent action taken on the direction of investigation into muscle strain injuries from the laboratory and clinical fronts. Findings from the laboratory indicate that certain muscles are susceptible to strain injury (muscles that cross multiple joints or have complex architecture). These muscles have a strain threshold for both passive and active injury. Strain injury is not the result of muscle contraction alone, rather, strains are the result of excessive stretch or stretch while the muscle is being activated. When the muscle tears, the damage is localized very near the muscle-tendon junction. After injury, the muscle is weaker and at risk for further injury. The force output of the muscle returns over the following days as the muscle undertakes a predictable progression toward tissue healing. Current imaging studies have been used clinically to document the site of injury to the muscle-tendon junction. The commonly injured muscles have been described and include the hamstring, the rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and adductor longus muscles. Injuries inconsistent with involvement of a single muscle-tendon junction proved to be at tendinous origins rather than within the muscle belly. Important information has also been provided regarding injuries with poor prognosis, which are potentially repairable surgically, including injuries to the rectus femoris muscle, the hamstring origin, and the abdominal wall. Data important to the management of common muscle injuries have been published. The risks of reinjury have been documented. The early efficacy and potential for long-term risks of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents have been shown. New data can also be applied to the field

  19. Triathlon related musculoskeletal injuries: the status of injury prevention knowledge. (United States)

    Gosling, Cameron McR; Gabbe, Belinda J; Forbes, Andrew B


    Triathlon is a popular participation sport that combines swimming, cycling and running into a single event. A number of studies have investigated the incidence of injury, profile of injuries sustained and factors contributing to triathlon injury. This paper summarises the published literature in the context of the evidence base for the prevention of triathlon related injuries. Relevant articles on triathlon injuries were sourced from peer-reviewed English language journals and assessed using the Translating Research into Injury Prevention Practice (TRIPP) framework. This review highlights the significant knowledge gap that exists in the published literature describing the incidence of injury, the profile of injuries sustained and evidence for the prevention of injury in triathlon. Despite the number of studies undertaken to address TRIPP Stages 1 and 2 (injury surveillance, aetiology and mechanism of injury), most triathlon studies have been limited by retrospective designs with substantial, and unvalidated, recall periods, inconsistency in the definitions used for a reportable injury and exposure to injury, or a failure to capture exposure data at all. Overall, the paucity of quality, prospective studies investigating the incidence of injury in triathlon and factors contributing to their occurrence has led to an inability to adequately inform the development of injury prevention strategies (TRIPP Stages 3-6) for this sport, a situation that must be rectified if gains are to be made in reducing the burden of triathlon related injury.

  20. Childhood sledding injuries. (United States)

    Shorter, N A; Mooney, D P; Harmon, B J


    Sledding is only rarely thought of as a potentially dangerous childhood activity. However, serious injuries and occasional deaths do occur. A review of patients 18 years old and younger admitted to a pediatric trauma center following a sledding accident from 1991 to 1997 was conducted. By design this study was expected to identify the most seriously injured patients. Twenty-five patients were identified, all but four younger than 13. Seventeen were boys. The mechanisms of injury were: collision with stationary object, 15; sled-sled collision, 1; struck by sled, 2; going off jump, 3; foot caught under sled or on ground, 3; fall off sled being towed by snowmobile, 1. The average pediatric trauma score was 10.5, and the average injury severity score 10.6. There were no deaths. The injuries were: head, 11; long bone/extremity, all lower, 10; abdomen, 5; chest, 1; facial, 2; spinal, 1. Five patients sustained multiple injuries. A surprisingly high number, 5, had pre-existing neurological conditions that could have played a contributory role in the accident. Sledding is predominantly an activity of children, and occasional serious injuries occur. Most are preventable. Obeying the simple caveat that sledding should only be done in clear areas away from stationary objects would eliminate the great majority of serious injuries.

  1. Sports injuries Lesiones deportivas



    Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6....

  2. Pediatric head injury. (United States)

    Tulipan, N


    Pediatric head injury is a public health problem that exacts a high price from patients, their families and society alike. While much of the brain damage in head-injured patients occurs at the moment of impact, secondary injuries can be prevented by aggressive medical and surgical intervention. Modern imaging devices have simplified the task of diagnosing intracranial injuries. Recent advances in monitoring technology have made it easier to assess the effectiveness of medical therapy. These include intracranial pressure monitoring devices that are accurate and safe, and jugular bulb monitoring which provides a continuous, qualitative measure of cerebral blood flow. The cornerstones of treatment remain hyperventilation and osmotherapy. Despite maximal treatment, however, the mortality and morbidity associated with pediatric head injury remains high. Reduction of this mortality and morbidity will likely depend upon prevention rather than treatment.

  3. Toe Injuries and Disorders (United States)

    ... severe arthritis, can cause toe problems and pain. Gout often causes pain in the big toe. Common toe problems include Corns and bunions Ingrown toenails Sprains and dislocations Fractures Treatments for toe injuries and disorders vary. They might ...

  4. Injuries in classical ballet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães


    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external rotation at hip level and to undue use of point ballet slippers. The commonest lesions are in feet and ankles, followed by knees and hips. The rarest ones are in the upper limbs. These injuries are caused by exercise excess, by repetitions always in the same side and by wrong and early use of point slippers. The study reached the conclusion that incorrect application of classical ballet technique predisposes the dancers to characteristic injuries.

  5. Injury reduction at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffing, Bill; /Fermilab


    In a recent DOE Program Review, Fermilab's director presented results of the laboratory's effort to reduce the injury rate over the last decade. The results, shown in the figure below, reveal a consistent and dramatic downward trend in OSHA recordable injuries at Fermilab. The High Energy Physics Program Office has asked Fermilab to report in detail on how the laboratory has achieved the reduction. In fact, the reduction in the injury rate reflects a change in safety culture at Fermilab, which has evolved slowly over this period, due to a series of events, both planned and unplanned. This paper attempts to describe those significant events and analyze how each of them has shaped the safety culture that, in turn, has reduced the rate of injury at Fermilab to its current value.

  6. Genital injuries in adults. (United States)

    White, Catherine


    The examination of the rape victim should focus on the therapeutic, forensic and psychological needs of the individual patient. One aspect will be an examination for ano-genital injuries. From a medical perspective, they tend to be minor and require little in the way of treatment. They must be considered when assessing the risk of blood-borne viruses and the need for prophylaxis. From a forensic perspective, an understanding of genital injury rates, type of injury, site and healing may assist the clinician to interpret the findings in the context of the allegations that have been made. There are many myths and misunderstandings about ano-genital injuries and rape. The clinician has a duty to dispel these.

  7. Home Injury Prevention (United States)

    ... fax • HOME INJURY PREVENTION Home Injur y Prevention A helpful guide for patients and their caregivers. General cont’d. •Be alert ...

  8. Injury prophylaxis in paragliding


    SCHULZE, W.; J. Richter; Schulze, B; Esenwein, S; Buttner-Janz, K


    Objectives: To show trends in paragliding injuries and derive recommendations for safety precautions for paraglider pilots on the basis of accident statistics, interviews, questionnaires, medical reports, and current stage of development of paragliding equipment.

  9. Neck Injuries and Disorders (United States)

    ... or upper arms. Muscle strain or tension often causes neck pain. The problem is usually overuse, such as from ... or accidents, including car accidents, are another common cause of neck pain. Whiplash, a soft tissue injury to the neck, ...

  10. Brachial Plexus Injuries (United States)

    ... Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR) National Rehabilitation Information ... is a network of nerves that conducts signals from the spine to the shoulder, arm, and hand. Brachial plexus injuries are caused by damage to ...

  11. Photobiomodulation on sports injuries (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon C.; Jiao, Jian-Ling; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Xu, Xiao-Yang


    Sports injuries healing has long been an important field in sports medicine. The stimulatory effects of Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation have been investigated in several medical fields, such as cultured cell response, wound healing, hormonal or neural stimulation, pain relief and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LIL irradiation can accelerate sports injuries healing. Some experimental and clinical studies have shown the laser stimulation effects on soft tissues and cartilage, however, controversy still exists regarding the role of LIL when used as a therapeutic device. Summarizing the data of cell studies and animal experiments and clinic trials by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation is a valuable treatment for superficial and localized sports injuries and that the injuries healing effects of the therapy depend on the dosage of LIL irradiation.

  12. Spinal Cord Injury (United States)

    ... injury. Limited mobility may lead to a more sedentary lifestyle, placing you at risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease ... belt or use an age- and weight-appropriate child safety seat. To protect them from air bag ...

  13. Characterizing Injury among Battlefield Airmen (United States)


    career fields, BA as a whole, and Security Forces as a control group. From 2006 to 2012, injuries to the lower extremities and vertebral column ... vertebral column .” The most expensive injury was to the vertebral column , with a $615 median cost per incident injury. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Warfighter...2006 to 2012, injuries to the lower extremities and vertebral column accounted for 75% of all injuries in BA. BA and Security Forces had similar

  14. Reducing slide sheet injury. (United States)

    Varcin-Coad, Lynn


    Slide sheets are often stated to be the cause of hand and forearm injuries. While there are many other possible reasons injuries to nursing staff, carer and client occur, the most important linking factors relating to musculoskeletal disorders and manual handling of people is the ongoing inappropriateness or lack of suitably designed and equipped work areas. As physiotherapist Lynn Varcin-Coad writes, staff are bearing the brunt of inefficiencies of design and lack of high order risk control.

  15. Acute local radiation injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gongora, R. (Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)); Jammet, H. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, ISPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France))


    Local acute radiation injuries do not occur very often. Their origin is generally accidental. They show specific anatomo-clinical features. The clinical evolution and therapeutic behaviour are dependent on the dose level and topographical distribution. The dosimetric assessment requires physical methods and paraclinical investigations. From a study of 60 cases followed by the International Center of Radiopathology, the clinical symptomatology is described and the problems raised to the radiopathologist physician by local acute radiation injuries are stated.

  16. Injuries in paragliding. (United States)

    Zeller, T; Billing, A; Lob, G


    In a retrospective study, 376 paragliding accidents have been analysed. Leg injuries were most common, but a large number of spinal injuries also occurred. The causes were either misjudgement by the pilot or the influence of weather and terrain. Improvements in the instructor's knowledge and the pilot's training could have prevented most of the accidents. Analysis of the mechanisms of the crashes and the pattern of trauma help to produce an efficient approach to diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Ocular injury in hurling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, T H


    OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of ocular injuries sustained in hurling in the south of Ireland and to investigate reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear. METHODS: Retrospective review of the case notes of 310 patients who attended Cork University Hospital or Waterford Regional Hospital between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2002 with ocular injuries sustained during a hurling match. A confidential questionnaire on reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear was completed by 130 players. RESULTS: Hurling related eye injuries occurred most commonly in young men. Fifty two patients (17%) required hospital admission, with hyphaema accounting for 71% of admissions. Ten injuries required intraocular surgical INTERVENTION: retinal detachment repair (5); macular hole surgery (1); repair of partial thickness corneal laceration (1); repair of globe perforation (1); enucleation (1); trabeculectomy for post-traumatic glaucoma (1). Fourteen eyes (4.5%) had a final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of <6\\/12 and six (2%) had BCVA <3\\/60. In the survey, 63 players (48.5%) reported wearing no protective facemask while playing hurling. Impairment of vision was the most common reason cited for non-use. CONCLUSIONS: Hurling related injury is a significant, and preventable, cause of ocular morbidity in young men in Ireland. The routine use of appropriate protective headgear and faceguards would result in a dramatic reduction in the incidence and severity of these injuries, and should be mandatory.

  18. Quadriceps tendon injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Vladimir


    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of study was to analyze risk factors, mechanisms of injury, symptoms and time that elapsed from injury until operation of complete quadriceps tendon ruptures. Material and Methods. This retrospective multicenter study included 30 patients operated for this injury, of whom 28 (93.3% were men. The average age was 53.7 years (18-73. Twenty-six patients had reconstruction of unilateral rupture and four of bilateral one. Results. Eighty percent of them had some risk factors for rupture of the tendon with degenerative changes. Eight patients had diabetes, seven patients were on renal dialysis, two patients had secondary hyperparathyroidism, five patients were obese and two patients had former knee operations. These injuries occurred in 80% following minor trauma caused by falls on stairs, on flat surfaces and squatting. The most frequent symptoms were: pain, swelling, lack of extension of knee and defect above patella, and three cases were initially misdiagnosed. During the first 10 days after injury, acute and chronic ruptures were reconstructed in 22 (73.3% and 8 patients, respectively. Conclusion. Quadriceps tendon injuries most often happen to male patients with predisposing conditions in their fifth and sixth decade of life due to trivial trauma. Patients on renal dialysis are the most vulnerable population group.

  19. Cluster bomb ocular injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M Mansour


    Full Text Available Purpose: To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006. Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. Results: There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308 of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67% with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes, corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes, corneal decompensation (2 eyes, ruptured cataract (6 eyes, and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes. The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Conclusions: Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  20. Injuries to children riding BMX bikes.



    One hundred children presented over 40 days with BMX bike injuries, 40 of which had been sustained while trying to perform stunts. Injuries in this series were compared with previously reported injuries from accidents on ordinary bicycles. BMX bike injuries differed little from ordinary bike injuries except in the greater proportion of injuries due to stunts and the smaller incidence of head injuries.

  1. Economics of head injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Manmohan


    Full Text Available Summary: Head injuries account for significant proportion of neurosurgical admissions and bed occupancy. Patients with head injuries also consume significant proportions of neurosurgical resources. A prospective 6-month study has been carried out to evaluate the expenditure incurred on head injury patients in a modern neurosurgical center equipped with state of the art infrastructure. Costing areas included wages / salaries of health care personnel, cost of medicines / surgical items / crystalloids, general store items, stationary, all investigation charges, equipment cost, overhead building cost, maintenance cost, electricity and water charges and cost of medical gases, air conditioning and operation theatre expenses. Expenditure in each area was calculated and apportioned to each bed. The statistical analysis was done using X2 test. The cost of stay in ward was found to be Rs. 1062 / bed / day and in neurosurgical ICU Rs. 3082 / bed / day. The operation theatre cost for each surgery was Rs. 11948. The cost of hospital stay per day for minor, moderate and severe head injury group was found to be Rs. 1921, Rs. 2569 and Rs. 2713 respectively. The patients who developed complications, the cost of stay per day in the hospital were Rs. 2867. In the operative group, the cost of hospital stay per day was Rs. 3804. The total expenditure in minor head injury was Rs. 7800 per patient, in moderate head injury was Rs. 22172 per patient, whereas in severe head injury, it was found to be Rs. 32852 per patient. Patients who underwent surgery, the total cost incurred was Rs. 33100 per operated patient.

  2. Scapular fractures and concomitant injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akaraborworn Osaree


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: The association of scapular fractures with other life-threatening injuries including blunt thoracic aortic injury is widely recognized. Few studies have investigated this presumed association. In this study, we investigated the incidence of significant associated injuries with scapular fracture and their outcomes. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted from 2005 to 2009 in a level I trauma center in Thailand. All blunt trauma patients were identified. Patients’ demographics, injury mechanism, associated injuries, Injury Severity Score (ISS, and survival outcomes were recorded. The manage-ment of associated injuries with scapular fracture was reviewed, and the risk factors for mortality were identified. Results: Among the 7 345 trauma patients admitted, scapular fractures occurred in 84 cases (1.1%. The mean age was (37.98±15.21 years. Motorcycle crash was the most fre-quent mechanism of injury, occurring in 51 cases (60.7%. Seventy-four patients (88.1% suffering from scapular frac-tures had associated injuries: 5 (6.0% had significant chest injuries, but none of them had blunt thoracic aortic injury. Two patients (2.4% with scapular fractures died. Factors determining the likelihood of mortality were: (1 ISS>25 (LR=8.5, P<0.05; (2 significant associated chest injury (AIS>3, LR=5.3, P<0.05 and (3 significant associated ab-dominal injury (AIS>3, LR=5.3, P<0.05. Conclusion: A blunt scapular fracture may not accom-pany a blunt thoracic aortic injury but it is strongly related to other injuries like chest injury, extremity injury, head injury, etc. If a scapular fracture is found with a high ISS score, high chest or abdomen AIS score, the patient would have a high risk of mortality. Key words: Aortic rupture; Shoulder fractures; Mul-tiple trauma; Mortality

  3. Scapular fractures and concomitant injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osaree Akaraborworn; Burapat Sangthong; Komet Thongkhao; Prattana Chiniramol; Khanitta Kaewsaengrueang


    Objective: The association of scapular fractures with other life-threatening injuries including blunt thoracic aortic injury is widely recognized.Few studies have investigated this presumed association.In this study,wc investigated the incidence of significant associated injuries with scapular fracture and their outcomes.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted from 2005 to 2009 in a level I trauma center in Thailand.All blunt trauma patients were identified.Patients' demographics,injury mechanism,associated injuries,Injury Severity Score (ISS),and survival outcomes were recorded.The management of associated injuries with scapular fracture was reviewed,and the risk factors for mortality were identified.Results: Among the 7 345 trauma patients admitted,scapular fractures occurred in 84 cases (1.1%).The mean age was (37.98±15.21) years.Motorcycle crash was the most frequent mechanism of injury,occurring in 51 cases (60.7%).Seventy-four patients (88.1%) suffering from scapular fractures had associated injuries:5 (6.0%) had significant chest injuries,but none of them had blunt thoracic aortic injury.Two patients (2.4%) with scapular fractures died.Factors determining the likelihood of mortality were:(1) ISS>25(LR=8.5,P<0.05); (2) significant associated chest injury (AIS>3,LR=5.3,P<0.05) and (3) significant associated abdominal injury (AIS>3,LR=5.3,P<0.05).Conclusion: A blunt scapular fracture may not accompany a blunt thoracic aortic injury but it is strongly related to other injuries like chest injury,extremity injury,head injury,etc.If a scapular fracture is found with a high ISS score,high chest or abdomen AIS score,the patient would have a high risk of mortality.

  4. Rationalizing vaccine injury compensation. (United States)

    Mello, Michelle M


    Legislation recently adopted by the United States Congress provides producers of pandemic vaccines with near-total immunity from civil lawsuits without making individuals injured by those vaccines eligible for compensation through the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. The unusual decision not to provide an alternative mechanism for compensation is indicative of a broader problem of inconsistency in the American approach to vaccine-injury compensation policy. Compensation policies have tended to reflect political pressures and economic considerations more than any cognizable set of principles. This article identifies a set of ethical principles bearing on the circumstances in which vaccine injuries should be compensated, both inside and outside public health emergencies. A series of possible bases for compensation rules, some grounded in utilitarianism and some nonconsequentialist, are discussed and evaluated. Principles of fairness and reasonableness are found to constitute the strongest bases. An ethically defensible compensation policy grounded in these principles would make a compensation fund available to all individuals with severe injuries and to individuals with less-severe injuries whenever the vaccination was required by law or professional duty.

  5. Road traffic injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo 王正国


    @@ The appearance of cars has raised materialistic civilization and living standard to an unprecedented level. Today, it is hard to imagine how we human beings can live without cars.Yet, motor vehicles can cause a great number of deaths and injuries as well as considerable economic losses, which have constituted the global burden. Understanding of the occurrence and development of road traffic injuries will contribute to the prevention and control of crash and to the implementation of "everybody has the right to enjoy health" proposed by WHO.

  6. Concussion and Traumatic Brain Injury (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Concussion Concussion and Traumatic Brain Injury Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents Children ... body, may have a concussion or more serious brain injury. Concussion Signs Observed Can't recall events prior ...

  7. Management of blunt pulmonary injury. (United States)

    Gallagher, John J


    Thoracic injuries account for 25% of all civilian deaths. Blunt force injuries are a subset of thoracic injuries and include injuries of the tracheobronchial tree, pleural space, and lung parenchyma. Early identification of these injuries during initial assessment and resuscitation is essential to reduce associated morbidity and mortality rates. Management of airway injuries includes definitive airway control with identification and repair of tracheobronchial injuries. Management of pneumothorax and hemothorax includes pleural space drainage and control of ongoing hemorrhage, along with monitoring for complications such as empyema and chylothorax. Injuries of the lung parenchyma, such as pulmonary contusion, may require support of oxygenation and ventilation through both conventional and nonconventional mechanical ventilation strategies. General strategies to improve pulmonary function and gas exchange include balanced fluid resuscitation to targeted volume-based resuscitation end points, positioning therapy, and pain management.

  8. Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries (United States)

    ... THIS TOPIC Jumper's Knee Safety Tips: Basketball Knee Injuries Sports and Exercise Safety Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE) Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  9. “Floating shoulder” injuries


    Heng, Kenneth


    “Floating shoulder” is a rare injury complex resulting from high-energy blunt force trauma to the shoulder, resulting in scapulothoracic dissociation. It is commonly associated with catastrophic neurovascular injury. Two cases of motorcyclists with floating shoulder injuries are described.

  10. Musculoskeletal Injury in Professional Dancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Craig L; Cassidy, J David; Côté, Pierre


    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with injury in professional ballet and modern dancers, and assess if dancers are reporting their injuries and explore reasons for not reporting injuries. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Participants...

  11. Evaluation after Traumatic Brain Injury (United States)

    Trudel, Tina M.; Halper, James; Pines, Hayley; Cancro, Lorraine


    It is important to determine if a traumatic brain injury (TBI) has occurred when an individual is assessed in a hospital emergency room after a car accident, fall, or other injury that affects the head. This determination influences decisions about treatment. It is essential to screen for the injury, because the sooner they begin appropriate…

  12. Multiple Ligament Knee Injury: Complications


    Manske, Robert C; Hosseinzadeh, Pooya; Giangarra, Charles E.


    Non-operative and operative complications are common following multiple ligament knee injuries. This article will describe common complications seen by the surgeon and physical therapist following this complex injury. Complications include fractures, infections, vascular and neurologic complications following injury and surgery, compartment syndrome, complex regional pain syndrome, deep venous thrombosis, loss of motion and persistent laxity issues. A brief description of these complications ...

  13. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet


    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  14. Throwing Injuries of the Shoulder. (United States)

    McCue, Frank C., III; and Others

    The majority of shoulder injuries occurring in throwing sports involve the soft tissue structures. Injuries often occur when the unit is overstretched to a point near its greatest length, involving the elastic tissues. The other injury mechanism involves the contractural unit of the muscle, which occurs near the midpoint of contractions, involving…

  15. Clinical trials in head injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narayan, RK; Michel, ME


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major public health problem globally. In the United States the incidence of closed head injuries admitted to hospitals is conservatively estimated to be 200 per 100,000 population, and the incidence of penetrating head injury is estimated to be 12 per 100,000,

  16. Brain Injury Association of America (United States)

    ... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...



    Garcia, Patricia Gracia; Mielke, Michelle M.; Rosenberg, Paul; Bergey, Alyssa; Rao, Vani


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently complicated by alterations in mood and behaviour and changes in personality. We report mild personality changes post-TBI as a possible indicator of traumatic brain injury, but not of injury severity or psychiatric complications.

  18. Diagnosis of Acute Groin Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serner, Andreas; Tol, Johannes L; Jomaah, Nabil;


    BACKGROUND: Acute groin injuries are common in high-intensity sports, but there are insufficient data on injury characteristics such as injury mechanisms and clinical and radiological findings. PURPOSE: To describe these characteristics in a cohort of athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...

  19. Chilling injury in mangoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arafat, L.A.E.T.


    At present, the value and production quantity of mango fruits are increasing worldwide. Many studies emphasize how chilling injury phenomena affect the quality of tropical fruits, such as mango, during postharvest handling, transport, and storage. Since mango is one of the most favored and popular f

  20. Shoulder injuries in archery. (United States)

    Mann, D L; Littke, N


    Twenty-one elite-calibre archers (M = 12, F = 9) were investigated concerning all past and present archery-related shoulder injuries, using a questionnaire and physical examination. The questionnaire revealed that 11 of 21 archers had complained of significant shoulder injuries either currently or during their careers. While 9/12 men never had shoulder problems during an average of 13.5 years, only 4/9 women escaped injury during a mean 10.9 year competitive career. Deficits in training programs were noted, including lack of training and non-specific exercises. Clinical examination demonstrated shoulder asymmetry and decreased flexibility in the drawing arm (DA) shoulder. Functional testing revealed a positive impingement sign in 6/21 DA shoulders. Supraspinatus testing showed abnormalities in 4/21 DA shoulders. Pain was referred posteriorly with the impingement maneuver in 5/21 DA shoulders and abnormal external rotation testing was observed in 8/21 DA shoulders. Generally, the females had proportionally more signs and symptoms of shoulder injury than the men, especially involving the DA shoulder. Testing implicated supraspinatus impingement/tendonitis and infraspinatus/teres minor traction tendonitis. These clinical findings correlated with cadaver prosection observations.

  1. Basketball injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaca, Ana Maria [Duke University Health Systems, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); McGovern-Davison Children' s Health Center, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)


    Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt changes in the athlete's direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists' appreciation of the breadth of injury and its relation to imaging and clinical findings should enhance the care of these children. Some of the patterns of injury are well known to radiologists but vary due to age- and size-related changes; the growing skeleton is affected by differing susceptibilities from biomechanical stresses at different sizes. Beyond screening radiographs, the accuracy of MRI and CT has improved diagnosis and treatment plans in this realm. Investigations to detect symptoms and signs in an attempt to prevent the tragedy of sudden cardiac death in basketball players may lead to MRI and CTA studies that compel radiologists to evaluate cardiac function along with myocardial and coronary artery anatomy. Worthy of mention also is the female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that is observed in some young women participating in this and other sports. (orig.)

  2. Injury Prevention Research

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Research provides the knowledge that we need to understand what is possible, what is not, and the best way to proceed in our intervention efforts.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 9/1/2009.

  3. Splenic injury after colonoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, C.R.; Adamsen, S.; Gocht-Jensen, P.;


    Splenic injury is a rare and serious complication of colonoscopy. The most likely mechanism is tension on the splenocolic ligament and adhesions. Eight cases were identified among claims for compensation submitted to the Danish Patient Insurance Association during the period 1992-2006, seven of w...

  4. Lightning Injury: A Review (United States)


    depression . Of course, these effects may cause significant vocational and interpersonal difficulty [63], and early neuropsychiatric inter- vention is... tinnitus , basilar skull fracture, and burns to the external auditory canal [69]. A wide variety of eye injuries can be caused by lightning strike. The

  5. Overuse Injuries in Professional Ballet (United States)

    Sobrino, Francisco José; de la Cuadra, Crótida; Guillén, Pedro


    Background Despite overuse injuries being previously described as the most frequent in ballet, there are no studies on professional dancers providing the specific clinical diagnoses or type of injury based on the discipline. Hypothesis Overuse injuries are the most frequent injuries in ballet, with differences in the type and frequency of injuries based on discipline. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study performed between January 1, 2005, and October 10, 2010, on injuries occurring in professional dancers from leading Spanish dance companies who practiced disciplines such as classical, neoclassical, contemporary, and Spanish ballet. Data, including type of injury, were obtained from specialized medical services at the Trauma Service, Fremap, Madrid, Spain. Results A total of 486 injuries were evaluated, a significant number of which were overuse disorders (P < .0001), especially in the most technically demanding discipline of classical ballet (82.60%). Injuries were more frequent among female dancers (75.90%) and classical ballet (83.60%). A statistically significant prevalence of patellofemoral pain syndrome was found in the classical discipline (P = .007). Injuries of the adductor muscles of the thigh (P = .001) and of the low back facet (P = .02) in the Spanish ballet discipline and lateral snapping hip (P = .02) in classical and Spanish ballet disciplines were significant. Conclusion Overuse injuries were the most frequent injuries among the professional dancers included in this study. The prevalence of injuries was greater for the most technically demanding discipline (classical ballet) as well as for women. Patellofemoral pain syndrome was the most prevalent overuse injury, followed by Achilles tendinopathy, patellar tendinopathy, and mechanical low back pain. Clinical Relevance Specific clinical diagnoses and injury-based differences between the disciplines are a key factor in ballet

  6. Turco's injury: diagnosis and treatment. (United States)

    da Silva, Ana Paula Simões; Shimba, Leandro Girardi; Ribas, Luiz Henrique Boraschi Vieira; de Almeida, Alexandre Simmonds; Naves, Vinicius; Duarte Júnior, Aires


    The aim of this study was to alert doctors to the existence of Turco's injury and discus the existing treatments that have been described in the worldwide literature. A bibliographic survey of Lisfranc's injury and Turco's injury covering from 1985 to 2013 was conducted in the SciELO and PubMed databases. Among the 193 articles, those relating to bone-ligament injuries of the Lisfranc joint and high-energy trauma were excluded, as were the case reports. The patients selected were professional or amateur athletes who solely presented a ligament injury to the Lisfranc joint (Turco's injury), which was diagnosed from the history, physical examination, radiographs and magnetic resonance images. Non-athletic patients and those with associated bone injuries were excluded (10). According to the injury classification, the patients were treated by means of either an open or a closed procedure and then a standard rehabilitation protocol. Out of the 10 patients, five underwent conservative treatment and five underwent surgical treatment using different techniques and synthesis materials. We obtained two poor results, one satisfactory, five good and two excellent. We conclude that the correct diagnosis has a direct influence on the treatment and on the final result obtained, and that lack of knowledge of this injury is the main factor responsible for underdiagnosing Turco's injury. There is a need for randomized prospective studies comparing the types of synthesis and evolution of treated cases, in order to define the best treatment for this injury.

  7. Management of Extensor Tendon Injuries (United States)

    Griffin, M; Hindocha, S; Jordan, D; Saleh, M; Khan, W


    Extensor tendon injuries are very common injuries, which inappropriately treated can cause severe lasting impairment for the patient. Assessment and management of flexor tendon injuries has been widely reviewed, unlike extensor injuries. It is clear from the literature that extensor tendon repair should be undertaken immediately but the exact approach depends on the extensor zone. Zone I injuries otherwise known as mallet injuries are often closed and treated with immobilisaton and conservative management where possible. Zone II injuries are again conservatively managed with splinting. Closed Zone III or ‘boutonniere’ injuries are managed conservatively unless there is evidence of displaced avulsion fractures at the base of the middle phalanx, axial and lateral instability of the PIPJ associated with loss of active or passive extension of the joint or failed non-operative treatment. Open zone III injuries are often treated surgically unless splinting enable the tendons to come together. Zone V injuries, are human bites until proven otherwise requires primary tendon repair after irrigation. Zone VI injuries are close to the thin paratendon and thin subcutaneous tissue which strong core type sutures and then splinting should be placed in extension for 4-6 weeks. Complete lacerations to zone IV and VII involve surgical primary repair followed by 6 weeks of splinting in extension. Zone VIII require multiple figure of eight sutures to repair the muscle bellies and static immobilisation of the wrist in 45 degrees of extension. To date there is little literature documenting the quality of repairing extensor tendon injuries however loss of flexion due to extensor tendon shortening, loss of flexion and extension resulting from adhesions and weakened grip can occur after surgery. This review aims to provide a systematic examination method for assessing extensor injuries, presentation and management of all type of extensor tendon injuries as well as guidance on

  8. Injury count model for quantification of risk of occupational injury. (United States)

    Khanzode, Vivek V; Maiti, J; Ray, P K


    Reduction of risk of occupational injuries is one of the most challenging problems faced by industry. Assessing and comparing risks involved in different jobs is one of the important steps towards reducing injury risk. In this study, a comprehensive scheme is given for assessing and comparing injury risks with the development of injury count model, injury risk model and derived statistics. The hazards present in a work system and the nature of the job carried out by workers are perceived as important drivers of injury potential of a work system. A loglinear model is used to quantify injury counts and the event-tree approach with joint, marginal and conditional probabilities is used to quantify injury risk. A case study was carried out in an underground coal mine. Finally a number of indices are proposed for the case study mine to capture risk of injury in different jobs. The findings of this study will help in designing injury intervention strategies for the mine studied. The job-wise risk profiles will be used to prioritise the jobs for redesign. The absolute indices can be applied for benchmarking job-wise risks and the relative indices can be used for comparing job-wise risks across work systems.

  9. Obstetric anal sphincter injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Keriakos


    Full Text Available Obstetric anal sphincter injuries can be associated with significant short and long term consequences causing devastating impacts on the quality of lives of young, otherwise healthy women. The major consequence is anal incontinence which may be short or long term and vary in severity. The other consequences include pain, infection, dyspareunia and sexual dysfunction. This may in turn result in considerable economic burden to health care providers and patients. It also has an implication on future deliveries. Although it can never be eliminated, it can be reduced by improving practice, training and provision of high quality multidisciplinary care in order to reduce long-term morbidity. Obstetric anal sphincter injuries are also a source of litigation which can be distressing to both patients and clinicians. The aim of this review article is to explore the available evidence on epidemiology, strategies for preventions, prognosis and also how to deal with governance issues.

  10. Meniscal injury: II. Management. (United States)

    Greis, Patrick E; Holmstrom, Michael C; Bardana, Davide D; Burks, Robert T


    Meniscal repair is a viable alternative to resection in many clinical situations. Repair techniques traditionally have utilized a variety of suture methods, including inside-out and outside-in techniques. Bioabsorbable implants permit all-inside arthroscopic repairs. The success of meniscal repair depends on appropriate meniscal bed preparation and surgical technique and is also influenced by biologic factors such as tear rim width and associated ligamentous injury. Successful repair in >80% of cases has been reported in conjunction with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Success rates are lower for isolated repairs. Complications related to repair include neurologic injury, postoperative loss of motion, recurrence of the tear, and infection. Meniscal allograft transplantation may provide a treatment option when meniscus salvage is not possible or when a previous total meniscectomy has been done.

