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Sample records for checkpoint protein regulating

  1. Bub3 is a spindle assembly checkpoint protein regulating chromosome segregation during mouse oocyte meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Li

    Full Text Available In mitosis, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC prevents anaphase onset until all chromosomes have been attached to the spindle microtubules and aligned correctly at the equatorial metaphase plate. The major checkpoint proteins in mitosis consist of mitotic arrest-deficient (Mad1-3, budding uninhibited by benzimidazole (Bub1, Bub3, and monopolar spindle 1(Mps1. During meiosis, for the formation of a haploid gamete, two consecutive rounds of chromosome segregation occur with only one round of DNA replication. To pull homologous chromosomes to opposite spindle poles during meiosis I, both sister kinetochores of a homologue must face toward the same pole which is very different from mitosis and meiosis II. As a core member of checkpoint proteins, the individual role of Bub3 in mammalian oocyte meiosis is unclear. In this study, using overexpression and RNA interference (RNAi approaches, we analyzed the role of Bub3 in mouse oocyte meiosis. Our data showed that overexpressed Bub3 inhibited meiotic metaphase-anaphase transition by preventing homologous chromosome and sister chromatid segregations in meiosis I and II, respectively. Misaligned chromosomes, abnormal polar body and double polar bodies were observed in Bub3 knock-down oocytes, causing aneuploidy. Furthermore, through cold treatment combined with Bub3 overexpression, we found that overexpressed Bub3 affected the attachments of microtubules and kinetochores during metaphase-anaphase transition. We propose that as a member of SAC, Bub3 is required for regulation of both meiosis I and II, and is potentially involved in kinetochore-microtubule attachment in mammalian oocytes.

  2. Polycomb proteins control proliferation and transformation independently of cell cycle checkpoints by regulating DNA replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piunti, Andrea; Rossi, Alessandra; Cerutti, Aurora;

    2014-01-01

    The ability of PRC1 and PRC2 to promote proliferation is a main feature that links polycomb (PcG) activity to cancer. PcGs silence the expression of the tumour suppressor locus Ink4a/Arf, whose products positively regulate pRb and p53 functions. Enhanced PcG activity is a frequent feature of huma...

  3. A genetic screen identifies BRCA2 and PALB2 as key regulators of G2 checkpoint maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzel, Tobias; Nähse-Kumpf, Viola; Kousholt, Arne Nedergaard;

    2011-01-01

    To identify key connections between DNA-damage repair and checkpoint pathways, we performed RNA interference screens for regulators of the ionizing radiation-induced G2 checkpoint, and we identified the breast cancer gene BRCA2. The checkpoint was also abrogated following depletion of PALB2......, an interaction partner of BRCA2. BRCA2 and PALB2 depletion led to premature checkpoint abrogation and earlier activation of the AURORA A-PLK1 checkpoint-recovery pathway. These results indicate that the breast cancer tumour suppressors and homologous recombination repair proteins BRCA2 and PALB2 are main...

  4. A novel role for the GTPase-activating protein Bud2 in the spindle position checkpoint.

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    Scott A Nelson

    Full Text Available The spindle position checkpoint (SPC ensures correct mitotic spindle position before allowing mitotic exit in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In a candidate screen for checkpoint genes, we identified bud2Δ as deficient for the SPC. Bud2 is a GTPase activating protein (GAP, and the only known substrate of Bud2 was Rsr1/Bud1, a Ras-like GTPase and a central component of the bud-site-selection pathway. Mutants lacking Rsr1/Bud1 had no checkpoint defect, as did strains lacking and overexpressing Bud5, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF for Rsr1/Bud1. Thus, the checkpoint function of Bud2 is distinct from its role in bud site selection. The catalytic activity of the Bud2 GAP domain was required for the checkpoint, based on the failure of the known catalytic point mutant Bud2(R682A to function in the checkpoint. Based on assays of heterozygous diploids, bud2(R682A, was dominant for loss of checkpoint but recessive for bud-site-selection failure, further indicating a separation of function. Tem1 is a Ras-like protein and is the critical regulator of mitotic exit, sitting atop the mitotic exit network (MEN. Tem1 is a likely target for Bud2, supported by genetic analyses that exclude other Ras-like proteins.

  5. Smurf2 as a novel mitotic regulator: From the spindle assembly checkpoint to tumorigenesis

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    Moore Finola E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The execution of the mitotic program with high fidelity is dependent upon precise spatiotemporal regulation of posttranslational protein modifications. For example, the timely polyubiquitination of critical mitotic regulators by Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C is essential for the metaphase to anaphase transition and mitotic exit. The spindle assembly checkpoint prevents unscheduled activity of APC/C-Cdc20 in early mitosis, allowing bipolar attachment of kinetochores to mitotic spindle and facilitating equal segregation of sister chromatids. The critical effector of the spindle checkpoint, Mitotic arrest deficient 2 (Mad2, is recruited to unattached kinetochores forming a complex with other regulatory proteins to efficiently and cooperatively inhibit APC/C-Cdc20. A weakened and/or dysfunctional spindle checkpoint has been linked to the development of genomic instability in both cell culture and animal models, and evidence suggests that aberrant regulation of the spindle checkpoint plays a critical role in human carcinogenesis. Recent studies have illuminated a network of both degradative and non-degradative ubiquitination events that regulate the metaphase to anaphase transition and mitotic exit. Within this context, our recent work showed that the HECT (Homologous to E6-AP C-terminus-family E3 ligase Smurf2 (Smad specific ubiquitin regulatory factor 2, known as a negative regulator of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β signaling, is required for a functional spindle checkpoint by promoting the functional localization and stability of Mad2. Here we discuss putative models explaining the role of Smurf2 as a new regulator in the spindle checkpoint. The dynamic mitotic localization of Smurf2 to the centrosome and other critical mitotic structures provides implications about mitotic checkpoint control dependent on various ubiquitination events. Finally, deregulated Smurf2 activity may contribute to carcinogenesis by

  6. Protein kinase C controls activation of the DNA integrity checkpoint

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    Soriano-Carot, María; Quilis, Inma; Bañó, M. Carmen; Igual, J. Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The protein kinase C (PKC) superfamily plays key regulatory roles in numerous cellular processes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a single PKC, Pkc1, whose main function is cell wall integrity maintenance. In this work, we connect the Pkc1 protein to the maintenance of genome integrity in response to genotoxic stresses. Pkc1 and its kinase activity are necessary for the phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase Rad53, histone H2A and Xrs2 protein after deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, indicating that Pkc1 is required for activation of checkpoint kinases Mec1 and Tel1. Furthermore, Pkc1 electrophoretic mobility is delayed after inducing DNA damage, which reflects that Pkc1 is post-translationally modified. This modification is a phosphorylation event mediated by Tel1. The expression of different mammalian PKC isoforms at the endogenous level in yeast pkc1 mutant cells revealed that PKCδ is able to activate the DNA integrity checkpoint. Finally, downregulation of PKCδ activity in HeLa cells caused a defective activation of checkpoint kinase Chk2 when DNA damage was induced. Our results indicate that the control of the DNA integrity checkpoint by PKC is a mechanism conserved from yeast to humans. PMID:24792164

  7. RNA interference regulates the cell cycle checkpoint through the RNA export factor, Ptr1, in fission yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► RNAi is linked to the cell cycle checkpoint in fission yeast. ► Ptr1 co-purifies with Ago1. ► The ptr1-1 mutation impairs the checkpoint but does not affect gene silencing. ► ago1+ and ptr1+ regulate the cell cycle checkpoint via the same pathway. ► Mutations in ago1+ and ptr1+ lead to the nuclear accumulation of poly(A)+ RNAs. -- Abstract: Ago1, an effector protein of RNA interference (RNAi), regulates heterochromatin silencing and cell cycle arrest in fission yeast. However, the mechanism by which Ago1 controls cell cycle checkpoint following hydroxyurea (HU) treatment has not been elucidated. In this study, we show that Ago1 and other RNAi factors control cell cycle checkpoint following HU treatment via a mechanism independent of silencing. While silencing requires dcr1+, the overexpression of ago1+ alleviated the cell cycle defect in dcr1Δ. Ago1 interacted with the mRNA export factor, Ptr1. The ptr1-1 mutation impaired cell cycle checkpoint but gene silencing was unaffected. Genetic analysis revealed that the regulation of cell cycle checkpoint by ago1+ is dependent on ptr1+. Nuclear accumulation of poly(A)+ RNAs was detected in mutants of ago1+ and ptr1+, suggesting there is a functional link between the cell cycle checkpoint and RNAi-mediated RNA quality control.

  8. Protein phosphatases acting on the replication checkpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Conde, Rui Miguel Esteves Antunes Seabra

    2010-01-01

    A génese de um cancro está dependente da acumulação de mutações genéticas que dão origem a instabilidade genómica, que por sua vez resulta na proliferação descontrolada. Para prevenir a acumulação destas mutações, as células têm mecanismos de controlo (checkpoints) que suspendem o ciclo celular e accionam as vias de reparação do ADN. Estes eventos são muitas vezes regulados por dinâmicas de (des)fosforilação de proteínas. As proteínas fosfatases (PPs), enzimas responsáveis p...

  9. Tumor suppressor protein C53 antagonizes checkpoint kinases to promote cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Jiang; Jianchun Wu; Chen He; Wending Yang; Honglin Li

    2009-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)/cyclin B1 complex is the driving force for mitotic entry, and its activation is tightly regulated by the G2/M checkpoint. We originally reported that a novel protein C53 (also known as Cdk5rap3 and LZAP) potentiates DNA damage-induced cell death by modulating the G2/M checkpoint. More recently, Wang et al. (2007) found that C53/LZAP may function as a tumor suppressor by way of inhibiting NF-kB signaling. We report here the identification of C53 protein as a novel regulator of Cdk1 activation. We found that knockdown of C53 protein causes delayed Cdkl activation and mitotic entry. During DNA damage response, activation of checkpoint kinase 1 and 2 (Chk1 and Chk2) is partially inhibited by C53 overexpression. Intriguingly, we found that C53 interacts with Chkl and antagonizes its function. Moreover, a portion of C53 protein is localized at the centrosome, and centrosome-targeting C53 potently promotes local Cdk1 activation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that C53 is a novel negative regulator of checkpoint response. By counteracting Chk1, C53 promotes Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry in both unperturbed cell-cycle progression and DNA damage response.

  10. DTL/CDT2 is essential for both CDT1 regulation and the early G2/M checkpoint.

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    Sansam, Christopher L; Shepard, Jennifer L; Lai, Kevin; Ianari, Alessandra; Danielian, Paul S; Amsterdam, Adam; Hopkins, Nancy; Lees, Jacqueline A

    2006-11-15

    Checkpoint genes maintain genomic stability by arresting cells after DNA damage. Many of these genes also control cell cycle events in unperturbed cells. By conducting a screen for checkpoint genes in zebrafish, we found that dtl/cdt2 is an essential component of the early, radiation-induced G2/M checkpoint. We subsequently found that dtl/cdt2 is required for normal cell cycle control, primarily to prevent rereplication. Both the checkpoint and replication roles are conserved in human DTL. Our data indicate that the rereplication reflects a requirement for DTL in regulating CDT1, a protein required for prereplication complex formation. CDT1 is degraded in S phase to prevent rereplication, and following DNA damage to prevent origin firing. We show that DTL associates with the CUL4-DDB1 E3 ubiquitin ligase and is required for CDT1 down-regulation in unperturbed cells and following DNA damage. The cell cycle defects of Dtl-deficient zebrafish are suppressed by reducing Cdt1 levels. In contrast, the early G2/M checkpoint defect appears to be Cdt1-independent. Thus, DTL promotes genomic stability through two distinct mechanisms. First, it is an essential component of the CUL4-DDB1 complex that controls CDT1 levels, thereby preventing rereplication. Second, it is required for the early G2/M checkpoint.

  11. The meiotic recombination checkpoint is regulated by checkpoint rad+ genes in fission yeast.

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    Shimada, Midori; Nabeshima, Kentaro; Tougan, Takahiro; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2002-06-01

    During the course of meiotic prophase, intrinsic double-strand breaks (DSBs) must be repaired before the cell can engage in meiotic nuclear division. Here we investigate the mechanism that controls the meiotic progression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe that have accumulated excess meiotic DSBs. A meiotic recombination-defective mutant, meu13Delta, shows a delay in meiotic progression. This delay is dependent on rec12+, namely on DSB formation. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that meiotic DSB repair in meu13Delta was retarded. We also found that the delay in entering nuclear division was dependent on the checkpoint rad+, cds1+ and mek1+ (the meiotic paralog of Cds1/Chk2). This implies that these genes are involved in a checkpoint that provides time to repair DSBs. Consistently, the induction of an excess of extrinsic DSBs by ionizing radiation delayed meiotic progression in a rad17(+)-dependent manner. dmc1Delta also shows meiotic delay, however, this delay is independent of rec12+ and checkpoint rad+. We propose that checkpoint monitoring of the status of meiotic DSB repair exists in fission yeast and that defects other than DSB accumulation can cause delays in meiotic progression. PMID:12032093

  12. Centrosome-associated regulators of the G2/M checkpoint as targets for cancer therapy

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    Broaddus Russell R

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In eukaryotic cells, control mechanisms have developed that restrain cell-cycle transitions in response to stress. These regulatory pathways are termed cell-cycle checkpoints. The G2/M checkpoint prevents cells from entering mitosis when DNA is damaged in order to afford these cells an opportunity to repair the damaged DNA before propagating genetic defects to the daughter cells. If the damage is irreparable, checkpoint signaling might activate pathways that lead to apoptosis. Since alteration of cell-cycle control is a hallmark of tumorigenesis, cell-cycle regulators represent potential targets for therapy. The centrosome has recently come into focus as a critical cellular organelle that integrates G2/M checkpoint control and repairs signals in response to DNA damage. A growing number of G2/M checkpoint regulators have been found in the centrosome, suggesting that centrosome has an important role in G2/M checkpoint function. In this review, we discuss centrosome-associated regulators of the G2/M checkpoint, the dysregulation of this checkpoint in cancer, and potential candidate targets for cancer therapy.

  13. Thyroid hormone receptor interacting protein 13 (TRIP13) AAA-ATPase is a novel mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein.

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    Wang, Kexi; Sturt-Gillespie, Brianne; Hittle, James C; Macdonald, Dawn; Chan, Gordon K; Yen, Tim J; Liu, Song-Tao

    2014-08-22

    The mitotic checkpoint (or spindle assembly checkpoint) is a fail-safe mechanism to prevent chromosome missegregation by delaying anaphase onset in the presence of defective kinetochore-microtubule attachment. The target of the checkpoint is the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Once all chromosomes are properly attached and bioriented at the metaphase plate, the checkpoint needs to be silenced. Previously, we and others have reported that TRIP13 AAA-ATPase binds to the mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein p31(comet). Here we show that endogenous TRIP13 localizes to kinetochores. TRIP13 knockdown delays metaphase-to-anaphase transition. The delay is caused by prolonged presence of the effector for the checkpoint, the mitotic checkpoint complex, and its association and inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. These results suggest that TRIP13 is a novel mitotic checkpoint-silencing protein. The ATPase activity of TRIP13 is essential for its checkpoint function, and interference with TRIP13 abolished p31(comet)-mediated mitotic checkpoint silencing. TRIP13 overexpression is a hallmark of cancer cells showing chromosomal instability, particularly in certain breast cancers with poor prognosis. We suggest that premature mitotic checkpoint silencing triggered by TRIP13 overexpression may promote cancer development.