  11. Obstetric anal sphincter injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Remon Keriakos; Deepa Gopinath


    Obstetric anal sphincter injuries can be associated with significant short and long term consequences causing devastating impacts on the quality of lives of young, otherwise healthy women. The major consequence is anal incontinence which may be short or long term and vary in severity. The other consequences include pain, infection, dyspareunia and sexual dysfunction. This may in turn result in considerable economic burden to health care providers and patients. It also has an implication on future deliveries. Although it can never be eliminated, it can be reduced by improving practice, training and provision of high quality multidisciplinary care in order to reduce long-term morbidity. Obstetric anal sphincter injuries are also a source of litigation which can be distressing to both patients and clinicians. The aim of this review article is to explore the available evidence on epidemiology, strategies for preventions, prognosis and also how to deal with governance issues.

  12. [Dento-alveolar injuries]. (United States)

    Voorsmit, R A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M


    Most dento-alveolar traumas can be managed by the dentist-general practitioner. Still, there are some specific injuries which should be treated by dental specialists. Some specific guidelines are given for the combined surgical-orthodontic treatment of fracture of the coronal part of the root, intrusive luxation, abnormal position of the permanent tooth due to traumatic displacement of the deciduous tooth, ankylosis and tooth loss.

  13. Post cardiac injury syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S L; Nielsen, F E


    The post-pericardiotomy syndrome is a symptom complex which is similar in many respects to the post-myocardial infarction syndrome and these are summarized under the diagnosis of the Post Cardiac Injury Syndrome (PCIS). This condition, which is observed most frequently after open heart surgery, i...... on the coronary vessels, with cardiac tamponade and chronic pericardial exudate. In the lighter cases, PCIS may be treated with NSAID and, in the more severe cases, with systemic glucocorticoid which has a prompt effect....

  14. [Acute Kidney Injury]. (United States)

    Brix, Silke; Stahl, Rolf


    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important part of renal diseases and a common clinical problem. AKI is an acute decline in renal function. Due to a lack of therapeutic options, prevention and optimal management of patients with AKI are the most important strategies. Although seldom the sole cause of patients' death, AKI is associated with a significant increase in mortality. Our objective is to draw the attention towards the prevention of AKI of non-renal causes.

  15. Orthopaedic Injuries in Equestrian Sports (United States)

    Young, Jason David; Gelbs, Jared Craig; Zhu, David Shiyu; Gallacher, Stacey Elisa; Sutton, Karen Michelle; Blaine, Theodore Alton


    Background: Despite the common nature of orthopaedic injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published review to specifically characterize orthopaedic injuries in equestrian athletes. Purpose: To characterize orthopaedic injury patterns in equine sports–related injuries and their treatment. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: This review was performed through a PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus query (from 1978 to June 2014) in the English literature using search terms “(equine-related OR equestrian-related OR horse-related OR equestrian OR equestrians) AND (injury OR injuries).” Only full-text studies reporting on orthopaedic injury patterns pertinent to equestrian sports in the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) were included. Orthopaedic injuries were defined as those resulting in a fracture or dislocation. In all, 182 studies were excluded, leaving a total of 27 studies for evaluation. The studies included were analyzed for demographic and epidemiological data for orthopaedic injuries, including fractures and dislocations. Cranial and facial injuries were excluded from analysis. Results: The majority of those injured in the US were female (64.5%). The leading cause of injury in the US was falling from a horse. The use of protective equipment seemed to vary widely, with helmet use ranging from less than 6% up to 66.7%. In the UK, fractures were found to account for 17.4% of reported injures, compared with 33.6% of injuries in the US. The majority of fractures in US riders occurred in the upper extremities (50.7%). Conclusion: This review helps characterize the epidemiology of equestrian injuries based on currently available data. PMID:26535400

  16. 护理人员对住院精神障碍患者跌倒的认识研究%Nursing staff awareness of the potential for injury caused by falling in the case of hospitalized patients with mental disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白文娜; 文芳; 甘绍华


    The objective is to increase and improve the present awareness of nursing personnel in hospitals for injuries caused by falling in patients with mental disorders, and provide a theoretical basis for effectively reducing the instances of fall caused injuries in patients with mental disorders. The methods utilized in the study in order to reach a hypothesis include qualitative research, and an in-depth interview of eight psychiatric nursing staff in a hospital in Chengdu. Furthermore, various data will be collected for analysis, utilizing data sorting, and induction. The results of the study indicate that falling of hospitalized patients with mental problems is a common phenomenon, and furthermore that nurses are aware of and attach great importance to this phenomenon. Factors correlated to this phenomenon are age, disease, drug adverse reactions, hospital environment, and nursing manpower allocation. Currently according to the research nurses depend mainly on clinical experience in their patient observation to prevent fall related injuries. Effective fall prevention methods can be further improved with the strongest potential method of improving fall prevention being health education. In conclusion, an accurate identification of people with mental disorders and high fall risk factors is the prerequisite to preventing fall related injury. To carry out various forms of health education and behavior intervention is an important way of promoting the effective prevention of fall related injuries in mental patients. Improving hospital environment and scientific methodologies of nursing staff is necessary to improve the prevention of fall related injuries in mental patients.%目的:了解护理人员对住院精神障碍患者跌倒的认识现状,为有效减少精神障碍患者跌倒提供理论依据。方法运用质性研究的方法,对成都市某医院8名精神科护理人员进行深入访谈,将获得的资料进行分析、整理、归纳,提出主

  17. Patterns of Pediatric Maxillofacial Injuries. (United States)

    Bede, Salwan Yousif Hanna; Ismael, Waleed Khaleel; Al-Assaf, Dhuha


    Facial trauma in children and adolescents is reported to range from 1% to 30%. Because of many anatomical, physiological, and psychological characteristics of the pediatric population, maxillofacial injuries in children should be treated with special consideration that is attributable to certain features inherent in facial growth patterns of children. This study evaluated maxillofacial injuries in 726 children in terms of incidence, patterns of injury, causes, and treatment modalities and compared these parameters among 3 pediatric age groups. Intergroup differences were analyzed using Z test for 2 populations' proportion. The results showed that the incidence of pediatric maxillofacial injuries and fractures is higher than that reported elsewhere with male predominance. Soft tissue injuries are more frequently encountered in younger individuals, whereas the incidence of skeletal injuries increases with age. This study also revealed that certain etiologies, namely road traffic accidents, violence, bicycle, missiles, and industrial injures, increase with age; on the other hand, falls and puncture wounds are more common in younger children.

  18. Pedestrian Injuries: Emergency Care Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthy, Bharath


    Full Text Available Traffic-related pedestrian injuries are a growing public health threat worldwide. The global economic burden of motor vehicle collisions and pedestrian injuries totals $500 billion. In 2004, there were 4,641 pedestrian deaths and over 70,000 injuries in the United States. Injury patterns vary depending on the age, gender and socioeconomic status of the individual. Children, older adults, and those of lower socioeconomic status are most affected. The burden of injury upon the individual, families and society is frequently overwhelming. Although pedestrian injuries and deaths are relatively on the decline in the United States, this is not universally true throughout the world. It requires particular attention by emergency medicine physicians, public health experts and policy makers.

  19. Amusement park injuries and deaths. (United States)

    Braksiek, Robert J; Roberts, David J


    Media coverage of amusement park injuries has increased over the past several years, raising concern that amusement rides may be dangerous. Amusement park fatalities and increases in reported injuries have prompted proposed legislation to regulate the industry. Since 1979, the medical literature has published reports of 4 subdural hematomas, 4 internal carotid artery dissections, 2 vertebral artery dissections, 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 1 intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and 1 carotid artery thrombosis with stroke, all related to roller coaster rides. In this article, we review reports of amusement park injuries in the medical literature and Consumer Product Safety Commission data on the overall risk of injury. We also discuss the physics and the physiologic effects of roller coasters that may influence the type and severity of injuries. Although the risk of injury is low, emergency physicians are advised to include participation on thrill rides as part of their history, particularly when evaluating patients presenting with neurologic symptoms.

  20. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N


    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  1. Chronic avulsive injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, L.F.; Helms, C.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Bisset, G.S. III [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Squire, D.L. [Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)


    Children and adolescents are prone to avulsive injuries related to a combination of their propensity for great strength, ability to sustain extreme levels of activity, and immature growing apophyses. Appropriate interpretation of imaging studies showing chronic avulsive injuries is essential so that the irregularity and periostitis that can be associated with chronic avulsions is not misinterpreted as probable malignancy. This article reviews the chronic avulsive injuries of childhood. (orig.) With 12 figs., 8 refs.

  2. Upper Extremity Injuries in Gymnasts. (United States)

    Wolf, Megan R; Avery, Daniel; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis


    Gymnastics is a unique sport, which loads the wrist and arms as weight-bearing extremities. Because of the load demands on the wrist in particular, stress fractures, physeal injury, and overuse syndromes may be observed. This spectrum of injury has been termed "gymnast's wrist," and incorporates such disorders as wrist capsulitis, ligamentous tears, triangular fibrocartilage complex tears, chondromalacia of the carpus, stress fractures, distal radius physeal arrest, and grip lock injury.

  3. Preventing head and neck injury. (United States)

    McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P


    A wide range of head and neck injury risks are present in sport, including catastrophic injury. The literature since 1980 on prevention of head and neck injury in sport was reviewed, focusing on catastrophic and brain injury and identifying the range of injury prevention methods in use. There have been few formal evaluations of injury prevention methods. Approaches that are considered, or have been proven, to be successful in preventing injury include: modification of the baseball; implementation of helmet standards in ice hockey and American football and increased wearing rates; use of full faceguards in ice hockey; changes in rules associated with body contact; implementation of rules to reduce the impact forces in rugby scrums. Helmets and other devices have been shown to reduce the risk of severe head and facial injury, but current designs appear to make little difference to rates of concussion. Research methods involving epidemiological, medical, and human factors are required in combination with biomechanical and technological approaches to reduce further injury risks in sport.

  4. School environment and school injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo eSalminen


    Full Text Available Background: Although injuries at school are an important issue in public health, environmental factors in schools and school yards have seldom been the focus of school injury research. The goal of our investigation was to examine the effect of environmental factors on school injuries. Methods: Nine comprehensive Finnish schools registered school injuries over a period of two school years. Injuries were classified as being associated with environmental factors, suspected environmental factors, and others. The consensus between two independent classifiers was 81%. Results: A total of 722 injuries were classified. In 11.6% of these injuries, the physical environment factor was evident, and in 28.1% of the injuries, physical environment was suspected of being a contributory risk factor. Thus the physical environment of the school was a contributing factor in over a third (39.7% of injuries occurring in the school, on the school yard or during the journey to or from school. In this study, conducted in Finland, ice on the ground was mentioned most frequently as an environmental risk factor. Conclusions: In Finland, the Nordic weather conditions are not taken into account in the school yard and playground plans as they ought to from the safety point of view. An initiative has been launched on a mandatory wintertime master plan for every school yard.

  5. Boxing-related head injuries. (United States)

    Jayarao, Mayur; Chin, Lawrence S; Cantu, Robert C


    Fatalities in boxing are most often due to traumatic brain injury that occurs in the ring. In the past 30 years, significant improvements in ringside and medical equipment, safety, and regulations have resulted in a dramatic reduction in the fatality rate. Nonetheless, the rate of boxing-related head injuries, particularly concussions, remains unknown, due in large part to its variability in clinical presentation. Furthermore, the significance of repeat concussions sustained when boxing is just now being understood. In this article, we identify the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of boxing-related head injuries, and discuss preventive strategies to reduce head injuries sustained by boxers.

  6. Lower limb landmine injuries. (United States)

    Necmioglu, S; Subasi, M; Kayikci, C; Young, D B


    The medical records of 186 patients seeking treatment for landmine injuries in the authors' region between 1993 and 2001 were evaluated. Of these patients 13 died of accompanying complications. Ten (10) patients with general body trauma and upper limb trauma were excluded from the study. Of 163 patients with lower-limb injuries included in the study, 21 with traumatic amputation underwent surgical amputation at different levels. Patients without traumatic amputation were divided into 2 groups. There were 41 patients (29%) in Group I who were treated by limb salvage procedures. Treatments used in Group I including wound debridement, tendon repair, skin approximation, minimal osteosynthesis, external fixation of long bones and secondary wound coverage. In Group II, there were 101 patients (71%) with primary amputation. Trans-tibial amputation was performed in 52 cases (51.4%), ankle disarticulation in 24 (23.7%), trans-femoral amputation in 9 (8.9%), partial foot amputation in 8 (7.9%), knee disarticulation in 7 (6.9%) and hip disarticulation in 1 case. In Group I, there was infection in 21 patients (51.2%), revision in 27 (65.8%), and amputation in 15 (36.5%). In Group II, there was infection in 28 patients (27.7%), revision in 17 (16.8%), and amputation at a higher level in 8 (7%). In crush injuries such as those resulting from landmines, soft tissue, vascular, and neurological assessment must be performed with utmost care. Even so, the desired success in interventions intended to save a limb is complicated by a high infection rate, soft tissue complications, and high revision amputation rates. Therefore, a decision to amputate in the early term based on an accurate preoperative assessment is crucial.

  7. Pediatric hand treadmill injuries. (United States)

    Banever, Gregory T; Moriarty, Kevin P; Sachs, Barry F; Courtney, Richard A; Konefal, Stanley H; Barbeau, Lori


    The great popularity of physical fitness in modern society has brought many pieces of exercise equipment into our homes for convenience and privacy. This trend has come with an increasing rate of injuries to children who curiously touch moving parts, including treadmill belts. Experience with a recent series of treadmill contact burns to children's hands is described in this article. A retrospective chart review at a tertiary referral center from June 1998 until June 2001 found six children sustaining hand burns from treadmills. The patients' ages at presentation ranged from 15 to 45 months (average of 31 months, three boys and three girls). All injuries occurred in the home while a parent was using the treadmill. Burns involved the palmar aspect of the hand, mostly confined to the fingers, and the severity ranged from partialto full-thickness burns. All patients were initially managed with collagenase and bacitracin zinc/polymyxin B powder dressings to second- and third-degree burns, along with splinting and range-of-motion exercises. Two patients required skin grafting at 2 weeks and 2 months for full-thickness tissue loss and tight joint contracture, respectively. At an average follow-up of 12 months, all patients had full range of motion and no physical limitation. The rate of children injured by exercise equipment is expected to increase. Friction burns to the hands remain a concern, although early recognition and appropriate management are associated with excellent functional outcomes. Protective modification of exercise machines seems to be the best approach to eliminating these injuries.

  8. Iatrogenic Lens Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Kamış


    Full Text Available During intraocular surgery, undesired damages of various etiology may occur in adjacent tissues. One of these tissues is the crystalline lens, which may be traumatized both in anterior segment and posterior segment surgeries, and when damaged, it usually causes marked decrease in visual acuity. The leading causes of iatrogenic lens injuries are intravitreal injection, laser iridotomy, phakic intraocular lens implantation, anterior chamber paracentesis, and vitreoretinal surgery. When crystalline lens damage occurs, its negative effect on visual function may be eliminated by performing cataract surgery intraoperatively or in elective conditions. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 27-30

  9. Road Traffic Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo


    @@ As everybody knows that automobiles have been greatly changing our life. However, everything has two sides, motor vehicles have also caused a huge number of people's deaths, injuries and property damage. Traffic crashes are perhaps the number one public health problem in developed countries [1]. In the United States, pre-retirement years of life lost in traffic crashes are more than that of the two combined leading diseases: cancer and heart disease [1]. Today road traffic crash (RTC) ranks 11th in leading cause of death and accounts for 2.1% of all deaths globally.

  10. Cellular and Tissue Injury During Nonfreezing Cold Injury and Frostbite (United States)


    Injuries - Rewarming Damages. 3 Biological, Angiological and Clinical Aspects. In "Disaster Medicine, Volume 3" (R. Frey and P. Safar, Ed.). Springer- Verlag...Kulka, J.P. Vasomotor microcirculatory insufficiency: observation of nonfreezing cold injury of the mouse ear. Angiology 12, 491-506 (1961). 38

  11. Experiences of Injuries and Injury Reporting among Swedish Skydivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Jong


    Full Text Available The objective was to illuminate the experience of injuries and the process of injury reporting within the Swedish skydiving culture. Data contained narrative interviews that were subsequently analyzed with content analysis. Seventeen respondents (22–44 years were recruited at three skydiving drop zones in Sweden. In the results injury events related to the full phase of a skydive were described. Risk of injury is individually viewed as an integrated element of the recreational activity counterbalanced by its recreational value. The human factor of inadequate judgment such as miscalculation and distraction dominates the descriptions as causes of injuries. Organization and leadership act as facilitators or constrainers for reporting incidents and injuries. On the basis of this study it is interpreted that safety work and incident reporting in Swedish skydiving may be influenced more by local drop zone culture than the national association regulations. Formal and informal hierarchical structures among skydivers seem to decide how skydiving is practiced, rules are enforced, and injuries are reported. We suggest that initial training and continuing education need to be changed from the current top-down to a bottom-up perspective, where the individual skydiver learns to see the positive implications of safety work and injury reporting.

  12. [Epidemiology and control of injury]. (United States)

    Kim, Soonduck


    Injury has recently become a major world-wide health problem. Injury related deaths occur in many actively working young people and produce major social and economical losses. However health related specialists do not recognize the importance of injury and there have not been many studies related to this problem. This research studied the trends of injury related research in Korea, mortality rate and prevalence rate, socio-economical losses and control in Korea and out of the country, based on literature from Korea and without such as statistical yearly reports on causes of deaths and OECD health reports, as well as WHO web sites. Studies in Korea about injury were very few, with 9 in the 1960's, 5 in the 1980's, 4 in the 1990's and 5 in 2000's. Mortality rate of injury was higher in Korea than in England, USA or Japan, especially in car accidents, suicide and falls. In Korea, the yearly trends in mortality rates were highest in car accidents but those rates are falling, suicide is steadily rising, with highest rate in 2003. Falls is in second rank with no change in rates. In 2003, the ten causes of death in Korea were suicide in 5th rank, transport accidents in 7th rank, and falls in 10th rank. Considering age groups, in the teens, transport accidents were 1st rank, in the 20's and 30's, suicide was 1st rank, and although there were some differences, falls, drowning, assault, fire were in the top 10. Prevalence rates of injury could not be known, but in 2001, according to the National Health and Nutrition Survey, lifelong injury was 10%, and yearly major injury was 1.3%, major injury for two weeks was 0.1%, and minor injury was 10%. In other foreign countries, injury has become to be recognized as a major health related problem, and much programs are being set up to reduce injury related deaths and injuries. WHO is putting much effort in prevention of violence and transport accidents, and in the USA, Canada and Europe, there are injury surveillance systems

  13. Cytokines and perinatal brain injury. (United States)

    Silverstein, F S; Barks, J D; Hagan, P; Liu, X H; Ivacko, J; Szaflarski, J


    A rapidly expanding body of data provides support for the hypothesis that pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are expressed acutely in injured brain and contribute to progressive neuronal damage. Little is known about the pathogenetic role of these cytokines in perinatal brain injury. Recent experimental studies have incorporated two closely related in vivo perinatal rodent brain injury models to evaluate the role(s) of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the progression of neuronal injury: a perinatal stroke model, elicited by unilateral carotid artery ligation and subsequent timed exposure to 8% oxygen in 7-day-old rats, and a model of excitotoxic injury, elicited by stereotactic intra-cerebral injection of the selective excitatory amino acid agonist NMDA. Each of these lesioning methods results in reproducible, quantifiable focal forebrain injury at this developmental stage. Acute brain injury, evoked by cerebral hypoxia-ischemia or excitotoxin lesioning, results in transient marked increases in expression of IL-1 beta, and TNF-alpha mRNA in brain regions susceptible to irreversible injury, and there is evidence that pharmacological antagonism of IL-1 receptors can attenuate injury in both models. Recent studies also suggest that complementary strategies, based on pharmacological antagonism of platelet activating factor and on neutrophil depletion can also limit the extent of irreversible injury. In summary, current data suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to the progression of perinatal brain injury, and that these mediators are important targets for neuroprotective interventions in the acute post-injury period.

  14. Nerve Injuries of the Upper Extremity (United States)

    ... nerves do both of these things. Injury to nerves that carry motor signals causes some amount of weakness. Pain : This is frequently a symptom after nerve injury. The pain present after a nerve injury ...

  15. Epidemiology of Injury in Gaelic Handball. (United States)

    O'Connor, S; Downey, M; Moran, K


    The initial step in developing injury prevention strategies is to establish the epidemiology of injury. However there has been no published research on injury in Gaelic handball. This study describes the epidemiology of injury in 75 Gaelic handball players utilising a retrospective questionnaire. 88% of participants reported one or more injuries. Injuries to the upper limb were prevalent (52.9%), followed by the lower limb (30.3%). The shoulder (17.6%), finger (10.5%) and ankle (9.8%) were the primary sites of injury. Injuries occurred most frequently in December (9.7%), January (9.7%), February (9.7%) and November (8.7%). Injuries predominantly occurred during games (82.4%). Injuries were primarily severe (54.7%), with 14.6% of participants admitted to hospital due to injury. Given that this is the only study on Gaelic handball to date, prospective epidemiological studies and further research on injury prevention strategies are necessary.

  16. [Surgery of traumatic tracheal and tracheobronchial injuries]. (United States)

    Palade, E; Passlick, B


    Tracheal injuries are altogether rare events and can be divided into three broad categories: tracheobronchial injuries caused by external violence, iatrogenic ruptures of the trachea and inhalation trauma. Successful management of tracheobronchial injuries requires a fast and straightforward diagnostic evaluation. In all severely injured patients with cervicothoracic involvement an injury of the tracheobronchial system should be actively excluded. Although it is commonly agreed that posttraumatic injuries require surgical intervention the management of iatrogenic injuries is presently shifting towards a more conservative treatment.

  17. Distal radioulnar joint injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu P Thomas


    Full Text Available Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint , forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments.The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis.

  18. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching


    Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100

  19. Self Injurious Behavior in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe


    Full Text Available Self injury is a kind of behavior which begins in early adolescence and difficult to determine because remains suppressed. Most often forms are to cut and hit own. To be exposed to sexual abuse and stressfully life events are known as risk factors for self injurious behavior. High anxiety, depression and hostility levels, decrease of self esteem, suicidal attempts and thoughts are usually together with self injurious behavior and it may be mediating to emotional regulation. To explain the functions of self injurious behavior automatic and social support theories and social learning theories have suggested. The relation between suicidality and self injurious behavior is complex for adolescents. There is no enough knowledge if self injurious behavior aggravates the risk of completed suicide. Although it’s a frequent behavior there are limited randomized controlled studies which examine specific treatment approaches. Dialectic behavior treatment is the type of treatment which shown as most effective for adults. To determine the needs to stop the behavior, to manage emotional senses and urges and to learn more healthy ways for needs to youth are necessary in treatment of self injurious behavior. Treatment also includes determining suicidal risk and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In self injurious behavior medical treatment is useful for comorbid psychiatric disorders. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 201-210

  20. Thumb injuries in downhill skiing. (United States)

    Engkvist, O; Balkfors, B; Lindsjö, U


    Thumb injuries are next to knee injuries the most common injury in downhill skiing today. In this material they constituted 17% of all skiing injuries. Three-fourths of the thumb injuries were lesions of the ulnar collateral ligament of the metacarpophalangeal joint. Compared to a control population consisting of 1619 randomly chosen uninjured skiers, we found that no type of ski pole handle in common use today eliminated the risk of thumb injury, but the injury frequency was higher when using a ski pole with a big plate on the top of the handle. It was, however, of no importance how the skier gripped the ski pole in relation to the strap. It is suggested that the skier during a fall holds on to the ski pole until the very last moment before the hand hits the ground. The ski pole handle then remains in the hand and constitutes the hypomochlium that forces the thumb into abduction and extension, which causes the typical ulnar collateral ligament injury.

  1. Injuries to the Young Athlete. (United States)

    Sandusky, Jane C.

    A review of literature on the incidence and nature of injuries to young athletes is presented on the topics of: (1) physiological characteristics of preadolescents, adolescents, and young adults; (2) musculo-skeletal changes in the growing athlete; (3) epiphyseal injuries and their potential for resulting in temporary or permanent impairment; (4)…

  2. Injuries in group kept horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdell, C.M.; Jorgensen, G.M.; Keeling, L.


    Group housing of horses is not very widespread, despite obvious advantages for their development and mental well-being. One often expressed rationale for this is that horse owners are worried about the risk of injuries due to kicks, bites or being chased into obstacles. To address this concern, we...... developed and validated a scoring system for external injuries in horses to be able to record the severity of a lesion in a standardized and simple way under field conditions. The scoring system has five categories from insignificant loss of hair to severe, life threatening injuries. It was used...... to categorize 1124 injuries in 478 horses. Most of these horses were allocated to groups to study the effect of group composition (i.e. same age or mixed, same gender or mixed, socially stable or unstable groups) on behaviour and injuries. The material included mainly riding and leisure purpose horses...

  3. The immunological consequences of injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Choileain, N


    Immediate and early trauma death rates are determined by "first hits" such as hypoxia, hypotension and organ injury, while late mortality correlates closely with "second hits" such as infection. An imbalance between the early systemic inflammatory response (SIRS), and the later compensatory counter-inflammatory response (CARS), is considered to be responsible for much post-traumatic morbidity and mortality. From a clinical perspective, this remains a significant healthcare problem, which has stimulated decades of experimental and clinical research aimed at understanding the functional effects of injury on the immune system. This review describes the impact of injury on the innate and adaptive immune systems. Though it is worth noting that the features of the immune response to injury overlap in many areas with immune dysregulation in sepsis, we attempt here to elucidate the mechanism by which injury predisposes to infection rather than to describe the alterations in host immunity consequent to established sepsis.

  4. Neuropsychiatric sequelae of head injuries. (United States)

    McAllister, T W


    Based on the above review several general points can be highlighted: Head injuries are extremely common, affecting probably close to 2,000,000 people in this country each year. The most common are nonmissile, closed-head injuries, the majority of which occur in association with motor vehicle accidents. Virtually all studies of head injury suggest a peak incidence in the 15 to 24 years of age group. Coarse measures of outcome suggest that the very young and the elderly have poorer outcomes. Because of improved acute care, however, a large number of young, otherwise healthy patients are surviving head injuries with a variety of profound neuropsychiatric sequelae. Because of the mechanics of brain injury in acceleration-deceleration injuries, certain brain injury profiles are common including orbitofrontal, anterior and inferior temporal contusions, and diffuse axonal injury. The latter particularly affects the corpus callosum, superior cerebellar peduncle, basal ganglia, and periventricular white matter. The neuropsychiatric sequelae follow from the above injury profiles. Cognitive impairment is often diffuse with more prominent deficits in rate of information processing, attention, memory, cognitive flexibility, and problem solving. Prominent impulsivity, affective instability, and disinhibition are seen frequently, secondary to injury to frontal, temporal, and limbic areas. In association with the typical cognitive deficits, these sequelae characterize the frequently noted "personality changes" in TBI patients. In addition, these changes can exacerbate premorbid problems with impulse control. Marked difficulties with substance use, sexual expression, and aggression often result. The constellation of symptoms, which make up the postconcussive syndrome, are seen across the whole spectrum of brain injury severity. Even in so-called mild or minor head injury, these symptoms are likely to have an underlying neuropathologic, neurochemical, or neurophysiologic cause

  5. Water tubing injury: An overlooked boating injury statistic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Baum


    Full Text Available A 23-year-old female sustained a large avulsion injury to the groin while water tubing on a local waterway. The laceration began at the mons pubis, extended along the labia majora with involvement of the external anal sphincter. The pubic bone and the pectineus muscle were exposed. Six weeks after surgery, she had resumed full activity without sequlae. Lack of data and the potential for significant injury caused by water tubing as described in this case report are a real concern. Water tubing injury should be classified as a primary accident type and analyzed by the U.S. Coast Guard.

  6. Injury caused by airbag VS. injuries associated with airbag deploys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Popa


    Full Text Available Implementation of airbags systems in motor vehicles designed to transport of persons led in time to a significant decrease of the rate of death among passengers involved in car accidents. However airbag systems are not harmless, it produces lesions that vary in intensity depending on many factors. But decidedly, we can meet injuries associated with the triggering of the airbag system. Therefore, it must be made a clear difference between the two types of injuries, this being particularly important in terms of medico-legal especially regarding the mechanism of injury.

  7. International Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvorak, M F; Itshayek, E; Fehlings, M G;


    of the completion of the intervention or surgical closure; (6) Surgical procedure-open reduction, (7) Surgical procedure-direct decompression of neural elements, and (8 and 9) Surgical procedure-stabilization and fusion (spinal segment number and level). All variables are coded using numbers or characters. Each...... spinal intervention and procedure is coded (variables 1 through 7) and the spinal segment level is described (variables 8 and 9). Sample clinical cases were developed to illustrate how to complete it. CONCLUSION: The International SCI Spinal Interventions and Surgical Procedures Basic Data Set......STUDY DESIGN: Survey of expert opinion, feedback and final consensus. OBJECTIVE: To describe the development and the variables included in the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Spinal Interventions and Surgical Procedures Basic Data set. SETTING: International working group. METHODS...

  8. Spine injuries in dancers. (United States)

    Gottschlich, Laura M; Young, Craig C


    Care of a dancer calls for a unique balance between athlete and artist. The physician must familiarize himself or herself with dance terminology, common moves, correct technique, and dancer's mentality. The goal is to work intimately with the dancer to care for the injury and, if possible, continue to participate in portions of dance class to limit anxiety and increase compliance to treatment. The spine is the second most injured area of the body in dancers, and many issues stem from poor technique and muscle imbalance. This often leads to hyperlordosis, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, lumbar facet sprain, discogenic back pain, and muscle spasm and piriformis syndrome. This article reviews these causes of low back pain with a focus on dance-related presentation and treatment issues.

  9. The contribution of staff call light response time to fall and injurious fall rates: an exploratory study in four US hospitals using archived hospital data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzeng Huey-Ming


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fall prevention programs for hospitalized patients have had limited success, and the effect of programs on decreasing total falls and fall-related injuries is still inconclusive. This exploratory multi-hospital study examined the unique contribution of call light response time to predicting total fall rates and injurious fall rates in inpatient acute care settings. The conceptual model was based on Donabedian's framework of structure, process, and health-care outcomes. The covariates included the hospital, unit type, total nursing hours per patient-day (HPPDs, percentage of the total nursing HPPDs supplied by registered nurses, percentage of patients aged 65 years or older, average case mix index, percentage of patients with altered mental status, percentage of patients with hearing problems, and call light use rate per patient-day. Methods We analyzed data from 28 units from 4 Michigan hospitals, using archived data and chart reviews from January 2004 to May 2009. The patient care unit-month, defined as data aggregated by month for each patient care unit, was the unit of analysis (N = 1063. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used. Results Faster call light response time was associated with lower total fall and injurious fall rates. Units with a higher call light use rate had lower total fall and injurious fall rates. A higher percentage of productive nursing hours provided by registered nurses was associated with lower total fall and injurious fall rates. A higher percentage of patients with altered mental status was associated with a higher total fall rate but not a higher injurious fall rate. Units with a higher percentage of patients aged 65 years or older had lower injurious fall rates. Conclusions Faster call light response time appeared to contribute to lower total fall and injurious fall rates, after controlling for the covariates. For practical relevance, hospital and nursing executives should consider

  10. Injury risk of nonpowder guns. (United States)

    Laraque, Danielle


    Nonpowder guns (ball-bearing [BB] guns, pellet guns, air rifles, paintball guns) continue to cause serious injuries to children and adolescents. The muzzle velocity of these guns can range from approximately 150 ft/second to 1200 ft/second (the muzzle velocities of traditional firearm pistols are 750 ft/second to 1450 ft/second). Both low- and high-velocity nonpowder guns are associated with serious injuries, and fatalities can result from high-velocity guns. A persisting problem is the lack of medical recognition of the severity of injuries that can result from these guns, including penetration of the eye, skin, internal organs, and bone. Nationally, in 2000, there were an estimated 21840 (coefficient of variation: 0.0821) injuries related to nonpowder guns, with approximately 4% resulting in hospitalization. Between 1990 and 2000, the US Consumer Product Safety Commission reported 39 nonpowder gun-related deaths, of which 32 were children younger than 15 years. The introduction of high-powered air rifles in the 1970s has been associated with approximately 4 deaths per year. The advent of war games and the use of paintball guns have resulted in a number of reports of injuries, especially to the eye. Injuries associated with nonpowder guns should receive prompt medical management similar to the management of firearm-related injuries, and nonpowder guns should never be characterized as toys.

  11. Psychosocial recovery after serious injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan O'Donnell


    Full Text Available Background: The 2010 iteration of the Global Burden of Disease statistics (Murray et al., 2012 points to the growing impact of injury and highlights the mounting burden of psychiatric disorder. It is essential to examine the intersection between these two contributors to disease burden. Methods: The Australian Injury Vulnerability Study collected data of over 1,000 injury patients from their initial hospitalization to 6 years post-injury. Structured clinical interviews were used to diagnose psychiatric disorder and self-report measures for disability and symptom severity. Results: A wide range of psychiatric disorders developed following injury, which included posttraumatic stress disorder, agoraphobia, depression, and substance use disorders (Bryant, O'Donnell, Creamer, Silove, & McFarlane, 2010. Although prevalence rates for these disorders were generally consistent over time, examination of trajectory data showed that different people had the disorders at different times. Importantly, the data showed that early anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms played a significant role in the development of long term disability after injury (Carty, O'Donnell, Evans, Kazantzis, & Creamer, 2011; O'Donnell et al., 2013. Conclusions: These data support the view that transdiagnostic models for early intervention may be required to address the complex psychiatric disorder trajectories that develop after injury.

  12. Year 2008 whitewater injury survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to gather retrospective data on paddling style, equipment, and acute and chronic/overuseinjuries in hard shell whitewater canoe and kayak paddlers, to compare injury rates and patterns in different groups of paddlers, and to evaluate the incidence in paddlers of self-reported giardia infection. During summer and fall of 2008, a surveywasdistributed at riverside, through paddle club bulletins, andwas posted on the Internet. Three hundred nineteen useablesurveys were returned reporting 388 acute and 285 chronic in-juries. Shoulder, wrist/hand, and elbow/forearm were the mostcommon sites of injury. Sprain/strain was the most common(26% known acute injury, followed by laceration and contusion(each 17%. Tendinitis was the most common (44% knownchronic injury diagnosis, followed by sprain/strain (27%. Forty-seven percent of acute and 36% of chronically injured paddlers sought medical attention. Giardia infection was reported in14%. It is concluded that shoulder and wrist/hand areas were the most common injured sites in this survey. Sprains, tendinitis, lacerations, and contusions were the most common known injury diagnoses. Injuries due to portage were common. Giardia infection may be common in whitewater paddlers.

  13. Acute injuries from mountain biking. (United States)

    Chow, T K; Bracker, M D; Patrick, K


    We questioned members of 2 southern California off-road bicycling organizations about injuries associated with the use of all-terrain bicycles. Cyclists were asked about riding and safety habits, the kind(s) of injury sustained with their most recent accident and whether they sought medical treatment, and the circumstances of the accident. Of 459 mailed surveys, 268 (58.4%) were returned. Respondents (82.8% of whom were male) ranged in age from 14 to 68 years. Of these, 225 (84%) had been injured while riding all-terrain bicycles, 51% in the past year. Although most injuries were characterized as minor, 26% required professional medical care, and 4.4% of those injured were admitted to hospital. Extremity injuries--abrasions, lacerations, contusions--occurred in 201 (90%) cyclists with 27 (12%) sustaining a fracture or dislocation. High levels of helmet use (88%) may explain the low occurrence of head and neck trauma (12%). Frequent riding and riding on paved terrain were associated with increased severity of injury, although most accidents--197 (87.6%)--occurred off paved roads. These results suggest that, compared with regular bicyclists, all-terrain cyclists have more, but not necessarily more severe, injuries. Clinicians and emergency medical personnel should be aware that the increasing popularity of off-road cycling may change the frequency and nature of bicycling injuries.

  14. Acute finger injuries: part II. Fractures, dislocations, and thumb injuries. (United States)

    Leggit, Jeffrey C; Meko, Christian J


    Family physicians can treat most finger fractures and dislocations, but when necessary, prompt referral to an orthopedic or hand surgeon is important to maximize future function. Examination includes radiography (oblique, anteroposterior, and true lateral views) and physical examination to detect fractures. Dislocation reduction is accomplished with careful traction. If successful, further treatment focuses on the concomitant soft tissue injury. Referral is needed for irreducible dislocations. Distal phalanx fractures are treated conservatively, and middle phalanx fractures can be treated if reduction is stable. Physicians usually can reduce metacarpal bone fractures, even if there is a large degree of angulation. An orthopedic or hand surgeon should treat finger injuries that are unstable or that have rotation. Collateral ligament injuries of the thumb should be examine with radiography before physical examination. Stable joint injuries can be treated with splinting or casting, although an orthopedic or hand surgeon should treat unstable joints.

  15. Traumatic Penile Injury: From Circumcision Injury to Penile Amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Heon Kim


    Full Text Available The treatment of external genitalia trauma is diverse according to the nature of trauma and injured anatomic site. The classification of trauma is important to establish a strategy of treatment; however, to date there has been less effort to make a classification for trauma of external genitalia. The classification of external trauma in male could be established by the nature of injury mechanism or anatomic site: accidental versus self-mutilation injury and penis versus penis plus scrotum or perineum. Accidental injury covers large portion of external genitalia trauma because of high prevalence and severity of this disease. The aim of this study is to summarize the mechanism and treatment of the traumatic injury of penis. This study is the first review describing the issue.

  16. Drug-induced hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andreasen, P B


    The Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions received 1100 reports of suspected drug-induced hepatic injury during the decade 1978-1987. The causal relationship between drug and hepatic injury was classified as definite in 57 (5.2%) reports, probable in 989 (89.9%) reports, possible in 50 (4...... during the last 2 years of the decade. Based on consumption data, the incidence of hepatic injury due to sulindac was estimated to be 18-fold higher than that due to ibuprofen. Paracetamol was reported to induce acute cytotoxic as well as cholestatic reactions in non-alcoholic subjects taking therapeutic...

  17. Anaphylaxis Due to Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruner, Heather C.


    Full Text Available Both anaphylaxis and head injury are often seen in the emergency department, but they are rarely seen in combination. We present a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with anaphylaxis with urticaria and angioedema following a minor head injury. The patient responded well to intramuscular epinephrine without further complications or airway compromise. Prior case reports have reported angioedema from hereditary angioedema during dental procedures and maxillofacial surgery, but there have not been any cases of first-time angioedema or anaphylaxis due to head injury. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(3:435–437.

  18. Injuries and Injury Prevention in the US Army Band (United States)


    team members served roles as questioner, note taker, timer, and taper (tape recorder operator). The questioner asked the structured interview...allotted for a particular topic. The taper assured the functionality of a tape recorder and was responsible for downloading the tapes at conclusion of the...28, 2000. 164. McKay GD, Goldie PA, and Oakes BW. Ankle injuries in basketball : injury rate and risk factors. Br J Sports Med 35, 2001. 165. Milgrom C

  19. Brain Injury: A Manual For Educators. (United States)

    Connor, Karen; Dettmer, Judy; Dise-lewis, Jeanne E.; Murphy, Mary; Santistevan, Barbette; Seckinger, Barbara

    This manual provides Colorado educators with guidelines for serving students with brain injuries. Following an introductory chapter, chapter 2 provides basic information on the brain including definitions of brain injury and its severity, incidence of brain injury, and characteristics of students with brain injury. Chapter 3 considers…

  20. Evaluation of spinal cord injury animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Zhang; Marong Fang; Haohao Chen; Fangming Gou; Mingxing Ding


    Because there is no curative treatment for spinal cord injury, establishing an ideal animal model is important to identify injury mechanisms and develop therapies for individuals suffering from spinal cord injuries. In this article, we systematically review and analyze various kinds of animal models of spinal cord injury and assess their advantages and disadvantages for further studies.

  1. Core Stability Training for Injury Prevention



    Context: Enhancing core stability through exercise is common to musculoskeletal injury prevention programs. Definitive evidence demonstrating an association between core instability and injury is lacking; however, multifaceted prevention programs including core stabilization exercises appear to be effective at reducing lower extremity injury rates. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanic, and clinical studies of core stability for injury prevention (keywords: ...

  2. Psychological Aspects of Spinal Cord Injury (United States)

    Cook, Daniel W.


    Reviewing literature on the psychological impact of spinal cord injury suggests: (a) depression may not be a precondition for injury adjustment; (b) many persons sustaining cord injury may have experienced psychological disruption prior to injury; and (c) indexes of rehabilitation success need to be developed for the spinal cord injured. (Author)

  3. 7 CFR 51.2127 - Injury. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Injury. 51.2127 Section 51.2127 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2127 Injury. Injury means any defect which more... as injury: (a) Chipped and scratched kernels when the affected area on an individual...

  4. [Spinal injuries in children and adolescents]. (United States)

    Schrödel, M; Hertlein, H


    Pediatric cervical spine injuries are rare. Knowledge of possible types of injury, physiological development and anomalies is necessary in order to not overlook the injury and to initiate suitable therapy. Description of the clinical assessment, Management of diagnostics and therapy of specific injuries. Based on a selective literature search and taking into consideration our own experience, typical injuries at the upper and lower cervical spine in pediatric patients are depicted. In the presence of neurological deficits, identification of the cause is crucial. Odontoid fractures and injuries to the second cervical vertebra are common in upper cervical spine injuries, compression fractures and facet joint dislocation injuries are common in lower cervical spine injuries. Depending on the location of the injury and on the grade of instability, specific therapy, including conservative treatment (orthosis, halo fixation) and operative treatment (internal fixation, fusion) might be necessary.

  5. Injuries in racket sports among Slovenian players. (United States)

    Kondric, Miran; Matković, Branka R; Furjan-Mandić, Gordana; Hadzić, Vedran; Dervisević, Edvin


    On the sample of 83 top Slovenian athletes we have studied the frequency of injuries among table tennis, tennis and badminton players, types of injuries and severity of injuries--the latter based on data of players absences from training and/or competition processes. The most liable parts to injuries are shoulder girdle (17.27%), spine (16.55%) and ankle (15.83%), while foot (10.07%) and wrist (12.23%) are slightly less liable to injuries. The most frequent injuries in racket sports pertain to muscle tissues. According to this data, the majority of injuries occur halfway through a training session or a competition event, mostly during a competition season. The injuries primarily pertain to muscle tissues; these are followed by joint and tendon injuries. There are no differences between male and female players. Compared to other racket sports players, table tennis players suffer from fewer injuries.

  6. [Open and closed laryngeal injuries]. (United States)

    Bartnik, Władysław; Bartnik-Krystalska, Alicja


    Treatment and results of 13 laryngeal and trachea traumas have been presented. All patients were operated in 24 hours after the injury. We had good results, only two patients had vocal chord paralysis. After phoniatric rehabilitation they regained good voice.

  7. Electric Shock Injuries in Children (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Electric Shock Injuries in Children Page Content ​When the human ... passes through it, producing what's called an electric shock. Depending on the voltage of the current and ...

  8. Depression and Spinal Cord Injury (United States)

    ... About Us Patient Care Resources Information & Education SCI Empowerment Project Projects & Research FAQ © 2017 University of Washington ... Ave., Seattle WA 98104 Spinal Cord Injury Clinic nurses: 206-744-5862 University of Washington Medical Center ...

  9. Biomarkers in acute lung injury. (United States)

    Mokra, Daniela; Kosutova, Petra


    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and its milder form acute lung injury (ALI) may result from various diseases and situations including sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, acute pancreatitis, aspiration of gastric contents, near-drowning etc. ALI/ARDS is characterized by diffuse alveolar injury, lung edema formation, neutrophil-derived inflammation, and surfactant dysfunction. Clinically, ALI/ARDS is manifested by decreased lung compliance, severe hypoxemia, and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Severity and further characteristics of ALI/ARDS may be detected by biomarkers in the plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (or tracheal aspirate) of patients. Changed concentrations of individual markers may suggest injury or activation of the specific types of lung cells-epithelial or endothelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages, etc.), and thereby help in diagnostics and in evaluation of the patient's clinical status and the treatment efficacy. This chapter reviews various biomarkers of acute lung injury and evaluates their usefulness in diagnostics and prognostication of ALI/ARDS.

  10. Radiation Injury to the Brain (United States)

    ... Tumors Brain Tumors Brain Disorders AVMs Radiosurgery Gamma Knife Linac Radiotherapy Overview Childhood Brain Tumors IMRT Radiation Therapy Radiation Injury Treatment Day Making a Decision Centers of Excellence Publications Definitions Q & ...

  11. [Ascites and acute kidney injury]. (United States)

    Piano, Salvatore; Tonon, Marta; Angeli, Paolo


    Ascites is the most common complication of cirrhosis. Ascites develops as a consequence of an abnormal splanchnic vasodilation with reduction of effecting circulating volume and activation of endogenous vasoconstrictors system causing salt and water retention. Patients with ascites have a high risk to develop further complications of cirrhosis such as hyponatremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and acute kidney injury resulting in a poor survival. In recent years, new studies helped a better understanding of the pathophysiology of ascites and acute kidney injury in cirrhosis. Furthermore, new diagnostic criteria have been proposed for acute kidney injury and hepatorenal syndrome and a new algorithm for their management has been recommended with the aim of an early diagnosis and treatment. Herein we will review the current knowledge on the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of ascites and acute kidney injury in patients with cirrhosis and we will identify the unmet needs that should be clarified in the next years.

  12. Traumatic Brain Injury Registry (TBI) (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As the number of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) patients has grown, so has the need to track and monitor...

  13. Anterior crucate ligament (ACL) injury (United States)

    ... An anterior cruciate ligament injury is the over-stretching or tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... may be injured. This is a medical emergency. Prevention Use proper techniques when playing sports or exercising. ...

  14. Self-Injury in Adolescents (United States)

    ... symptom that results from a variety of factors. Adolescents who have difficulty talking about their feelings may show their emotional tension, physical discomfort, pain and low self-esteem with self-injurious behaviors. Although some teenagers may ...

  15. Penetrating facial injury by a wooden log


    Mohan, Sadanandan; Varghese, George; Kumar, Sanjay; Subramanian, Dinesh Pambungal


    Penetrating facial injuries are potentially dangerous and require emergency management because of the presence of vital structures in the face and it may be life threatening especially when the injury involves airway, major blood vessels, spinal cord and cervical spines. Penetrating injuries of facial region can occur due to missile injuries, blast injuries, accidental fall on sharp objects such as sticks or glass and motor vehicle accidents etc., Indications for immediate surgical management...

  16. Injuries to Professional and Amateur Kickboxing Contestants


    Lystad, Reidar P.


    Background: Kickboxing is a group of full-contact combat sports that allows both kicking and punching from a standing position. Despite its popularity, there is a scarcity of published data elucidating the injury epidemiology in kickboxing. Purpose: To determine the injury incidence, describe the injury pattern, and identify potential risk factors for injury in kickboxing. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Data describing fight outcomes and injuries sustained during profe...

  17. Epidemiological Review of Injuries in Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Kaux


    Full Text Available Rugby is a sport that is growing in popularity. A contact sport par excellence, it causes a significant number of injuries. In Rugby Union, there are 30 to 91 injuries per 1000 match hours. This epidemiological review of injuries incurred by rugby players mentions the position and type of injuries, the causes, time during the match and season in which they occur and the players’ positions as well as the length of players’ absences following the injury.

  18. Prevention of Lower Extremity Injuries in Basketball



    Context: Lower extremity injuries are common in basketball, yet it is unclear how prophylactic interventions affect lower extremity injury incidence rates. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of current lower extremity injury prevention programs in basketball athletes, focusing on injury rates of (1) general lower extremity injuries, (2) ankle sprains, and (3) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Data Sources: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Register of Controlle...

  19. Pain following spinal cord injury



    The aims of this thesis were to assess and characterise nociceptive and neuropathic pain, the use of pharmacological and non-pharmacological pain treatment, and the influence of pain on the quality of sleep in a population following spinal cord injury (SCI). This thesis is divided into five separate studies: I. Pain in a Swedish spinal cord injury population. II. Gender related differences in pain in spinal cord injured individuals. III. Use of analgesic drugs in indi...

  20. Integrated Care for Multisensory Injury (United States)


    neurosensory injury. Multiple sensory system injuries and chronic effects may also alter a patient’s general appearance and behavior (eg, mo- tor...persistent central processing dysfunction, and/or cognitive deficits). Central compensation for multiple neurosensory impairments can be mental...For example, an upper extremity amputee who also suffers from blast-related vision and hearing dysfunction and mTBI may not have the manual

  1. Injuries to law enforcement officers: the backface signature injury. (United States)

    Wilhelm, Marianne; Bir, Cynthia


    In today's law enforcement community, one of the most vital tools an officer can possess is personal body armor. However, a recent Department of Justice investigation has raised important questions regarding the protection actually afforded officers through the use of personal body armor, and the current test methods used to assess the armor. Test results show that most Zylon-containing vests showed deformations in excess of the 0101.04 Standard's 44 mm backface signature limit. Such increased deformation can lead to serious injuries, including backface signature injuries, which have occurred in the field. Although the vest is successful in containing the round, it is not effectively dissipating the energy enough to prevent large amounts of vest deformation at the area of impact. Therefore, open, penetrating wounds occur even though the bullet did not penetrate the vest. The objective of the current study was to further define the backface signature injury through the use of case studies and laboratory experiments. Following the case study investigation, backface signature testing was conducted using a clay medium based on the NIJ 0101.04 Standard. The final component of this research involved the use of post-mortem human specimens (PMHS) for further investigation of the backface signature injury. Although the underlying cause of backface signature injuries is unknown, energy density is likely to play a role in the mechanism. Energy density (E/a) is defined as the energy per unit area and has been previously used in less lethal skin penetration research. Further research into the underlying causes of backface signature injuries is necessary. In addition to armor testing, the study of law enforcement personnel who have been shot while wearing soft body armor is also a valuable tool for determining the effectiveness of certification standards. Finally, it is important for medical personnel to recognize the backface signature injury and document this as a type of

  2. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell JA


    Full Text Available Jeffrey A Russell Division of Athletic Training, School of Applied Health Sciences and Wellness, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA Abstract: Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1 screening; (2 physical training; (3 nutrition and rest; (4 specialized dance health care; and (5 becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. Keywords: dance, injuries, injury prevention, fitness, wellness, health

  3. Injury data needs and opportunities in Europe. (United States)

    Kisser, Rupert; Latarjet, Jaques; Bauer, Robert; Rogmans, Wim


    Targeted injury prevention needs information, and the basis is data. The EU Council Recommendation on injury prevention of 2007 recommends that Member States make better use of the existing data, and that they implement additional injury surveillance, when appropriate, in order to obtain comparable information. In almost all Member States, some data on injuries are available: on deaths, hospital discharges, external causes of injuries, traffic accidents and workplace accidents. It is examined how far these data meet the information needs of key stakeholders in injury prevention. General information about the health burden of injury, based on mortality and hospital discharges, is available and sufficient for identifying injury as a priority for health policy. Health indicators like lost life years, rates of hospitalisation, estimated rates of disabilities or health care costs could be derived, but are not widely available yet. Information about external circumstances (causes) of injuries is indispensible for targeted prevention, but only 12 countries have a harmonised surveillance system on external causes in place (European Injury Database IDB 2009). It is recommended that the harmonised collection of data on fatalities, hospital discharges and external causes of injuries should become compulsory within the new European health information system. The provision of harmonised injury indicators should be promoted. The surveillance system on external causes (IDB) should be implemented in countries without such system. National injury data administrators ('clearing houses') should be established for the provision of comprehensive injury reports and for serving the needs of key stakeholders in injury prevention.

  4. Injuries in competitive boxing. A prospective study. (United States)

    Siewe, J; Rudat, J; Zarghooni, K; Sobottke, R; Eysel, P; Herren, C; Knöll, P; Illgner, U; Michael, J


    Boxing remains a subject of controversy and is often classified as dangerous. But the discussion is based mostly on retrospective studies. This survey was conducted as a prospective study. From October 2012 to September 2013, 44 competitive boxers were asked to report their injuries once a month. The questionnaire collected general information (training, competition) and recorded the number of bouts fought, injuries and resulting lost days. A total of 192 injuries were recorded, 133 of which resulted in interruption of training or competition. Each boxer sustained 3 injuries per year on average. The injury rate was 12.8 injuries per 1 000 h of training. Boxers fighting more than 3 bouts per year sustain more injuries (p=0.0075). The injury rate does is not a function of age (age≤19 vs. > 19a, p=0.53). Injuries to the head and the upper limbs occur most frequently. The most common injuries are soft tissue lacerations and contusions. Head injuries with neurological symptoms rarely occur (4.2%). Boxing has a high injury rate that is comparable with other contact sports, but most injuries are minor. Injury frequency is not a function of whether the boxer competes in the junior or adult category. Athletes fighting many bouts per year have a greater risk of injury.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq ul Hassan


    Full Text Available Vertebral injuries can occur as isolated injuries or may be associated with other injuries. Recognition of the level of injury is important along with the mechanism of injury. The article describes the various types of injuries of the vertebral column along with the main mechanisms and the difference between the types of injuries in the vertebral column.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bharath Prakash Reddy


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The spleen is an important organ in the body’s immune system. It is the most frequently injured organ in blunt abdominal trauma. 1 Over the past several decades, diagnosis and management of splenic trauma has been evolved. The conservative, operative approach has been challenged by several reports of successful non-operative management aided by the power of modern diagnostic imaging. The aim of our prospective study was to compare non-operative management with surgery for cases of splenic injury. METHODS We conducted a prospective study of patients admitted with blunt splenic injury to our regional hospital over a three-year period (2012-2015. Haemodynamic status upon admission, FAST examination, computed tomography 2 grade of splenic tear, presence and severity of associated injuries have been taken into account to determine the treatment of choice. Therapeutic options were classified into non-operative and splenectomy. RESULTS Over a 3-year period, 24 patients were admitted with blunt splenic injury. Sixteen patients were managed operatively and eight patients non-operatively. 3,4 Non-operative management failed in one patient due to continued bleeding. The majority of grades I, II, and III splenic injuries were managed non-operatively and grades IV and V were managed operatively. Blood transfusion requirement was significantly higher among the operative group, but the operative group had a significantly longer hospital stay. Among those managed non-operatively (median age 24.5 years, a number of patients were followed up with CT scans with significant radiation exposure and unknown longterm consequences. CONCLUSION In our experience, NOM is the treatment of choice for grade I, II and III blunt splenic injuries. Splenectomy was the chosen technique in patients who met exclusion criteria for NOM, as well as for patients with grade IV and V injury.

  7. Vascular Injury in Orthopedic Trauma. (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Panagopoulos, George N; Kokkalis, Zinon T; Koulouvaris, Panayiotis; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D; Igoumenou, Vasilios; Mantas, George; Moulakakis, Konstantinos G; Sfyroeras, George S; Lazaris, Andreas; Soucacos, Panayotis N


    Vascular injury in orthopedic trauma is challenging. The risk to life and limb can be high, and clinical signs initially can be subtle. Recognition and management should be a critical skill for every orthopedic surgeon. There are 5 types of vascular injury: intimal injury (flaps, disruptions, or subintimal/intramural hematomas), complete wall defects with pseudoaneurysms or hemorrhage, complete transections with hemorrhage or occlusion, arteriovenous fistulas, and spasm. Intimal defects and subintimal hematomas with possible secondary occlusion are most commonly associated with blunt trauma, whereas wall defects, complete transections, and arteriovenous fistulas usually occur with penetrating trauma. Spasm can occur after either blunt or penetrating trauma to an extremity and is more common in young patients. Clinical presentation of vascular injury may not be straightforward. Physical examination can be misleading or initially unimpressive; a normal pulse examination may be present in 5% to 15% of patients with vascular injury. Detection and treatment of vascular injuries should take place within the context of the overall resuscitation of the patient according to the established principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols. Advances in the field, made mostly during times of war, have made limb salvage the rule rather than the exception. Teamwork, familiarity with the often subtle signs of vascular injuries, a high index of suspicion, effective communication, appropriate use of imaging modalities, sound knowledge of relevant technique, and sequence of surgical repairs are among the essential factors that will lead to a successful outcome. This article provides a comprehensive literature review on a subject that generates significant controversy and confusion among clinicians involved in the care of trauma patients. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):249-259.].

  8. [Complex pelvic injury in childhood]. (United States)

    Schmal, H; Klemt, C; Haag, C; Bonnaire, F


    Pelvic disruptions are rare in children caused by the flexible anchoring of bony parts associated with a high elasticity of the skeleton. Portion of pelvic fractures in infants is lower than 5% even when reviewing cases of specialized centers. The part of complex pelvic injuries and multiple injured patients in infants is higher when compared to adults, a fact caused by the more intense forces that are necessary to lead to pelvic disruption in children. Combination of a rare injury and the capability of children to compensate blood loss for a long time may implicate a wrong security and prolong diagnostic and therapeutic procedures--a problem that definitely should be avoided. Three cases were analyzed and established algorithms for treatment of patients matching these special injury-features demonstrated. A good outcome may only be achieved when all components of injury pattern get recognized and treatment is organized following the hierarchy of necessity. Therefore in the time table first life-saving steps have to be taken and then accompanying injuries can be treated that often decisively influence life quality. As seen in our cases unstable and dislocated fractures require open reduction and internal fixation ensuring nerval decompression, stop of hemorrhage and realizing the prerequisite for effective treatment of soft tissue damage. The acute hemorrhagic shock is one of the leading causes of death following severe pelvic injuries. After stabilization of fracture, surgical treatment of soft tissue injuries and intraabdominal bleeding sources the immediate diagnostic angiography possibly in combination with a therapeutic selective embolization is a well established part of the treatment. The aim of complete restitution can only be accomplished by cooperation of several different specialists and consultants in a trauma center.

  9. Effect of square stepping exercise for older adults to prevent fall and injury related to fall: systematic review and meta-analysis of current evidences (United States)

    Fisseha, Berihu; Janakiraman, Balamurugan; Yitayeh, Asmare; Ravichandran, Hariharasudhan


    Falls and fall related injuries become an emerging health problem among older adults. As a result a review of the recent evidences is needed to design a prevention strategy. The aim of this review was to determine the effect of square stepping exercise (SSE) for fall down injury among older adults compared with walking training or other exercises. An electronic database search for relevant randomized control trials published in English from 2005 to 2016 was conducted. Articles with outcome measures of functional reach, perceived health status, fear of fall were included. Quality of the included articles was rated using Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale and the pooled effect of SSE was obtained by Review Manager (RevMan5) software. Significant effect of SSE was detected over walking or no treatment to improve balance as well to prevent fear of fall and improve perceived health status. The results of this systematic review proposed that SSE significantly better than walking or no treatment to prevent fall, prevent fear of fall and improve perceived health status.

  10. Common overuse injuries in the young athlete. (United States)

    Pengel, K Brooke


    Pediatric overuse injury is a common complaint presenting to pediatricians. Overuse injury can affect the soft tissues or bone, and results from an imbalance between training and load to the tissues and recovery time. In the skeletally immature athlete, physeal and apophyseal tissue is particularly vulnerable to overuse resulting in different patterns of injury compared to adults. Awareness of age-dependent patterns of overuse is necessary for proper recognition, treatment, and prevention of injury. This article reviews the most common pediatric overuse injuries with emphasis on risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment. Guidelines for prevention are included, as this is the key component for successful management of overuse injury in pediatric athletes.

  11. Traumatic injuries in revue dancers. (United States)

    Wanke, Eileen M; Arendt, Michael; Mill, Helmgard; Koch, Franziska; Wanke, Alice; Groneberg, David A


    Revue productions are a combination of dancing and singing, musical and spoken sequences, and acrobatics, performed with or without a story line, and characterized by a versatility of dance styles and a high number of performances (over 250 in a 10-month season). The aim of this quantitative single cohort study is to evaluate work-related traumatic injuries in this dance genre. Data were obtained from work accident reports of the German Social Accident Insurance Institution for the public sector in Berlin (UKB) involving 440 revue dancers (183 males and 257 females). Analysis was conducted with Excel 2007 and PASW Statistics 18. One out of three female dancers and one out of two male dancers sustained an acute injury in the course of a theatrical season (0.22 injuries per 1,000 hours). The incidence rate was 0.44 for males and 0.31 for females, with the lower extremity as the most commonly injured body region, followed by the spine. Of all occupational accidents, 75.1% happened on stage, with 69% during performances. The dance partner and dance floor were the most common exogenous factors resulting in a traumatic injury. Of all traumatic injuries, 81.7% occurred in the first 3 hours after starting work. Gender specific differences could be observed. Due to the limited availability of comparable studies of other forms of professional dance, in this study revue dance is largely considered as an independent genre.

  12. Hamstring injuries: Prevention and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A review was conducted to present current views and effectiveness of prevention and rehabilitation methods of hamstring injuries. Methods: a review searching on the electronic data bases, including Proquest, Medline, Sport Discus, Cinahl plus, Health source Nursing / Academic edition, Academic search complete, Pub med and Scholar Google. Only randomized control studies (RCT'S were included which contained the intervention and control groups concerning either the prevention or rehabilitation of hamstrings. Results: fourteen randomized control studies were included. Twelve concerned the prevention and two the rehabilitation of hamstring injuries. From the analysis of the articles concerning prevention we concluded that stretching, especially static and warm up program named "The 11" did not show any benefits in preventing hamstring injuries whilst strength training exercises with eccentric contraction (Nordic exercises and warm-up program "The 11+" containing eccentric exercises of hamstring showed significant differences regarding the prevention. It is postulated that the effectiveness of this may be due to the fact that the researchers had targeted the progressive increase in the intensity and frequency of eccentric exercises. Conclusions: eccentric exercises seem (based on the findings included in this study to have an important role in the prevention and strengthening immediately after hamstring injury and also significantly role on reducing the risk of reinjury. A rehabilitation program that includes mainly stretching exercises with eccentric loading of hamstrings muscles and secondly an exercise program which includes core stability and progressive agility exercises were found to be the most effective for recovery after hamstrings injury.

  13. Dual diagnosis: traumatic brain injury with spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Kushner, David S; Alvarez, Gemayaret


    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients should be assessed for a co-occurring traumatic brain injury (TBI) on admission to a rehabilitation program. Incidence of a dual diagnosis may approach 60% with certain risk factors. Diagnosis of mild-moderate severity TBIs may be missed during acute care hospitalizations of SCI. Neuropsychological symptoms of a missed TBI diagnosis may be perceived during rehabilitation as noncompliance, inability to learn, maladaptive reactions to SCI, and poor motivation. There are life-threatening and quality-of-life-threatening complications of TBI that also may be missed if a dual diagnosis is not made.

  14. Fall-related Information seeking behavior of seniors on the web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askari, Marjan; Eslami, Saied; Medlock, Stephanie; de Rooij, Sophia E; Abu-Hanna, Ameen


    Falls form a major health problem for older persons, and increasingly strain the healthcare system. The Internet is a potentially useful platform for empowering seniors. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the information-seeking behavior about falls among elderly Internet users. A we

  15. Rugby football injuries, 1980-1983. (United States)

    Sparks, J P


    The injuries sustained by the boys at one English public school have been recorded and analysed by age, experience, position, phase, duration of the game and of the season. Few injuries have been serious. Detailed reference is made to concussion, injuries from collapsed scrums and injuries of the cervical spine. The paper emphasises that the tackle leads to most injuries. This paper presents the Rugby football injuries sustained by the boarders of Rugby School in the four seasons 1980-1983. The injury rate was 194 per 10,000 player hours, compared with the rate of 198 per 10,000 player hours for the thirty seasons 1950-1979 (Sparks, 1981). Tables I-VI list the injuries by different criteria. Table VII lists the sites of injury; Table VIII the time off Rugby football after injury; Table IX lists some of the more important injuries; Table XI summarises the playing results of the various school teams; Table XIII compares some of the Rugby School figures with those recorded in the Accident and Emergency Department of Christchurch Hospital during the 1979 New Zealand Rugby football season (Inglis and Stewart, 1981); Table XIV records information on three aspects of Rugby football that have occasioned much recent concern, viz:--Time off playing after concussion, injuries caused by collapsed scrums and neck injuries.

  16. Sports injury of the pediatric musculoskeletal system. (United States)

    Rosendahl, Karen; Strouse, Peter J


    Sports related injuries are common in children and adolescents, with a reported incidence of around one in ten children each year. Boys incur more and severer sports injuries than girls, and chance for injury is greater with contact or jumping sports. Sports injuries seen in children under 10-years of age are non-specific, including contusions, mild sprains, and extremity fractures, usually Salter fractures of the physes (growth plate) or plastic fractures. In the very young athlete, sports injury of the ligaments or muscle is rare as are spine or head injuries. With growth and adolescence, the intensity of sports involvement increases. Pre-pubertal children still have open physes that are prone to injury, both acute or due to stress from a repetitive activity. In addition to injury of the physes of the long bones, injuries to the physes of apophyses are common. Ligamentous injury is uncommon before physeal closure, but can occur. After the physes fuse, ligamentous injury is seen with patterns similar to adults. This review will include a description of sports related injuries seen in children and adolescents. We will concentrate on injuries that are specific for the growing skeleton, with a brief mention of those seen after fusion of the physes.

  17. Preventing gun injuries in children. (United States)

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D


    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective.