  14. Regulation of Sphingolipid Biosynthesis by the Morphogenesis Checkpoint Kinase Swe1.

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    Chauhan, Neha; Han, Gongshe; Somashekarappa, Niranjanakumari; Gable, Kenneth; Dunn, Teresa; Kohlwein, Sepp D

    2016-01-29

    Sphingolipid (SL) biosynthesis is negatively regulated by the highly conserved endoplasmic reticulum-localized Orm family proteins. Defective SL synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to increased phosphorylation and inhibition of Orm proteins by the kinase Ypk1. Here we present evidence that the yeast morphogenesis checkpoint kinase, Swe1, regulates SL biosynthesis independent of the Ypk1 pathway. Deletion of the Swe1 kinase renders mutant cells sensitive to serine palmitoyltransferase inhibition due to impaired sphingoid long-chain base synthesis. Based on these data and previous results, we suggest that Swe1 kinase perceives alterations in SL homeostasis, activates SL synthesis, and may thus represent the missing regulatory link that controls the SL rheostat during the cell cycle. PMID:26634277

  15. Regulation of Sphingolipid Biosynthesis by the Morphogenesis Checkpoint Kinase Swe1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Neha; Han, Gongshe; Somashekarappa, Niranjanakumari; Gable, Kenneth; Dunn, Teresa; Kohlwein, Sepp D.

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipid (SL) biosynthesis is negatively regulated by the highly conserved endoplasmic reticulum-localized Orm family proteins. Defective SL synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to increased phosphorylation and inhibition of Orm proteins by the kinase Ypk1. Here we present evidence that the yeast morphogenesis checkpoint kinase, Swe1, regulates SL biosynthesis independent of the Ypk1 pathway. Deletion of the Swe1 kinase renders mutant cells sensitive to serine palmitoyltransferase inhibition due to impaired sphingoid long-chain base synthesis. Based on these data and previous results, we suggest that Swe1 kinase perceives alterations in SL homeostasis, activates SL synthesis, and may thus represent the missing regulatory link that controls the SL rheostat during the cell cycle. PMID:26634277

  16. Spindle checkpoint activation at meiosis I advances anaphase II onset via meiosis-specific APC/C regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Ayumu; Kitamura, Kenji; Hihara, Daisuke; Hirose, Yukinobu; Katsuyama, Satoshi; Hiraoka, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    During mitosis, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) inhibits the Cdc20-activated anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/CCdc20), which promotes protein degradation, and delays anaphase onset to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. However, the SAC function in meiotic anaphase regulation is poorly understood. Here, we examined the SAC function in fission yeast meiosis. As in mitosis, a SAC factor, Mad2, delayed anaphase onset via Slp1 (fission yeast Cdc20) when chromosomes attach to th...

  17. Human cytomegalovirus inhibits a DNA damage response by mislocalizing checkpoint proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Miguel; Shenk, Thomas

    2006-02-01

    The DNA damage checkpoint pathway responds to DNA damage and induces a cell cycle arrest to allow time for DNA repair. Several viruses are known to activate or modulate this cellular response. Here we show that the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated checkpoint pathway, which responds to double-strand breaks in DNA, is activated in response to human cytomegalovirus DNA replication. However, this activation does not propagate through the pathway; it is blocked at the level of the effector kinase, checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2). Late after infection, several checkpoint proteins, including ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Chk2, are mislocalized to a cytoplasmic virus assembly zone, where they are colocalized with virion structural proteins. This colocalization was confirmed by immunoprecipitation of virion proteins with an antibody that recognizes Chk2. Virus replication was resistant to ionizing radiation, which causes double-strand breaks in DNA. We propose that human CMV DNA replication activates the checkpoint response to DNA double-strand breaks, and the virus responds by altering the localization of checkpoint proteins to the cytoplasm and thereby inhibiting the signaling pathway. ionizing radiation | ataxia-telangiectasia mutated pathway

  18. Localization of checkpoint and repair proteins in eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2005-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the cellular response to DNA damage depends on the type of DNA structure being recognized by the checkpoint and repair machinery. DNA ends and single-stranded DNA are hallmarks of double-strand breaks and replication stress. These two structures are recognized by distinct sets of p...

  19. Checkpoint Kinases Regulate a Global Network of Transcription Factors in Response to DNA Damage

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    Eric J. Jaehnig

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage activates checkpoint kinases that induce several downstream events, including widespread changes in transcription. However, the specific connections between the checkpoint kinases and downstream transcription factors (TFs are not well understood. Here, we integrate kinase mutant expression profiles, transcriptional regulatory interactions, and phosphoproteomics to map kinases and downstream TFs to transcriptional regulatory networks. Specifically, we investigate the role of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae checkpoint kinases (Mec1, Tel1, Chk1, Rad53, and Dun1 in the transcriptional response to DNA damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate. The result is a global kinase-TF regulatory network in which Mec1 and Tel1 signal through Rad53 to synergistically regulate the expression of more than 600 genes. This network involves at least nine TFs, many of which have Rad53-dependent phosphorylation sites, as regulators of checkpoint-kinase-dependent genes. We also identify a major DNA damage-induced transcriptional network that regulates stress response genes independently of the checkpoint kinases.

  20. DNA damage checkpoint recovery and cancer development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell cycle checkpoints were initially presumed to function as a regulator of cell cycle machinery in response to different genotoxic stresses, and later found to play an important role in the process of tumorigenesis by acting as a guard against DNA over-replication. As a counterpart of checkpoint activation, the checkpoint recovery machinery is working in opposition, aiming to reverse the checkpoint activation and resume the normal cell cycle. The DNA damage response (DDR) and oncogene induced senescence (OIS) are frequently found in precancerous lesions, and believed to constitute a barrier to tumorigenesis, however, the DDR and OIS have been observed to be diminished in advanced cancers of most tissue origins. These findings suggest that when progressing from pre-neoplastic lesions to cancer, DNA damage checkpoint barriers are overridden. How the DDR checkpoint is bypassed in this process remains largely unknown. Activated cytokine and growth factor-signaling pathways were very recently shown to suppress the DDR and to promote uncontrolled cell proliferation in the context of oncovirus infection. In recent decades, data from cell line and tumor models showed that a group of checkpoint recovery proteins function in promoting tumor progression; data from patient samples also showed overexpression of checkpoint recovery proteins in human cancer tissues and a correlation with patients' poor prognosis. In this review, the known cell cycle checkpoint recovery proteins and their roles in DNA damage checkpoint recovery are reviewed, as well as their implications in cancer development. This review also provides insight into the mechanism by which the DDR suppresses oncogene-driven tumorigenesis and tumor progression. - Highlights: • DNA damage checkpoint works as a barrier to cancer initiation. • DDR machinary response to genotoxic and oncogenic stress in similar way. • Checkpoint recovery pathways provide active signaling in cell cycle control. • Checkpoint

  1. DNA damage checkpoint recovery and cancer development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haiyong [First affiliated hospital, Zhejiang University, School of medicine, Cancer Center, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Zhang, Xiaoshan [Department of Genetics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Genetics Unit 1010, 1515 Holcombe Blvd. Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Teng, Lisong, E-mail: lsteng@zju.edu.cn [First affiliated hospital, Zhejiang University, School of medicine, Cancer Center, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou 310003 (China); Legerski, Randy J., E-mail: rlegersk@mdanderson.org [Department of Genetics, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Genetics Unit 1010, 1515 Holcombe Blvd. Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    Cell cycle checkpoints were initially presumed to function as a regulator of cell cycle machinery in response to different genotoxic stresses, and later found to play an important role in the process of tumorigenesis by acting as a guard against DNA over-replication. As a counterpart of checkpoint activation, the checkpoint recovery machinery is working in opposition, aiming to reverse the checkpoint activation and resume the normal cell cycle. The DNA damage response (DDR) and oncogene induced senescence (OIS) are frequently found in precancerous lesions, and believed to constitute a barrier to tumorigenesis, however, the DDR and OIS have been observed to be diminished in advanced cancers of most tissue origins. These findings suggest that when progressing from pre-neoplastic lesions to cancer, DNA damage checkpoint barriers are overridden. How the DDR checkpoint is bypassed in this process remains largely unknown. Activated cytokine and growth factor-signaling pathways were very recently shown to suppress the DDR and to promote uncontrolled cell proliferation in the context of oncovirus infection. In recent decades, data from cell line and tumor models showed that a group of checkpoint recovery proteins function in promoting tumor progression; data from patient samples also showed overexpression of checkpoint recovery proteins in human cancer tissues and a correlation with patients' poor prognosis. In this review, the known cell cycle checkpoint recovery proteins and their roles in DNA damage checkpoint recovery are reviewed, as well as their implications in cancer development. This review also provides insight into the mechanism by which the DDR suppresses oncogene-driven tumorigenesis and tumor progression. - Highlights: • DNA damage checkpoint works as a barrier to cancer initiation. • DDR machinary response to genotoxic and oncogenic stress in similar way. • Checkpoint recovery pathways provide active signaling in cell cycle control. • Checkpoint

  2. Spindle assembly checkpoint robustness requires Tpr-mediated regulation of Mad1/Mad2 proteostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Nina; Ferrás, Cristina; Kern, David M; Logarinho, Elsa; Cheeseman, Iain M; Maiato, Helder

    2013-12-23

    Tpr is a conserved nuclear pore complex (NPC) protein implicated in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) by an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that Tpr is required for normal SAC response by stabilizing Mad1 and Mad2 before mitosis. Tpr coimmunoprecipitated with Mad1 and Mad2 (hereafter designated as Tpr/Mad1/Mad2 or TM2 complex) during interphase and mitosis, and is required for Mad1–c-Mad2 recruitment to NPCs. Interestingly, Tpr was normally undetectable at kinetochores and dispensable for Mad1, but not for Mad2, kinetochore localization, which suggests that SAC robustness depends on Mad2 levels at kinetochores. Protein half-life measurements demonstrate that Tpr stabilizes Mad1 and Mad2, ensuring normal Mad1–c-Mad2 production in an mRNA- and kinetochore-independent manner. Overexpression of GFP-Mad2 restored normal SAC response and Mad2 kinetochore levels in Tpr-depleted cells. Mechanistically, we provide evidence that Tpr might spatially regulate SAC proteostasis through the SUMO-isopeptidases SENP1 and SENP2 at NPCs. Thus, Tpr is a kinetochore-independent, rate-limiting factor required to mount and sustain a robust SAC response.

  3. Dictyostelium nucleomorphin is a member of the BRCT-domain family of cell cycle checkpoint proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myre, Michael A; O'Day, Danton H

    2004-11-18

    A search of the Dictyostelium genome project database (http://dictybase.org/db/cgi-bin/blast.pl) with nucleomorphin, a protein that regulates the nuclear number, predicted it to be encoded by a larger gene containing a putative breast cancer carboxy-terminus domain (BRCT). Using RT-PCR, Northern and Western blotting we have identified a differentially expressed, 2318 bp cDNA encoding a protein isoform of Dictyostelium NumA with an apparent molecular weight of 70 kDa that we have called NumB. It contains a single amino-terminal BRCT-domain spanning residues 125-201. Starvation of shaking cultures reduces NumA expression by approximately 88+/-5.6%, whereas NumB expression increases approximately 35+/-3.5% from vegetative levels. NumC, a third isoform that is also expressed during development but not growth, remains to be characterized. These findings suggest NumB may be a member of the BRCT-domain containing cell cycle checkpoint proteins. PMID:15535983

  4. 14-3-3 checkpoint regulatory proteins interact specifically with DNA repair protein human exonuclease 1 (hEXO1) via a semi-conserved motif

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sofie Dabros; Keijzers, Guido; Rampakakis, Emmanouil;

    2012-01-01

    are regulatory phosphorserine/threonine binding proteins involved in the control of diverse cellular events, including cell cycle checkpoint and apoptosis signaling. hEXO1 is regulated by post-translation Ser/Thr phosphorylation in a yet not fully clarified manner, but evidently three phosphorylation sites...... are specifically induced by replication inhibition leading to protein ubiquitination and degradation. We demonstrate direct and robust interaction between hEXO1 and six of the seven 14-3-3 isoforms in vitro, suggestive of a novel protein interaction network between DNA repair and cell cycle control. Binding...

  5. Novel immune check-point regulators in tolerance maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia eGuo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The great success of anti-cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4 and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1 in cancer treatment has encouraged more effort in harnessing the immune response through immunomodulatory molecules in various diseases. The immunoglobulin (Ig super family comprises the majority of immunomodulatory molecules. Discovery of novel Ig super family members has brought novel insights into the function of different immune cells in tolerance maintenance. In this review, we discuss the function of newly-identified B7 family molecules B7-H4 and V-domain Ig Suppressor of T cell Activation (VISTA, and the butyrophilin/butyrophilin-like (BTN/BTNL family members. We discuss the current stages of immunomodulatory molecules in clinical trials of organ transplantation. The potential of engaging the novel Ig superfamily members in tolerance maintenance is also discussed. We conclude with the challenges remaining to manipulate these molecules in the immune response.

  6. Stranglehold on the spindle assembly checkpoint: the human papillomavirus E2 protein provokes BUBR1-dependent aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chye Ling; Teissier, Sébastien; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Quek, Ling Shih; Bellanger, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) E2 protein, which inhibits the E6 and E7 viral oncogenes, is believed to have anti-oncogenic properties. Here, we challenge this view and show that HPV-18 E2 over-activates the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC) and induces DNA breaks in mitosis followed by aneuploidy. This phenotype is associated with interaction of E2 with the Mitotic Checkpoint Complex (MCC) proteins Cdc20, MAD2 and BUBR1. While BUBR1 silencing rescues the mitotic phenotype induced by E2, p53 silencing or presence of E6/E7 (inactivating p53 and increasing BUBR1 levels respectively) both amplify it. This work pinpoints E2 as a key protein in the initiation of HPV-induced cervical cancer and identifies the SAC as a target for oncogenic pathogens. Moreover, our results suggest a role of p53 in regulating the mitotic process itself and highlight SAC over-activation in a p53-negative context as a highly pathogenic event. PMID:25789401

  7. Role of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors in the Regulation of the Mitotic Checkpoint Kinase Bub1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Breit

    Full Text Available The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC monitors microtubule attachment to kinetochores to ensure accurate sister chromatid segregation during mitosis. The SAC members Bub1 and BubR1 are paralogs that underwent significant functional specializations during evolution. We report an in-depth characterization of the kinase domains of Bub1 and BubR1. BubR1 kinase domain binds nucleotides but is unable to deliver catalytic activity in vitro. Conversely, Bub1 is an active kinase regulated by intra-molecular phosphorylation at the P+1 loop. The crystal structure of the phosphorylated Bub1 kinase domain illustrates a hitherto unknown conformation of the P+1 loop docked into the active site of the Bub1 kinase. Both Bub1 and BubR1 bind Bub3 constitutively. A hydrodynamic characterization of Bub1:Bub3 and BubR1:Bub3 demonstrates both complexes to have 1:1 stoichiometry, with no additional oligomerization. Conversely, Bub1:Bub3 and BubR1:Bub3 combine to form a heterotetramer. Neither BubR1:Bub3 nor Knl1, the kinetochore receptor of Bub1:Bub3, modulate the kinase activity of Bub1 in vitro, suggesting autonomous regulation of the Bub1 kinase domain. We complement our study with an analysis of the Bub1 substrates. Our results contribute to the mechanistic characterization of a crucial cell cycle checkpoint.