  18. Traumatic andropause after combat injury. (United States)

    Jones, Gareth Huw; Kirkman-Brown, Jackson; Sharma, Davendra Murray; Bowley, Douglas


    In association with lower extremity amputation, complex genitourinary injuries have emerged as a specific challenge in modern military trauma surgery. Testicular injury or loss has profound implications for the recovering serviceman, in terms of hormone production and future fertility. The initial focus of treatment for patients with traumatic testicular loss is haemostasis, resuscitation and management of concurrent life-threatening injuries. Multiple reoperations are commonly required to control infection in combat wounds; in a review of 300 major lower extremity amputations, 53% of limbs required revisional surgery, with infection the commonest indication. Atypical infections, such as invasive fungal organisms, can also complicate military wounding. We report the case of a severely wounded serviceman with complete traumatic andropause, whose symptomatic temperature swings were initially mistaken for signs of occult sepsis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Sergeevich Eliseev


    Full Text Available Spinal injury in gout occurs rarely at a young age. In the past 5 years, the Pubmed has published only 44 papers on this site of tophi mainly in gouty patients over 40 years of age. We report two such cases in patients with chronic tophaceous gout in a 28-year-old man with a 3-year history of gout and in a 30-year-old man with its 7-year history. In both cases, spinal injury with tophus masses gave rise to neurological symptomatology. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were of informative value in identifying the causes of pain. In one case, the patient underwent laminectomy; histological evidence confirmed the gouty genesis of spinal injury.

  20. Plant injury induced by ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, A.C.; Pack, M.R.; Treshow, M.; Downs, R.J.; Transtrum, L.G.


    Phytotoxicity of ozone to 34 plant species was studied in controlled-atmosphere greenhouses. Plants were subjected at various stages of growth to 0.13-0.72 ppm ozone for 2-hour periods. Injury symptoms developed on 28 species. Some of the most sensitive species were small grains, alfalfa, spinach, and tobacco. There was a general tendency for sensitivity to increase with maturity of tissue. Palisade cells were most readily injured by ozone. On plants with adaxial palisade parenchyma, chlorotic spots and bleached necrotic areas developed on the upper leaf surface. Injury was equally apparent from either leaf surface of plants with undifferentiated mesophyll. Necrotic spots extending completely through the leaf developed on plants with either mesophyll structure when injury was severe. Ozone caused conspicuous tumors to develop on broccoli leaves. Symptoms similar to those produced by ozone fumigations have been observed on a wide range of plant species growing near several large metropolitan centers. 18 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Fluorescence diagnosis in tissue injury (United States)

    Maciel, Vitória H.; Ferreira, Juliana; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.


    Background and Objectives: The paper aim was to evaluate the efficacy of the fluorescence spectroscopy in the detection of UV-induced skin change of Wistar rats. Study Design/ Materials and Methods: In a group male Wistar rats, the skin damage was produced by an UV-C lamp, periodically monitored using the laser-induced fluorescence, until complete healing process. After determining a characteristic emission band present in the fluorescence spectra of the induced injuries, the amplitude band monitoring allowed the follow up on the injury and the recovery. Results: We observed the appearance of two new emission bands more evident at the injury spectra when compared to the spectrums from normal non-exposed tissue. Following such spectral bands was possible to observe the establishment and recovery. Conclusions: The fluorescence spectroscopy is a promising technique in distinguishing between normal and UV induced skin change helping the evaluation of changes which are irreversible cancer tissue characteristics.

  2. [Expert Evidence in Whiplash Injury]. (United States)

    Bucur, Florin M; Schwarze, Martin; Schiltenwolf, Marcus


    The assessment of cervical spine injuries is not a problem - provided full evidence of primary physical damage can be ensured. MRI examinations of the cervical spine carried out soon after the accident provide the best evidence. The assessment is more difficult if only clinical abnormalities are documented by the doctors after the accident in the diagnosis of cervical spine distortion, as functional results of this type are not specific and are also common in the general population. The legal rules of evidence must be taken into account in the summary assessment of the consequences of cervical spine injuries. Testing schemes are available which allow structured assessment of cervical spine injuries and help to avoid incorrect assessments.

  3. Hamstring strain injuries: factors that lead to injury and re-injury. (United States)

    Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Shield, Anthony J


    Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) are common in a number of sports and incidence rates have not declined in recent times. Additionally, the high rate of recurrent injuries suggests that our current understanding of HSI and re-injury risk is incomplete. Whilst the multifactoral nature of HSIs is agreed upon by many, often individual risk factors and/or causes of injury are examined in isolation. This review aims to bring together the causes, risk factors and interventions associated with HSIs to better understand why HSIs are so prevalent. Running is often identified as the primary activity type for HSIs and given the high eccentric forces and moderate muscle strain placed on the hamstrings during running these factors are considered to be part of the aetiology of HSIs. However, the exact causes of HSIs remain unknown and whilst eccentric contraction and muscle strain purportedly play a role, accumulated muscle damage and/or a single injurious event may also contribute. Potentially, all of these factors interact to varying degrees depending on the injurious activity type (i.e. running, kicking). Furthermore, anatomical factors, such as the biarticular organization, the dual innervations of biceps femoris (BF), fibre type distribution, muscle architecture and the degree of anterior pelvic tilt, have all been implicated. Each of these variables impact upon HSI risk via a number of different mechanisms that include increasing hamstring muscle strain and altering the susceptibility of the hamstrings to muscle damage. Reported risk factors for HSIs include age, previous injury, ethnicity, strength imbalances, flexibility and fatigue. Of these, little is known, definitively, about why previous injury increases the risk of future HSIs. Nevertheless, interventions put in place to reduce the incidence of HSIs by addressing modifiable risk factors have focused primarily on increasing eccentric strength, correcting strength imbalances and improving flexibility. The response to

  4. Traumatic injuries of the hip.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marshall, Nina


    Traumatic lesions of the hip in athletes may be clinically challenging because of the overlap in clinical presentation due to differing pathologies and the presence of multiple injuries. Imaging of the hip in the athlete has undergone a recent resurgence of interest and understanding related to the increasing accessibility and use of hip arthroscopy, which expands the treatment options available for intra-articular pathology. MR imaging and MR arthrography have a unique role in diagnosis of these pathologies, guiding the surgeon, arthroscopist, and referring clinician in their management of bony and soft tissue injury.

  5. Case Report: Penetrating Cardiac Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Grbolar


    Full Text Available Summary: Penetrating cardiac injurys caused by gunshots and penetrating tools have high mortality rates. The way of injury, how the cardiac area is effected and the presence of cardiac tamponadecauses mortality in different rates. However the better treatment quality of hospitals, increasingoperative techniques, and internel care unit quality has not been change during the years. Searching the literature, we want to present a 42 years old male patient whowas injured by knife and had a 1 cm skin wound on chest with cardiac tamponade. After sternotomy a 7 cm laseration was observed in heart. Cardioraphy was performed.

  6. Imaging of orthopedic sports injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Gielen, J.L. (eds.) [University Hospital Antwerp, Edegem (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Maas, M. [Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology


    This volume provides an updated review of imaging abnormalities in orthopedic sports injuries. The first part of the book contains background information on relevant basic science and general imaging principles in sports traumatology. The second part comprises a topographic discussion of sports injuries. Each chapter highlights the merit of different imaging techniques, focused on a specific clinical problem. In the third part, natural history, monitoring and follow-up by imaging are discussed. This well-illustrated book will be of value for musculoskeletal radiologists, orthopedic surgeons, sports physicians and everyone else involved in sports medicine. (orig.)

  7. Acupuncture therapy related cardiac injury. (United States)

    Li, Xue-feng; Wang, Xian


    Cardiac injury is the most serious adverse event in acupuncture therapy. The causes include needling chest points near the heart, the cardiac enlargement and pericardial effusion that will enlarge the projected area on the body surface and make the proper depth of needling shorter, and the incorrect needling method of the points. Therefore, acupuncture practitioners must be familiar with the points of the heart projected area on the chest and the correct needling methods in order to reduce the risk of acupuncture therapy related cardiac injury.

  8. Ambulation and spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Hardin, Elizabeth C; Kobetic, Rudi; Triolo, Ronald J


    Walking is possible for many patients with a spinal cord injury. Avenues enabling walking include braces, robotics and FES. Among the benefits are improved musculoskeletal and mental health, however unrealistic expectations may lead to negative changes in quality of life. Use rigorous assessment standards to gauge the improvement of walking during the rehabilitation process, but also yearly. Continued walking after discharge may be limited by challenges, such as lack of accessibility in and outside the home, and complications, such as shoulder pain or injuries from falls. It is critical to determine the risks and benefits of walking for each patient.

  9. Spinal Cord Injury: Hope through Research (United States)

    ... recent tetraplegia. Much as in the general population, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in persons with spinal cord injury. After the injury, the opportunity to actively exercise large muscles affected by paralysis is limited or ...

  10. Traumatic Brain Injury: FDA Research and Actions (United States)

    ... Control—Traumatic Brain Injury Public Workshop: Advancing the Development of Biomarkers in Traumatic Brain Injury, March 3, 2016 ... Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics ...

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Data and Statistics (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Traumatic Brain Injury & Concussion Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... please visit this page: About . Traumatic Brain Injury & Concussion Basic Information Get the Facts Signs and ...

  12. Golf Injuries: They Really Do Happen. (United States)

    Duda, Marty


    Although golf is not a rigorous sport, it has its share of injuries. Greater attention to preplay stretching and conditioning programs and to the proper mechanics of the golf swing can help prevent injuries. (Author/CB)

  13. Spinal Cord Injury Model System Information Network (United States)

    ... Go New to Website Managing Bowel Function After Spinal Cord Injury Resilience, Depression and Bouncing Back after SCI Getting ... the UAB-SCIMS Contact the UAB-SCIMS UAB Spinal Cord Injury Model System Newly Injured Health Daily Living Consumer ...

  14. Acromioclavicular joint injuries: anatomy, diagnosis, and treatment. (United States)

    Willimon, S Clifton; Gaskill, Trevor R; Millett, Peter J


    Acromioclavicular (AC) joint injuries are common in athletic populations and account for 40% to 50% of shoulder injuries in many contact sports, including lacrosse, hockey, rugby and football. The AC joint is stabilized by static and dynamic restraints, including the coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments. Knowledge of these supporting structures is important when identifying injury and directing treatment. Management of AC injuries should be guided by severity of injury, duration of injury and symptoms, and individual patient factors. These help determine how best to guide management, and whether patients should be treated surgically or nonsurgically. Treatment options for AC injuries continue to expand, and include arthroscopic-assisted anatomic reconstruction of the CC ligaments. The purpose of this article is to review the anatomy, diagnostic methods, and treatment options for AC joint injuries. In addition, the authors' preferred reconstruction technique and outcomes are presented.

  15. Multiple floating metatarsals: a unique injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trikha Vivek


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Concomitant dislocation of the tar-sometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of foot is an extremely rare injury. Such injuries presenting in a single or adjacent dual rays have been described in few cases previously. We describe such an injury in adjacent three metatarsals of a polytrauma patient. These injuries are likely to be missed in the initial assessment of a polytrauma patient. These patients are at risk of an overlooked diagnosis but the consequences of missing this type of injury may be Vivek Trikha*, Tarun Goyal, Amit K Agarwal quite severe. This case is presented in view of its unique-ness along with possible mechanism of injury, the sequence of reduction and follow-up. Knowledge of such injury and its proper management may be useful to the trauma surgeons. Key words: Metatarsal bones; Metatarsophalangeal joint; Wounds and injuries

  16. Management of traumatic blunt IVC injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Cheaito, MD


    Conclusion: Of all incoming patients, IVC injuries are highly fatal with mortality rates between 70 and 90%. Management of these injuries should be tailored based on hemodynamic stability of such patients.

  17. Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention Recommend on Facebook ... not grass or dirt. More HEADS UP Video: Brain Injury Safety and Prevention frame support disabled and/ ...

  18. Injury incidence and cause in elite gymnasts. (United States)

    Felländer-Tsai, L; Wredmark, T


    This report describes the incidence, localization, and cause of injuries in Swedish male and female elite gymnasts during 18 active months (three seasons). Thirty-one elite gymnast clubs with all together 437 gymnasts were included in the study, which consisted of a written questionnaire reporting morphometric facts as well as data concerning the injury. There were in total 82 injury reports. The injury incidence was 6.25 per 100 elite gymnasts and season. A majority of the injuries occurred in the lower extremities. The right leg was injured more often than the left. Most of the severe injuries occurred during mounting and dismounting which advocates the need for preventive measures in association with these particular events. Male gymnasts were more prone to sustain severer injuries such as dislocations and fractures. Severe injuries affected the upper extremity in 83%, and the right side was injured more often than the left.

  19. Youth Sport Injury Prevention is KEY. (United States)

    Shimon, Jane M.


    Describes how providing a well-designed injury prevention program that includes attention to growth and development, training and conditioning, protective equipment, and emergency care can minimize youth sport injuries. (SM)

  20. Ice Fishing Can Invite Serious Injuries (United States)

    ... and Human Services. More Health News on: Sports Injuries Sports Safety Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Burns Sports Injuries Sports Safety About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support ...

  1. A review of unintentional injuries in adolescents. (United States)

    Sleet, David A; Ballesteros, Michael F; Borse, Nagesh N


    Unintentional injuries are the largest source of premature morbidity and mortality and the leading cause of death among adolescents 10-19 years of age. Fatal injury rates of males are twice those of females, and racial disparities in injury are pronounced. Transportation is the largest source of these injuries, principally as drivers and passengers, but also as cyclists and pedestrians. Other major causes involve drowning, poisonings, fires, sports and recreation, and work-related injuries. Implementing known and effective prevention strategies such as using seat belts and bicycle and motorcycle helmets, installing residential smoke alarms, reducing misuse of alcohol, strengthening graduated driver licensing laws, promoting policy change, using safety equipment in sports and leisure, and protecting adolescents at work will all contribute to reducing injuries. The frequency, severity, potential for death and disability, and costs of these injuries, together with the high success potential of prevention strategies, make injury prevention a key public health goal to improve adolescent health in the future.

  2. ThinkFirst National Injury Prevention Foundation (United States)

    ... Injury is the leading cause of death and disability among children, teens and young adults. The most frequent causes of these injuries are motor vehicle crashes, violence, falls, sports and recreation. What might surprise you is that ...

  3. An audit of traumatic nerve injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, G


    The impact of trauma in the Irish healthcare setting is considerable. We present the results of a retrospective assessment of referrals to a Neurophysiology department for suspected traumatic nerve injury. A broad range of traumatic neuropathies was demonstrated on testing, from numerous causes. We demonstrate an increased liklihood of traumatic nerve injury after fracture \\/ dislocation (p = 0.007). Our series demonstrates the need for clinicians to be aware of the possibility of nerve injury post trauma, especially after bony injury.

  4. Acute rehabilitation of spinal cord injury


    KIDRIČ-SIVEC, Urška; SEDEJ, Bogdana; MAROLT, Melita


    Traumatic spinal cord injury presents with loss of function of neuromuscular and other systems below the level of injury. Patients may suffer from minor loss of strength to complete quadriplegia with respiratory distress. All the patients with traumatic spinal cord injury who are admitted and treated in University Medical Centre Ljubljana are evaluated after admission and individualized plan of rehabilitation is made. The neurological level of injury is documented with international standa...

  5. Timing of Surgery After Spinal Cord Injury. (United States)

    Piazza, Matthew; Schuster, James


    Although timing for surgical intervention after spinal cord injury remains controversial, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that early surgery may improve neurologic outcomes, particularly with incomplete spinal cord injury, and may reduce non-neurologic complications and health care resource utilization. Moreover, even in patients with complete spinal cord injury, minor improvement in neurologic function can lead to significant changes in quality of life. This article reviews the experimental and clinical data examining surgical timing after spinal cord injury.

  6. Telemark skiing injuries: an 11-year study. (United States)

    Made, C; Borg, H; Thelander, D; Elmqvist, L G


    This study evaluated telemark injuries in a Swedish ski area in terms of injury ratio, location, and causes over time. During the seasons of 1989-2000 all injured telemark skiers ( n=94) who attended the medical center in Tärnaby, Sweden, within 48 h after the accident were registered and asked to fill in an injury form. A control group of noninjured telemark skiers were interviewed in the season of 1999-2000. The most common cause of injury was fall (70%) and the injury ratio was 1.2. There was a higher proportion of beginners in the injured population, and they had a fall/run ratio of 0.7, compared with 0.3 for average and advanced skiers. Ankle/foot injuries were most common (28% of injuries) followed by knee (20%) and head/neck (17%). The ankle/foot injuries decreased from 35% to 22% in the seasons 1989-1995 to 1995-2000. Beginners had more ankle/foot injuries than skilled participants. The severity of ankle/foot injuries classified as the Abbreviated Injury Scale group 2 or higher decreased from 33% to 21% during the study period. Twenty-seven percent used plastic and 73% leather boots. We found no association between boot material and ankle/foot injuries. The proportion of high boots with two or more buckles was 51%. High boots appeared to be protective against ankle/foot injuries. The proportion of high boots increased from 24% to 67% during the study period. Thus ankle/foot injuries were the most common injury location, but have decreased over time. The severity of these injuries has also decreased. A possible explanation could be the increased use of high boots.

  7. Shock tubes and blast injury modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Lei Ning; Yuan-Guo Zhou


    Explosive blast injury has become the most prevalent injury in recent military conflicts and terrorist attacks.The magnitude of this kind of polytrauma is complex due to the basic physics of blast and the surrounding environments.Therefore,development of stable,reproducible and controllable animal model using an ideal blast simulation device is the key of blast injury research.The present review addresses the modeling of blast injury and applications of shock tubes.

  8. Blast Injuries: What Clinicians Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of the CDC’s Division of Injury Response, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control provides a brief overview for health care providers on how to respond and care for persons injured by an explosion or blast event.  Created: 11/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Division of Injury Response (DIR).   Date Released: 11/6/2008.

  9. Combat Injury Coding: A Review and Reconfiguration (United States)


    characterize combat anatomic injury, and the Military Functional Incapacity Scale (MFIS), which indicates immediate tactical functional impairment, were...Combat Injury Scale and Military Functional Incapacity Scale were developed, tested and validated by teams of civilian and tri-service military expertise...characterizes the unique injuries encountered in combat, es- pecially those caused by explosions, and its derivative, the Military Functional Incapacity

  10. Traumatic brain injury : from impact to rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halliday, J.; Absalom, A. R.


    Traumatic brain injury is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in our society, particularly among the young. This review discusses the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury, and current management from the acute phase through to rehabilitation of the traumatic brain injury patient.

  11. Assessment of Students with Traumatic Brain Injury (United States)

    Chesire, David J.; Buckley, Valerie A.; Canto, Angela I.


    The incidence of brain injuries, as well as their impact on individuals who sustain them, has received growing attention from American media in recent years. This attention is likely the result of high profile individuals suffering brain injuries. Greater public awareness of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) has also been promoted by sources such as…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The present purpose was to illustrate the range of severity scores among trauma patients. A computerised conversion of ICD-9CM injury diagnoses into scores for severity of injury was processed on data of 36,178 trauma patients. More than 94% of the patients had injuries of minor severity. The probab

  13. Cerebral damage caused by nail gun injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Chris Hedeman


    Full Text Available Background Accidents with nail guns are rather common, especially in the construction industry. Most injuries involve the extremities and several present with intracerebral injuries. When the patient is unconscious, it can be a big challenge to determine whether the injury is an accident, self-inflicted or a criminal act.

  14. 7 CFR 51.2122 - Insect injury. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2122 Section 51.2122 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2122 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, or frass is present or there is definite evidence of insect feeding....

  15. 7 CFR 51.2290 - Insect injury. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2290 Section 51.2290 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2290 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, frass or other evidence of insects is present on the portion of kernel....

  16. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity (United States)

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.


    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  17. Duodenal organ injury severity (OIS) and outcome. (United States)

    Kline, G; Lucas, C E; Ledgerwood, A M; Saxe, J M


    The effect of organ injury severity on outcome was assessed in 101 patients treated for duodenal trauma. Most patients were men (89%) and victims of penetrating wounds (93%). Grade I is minor hematoma or incomplete perforation; Grade II is major hematoma or small complete perforation; Grade III is large perforation excluding ampulla; Grade IV is large perforation at ampulla; Grade V is duodenopancreatic crunch. The injuries were as follows: Grade I (5 patients), Grade II (31), Grade III (40), Grade IV (12), and Grade V (13). Fourteen patients exsanguinated from associated vessel injury; each had Grade IV or Grade V injury. All 36 patients with Grade I and Grade II injury had primary repair; the single death was due to liver necrosis. Most (31 patients) Grade III injuries and three Grade IV injuries were treated by primary repair alone; the three deaths were unrelated to the duodenal injury. Other major injuries were treated by duodenal exclusion (4 patients), duodenal diverticulization (6), or resection (4); the single death was unrelated to the duodenum. Primary closure is favored for minor injuries and most Grade III injuries. Severe injuries may require exclusion, diverticulization, or resection.

  18. Multiple injuries: An overview of the outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Sluis, C.K.; Ten Duis, H.J.; Geertzen, J.H.B.


    To measure the functional outcome we analyzed 723 consecutive patients with multiple injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS)/Injury Severity Score (ISS) greater than or equal to 16, mean ISS 30.1) treated at the University Hospital Groningen, the Netherlands, between 1985 and 1989. Age, sex, type o

  19. The epidemiology of schoolboy rugby injuries. (United States)

    Roux, C E; Goedeke, R; Visser, G R; van Zyl, W A; Noakes, T D


    During one 18-week season, in which players from 26 high schools played 3,350 rugby matches, 495 injuries prevented players from participating in rugby for at least 1 week; 71% occurred during matches and 29% during practices. Injury was more common during the first 4 weeks of the season and again in the same time period after the mid-season vacation. At all ages, A-team players suffered the greatest number of injuries. The safest playing positions were tight-forward and scrum-half; the most dangerous loose-forward and in the back-line excluding the scrum-half. Overall, eightmen were the most often injured players. Of all injuries 55% occurred while the player was tackling or being tackled and 18% during the loose scrum/maul. The lower limb (37%), the head and neck (29%) and the upper limb (20%) were most commonly injured, and fractures (27%), ligament/tendon injuries (25%) and muscle injuries (17%) were commonest. However, concussion injuries were underreported in 19 of the 26 schools. This study shows: that monitoring rugby injuries through correspondence results in underreporting of injuries; that rugby injuries show specific trends with age, team level, playing position, time of the season and phase of play; and that players in the different positions suffer specific injuries in predictable phases of the game. Speed of play may be the most important aetiological factor in the majority of rugby injuries.

  20. Development of the Sport Injury Anxiety Scale (United States)

    Rex, Camille C.; Metzler, Jonathan N.


    The purpose of this research was to develop a measure of sport injury anxiety (SIA), defined as the tendency to make threat appraisals in sport situations where injury is seen as possible and/or likely. The Sport Injury Anxiety Scale (SIAS) was developed in three stages. In Stage 1, expert raters evaluated items to determine their adequacy. In…

  1. Sport Injuries for Females: Incidence and Prevention. (United States)

    Kindig, Louise E.

    Comparisons between sport-related injuries for male and female athletes are discussed in relation to statistics gathered by the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) and other sources. Tables display data on: (1) athletic injuries and fatalities in colleges and universities by sport, l975-76; (2) average annual frequency of…

  2. Chest injury in victims of Bam earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Mohammad Ghodsi; Moosa Zargar; Ali Khaji; Mojgan Karbakhsh


    Objective: To analyze the data of trauma patients with thoracic injury in the earthquake of Bam admitted to hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Science (TUMS)for better understanding the type and consequence of thoracic injuries in a major earthquake.Methods: After Bam earthquake registering 6.5 on the Richter scale, 526 trauma patients were admitted to hospitals of TUMS. Among them, 53 patients sustained thoracic injury.Results: This group was composed of 21 females (39.6%) and 32 males (60.4%). Fifteen patients (28.3%) had isolated chest injuries. Rib fracture (36.4%) was the most common injury in our patients and haemo/pneumothorax (25.5%) followed. Superficial injury was the most common accompanying injury. Multipletrauma patients with chest injury had higher injury severity score (ISS) versus patients with isolated chest injury (P =0.003).Conclusions: Chest wall injuries and haemo/pneumothorax comprise a considerable number of injuries in survival victims of earthquakes. Consequently, the majority of these patients can be treated with observation or tube thoracostomy. We should train and equip the health workers and members of rescue teams to treat and manage these patients in the field.

  3. Overview of thigh injuries in dance. (United States)

    Deleget, Alison


    Thigh injuries include musculotendinous strains of the quadriceps, hamstrings, adductors, iliotibial band (ITB), and bony injuries to the shaft of the femur. There is scant information in the literature regarding thigh injuries in dance, which appear to range from 5% to 16% of total injury incidence. Hamstring strains and ITB syndrome are the most commonly reported thigh injuries. Hamstring injuries occur most frequently during slow stretching when the dancer's hip is flexed and knee extended. Uniquely in dancers, adductor injury occurs concurrently with hamstring injuries in approximately one-third of cases. Snapping of the ITB at the lateral hip and knee may result from imbalance of thigh muscle strength and flexibility. To date no quadriceps strain injuries or stress injuries to the shaft of the femur have been reported in the dance medicine literature. As dancers notoriously underestimate time needed to return to dance, it can be suggested that early return to work is a contributing factor to chronic injury. Further research is needed regarding the incidence and nature of injury to the thigh among dancers.

  4. Knowledge of Traumatic Brain Injury among Educators (United States)

    Ernst, William J.; Gallo, Adrienne B.; Sellers, Amanda L.; Mulrine, Jessica; MacNamara, Luciana; Abrahamson, Allison; Kneavel, Meredith


    The purpose of this study is to determine knowledge of traumatic brain injury among educators. Few studies have examined knowledge of traumatic brain injury in this population and fewer still have included a substantial proportion of general education teachers. Examining knowledge of traumatic brain injury in educators is important as the vast…

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid enzymes in acute brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I.R. Maas (Andrew)


    textabstractSevere brain injury is a major cause of death, especially in young men. In 1972, over 20% of all deaths occurring in England and Wales in men aged 15-25 years were due to head injury (Field, 1976). The mortality rate after severe brain injuries is higb. Jennett et al. (1977) reporting on

  6. Traumatic Brain Injury Inpatient Rehabilitation (United States)

    Im, Brian; Schrer, Marcia J.; Gaeta, Raphael; Elias, Eileen


    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) can cause multiple medical and functional problems. As the brain is involved in regulating nearly every bodily function, a TBI can affect any part of the body and aspect of cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning. However, TBI affects each individual differently. Optimal management requires understanding the…

  7. Spinal cord injury at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger-Gron, Jesper; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Rasmus G;


    UNLABELLED: A case of perinatally acquired spinal cord injury (SCI) is presented. The foetus was vigorous until birth, the breech presented and delivery was performed by a non-traumatic Caesarean section. The infant displayed symptoms of severe SCI but diagnosis was delayed due to severe co...

  8. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives. (United States)

    Russell, Jeffrey A


    Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes - muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness - all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1) screening; (2) physical training; (3) nutrition and rest; (4) specialized dance health care; and (5) becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers.

  9. Management of Brachial Plexus Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available The results of early neurosurgical treatment of 58 infants with various types of brachial plexus birth injury have been compared with non-surgical intervention in 91 patients followed by a multidisciplinary team at the Brachial Plexus Program, Miami Children’s Hospital, FL.

  10. Naproxen-induced liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharif Ali; Jason D Pimentel; Chan Ma


    BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported to induce liver injury. Patterns of the injury usually range from mild elevations of liver enzymes to sometimes severe fulminant hepatic failure. Likewise, naproxen is a propionic acid derivative NSAID that was introduced in 1980 and has been available as an over-the-counter medication since 1994, but has rarely been reported to cause liver injury. METHODS: We treated a 30-year-old woman with jaundice and intractablepruritusthatdevelopedshortlyaftertakingnaproxen. We reviewed the medical history and liver histopathology of the patient as well as all previously published case reports of naproxen-associated liver toxicity in the English language literature. RESULTS: The liver biochemical profile of the patient revealed a mixed cholestasis and hepatitis pattern. Consecutive liver biopsies demonstrated focal lobular inflammation, hepatocyte drop-out, and a progressive loss of the small interlobular bile ducts (ductopenia). The biopsy performed two years after onset of the disease showed partial recovery of a small number of bile ducts; however, 10 years passed before the biochemical profile returned to near normal. CONCLUSIONS:  Naproxen-associated liver toxicity remains a rare entity, but should be considered in any patient presenting with cholestasis shortly after its use. Liver injury is most commonly seen in a mixed pattern characterized by cholestasis and hepatitis. The resulting liver damage may take years to resolve.

  11. Sepsis and Acute Kidney Injury. (United States)

    Bilgili, Beliz; Haliloğlu, Murat; Cinel, İsmail


    Acute kindney injury (AKI) is a clinical syndrome which is generally defined as an abrupt decline in glomerular filtration rate, causing accumulation of nitrogenous products and rapid development of fluid, electrolyte and acid base disorders. In intensive care unit sepsis and septic shock are leading causes of AKI. Sepsis-induced AKI literally acts as a biologic indicator of clinical deterioration. AKI triggers variety of immune, inflammatory, metabolic and humoral patways; ultimately leading distant organ dysfunction and increases morbidity and mortality. Serial mesurements of creatinine and urine volume do not make it possible to diagnose AKI at early stages. Serum creatinine influenced by age, weight, hydration status and become apparent only when the kidneys have lost 50% of their function. For that reason we need new markers, and many biomarkers in the diagnosis of early AKI activity is assessed. Historically "Risk-Injury-Failure-Loss-Endstage" (RIFLE), "Acute Kidney Injury Netwok" (AKIN) and "The Kidney Disease/ Improving Global Outcomes" (KDIGO) classification systems are used for diagnosing easily in clinical practice and research and grading disease. Classifications including diagnostic criteria are formed for the identification of AKI. Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin-C (Cys-C), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and also "cell cycle arrest" molecules has been concerned for clinical use. In this review the pathophysiology of AKI, with the relationship of sepsis and the importance of early diagnosis of AKI is evaluated.

  12. Biomarkers in spinal cord injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouw, M.H.; Hosman, A.J.F.; Middendorp, J.J. van; Verbeek, M.M.; Vos, P.E.; Meent, H. van de


    STUDY DESIGN: Literature review. OBJECTIVES: In traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), much effort has been put into the evaluation of SCI severity and the prediction of recovery potential. An accurate prediction of the initial damage of the spinal cord that differentiates between the severities of SCI

  13. MRI of perinatal brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Mary; Allsop, Joanna [Imperial College, Robert Steiner MR Unit, Perinatal Imaging, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Martinez Biarge, Miriam [La Paz University Hospital, Dept of Neonatology, Madrid (Spain); Counsell, Serena [Imperial College, Robert Steiner MR Unit, Neonatal Medicine, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Cowan, Frances [Imperial College, Dept of Paediatrics, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)


    MRI is invaluable in assessing the neonatal brain following suspected perinatal injury. Good quality imaging requires adaptations to both the hardware and the sequences used for adults or older children. The perinatal and postnatal details often predict the pattern of lesions sustained and should be available to aid interpretation of the imaging findings. Perinatal lesions, the pattern of which can predict neurodevelopmental outcome, are at their most obvious on conventional imaging between 1 and 2 weeks from birth. Very early imaging during the first week may be useful to make management decisions in ventilated neonates but brain abnormalities may still be subtle using conventional sequences. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is very useful for the early identification of ischaemic tissue in the neonatal brain but may underestimate the final extent of injury, particularly basal ganglia and thalamic lesions. MR imaging is an excellent predictor of outcome following perinatal brain injury and can therefore be used as a biomarker in interventional trials designed to reduce injury and improve neurodevelopmental outcome. (orig.)

  14. Pharmacogenetics of neural injury recovery. (United States)

    Pearson-Fuhrhop, Kristin M; Cramer, Steven C


    Relatively few pharmacological agents are part of routine care for neural injury, although several are used or under consideration in acute stroke, chronic stroke, traumatic brain injury and secondary stroke prevention. Tissue plasminogen activator is approved for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, and genetic variants may impact the efficacy and safety of this drug. In the chronic phase of stroke, several drugs such as L-dopa, fluoxetine and donepezil are under investigation for enhancing rehabilitation therapy, with varying levels of evidence. One potential reason for the mixed efficacy displayed by these drugs may be the influence of genetic factors that were not considered in prior studies. An understanding of the genetics impacting the efficacy of dopaminergic, serotonergic and cholinergic drugs may allow clinicians to target these potential therapies to those patients most likely to benefit. In the setting of stroke prevention, which is directly linked to neural injury recovery, the most highly studied pharmacogenomic interactions pertain to clopidogrel and warfarin. Incorporating pharmacogenomics into neural injury recovery has the potential to maximize the benefit of several current and potential pharmacological therapies and to refine the choice of pharmacological agent that may be used to enhance benefits from rehabilitation therapy.

  15. Transcapillary transport after thermal injury. (United States)

    Arturson, G; Jonsson, C E


    The pathophysiology of the burn wound is characterized by an inflammatory reaction leading to rapid edema formation due to (1) dilatation of resistance vessels with increased effective transcapillary filtration pressure, (2) increased extravascular osmotic activity created in damaged tissue, and (3) increased microvascular permeability to macromolecules. In extensive burns increased microvascular permeability was found also in tissues remote from the thermal injury. These reactions are due to direct heat effect on the microvasculature and to chemical mediators of inflammation. Important is the increased biosynthesis of prostaglandins at the site of tissue injury which may partly explain vasodilatation, increased microvascular permeability and accumulation of polymorphonuclear leucocytes observed following thermal injury. The morphological interpretations of the changes in the functional ultrastructure of the blood-lymph barrier following thermal injury seem to be a remarkable and persistant increase in the numbers of vacuoles and many open endothelial intercellular junctions. Further less explored changes of the interstitial tissue after severe burn trauma seem to be of great importance.