  8. ALDH1A1 maintains ovarian cancer stem cell-like properties by altered regulation of cell cycle checkpoint and DNA repair network signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhong Meng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH expressing cells have been characterized as possessing stem cell-like properties. We evaluated ALDH+ ovarian cancer stem cell-like properties and their role in platinum resistance. METHODS: Isogenic ovarian cancer cell lines for platinum sensitivity (A2780 and platinum resistant (A2780/CP70 as well as ascites from ovarian cancer patients were analyzed for ALDH+ by flow cytometry to determine its association to platinum resistance, recurrence and survival. A stable shRNA knockdown model for ALDH1A1 was utilized to determine its effect on cancer stem cell-like properties, cell cycle checkpoints, and DNA repair mediators. RESULTS: ALDH status directly correlated to platinum resistance in primary ovarian cancer samples obtained from ascites. Patients with ALDHHIGH displayed significantly lower progression free survival than the patients with ALDHLOW cells (9 vs. 3 months, respectively p<0.01. ALDH1A1-knockdown significantly attenuated clonogenic potential, PARP-1 protein levels, and reversed inherent platinum resistance. ALDH1A1-knockdown resulted in dramatic decrease of KLF4 and p21 protein levels thereby leading to S and G2 phase accumulation of cells. Increases in S and G2 cells demonstrated increased expression of replication stress associated Fanconi Anemia DNA repair proteins (FANCD2, FANCJ and replication checkpoint (pS317 Chk1 were affected. ALDH1A1-knockdown induced DNA damage, evidenced by robust induction of γ-H2AX and BAX mediated apoptosis, with significant increases in BRCA1 expression, suggesting ALDH1A1-dependent regulation of cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair networks in ovarian cancer stem-like cells. CONCLUSION: This data suggests that ovarian cancer cells expressing ALDH1A1 may maintain platinum resistance by altered regulation of cell cycle checkpoint and DNA repair network signaling.

  9. Insights into mad2 regulation in the spindle checkpoint revealed by the crystal structure of the symmetric mad2 dimer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maojun Yang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In response to misaligned sister chromatids during mitosis, the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2 inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C through binding to its mitotic activator Cdc20, thus delaying anaphase onset. Mad1, an upstream regulator of Mad2, forms a tight core complex with Mad2 and facilitates Mad2 binding to Cdc20. In the absence of its binding proteins, free Mad2 has two natively folded conformers, termed N1-Mad2/open-Mad2 (O-Mad2 and N2-Mad2/closed Mad2 (C-Mad2, with C-Mad2 being more active in APC/C(Cdc20 inhibition. Here, we show that whereas O-Mad2 is monomeric, C-Mad2 forms either symmetric C-Mad2-C-Mad2 (C-C or asymmetric O-Mad2-C-Mad2 (O-C dimers. We also report the crystal structure of the symmetric C-C Mad2 dimer, revealing the basis for the ability of unliganded C-Mad2, but not O-Mad2 or liganded C-Mad2, to form symmetric dimers. A Mad2 mutant that predominantly forms the C-C dimer is functional in vitro and in living cells. Finally, the Mad1-Mad2 core complex facilitates the conversion of O-Mad2 to C-Mad2 in vitro. Collectively, our results establish the existence of a symmetric Mad2 dimer and provide insights into Mad1-assisted conformational activation of Mad2 in the spindle checkpoint.

  10. The novel murine calmodulin-binding protein Sha1 disrupts mitotic spindle and replication checkpoint functions in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, R; Norbury, C

    1998-12-18

    Entry into mitosis is normally blocked in eukaryotic cells that have not completed replicative DNA synthesis; this 'S-M' checkpoint control is fundamental to the maintenance of genomic integrity. Mutants of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe defective in the S-M checkpoint fail to arrest the cell cycle when DNA replication is inhibited and hence attempt mitosis and cell division with unreplicated chromosomes, resulting in the 'cut' phenotype. In an attempt to identify conserved molecules involved in the S-M checkpoint we have screened a regulatable murine cDNA library in S. pombe and have identified cDNAs that induce the cut phenotype in cells arrested in S phase by hydroxyurea. One such cDNA encodes a novel protein with multiple calmodulin-binding motifs that, in addition to its effects on the S-M checkpoint, perturbed mitotic spindle functions, although spindle pole duplication was apparently normal. Both aspects of the phenotype induced by this cDNA product, which we term Sha1 (for spindle and hydroxyurea checkpoint abnormal), were suppressed by simultaneous overexpression of calmodulin. Sha1 is structurally related to the product of the Drosophila gene abnormal spindle (asp). These data suggest that calmodulin-binding protein(s) are important in the co-ordination of mitotic spindle functions with mitotic entry in fission yeast, and probably also in multicellular eukaryotes. PMID:9819352

  11. Mitosis-specific phosphorylation of PML at T409 regulates spindle checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, J; Liu, J

    2016-01-01

    During mitosis, Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs) change dramatically in morphology and composition, but little is known about function of PML in mitosis. Here, we show that PML is phosphorylated at T409 (PML p409) in a mitosis-specific manner. More importantly, PML p409 contributes to maintain the duration of pro-metaphase and regulates spindle checkpoint. Deficient PML p409 caused a shortening of pro-metaphase and challenged the nocodazole-triggered mitotic arrest. T409A mutation led to a higher frequency of misaligned chromosomes on metaphase plate, and subsequently death in late mitosis. In addition, inhibition of PML p409 repressed growth of tumor cells, suggesting that PML p409 is a potential target for cancer therapy. Collectively, our study demonstrated an important phosphorylated site of PML, which contributed to explore the role of PML in mitosis. PMID:27609478

  12. Compact modeling of allosteric multisite proteins: application to a cell size checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Enciso

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We explore a framework to model the dose response of allosteric multisite phosphorylation proteins using a single auxiliary variable. This reduction can closely replicate the steady state behavior of detailed multisite systems such as the Monod-Wyman-Changeux allosteric model or rule-based models. Optimal ultrasensitivity is obtained when the activation of an allosteric protein by its individual sites is concerted and redundant. The reduction makes this framework useful for modeling and analyzing biochemical systems in practical applications, where several multisite proteins may interact simultaneously. As an application we analyze a newly discovered checkpoint signaling pathway in budding yeast, which has been proposed to measure cell growth by monitoring signals generated at sites of plasma membrane growth. We show that the known components of this pathway can form a robust hysteretic switch. In particular, this system incorporates a signal proportional to bud growth or size, a mechanism to read the signal, and an all-or-none response triggered only when the signal reaches a threshold indicating that sufficient growth has occurred.

  13. Cryo-EM of Mitotic Checkpoint Complex-Bound APC/C Reveals Reciprocal and Conformational Regulation of Ubiquitin Ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masaya; VanderLinden, Ryan; Weissmann, Florian; Qiao, Renping; Dube, Prakash; Brown, Nicholas G; Haselbach, David; Zhang, Wei; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Peters, Jan-Michael; Stark, Holger; Schulman, Brenda A

    2016-08-18

    The mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) coordinates proper chromosome biorientation on the spindle with ubiquitination activities of CDC20-activated anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C(CDC20)). APC/C(CDC20) and two E2s, UBE2C and UBE2S, catalyze ubiquitination through distinct architectures for linking ubiquitin (UB) to substrates and elongating polyUB chains, respectively. MCC, which contains a second molecule of CDC20, blocks APC/C(CDC20)-UBE2C-dependent ubiquitination of Securin and Cyclins, while differentially determining or inhibiting CDC20 ubiquitination to regulate spindle surveillance, checkpoint activation, and checkpoint termination. Here electron microscopy reveals conformational variation of APC/C(CDC20)-MCC underlying this multifaceted regulation. MCC binds APC/C-bound CDC20 to inhibit substrate access. However, rotation about the CDC20-MCC assembly and conformational variability of APC/C modulate UBE2C-catalyzed ubiquitination of MCC's CDC20 molecule. Access of UBE2C is limiting for subsequent polyubiquitination by UBE2S. We propose that conformational dynamics of APC/C(CDC20)-MCC modulate E2 activation and determine distinctive ubiquitination activities as part of a response mechanism ensuring accurate sister chromatid segregation. PMID:27522463

  14. p38γ regulates UV-induced checkpoint signaling and repair of UV-induced DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Cheng; Wu, Xiaohua; Han, Jiahuai; Sun, Peiqing

    2010-06-01

    In eukaryotic cells, DNA damage triggers activation of checkpoint signaling pathways that coordinate cell cycle arrest and repair of damaged DNA. These DNA damage responses serve to maintain genome stability and prevent accumulation of genetic mutations and development of cancer. The p38 MAPK was previously implicated in cellular responses to several types of DNA damage. However, the role of each of the four p38 isoforms and the mechanism for their involvement in DNA damage responses remained poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that p38γ, but not the other p38 isoforms, contributes to the survival of UV-treated cells. Deletion of p38γ sensitizes cells to UV exposure, accompanied by prolonged S phase cell cycle arrest and increased rate of apoptosis. Further investigation reveal that p38γ is essential for the optimal activation of the checkpoint signaling caused by UV, and for the efficient repair of UV-induced DNA damage. These findings have established a novel role of p38γ in UV-induced DNA damage responses, and suggested that p38γ contributes to the ability of cells to cope with UV exposure by regulating the checkpoint signaling pathways and the repair of damaged DNA.

  15. In vitro expression levels of cell-cycle checkpoint proteins are associated with cellular DNA repair capacity in peripheral blood lymphocytes: a multivariate analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, You-Hong; Hu, Zhibin; Li, Chunying; Wang, Li-E; Guo, Zhaozheng; Qiao, Yawei; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Wei; Mao, Li; Wei, Qingyi

    2007-01-01

    DNA repair should occur after cells sense DNA damage signals and undergo cell-cycle arrest to provide sufficient time for DNA repair, and suboptimal DNA repair capacity (DRC) in peripheral lymphocytes has been suggested as a cancer susceptibility marker. Numerous studies showed a functional link between DNA damage sensing, cell-cycle checkpoint and DNA repair. We hypothesized that in vitro cell-cycle checkpoint-related protein expression levels in stimulated lymphocytes predict DRC levels. To...

  16. A Previously Unknown Unique Challenge for Inhibitors of SYK ATP-Binding Site: Role of SYK as A Cell Cycle Checkpoint Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih M. Uckun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification of SYK as a molecular target in B-lineage leukemia/lymphoma cells prompted the development of SYK inhibitors as a new class of anti-cancer drug candidates. Here we report that induction of the SYK gene expression in human cells causes a significant down-regulation of evolutionarily conserved genes associated with mitosis and cell cycle progression providing unprecedented evidence that SYK is a master regulator of cell cycle regulatory checkpoint genes in human cells. We further show that SYK regulates the G2 checkpoint by physically associating with and inhibiting the dual-specificity phosphatase CDC25C via phosphorylation of its S216 residue. SYK depletion by RNA interference or treatment with the chemical SYK inhibitor prevented nocodazole-treated human cell lines from activating the G2 checkpoint via CDC25C S216-phosphorylation and resulted in polyploidy. Our study provides genetic and biochemical evidence that spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK has a unique role in the activation of the G2 checkpoint in both non-lymphohematopoietic and B-lineage lymphoid cells. This previously unknown role of SYK as a cell cycle checkpoint regulator represents an unforeseen and significant challenge for inhibitors of SYK ATP binding site.

  17. Checkpoint responses to replication stalling: inducing tolerance and preventing mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kai, Mihoko; Wang, Teresa S.-F

    2003-11-27

    Replication mutants often exhibit a mutator phenotype characterized by point mutations, single base frameshifts, and the deletion or duplication of sequences flanked by homologous repeats. Mutation in genes encoding checkpoint proteins can significantly affect the mutator phenotype. Here, we use fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) as a model system to discuss the checkpoint responses to replication perturbations induced by replication mutants. Checkpoint activation induced by a DNA polymerase mutant, aside from delay of mitotic entry, up-regulates the translesion polymerase DinB (Pol{kappa}). Checkpoint Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) complex, which is loaded onto chromatin by the Rad17-Rfc2-5 checkpoint complex in response to replication perturbation, recruits DinB onto chromatin to generate the point mutations and single nucleotide frameshifts in the replication mutator. This chain of events reveals a novel checkpoint-induced tolerance mechanism that allows cells to cope with replication perturbation, presumably to make possible restarting stalled replication forks. Fission yeast Cds1 kinase plays an essential role in maintaining DNA replication fork stability in the face of DNA damage and replication fork stalling. Cds1 kinase is known to regulate three proteins that are implicated in maintaining replication fork stability: Mus81-Eme1, a hetero-dimeric structure-specific endonuclease complex; Rqh1, a RecQ-family helicase involved in suppressing inappropriate recombination during replication; and Rad60, a protein required for recombinational repair during replication. These Cds1-regulated proteins are thought to cooperatively prevent mutagenesis and maintain replication fork stability in cells under replication stress. These checkpoint-regulated processes allow cells to survive replication perturbation by preventing stalled replication forks from degenerating into deleterious DNA structures resulting in genomic instability and cancer development.

  18. Site-specific phosphorylation of the DNA damage response mediator rad9 by cyclin-dependent kinases regulates activation of checkpoint kinase 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Manuela Abreu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mediators of the DNA damage response (DDR are highly phosphorylated by kinases that control cell proliferation, but little is known about the role of this regulation. Here we show that cell cycle phosphorylation of the prototypical DDR mediator Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad9 depends on cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK complexes. We find that a specific G2/M form of Cdc28 can phosphorylate in vitro the N-terminal region of Rad9 on nine consensus CDK phosphorylation sites. We show that the integrity of CDK consensus sites and the activity of Cdc28 are required for both the activation of the Chk1 checkpoint kinase and its interaction with Rad9. We have identified T125 and T143 as important residues in Rad9 for this Rad9/Chk1 interaction. Phosphorylation of T143 is the most important feature promoting Rad9/Chk1 interaction, while the much more abundant phosphorylation of the neighbouring T125 residue impedes the Rad9/Chk1 interaction. We suggest a novel model for Chk1 activation where Cdc28 regulates the constitutive interaction of Rad9 and Chk1. The Rad9/Chk1 complex is then recruited at sites of DNA damage where activation of Chk1 requires additional DDR-specific protein kinases.

  19. A DNA damage-induced, SOS-independent checkpoint regulates cell division in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Joshua W; Kambara, Tracy K; Perchuk, Barrett S; Laub, Michael T

    2014-10-01

    Cells must coordinate DNA replication with cell division, especially during episodes of DNA damage. The paradigm for cell division control following DNA damage in bacteria involves the SOS response where cleavage of the transcriptional repressor LexA induces a division inhibitor. However, in Caulobacter crescentus, cells lacking the primary SOS-regulated inhibitor, sidA, can often still delay division post-damage. Here we identify didA, a second cell division inhibitor that is induced by DNA damage, but in an SOS-independent manner. Together, DidA and SidA inhibit division, such that cells lacking both inhibitors divide prematurely following DNA damage, with lethal consequences. We show that DidA does not disrupt assembly of the division machinery and instead binds the essential division protein FtsN to block cytokinesis. Intriguingly, mutations in FtsW and FtsI, which drive the synthesis of septal cell wall material, can suppress the activity of both SidA and DidA, likely by causing the FtsW/I/N complex to hyperactively initiate cell division. Finally, we identify a transcription factor, DriD, that drives the SOS-independent transcription of didA following DNA damage. PMID:25350732

  20. A DNA damage-induced, SOS-independent checkpoint regulates cell division in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua W Modell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cells must coordinate DNA replication with cell division, especially during episodes of DNA damage. The paradigm for cell division control following DNA damage in bacteria involves the SOS response where cleavage of the transcriptional repressor LexA induces a division inhibitor. However, in Caulobacter crescentus, cells lacking the primary SOS-regulated inhibitor, sidA, can often still delay division post-damage. Here we identify didA, a second cell division inhibitor that is induced by DNA damage, but in an SOS-independent manner. Together, DidA and SidA inhibit division, such that cells lacking both inhibitors divide prematurely following DNA damage, with lethal consequences. We show that DidA does not disrupt assembly of the division machinery and instead binds the essential division protein FtsN to block cytokinesis. Intriguingly, mutations in FtsW and FtsI, which drive the synthesis of septal cell wall material, can suppress the activity of both SidA and DidA, likely by causing the FtsW/I/N complex to hyperactively initiate cell division. Finally, we identify a transcription factor, DriD, that drives the SOS-independent transcription of didA following DNA damage.

  1. A DNA damage-induced, SOS-independent checkpoint regulates cell division in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Joshua W; Kambara, Tracy K; Perchuk, Barrett S; Laub, Michael T

    2014-10-01

    Cells must coordinate DNA replication with cell division, especially during episodes of DNA damage. The paradigm for cell division control following DNA damage in bacteria involves the SOS response where cleavage of the transcriptional repressor LexA induces a division inhibitor. However, in Caulobacter crescentus, cells lacking the primary SOS-regulated inhibitor, sidA, can often still delay division post-damage. Here we identify didA, a second cell division inhibitor that is induced by DNA damage, but in an SOS-independent manner. Together, DidA and SidA inhibit division, such that cells lacking both inhibitors divide prematurely following DNA damage, with lethal consequences. We show that DidA does not disrupt assembly of the division machinery and instead binds the essential division protein FtsN to block cytokinesis. Intriguingly, mutations in FtsW and FtsI, which drive the synthesis of septal cell wall material, can suppress the activity of both SidA and DidA, likely by causing the FtsW/I/N complex to hyperactively initiate cell division. Finally, we identify a transcription factor, DriD, that drives the SOS-independent transcription of didA following DNA damage.

  2. DNA damage checkpoint kinase ATM regulates germination and maintains genome stability in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Wanda M; Footitt, Steven; Bray, Clifford M; Finch-Savage, William E; West, Christopher E

    2016-08-23

    Genome integrity is crucial for cellular survival and the faithful transmission of genetic information. The eukaryotic cellular response to DNA damage is orchestrated by the DNA damage checkpoint kinases ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA MUTATED (ATM) and ATM AND RAD3-RELATED (ATR). Here we identify important physiological roles for these sensor kinases in control of seed germination. We demonstrate that double-strand breaks (DSBs) are rate-limiting for germination. We identify that desiccation tolerant seeds exhibit a striking transcriptional DSB damage response during germination, indicative of high levels of genotoxic stress, which is induced following maturation drying and quiescence. Mutant atr and atm seeds are highly resistant to aging, establishing ATM and ATR as determinants of seed viability. In response to aging, ATM delays germination, whereas atm mutant seeds germinate with extensive chromosomal abnormalities. This identifies ATM as a major factor that controls germination in aged seeds, integrating progression through germination with surveillance of genome integrity. Mechanistically, ATM functions through control of DNA replication in imbibing seeds. ATM signaling is mediated by transcriptional control of the cell cycle inhibitor SIAMESE-RELATED 5, an essential factor required for the aging-induced delay to germination. In the soil seed bank, seeds exhibit increased transcript levels of ATM and ATR, with changes in dormancy and germination potential modulated by environmental signals, including temperature and soil moisture. Collectively, our findings reveal physiological functions for these sensor kinases in linking genome integrity to germination, thereby influencing seed quality, crucial for plant survival in the natural environment and sustainable crop production. PMID:27503884

  3. DNA damage checkpoint kinase ATM regulates germination and maintains genome stability in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Wanda M; Footitt, Steven; Bray, Clifford M; Finch-Savage, William E; West, Christopher E

    2016-08-23

    Genome integrity is crucial for cellular survival and the faithful transmission of genetic information. The eukaryotic cellular response to DNA damage is orchestrated by the DNA damage checkpoint kinases ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA MUTATED (ATM) and ATM AND RAD3-RELATED (ATR). Here we identify important physiological roles for these sensor kinases in control of seed germination. We demonstrate that double-strand breaks (DSBs) are rate-limiting for germination. We identify that desiccation tolerant seeds exhibit a striking transcriptional DSB damage response during germination, indicative of high levels of genotoxic stress, which is induced following maturation drying and quiescence. Mutant atr and atm seeds are highly resistant to aging, establishing ATM and ATR as determinants of seed viability. In response to aging, ATM delays germination, whereas atm mutant seeds germinate with extensive chromosomal abnormalities. This identifies ATM as a major factor that controls germination in aged seeds, integrating progression through germination with surveillance of genome integrity. Mechanistically, ATM functions through control of DNA replication in imbibing seeds. ATM signaling is mediated by transcriptional control of the cell cycle inhibitor SIAMESE-RELATED 5, an essential factor required for the aging-induced delay to germination. In the soil seed bank, seeds exhibit increased transcript levels of ATM and ATR, with changes in dormancy and germination potential modulated by environmental signals, including temperature and soil moisture. Collectively, our findings reveal physiological functions for these sensor kinases in linking genome integrity to germination, thereby influencing seed quality, crucial for plant survival in the natural environment and sustainable crop production.

  4. Melanoma therapy: Check the checkpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furue, Masutaka; Kadono, Takafumi

    2016-02-01

    Recent mutational and translational studies have revealed that the Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway plays a key role in melanomagenesis. Mutations in NRAS and BRAF are found in the majority of melanomas resulting in the formation of constitutively active NRAS and BRAF molecules, which leads to the proliferation and survival of melanoma cells through the activation of MEK/ERK signals. Inhibitors of BRAF or MEK significantly extend the progression-free survival and overall survival of melanoma patients compared with conventional chemotherapies. Combining BRAF and MEK inhibitors further enhances the clinical effectiveness. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is an immune checkpoint molecule that downregulates T-cell activation by binding to B7 (CD80/CD86) molecules on antigen-presenting cells. Programmed death receptor ligand 1 on melanoma cells negatively regulates T-cell function by binding to the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor on T cells. Antibodies against CTLA-4 and PD-1 also enhance the survival of melanoma patients. In this review, we summarize the clinical effectiveness and adverse events of the BRAF inhibitors, MEK inhibitors and anti-immune checkpoint antibodies in melanoma treatment.

  5. Spindle assembly checkpoint protein expression correlates with cellular proliferation and shorter time to recurrence in ovarian cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrogan, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    Ovarian carcinoma (OC) is the most lethal of the gynecological malignancies, often presenting at an advanced stage. Treatment is hampered by high levels of drug resistance. The taxanes are microtubule stabilizing agents, used as first-line agents in the treatment of OC that exert their apoptotic effects through the spindle assembly checkpoint. BUB1-related protein kinase (BUBR1) and mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2), essential spindle assembly checkpoint components, play a key role in response to taxanes. BUBR1, MAD2, and Ki-67 were assessed on an OC tissue microarray platform representing 72 OC tumors of varying histologic subtypes. Sixty-one of these patients received paclitaxel and platinum agents combined; 11 received platinum alone. Overall survival was available for all 72 patients, whereas recurrence-free survival (RFS) was available for 66 patients. Increased BUBR1 expression was seen in serous carcinomas, compared with other histologies (P = .03). Increased BUBR1 was significantly associated with tumors of advanced stage (P = .05). Increased MAD2 and BUBR1 expression also correlated with increased cellular proliferation (P < .0002 and P = .02, respectively). Reduced MAD2 nuclear intensity was associated with a shorter RFS (P = .03), in ovarian tumors of differing histologic subtype (n = 66). In this subgroup, for those women who received paclitaxel and platinum agents combined (n = 57), reduced MAD2 intensity also identified women with a shorter RFS (P < .007). For the entire cohort of patients, irrespective of histologic subtype or treatment, MAD2 nuclear intensity retained independent significance in a multivariate model, with tumors showing reduced nuclear MAD2 intensity identifying patients with a poorer RFS (P = .05).

  6. EZH2 is required for mouse oocyte meiotic maturation by interacting with and stabilizing spindle assembly checkpoint protein BubRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yi; Lu, Danyu; Jiang, Hao; Chi, Xiaochun; Zhang, Hongquan

    2016-01-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) trimethylates histone H3 Lys 27 and plays key roles in a variety of biological processes. Stability of spindle assembly checkpoint protein BubR1 is essential for mitosis in somatic cells and for meiosis in oocytes. However, the role of EZH2 in oocyte meiotic maturation was unknown. Here, we presented a mechanism underlying EZH2 control of BubR1 stability in the meiosis of mouse oocytes. We identified a methyltransferase activity-independent function of EZH2 by demonstrating that EZH2 regulates spindle assembly and the polar body I extrusion. EZH2 was increased with the oocyte progression from GVBD to MII, while EZH2 was concentrated on the chromosomes. Interestingly, inhibition of EZH2 methyltranferase activity by DZNep or GSK343 did not affect oocyte meiotic maturation. However, depletion of EZH2 by morpholino led to chromosome misalignment and abnormal spindle assembly. Furthermore, ectopic expression of EZH2 led to oocyte meiotic maturation arrested at the MI stage followed by chromosome misalignment and aneuploidy. Mechanistically, EZH2 directly interacted with and stabilized BubR1, an effect driving EZH2 into the concert of meiosis regulation. Collectively, we provided a paradigm that EZH2 is required for mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. PMID:27226494

  7. Phosphorylation of the regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2 by checkpoint kinase Chk1: identification of the in vitro CK2beta phosphorylation site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars P; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Højrup, Peter;

    2004-01-01

    The regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2 mediates the formation of the CK2 tetrameric form and it has functions independent of CK2 catalytic subunit through interaction with several intracellular proteins. Recently, we have shown that CK2beta associates with the human checkpoint kinase Chk...... by the modification of Thr213 but it does require the presence of an active Chk1 kinase....

  8. Centromere-tethered Mps1 pombe homolog (Mph1) kinase is a sufficient marker for recruitment of the spindle checkpoint protein Bub1, but not Mad1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Daisuke; Saito, Yu; Matsumoto, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    The spindle checkpoint delays the onset of anaphase until all of the chromosomes properly achieve bipolar attachment to the spindle. It has been shown that unattached kinetochores are the site that emits a signal for activation of the checkpoint. Although the components of the checkpoint such as Bub1, Mad1 and Mad2 selectively accumulate at unattached kinetochores, the answer to how they recognize unattached kinetochores has remained elusive. Mps1 pombe homolog (Mph1) kinase has been shown to function upstream of most of the components of the checkpoint and thus it is thought to recognize unattached kinetochores by itself and recruit other components. In this study we have expressed a fusion protein of Mph1 and Ndc80 (a kinetochore protein of the outer plate) and shown that the fusion protein arrests cell cycle progression in a spindle-checkpoint\\x{2013}dependent manner in fission yeast. When expression of Mad2 is turned off, the cells grow normally with Mph1 constitutively localized at centromeres/kinetochores. Under this condition, Bub1 can be found with Mph1 throughout the cell cycle, indicating that localization of Mph1 at centromeres/kinetochores is sufficient to recruit Bub1. In contrast, Mad1 is found to transiently localize at kinetochores, which are presumably unattached to the spindle, but soon it dissociates from kinetochores. We propose that Mph1 is a sufficient marker for recruitment of Bub1. Mad1, in contrast, requires an additional condition/component for stable association with kinetochores. PMID:22184248

  9. Cyclin F suppresses B-Myb activity to promote cell cycle checkpoint control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Ditte Kjærsgaard; Hoffmann, Saskia; Ahlskog, Johanna K;

    2015-01-01

    Cells respond to DNA damage by activating cell cycle checkpoints to delay proliferation and facilitate DNA repair. Here, to uncover new checkpoint regulators, we perform RNA interference screening targeting genes involved in ubiquitylation processes. We show that the F-box protein cyclin F plays...... an important role in checkpoint control following ionizing radiation. Cyclin F-depleted cells initiate checkpoint signalling after ionizing radiation, but fail to maintain G2 phase arrest and progress into mitosis prematurely. Importantly, cyclin F suppresses the B-Myb-driven transcriptional programme...... that promotes accumulation of crucial mitosis-promoting proteins. Cyclin F interacts with B-Myb via the cyclin box domain. This interaction is important to suppress cyclin A-mediated phosphorylation of B-Myb, a key step in B-Myb activation. In summary, we uncover a regulatory mechanism linking the F-box protein...

  10. Coupling end resection with the checkpoint response at DNA double-strand breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Matteo; Cassani, Corinne; Gobbini, Elisa; Bonetti, Diego; Longhese, Maria Pia

    2016-10-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a nasty form of damage that needs to be repaired to ensure genome stability. The DSB ends can undergo a strand-biased nucleolytic processing (resection) to generate 3'-ended single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that channels DSB repair into homologous recombination. Generation of ssDNA also triggers the activation of the DNA damage checkpoint, which couples cell cycle progression with DSB repair. The checkpoint response is intimately linked to DSB resection, as some checkpoint proteins regulate the resection process. The present review will highlight recent works on the mechanism and regulation of DSB resection and its interplays with checkpoint activation/inactivation in budding yeast. PMID:27141941

  11. PSGL-1 Is an Immune Checkpoint Regulator that Promotes T Cell Exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Roberto; Carrette, Florent; Barraza, Monique L; Otero, Dennis C; Magaña, Jonathan; Bosenberg, Marcus W; Swain, Susan L; Bradley, Linda M

    2016-05-17

    Chronic viruses and cancers thwart immune responses in humans by inducing T cell dysfunction. Using a murine chronic virus that models human infections, we investigated the function of the adhesion molecule, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), that is upregulated on responding T cells. PSGL-1-deficient mice cleared the virus due to increased intrinsic survival of multifunctional effector T cells that had downregulated PD-1 as well as other inhibitory receptors. Notably, this response resulted in CD4(+)-T-cell-dependent immunopathology. Mechanistically, PSGL-1 ligation on exhausted CD8(+) T cells inhibited T cell receptor (TCR) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) signaling and upregulated PD-1, leading to diminished survival with TCR stimulation. In models of melanoma cancer in which T cell dysfunction occurs, PSGL-1 deficiency led to PD-1 downregulation, improved T cell responses, and tumor control. Thus, PSGL-1 plays a fundamental role in balancing viral control and immunopathology and also functions to regulate T cell responses in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27192578

  12. Cop9/signalosome subunits and Pcu4 regulate ribonucleotide reductase by both checkpoint-dependent and -independent mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Cong; Powell, Kelly A.; Mundt, Kirsten; Wu, LeJung; Carr, Antony M.; Caspari, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The signalosome is implicated in regulating cullin-dependent ubiquitin ligases. We find that two signalosome subunits, Csn1 and Csn2, are required to regulate ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) through the degradation of a small protein, Spd1, that acts to anchor the small RNR subunit in the nucleus. Spd1 destruction correlates with the nuclear export of the small RNR subunit, which, in turn, correlates with a requirement for RNR in replication and repair. Spd1 degradation is promoted by two sepa...