  16. Preventing eye injuries in quarries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Wormald


    Full Text Available Eye injuries often occur in the workplace in low and middle-income countries, particularly in the construction, agricultural, mining, and manufacturing industries. Even if there are safety regulations in these industries, their enforcement is often unsatisfactory, and owners are not required to provide safety equipment.

  17. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot (United States)

    ... the shoe may be prescribed for long-term treatment of sesamoiditis to balance the pressure placed on the ball of the foot. When Is Surgery Needed? When sesamoid injuries fail to respond to nonsurgical treatment, surgery may be required. The foot and ankle ...

  18. Ice & Exercise for Injury Management. (United States)

    Suspenski, Thomas J.

    Utilization of ice and exercise conjunctively decreases recovery time of muscle tendon injury considerably. In the healing process, collagen (a major element of scar formation) is laid down. If heat and rest are used as treatment, healing takes place; however, collagen is laid down in a haphazard arrangement increasing the likelihood of reinjury.…

  19. Imaging of Traumatic Brain Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zagorchev, L.; McAllister, T.


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents an enormous public health challenge and is often associated with life long neurobehavioral sequelae in survivors. Several factors including higher percentages of individuals surviving TBI, as well as increasing concern about potential long term sequelae of ev

  20. Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet (United States)

    ... Commemorative Giving Employment at AAP Advertise with AAP Advertising on Advertising on AAP Journals & Publications AAP Mailing and eMail ... Help/Feedback a a a print email share Facebook Twitter 2017 Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet 3/ ...

  1. Resuscitative Thoracotomy following Wartime Injury (United States)


    respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score were used to generate a Revised Trauma Score (RTS), which is in- versely...Hemorrhage is the leading cause of arrest, often from abdominal and extremity trauma, with head injuries carrying a very poor prognosis . Short arrest

  2. Toddlers at risk for paper shredder injury in the home: easy access and severe injury. (United States)

    Warren, Ramona C; Foltin, George L


    A 2-year-old girl sustained severe injury to 2 fingers from a home paper shredder. This case illustrates the risk of injury from paper shredders, which are increasingly common household items. Toddlers are at risk of finger injury and amputation. The US Consumer Product Safety Commission performed an investigation of reported injuries and the characteristics of paper shredders that might have contributed to the injuries, and we summarize their findings.

  3. When to suspect head injury or cervical spine injury in maxillofacial trauma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad A Rahman


    Full Text Available Background: The global status report of the World Health Organization (WHO on road safety suggested that India is leading in road traffic accidents in the world. According to the report on road accidents in India in 2010 by the Transport Research Wing, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, New Delhi, Kerala ranked third in accidents per lakh population and second in persons injured per lakh population. As the face, brain, and cervical spine are in close proximity with one another, associated injuries can be suspected. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the severity of head, cervical spine, and facial injury and incidence of facial injury in patients with head and/or cervical spine injury. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted over a period of one year. The study population included all patients having computed tomography (CT-demonstrable head injury, radiographic evidence of cervical spine injury, and associated head or cervical spine injury with facial injury. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test using statistical package SPSS. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of 124 patients, 59 (47.6% had facial injuries. As severity of head injury increased, the number of facial injuries decreased. Statistically, no significant association between facial and head injury was seen. A statistically significant association between dentoalveolar involvement and cervical spine injury was seen (P < 0.001. The proportion of injuries in patients with cervical spine injuries alone was significantly lower in the frontal (P = 0.001 and orbital (P = 0.004 regions and higher in the mandibular region (P = 0.010. Conclusion: Midface injuries were more commonly associated with head injuries. Decreased facial involvement leads to increased severity of head injury. Simple injuries of the cervical spine were more commonly associated with facial injuries.

  4. Kevlar Vest Protection Against Blast Overpressure Brain Injury: Systemic Contributions to Injury Etiology (United States)


    Award Number: W81XWH-08-2-0017 TITLE: " Kevlar Vest Protection Against Blast Overpressure Brain Injury: Systemic Contributions to Injury Etiology...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER “ Kevlar Vest Protection Against Blast Overpressure Brain Injury: Systemic Contributions to Injury Etiology...traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is largely undefined. Along with reducing mortality, in preliminary experiments Kevlar vests significantly protected

  5. Some observations on whiplash injuries. (United States)

    Evans, R W


    Motor vehicle accidents with a whiplash mechanism of injury are one of the most common causes of neck injuries, with an incidence of perhaps 1 million per year in the United States. Proper adjustment of head restraints can reduce the incidence of neck pain in rear-end collisions by 24%. Persistent neck pain is more common in women by a ratio of 70:30. Whiplash injuries usually result in neck pain owing to myofascial trauma, which has been documented in both animal and human studies. Headaches, reported in 82% of patients acutely, are usually of the muscle contraction type, often associated with greater occipital neuralgia and less often temporomandibular joint syndrome. Occasionally migraine headaches can be precipitated. Dizziness often occurs and can result from vestibular, central, and cervical injury. More than one third of patients acutely complain of paresthesias, which frequently are caused by trigger points and thoracic outlet syndrome and less commonly by cervical radiculopathy. Some studies have indicated that a postconcussion syndrome can develop from a whiplash injury. Interscapular and low back pain are other frequent complaints. Although most patients recover within 3 months after the accident, persistent neck pain and headaches after 2 years are reported by more than 30% and 10% of patients. Risk factors for a less favorable recovery include older age, the presence of interscapular or upper back pain, occipital headache, multiple symptoms or paresthesias at presentation, reduced range of movement of the cervical spine, the presence of an objective neurologic deficit, preexisting degenerative osteoarthritic changes; and the upper middle occupational category. There is only a minimal association of a poor prognosis with the speed or severity of the collision and the extent of vehicle damage. Whiplash injuries result in long-term disability with upward of 6% of patients not returning to work after 1 year. Although litigation is very common and always

  6. [Injuries in the elderly patients]. (United States)

    Hładki, Waldemar; Brongel, Leszek; Lorkowski, Jacek


    More and more higher development of civilisation causes constant lengthening of life in humans. Changes, which occur during growing old of organism predispose to increased risk of trauma. Financial cost of medical treatment of injuries in elderly are higher and higher. Degenerative disease of joints, osteoporosis, earlier body injuries and co-existing other diseases are important risk factors of trauma. Deficiencies of eyesight, hearing and prolonged time reaction are other strengthening risk of trauma. Falls and motor-vehicle accidents are the most frequent causes of trauma in elderly. Distal radius fracture, fracture of the proximal femur bone and compressive vertebral fracture of spine are typical fractures in the skeletal system. Head injuries are the most frequent cause of death in this group of patients. Limited functional reserves, especially in the respiratory and circulatory system brings difficulties in the treatment of even not dangerous injuries of chest and increases risks of infectious complications in respiratory system and finally may lead to organ failure. Elderly patients need more precise physical examination and diagnostics because essential information from the patient's history are often difficult to obtain. Indications to hospitalisation should be often widened even at not dangerous injuries, because the patients may demand intensive analgesic treatment and nursing. Necessity of care provided by other persons, poor care in household conditions, and inadequate social circumstances extend also indications to hospitalisation. There is a need to creation of nursing care departments for considerable group of injured persons who finished proper hospital-treatment, but because of the above-mentioned reasons cannot exist at home.

  7. Injury patterns in recreational rock climbers. (United States)

    Rooks, M D; Johnston, R B; Ensor, C D; McIntosh, B; James, S


    We studied 39 recreational rock climbers to determine the incidence and pattern of injuries sustained in the sport at their level. Eleven climbers (26%), who climbed beyond the sport level, had sustained a major injury from a fall. Thirty-five climbers (89%) sustained at least one significant injury. Fifty percent of the injuries involved the hand or wrist. Only seven climbers (19%) had evidence of a digital pulley injury (climber's finger). Four climbers (11%) had evidence of a carpal tunnel syndrome. Twenty climbers (50%) had tendinitis in an upper extremity on physical examination.

  8. Penetrating abdominal injuries in children in Nigeria. (United States)

    Ameh, E A; Nmadu, P T


    This is a report of a retrospective study of 24 children managed for penetrating abdominal injury over 10 years, and it represents 34% of all abdominal injuries in children in that period. Falls onto sharp objects within and around the home were responsible for ten of the injuries, seven were injured by animal horns and four were sporting injuries. Violence and road traffic accidents were uncommon. Most patients (67%) had evisceration of omentum or intestine, and one of these was found at laparotomy to have a jejuno-jejunal intussusception. Seven children had injury to hollow viscera. There were three deaths, one each from overwhelming sepsis, tetanus and haemorrhage.

  9. Sway as predictor of injuries in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Junge, Tina;

    ). Outcome measures Primary outcome was overuse and traumatic injuries, with special emphasis on ankle and knee sprains. Complaints were registered by SMS-track on a weekly basis, and after a telephone interview, clinicians examined and diagnosed the children with complaints. Injuries were diagnosed using...... ICD-10. Results Injuries: 2276, traumatic injuries: 714, ankle sprains: 164, knee sprains: 42 Preliminary multivariate analysis taking into account competing risk showed significant odds ratios (OR) at test 1; A) 1.003 per cm increase of sway; B) overall traumatic injury OR=3.0, ankle sprain OR=5...

  10. Returning to Work After Electrical Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stergiou-Kita, M.; Mansfield, E.; Bayley, M.


    . The most common advice to others after electrical injuries included: 1) avoiding electrical injury; 2) feeling ready to return to work; 3) filing a Workplace Safety and Insurance Board injury/claims report; 4) proactive self-advocacy; and 5) garnering the assistance of individuals who understood electrical...... injuries to advocate on their behalf. Immediate and persistent physical, cognitive, psychosocial, and support factors can affect individuals' abilities to successfully return to work after an electrical injury. Specialized services and advocacy were viewed as beneficial to successful return to work....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Conclusions: The aerodynamic cross-wind factor merits more studies. Injury reducing measures against alighting injuries, addressing especially step height and slippery conditions, may have a great potential to reduce these injuries. Rear-end collisions by other heavy vehicles in urban areas, causing a high number of “whip-lash” injuries, also need to be further addressed. The newly introduced law on compulsory seat belt use in long distance coaches may have a potential to reduce single vehicle crash and some collision injuries.

  12. Cognitive impairments in patients with brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vladimirovich Zakharov


    Full Text Available The paper gives the data of Russian and foreign authors and the results of this paper authors’ investigation of higher cerebral functions in patients who have sustained brain injury (BI. It shows their high prevalence, the predominance of cognitive impairments (CI over neurological disorders in patients with mild and moderate injury, presents their quantitative and qualitative features (a preponderance of focal symptoms in severe injury and neurodynamic disorders in mild injury, describes the predictors of their course and prognosis (the degree of injury is one of the most important predictors, and discusses current trends in the medical correction of detected abnormalities.

  13. Incidence of injury in kickboxing participation. (United States)

    Romaine, Linda J; Davis, Shala E; Casebolt, Kevin; Harrison, Kelly A


    Cardio kickboxing classes have become a popular form of exercise to enhance fitness. This study surveyed kickboxing participants and instructors to ascertain the severity, type, and incidence of injuries sustained while performing cardio kickboxing exercise. The respondents consisted of 77.4% instructors and 29.3% participants with a mean age of 32.29 years (+/-8.98 years). Injury from kickboxing exercise was reported by 29.3% of the respondents, 31% of the instructors, and 15.5% of the participants. The most common site of injury for instructors was the back, followed by the knee, hip, and shoulder. The most common site of injury for participants was the back, knee, and ankle. Strains were the most common type of injury reported, followed by sprains and tendinitis. More than half of the injuries reported were new injuries (64%), with almost 59% of the total injuries reported causing a disruption of the normal exercise routine or an alteration of normal daily activities. Instructors who reported using music speeds greater than 140 beats per minute had a higher incidence of injury, compared with instructors who used music between 125 and 139 beats per minute. The wrist and elbow had the highest percentage of new injuries reported. This study suggests that kickboxing exercise can be a safe form of exercise for fitness purposes. Keeping music speeds below 140 beats per minute and limiting the number of kickboxing sessions per week may help to reduce injury rates.

  14. Traumatic brain injury-induced sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola-Saltzman M


    Full Text Available Mari Viola-Saltzman, Camelia Musleh Department of Neurology, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, USA Abstract: Sleep disturbances are frequently identified following traumatic brain injury, affecting 30%–70% of persons, and often occur after mild head injury. Insomnia, fatigue, and sleepiness are the most frequent sleep complaints after traumatic brain injury. Sleep apnea, narcolepsy, periodic limb movement disorder, and parasomnias may also occur after a head injury. In addition, depression, anxiety, and pain are common brain injury comorbidities with significant influence on sleep quality. Two types of traumatic brain injury that may negatively impact sleep are acceleration/deceleration injuries causing generalized brain damage and contact injuries causing focal brain damage. Polysomnography, multiple sleep latency testing, and/or actigraphy may be utilized to diagnose sleep disorders after a head injury. Depending on the disorder, treatment may include the use of medications, positive airway pressure, and/or behavioral modifications. Unfortunately, the treatment of sleep disorders associated with traumatic brain injury may not improve neuropsychological function or sleepiness. Keywords: traumatic brain injury, insomnia, hypersomnia, sleep apnea, periodic limb movement disorder, fatigue

  15. Alcohol intake and risk of injury. (United States)

    Cremonte, Mariana; Cherpitel, Cheryl J


    Injuries constitute a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, with intentional injuries and those related to traffic most important, due to their social impact and high prevalence. Although alcohol consumption has been identified as a risk factor for injuries, few studies have assessed risk separately for intentional injuries and unintentional injuries caused by traffic, and by other causes. The objective of this paper was to estimate the risk of injuries after acute alcohol consumption for intentional injuries and unintentional traffic and non-traffic injuries, using, alternatively, two exposure measures: self-reported drinking prior to the event and blood alcohol concentration. A probability sample was collected of 540 patients from the emergency department of a hospital in Argentina. Logistic regressions were performed, with and without adjusting for gender, age and drinking pattern. Higher risks were found when blood alcohol concentration was used as a measure of consumption, compared to self-report. The highest risk estimates were obtained for intentional injuries, followed by unintentional traffic and, lastly, by unintentional non-traffic injuries. After controlling for confounders, risks for intentional and unintentional traffic injuries appeared similar for those above and below the legal limit. Results point to a significant involvement of alcohol in the regional context.

  16. Penetrating eye injuries from writing instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly SP


    Full Text Available Simon P Kelly, Graham MB ReevesThe Royal Bolton Hospital, Bolton, UKPurpose: To consider the potential for ocular injury from writing implements by presenting four such cases, and to consider the incidence of such eye injuries from analysis of a national trauma database.Methods: The Home and Leisure Accident Surveillance System was searched for records of eye injuries from writing instruments to provide UK estimates of such injuries. Four patients with ocular penetrating injury from pens or pencils (especially when caused by children, and examined by the authors, are described which illustrate mechanisms of injury.Results: It is estimated that around 748 ocular pen injuries and 892 ocular pencil injuries of undetermined severity occurred annually in the UK during the database surveillance period 2000–2002. No eye injuries from swords, including toy swords and fencing foils, were reported.Conclusion: Ocular perforation sometimes occur from writing instruments that are thrown in the community, especially by children. Implications for policy and prevention are discussed. Non-specialists should have a low threshold for referring patients with eye injuries if suspicious of ocular penetration, even where caused by everyday objects, such as writing instruments.Keywords: eye injury, eye, children, mechanism, writing instruments, prevention

  17. Severe cerebral vasospasm after traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Fehnel, Corey R; Wendell, Linda C; Potter, N Stevenson; Klinge, Petra; Thompson, Bradford B


    Severe traumatic brain injury is associated with both acute and delayed neuro- logical injury. Cerebral vasospasm is commonly associated with delayed neurological decline in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. However, the role played by vasospasm in traumatic brain injury is less clear. Vasospasm occurs earlier, for a shorter duration, and often without significant neurological consequence among traumatic brain injury patients. Detection and management strategies for vasospasm in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage are not easily transferrable to traumatic brain injury patients. We present a patient with a severe traumatic brain injury who had dramatic improvement following emergent decompressive hemicraniectomy. Two weeks after initial presentation he suffered a precipitous decline despite intensive surveillance. This case illustrates the distinct challenges of diagnosing cerebral vasospasm in the setting of severe traumatic brain injury.

  18. Dendrite Injury Triggers DLK-Independent Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Stone


    Full Text Available Axon injury triggers regeneration through activation of a conserved kinase cascade, which includes the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK. Although dendrites are damaged during stroke, traumatic brain injury, and seizure, it is not known whether mature neurons monitor dendrite injury and initiate regeneration. We probed the response to dendrite damage using model Drosophila neurons. Two larval neuron types regrew dendrites in distinct ways after all dendrites were removed. Dendrite regeneration was also triggered by injury in adults. Next, we tested whether dendrite injury was initiated with the same machinery as axon injury. Surprisingly, DLK, JNK, and fos were dispensable for dendrite regeneration. Moreover, this MAP kinase pathway was not activated by injury to dendrites. Thus, neurons respond to dendrite damage and initiate regeneration without using the conserved DLK cascade that triggers axon regeneration.

  19. Injury risk management plan for volleyball athletes. (United States)

    James, Lachlan P; Kelly, Vincent G; Beckman, Emma M


    Volleyball is an increasingly popular team sport. As with any competitive sport, there is an inherent risk of injury that must be recognized and collaboratively managed. This article provides a practical approach to the management of volleyball injuries within a team or organization. A brief review of the epidemiological data is presented which establishes (i) ankle sprain, (ii) shoulder overuse injury, (iii) patella tendinopathy, and (iv) anterior cruciate ligament injury as the primary injuries to address amongst these athletes. The interaction of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for these injuries are used to classify athletes into high-, medium- and low-risk groups. Targeted training interventions are suggested, based upon the risk level of the athlete, to minimize the occurrence of these injuries. Practical methods for integrating these activities into a training plan are also discussed.

  20. Multiple floating metatarsals: a unique injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vivek Trikha; Tarun Goyal; Amit K Agarwal


    Concomitant dislocation of the tarsometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of foot is an extremely rare injury.Such injuries presenting in a single or adjacent dual rays have been described in few cases previously.We describe such an injury in adjacent three metatarsals of a polytrauma patient.These injuries are likely to be missed in the initial assessment of a polytrauma patient.These patients are at risk of an overlooked diagnosis but the consequences of missing this type of injury may be quite severe.This case is presented in view of its uniqueness along with possible mechanism of injury,the sequence of reduction and follow-up.Knowledge of such injury and its proper management may be useful to the trauma surgeons.

  1. Maxillofacial and dental injuries sustained in hurling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, C


    The incidence of facial injuries in hurling has decreased since the introduction of helmets with facial protection. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence of facial and dental injuries sustained in hurling training or matches and compliance with wearing helmets, with or without modified or unmodified faceguards. This prospective study included all patients who attended the Mid Western Regional Hospital Limerick, with injuries sustained while playing hurling during 2007 and 2008 seasons. The study population included 70 patients. Forty two (60%) injuries occurred during practice and 28(40%) during matches. Fifty two players (75%) sustained facial injuries whilst no helmet was worn. Eighteen injuries (25%) were sustained by players wearing helmets. Th study demonstrates that 60% of injuries occur during training when players do not wear helmets. We support the recent introduction by the GAA making it compulsory to wear helmets with faceguard protection from January 1st 2010.

  2. Injuries in elite Taekwondo Poomsae athletes (United States)

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Ingar, Anas; Jaffery, Ali


    Poomsae is the only non-contact and no opponent form of Taekwondo. The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the type and rate of injuries in elite Canadian Poomsae athletes. Strain and joint dysfunction were the most common types of injuries in Poomsae. Lower limb and back were the most common area of injury in females and males respectively. Females with a lower rank in experience level (DAN≤ 3) were more likely to suffer from chronic overuse injuries compared to their male counterparts, who reported more acute injuries. Athletes ≤40 years of age were more prone to acute injuries compared to athletes over 40. As result of reflection on this study a Poomsae Injury Report Form was developed. PMID:28065994

  3. Soft tissue twisting injuries of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, T.; Shapiro, M. [Neuroimaging Inst., Melbourne, FL (United States)


    Twisting injuries occur as a result of differential motion of different tissue types in injuries with some rotational force. These injuries are well described in brain injuries but, to our knowledge, have not been described in the musculoskeletal literature. We correlated the clinical examination and MR findings of 20 patients with twisting injuries of the soft tissues around the knee. Design and patients: We prospectively followed the clinical courses of 20 patients with knee injuries who had clinical histories and MR findings to suggest twisting injuries of the subcutaneous tissues. Patients with associated internal derangement of the knee (i.e., meniscal tears, ligamentous or bone injuries) were excluded from this study. MR findings to suggest twisting injuries included linear areas of abnormal dark signal on T1-weighted sequences and abnormal bright signal on T2-weighted or short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences and/or signal to suggest hemorrhage within the subcutaneous tissues. These MR criteria were adapted from those established for indirect musculotendinous junction injuries. Results: All 20 patients presented with considerable pain that suggested internal derangement on physical examination by the referring orthopedic surgeons. All presented with injuries associated with rotational force. The patients were placed on a course of protected weight-bearing of the affected extremity for 4 weeks. All patients had pain relief by clinical examination after this period of protected weight-bearing. Twisting injuries of the soft tissues can result in considerable pain that can be confused with internal derangement of the knee on physical examination. Soft tissue twisting injuries need to be recognized on MR examinations as they may be the cause of the patient's pain despite no MR evidence of internal derangement of the knee. The demonstration of soft tissue twisting injuries in a patient with severe knee pain but no documented internal derangement on MR

  4. Development of sympathetic ophthalmia following globe injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying; ZHANG Mao-nian; JIANG Cai-hui; YAO Yi


    Background Sympathetic ophthalmia (SO), a rare, bilateral, diffuse granulomatous uveitis, usually occurs after open globe injury or intraocular surgery. We sought to identify the risk factors for the development of SO after open globe injury and describe their demographic and clinical features and outcomes of treatments.Methods A retrospective study of inpatients with globe injury in 15 tertiary referral hospitals of China from January 2001 to December 2005 was conducted. The information of demography, nature and mechanism of injury, time and ways of treatments and outcomes was reviewed. Diagnosis of SO was made based on a history of ocular trauma or surgery and subsequent development of bilateral or contralateral uveitis consistent with SO. Any association between related parameters and development of SO was analyzed.Results Among 9103 patients (9776 eyes) of globe injury, SO occurred after open globe injury in 18 cases with an occurrence rate of 0.37%, vitrectomy of closed globe injury in 2 (0.37%) and perforation of burned eyes in another 2. For open globe injury, the median age ((36.72±13.59) years, P=0.01) was higher in patients with SO; there were no significant effects of sexes, injury type, uvea proplaps, once or multi-intraocular surgery, once or multi-vitrectomy and endophthalmitis on incidence of SO; 0.70% endophthalmitis concurred with SO; 83.33% of SO occurred within 1 year after injury or last ocular surgery. SO developed in a fellow eye one week after evisceration of the perforating burned eye. Good final visual acuity was obtained in sympathizing eyes with prompt treatment.Conclusions For open globe injuries, SO sufferers were relatively older and any injury type could induce SO with equal possibility. The initial open globe injury was more likely to be the trigger of SO than subsequent intraocular surgeries including vitrectomy. Prophylactic enucleation after injury is not recommended.

  5. Thoracic injury: a review of 276 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moosa Zargar; Ali Khaji; Mojgan Karbakhsh Davari


    Objective: Chest injury, one of the most important aspects of trauma, directly accounts for 25% of all traumarelated deaths and plays a major contributing role in another 25% of trauma deaths. This paper aimed to explore the spectrum and outcome of thoracic injuries seen in a multi centric study of trauma patients.Methods: A total of 276 consecutive trauma patients in 6 general hospitals were analyzed. The feature of injury,injury severity score (ISS), clinical treatment and mortality were recorded in a prospective manner and analyzed retrospectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent predictors of mortality following the chest trauma.Results: There were 246 males ( 89.1%) and 30 females (10.9% ) ranging from 3 to 80 years with a mean age of (34 ± 17) years. Road traffic accident was the main cause of injury, especially for pedestrians, followed by stab wound (89 cases, 32.1% ) and falling injuries (32 cases,11.6% ), respectively. Haemothorax or pneumothorax (50.4%) and rib fracture (38.6%) were the most common types of chest injury. Extremity fracture was the most common associated injury with the rate of 37% ( 85/230), followed by head injury (25.2% ) and abdominal trauma (19.6%). These injuries contributed significantly to the morbidity and mortality of trauma patients.Conclusions: According to the results, most patients with chest injury can be treated conservatively with close observation and tube thoracostomy. The presence of blunt trauma, head injury and abdominal injury independently adversely affect mortality after chest trauma. It is necessary to investigate the causes and patterns of injuries resulting from stab wound for effective prevention.

  6. Facial and Dental Injuries Facial and Dental Injuries in Karate. (United States)

    Vidovic-Stesevic, Vesna; Verna, Carlalberta; Krastl, Gabriel; Kuhl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas


    Karate is a martial art that carries a high trauma risk. Trauma-related Swiss and European karate data are currently unavailable. This survey seeks to increase knowledge of the incidence of traumatic facial and dental injuries, their emergency management, awareness of tooth rescue boxes, the use of mouthguards and their modifications. Interviews were conducted with 420 karate fighters from 43 European countries using a standardized questionnaire. All the participants were semi-professionals. The data were evaluated with respect to gender, kumite level (where a karate practitioner trains against an adversary), and country. Of the 420 fighters interviewed, 213 had experienced facial trauma and 44 had already had dental trauma. A total of 192 athletes had hurt their opponent by inflicting a facial or dental injury, and 290 knew about the possibility of tooth replantation following an avulsion. Only 50 interviewees knew about tooth rescue boxes. Nearly all the individuals interviewed wore a mouthguard (n = 412), and 178 of them had made their own modifications to the guard. The results of the present survey suggest that more information and education in wearing protective gear are required to reduce the incidence of dental injuries in karate.

  7. Injuries to Professional and Amateur Kickboxing Contestants (United States)

    Lystad, Reidar P.


    Background: Kickboxing is a group of full-contact combat sports that allows both kicking and punching from a standing position. Despite its popularity, there is a scarcity of published data elucidating the injury epidemiology in kickboxing. Purpose: To determine the injury incidence, describe the injury pattern, and identify potential risk factors for injury in kickboxing. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Data describing fight outcomes and injuries sustained during professional and amateur kickboxing contests over a 15-year period were obtained from the official records of the Nevada Athletic Commission, United States. Injury incidence rates and rate ratios were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) and per 1000 minutes of exposure. The injury pattern was described using frequencies and proportions of injuries by anatomic region and type of injury. In addition, Poisson mixed-effects generalized linear modeling was used to examine the multivariate relationships between injury incidence rates and potential risk factors. Results: The sample consisted of 481 unique fighters competing across 57 events, 976 AEs, 9562 minutes of exposure, and 380 injuries. The mean ± SD age of the fighters was 29.0 ± 5.3 years (range, 15-48 years). The overall injury incidence rates were 390.1 injuries (95% CI, 351.9-431.4) per 1000 AEs and 39.7 injuries (95% CI, 35.8-43.9) per 1000 minutes of exposure. The most commonly injured anatomic regions were the head (57.8%) and lower extremity (26.1%), while the most common types of injury were laceration (70.6%) and fracture (20.6%). Professional fighters were 2.5 times more likely to get injured compared with amateurs (rate ratio, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.39-4.55), while defeated fighters were 3.5 times more likely to get injured compared with winners (rate ratio, 3.48; 95% CI, 2.73-4.44). Conclusion: Injuries are frequent and often significant in kickboxing, and better injury

  8. Whiplash(-like) injury diagnoses and co-morbidities--both before and after the injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Tom; Kjellberg, Jakob; Ibsen, Rikke;


    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that a greater proportion of neck injury patients, whose injuries were sustained through whiplash accidents, become chronic due to a component of sickness-focusing. However, it is also possible that some of those with neck injuries were already more frail prior...... to the injury, resulting in more consequences from a certain intensity of injury. The objective of this study was to compare co-morbidity and mortality in people with a registered neck injury diagnosis, evaluated prior to and after the neck injury, to people without a registered neck injury evaluated...... at year 1, who thus had no prior data, and for those at year 12 who did not have post data, were not included. The same applied to their individually matched controls. Health data for up to 3 years prior to and up to 3 years after the year of injury were recorded. RESULTS: We identified 94,224 cases...

  9. Muscle after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Bo; Kristensen, Ida Bruun; Kjaer, Michael;


    The morphological and contractile changes of muscles below the level of the lesion after spinal cord injury (SCI) are dramatic. In humans with SCI, a fiber-type transformation away from type I begins 4-7 months post-SCI and reaches a new steady state with predominantly fast glycolytic IIX fibers...... years after the injury. There is a progressive drop in the proportion of slow myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform fibers and a rise in the proportion of fibers that coexpress both the fast and slow MHC isoforms. The oxidative enzymatic activity starts to decline after the first few months post-SCI. Muscles...... from individuals with chronic SCI show less resistance to fatigue, and the speed-related contractile properties change, becoming faster. These findings are also present in animals. Future studies should longitudinally examine changes in muscles from early SCI until steady state is reached in order...

  10. The biology of burn injury. (United States)

    Evers, Lars H; Bhavsar, Dhaval; Mailänder, Peter


    Burn injury is a complex traumatic event with various local and systemic effects, affecting several organ systems beyond the skin. The pathophysiology of the burn patient shows the full spectrum of the complexity of inflammatory response reactions. In the acute phase, inflammation mechanism may have negative effects because of capillary leak, the propagation of inhalation injury and the development of multiple organ failure. Attempts to mediate these processes remain a central subject of burn care research. Conversely, inflammation is a necessary prologue and component in the later-stage processes of wound healing. In this review, we are attempting to present the current science of burn wound pathophysiology and wound healing. We also describe the evolution of innovative strategies for burn management.

  11. Hamstring injuries: Prevention and rehabilitation




    A review was conducted to present current views and effectiveness of prevention and rehabilitation methods of hamstring injuries. Methods: a review searching on the electronic data bases, including Proquest, Medline, Sport Discus, Cinahl plus, Health source Nursing / Academic edition, Academic search complete, Pub med and Scholar Google. Only randomized control studies (RCT'S were included) which contained the intervention and control groups concerning either the prevention or rehabilitation ...

  12. Hydrocolonotherapy ankle joints after injuries


    Volodymyr Muchin; Oleksandr Zviriaka


    Muchin V., Zviriaka O. Purpose: to improve efficiency of gydrokinesitherapy by means of specially designed devices and monolasts for patients after ankle joint injuries. Material & Methods: there are pedagogical methods, clinical and radiological methods, anthropometric measurements and goniometry were used. Results: the author's technique of hydrokinesitherapy with application hydrokinesimechanotherapy device in the program of physical rehabilitation which provides optimum conditions for...

  13. Improved Characterization of Combat Injury (United States)


    of the AIS contain codes for unilateral or bilateral pulmonary contusion , a blast injury to the lung usually involves all lobes, is peripheral, and...overpressure/explosive) not further specified (AIS 3)” in the lung section, with descriptors of mild (AIS 3), moderate (unilateral/bilateral with pulmonary ...fourth cervical vertebra (C4) with cord contusion and incomplete cord syndrome 640214.4 640214.5 From 4 to 5 MAIS 4 5 From severe to critical 2

  14. Hematopoiesis Primer Modeling Combined Injury (United States)


    2010 Feb; 125( Suppl 2):S3-23. Dainiak N, J.K. Waselenko. Biology and clinical features of radiation injury in adults [Internet]. UpToDate ® 2004...Available from: UpToDate %C2%AE%20%27Biolog y%20and%20clinical%20features%20of%20radiation

  15. Talking with eye injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Roberts


    Full Text Available Patients with an eye injury are usually in pain and very frightened. They need a gentle, reassuring approach. Your first task is to assess the general state of your patient. If they are alert and orientated and their general health is good, you can continue to examine them in the eye department. If their immediate general health is at risk, you will have to address this first.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Caine


    Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to

  17. Overuse injuries in classical ballet. (United States)

    Khan, K; Brown, J; Way, S; Vass, N; Crichton, K; Alexander, R; Baxter, A; Butler, M; Wark, J


    Successful management of classical ballet dancers with overuse injuries requires an understanding of the art form, precise knowledge of anatomy and awareness of certain conditions. Turnout is the single most fundamental physical attribute in classical ballet and 'forcing turnout' frequently contributes to overuse injuries. Common presenting conditions arising from the foot and ankle include problems at the first metatarsophalangeal joint, second metatarsal stress fractures, flexor hallucis longus tendinitis and anterior and posterior ankle impingement syndromes. Persistent shin pain in dancers is often due to chronic compartment syndrome, stress fracture of the posteromedial or anterior tibia. Knee pain can arise from patellofemoral syndrome, patellar tendon insertional pathologies, or a combination of both. Hip and back problems are also prevalent in dancers. To speed injury recovery of dancers, it is important for the sports medicine team to cooperate fully. This permits the dancer to benefit from accurate diagnosis, technique correction where necessary, the full range of manual therapies to joint and soft tissue, appropriate strengthening programmes and maintenance of dance fitness during any time out of class with Pilates-based exercises and nutrition advice. Most overuse ballet conditions respond well to a combination of conservative therapies. Those dancers that do require surgical management still depend heavily on ballet-specific rehabilitation for a complete recovery.

  18. Wartime major venous vessel injuries. (United States)

    Hudorovic, Narcis


    The aim of this study is to declare our experience and to identify the important factors that influence the mortality and morbidity in patients with combat-related penetrating wounds of the abdomen (CR-PWA) with major venous vessel injuries. Twenty-six wounded with combat-related injuries of major abdominal venous vessels, admitted in the University Clinic cardiovascular surgery department during the period from 1 August 1991 through 30 October 1995, were analyzed. Patients with concomitant injured arteries and extra-abdominal injuries (n=150; 85.2%) were excluded from this study. The Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index (PATI) score for each patient was calculated. Fifteen patients (57.69%) sustained with PATI score greater than 25 died. The mean duration of hospitalization was 16 days (range 0-86). The average hospitalization time for those surviving their complications was 17 days with a PATI of 25 or less, and 43 days with a score more than 25. Three clinical assessments of the long-term outcome were performed after a median of about 3, 5 and 10 years, respectively. Surviving patients (42.31%) were symptom free and had normal Duplex scans as well as no other surgical related complications. Higher PATI scores, postoperative complications and reoperations exert an unfavorable effect on patient outcome.

  19. Cardiac Penetrating Injuries and Pseudoaneurysm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shifeng


    Objective To discuss the early diagnosis and treatment of cardiac penetrating injuries and pseudoaneurysm. Methods 18 cases of cardiac penetrating injuries, in which 2 cases were complicated with pseudoaneurysm, were diagnosed by emergency operation and color Doppler echocardiography between May 1973 and Dec. 2001 in our hospital. The basis for emergency operation is the injured path locating in cardiac dangerous zone, severe shock or pericardial tamponade. ResultsAmong 18 cases of this study, 17 cases underwent emergency operation. During the operation, 11 cases were found injured in right ventricle, 2 cases were found injured in right atrium, 1 case was found injured in pulmonary artery,4 cases were found injured in left ventricle, 2 cases were found complicated with pseudoaneurysm. 17cases underwent cardiac repair including 1 case of rupture of aneurysm. 1 case underwent elective aneurysm resection. In whole group, 15 cases survived(83.33% ), 3 cases died( 16.67%). The cause of death is mainly hemorrhagic shock. Conclusion Highly suspicious cardiac penetrating injuries or hemopericaridium should undergo direct operative exploration. Pseudoaneurysm should be resected early,which can prevent severe complications.

  20. LA50 in burn injuries. (United States)

    Seyed-Forootan, K; Karimi, H; Motevalian, S A; Momeni, M; Safari, R; Ghadarjani, M


    Burn injuries put a huge financial burden on patients and healthcare systems. They are the 8th leading cause of mortality and the 13th most common cause of morbidity in our country. We used data from our Burn Registry Program to evaluate risk factors for mortality and lethal area fifty percent (LA50) in all burn patients admitted over two years. We used multiple logistic regressions to identify risk factors for mortality. LA50 is a reliable aggregate index for hospital care quality and a good measure for comparing results, also with those of other countries. 28,690 burn patients sought medical attention in the Emergency Department, and 1721 of them were admitted. Male to female ratio was 1,75:1. 514 patients were under 15 years old. Median age was 25 (range: 3 months - 93 years). Overall, probability of death was 8.4%. LA50 was 62.31% (CI 95%: 56.57-70.02) for patients aged 15 and over and 72.52% (CI 95%: 61.01-100) for those under 15. In the final model, we found that Adjusted OR was significant for age, female sex, TBSA and inhalation injury (P age and inhalation injury were the main risk factors for death. Authorities should pay special attention to these variables, especially in prevention programs, to reduce mortality and improve patient outcome. Children have better outcome than adults given equal burn size. Suicide rates are higher for women than men in our country.

  1. [Epidemiology of winter sport injuries]. (United States)

    Heim, D; Weymann, A; Loeliger, U; Matter, P


    The region Davos/Klosters is a big wintersport area in Switzerland, where more than 5 million kilometers of vertical drop are skied per year. Over the last 20 years 28,777 patients with wintersport accidents have been treated in the 100-bed hospital of Davos, 85% of these patients have sustained their accident while skiing. An analysis of these datas show an increase of ski accidents as well as an increase of the distance skied. Especially an increase in snowboard accidents is noted over the last few years with a preponderance of lesions of the upper extremity. Injuries of the head, the trunk and simple skin lacerations remain stable over that period. Injuries of the upper extremity are increasing, whereas lower extremity lesions are slightly decreasing. There is a significant decrease of fractures of the leg, while at the same time an important increase of knee injuries is noted. Young patients below 20 years and those between 31 and 40 years of age sustained less accidents over the last 20 years, while the rest of the alpine skiers remain more or less stable in their accident incidence.

  2. BPSD following traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Anghinah

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Annually, 700,000 people are hospitalized with brain injury acquired after traumatic brain injury (TBI in Brazil. Objective: We aim to review the basic concepts related to TBI, and the most common Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD findings in moderate and severe TBI survivors. We also discussed our strategies used to manage such patients in the post-acute period. Methods: Fifteen TBI outpatients followed at the Center for Cognitive Rehabilitation Post-TBI of the Clinicas Hospital of the University of São Paulo were submitted to a neurological, neuropsychological, speech and occupational therapy evaluation, including the Mini-Mental State Examination. Rehabilitation strategies will then be developed, together with the interdisciplinary team, for each patient individually. Where necessary, the pharmacological approach will be adopted. Results: Our study will discuss options of pharmacologic treatment choices for cognitive, behavioral, or affective disorders following TBI, providing relevant information related to a structured cognitive rehabilitation service and certainly will offer an alternative for patients and families afflicted by TBI. Conclusion: Traumatic brain injury can cause a variety of potentially disabling psychiatric symptoms and syndromes. Combined behavioral and pharmacological strategies, in the treatment of a set of highly challenging behavioral problems, appears to be essential for good patient recovery.

  3. Road traffic injuries in Mozambique. (United States)

    Romão, Francelina; Nizamo, Hanifa; Mapasse, Domingos; Rafico, Momede Mussá; José, João; Mataruca, Simão; Efron, M Lúcia; Omondi, Lucas O; Leifert, Thelma; Bicho, Joaquim M L Marungo


    Road traffic injuries affect the economy, health and quality of life of the people of Mozambique. Current road safety programmes are inadequate and inefficient given the magnitude of the problem. Data reported on road traffic crashes in the period 1990 to 2000 from the National Institute for Road Safety, the traffic police and the Central Hospital of Maputo were reviewed. The burden of road traffic injuries in Mozambique is rising, with at least three people killed daily. The age group most affected is 25-38 (39.35%), followed by 16-24 (20.79%). The main causes of crashes include reckless driving, drunken driving, roads with potholes, inadequate signs, lack of protection for pedestrians, and inadequate traffic law enforcement. However, the data are not adequate to reveal the true magnitude of the problem. Data collected by different sources are incomplete and not coordinated with other sources and databases. In urban areas, however, better response to crashes, treatment of the injured, reporting and data collection is attributable to a greater concentration of police and medical facilities. Road traffic safety programmes in Mozambique are inadequate and inefficient, starting with the data collection system. Improvement of injury surveillance systems is needed to help make road traffic safety a national development agenda priority and for developing and implementing road safety policies. For road safety programmes to be effective, government must facilitate stakeholders' involvement, and the clear definition of government activities, civil society activities and public-private partnerships need to be established.

  4. Major gastroenteric injuries from blunt trauma. (United States)

    Talton, D S; Craig, M H; Hauser, C J; Poole, G V


    Hollow visceral injuries are far less common in blunt abdominal trauma than in penetrating abdominal trauma. From 1982 through 1993 we treated 50 patients with 57 major blunt injuries to the gut, defined as perforation, transection, or devascularization. Thirty-two patients (64%) were injured in motor vehicle collisions. Of these, 29 wore no restraints; three were wearing lap belts (none wore lap-shoulder restraints). Mean injury Severity Score (ISS) in patients wearing lap belts was 13.3, compared with 28.6 in the 29 patients who were not using restraint devices (P injuries, followed by devascularization of the small bowel, colorectal injuries, duodenal, and gastric perforations. ISS and mortality rates were lowest in small bowel injuries and higher in the less common colonic and gastroduodenal injuries. Except for those patients with perforations of the small bowel, most patients had associated injuries to the head, chest, or abdominal solid organs that were largely responsible for morbidity and mortality. Injuries to the abdominal hollow viscera are unusual following blunt trauma, but are the result of very high energy truncal trauma, and are associated with multiple additional injuries. Most alert patients had physical findings suggestive of peritoneal irritation, but when diagnostic testing was necessary, peritoneal lavage was superior to computed tomography scanning (false negatives = 6.7% versus 36%, respectively; P < 0.05). A high index of suspicion is necessary to avoid diagnostic delays that can lead to severe complications and death.

  5. [Diagnosis and treatment of thoracic injuries]. (United States)

    Guguli, M; Gasi, M


    Injuries of the chest isolated or joined with injuries of other organs are distinctly increasing. There are almost no polytraumatic people without thorax injuries. Traffic traumas have a dominant role in causing these injuries. We had most injuries in sammer months. The isolated chest injurie we had 60% and the accompanying injurie 40%. Of the accompanying injuries, the head injurie have the most autstanding place, which especially make difficult the diagnostics, and curing. In heavy injuries of the thorax with paradoxical breathing and on both sides of the leasions, establishing the internal pneumatic stabilisation at the beginning by pulmomatic and then ostheosyntesis of ribs are the most effective therapy. In order to prevent the infections, atracheobronchial dressing with antibiotics is performed as well as the regular X-ray check. As a general rule than 200 ml. per 3 hour requires operative control of the hemorrhage. We had 5,6% thoracothomy after continuous drainage by persstend hemorrhage. The obstructive pneumonia, particularly the eldery are to avoid obstructis, aspiration by catheter with bronchoscopy.

  6. Traumatic Mitral Valve and Pericardial Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nissar Shaikh


    Full Text Available Cardiac injury after blunt trauma is common but underreported. Common cardiac trauma after the blunt chest injury (BCI is cardiac contusion; it is very rare to have cardiac valve injury. The mitral valve injury during chest trauma occurs when extreme pressure is applied at early systole during the isovolumic contraction between the closure of the mitral valve and the opening of the aortic valve. Traumatic mitral valve injury can involve valve leaflet, chordae tendineae, or papillary muscles. For the diagnosis of mitral valve injury, a high index of suspicion is required, as in polytrauma patients, other obvious severe injuries will divert the attention of the treating physician. Clinical picture of patients with mitral valve injury may vary from none to cardiogenic shock. The echocardiogram is the main diagnostic modality of mitral valve injuries. Patient’s clinical condition will dictate the timing and type of surgery or medical therapy. We report a case of mitral valve and pericardial injury in a polytrauma patient, successfully treated in our intensive care unit.

  7. Spinal fractures resulting from traumatic injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heidari Pedram; Zarei Mohammad Reza; Rasouli Mohammad Reza; Alexander R Vaccaro; Rahimi-Movaghar Vafa


    Objective:To illustrate mechanisms of spine fractures and the pattern of spinal injuries characterized by the major mechanisms in urban population of Iran.Methods:Data regarding spinal injuries including demographics,mechanism and level of spinal injury,abbreviated injury score,associated injuries and final fate of the patients were extracted from the Iranian national trauma registry database from 1999 to 2004.Results:A total of 619 patients with traumatic spine fractures were identified,of whom 68.5% were males.The peak frequency of these injuries occurred in the 21-40 year age-group.Accidental falls and road traffic crashes(RTCs)were the most common mechanisms of spinal fractures(47.2% and 44.1%,respectively).RTCs tended to occur in younger patients compared with accidental falls.The most common spinal region for spinal fracture was the lumbar spine(53.63%).Cervical spine fractures were significantly more common in RTCs,while lumbar spine fractures were more common in accidental falls(P<0.001).A total of 171(27.6%)patients had associated non-spinal injuries,of whom 127 had associated extremity injuries,and 55 had head injuries.Thirty-six(5.6%)patients had spinal cord injury(SCI).The injury severity score of the RTC group was significantly higher than that of accidental falls(P=0.002).Fifteen(4%)patients died of traumatic injuries.The rate of death was significantly higher in RTCs compared with accidental falls(5.1% vs 2.1%,P=0.039).Conclusions:The patterns of spinal fractures are similar to those reported from developed countries.RTCs tend to affect the younger age population and are associated with a higher degree of associated injuries and mortality than accidental falls.Therefore preventive strategies should be based on reduction of the number and severity of RTCs.

  8. Clinical Findings in Patients with Splenic Injuries: Are Injuries to the Left Lower Chest Important?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneir, Aaron


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical findings in patients with splenic injury and to determine if isolated left lower chest injury may be the single clinical indicator of splenic injury. The medical records of all adult blunt trauma patients with splenic injury over a 14 month period were reviewed. Significant left lower chest injury was considered present if the patient had left sided pleuritic chest pain with tenderness to ribs 7-12 or if these ribs were visualized as fractured on any imaging study. Patients were considered to have clinical findings suggestive of splenic injury if they had pre-hospital or emergency department hypotension, abdominal pain or tenderness, a Glasgow coma scale < 15, or gross hematuria. Ninety patients had splenic injury. Thirty-nine (43%. 95% CI 33, 54% patients had significant left lower chest injury. In five (6%. 95% CI 2, 12% patients, injury to this portion of the chest was the single indicator of splenic injury. Nearly half the patients with splenic injury will have significant injury to the left lower chest and this finding may be the only indicator of splenic injury.

  9. Serious brain injury coexisting with multiple injuries caused by traffic accidents in 69 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浚; 张鹤飞; 等


    Objective To explore the speciality,diagnosis,cure principle of serious brain injury coexisting with nultiple injuries caused by traffic accidents.Methods To analyze the clinic data of 69 cases of serious rain injury combined by oter parts of injuries caused by traffic accidents received from January 1998 to April 1999.Results This type of injury took up 11.5 percent of brain injuries in the same term and 33.6 percent of serious brain injuries.The specialities of the injury are that most of them were pedestrians crashed by vehicles.Coesisting injuries including chest injury and limb fractures accounted for a large part.The brain injury usally presented profound disturbance of consciousness,being dangerous and complicated,and a high ISS value.After treatment 13 cases died,9 cases was heavily crippled,11 cases lightly crippled,and 36 cases recovered.The death was usually caused by brain injury.Conclusions Road traffic accidents increased substantially every year.Most of them are related with violating drive rules and regulations.It is important to decrease the road traffic accidents by strengthening propaganda on traffic safety and traffic management.The main principles for salvage should emphasize the importance of pre-hospital emergency rescue and the accurate diagnosis rate,especially the distinction between coma and shock.The priority should be put on those injuries threatening to life.

  10. Bladder injuries frequently missed in polytrauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanweer Karim


    Full Text Available Tanweer Karim, Margaret Topno, Vinod Sharma, Raymond Picardo, Ankur HastirSurgery, MGM Medical College, Kamothe, Navi Mumbai, IndiaAbstract: Bladder injuries are very common in patients who have had road traffic accidents. The method of diagnosis and management of such injuries is well established and accepted. However, trauma to the bladder can be associated with other life-threatening injuries which are frequently missed, and often diagnosed during laparotomy for other reasons. The aim of this study was to diagnose bladder injury in polytrauma patients as early as possible, taking into consideration the fact that these patients are hemodynamically unstable and require rapid evaluation and management. In order to achieve our objective, we used bedside sonography with retrograde instillation of normal saline to diagnose bladder injury in addition to use of the conventional retrograde cystogram.Keywords: bladder injury, bladder rupture, retrograde cystogram

  11. [Epidemiology of maxillofacial injuries in athletes]. (United States)

    Mazur, Marcin; Mazur-Psonka, Lidia; Drugacz, Jan; Krajewski-Siuda, Krzysztof


    The general enthusiasm connected with sports activities causes that we often forget about threat connected with careless sports activities. The aim of this paper was the evaluation of causes and frequencies of maxillofacial injuries in hospitalized athletes in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery in Katowice. Period between 1992-2002 was analyzed. Material consisted of 59 patients in whom injury required hospitalization. In studied material the frequency and causes of maxillofacial injuries in athletes in eleven-year period was examined. Male and female patients were divided in two groups: I--team sports and II--individual sports. In analyzed material injuries of upper part of facial skull were not affirmed. Injuries of upper facial massif overweighed its bottom massif injuries.

  12. Traumatic brain injury among Indiana state prisoners. (United States)

    Ray, Bradley; Sapp, Dona; Kincaid, Ashley


    Research on traumatic brain injury among inmates has focused on comparing the rate of traumatic brain injury among offenders to the general population, but also how best to screen for traumatic brain injury among this population. This study administered the short version of the Ohio State University Traumatic Brain Injury Identification Method to all male inmates admitted into Indiana state prisons were screened for a month (N = 831). Results indicate that 35.7% of the inmates reported experiencing a traumatic brain injury during their lifetime and that these inmates were more likely to have a psychiatric disorder and a prior period of incarceration than those without. Logistic regression analysis finds that a traumatic brain injury predicts the likelihood of prior incarceration net of age, race, education, and psychiatric disorder. This study suggests that brief instruments can be successfully implemented into prison screenings to help divert inmates into needed treatment.

  13. Analysis of injuries in taekwondo athletes. (United States)

    Ji, MinJoon


    [Purpose] The present study aims to provide fundamental information on injuries in taekwondo by investigating the categories of injuries that occur in taekwondo and determining the locations of these injuries. [Subjects and Methods] The data of 512 taekwondo athletes were collected. The sampling method was convenience sampling along with non-probability sampling extraction methods. Questionnaire forms were used to obtain the data. [Results] The foot, knee, ankle, thigh, and head were most frequently injured while practicing taekwondo, and contusions, strains, and sprains were the main injuries diagnosed. [Conclusion] It is desirable to decrease the possibility of injuries to the lower extremities for extending participation in taekwondo. Other than the lower extremities, injuries of other specific body parts including the head or neck could be important factors limiting the duration of participation. Therefore, it is necessary to cope with these problems before practicing taekwondo.

  14. Clinical features of diffuse axonal injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective: To analyze the mechanism of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) and study the relationship between DAI and brain concussion, brain contusion, and primary brain stem injury.Methods: The clinical data and iconographic characteristics of 56 patients with DAI were analyzed retrospectively.Results: Traffic accidents were the main cause of DAI. Among the 56 cases, 34 were injured for at least twice, and 71.43% of the patients were complicated with contusion.Conclusions: It is considered that DAI is a common pattern of primary brain injury, which is often underestimated. And DAI includes cerebral concussion and primary brain injury, and is often complicated by cerebral cortex contusion. Therefore, it is very simple and practical to divide primary brain injuries into local and diffuse injuries.

  15. Gymnastics injuries and imaging in children. (United States)

    Keller, Marc S


    Injuries of children participating in gymnastics are seen less often than in more popular sports. Patterns of injury are predictable based upon sex, age and level of intensity of training and competition. More injuries are seen in girls than in boys, and the great majority of early adolescents who compete have wrist pain. Some otherwise quiescent congenital spine anomalies may be uncovered by the stress of gymnastics maneuvers and present with low back pain. In addition to diagnosis of injuries, imaging can be used to guide analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapy in some injured athletes. Parents whose children wish to participate in gymnastics should understand that fewer injuries occur in the child enjoying recreational gymnastics than in competing gymnasts. More gymnastics injuries are found in very competitive athletes training at higher levels.

  16. Gymnastics injuries and imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Marc S. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    Injuries of children participating in gymnastics are seen less often than in more popular sports. Patterns of injury are predictable based upon sex, age and level of intensity of training and competition. More injuries are seen in girls than in boys, and the great majority of early adolescents who compete have wrist pain. Some otherwise quiescent congenital spine anomalies may be uncovered by the stress of gymnastics maneuvers and present with low back pain. In addition to diagnosis of injuries, imaging can be used to guide analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapy in some injured athletes. Parents whose children wish to participate in gymnastics should understand that fewer injuries occur in the child enjoying recreational gymnastics than in competing gymnasts. More gymnastics injuries are found in very competitive athletes training at higher levels. (orig.)

  17. Joint and long-bone gunshot injuries. (United States)

    Dougherty, Paul J; Vaidya, Rahul; Silverton, Craig D; Bartlett, Craig S; Najibi, Soheil


    Gunshot wounds remain a major clinical problem, with the number of nonfatal gunshot wounds reported as 60,000 to 80,000 per year in the United States. Bone or joint injuries comprise a major portion of gunshot wound injuries. It is paramount for orthopaedic surgeons to be thorough in their treatment of patients with these injuries. Intra-articular injuries remain a source of significant clinical morbidity because of joint stiffness, arthritis, and the risk of infection. Treatment of long-bone fractures is a challenging clinical problem, and further studies are needed to investigate modern treatment methods. Lead toxicity is a potential risk for patients with gunshot injuries, particular for those with joint injuries. The clinician's recognition of the signs and symptoms of lead toxicity is important to achieve the best care for these patients.

  18. Sport injuries of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargon, G.


    The article reports on injuries of the cervical spine occurring during sports activities. An attempt is made to reconstruct the movements which led to the cervical spine injuries in question. In two cases of accidents occuring during bathing, one football accident and a toboggan accident, the injuries concerned point to hyperextension of the cervical spine as cause of the injury. In another football accident and a riding accident, the changes observed allow us to conclude that the movement leading to the injury must have been a hyperflexion. One accident occurring while jumping on the trampolin resulted in an injury of the upper cervical spine pointing to the action of a compressive force on the cervical spine in addition to the force resulting in hyperflexion.

  19. [Medical and legal considerations in whiplash injury]. (United States)

    Castillo-Chávez, Miguel Angel


    Whiplash injury usually occurs in people who suffered an automobile accident, but also occurs as a result of physical assault and other mechanisms. Diagnosis and initial management of the patient by the emergency physician or orthopedist, and prescribing indications, are taken into account by two forensic intervention specialists. One of these is the medical officer, who, through analysis of the injury mechanism, establishes a cause-effect relationship and concludes whether the accident suffered by a worker it is related to work or not, determines how long the worker will remain disabled and if the injury caused permanent disability under Federal Labor Law. The medical examiner by injury classification assists the Public Ministry so that it can frame the crime of injury to the Criminal Code of Federal District. For these reasons a review of medical information about the mechanism of injury, diagnosis, treatment and healing time was performed to help both specialists to standardize their approach in their daily activities.

  20. Occupational injuries in automobile repair workers. (United States)

    Vyas, Heer; Das, Subir; Mehta, Shashank


    Mechanics are exposed to varied work stressors such as hot noisy environments, strenuous postures, improperly designed tools and machinery and poor psycho-social environments which may exert an influence on their health and safety. The study aimed to examine the occupational injury patterns and identify work stressors associated with injury amongst automobile mechanics. A descriptive ergonomic checklist and questionnaire on general health and psycho-social issues were administered to male workers (N=153). The relative risk factors and correlation statistics were used to identify the work stressors associated with occupational injury. 63% of the workers reported injuries. Cuts were the chief injuries being reported. Poor work environment, machinery and tool characteristics, suffering from poor health and psycho-social stressors were associated with injury occurrence amongst automobile repair workers.

  1. [Explosion injuries - prehospital care and management]. (United States)

    Holsträter, Thorsten; Holsträter, Susanne; Rein, Daniela; Helm, Matthias; Hossfeld, Björn


    Explosion injuries are not restricted to war-like military conflicts or terrorist attacks. The emergency physician may also encounter such injuries in the private or industrial fields, injuries caused by fireworks or gas explosions. In such cases the injury patterns are especially complex and may consist of blunt and penetrating injuries as well as thermal damage. Emergency medical personnel must be prepared to cope with explosion trauma not only in individual cases but also in major casualty incidents (MCI). This necessitates a sound knowledge about the mechanisms and processes of an explosion as well as the particular pathophysiological relationships of explosion injuries in order to be able to initiate the best possible, guideline-conform trauma therapy.

  2. Cell Delivery System for Traumatic Brain Injury (United States)


    REPORT Cell Delivery System for Traumatic Brain Injury 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We have met all of the milestones outlined in this...COVERED (From - To) 18-Sep-2006 Standard Form 298 (Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - 17-Mar-2008 Cell Delivery System for Traumatic Brain Injury Report...Manassero*, Justin Kim*, Maureen St Georges*, Nicole Esclamado* and Elizabeth Orwin. “Development of a Cell Delivery System for Traumatic Brain Injury Using

  3. Advanced Restoration Therapies in Spinal Cord Injury (United States)


    including but not limited to traumatic brain injury , Alzheimer’s disease, cerebrovascular insults, and leukodystrophy. SECTION 2 – KEYWORDS Spinal...Spinal Cord Injury Annual Report to change our proposed anesthesia method from isofluorane to medetomidine. We have made the appropriate changes and...McKinley, W., and Tulsky, D. (2004). Late neurologic recovery after traumatic spinal cord injury . Arch Phys Med Rehabil 85, 1811-1817. Lorenz, D.J

  4. Anesthesia for Patients with Traumatic Brain Injuries. (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Bishwajit; Maung, Adrian A


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a wide spectrum of disease and disease severity. Because the primary brain injury occurs before the patient enters the health care system, medical interventions seek principally to prevent secondary injury. Anesthesia teams that provide care for patients with TBI both in and out of the operating room should be aware of the specific therapies and needs of this unique and complex patient population.

  5. Perioperative management of traumatic brain injury


    Curry, Parichat; Viernes, Darwin; Sharma, Deepak


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem and the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Despite the modern diagnosis and treatment, the prognosis for patients with TBI remains poor. While severity of primary injury is the major factor determining the outcomes, the secondary injury caused by physiological insults such as hypotension, hypoxemia, hypercarbia, hypocarbia, hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, etc. that develop over time after the onset of the initial inju...


    Journeau, Pierre; Polirzstok, E; Launay, F; Barbier, D


    Sport injuries are common in children and teenaggers, especially overuse injuries. Typical musculoskelotal disorders include apophyseal pains or avulsion, stess fractures, and also epiphyseal ostoochondritis. Some lesions are specific according the practice, such spine or wrist lesions. Prevention of sport injury should be the main priority as well for the parents than the coaches and children themselves. Proper education and preparation, specific training and streching are essential for all sports activities.

  7. Epidemiology of racetrack injuries in racehorses. (United States)

    Parkin, Tim D H


    This article describes the development of epidemiologic analyses of racetrack injury in racehorses. The risk or rate of fatal and nonfatal injury in racing and training around the world is examined. The focus is on the importance of global collaboration and the identification of modifiable risk factors. In particular, exercise-related risk factors for injury are evaluated and the potential impact of interventions discussed.

  8. Sport injuries in Donegal Gaelic footballers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    El-Gohary, Y


    We aimed to identify any pattern of injuries that impacted on the long-term physical wellbeing o f players, sustained by Senior County Gaelic-football players during their playing career and the impact of those injuries on their quality of life. A questionnaire was sent to different Donegal-Panels looking for injuries and surgical procedures undergone in playing and post-playing career including chronic joint and musculoskeletal problems.

  9. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Wakeboarding (United States)

    Starr, Harlan M.; Sanders, Brett


    Background: Wakeboarding is an increasingly popular sport that involves aggressive stunts with high risk for lower extremity injury, including anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Little has been reported on prevalence or mechanism of ACL injury while wakeboarding. Hypothesis: The prevalence of ACL injury in wakeboarding approaches that of other high-risk sports. Analyzing the mechanism of ACL injury may aid in future efforts of prevention. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: In sum, 1580 surveys were sent internationally to professional and amateur wakeboarders. The survey questioned the participants on their history of an ACL tear while wakeboarding and asked them to describe the mechanism of injury and treatment. Results: A total of 123 surveys were returned. Of this group, 52 (42.3%) acknowledged having had an ACL tear while wakeboarding. The majority described feeling a pop or buckle after attempting to land a high jump. Only 5 participants (13.5%) described a rotational mechanism created by catching the board edge in the water. Thirty-seven participants (71.15%) said that the injury ruined their ability to wakeboard before reconstruction, and 41 (78.85%) had the injury repaired surgically. Conclusion: The prevalence of ACL tears in this data set, 42.3%, is the highest reported in the literature for wakeboarding and one of the highest for any sport. The main mechanism of injury appears to involve axial compression while one lands in a provocative position; it is not related to a rotational force created by fixed bindings. The injury should be surgically repaired to effectively continue the sport. Further study is needed to determine if wakeboarding represents a high-risk sport for ACL injury. Clinical Significance: Wakeboarding may be a high-risk sport for ACL injury. Noncontact axial compression appears to be the main mechanism of injury. PMID:23016104

  10. Serious eye injury in badminton players. (United States)

    Kelly, S P


    Serious eye injury can occur in badminton players and may become more frequent. The causes and nature of such injuries in this sport in six patients are discussed. All were playing competitive doubles matches. Penetrating eye injury due to a shattered glass spectacle lens occurred. Players should be advised not to wear spectacles with glass lenses. Ocular protection in this sport is desirable, and the forward player should hold the racket in front of the face.

  11. Traumatic Brain Injury: Same or Different (United States)


    TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY : SAME OR DIFFERENT Kimberly Meyer, ACNP-BC, CNRN Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Traumatic Brain Injury : Same or Different 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...official policy of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or U.S. Government. DISCLOSURES Nothing to disclose TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY Mild

  12. Surgical Treatment of Laser Induced Eye Injuries (United States)


    AD-A234 849 CONTRACT NO.: DAMD17-89-C-9026 TITLE: SURGICAL TREATMENT OF LASER INDUCED EYE INJURIES AUTHORS: Leonard M. Hjelmeland, Maurice B. Landers...62787A 62787A878 BA JDA318205 11. TITLE (Include Secirity Classification) (U) Surgical Treatment of Laser Induced Eye Injuries 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP RA 3; Lasers; Eye injury ; Surgery 09 03 06 04 19. ABSTRACT

  13. Treatment of Laser-Induced Retinal Injuries (United States)


    Distribution List (enclosed) bI’TF rruIoN STATEMEN A Approved for publi reljaso Disatbunon Unlimited TREATMENT OF LASER-INDUCED RETINAL INJURIES FINAL...suprathreshold retinal laser lesions II. Subthreshold retinal laser lesions III. Effect of steroid treatment on laser-induced retinal injury Discussion and...In the present study we investigated the effect of corticosteroid treatment of argon laser-induced retinal injury on vitreal accumulation of both

  14. Temporomandibular joint dysfunction following shotgun injury. (United States)

    Taglialatela Scafati, C; Taglialatela Scafati, S; Gargiulo, M; Cassese, M; Parascandolo, S


    Shotgun injuries to the maxillofacial region may have minor or, more often, devastating consequences. The most important factor in determining the extent of injury is the distance of the victim from the muzzle of the gun: usually, the longer the distance, the less severe the damage. Here is reported a case of shotgun injury sustained from a distance of approximately 10 m in which the deeper penetration of a single lead pellet led to significant involvement of the temporomandibular joint.

  15. Colonoscopic Splenic Injury: A Simplified Radiologic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Chen


    Full Text Available Colonoscopy is a commonly performed procedure for diagnosis and treatment of large bowel diseases. Recognized complications include bleeding and perforation. Splenic injury during colonoscopy is a rare complication. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman who presented with left-sided abdominal pain after colonoscopy with finding of splenic injury on CT scan. She was managed conservatively. We discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to colonoscopic splenic injury.

  16. Colonoscopic Splenic Injury: A Simplified Radiologic Approach (United States)

    Chen, Tara; Kurchin, Alexander


    Colonoscopy is a commonly performed procedure for diagnosis and treatment of large bowel diseases. Recognized complications include bleeding and perforation. Splenic injury during colonoscopy is a rare complication. We report a case of a 73-year-old woman who presented with left-sided abdominal pain after colonoscopy with finding of splenic injury on CT scan. She was managed conservatively. We discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to colonoscopic splenic injury. PMID:28078148

  17. Morphologic studies of high fall injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIA Peng


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: By studying the mode and morphologic character of high fall injuries on the scene, and exploring the injury situation of different heights, different fall ways and postures, to provide a reference for the foren-sic identification of high fall injury. Methods: All the high fall cases were statistically analysed according to their gender, age, ground-touching posture, fall height, site and type of the injury. Results: Among 134 high fall cases, 98 were male and 36 were female with the age ranging from 2-71 years (37.6 ±16.9 on average, in which, 10-60 years old group con-sisted of 110 cases (82%. Most cases fell from windows or roofs (73% and the touching objects were cement ground or shaft bottom of elevators. Among these cases, head injury was generally serious, followed by chest and abdominal injuries. The morphologic changes depend upon the height, nature, as well as the posture at the point while the body touches the ground. Conclusion: Morphologic study of high fall injury assists medicolegal physicians to make correct identifica-tions of the cause and nature of high fall injuries. Key words: Wounds and injuries; Forensic medicine; Anatomy and histology

  18. Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent


    Objectives The objectives of this study were to (i) identify transient risk factors of occupational injuries and (ii) determine if the risk varies with age, injury severity, job task, and industry risk level. Method A case-crossover design was used to examine the effect of seven specific transient...... in relation to sex, age, job task, industry risk level, or injury severity. Conclusion Use of a case-crossover design identified several worker-related transient risk factors (time pressure, feeling sick, being distracted by someone) that led to significantly increased risks for occupational injuries...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Farahvash


    Full Text Available in ordere to determine the prognosis of perforating eye injuries caused hy BB guns in our patients, the"nvisual and anatomic results of 14 patients with gun injuries seen between September 1996 and February 1998 in Farafti Hospital and private office in Tehran were reviewed. Five patients liad nonn erf orating eye injuries. All perforated eyes underwent scleral buckling, tenseclomy, vitrectomy ami silicone injection. All injured iyes had a visual acuity of light perception or better at presentation. Among 9 cases of perforating injuries. 7 had doable and 2 had single perforation. All patients had a final.