  13. The regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2 accelerates the degradation of CDC25A phosphatase through the checkpoint kinase Chk1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzer, Jan Nicolas; Guerra, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Human CDC25 phosphatases play an important role in cell cycle regulation by removing inhibitory phosphate groups on cyclin-CDKs. Chk1 has been shown to phosphorylate CDC25 family members down-regulating their phosphatase activity through distinct mechanisms. The kinase activity of Chk1 is evident...... cell cycle progression is shown to enhance CDC25A degradation, and this occurs in a manner similar to that by which CDC25A is down-regulated upon activation of cellular checkpoint responses. By using RNA interference to specifically deplete cells of Chk1, we demonstrate that Chk1 mediates the down-regulation...... cell cycle regulation and indicate the mechanism by which CDC25A turnover might be regulated by Chk1 in the absence of DNA damage....

  14. Harnessing the Power of Onco-Immunotherapy with Checkpoint Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karishma R. Rajani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses represent a diverse class of replication competent viruses that curtail tumor growth. These viruses, through their natural ability or through genetic modifications, can selectively replicate within tumor cells and induce cell death while leaving normal cells intact. Apart from the direct oncolytic activity, these viruses mediate tumor cell death via the induction of innate and adaptive immune responses. The field of oncolytic viruses has seen substantial advancement with the progression of numerous oncolytic viruses in various phases of clinical trials. Tumors employ a plethora of mechanisms to establish growth and subsequently metastasize. These include evasion of immune surveillance by inducing up-regulation of checkpoint proteins which function to abrogate T cell effector functions. Currently, antibodies blocking checkpoint proteins such as anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4 and anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1 have been approved to treat cancer and shown to impart durable clinical responses. These antibodies typically need pre-existing active immune tumor microenvironment to establish durable clinical outcomes and not every patient responds to these therapies. This review provides an overview of published pre-clinical studies demonstrating superior therapeutic efficacy of combining oncolytic viruses with checkpoint blockade compared to monotherapies. These studies provide compelling evidence that oncolytic therapy can be potentiated by coupling it with checkpoint therapies.

  15. Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus latency associated nuclear antigen protein release the G2/M cell cycle blocks by modulating ATM/ATR mediated checkpoint pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    Full Text Available The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infects the human population and maintains latency stage of viral life cycle in a variety of cell types including cells of epithelial, mesenchymal and endothelial origin. The establishment of latent infection by KSHV requires the expression of an unique repertoire of genes among which latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA plays a critical role in the replication of the viral genome. LANA regulates the transcription of a number of viral and cellular genes essential for the survival of the virus in the host cell. The present study demonstrates the disruption of the host G2/M cell cycle checkpoint regulation as an associated function of LANA. DNA profile of LANA expressing human B-cells demonstrated the ability of this nuclear antigen in relieving the drug (Nocodazole induced G2/M checkpoint arrest. Caffeine suppressed nocodazole induced G2/M arrest indicating involvement of the ATM/ATR. Notably, we have also shown the direct interaction of LANA with Chk2, the ATM/ATR signalling effector and is responsible for the release of the G2/M cell cycle block.

  16. Synthetic Physical Interactions Map Kinetochore-Checkpoint Activation Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsson, Guðjón; Thorpe, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a key mechanism to regulate the timing of mitosis and ensure that chromosomes are correctly segregated to daughter cells. The recruitment of the Mad1 and Mad2 proteins to the kinetochore is normally necessary for SAC activation. This recruitment is coordinated by the SAC kinase Mps1, which phosphorylates residues at the kinetochore to facilitate binding of Bub1, Bub3, Mad1, and Mad2. There is evidence that the essential function of Mps1 is to direct recruitment of Mad1/2. To test this model, we have systematically recruited Mad1, Mad2, and Mps1 to most proteins in the yeast kinetochore, and find that, while Mps1 is sufficient for checkpoint activation, recruitment of either Mad1 or Mad2 is not. These data indicate an important role for Mps1 phosphorylation in SAC activation, beyond the direct recruitment of Mad1 and Mad2. PMID:27280788

  17. Cell size checkpoint control by the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Chiung Fang

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Size control is essential for all proliferating cells, and is thought to be regulated by checkpoints that couple cell size to cell cycle progression. The aberrant cell-size phenotypes caused by mutations in the retinoblastoma (RB tumor suppressor pathway are consistent with a role in size checkpoint control, but indirect effects on size caused by altered cell cycle kinetics are difficult to rule out. The multiple fission cell cycle of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii uncouples growth from division, allowing direct assessment of the relationship between size phenotypes and checkpoint function. Mutations in the C. reinhardtii RB homolog encoded by MAT3 cause supernumerous cell divisions and small cells, suggesting a role for MAT3 in size control. We identified suppressors of an mat3 null allele that had recessive mutations in DP1 or dominant mutations in E2F1, loci encoding homologs of a heterodimeric transcription factor that is targeted by RB-related proteins. Significantly, we determined that the dp1 and e2f1 phenotypes were caused by defects in size checkpoint control and were not due to a lengthened cell cycle. Despite their cell division defects, mat3, dp1, and e2f1 mutants showed almost no changes in periodic transcription of genes induced during S phase and mitosis, many of which are conserved targets of the RB pathway. Conversely, we found that regulation of cell size was unaffected when S phase and mitotic transcription were inhibited. Our data provide direct evidence that the RB pathway mediates cell size checkpoint control and suggest that such control is not directly coupled to the magnitude of periodic cell cycle transcription.

  18. Regulation of glycolysis by Pdk functions as a metabolic checkpoint for cell cycle quiescence in hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takubo, Keiyo; Nagamatsu, Go; Kobayashi, Chiharu I; Nakamura-Ishizu, Ayako; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Eiji; Goda, Nobuhito; Rahimi, Yasmeen; Johnson, Randall S; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Hirao, Atsushi; Suematsu, Makoto; Suda, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Defining the metabolic programs that underlie stem cell maintenance will be essential for developing strategies to manipulate stem cell capacity. Mammalian hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain cell cycle quiescence in a hypoxic microenvironment. It has been proposed that HSCs exhibit a distinct metabolic phenotype under these conditions. Here we directly investigated this idea using metabolomic analysis and found that HSCs generate adenosine-5'-triphosphate by anaerobic glycolysis through a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (Pdk)-dependent mechanism. Elevated Pdk expression leads to active suppression of the influx of glycolytic metabolites into mitochondria. Pdk overexpression in glycolysis-defective HSCs restored glycolysis, cell cycle quiescence, and stem cell capacity, while loss of both Pdk2 and Pdk4 attenuated HSC quiescence, glycolysis, and transplantation capacity. Moreover, treatment of HSCs with a Pdk mimetic promoted their survival and transplantation capacity. Thus, glycolytic metabolic status governed by Pdk acts as a cell cycle checkpoint that modulates HSC quiescence and function. PMID:23290136

  19. Sustained spindle-assembly checkpoint response requires de novo transcription and translation of cyclin B1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Mena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microtubule-targeting drugs induce mitotic delay at pro-metaphase by preventing the spindle assembly checkpoint to be satisfied. However, especially after prolonged treatments, cells can escape this arrest in a process called mitotic slippage. The mechanisms underlying the spindle assembly checkpoint and slippage are not fully understood. It has been generally accepted that during mitosis there is a temporary shutdown of high-energy-consuming processes, such as transcription and translation. However, the synthesis of specific proteins is maintained or up-regulated since protein synthesis is necessary for entry into and progression through mitosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we investigated whether the mitotic arrest caused by the mitotic checkpoint is independent of transcription and translation. By using immunofluorescent microscopy and western blotting, we demonstrate that inhibition of either of these processes induces a shortening of the mitotic arrest caused by the nocodazole treatment, and ultimately leads to mitotic slippage. Our western blotting and RTQ-PCR results show that inhibition of transcription during mitotic arrest does not affect the expression of the spindle checkpoint proteins, whereas it induces a significant decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of Cyclin B1. The exogenous expression of Cyclin B1 substantially rescued the mitotic phenotype in nocodazole cells treated with the inhibitors of transcription and translation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work emphasizes the importance of transcription and translation for the maintenance of the spindle assembly checkpoint, suggesting the existence of a mechanism dependent on cyclin B1 gene regulation during mitosis. We propose that continuous transcription of mitotic regulators is required to sustain the activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint.

  20. The Pch2 AAA+ ATPase promotes phosphorylation of the Hop1 meiotic checkpoint adaptor in response to synaptonemal complex defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herruzo, Esther; Ontoso, David; González-Arranz, Sara; Cavero, Santiago; Lechuga, Ana; San-Segundo, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic cells possess surveillance mechanisms that monitor critical events such as recombination and chromosome synapsis. Meiotic defects resulting from the absence of the synaptonemal complex component Zip1 activate a meiosis-specific checkpoint network resulting in delayed or arrested meiotic progression. Pch2 is an evolutionarily conserved AAA+ ATPase required for the checkpoint-induced meiotic block in the zip1 mutant, where Pch2 is only detectable at the ribosomal DNA array (nucleolus). We describe here that high levels of the Hop1 protein, a checkpoint adaptor that localizes to chromosome axes, suppress the checkpoint defect of a zip1 pch2 mutant restoring Mek1 activity and meiotic cell cycle delay. We demonstrate that the critical role of Pch2 in this synapsis checkpoint is to sustain Mec1-dependent phosphorylation of Hop1 at threonine 318. We also show that the ATPase activity of Pch2 is essential for its checkpoint function and that ATP binding to Pch2 is required for its localization. Previous work has shown that Pch2 negatively regulates Hop1 chromosome abundance during unchallenged meiosis. Based on our results, we propose that, under checkpoint-inducing conditions, Pch2 also possesses a positive action on Hop1 promoting its phosphorylation and its proper distribution on unsynapsed chromosome axes. PMID:27257060

  1. Visualizing the spindle checkpoint in Drosophila spermatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, Elena; González, Cayetano

    2000-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint detects defects in spindle structure or in the alignment of the chromosomes on the metaphase plate and delays the onset of anaphase until defects are corrected. Thus far, the evidence regarding the presence of a spindle checkpoint during meiosis in male Drosophila has been indirect and contradictory. On the one hand, chromosomes without pairing partners do not prevent meiosis progression. On the other hand, some conserved components of the spindle checkpoint machinery are expressed in these cells and behave as their homologue proteins do in systems with an active spindle checkpoint. To establish whether the spindle checkpoint is active in Drosophila spermatocytes we have followed meiosis progression by time-lapse microscopy under conditions where the checkpoint is likely to be activated. We have found that the presence of a relatively high number of misaligned chromosomes or a severe disruption of the meiotic spindle results in a significant delay in the time of entry into anaphase. These observations provide the first direct evidence substantiating the activity of a meiotic spindle checkpoint in male Drosophila. PMID:11256627

  2. A Monitor for Bud Emergence in the Yeast Morphogenesis Checkpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theesfeld, Chandra L.; Zyla, Trevin R.; Bardes, Elaine G.S.; Lew, Daniel J.

    2003-01-01

    Cell cycle transitions are subject to regulation by both external signals and internal checkpoints that monitor satisfactory progression of key cell cycle events. In budding yeast, the morphogenesis checkpoint arrests the cell cycle in response to perturbations that affect the actin cytoskeleton and bud formation. Herein, we identify a step in this checkpoint pathway that seems to be directly responsive to bud emergence. Activation of the kinase Hsl1p is dependent upon its recruitment to a cortical domain organized by the septins, a family of conserved filament-forming proteins. Under conditions that delayed or blocked bud emergence, Hsl1p recruitment to the septin cortex still took place, but hyperphosphorylation of Hsl1p and recruitment of the Hsl1p-binding protein Hsl7p to the septin cortex only occurred after bud emergence. At this time, the septin cortex spread to form a collar between mother and bud, and Hsl1p and Hsl7p were restricted to the bud side of the septin collar. We discuss models for translating cellular geometry (in this case, the emergence of a bud) into biochemical signals regulating cell proliferation. PMID:12925763

  3. Identification of DSB-1, a protein required for initiation of meiotic recombination in Caenorhabditis elegans, illuminates a crossover assurance checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericca L Stamper

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination, an essential aspect of sexual reproduction, is initiated by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. DSBs are catalyzed by the widely-conserved Spo11 enzyme; however, the activity of Spo11 is regulated by additional factors that are poorly conserved through evolution. To expand our understanding of meiotic regulation, we have characterized a novel gene, dsb-1, that is specifically required for meiotic DSB formation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. DSB-1 localizes to chromosomes during early meiotic prophase, coincident with the timing of DSB formation. DSB-1 also promotes normal protein levels and chromosome localization of DSB-2, a paralogous protein that plays a related role in initiating recombination. Mutations that disrupt crossover formation result in prolonged DSB-1 association with chromosomes, suggesting that nuclei may remain in a DSB-permissive state. Extended DSB-1 localization is seen even in mutants with defects in early recombination steps, including spo-11, suggesting that the absence of crossover precursors triggers the extension. Strikingly, failure to form a crossover precursor on a single chromosome pair is sufficient to extend the localization of DSB-1 on all chromosomes in the same nucleus. Based on these observations we propose a model for crossover assurance that acts through DSB-1 to maintain a DSB-permissive state until all chromosome pairs acquire crossover precursors. This work identifies a novel component of the DSB machinery in C. elegans, and sheds light on an important pathway that regulates DSB formation for crossover assurance.

  4. Robust Cell Size Checkpoint from Spatiotemporal Positive Feedback Loop in Fission Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cells must maintain appropriate cell size during proliferation. Size control may be regulated by a size checkpoint that couples cell size to cell division. Biological experimental data suggests that the cell size is coupled to the cell cycle in two ways: the rates of protein synthesis and the cell polarity protein kinase Pom1 provide spatial information that is used to regulate mitosis inhibitor Wee1. Here a mathematical model involving these spatiotemporal regulations was developed and used to explore the mechanisms underlying the size checkpoint in fission yeast. Bifurcation analysis shows that when the spatiotemporal regulation is coupled to the positive feedback loops (active Cdc2 promotes its activator, Cdc25, and suppress its inhibitor, Wee1, the mitosis-promoting factor (MPF exhibits a bistable steady-state relationship with the cell size. The switch-like response from the positive feedback loops naturally generates the cell size checkpoint. Further analysis indicated that the spatial regulation provided by Pom1 enhances the robustness of the size checkpoint in fission yeast. This was consistent with experimental data.

  5. Loss of p53-regulatory protein IFI16 induces NBS1 leading to activation of p53-mediated checkpoint by phosphorylation of p53 SER37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawara, Hideyuki; Fujiuchi, Nobuko; Sironi, Juan; Martin, Sarah; Aglipay, Jason; Ouchi, Mutsuko; Taga, Makoto; Chen, Phang-Lang; Ouchi, Toru

    2008-01-01

    Our previous results that IFI16 is involved in p53 transcription activity under conditions of ionizing radiation (IR), and that the protein is frequently lost in human breast cancer cell lines and breast adenocarcinoma tissues suggesting that IFI16 plays a crucial role in controlling cell growth. Here, we show that loss of IFI16 by RNA interference in cell culture causes elevated phosphorylation of p53 Ser37 and accumulated NBS1 (nibrin) and p21WAF1, leading to growth retardation. Consistent with these observations, doxycyclin-induced NBS1 caused accumulation of p21WAF1 and increased phosphorylation of p53 Ser37, leading to cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. Wortmannin treatment was found to decrease p53 Ser37 phosphorylation in NBS-induced cells. These results suggest that loss of IFI16 activates p53 checkpoint through NBS1-DNA-PKcs pathway. PMID:17981542

  6. A Monitor for Bud Emergence in the Yeast Morphogenesis Checkpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Theesfeld, Chandra L.; Zyla, Trevin R.; Bardes, Elaine G.S.; Lew, Daniel J.

    2003-01-01

    Cell cycle transitions are subject to regulation by both external signals and internal checkpoints that monitor satisfactory progression of key cell cycle events. In budding yeast, the morphogenesis checkpoint arrests the cell cycle in response to perturbations that affect the actin cytoskeleton and bud formation. Herein, we identify a step in this checkpoint pathway that seems to be directly responsive to bud emergence. Activation of the kinase Hsl1p is dependent upon...

  7. Differential activation of intra-S-phase checkpoint in response to tripchlorolide and its effects on DNA replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan REN; Jia Rui WU

    2004-01-01

    DNA replication is tightly regulated during the S phase of the cell cycle, and the activation of the intra-S-phase checkpoint due to DNA damage usually results in arrest of DNA synthesis. However, the molecular details about the correlation between the checkpoint and regulation of DNA replication are still unclear. To investigate the connections between DNA replication and DNA damage checkpoint, a DNA-damage reagent, tripchlorolide, was applied to CHO (Chinese ovary hamster) cells at early- or middle-stages of the S phase. The early-S-phase treatment with TC significantly delayed the progression of the S phase and caused the phosphorylation of the Chk1 checkpoint protein, whereas the middle-S-phase treatment only slightly slowed down the progression of the S phase. Furthermore, the analysis of DNA replication patterns revealed that replication pattern Ⅱ was greatly prolonged in the cells treated with the drug during the early-S phase, whereas the late-replication patterns of these cells were hardly detected, suggesting that the activation of the intra-S-phase checkpoint inhibits the late-origin firing of DNA replication. We conclude that cells at different stages of the S phase are differentially sensitive to the DNA-damage reagent, and the activation of the intra-Sphase checkpoint blocks the DNA replication progression in the late stage of S phase.

  8. Keeping it together in times of stress: checkpoint function at stalled replication forks

    OpenAIRE

    Berens, Theresa J.; David P Toczyski

    2012-01-01

    In this issue, De Piccoli et al. (2012) show that, contrary to current models of DNA replication checkpoint function, replication proteins remain associated with each other and with replicating DNA when replication is stressed in checkpoint-deficient cells.

  9. Cellular regulation by protein phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Edmond H

    2013-01-11

    A historical account of the discovery of reversible protein phosphorylation is presented. This process was uncovered in the mid 1950s in a study undertaken with Edwin G. Krebs to elucidate the complex hormonal regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase. Contrary to the known activation of this enzyme by AMP which serves as an allosteric effector, its hormonal regulation results from a phosphorylation of the protein by phosphorylase kinase following the activation of the latter by Ca(2+) and ATP. The study led to the establishment of the first hormonal cascade of successive enzymatic reactions, kinases acting on kinases, initiated by cAMP discovered by Earl Sutherland. It also showed how two different physiological processes, carbohydrate metabolism and muscle contraction, could be regulated in concert.

  10. Dynein Light Intermediate Chain 2 Facilitates the Metaphase to Anaphase Transition by Inactivating the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar P Mahale

    Full Text Available The multi-functional molecular motor cytoplasmic dynein performs diverse essential roles during mitosis. The mechanistic importance of the dynein Light Intermediate Chain homologs, LIC1 and LIC2 is unappreciated, especially in the context of mitosis. LIC1 and LIC2 are believed to exist in distinct cytoplasmic dynein complexes as obligate subunits. LIC1 had earlier been reported to be required for metaphase to anaphase progression by inactivating the kinetochore-microtubule attachment-sensing arm of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC. However, the functional importance of LIC2 during mitosis remains elusive. Here we report prominent novel roles for the LIC2 subunit of cytoplasmic dynein in regulating the spindle assembly checkpoint. LIC2 depletion in mammalian cells led to prolonged metaphase arrest in the presence of an active SAC and also to stretched kinetochores, thus implicating it in SAC inactivation. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy of SAC components revealed accumulation of both attachment- and tension-sensing checkpoint proteins at metaphase kinetochores upon LIC2 depletion. These observations support a stronger and more diverse role in checkpoint inactivation for LIC2 in comparison to its close homolog LIC1. Our study uncovers a novel functional hierarchy during mitotic checkpoint inactivation between the closely related but homologous LIC subunits of cytoplasmic dynein. These subtle functional distinctions between dynein subpopulations could be exploited to study specific aspects of the spindle assembly checkpoint, which is a key mediator of fidelity in eukaryotic cell division.

  11. Dynein Light Intermediate Chain 2 Facilitates the Metaphase to Anaphase Transition by Inactivating the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahale, Sagar P.; Sharma, Amit; Mylavarapu, Sivaram V. S.

    2016-01-01

    The multi-functional molecular motor cytoplasmic dynein performs diverse essential roles during mitosis. The mechanistic importance of the dynein Light Intermediate Chain homologs, LIC1 and LIC2 is unappreciated, especially in the context of mitosis. LIC1 and LIC2 are believed to exist in distinct cytoplasmic dynein complexes as obligate subunits. LIC1 had earlier been reported to be required for metaphase to anaphase progression by inactivating the kinetochore-microtubule attachment-sensing arm of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). However, the functional importance of LIC2 during mitosis remains elusive. Here we report prominent novel roles for the LIC2 subunit of cytoplasmic dynein in regulating the spindle assembly checkpoint. LIC2 depletion in mammalian cells led to prolonged metaphase arrest in the presence of an active SAC and also to stretched kinetochores, thus implicating it in SAC inactivation. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy of SAC components revealed accumulation of both attachment- and tension-sensing checkpoint proteins at metaphase kinetochores upon LIC2 depletion. These observations support a stronger and more diverse role in checkpoint inactivation for LIC2 in comparison to its close homolog LIC1. Our study uncovers a novel functional hierarchy during mitotic checkpoint inactivation between the closely related but homologous LIC subunits of cytoplasmic dynein. These subtle functional distinctions between dynein subpopulations could be exploited to study specific aspects of the spindle assembly checkpoint, which is a key mediator of fidelity in eukaryotic cell division. PMID:27441562

  12. Phosphorylation of microtubule-binding protein Hec1 by mitotic kinase Aurora B specifies spindle checkpoint kinase Mps1 signaling at the kinetochore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tongge; Dou, Zhen; Qin, Bo; Jin, Changjiang; Wang, Xinghui; Xu, Leilei; Wang, Zhaoyang; Zhu, Lijuan; Liu, Fusheng; Gao, Xinjiao; Ke, Yuwen; Wang, Zhiyong; Aikhionbare, Felix; Fu, Chuanhai; Ding, Xia; Yao, Xuebiao

    2013-12-13

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a quality control device to ensure accurate chromosome attachment to spindle microtubule for equal segregation of sister chromatid. Aurora B is essential for SAC function by sensing chromosome bi-orientation via spatial regulation of kinetochore substrates. However, it has remained elusive as to how Aurora B couples kinetochore-microtubule attachment to SAC signaling. Here, we show that Hec1 interacts with Mps1 and specifies its kinetochore localization via its calponin homology (CH) domain and N-terminal 80 amino acids. Interestingly, phosphorylation of the Hec1 by Aurora B weakens its interaction with microtubules but promotes Hec1 binding to Mps1. Significantly, the temporal regulation of Hec1 phosphorylation orchestrates kinetochore-microtubule attachment and Mps1 loading to the kinetochore. Persistent expression of phosphomimetic Hec1 mutant induces a hyperactivation of SAC, suggesting that phosphorylation-elicited Hec1 conformational change is used as a switch to orchestrate SAC activation to concurrent destabilization of aberrant kinetochore attachment. Taken together, these results define a novel role for Aurora B-Hec1-Mps1 signaling axis in governing accurate chromosome segregation in mitosis.

  13. Preserved DNA Damage Checkpoint Pathway Protects against Complications in Long-Standing Type 1 Diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Shweta; Gupta, Manoj; Khamaisi, Mogher; Martinez, Rachael; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Wagner, Bridget; Guye, Patrick; Busskamp, Volker; Shirakawa, Jun; Wu, Gongxiong; Liew, Chong Wee; Clauss, Therese RW; Valdez, Ivan; EL Ouaaman, Abdelfattah; Dirice, Ercument; Takatani, Tomozumi; Keenan, Hillary; Smith, Richard D.; Church, George; Weiss, Ron; Wagers, Amy J.; Qian, Weijun; King, George L.; Kulkami, Rohit N.

    2015-08-04

    Themechanisms underlying the development of complications in type 1 diabetes (T1D) are poorly understood. Disease modeling of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patients with longstanding T1D(disease durationR50 years) with severe (Medalist +C) or absent to mild complications (Medalist *C) revealed impaired growth, reprogramming, and differentiation in Medalist +C. Genomics and proteomics analyses suggested differential regulation of DNA damage checkpoint proteins favoring protection from cellular apoptosis in Medalist *C. In silico analyses showed altered expression patterns of DNA damage checkpoint factors among the Medalist groups to be targets of miR200, whose expression was significantly elevated in Medalist +C serum. Notably, neurons differentiated from Medalist +C iPSCs exhibited enhanced susceptibility to genotoxic stress that worsened upon miR200 overexpression. Furthermore, knockdown of miR200 in Medalist +C fibroblasts and iPSCs rescued checkpoint protein expression and reduced DNA damage.WeproposemiR200-regulated DNA damage checkpoint pathway as a potential therapeutic target for treating complications of diabetes.

  14. Tumor suppressor protein DAB2IP participates in chromosomal stability maintenance through activating spindle assembly checkpoint and stabilizing kinetochore-microtubule attachments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lan; Shang, Zeng-Fu; Abdisalaam, Salim; Lee, Kyung-Jong; Gupta, Arun; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Chen, Benjamin P.C.; Saha, Debabrata

    2016-01-01

    Defects in kinetochore-microtubule (KT-MT) attachment and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) during cell division are strongly associated with chromosomal instability (CIN). CIN has been linked to carcinogenesis, metastasis, poor prognosis and resistance to cancer therapy. We previously reported that the DAB2IP is a tumor suppressor, and that loss of DAB2IP is often detected in advanced prostate cancer (PCa) and is indicative of poor prognosis. Here, we report that the loss of DAB2IP results in impaired KT-MT attachment, compromised SAC and aberrant chromosomal segregation. We discovered that DAB2IP directly interacts with Plk1 and its loss inhibits Plk1 kinase activity, thereby impairing Plk1-mediated BubR1 phosphorylation. Loss of DAB2IP decreases the localization of BubR1 at the kinetochore during mitosis progression. In addition, the reconstitution of DAB2IP enhances the sensitivity of PCa cells to microtubule stabilizing drugs (paclitaxel, docetaxel) and Plk1 inhibitor (BI2536). Our findings demonstrate a novel function of DAB2IP in the maintenance of KT-MT structure and SAC regulation during mitosis which is essential for chromosomal stability. PMID:27568005

  15. The mitosis-regulating and protein-protein interaction activities of astrin are controlled by aurora-A-induced phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shao-Chih; Chen, Jo-Mei Maureen; Wei, Tong-You Wade; Cheng, Tai-Shan; Wang, Ya-Hui Candice; Ku, Chia-Feng; Lian, Chiao-Hsuan; Liu, Chun-Chih Jared; Kuo, Yi-Chun; Yu, Chang-Tze Ricky

    2014-09-01

    Cells display dramatic morphological changes in mitosis, where numerous factors form regulatory networks to orchestrate the complicated process, resulting in extreme fidelity of the segregation of duplicated chromosomes into two daughter cells. Astrin regulates several aspects of mitosis, such as maintaining the cohesion of sister chromatids by inactivating Separase and stabilizing spindle, aligning and segregating chromosomes, and silencing spindle assembly checkpoint by interacting with Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein (SKAP) and cytoplasmic linker-associated protein-1α (CLASP-1α). To understand how Astrin is regulated in mitosis, we report here that Astrin acts as a mitotic phosphoprotein, and Aurora-A phosphorylates Astrin at Ser(115). The phosphorylation-deficient mutant Astrin S115A abnormally activates spindle assembly checkpoint and delays mitosis progression, decreases spindle stability, and induces chromosome misalignment. Mechanistic analyses reveal that Astrin phosphorylation mimicking mutant S115D, instead of S115A, binds and induces ubiquitination and degradation of securin, which sequentially activates Separase, an enzyme required for the separation of sister chromatids. Moreover, S115A fails to bind mitosis regulators, including SKAP and CLASP-1α, which results in the mitotic defects observed in Astrin S115A-transfected cells. In conclusion, Aurora-A phosphorylates Astrin and guides the binding of Astrin to its cellular partners, which ensures proper progression of mitosis.

  16. Structure of a Blinkin-BUBR1 complex reveals an interaction crucial for kinetochore-mitotic checkpoint regulation via an unanticipated binding Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolanos-Garcia, Victor M; Lischetti, Tiziana; Matak-Vinković, Dijana;

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance of genomic stability relies on the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which ensures accurate chromosome segregation by delaying the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly bioriented and attached to the mitotic spindle. BUB1 and BUBR1 kinases are central...

  17. Regulation of intermediary metabolism by protein acetylation

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Kun-Liang; Xiong, Yue

    2010-01-01

    Extensive studies during the past four decades have identified important roles for lysine acetylation in the regulation of nuclear transcription. Recent proteomic analyses on protein acetylation uncovered a large number of acetylated proteins in the cytoplasm and mitochondria, including most enzymes involved in intermediate metabolism. Acetylation regulates metabolic enzymes by multiple mechanisms, including via enzymatic activation or inhibition, and by influencing protein stability. Convers...

  18. The architecture of the BubR1 tetratricopeptide tandem repeat defines a protein motif underlying mitotic checkpoint-kinetochore communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolanos-Garcia, Victor M; Nilsson, Jakob; Blundell, Tom L

    2012-01-01

    The accurate and timely transmission of the genetic material to progeny during successive rounds of cell division is sine qua non for the maintenance of genome stability. Eukaryotic cells have evolved a surveillance mechanism, the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), to prevent premature...... as substitution of BubR1 residues engaged in KNL1 binding impaired the SAC and BubR1 recruitment into checkpoint complexes in stable cell lines. Here we discuss the implications of the disorder-to-order transition of KNL1 upon BubR1 binding for SAC signaling and propose a mechanistic model of how BUBs binding may...

  19. Role of the human papillomavirus E2 protein at cell cycle checkpoints%人乳头瘤病毒E2蛋白在细胞周期检测点中的作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耀林; 唐双阳; 万艳平

    2012-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) E2 protein is a transcription-inhibiting factor and tumor suppressor of E6 or E7. Recent studies found that E2 protein interacts with the mitotic checkpoint during HPV-induced cell transformation. The protein affects the activity of Cdc20, Skp2, and APC/C, which are involved in the spindle assembly checkpoint, and is related to a cell's genetic stability. Due to the role the E2 protein plays in encouraging cancer to develop, it may become a new target for the prevention and treatment of cancer caused by high-risk HPV.%人乳头瘤病毒(HPV) E2蛋白一直被认为是E6/E7的转录抑制因子与肿瘤抑制因子.近年研究发现,在HPV所致细胞转化过程中,E2蛋白与细胞有丝分裂检测点相互作用,影响Cdc20、Skp2和APC/C等活性,涉及纺锤体组装检测点,关系到细胞基因的稳定性.由于E2蛋白可能在HPV致癌中具有推动作用,因而有望成为防治高危型HPVs所致肿瘤的一个新靶点.