  20. Barefoot running: does it prevent injuries? (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G


    Endurance running has evolved over the course of millions of years and it is now one of the most popular sports today. However, the risk of stress injury in distance runners is high because of the repetitive ground impact forces exerted. These injuries are not only detrimental to the runner, but also place a burden on the medical community. Preventative measures are essential to decrease the risk of injury within the sport. Common running injuries include patellofemoral pain syndrome, tibial stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendonitis. Barefoot running, as opposed to shod running (with shoes), has recently received significant attention in both the media and the market place for the potential to promote the healing process, increase performance, and decrease injury rates. However, there is controversy over the use of barefoot running to decrease the overall risk of injury secondary to individual differences in lower extremity alignment, gait patterns, and running biomechanics. While barefoot running may benefit certain types of individuals, differences in running stance and individual biomechanics may actually increase injury risk when transitioning to barefoot running. The purpose of this article is to review the currently available clinical evidence on barefoot running and its effectiveness for preventing injury in the runner. Based on a review of current literature, barefoot running is not a substantiated preventative running measure to reduce injury rates in runners. However, barefoot running utility should be assessed on an athlete-specific basis to determine whether barefoot running will be beneficial.

  1. Primary level management of eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakary Ceesay


    Full Text Available Eye injuries are common and a leading cause of preventable unilateral blindness worldwide. The causes vary, but drawing upon experience from The Gambia and Senegal, trauma is more common during the farming season and among small-scale metal workers working without eye protection. Stick injury is common in children and farmers, sometimes causing a penetrating injury that can result in the affected eye quickly becoming infected. Blunt trauma is common among children, who can be injured with a catapult or stone. The dusty environment is a common cause of corneal, conjunctival and sub-tarsal foreign bodies injuries.

  2. Use of cervical collar after whiplash injuries. (United States)

    Józefiak-Wójtowicz, Anna; Stolarczyk, Artur; Deszczyński, Jarosław Michał; Materek, Magdalena; Pietras, Marta; Bażant, Katarzyna


    Whiplash injuries, also known as neck sprains and strains, are currently some of the most common injuries of the cervical spine. Mechanism of injury is still controversial and current treatment methods do not provide satisfactory results. In this article we present QTF classification of related disorders, epidemiological data and treatment methods. We described basic principles of using a soft collar, goals and effects of collar use and potential complications ensuing from immobilization. Authors reviewed publications comparing the effects of collar use with other methods of treatment and physiotherapy following whiplash injury.

  3. [Mild brain injuries in emergency medicine]. (United States)

    Liimatainen, Suvi; Niskakangas, Tero; Ohman, Juha


    Diagnostics and correct classification of mild brain injuries is challenging. Problems caused by insufficient documentation at the acute phase become more obvious in situations in which legal insurance issues are to be considered. A small proportion of patients with mild brain injury suffer from prolonged symptoms. Medical recording and classification of the brain injury at the initial phase should therefore be carried out in a structured manner. The review deals with the diagnostic problems of mild brain injuries and presents a treatment protocol for adult patients at the acute phase, aiming at avoiding prolonged problems.

  4. Acute injuries of the axis vertebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J.T. (United General Hospital, Sedro Woolley, WA (USA)); Harris, J.H. (Texas Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Dept. of Radiology)


    A retrospective analysis of 165 patients admitted to Hermann Hospital with acute injuries of the axis vertebra revealed 68 (41%) dens fractures, 62 (38%) cases of traumatic spondylolisthesis ('hangman's' fracture), 21 (13%) extension teardrop fractures, 10 (6%) hyperextension dislocations, and 2 (1.0%) fractures each of the laminae and spinous processes. Of the axis injuries 31 (18%) were limited to the axis body alone. Of these, 21 (61%) were hyperextension teardrop fractures and 10 (32%) were hyperextension dislocations. Axis injuries were associated with acute injuries of other cervical vertebrae in 14 (8%) of the patients. (orig./GDG).

  5. Aerospace Accident - Injury Autopsy Data System - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aerospace Accident Injury Autopsy Database System will provide the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) Aerospace Medical Research Team (AMRT) the ability to...

  6. [Injuries in parasailing. A collective GOTS study]. (United States)

    Krüger-Franke, M; Pförringer, W


    Regulations permitting the sport of paragliding were issued on April 15, 1987 by the Department of Transportation in Germany. With the rising number participants in this sport, the number of reported injuries has also been steadily increasing. The herein reported epidemiologic study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with this sport documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. During the period from 1. 1. 1987 until 31. 12. 1989, 218 injuries associated with paragliding were reported in the above mentioned countries. 181 occurred during landing, 28 during start procedures and 9 during flight. The average age of the patients was 29.6 years. The analysis of the localization of the trauma related injury documented 33.9% spinal injuries, 13.8% injuries of the upper extremities and 41.3% of the lower extremities. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In the sport of paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk for injury during the landing phase. Proper equipment especially sturdy shoes, exact training in landing techniques and especially improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings of the individual paraglider is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries.

  7. Cervical spine injuries in American football. (United States)

    Rihn, Jeffrey A; Anderson, David T; Lamb, Kathleen; Deluca, Peter F; Bata, Ahmed; Marchetto, Paul A; Neves, Nuno; Vaccaro, Alexander R


    American football is a high-energy contact sport that places players at risk for cervical spine injuries with potential neurological deficits. Advances in tackling and blocking techniques, rules of the game and medical care of the athlete have been made throughout the past few decades to minimize the risk of cervical injury and improve the management of injuries that do occur. Nonetheless, cervical spine injuries remain a serious concern in the game of American football. Injuries have a wide spectrum of severity. The relatively common 'stinger' is a neuropraxia of a cervical nerve root(s) or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. Less common and more serious an injury, cervical cord neuropraxia is the clinical manifestation of neuropraxia of the cervical spinal cord due to hyperextension, hyperflexion or axial loading. Recent data on American football suggest that approximately 0.2 per 100,000 participants at the high school level and 2 per 100,000 participants at the collegiate level are diagnosed with cervical cord neuropraxia. Characterized by temporary pain, paraesthesias and/or motor weakness in more than one extremity, there is a rapid and complete resolution of symptoms and a normal physical examination within 10 minutes to 48 hours after the initial injury. Stenosis of the spinal canal, whether congenital or acquired, is thought to predispose the athlete to cervical cord neuropraxia. Although quite rare, catastrophic neurological injury is a devastating entity referring to permanent neurological injury or death. The mechanism is most often a forced hyperflexion injury, as occurs when 'spear tackling'. The mean incidence of catastrophic neurological injury over the past 30 years has been approximately 0.5 per 100,000 participants at high school level and 1.5 per 100,000 at the collegiate level. This incidence has decreased significantly when compared with the incidence in the early 1970s. This decrease in the incidence of

  8. Injury potential in modern ice hockey. (United States)

    Sim, F H; Chao, E Y


    The majority of the damaging forces to the soft tissue, bone, and articular joint structures of modern hockey players during the energetic activities involved in the game are attributable to impact action during high-speed motion. In addition, non-contact musculoligamentous injuries are common because of the complex forces that are involved. The injury potential of this sport is assessed indirectly from the force and motion involved. The experimental method of measuring the kinematic motion and the impact forces inherent to the sport are presented. Although hockey is a fast and furious game with high injury potential, fortunately the number of serious injuries is not as great as one might expect.

  9. 7 CFR 29.6021 - Injury. (United States)


    ... bacterial diseases which attack tobacco in its cured state. (See definition of Damage.) Injury to tobacco... growth inhibitors; nutritional deficiencies or excesses; or improper fertilization, harvesting,...

  10. Seatbelt triad: severe abdominal wall disruption, hollow viscus injury, and major vascular injury. (United States)

    Kulvatunyou, Narong; Albrecht, Roxie M; Bender, Jeffrey S; Friese, Randy S; Joseph, Bellal; Latifi, Rifat; O'Keefe, Terrance; Wynn, Julie L; Rhee, Peter M


    The triad of seatbelt-related severe abdominal wall disruption, hollow viscus injury, and distal abdominal aortic injury after a motor vehicle collision is uncommon. We present a small case series involving those three clinical features with the goal of preventing a future missed diagnosis of the distal abdominal aortic injury in particular.

  11. Quality of Life Following Brain Injury: Perspectives from Brain Injury Association of America State Affiliates (United States)

    Degeneffe, Charles Edmund; Tucker, Mark


    Objective: to examine the perspectives of brain injury professionals concerning family members' feelings about the quality of life experienced by individuals with brain injuries. Participants: participating in the study were 28 individuals in leadership positions with the state affiliates of the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA). Methods:…

  12. Chronic issues related to traumatic brain injury : traumatic brain injury is not an incident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grauwmeijer, Erik; van der Naalt, Joukje; ribbers, gerard


    Despite an increased awareness of the long-term consequences of traumatic brain injury, health care professionals often consider traumatic brain injury as an incident. However, patients with traumatic brain injury may experience long-term neurological, cognitive and behavioural problems. Due to the

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats Induces Lung Injury and Systemic Immune Suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Aslami, Hamid; Fluiter, Kees; Roelofs, Joris J.; van den Bergh, Walter M.; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Van der Sluijs, Koen; van de Beek, Diederik; van Westerloo, David J.


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently complicated by acute lung injury, which is predictive for poor outcome. However, it is unclear whether lung injury develops independently or as a result of mechanical ventilation after TBI. Further, TBI is strongly associated with the development of pneumon

  14. Spinal Injuries in an Airplane Crash : A Description of Incidence, Morphology, and Injury Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, I. L E; Oner, F. C.; Bijlsma, T. S.; Heetveld, M. J.; Goslings, J. C.; Bloemers, F. W.


    Study Design. Retrospective cohort. Objective. Spinal injuries of the survivors of an airplane crash are described. On the basis of injury morphology and knowledge of the conditions of the accident, injury mechanisms are described and prevention measures are discussed. Summary of Background Data. Th

  15. Traumatic brain injury: Age at injury influences dementia risk after TBI


    Johnson, Victoria E.; Stewart, William


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for dementia. New data provide further support for this association and demonstrate the influence of age at injury and injury severity on dementia risk after TBI, revealing that even mild TBI increases dementia risk in those aged ≥65 years.

  16. Injuries from Combat Explosions in Iraq: Injury Type, Location, and Severity (United States)


    caused by explosions will assist in the mitigation, treatment , and rehabilitation of the effects of these injuries . 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...column injury except for cervical vertebral column, trunk, back and buttocks, upper extremity unspecified, hip, upper leg and thigh, knee, other... injuries due to explosions will improve themitigation, treatment , and rehabilitation of combat explosion consequences in survivors. This comprehensive

  17. Blunt Cardiac Injury in Trauma Patients with Thoracic Aortic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathachai Kaewlai


    Full Text Available Trauma patients with thoracic aortic injury (TAI suffer blunt cardiac injury (BCI at variable frequencies. This investigation aimed to determine the frequency of BCI in trauma patients with TAI and compare with those without TAI. All trauma patients with TAI who had admission electrocardiography (ECG and serum creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB from January 1999 to May 2009 were included as a study group at a level I trauma center. BCI was diagnosed if there was a positive ECG with either an elevated CK-MB or abnormal echocardiography. There were 26 patients (19 men, mean age 45.1 years, mean ISS 34.4 in the study group; 20 had evidence of BCI. Of 52 patients in the control group (38 men, mean age 46.9 years, mean ISS 38.7, eighteen had evidence of BCI. There was a significantly higher rate of BCI in trauma patients with TAI versus those without TAI (77% versus 35%, P<0.001.

  18. Heridas por Mordedura / Bites Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coturel A


    Full Text Available Injuries for animal bites are a common cause of consultation to emergency services. However there are still controversies about some aspects of their treatment. It is not recommended to brush the wound area but to flush the surface with isoosmolar saline. The primary wound closure is justified when improves the cosmetic outcome and has no increase risk of infection. Antibiotic prophylaxis is allways indicated in cats or humans bites. The drug of choice is amoxicillin clavulanate.The tetanus vaccine should be indicated when the patient has not full vaccination scheme and rabies vaccine in cases of suspected or confirmed infected animals.

  19. Radiological imaging of sports injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masciocchi, C. [L`Aquila Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Radiology


    Sports medicine is acquiring an important role owing to the increasing number of sports-active people and professional athletes. Accurate diagnosis of the different pathological conditions is therefore of fundamental importance. This book provides an overview of the most frequently observed conditions and correlates them with sports activities, as well as documenting relatively unknown lesions of increasing significance. Diagnostic techniques are described and compared, and their roles defined; interpretative pitfalls ar highlighted. All of the contributing authors have distinguished themselves in the field and have a deep knowledge of the problem involved in the diagnosis and classification of sports injuries. (orig.) 265 figs.

  20. Injuries of the external ear. (United States)

    Templer, J; Renner, G J


    Ear injuries occur in people of all ages but predominate in active people such as wrestlers, boxers, and bike riders. The types and extent of injury are a function of the force causing the injury. Shearing forces of moderate intensity cause hematoma formation, whereas greater force causes lacerations or even amputation. Sharp objects cause lacerations determined by the force, direction, and point of impact. The high ratio of surface area to mass makes the auricle vulnerable to extremes of temperature. People participating in high-risk activities should wear protective headgear. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal contours while preventing infection. Hematoma results in disfigurement by organization or chondritis. Evacuation and pressure dressings using sterile technique correct the condition. Second-degree burns are treated by regular cleansing and application of topical antimicrobials. Deeper burns require debridement, biologic dressings, or burying the cartilage subcutaneously for later reconstruction. Simple lacerations are closed under aseptic technique using either skin-to-skin sutures only or sutures of the skin combined with intercartilage sutures. Extensive and complex lacerations require meticulous care to match all fragments and prevent infection or loss of tissue. Bare cartilage must be covered with vascularized tissue. The treatment of total amputation is controversial. Some advocate reattachment as a composite graft using intravenous low molecular weight dextrans and heparin as adjuvants. Mladick dermabrades the amputated pinna, reattaches it with sutures, and then slips it into a pocket of elevated postauricular skin for 2 weeks. Others urge microvascular reanastomosis of the small nutrient vessels. Brent and Byrd separate the cartilage from its overlying skin and envelope it first with vascularized temporoparietal fascia and then a split-thickness skin graft. Chondritis is the most feared complication of injury or surgery of the pinna. It

  1. Hypopituitarism after traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Fernandez-Rodriguez, Eva; Bernabeu, Ignacio; Castro, Ana I; Casanueva, Felipe F


    The prevalence of hypopituitarism after traumatic brain (TBI) injury is widely variable in the literature; a meta-analysis determined a pooled prevalence of anterior hypopituitarism of 27.5%. Growth hormone deficiency is the most prevalent hormone insufficiency after TBI; however, the prevalence of each type of pituitary deficiency is influenced by the assays used for diagnosis, severity of head trauma, and time of evaluation. Recent studies have demonstrated improvement in cognitive function and cognitive quality of life with substitution therapy in GH-deficient patients after TBI.

  2. Diagnosis of heel pad injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoli, Sara

    of the present thesis is to obtain a thorough understanding of the mechanical properties of in vivo human heel pad by studying the anatomical and physiological structure of healthy and diseased tissue, and to develop quantitative methods for diagnosing injuries. A compression device was built in order to record...... load-displacement curves from in vivo heel pads. To ensure applicability also for pathological feet, the device uses force levels lower than those needed to reproduce the physiological conditions of walking. One hundred twenty seven healthy volunteers were enrolled for compression tests and ultrasound...

  3. Purpura Fulminans following Thermal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiongyu Hu


    Full Text Available Purpura fulminans is a rare syndrome of intravascular thrombosis and hemorrhagic infarction of the skin, which is an unusual cutaneous manifestation of disseminated intravascular coagulation. It often occurs in small children and babies due to infection and/or sepsis, rarely in adults in clinic. We report the first case of deadly purpura fulminans following thermal injury in a 64-year-old Chinese woman. The purpura developed sharply and aggravated multiple organ dysfunction. The patient died of purpura fulminans, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

  4. Interleukin-1 and neuronal injury. (United States)

    Allan, Stuart M; Tyrrell, Pippa J; Rothwell, Nancy J


    Interleukin-1 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has numerous biological effects, including activation of many inflammatory processes (through activation of T cells, for example), induction of expression of acute-phase proteins, an important function in neuroimmune responses and direct effects on the brain itself. There is now extensive evidence to support the direct involvement of interleukin-1 in the neuronal injury that occurs in both acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. This article discusses the key evidence of a role for interleukin-1 in acute neurodegeneration - for example, stroke and brain trauma - and provides a rationale for targeting the interleukin-1 system as a therapeutic strategy.

  5. China's Cheerleading Research Review%我国啦啦操研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋纪娟; 陈瑞琴


    In this paper,the China 2006-2015 decade La exercises research involved content is divided into three levels of review,objectively reflecting our La exercises content and standards in scientific research,so as to find out the current Chinese cheer operation problems in scientific research. This article is benefit for making sure the direction of scientific research.%通过对2006-2015年10年间啦啦操科研文献所涉及的内容,将其划分为3个层面进行研究综述,客观反映啦啦操科学研究的内容和水准,找出目前啦啦操科学研究中所存在的部分问题,有助于明确啦啦操科学研究的方向。

  6. Research or "Cheerleading"? Scholarship on Community School District 2, New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois Weiner


    Full Text Available This article examines data on student achievement and school demographics not explored by the researchers who have promoted Community School District 2 (CSD 2 as a model of urban school reform that should be replicated elsewhere. Data on achievement indicate a remarkable degree of social and racial stratification among CSD 2's schools and levels of achievement that closely correlate with race, ethnicity, and poverty. In addition, when CSD 2's scores on state and city tests of mathematics are compared with results from CSD 25 in Queens, a school district that serves a population demographically similar, the superiority of its functioning becomes questionable. The article explains why the design of research on CSD 2 illustrates the perils to both research and policy when university-based researchers assume the role of “cheerleader” (Cuban, 1988, promoting reforms they have aided in implementing and assessing.

  7. Prevalence of Injury in Ultra Trail Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliaropoulos Nikolaos


    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the study was to find the rate of musculoskeletal injuries in ultra-trail runners, investigate the most sensitive anatomical areas, and discover associated predicting factors to aid in the effective prevention and rapid rehabilitation of trail running injuries. Methods. Forty ultra trail runners responded to an epidemiological questionnaire. Results. At least one running injury was reported by 90% of the sample, with a total of 135 injuries were reported (111 overuse injuries, 24 appeared during competing. Lower back pain was the most common source of injury (42.5%. Running in the mountains (p = 0.0004 and following a personalized training schedule (p = 0.0995 were found to be protective factors. Runners involved in physical labor are associated with more injuries (p = 0.058. Higher-level runners are associated with more injuries than lower-level cohorts (p = 0.067, with symptoms most commonly arising in the lower back (p = 0.091, hip joint (p = 0.083, and the plantar surface of the foot (p = 0.054. Experienced runners (> 6 years are at greater risk of developing injuries (p = 0.001, especially in the lower back (p = 0.012, tibia (p = 0.049, and the plantar surface of the foot (p = 0 .028. Double training sessions could cause hip joint injury (p = 0.060. Conclusions. In order to avoid injury, it is recommended to train mostly on mountain trails and have a training program designed by professionals.

  8. Cross-border firing and injury patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nital Gupta


    Full Text Available Introduction: Cross-border firing are increasingly being common in the modern era. The injuries resulting from these low intensity conflicts are a source of anxiety among treating physicians and their respective governments. The provisions are required to minimise the suffering of the victims viz. Mode of injuries, mortality patterns, adequacy of treatment at pre-hospital and tertiary care hospital and provisions to decrease morbidity and mortality for the people living in these areas. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in GMCH, Jammu who suffered injuries due to cross border firing in the month of October, 2014. 68 patients were reported in the causality wing. All the patients were referred from level 2 trauma centre. There were 51 males and 17 females out of which 5 were children. The cause of injury, involvement of organ system, cause of mortality and morbidity and loopholes in prehospital management were identified. Results: Sharpnel were the most common cause of injury followed by indirect trauma. The common cause of mortality was abdominal and thoracic injuries. There were 4 deaths at hospital 2 of which were brought dead and 2 died during the course of treatment. There were twenty patients with extremity injuries, fourteen with chest trauma, eleven with abdomen including parineal injuries, three with head injuries, eight with ENT injuries, three with eye injuries and nine with splinters in the back out of which two were in the spinal canal. Conclusion: Prehospital stabilisation, early transport, in-transit resuscitation, immediate surgery if required and implementation of triage model and ATLS protocol has been the key to reduce mortality and morbidity.

  9. Soleus muscle injury: sensitivity of ultrasound patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balius, Ramon [Sport Catalan Council, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Clinica CMI Diagonal, Barcelona (Spain); Rodas, Gil [F.C. Barcelona Medical Services, Barcelona (Spain); Pedret, Carles [Clinica CMI Diagonal, Barcelona (Spain); Clinica Mapfre de Medicina del Tenis, Sports Medicine and Imaging Department, Barcelona (Spain); Centre de Diagnostic per Imatge de Tarragona, Tarragona (Spain); Capdevila, Lluis [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Laboratory of Sport Psychology, Barcelona (Spain); Alomar, Xavier [Clinica Creu Blanca, Barcelona (Spain); Bong, David A. [Instituto Poal de Reumatologia, Barcelona (Spain)


    To assess the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting soleus muscle lesions diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to characterize their location, ultrasound pattern, and evolution. Ultrasound and MRI studies were performed between May 2009 and February 2013 on all patients who presented to the Medical Services Clinic of the Catalan Sport Council with the initial onset of sharp pain in the calf compatible with injury of the soleus muscle. An inter-observer ultrasound reliability study was also performed. A total of 55 cases of soleus injury were studied prospectively (22 with right leg involvement, 33 left) by ultrasound and MRI, which was utilized as the ''gold standard.'' In MRI studies, 24 cases (43.7 %) had myofascial injuries that were localized in the posterior aponeurosis (PMF) in 15 cases (27.3 %) and in the anterior aponeurosis (AMF) in 9 (16.4 %). Thirty-one cases (56.3 %) were musculotendinous injuries, with 9 cases (16.4 %) in the medial aponeurosis (MMT), 11 cases (20 %) in the lateral aponeurosis (LMT), and 11 cases (20 %) in the central tendon (CMT). In comparison to MRI, ultrasound was able to detect injury to the soleus in 27.2 % of cases. No injuries were detected by ultrasound alone. Posterior myofascial injuries were more likely to be detected by ultrasound than anterior myofascial injuries or all types of musculotendinous injuries. Ultrasound patterns for each type of injury were described. Ultrasound is not a sensitive technique for detecting and assessing soleus traumatic tears compared with MRI, although the sensitivity is enhanced by a thorough anatomically based ultrasound examination. Timing of the ultrasound examination may be of importance. Each type of soleus injury appears to have a characteristic ultrasound pattern based on a defect of connective expansions, the existence of small myofascial filiform collections, and the rarefaction of the fibrillar area. (orig.)

  10. Preventing unintentional injury in children and adolescents--the importance of local injury data collection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Carroll, C


    We sought to prospectively study all injuries in children and adolescents up to 16 years of age presenting to a regional Emergency Department (ED), to ascertain detailed injury patterns and to use this data to recommend injury prevention priorities. Electronic injury surveillance was prospectively collected over a 10 year period (1997-2007) in a hospital with a paediatric catchment population of 75,000 in a region with pockets of high social deprivation. All fatalities were obtained from data provided by the Central Statistics Office (CSO). Over a 10 year period, there were 31 fatalities, 5,408 admissions and 40,817 new attendances due to injury. Males outnumbered females in a 3:2 ratio. Of all injuries 24,317 (60%) occurred at home. Peak injury presentation time was in the evening between 18:00 and 20:00. Minor injuries (bruises, minor head injuries, lacerations and sprains) accounted for 32,456 (80%) of total. Fractures resulting from high falls (n=1,194) tended to result from bunk beds, staircases, horses, walls and playground equipment. Burns (n=630) involved hot liquids (tea, coffee), hot bath water, hot cooking oil and hot cooking plates. Pedestrian injuries (n=251) were predominantly \\'dart outs\\' in urban areas. Car passenger injuries (n=869) showed low rates of documented car restraint use. Poisonings (n= 1,153) were predominantly medicinal products. Cyclist injuries (n=477) indicated low documented use of appropriate helmet wear. Prevention priorities should focus on home injuries, hot liquid burn and scald injuries and high falls from walls, beds and playground equipment. To prevent road-related injuries and deaths, further legislation, urban planning and greater police enforcement is required.

  11. Apelin-13 as a novel target for intervention in secondary injury after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-jun Bao


    Full Text Available The adipocytokine, apelin-13, is an abundantly expressed peptide in the nervous system. Apelin-13 protects the brain against ischemia/reperfusion injury and attenuates traumatic brain injury by suppressing autophagy. However, secondary apelin-13 effects on traumatic brain injury-induced neural cell death and blood-brain barrier integrity are still not clear. Here, we found that apelin-13 significantly decreases cerebral water content, mitigates blood-brain barrier destruction, reduces aquaporin-4 expression, diminishes caspase-3 and Bax expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and reduces apoptosis. These results show that apelin-13 attenuates secondary injury after traumatic brain injury and exerts a neuroprotective effect

  12. Cardiac injuries caused by blunt trauma: an autopsy based assessment of the injury pattern. (United States)

    Turan, Arzu Akcay; Karayel, Ferah Anik; Akyildiz, Elif; Pakis, Isil; Uzun, Ibrahim; Gurpinar, Kagan; Atilmis, Umit; Kir, Ziya


    Nonpenetrating chest trauma with injury to the heart and aorta has become increasingly common, particularly as a result of rapid deceleration in high-speed vehicular accidents, over the past 2-3 decades. The high mortality rate of cardiac injuries and possible late onset complications make blunt cardiac injuries an important challenging point for legal medicine. One hundred and ninety cases with blunt cardiac injuries in a period of 3 years were analyzed retrospectively in terms of patterns of cardiac injury, survival times, and demographic profiles of the cases in this study.

  13. Radius fracture from an electrical injury involving an electric guitar. (United States)

    Pappano, Dante


    Electrical injury ranges widely from simple shock and mild burns to more extensive superficial injury, internal injury, and mortality. Bony fracture from electrically-induced tetanic muscle contraction is a rare but recognized injury. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy who suffered a minor burn and radius fracture related to an electrical injury involving his electric guitar. An interesting pattern is emerging from available case reports of similar injuries.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the main causes of death and disability in young adults, with consequences ranging from physical disabilities to long - term cognitive, behavioural, psychological and social defects. Recently, c linical evidence has demonstrated that TBI may frequently cause hypothalamic – pituitary dysfunction, probably contributing to a delayed or hampered recovery from TBI. CASE REPORT: 32 year s old female presented with a history of fall from two wheeler on back hitting the head on occipital region with no history of vomiting, loss of consciousness, ENT bleed. Her GCS was 15/15. Patient was asymptomatic and was discharged from hospital on fifth day. Seven days after discharge patient again presented with heavine ss in her both breasts associated with pain and whitish discharge from both the nipples and mild fever since last two days. CONCLUSION: TBI is a public health problem that requires more effective strategies to improve the outcome and minimize disability of the affected patients. Changes in pituitary hormone secretion may be observed during the acute phase post - TBI, representing part of the acute adaptive response to the injury. Neuroendocrine disturbances, caused by damage to the pituitary and/or hypothalam us, is a frequent complication of TBI and may occur at any time after the acute event. Pituitary dysfunction presents more frequently as an isolated, and more rarely as a complete, deficiency.

  15. Traumatic brain injury and reserve. (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D; Stern, Yaakov


    The potential role of brain and cognitive reserve in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is reviewed. Brain reserve capacity (BRC) refers to preinjury quantitative measures such as brain size that relate to outcome. Higher BRC implies threshold differences when clinical deficits will become apparent after injury, where those individuals with higher BRC require more pathology to reach that threshold. Cognitive reserve (CR) refers to how flexibly and efficiently the individual makes use of available brain resources. The CR model suggests the brain actively attempts to cope with brain damage by using pre-existing cognitive processing approaches or by enlisting compensatory approaches. Standard proxies for CR include education and IQ although this has expanded to include literacy, occupational attainment, engagement in leisure activities, and the integrity of social networks. Most research on BRC and CR has taken place in aging and degenerative disease but these concepts likely apply to the effects of TBI, especially with regards to recovery. Since high rates of TBI occur in those under age 35, both CR and BRC factors likely relate to how the individual copes with TBI over the lifespan. These factors may be particularly relevant to the relationship of developing dementia in the individual who has sustained a TBI earlier in life.

  16. [Multiple injuries in mass accidents]. (United States)

    Wondrák, E


    The treatment starts with reanimation, managing the shock, followed by life-saving surgery on the central nervous system, chest, abdomen, large blood vessels and the uropoietic system. From the very beginning the therapy should be conducted on an intradisciplinary basis, first with the anaesthesiologist, later with other specialists as required. Once the patient's life has been saved, treatment of eyes, hands and systematic attention to extremities should follow. Shock has to be managed within 24 hours. Luxations of large joints should be reposed on the date of injury, open fractures closed, all fractures immobilized in favourable position. No extension should be applied in patients suffering from brain injuries; fractures of the femur should be fixed surgically by a second team in the course of the neurosurgical operation. A stomatologist's assistance makes general anaesthesia possible even with fractures of the jaw. In mass accidents the therapeutic plan for the polytraumatized should be fixed on the following day. A mass accident involving 35 injured treated within two and a half hours demonstrates this procedure in 7 polytraumatized persons.

  17. Prevention of farm injuries in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Carstensen, Ole; Lauritsen, Jens


    This study examined the effects of a 4-year randomized intervention program that combined a safety audit with safety behavior training in the prevention of farm injuries.......This study examined the effects of a 4-year randomized intervention program that combined a safety audit with safety behavior training in the prevention of farm injuries....

  18. Understanding Traumatic Brain Injury: An Introduction (United States)

    Trudel, Tina M.; Scherer, Marcia J.; Elias, Eileen


    This article is the first of a multi-part series on traumatic brain injury (TBI). Historically, TBI has received very limited national public policy attention and support. However since it has become the signature injury of the military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, TBI has gained the attention of elected officials, military leaders,…

  19. Work-related injuries in trade apprentices. (United States)

    Driscoll, T; Hanson, M


    This study attempted to identify and describe all work-related injuries in a cohort of trade apprentices at the Canberra Institute of Technology over an approximate one-year period. In 997 persons followed for a total of 198,456 days of exposure there were 771 injuries of which 191 were classed as serious (defined as at least one day off work and/or received sutures and/or required hospital treatment). The most common circumstance of injury was a cut to the fingers or hand while using a sharp-edged, non-powered hand tool. At least 52 persons required hospital treatment and another 51 required suturing. Overall rates of injury were 222 (95 per cent confidence interval (CI) = 193 to 256) injuries per 1000 full time equivalents (FTEs) and 169 (95% CI = 147 to 193) injured persons per 1000 persons. Injury rates adjusted for stage (year of course) were significantly different between schools and were highest in the construction and engineering trades groups (chi 2(5) = 57.30, P work-related injury and provides important insights into the characteristics of work-related injuries in trade apprentices. These have significant implications for the safety expectations apprentices may bring to the workplace and for the appropriate targeting of occupational health and safety training of apprentices in the trade occupations.

  20. Experimental Injury Biomechanics of the Pediatric Neck (United States)

    Nightingale, Roger W.; Luck, Jason F.

    Motor vehicle related crashes rank as the most common cause of spinal related injuries in the pediatric population (Platzer et al. 2007; Brown et al. 2001; Kokoska et al. 2001; Eleraky et al. 2000; Hamilton and Myles 1992a; Bonadio 1993; Babcock 1975). Pediatric spinal related trauma accounts for between 1 and 12 % of all spinal related injuries (Hamilton and Myles 1992a; Hadley et al. 1988; Aufdermaur 1974). Cervical spine trauma in children accounts for approximately 2 % of all cervical spinal injuries (Henrys et al. 1977). Approximately 1-2 % of all children admitted for traumatic injury are related to injuries to the cervical spine (Platzer et al. 2007; Brown et al. 2001; Kokoska et al. 2001; Orenstein et al. 1994; Rachesky et al. 1987). Overall, pediatric neck injury rates are significantly lower than adult rates; however, the neck injury rate in children between the ages of 11 and 15 years approaches the adult rate of 18.8 per 100,000 (McGrory et al 1993; Myers and Winkelstein 1995). For children less than 11 years of age, neck injuries are relatively rare (1.2 per 100,000), but have particularly devastating consequences (McGrory et al. 1993). The overall mortality rate amongst victims of pediatric spinal trauma is approximately 16-41 % but considerably higher for the youngest ages (Platzer et al. 2007; Brown et al. 2001; Kokoska et al. 2001; Eleraky et al. 2000; Givens et al. 1996; Orenstein et al. 1994; Hamilton and Myles 1992b).

  1. Illness representations in patients with hand injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y


    Differences in illness perception about hand injury may partly explain the variation in health behaviours such as adherence to post-operative therapy, coping strategy, emotional response and eventual clinical outcome. This study examined the illness perception of patients with hand injuries in the acute trauma setting.

  2. Outcome after complicated minor head injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Hunink, M.G.; Rijssel, DA van; Dekker, H.M.; Vos, P.E.; Kool, D.R.; Nederkoorn, P.J.; Hofman, P.A.; Twijnstra, A.; Tanghe, H.L.; Dippel, D.W.


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Functional outcome in patients with minor head injury with neurocranial traumatic findings on CT is largely unknown. We hypothesized that certain CT findings may be predictive of poor functional outcome. Materials and METHODS: All patients from the CT in Head Injury Patients

  3. [Differentiated treatment of acute diffuse brain injuries]. (United States)

    Pedachenko, E G; Dziak, L A; Sirko, A G


    Diagnosis and treatment results of 57 patients with acute diffuse brain injury have been analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups: first study period 2000-2005; second study period 2006-2010. The main differences between the first and the second study periods were in health condition and brain functions monitoring parameters, therapy approaches and goals. Increasing of axial and lateral dislocation symptoms during progression from the first type of diffuse injury to the fourth one is related to intracranial hypertension (ICH) occurrence rate and significance it's significance. During the second study period, ICH was found in 25% patients with the second type of injury, 57% patients with the third type of injury, and 80%, with the fourth type of injury. Mean ICP in the group of patients with the second type of diffuse injury comprised 14.4 +/- 6.6 mmHg; with the third type of injury, 30 +/- 20.6 mmHg; with the fourth type of injuty, 37.6 +/- 14.1 mmHg. Introduction of differentiated approach to conservative or surgical treatment method application to acute diffuse brain injuries patients based on ICP monitoring data led to 13.8% reduction in mortality in the second study period compared with the first study period.

  4. Clinimetric measurement in traumatic brain injuries. (United States)

    Opara, J A; Małecka, E; Szczygiel, J


    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Every year, about 1.5 million affected people die and several millions receive emergency treatment. Most of the burden (90%) is in low and middle-income countries. The costs of care depend on the level of disability. The burden of care after traumatic brain injury is caused by disability as well as by psychosocial and emotional sequelae of injury. The final consequence of brain injury is the reduction of quality of life. It is very difficult to predict the outcome after traumatic brain injury. The basic clinical model included four predictors: age, score in Glasgow coma scale, pupil reactivity, and the presence of major extracranial injury. These are the neuroradiological markers of recovery after TBI (CT, MRI and PET) and biomarkers: genetic markers of ApoE Gene, ectoenzyme CD 38 (cluster of differentiation 38), serum S100B, myelin basic protein (MBP), neuron specific endolase (NSE), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GPAP). These are many clinimetric scales which are helpful in prognosing after head injury. In this review paper, the most commonly used scales evaluating the level of consciousness after traumatic brain injury have been presented.

  5. On Impact: Students with Head Injuries (United States)

    Canto, Angela I.; Chesire, David J.; Buckley, Valerie A.


    Students with head injuries may not be as "low incidence" as previously believed. Recent efforts from the American Academy of Pediatrics (2010), the National Football League, and other agencies are attempting to raise awareness of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among students. Along with awareness, there has been an increased publicity effort via…

  6. Epidemiology of Nonfatal Injuries among Schoolchildren (United States)

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed; Al-Awamreh, Khetam; Gharaibeh, Huda; Al-Kloub, Manal; Batiha, Abdul-Monim; Alhalaiqa, Fadwa; Hamadneh, Shereen


    Nonfatal injuries are considered as one of the major public health hazards affecting schoolchildren, and the majority of these injuries occur at school or in the home. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 3 months, March-May 2015. The participants were 4,355 Jordanian schoolchildren in Grades 7-12. The Pearson ?[superscript 2]…

  7. Training errors and running related injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Buist, Ida; Sørensen, Henrik;


    The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries.......The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries....

  8. Facial Firework Injury: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashyap Tadisina


    Full Text Available Fireworks are used to celebrate a variety of religious, patriotic, and cultural holidays and events around the world. Fireworks are common in the United States, with the most popular holiday for their use being national Independence Day, also known as July Fourth. The use of fireworks within the context of celebrations and holidays presents the ideal environment for accidents that lead to severe and dangerous injuries. Injuries to the face from explosions present a challenging problem in terms of restoring ideal ocular, oral, and facial function. Despite the well documented prevalence of firework use and injury, there is a relatively large deficit in the literature in terms of firework injury that involves the face. We present a unique case series that includes 4 adult male patients all with severe firework injuries to the face that presented at an urban level 1 trauma center. These four patients had an average age of 26.7 years old and presented within 5 hours of each other starting on July Fourth. Two patients died from their injuries and two patients underwent reconstructive surgical management, one of which had two follow up surgeries. We explore in detail their presentation, management, and subsequent outcomes as an attempt to add to the very limited data in the field of facial firework blast injury. In addition, the coincidence of their presentation within the same 5 hours brings into question the availability of the fireworks involved, and the possibility of similar injuries related to this type of firework in the future.

  9. Morphologic studies of high fall injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Peng; CHANG Hong-fa; YU Yong-min; DAI Guo-xin; LI Hong-wei; JIANG Qiang-guo; YIN Zhi-yong


    Objective:By studying the mode and morphologic character of high fall injuries on the scene,and exploring the injury situation of different heights,different fall ways and postures,to provide a reference for the forensic identification of high fall injury.Methods:All the high fall cases were statistically analysed according to their gender,age,ground-touching posture,fall height,site and type of the injury.Results:Among 134 high fall cases,98 were male and 36 were female with the age ranging from 2-71 years (37.6±16.9 on average),in which,10-60 years old group consisted of 110 cases (82%).Most cases fell from windows or roofs (73%) and the touching objects were cement ground or shaft bottom of elevators.Among these cases,head injury was generally serious,followed by chest and abdominal injuries.The morphologic changes depend upon the height,nature,as well as the posture at the point while the body touches the ground.Conclusion:Morphologic study of high fall injury assists medicolegal physicians to make correct identifications of the cause and nature of high fall injuries.

  10. Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  11. Trauma and sports injuries of the elbow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kodde, I.F.


    This thesis deals with current issues in the management of trauma and sports injuries of the elbow. Common sports injuries of the elbow involve ruptures of the distal biceps tendon and the ulnar collateral ligament. We evaluated one of the current thoughts, that the height of the radial bicipital tu

  12. Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Peeters (Wouter); R. van den Brande (Ruben); S. Polinder (Suzanne); A. Brazinova (Alexandra); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); A.I.R. Maas (Andrew)


    textabstractBackground: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a critical public health and socio-economic problem throughout the world, making epidemiological monitoring of incidence, prevalence and outcome of TBI necessary. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in Europe and to

  13. Reducing injury of lettuce from phosphine fumigation (United States)

    Low temperature fumigation with pure phosphine free of ammonia has been used in recent years for postharvest pest control on some fresh fruits and vegetables. However, long fumigation treatments cause injuries to lettuce. It is unknown what factors contributed to the injuries. It is important to min...

  14. Motor learning in ACL injury prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjaminse, Anne


    Motor learning in ACL injury prevention
Anne Benjaminse

The physical and psychosocial consequences of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are large, for example limitations in daily life, reduction of sports participation, development of osteoarthritis in the knee and increased risk for re-r

  15. Boxing Injuries from an Instructional Program. (United States)

    Welch, Michael J.; And Others


    This paper describes the safeguards as well as the injury pattern of the boxing program at the US Military Academy at West Point from 1983 to 1985. About 2,100 cadets received boxing instruction during this period with an injury rate of less than four percent. (Author/MT)

  16. Novel Insights into Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Meuffels (Duncan)


    textabstractAnterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is one of the most common sports injuries of the knee. ACL reconstruction has become, standard orthopaedic practice worldwide with an estimated 175,000 reconstructions per year in the United States.6 The ACL remains the most frequently studied liga

  17. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention reduces injury incidence in Physical Education Teacher Education students. (United States)

    Goossens, L; Cardon, G; Witvrouw, E; Steyaert, A; De Clercq, D


    Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students are at considerable risk for non-contact sports injuries of the lower extremities. Multifactorial injury prevention interventions including exercises have been successful in sports populations, but no such study has ever been performed in PETE students. This study investigated the efficacy of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention on injury incidence reduction in PETE students. PETE students in the intervention group (n = 154) and in the control group (n = 189) registered sports injuries prospectively. The intervention lasted one academic year and consisted of an injury awareness programme and preventive strategies, implemented by the PETE sports lecturers. Differences in injury incidence between the intervention and control group were tested by Poisson regression Wald tests. There was a trend towards significantly lower incidence rate (2.18 vs. 2.73; p = 0.061) in the intervention group compared with the control group. Students in the intervention group had significantly less acute, first-time and extracurricular injuries. The largest reduction was observed for injuries during unsupervised practice sessions. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention embedded into a regular PETE programme is a promising and feasible strategy to prevent injuries in PETE students. Further research is needed to investigate whether the results may be generalised to other PETE programmes.

  18. Axillary artery injury as a complication of proximal humerus fractures. (United States)

    McLaughlin, J A; Light, R; Lustrin, I


    Proximal humerus fractures are common injuries and represent approximately 5% of all fractures. These fractures are infrequently associated with neurovascular injuries. Brachial plexus injuries are uncommon, whereas axillary artery injuries are rare. A review of 19 previously reported cases of axillary artery injury after proximal humerus fracture revealed that 84% occurred in patients older than 50 years, 53% were associated with brachial plexus injury, and 21% resulted in upper extremity amputation. This study describes a case of axillary artery injury after proximal humerus fracture and, on the basis of a literature review, offers suggestions for the early diagnosis and effective treatment of this uncommon injury.

  19. Effect of matrine hydrochloride on liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-bo; XU Feng; MA Wen-hui


    Objective Searching the function that the Injection of the matrine hydrochloride prevents and cures acute chemical liver injury of mice、 immunity liver injury of mice and chronic liver injury of rats. Methods Acute hepatic injury models of mice induced by Chemical poison carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), thioacetamide(TAA), D-galactosamine(D-GalN), immunity hepatic injury model of mice induced by BCG and fat polysaccharide (LPS), chronic liver injury model of rats induced by CCI, were introduced in the experiment. The serum ALT and AST were measured in acute hepatic injury experiments. Serum ALT, AST, AKP, ALB, TP, BiL-T, ereatinine, triglyceride, sialie acid, larninin, hyaluronic acid, type Ⅲ proeollagen and type Ⅳ collagen, hepatic hydroxyproline (HyP) of rats in chronic liver injury animals were determined after Injection of the matrine hydrochloride. Results The Injection of the matrine hydrochloride reduced serum ALT and AST level of acute chemical liver injury of mice induced by CCl4, TAA and D-GaIN. The index of the liver and the spleen of immunity liver injury of mice induced by BCG and LPS were decreased after the injection of matrine hydrochloride treatment. Compared with the model group, the injection may obviously inhibited serum ALT, AST, TP, AKP, TRI, BiL-T, creatinine, triglyceride, sialic acid, laminin , hyaluronic acid , type Ⅲ procollagen and type Ⅳ collagen activity of chronic liver injury of rats induced by CCl4, elevated ALB、A/G, reduced the liver HyP, decreased the index of the liver and the spleen. The liver visual observation, the pathology inspection and the HAI grading result showed the injection may reduce the inflammatory activity in liver tissue, restrain the liver cell damage, reduce the pseudolobuli formation. Conclusions The Injection of matrine hydrochloride had the protective function to acute chemical hepatic injury of mice induced by CCl4、TAA、D-GalN、immunity hepatic injury of mice induced by the BCG and LPS and

  20. Youth Football Injuries: A Prospective Cohort (United States)

    Peterson, Andrew R.; Kruse, Adam J.; Meester, Scott M.; Olson, Tyler S.; Riedle, Benjamin N.; Slayman, Tyler G.; Domeyer, Todd J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Smoot, M. Kyle


    Background: There are approximately 2.8 million youth football players between the ages of 7 and 14 years in the United States. Rates of injury in this population are poorly described. Recent studies have reported injury rates between 2.3% and 30.4% per season and between 8.5 and 43 per 1000 exposures. Hypothesis: Youth flag football has a lower injury rate than youth tackle football. The concussion rates in flag football are lower than in tackle football. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Three large youth (grades 2-7) football leagues with a total of 3794 players were enrolled. Research personnel partnered with the leagues to provide electronic attendance and injury reporting systems. Researchers had access to deidentified player data and injury information. Injury rates for both the tackle and flag leagues were calculated and compared using Poisson regression with a log link. The probability an injury was severe and an injury resulted in a concussion were modeled using logistic regression. For these 2 responses, best subset model selection was performed, and the model with the minimum Akaike information criterion value was chosen as best. Kaplan-Meier curves were examined to compare time loss due to injury for various subgroups of the population. Finally, time loss was modeled using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: A total of 46,416 exposures and 128 injuries were reported. The mean age at injury was 10.64 years. The hazard ratio for tackle football (compared with flag football) was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.25-0.80; P = .0065). The rate of severe injuries per exposure for tackle football was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.33-3.4; P = .93) times that of the flag league. The rate for concussions in tackle football per exposure was 0.51 (95% CI, 0.16-1.7; P = .27) times that of the flag league. Conclusion: Injury is more likely to occur in youth flag football than in youth tackle football. Severe injuries and concussions were not significantly

  1. Low intensity laser treatment of nerve injuries (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Luo, Qing-Ming


    The neural regeneration and functional recovery after nerve injuries has long been an important field in neuroscience. Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation is a novel and useful tool for the treatment of many injuries and disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the role of LIL irradiation in the treatment of peripheral and central nerve injuries. Some animal experiments and clinical investigations have shown beneficial effects of LIL irradiation on neural tissues, but its therapeutic value and efficacy are controversial. Reviewing the data of experimental and clinical studies by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation in specific parameters can promote the regeneration of injured peripheral and central nerves and LIL therapy is a safe and valuable treatment for superficial peripheral nerve injuries and spinal cord injury. The biological effects of LIL treatment depend largely on laser wavelength, power and dose per site and effective irradiation doses are location-specific.

  2. Injury profiles of road traffic deaths. (United States)

    Santamariña-Rubio, Elena; Pérez, Katherine; Ricart, Isabel; Arroyo, Amparo; Castellà, Josep; Borrell, Carme


    The objective is to describe injuries of road traffic deaths in Barcelona and identify injury profiles by road user type, through a cross-sectional study including road traffic deaths for the period 1997-2004. The data source was the Institut de Medicina Legal de Catalunya. Diagnoses were coded using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification, and classified using the Barell Matrix. Of the 719 deaths studied, 45% were pedestrians, 32% two wheel motor vehicle users, and 23% car occupants. The injury profile of the road traffic deaths in Barcelona is internal injuries and fractures to the torso and to the head/neck. This profile is repeated in all the road user groups, although pedestrians present higher frequencies of fractures and contusions to extremities and contusions to the head/neck, and fewer internal torso injuries than car occupants or two wheel motor vehicle users.

  3. Cardiac arrhythmias associated with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hector, Sven Magnus; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Krassioukov, Andrei;


    CONTEXT/OBJECTIVES: To review the current literature to reveal the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and its relation to spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Data source: MEDLINE database, 304 hits, and 32 articles were found to be relevant. The relevant articles all met the inclusion criteria: (1......) contained original data (2) on cardiac arrhythmias (3) in humans with (4) traumatic SCI. RESULTS: In the acute phase of SCI (1-14 days after injury) more cranial as well as more severe injuries seemed to increase the incidence of bradycardia. Articles not covering the first 14 days after injury, thus...... as during procedures such as penile vibro-stimulation and tracheal suction. These episodes of bradycardia were seen more often in individuals with cervical injuries. Longitudinal studies with continuous electrocardiogram recordings are needed to uncover the true relation between cardiac arrhythmias and SCI....

  4. Mechanisms of enhanced lung injury during sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czermak, B J; Breckwoldt, M; Ravage, Z B;


    A major complication in sepsis is progressively impaired lung function and susceptibility to intrapulmonary infection. Why sepsis predisposes the lung to injury is not clear. In the current studies, rats were rendered septic by cecal ligation/puncture and evaluated for increased susceptibility...... to injury after a direct pulmonary insult (deposition of IgG immune complexes or airway instillation of lipopolysaccharide). By itself, cecal ligation/puncture did not produce evidence of lung injury. However, after a direct pulmonary insult, lung injury in septic animals was significantly enhanced...... or treatment with anti-C5a abolished all evidence of enhanced lung injury in septic animals. When stimulated in vitro, bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages from septic animals had greatly enhanced CXC chemokine responses as compared with macrophages from sham-operated animals or from septic animals that had been...

  5. High Injury Incidence in Adolescent Female Soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Møller, Merete


    BACKGROUND: Previous studies report varying rates of time-loss injuries in adolescent female soccer, ranging from 2.4 to 5.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures or 2.5 to 3.7 per 1000 hours of exposure. However, these studies collected data using traditional injury reports from coaches or medical staff......, with methods that significantly underestimate injury rates compared with players' self-reports. PURPOSE: The primary aim was to investigate the injury incidence in adolescent female soccer using self-reports via mobile telephone text messaging. The secondary aim was to explore the association between soccer...... exposure, playing level, and injury risk. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study and cohort study; Level of evidence, 2 and 3. METHODS: During a full adolescent female soccer season in Denmark (February-June 2012), a population-based sample of 498 girls aged 15 to 18 years was included...

  6. Rabbit lung injury induced by explosive decompression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective: To study the mechanism of rabbit lunginjury caused by explosive decompression. Methods: A total of 42 rabbits and 10 rats were served as the experimental animals. A slow recompressiondecompression test and an explosive decompression test were applied to the animals, respectively. And the effects of the given tests on the animals were discussed. Results: The slow recompression-decompression did not cause an obvious lung injury, but the explosive decompression did cause lung injuries in different degrees. The greater the decompression range was, the shorter the decompression duration was, and the heavier the lung injuries were. Conclusions: Explosive decompression can cause a similar lung injury as shock wave does. The primary mechanical causes of the lung injury might be a tensile strain or stress in the alveolar wall and the pulmonary surface's impacts on the inside wall of the chest.

  7. Treatment of very severe brain injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振九; 杨佳勇; 冯承宣; 宋伟健; 孙强


    Objective: To sum up the experience in treating very severe traumatic brain injuries.Methods: Retrospective analysis of 68 patients with very severe traumatic brain injuries treated in our hospital from 1997 to 2002 was done.Results: Forty-one (60%) patients died. In the 50 patients treated surgically 27 (40%) survived, 8 recovered well, 9 had moderate disability and 10 had sever deficits. The 18 patients treated non-operatively all died.Conclusions: Much attention should be given to the observation of the changes of severe brain injuries with cranial base injury. Timely operative decompression, basic life support, keeping effective brain blood perfusion and effective oxygen supply, improving cerebral microcirculation and preventing or controlling complications are the main methods to raise the successful rate of treating very severe brain injuries and the life quality of the patients.

  8. Landmine-related injuries, 1993-1996. (United States)


    During 1980-1993, the incidence of landmine-related injuries doubled, resulting in an estimated 2000 deaths or injuries each month. Approximately 120 million landmines are buried in 71 countries throughout the world, and 2-5 million new landmines are planted each year. Some countries, such as Afghanistan, Angola, and Cambodia, have approximately 10 million landmines each. Landmines can have profound medical, environmental, and economic consequences, particularly for the civilian populations of those countries burdened with landmines. However, the consequences of landmines extend beyond the borders of those countries. Health-care workers and nongovernmental organizations are increasingly asked to assist emergency-affected, displaced, and refugee populations in regional conflicts, resulting in their increased exposure to landmines. This report describes three cases of landmine-related injury and illustrates the public health consequences of those injuries and the potential role for public health workers in preventing those injuries.

  9. Lower extremity injuries sustained while farming. (United States)

    Neil, Janice A


    Today's complex farm environment can pose many threats to the lower extremities of all people especially those with chronic diseases that affect the lower extremities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of injuries to the lower extremities among farmers and to rank the importance of these incidents in order to plan prevention programs. one hundred farmers were surveyed at a large farm show in the southeastern United States. An average of 4.86 injuries per farmer were reported. Blisters from work shoes or boots, followed by injuries from animals stepping on the feet were the most common injuries. Since those with chronic illnesses are especially prone to injury and disability, regular foot assessments, evaluation, and education about the hazards of farming are mainstays of prevention.

  10. Systematic evaluation of brachial plexus injuries. (United States)

    Haynes, S


    Brachial plexus injuries offer a unique challenge to the athletic trainer because of their relatively high frequency rate in contact sports and because of the complexity of the neuroanatomy in the cervical area. During a game, athletic trainers must make a fast, accurate decision regarding a player's return to competition. It is imperative that the athletic trainer be able to quickly differentiate between minor injuries and more serious injuries warranting removal from the game and/or physician referral. A systematic approach to the evaluation of a brachial plexus injury is essential to ensure proper treatment. This paper will present a structured approach to an on-the-field assessment of brachial plexus injuries.

  11. Recognition and Prevention of Rugby Injuries. (United States)

    Tomasin, J D; Martin, D F; Curl, W W


    In brief: Rugby is a popular, strenuous contact sport that demands almost continuous action by the players. Players, coaches, and physicians must be aware of the potential for and types of injuries that occur during matches and of ways to avoid, or at least reduce, this number and severity. Minor and moderate injuries are more frequent than severe injuries, but all must be regarded seriously. Concussions, although relatively rare, can have serious consequences, and cervical spine injuries can be catastrophic. Player fitness and conditioning and a pregame warm-up are all essential for preventing injuries. Equally important are coaching, adherence to the rules of the game, and avoidance of dangerous play. If these measures are practiced consistently, rugby will be safer.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Cumps


    Full Text Available This prospective cohort study aims to assess the overall incidence of acute and overuse basketball injuries and identifies risk factors associated with ankle sprains and knee overuse injuries. In total, 164 senior players (23.7 years ± 7.0 of all levels of play, and including both men and women, participated voluntarily during one season. A total of 139 acute and 87 overuse injuries were reported, resulting in an overall injury incidence of 9.8 (8.5 to 11.1 per 1,000 hours. The incidence of acute injuries was 6.0/1,000 hours. Ankle sprains (n = 34 accounted for most acute injuries, and 52.9% of all players with ankle sprains reported a previous ankle sprain. Relative Risks (RR and Odds Ratio (OR with their 95% Confidence Intervals (CI were calculated to determine significant differences. Landing on an opponent's foot was the major inciting event, significantly more so than non contact mechanisms (RR=2.1 [95% CI: 1.0-4.2]. Acute knee injuries resulted in the highest playing absence (7 weeks 2 days ± 9 weeks 1 day. Overuse injury incidence was 3.8/1,000 hours. The knee (1.5/1,000 hours was the most common site. Forward players sustained less knee overuse injuries than players of all other playing positions, and significantly less than center players (OR=0.5 [95% CI: 0.2-0.9]. This study showed that ankle sprains and overuse knee injuries are the most common injuries in basketball, both accounting for 14.8%. Injury prevention programmes however should not concentrate on those injuries only, but might one to consider that acute knee injuries, in spite of the fact that they occur less frequently, also merit further research.

  13. Expertise of body injuries in criminal procedure. (United States)

    Gutevska, A; Cakar, Z; Duma, A; Poposka, V


    In the every day practice of answering questions from the area of medicine, today there is growing need for forensic medical expertise of body injuries in the criminal procedure. Furthermore, when qualifying the body injury, the expert must possess knowledge and experience not only medical, but also he/she must be aware of the legal requirements and norms from the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia. This will enable the expert to contribute to explanation and clarification of certain facts and issues related to the body injury. In this paper, by citing Articles 255 and 256 from the Code of Criminal Procedure, it is explained how expert can be adequately selected by the court. In addition to this, by citing Article 271 from the aforementioned Code, a way of analysing body injuries is defined; and finally, defining of body injuries is explained through citing of Article 130 and 131 from the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia, which is regarding body injury and grave body injury. The aim of this paper is to outline the method of performing these forensic medical expertises, i.e. by who and when can expertise of body injuries be asked and moreover, what is the legal and ethical responsiblity of the expert during the execution of the expertise. Additionally, the steps that the expert should follow when preparing a written statement and opinion for the type of the body injury are explained. More specifically, emphasis is placed on expert's requirements after examination of injured individual; after revision of the medical documentation during expertise of body injuries in criminal subjects; and providing oral statement and opinion during the criminal procedure.

  14. Expertise in bodily injuries in criminal procedure. (United States)

    Gutevska, A; Cakar, Z; Duma, A; Poposka, V


    In the day-to-day practice of answering questions from the area of medicine today, there is a growing need for forensic medical expertise in bodily injuries in criminal procedure. Furthermore, when qualifying a bodily injury, the expert must possess knowledge and experience not only medical, but s/he must also be aware of the legal requirements and norms of the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia. This will enable the expert to contribute to the explanation and clarification of certain facts and issues relating to the bodily injury. In this paper, by citing Articles 255 and 256 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, it is explained how an expert can be appropriately selected by the court. In addition to this, by citing Article 271 of the afore-mentioned Code, a way of analysing bodily injuries is defined; and finally, the definition of bodily injuries is explained through citing Articles 130 and 131 of the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia, relating to bodily injury and grave bodily injury. The aim of this paper is to outline the method of performing this forensic medical expertise, i.e. by whom and when can expertise in bodily injuries be sought and, moreover, what is the legal and ethical responsibility of the expert during the execution of the expertise. Additionally, the steps that the expert should follow when preparing a written statement and opinion on the type of the bodily injury are explained. More specifically, emphasis is placed on the expert's requirements after examination of the injured individual; after revision of the medical documentation during expert assessment of bodily injuries in the case of criminal subjects; and providing oral statements and opinions during the criminal procedure.

  15. Traumatic brain injuries: Forensic and expertise aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuleković Petar


    Full Text Available Introduction. Traumatic brain injuries have major socio-economic importance due to their frequency, high mortality and serious consequences. According to their nature the consequences of these injuries may be classified as neurological, psychiatric and esthetic. Various lesions of brain structures cause neurological consequences such as disturbance of motor functions, sensibility, coordination or involuntary movements, speech disturbances and other deviations, as well as epilepsy. Psychiatric consequences include cognitive deficit, emotional disturbances and behavior disturbances. Criminal-legal aspect of traumatic brain injuries and litigation. Criminal-legal aspect of traumatic brain injuries expertise understands the qualification of these injuries as mild, serious and qualified serious body injuries as well as the expertise about the mechanisms of their occurrence. Litigation expertise includes the estimation of pain, fear, diminished, i.e. lost vital activity and disability, esthetic marring, and psychological suffer based on the diminished general vital activity and esthetic marring. Competence and timing of expertise. Evaluation of consequences of traumatic brain injuries should be performed only when it can be positively confirmed that they are permanent, i.e. at least one year after the injury. Expertise of these injuries is interdisciplinary. Among clinical doctors the most competent medical expert is the one who is in charge for diagnostics and injury treatment, with the recommendation to avoid, if possible, the doctor who conducted treatment. For the estimation of general vital activity, the neurological consequences, pain and esthetic marring expertise, the most competent doctors are neurosurgeon and neurologist. Psychological psychiatric consequences and fear expertise have to be performed by the psychiatrist. Specialists of forensic medicine contribute with knowledge of criminal low and legal expertise.

  16. [Pattern of injuries and prophylaxis in paragliding]. (United States)

    Schulze, W; Hesse, B; Blatter, G; Schmidtler, B; Muhr, G


    This study will present trends and recommendations to increase active and passive safety in paragliding on the basis of current state-of-the-art equipment and typical patterns of injury. This German-Swiss teamwork presents data of 55 male and 9 female patients treated after paragliding accidents between 1994 to 1998 respectively 1996 to 1998. 43.7% of the pilots presented with multiple injuries, 62.5% suffered spinal fractures and 18.8% pelvic fractures. 28.4% of the injured pilots were admitted with injuries of the lower extremities mainly affecting the tarsus or the ankle joint. Only three patients with single injuries could be treated in an ambulatory setting. 54.0% of the injuries left the patients with lasting functional residues and complaints. Main causes of accidents were either pilot error in handling the paraglider or general lack of awareness about potential risk factors. 46.0% of injuries occurred during landing, 42.9% of injuries during the flight and another 11.1% of injuries during starting procedures. With noticeable enhanced performance sails of the beginners and intermediate level are increasingly popular. Protective helmets and sturdy footwear reaching above the ankle joint are indispensable pieces of equipment. The use of protective gloves is highly recommended. Back protection devices of the new generation provide the best passive prophylaxis for the pilot against pelvic and spinal cord injuries. This area hold the most promise for increasing safety and reducing risk of injury in future, apart from using beginners and intermediate wings. After acquisition of the pilot license performance and security training provide the best preparing to master unforeseeable situations.

  17. Endovascular repair of blunt popliteal arterial injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Xiquan; Chen, Zhong; Zhu, Wei; Pan, Xiaolin [Dept. of nterventional Vascular, The 148th Hospital of Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Zibo (China); Dong, Peng; Sun, Yequan [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Weifang Medical University, Weifang (China); Qi, Deming [Dept. of Medical Imaging, Qilu Medical University, Zibo (China)


    To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of endovascular repair for blunt popliteal arterial injuries. A retrospective analysis of seven patients with clinical suspicion of popliteal arterial injuries that were confirmed by arteriography was performed from September 2009 to July 2014. Clinical data included demographics, mechanism of injury, type of injury, location of injury, concomitant injuries, time of endovascular procedures, time interval from trauma to blood flow restoration, instrument utilized, and follow-up. All patients were male (mean age of 35.9 ± 10.3 years). The type of lesion involved intimal injury (n = 1), partial transection (n = 2), complete transection (n = 2), arteriovenous fistula (n = 1), and pseudoaneurysm (n = 1). All patients underwent endovascular repair of blunt popliteal arterial injuries. Technical success rate was 100%. Intimal injury was treated with a bare-metal stent. Pseudoaneurysm and popliteal artery transections were treated with bare-metal stents. Arteriovenous fistula was treated with bare-metal stent and coils. No perioperative death and procedure-related complication occurred. The average follow-up was 20.9 ± 2.3 months (range 18–24 months). One patient underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis due to stent thrombosis at 18 months after the procedure. All limbs were salvaged. Stent migration, deformation, or fracture was not found during the follow-up. Endovascular repair seems to be a viable approach for patients with blunt popliteal arterial injuries, especially on an emergency basis. Endovascular repair may be effective in the short-term. Further studies are required to evaluate the long-term efficacy of endovascular repair.

  18. Family needs after brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Perrin, Paul B; Cuberos-Urbano, Gustavo


    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore differences by country in the importance of family needs after traumatic brain injury (TBI), as well as differences in met/unmet needs. METHOD: Two hundred and seventy-one family members of an individual with TBI in Mexico, Colombia, Spain......, Denmark, and Norway completed the Family Needs Questionnaire. RESULTS: Eight of the ten needs rated as most important globally were from the Health Information subscale. Importance ratings on the Health Information, Professional Support, and Involvement With Care subscales were similar across countries......, but Mexican family members rated Instrumental Support needs as less important than Colombian, Spanish, and Danish family members, and also rated their Community Support needs as less important than Danish and Spanish family members. Mexican family member's rated emotional support needs as less important than...

  19. Threatened limb from stingray injury. (United States)

    Shiraev, Timothy P; Marucci, Damian; McMullin, Gabrielle


    We present the case of a 43-year-old female who suffered a stingray injury to her left ankle. The sting caused occlusion of the dorsalis pedis artery, causing dry gangrene of the medial forefoot. A below knee amputation was recommended but she was transferred for a second opinion. A Prostaglandin E1 infusion was commenced, resulting in alleviation of pain and improvement in perfusion. Amputation of great and second toes was performed, with the head of the first metatarsal preserved and covered via a cross-over skin flap raised from the contralateral leg. Achilles tendon lengthening was then performed to return the foot to a functional position. This case serves to highlight the utility of prostaglandin infusion, and the requirement for a multidisciplinary approach to critical limb ischemia in order to avoid major amputation.

  20. Hydrocolonotherapy ankle joints after injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Muchin


    Full Text Available Purpose: to improve efficiency of gydrokinesitherapy by means of specially designed devices and monolasts for patients after ankle joint injuries. Material & Methods: there are pedagogical methods, clinical and radiological methods, anthropometric measurements and goniometry were used. Results: the author's technique of hydrokinesitherapy with application hydrokinesimechanotherapy device in the program of physical rehabilitation which provides optimum conditions for the recovery process was developed. Conclusions: the specially designed hydrokinesomechanotherapeutic device and monolasts are allow strictly controlled movement in all planes of the ankle joint, which contributes to the acceleration of the recovery; the conducted anthropometric and goniometric studies were indicate more rapid elimination of edema, increase movement amplitude, carries opposition to the development of contractures and muscle atrophy.