  20. Ndd1 turnover by SCF(Grr1 is inhibited by the DNA damage checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen R Edenberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ndd1 is the dedicated transcriptional activator of the mitotic gene cluster, which includes thirty-three genes that encode key mitotic regulators, making Ndd1 a hub for the control of mitosis. Previous work has shown that multiple kinases, including cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk1, phosphorylate Ndd1 to regulate its activity during the cell cycle. Previously, we showed that Ndd1 was inhibited by phosphorylation in response to DNA damage. Here, we show that Ndd1 is also subject to regulation by protein turnover during the mitotic cell cycle: Ndd1 is unstable during an unperturbed cell cycle, but is strongly stabilized in response to DNA damage. We find that Ndd1 turnover in metaphase requires Cdk1 activity and the ubiquitin ligase SCF(Grr1. In response to DNA damage, Ndd1 stabilization requires the checkpoint kinases Mec1/Tel1 and Swe1, the S. cerevisiae homolog of the Wee1 kinase. In both humans and yeast, the checkpoint promotes Wee1-dependent inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1 following exposure to DNA damage. While this is critical for checkpoint-induced arrest in most organisms, this is not true in budding yeast, where the function of damage-induced inhibitory phosphorylation is less well understood. We propose that the DNA damage checkpoint stabilizes Ndd1 by inhibiting Cdk1, which we show is required for targeting Ndd1 for destruction.

  1. Replication licensing and the DNA damage checkpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Jeanette Gowen

    2009-01-01

    Accurate and timely duplication of chromosomal DNA requires that replication be coordinated with processes that ensure genome integrity. Significant advances in determining how the earliest steps in DNA replication are affected by DNA damage have highlighted some of the mechanisms to establish that coordination. Recent insights have expanded the relationship between the ATM and ATR-dependent checkpoint pathways and the proteins that bind and function at replication origins. These findings sug...

  2. Redox regulation of Nox proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Pendyala, Srikanth; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2010-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a major role in endothelial signaling and function. Of the several potential sources of ROS in the vasculature, the endothelial NADPH Oxidase (Nox) family of proteins, Nox1, Nox2, Nox4 and Nox5, are major contributors of ROS. Excess generation of ROS contributes to the development and progression of vascular disease. While hyperoxia stimulates ROS production through Nox proteins, hypoxia appears to involve mitochondrial electron transport ...

  3. The mechanism of protein kinase C regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julhash U. KAZI

    2011-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family ofserine/threonine protein kinases that plays a central role in transducing extracellular signals into a variety of intracellular responses ranging from cell proliferation to apoptosis.Nine PKC genes have been identified in the human genome,which encode 10 proteins.Each member of this protein kinase family displays distinct biochemical characteristics and is enriched in different cellular and subcellular locations.Activation of PKC has been implicated in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation.This review summarizes works of the past years in the field of PKC biochemistry that covers regulation and activation mechanism of different PKC isoforms.

  4. Activation of the nimA protein kinase plays a unique role during mitosis that cannot be bypassed by absence of the bimE checkpoint.

    OpenAIRE

    Osmani, A H; O'Donnell, K; Pu, R T; Osmani, S A

    1991-01-01

    Mutation of nimA reversibly arrests cells in late G2 and nimA overexpression promotes premature mitosis. Here we demonstrate that the product of nimA (designated NIMA) has protein kinase activity that can phosphorylate beta-casein but not histone proteins. NIMA kinase activity is cell cycle regulated being 20-fold higher at mitosis when compared to S-phase arrested cells. NIMA activation is normally required in G2 to initiate chromosome condensation, to nucleate spindle pole body microtubules...

  5. Cdk2 is required for p53-independent G2/M checkpoint control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon H Chung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The activation of phase-specific cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks is associated with ordered cell cycle transitions. Among the mammalian Cdks, only Cdk1 is essential for somatic cell proliferation. Cdk1 can apparently substitute for Cdk2, Cdk4, and Cdk6, which are individually dispensable in mice. It is unclear if all functions of non-essential Cdks are fully redundant with Cdk1. Using a genetic approach, we show that Cdk2, the S-phase Cdk, uniquely controls the G(2/M checkpoint that prevents cells with damaged DNA from initiating mitosis. CDK2-nullizygous human cells exposed to ionizing radiation failed to exclude Cdk1 from the nucleus and exhibited a marked defect in G(2/M arrest that was unmasked by the disruption of P53. The DNA replication licensing protein Cdc6, which is normally stabilized by Cdk2, was physically associated with the checkpoint regulator ATR and was required for efficient ATR-Chk1-Cdc25A signaling. These findings demonstrate that Cdk2 maintains a balance of S-phase regulatory proteins and thereby coordinates subsequent p53-independent G(2/M checkpoint activation.

  6. The Actin Binding Protein Adseverin Regulates Osteoclastogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanpour, Siavash; Jiang, Hongwei; Wang, Yongqiang; Kuiper, Johannes W. P.; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Adseverin (Ads), a member of the Gelsolin superfamily of actin binding proteins, regulates the actin cytoskeleton architecture by severing and capping existing filamentous actin (F-actin) strands and nucleating the assembly of new F-actin filaments. Ads has been implicated in cellular secretion, exocytosis and has also been shown to regulate chondrogenesis and megakaryoblastic leukemia cell differentiation. Here we report for the first time that Ads is involved in regulating osteoclastogenesi...

  7. Circadian clock proteins in mood regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo ePartonen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mood regulation is known to be affected by the change of seasons. Recent research findings have suggested that mood regulation may be influenced by the function of circadian clocks. In addition, the activity of brown adipocytes has been hypothesized to contribute to mood regulation. Here, the overarching link to mood disorders might be the circadian clock protein NR1D1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1.

  8. DENN Domain Proteins: Regulators of Rab GTPases*

    OpenAIRE

    Marat, Andrea L.; Dokainish, Hatem; McPherson, Peter S

    2011-01-01

    The DENN domain is a common, evolutionarily ancient, and conserved protein module, yet it has gone largely unstudied; until recently, little was known regarding its functional roles. New studies reveal that various DENN domains interact directly with members of the Rab family of small GTPases and that DENN domains function enzymatically as Rab-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors. Thus, DENN domain proteins appear to be generalized regulators of Rab function. Study of these proteins w...

  9. Checkpointing in speculative versioning caches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; Gara, Alan; Gschwind, Michael K; Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-08-27

    Mechanisms for generating checkpoints in a speculative versioning cache of a data processing system are provided. The mechanisms execute code within the data processing system, wherein the code accesses cache lines in the speculative versioning cache. The mechanisms further determine whether a first condition occurs indicating a need to generate a checkpoint in the speculative versioning cache. The checkpoint is a speculative cache line which is made non-speculative in response to a second condition occurring that requires a roll-back of changes to a cache line corresponding to the speculative cache line. The mechanisms also generate the checkpoint in the speculative versioning cache in response to a determination that the first condition has occurred.

  10. Crosstalk between the unfolded protein response and pathways that regulate pathogenic development in Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimel, Kai; Freitag, Johannes; Hampel, Martin; Ast, Julia; Bölker, Michael; Kämper, Jörg

    2013-10-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a conserved eukaryotic signaling pathway regulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis during ER stress, which results, for example, from an increased demand for protein secretion. Here, we characterize the homologs of the central UPR regulatory proteins Hac1 (for Homologous to ATF/CREB1) and Inositol Requiring Enzyme1 in the plant pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis and demonstrate that the UPR is tightly interlinked with the b mating-type-dependent signaling pathway that regulates pathogenic development. Exact timing of UPR is required for virulence, since premature activation interferes with the b-dependent switch from budding to filamentous growth. In addition, we found crosstalk between UPR and the b target Clampless1 (Clp1), which is essential for cell cycle release and proliferation in planta. The unusual C-terminal extension of the U. maydis Hac1 homolog, Cib1 (for Clp1 interacting bZIP1), mediates direct interaction with Clp1. The interaction between Clp1 and Cib1 promotes stabilization of Clp1, resulting in enhanced ER stress tolerance that prevents deleterious UPR hyperactivation. Thus, the interaction between Cib1 and Clp1 constitutes a checkpoint to time developmental progression and increased secretion of effector proteins at the onset of biotrophic development. Crosstalk between UPR and the b mating-type regulated developmental program adapts ER homeostasis to the changing demands during biotrophy.

  11. Cambridge checkpoint English workbook 2

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2014-01-01

    Build confidence and understanding throughout the year with hundreds of additional practice questions. This Workbook supports our bestselling Checkpoint series, with exercises specifically matched to the Cambridge Progression tests and the Checkpoint tests. - Develops understanding and builds confidence ahead of assessment with exercises matched to the tests - Ensures a thorough understanding of all aspects of the course by following the structure of the relevant textbook - Saves planning time with exercises that are suitable for use in class or as homework This Workbook is

  12. Cambridge checkpoint English workbook 3

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2014-01-01

    Build confidence and understanding throughout the year with hundreds of additional practice questions. This Workbook supports our bestselling Checkpoint series, with exercises specifically matched to the Cambridge Progression tests and the Checkpoint tests. - Develops understanding and builds confidence ahead of assessment with exercises matched to the tests - Ensures a thorough understanding of all aspects of the course by following the structure of the relevant textbook - Saves planning time with exercises that are suitable for use in class or as homework This Workbook is

  13. The architecture of the BubR1 tetratricopeptide tandem repeat defines a protein motif underlying mitotic checkpoint-kinetochore communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanos-Garcia, Victor M; Nilsson, Jakob; Blundell, Tom L

    2012-01-01

    The accurate and timely transmission of the genetic material to progeny during successive rounds of cell division is sine qua non for the maintenance of genome stability. Eukaryotic cells have evolved a surveillance mechanism, the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), to prevent premature advance to anaphase before every chromosome is properly attached to microtubules of the mitotic spindle. The architecture of the KNL1-BubR1 complex reveals important features of the molecular recognition between SAC components and the kinetochore. The interaction is important for a functional SAC as substitution of BubR1 residues engaged in KNL1 binding impaired the SAC and BubR1 recruitment into checkpoint complexes in stable cell lines. Here we discuss the implications of the disorder-to-order transition of KNL1 upon BubR1 binding for SAC signaling and propose a mechanistic model of how BUBs binding may affect the recognition of KNL1 by its other interacting partners.

  14. Regulation of cell proliferation by G proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, N; Tsim, S T; Dermott, J M; Onesime, D

    1998-09-17

    G Proteins provide signal transduction mechanisms to seven transmembrane receptors. Recent studies have indicated that the alpha-subunits as well as the betagamma-subunits of these proteins regulate several critical signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Of the 17 alpha-subunits that have been cloned, at least ten of them have been shown to couple mitogenic signaling in fibroblast cells. Activating mutations in G alpha(s), G alpha(i)2, and G alpha12 have been correlated with different types of tumors. In addition, the ability of the betagamma-subunits to activate mitogenic pathways in different cell-types has been defined. The present review briefly summarizes the diverse and novel signaling pathways regulated by the alpha- as well as the betagamma-subunits of G proteins in regulating cell proliferation. PMID:9779986

  15. Conformation-specific anti-Mad2 monoclonal antibodies for the dissection of checkpoint signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Garry G; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Lischetti, Tiziana;

    2016-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis by delaying the activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) in response to unattached kinetochores. The Mad2 protein is essential for a functional checkpoint because it binds directly t...

  16. Cdc20 and Cks direct the spindle checkpoint-independent destruction of cyclin A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, Rob; Clay-Farrace, Lori; van Zon, Wouter; Yekezare, Mona; Koop, Lars; Ogink, Janneke; Medema, Rene; Pines, Jonathon

    2008-01-01

    Successful mitosis requires the right protein be degraded at the right time. Central to this is the spindle checkpoint that prevents the destruction of securin and cyclin 131 when there are improperly attached chromosomes. The principal target of the checkpoint is Cdc20, which activates the anaphase

  17. Compiler-assisted static checkpoint insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Junsheng; Fuchs, W. K.; Abraham, Jacob A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a compiler-assisted approach for static checkpoint insertion. Instead of fixing the checkpoint location before program execution, a compiler enhanced polling mechanism is utilized to maintain both the desired checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint 1ocations. The technique has been implemented in a GNU CC compiler for Sun 3 and Sun 4 (Sparc) processors. Experiments demonstrate that the approach provides for stable checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint placements with performance overhead comparable to a previously presented compiler assisted dynamic scheme (CATCH) utilizing the system clock.

  18. The cell-cycle checkpoint kinase Chk1 is required for mammalian homologous recombination repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Storgaard; Hansen, Lasse Tengbjerg; Dziegielewski, Jaroslaw;

    2005-01-01

    The essential checkpoint kinase Chk1 is required for cell-cycle delays after DNA damage or blocked DNA replication. However, it is unclear whether Chk1 is involved in the repair of damaged DNA. Here we establish that Chk1 is a key regulator of genome maintenance by the homologous recombination......, the essential recombination repair protein RAD51 is recruited to DNA repair foci performing a vital role in correct HRR. We demonstrate that Chk1 interacts with RAD51, and that RAD51 is phosphorylated on Thr 309 in a Chk1-dependent manner. Consistent with a functional interplay between Chk1 and RAD51...

  19. Acetylation regulates Jun protein turnover in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daoyong; Suganuma, Tamaki; Workman, Jerry L

    2013-11-01

    C-Jun is a major transcription factor belonging to the activating protein 1 (AP-1) family. Phosphorylation has been shown to be critical for c-Jun activation and stability. Here, we report that Jra, the Drosophila Jun protein, is acetylated in vivo. We demonstrate that the acetylation of Jra leads to its rapid degradation in response to osmotic stress. Intriguingly, we also found that Jra phosphorylation antagonized its acetylation, indicating the opposite roles of acetylation and phosphorylation in Jra degradation process under osmotic stress. Our results provide new insights into how c-Jun proteins are precisely regulated by the interplay of different posttranslational modifications.

  20. Transcriptional regulation by Polycomb group proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Croce, Luciano; Helin, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic regulators of transcription that have key roles in stem-cell identity, differentiation and disease. Mechanistically, they function within multiprotein complexes, called Polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs), which modify histones (and other proteins......) and silence target genes. The dynamics of PRC1 and PRC2 components has been the focus of recent research. Here we discuss our current knowledge of the PRC complexes, how they are targeted to chromatin and how the high diversity of the PcG proteins allows these complexes to influence cell identity....

  1. G Proteins and Regulation of Effector Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Dehpour

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell surface receptors use a variety of membrane signalling mechanisms to translate information encoded in neurotransmitters, hormones, and growth factors into cellular responses.Collectively these mechanisms are refered to as transmembrane signalling or signal transduction. In the simplest example,the process involves a receptor protein-encompassed ion channel whose conductance is regulated by receptor activation.A second type of transmembrane signalling system involves the coupling of at least three separate components, a receptor protein, a guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein , and an effector mechanism. In some receptor" effector systems the signal transduction pathways is entirely confined to the membrane, in which no intracellular messenger is involved.Alternatively, the activity of an enzyme may be changed to generate a specific intracellular signal molecule or second messenger. Receptors in this latter category may regulate the activity of adenylyl cyclase in a positive manner through a stimulatory G protein( G or in a negative manner through an inhibitory G protein( G. thereby controlling the intracellular level of cAMP. Another membrane- associated enzyme, similar to adenylate cyclase, is phospholipase C which catalizes the hydrolysis of PIP2into IP3and DAG. Phospholipase C coupled receptors are physiologically very important because both products of the reaction act as a second messenger; diacylglycerol activates protein kinase C and IP3 stimulates calcium release from Intracellular stores.

  2. DNA-damage response network at the crossroads of cell-cycle checkpoints,cellular senescence and apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SCHMITT Estelle; PAQUET Claudie; BEAUCHEMIN Myriam; BERTRAND Richard

    2007-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires a carefully-orchestrated balance between cell proliferation,cellular senescence and cell death.Cells proliferate through a cell cycle that is tightly regulated by cyclin-dependent kinase activities.Cellular senescence is a safeguard program limiting the proliferative competence of cells in living organisms.Apoptosis eliminates unwanted cells by the coordinated activity of gene products that regulate and effect cell death.The intimate link between the cell cycle,cellular senescence,apoptosis regulation,cancer development and tumor responses to cancer treatment has become eminently apparent.Extensive research on tumor suppressor genes,oncogenes,the cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory genes has revealed how the DNA damage-sensing and -signaling pathways,referred to as the DNA-damage response network,are tied to cell proliferation,cell-cycle arrest,cellular senescence and apoptosis.DNA-damage responses are complex,involving "sensor" proteins that sense the damage,and transmit signals to "transducer" proteins,which,in turn,convey the signals to numerous "effector" proteins implicated in specific cellular pathways,including DNA repair mechanisms,cell-cycle checkpoints,cellular senescence and apoptosis.The Bcl-2 family of proteins stands among the most crucial regulators of apoptosis and performs vital functions in deciding whether a cell will live or die after cancer chemotherapy and irradiation.In addition,several studies have now revealed that members of the Bcl-2 family also interface with the cell cycle,DNA repair/recombination and cellular senescence,effects that are generally distinct from their function in apoptosis.In this review,we report progress in understanding the molecular networks that regulate cell-cycle checkpoints,cellular senescence and apoptosis after DNA damage,and discuss the influence of some Bcl-2 family members on cell-cycle checkpoint regulation.

  3. Protein kinase A regulates molecular chaperone transcription and protein aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhang

    Full Text Available Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1 regulates one of the major pathways of protein quality control and is essential for deterrence of protein-folding disorders, particularly in neuronal cells. However, HSF1 activity declines with age, a change that may open the door to progression of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease. We have investigated mechanisms of HSF1 regulation that may become compromised with age. HSF1 binds stably to the catalytic domain of protein kinase A (PKAcα and becomes phosphorylated on at least one regulatory serine residue (S320. We show here that PKA is essential for effective transcription of HSP genes by HSF1. PKA triggers a cascade involving HSF1 binding to the histone acetylase p300 and positive translation elongation factor 1 (p-TEFb and phosphorylation of the c-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II, a key mechanism in the downstream steps of HSF1-mediated transcription. This cascade appears to play a key role in protein quality control in neuronal cells expressing aggregation-prone proteins with long poly-glutamine (poly-Q tracts. Such proteins formed inclusion bodies that could be resolved by HSF1 activation during heat shock. Resolution of the inclusions was inhibited by knockdown of HSF1, PKAcα, or the pTEFb component CDK9, indicating a key role for the HSF1-PKA cascade in protein quality control.

  4. Development of cell-cycle checkpoint therapy for solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    Cellular proliferation is tightly controlled by several cell-cycle checkpoint proteins. In cancer, the genes encoding these proteins are often disrupted and cause unrestrained cancer growth. The proteins are over-expressed in many malignancies; thus, they are potential targets for anti-cancer therapies. These proteins include cyclin-dependent kinase, checkpoint kinase, WEE1 kinase, aurora kinase and polo-like kinase. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors are the most advanced cell-cycle checkpoint therapeutics available. For instance, palbociclib (PD0332991) is a first-in-class, oral, highly selective inhibitor of CDK4/6 and, in combination with letrozole (Phase II; PALOMA-1) or with fulvestrant (Phase III; PALOMA-3), it has significantly prolonged progression-free survival, in patients with metastatic estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer, in comparison with that observed in patients using letrozole, or fulvestrant alone, respectively. In this review, we provide an overview of the current compounds available for cell-cycle checkpoint protein-directed therapy for solid tumors. PMID:26486823

  5. Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors: Phosphorylation and Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen S. Browning

    2009-06-15

    The initiation of the synthesis of proteins is a fundamental process shared by all living organisms. Each organism has both shared and unique mechanisms for regulation of this vital process. Higher plants provide for a major amount of fixation of carbon from the environment and turn this carbon into food and fuel sources for our use. However, we have very little understanding of how plants regulate the synthesis of the proteins necessary for these metabolic processes. The research carried out during the grant period sought to address some of these unknowns in the regulation of protein synthesis initiation. Our first goal was to determine if phosphorylation plays a significant role in plant initiation of protein synthesis. The role of phosphorylation, although well documented in mammalian protein synthesis regulation, is not well studied in plants. We showed that several of the factors necessary for the initiation of protein synthesis were targets of plant casein kinase and showed differential phosphorylation by the plant specific isoforms of this kinase. In addition, we identified and confirmed the phosphorylation sites in five of the plant initiation factors. Further, we showed that phosphorylation of one of these factors, eIF5, affected the ability of the factor to participate in the initiation process. Our second goal was to develop a method to make initiation factor 3 (eIF3) using recombinant methods. To date, we successfully cloned and expressed 13/13 subunits of wheat eIF3 in E. coli using de novo gene construction methods. The final step in this process is to place the subunits into three different plasmid operons for co-expression. Successful completion of expression of eIF3 will be an invaluable tool to the plant translation community.

  6. Dictyostelium calcium-binding protein 4a interacts with nucleomorphin, a BRCT-domain protein that regulates nuclear number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myre, Michael A; O'Day, Danton H

    2004-09-17

    Nucleomorphin from Dictyostelium discoideum is a nuclear calmodulin-binding protein that is a member of the BRCT-domain containing cell cycle checkpoint proteins. Two differentially expressed isoforms, NumA and NumB, share an extensive acidic domain (DEED) that when deleted produces highly multinucleated cells. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen of a Dictyostelium cDNA library using NumA as bait. Here we show that nucleomorphin interacts with calcium-binding protein 4a (CBP4a) in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Further deletion analysis suggests this interaction requires residues found within the DEED domain. NumA and CBP4a mRNAs are expressed at the same stages of development. CBP4a belongs to a large family of Dictyostelium CBPs, for which no cellular or developmental functions had previously been determined. Since the interaction of CBP4a with nucleomorphin requires the DEED domain, this suggests that CBP4a may respond to Ca(2+)-signalling through modulating factors that might function in concert to regulate nuclear number. PMID:15325281

  7. Efficient Incremental Checkpointing of Java Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimization of language-level checkpointing of Java programs. First, we describe how to systematically associate incremental checkpoints with Java classes. While being safe, the genericness of this solution induces substantial execution overhead. Second, to solve...

  8. Cambridge checkpoint English workbook 1

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2013-01-01

    This Workbook supports our bestselling Checkpoint English series, with exercises specifically matched to the Cambridge Progression tests and the Checkpoint English tests. - Offers plenty of additional questions for use in class or as homework. - Includes clearly identified questions on grammar and punctuation, comprehension, use of language and essay planning. - Follows the structure of the relevant textbook to ensure a thorough understanding of all aspects of the course. - Provides a space for Students to write their answers. This Workbook is matched to the Cambridge Secondary 1 Curriculum Fr

  9. Network support for system initiated checkpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip

    2013-01-29

    A system, method and computer program product for supporting system initiated checkpoints in parallel computing systems. The system and method generates selective control signals to perform checkpointing of system related data in presence of messaging activity associated with a user application running at the node. The checkpointing is initiated by the system such that checkpoint data of a plurality of network nodes may be obtained even in the presence of user applications running on highly parallel computers that include ongoing user messaging activity.

  10. Protein phosphorylation in bcterial signaling and regulation

    KAUST Repository

    Mijakovic, Ivan

    2016-01-26

    In 2003, it was demonstrated for the first time that bacteria possess protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases), capable of phosphorylating other cellular proteins and regulating their activity. It soon became apparent that these kinases phosphorylate a number of protein substrates, involved in different cellular processes. More recently, we found out that BY-kinases can be activated by several distinct protein interactants, and are capable of engaging in cross-phosphorylation with other kinases. Evolutionary studies based on genome comparison indicate that BY-kinases exist only in bacteria. They are non-essential (present in about 40% bacterial genomes), and their knockouts lead to pleiotropic phenotypes, since they phosphorylate many substrates. Surprisingly, BY-kinase genes accumulate mutations at an increased rate (non-synonymous substitution rate significantly higher than other bacterial genes). One direct consequence of this phenomenon is no detectable co-evolution between kinases and their substrates. Their promiscuity towards substrates thus seems to be “hard-wired”, but why would bacteria maintain such promiscuous regulatory devices? One explanation is the maintenance of BY-kinases as rapidly evolving regulators, which can readily adopt new substrates when environmental changes impose selective pressure for quick evolution of new regulatory modules. Their role is clearly not to act as master regulators, dedicated to triggering a single response, but they might rather be employed to contribute to fine-tuning and improving robustness of various cellular responses. This unique feature makes BY-kinases a potentially useful tool in synthetic biology. While other bacterial kinases are very specific and their signaling pathways insulated, BY-kinase can relatively easily be engineered to adopt new substrates and control new biosynthetic processes. Since they are absent in humans, and regulate some key functions in pathogenic bacteria, they are also very promising

  11. Checkpointing for a hybrid computing node

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-03-08

    According to an aspect, a method for checkpointing in a hybrid computing node includes executing a task in a processing accelerator of the hybrid computing node. A checkpoint is created in a local memory of the processing accelerator. The checkpoint includes state data to restart execution of the task in the processing accelerator upon a restart operation. Execution of the task is resumed in the processing accelerator after creating the checkpoint. The state data of the checkpoint are transferred from the processing accelerator to a main processor of the hybrid computing node while the processing accelerator is executing the task.

  12. Human MLH1 protein participates in genomic damage checkpoint signaling in response to DNA interstrand crosslinks, while MSH2 functions in DNA repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wu

    Full Text Available DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs are among the most toxic types of damage to a cell. For this reason, many ICL-inducing agents are effective therapeutic agents. For example, cisplatin and nitrogen mustards are used for treating cancer and psoralen plus UVA (PUVA is useful for treating psoriasis. However, repair mechanisms for ICLs in the human genome are not clearly defined. Previously, we have shown that MSH2, the common subunit of the human MutSalpha and MutSbeta mismatch recognition complexes, plays a role in the error-free repair of psoralen ICLs. We hypothesized that MLH1, the common subunit of human MutL complexes, is also involved in the cellular response to psoralen ICLs. Surprisingly, we instead found that MLH1-deficient human cells are more resistant to psoralen ICLs, in contrast to the sensitivity to these lesions displayed by MSH2-deficient cells. Apoptosis was not as efficiently induced by psoralen ICLs in MLH1-deficient cells as in MLH1-proficient cells as determined by caspase-3/7 activity and binding of annexin V. Strikingly, CHK2 phosphorylation was undetectable in MLH1-deficient cells, and phosphorylation of CHK1 was reduced after PUVA treatment, indicating that MLH1 is involved in signaling psoralen ICL-induced checkpoint activation. Psoralen ICLs can result in mutations near the crosslinked sites; however, MLH1 function was not required for the mutagenic repair of these lesions, and so its signaling function appears to have a role in maintaining genomic stability following exposure to ICL-induced DNA damage. Distinguishing the genetic status of MMR-deficient tumors as MSH2-deficient or MLH1-deficient is thus potentially important in predicting the efficacy of treatment with psoralen and perhaps with other ICL-inducing agents.

  13. The Transcription Factor E4F1 Coordinates CHK1-Dependent Checkpoint and Mitochondrial Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Rodier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent data support the notion that a group of key transcriptional regulators involved in tumorigenesis, including MYC, p53, E2F1, and BMI1, share an intriguing capacity to simultaneously regulate metabolism and cell cycle. Here, we show that another factor, the multifunctional protein E4F1, directly controls genes involved in mitochondria functions and cell-cycle checkpoints, including Chek1, a major component of the DNA damage response. Coordination of these cellular functions by E4F1 appears essential for the survival of p53-deficient transformed cells. Acute inactivation of E4F1 in these cells results in CHK1-dependent checkpoint deficiency and multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions that lead to increased ROS production, energy stress, and inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis. This deadly cocktail leads to the accumulation of uncompensated oxidative damage to proteins and extensive DNA damage, ending in cell death. This supports the rationale of therapeutic strategies simultaneously targeting mitochondria and CHK1 for selective killing of p53-deficient cancer cells.

  14. The transcription factor E4F1 coordinates CHK1-dependent checkpoint and mitochondrial functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, Geneviève; Kirsh, Olivier; Baraibar, Martín; Houlès, Thibault; Lacroix, Matthieu; Delpech, Hélène; Hatchi, Elodie; Arnould, Stéphanie; Severac, Dany; Dubois, Emeric; Caramel, Julie; Julien, Eric; Friguet, Bertrand; Le Cam, Laurent; Sardet, Claude

    2015-04-14

    Recent data support the notion that a group of key transcriptional regulators involved in tumorigenesis, including MYC, p53, E2F1, and BMI1, share an intriguing capacity to simultaneously regulate metabolism and cell cycle. Here, we show that another factor, the multifunctional protein E4F1, directly controls genes involved in mitochondria functions and cell-cycle checkpoints, including Chek1, a major component of the DNA damage response. Coordination of these cellular functions by E4F1 appears essential for the survival of p53-deficient transformed cells. Acute inactivation of E4F1 in these cells results in CHK1-dependent checkpoint deficiency and multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions that lead to increased ROS production, energy stress, and inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis. This deadly cocktail leads to the accumulation of uncompensated oxidative damage to proteins and extensive DNA damage, ending in cell death. This supports the rationale of therapeutic strategies simultaneously targeting mitochondria and CHK1 for selective killing of p53-deficient cancer cells.

  15. Determinants of mitotic catastrophe on abrogation of the G2 DNA damage checkpoint by UCN-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    On, Kin Fan; Chen, Yue; Ma, Hoi Tang; Chow, Jeremy P H; Poon, Randy Y C

    2011-05-01

    Genotoxic stress such as ionizing radiation halts entry into mitosis by activation of the G(2) DNA damage checkpoint. The CHK1 inhibitor 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) can bypass the checkpoint and induce unscheduled mitosis in irradiated cells. Precisely, how cells behave following checkpoint abrogation remains to be defined. In this study, we tracked the fates of individual cells after checkpoint abrogation, focusing in particular on whether they undergo mitotic catastrophe. Surprisingly, while a subset of UCN-01-treated cells were immediately eliminated during the first mitosis after checkpoint abrogation, about half remained viable and progressed into G(1). Both the delay of mitotic entry and the level of mitotic catastrophe were dependent on the dose of radiation. Although the level of mitotic catastrophe was specific for different cell lines, it could be promoted by extending the mitosis. In supporting this idea, weakening of the spindle-assembly checkpoint, by either depleting MAD2 or overexpressing the MAD2-binding protein p31(comet), suppressed mitotic catastrophe. Conversely, delaying of mitotic exit by depleting either p31(comet) or CDC20 tipped the balance toward mitotic catastrophe. These results underscore the interplay between the level of DNA damage and the effectiveness of the spindle-assembly checkpoint in determining whether checkpoint-abrogated cells are eliminated during mitosis.

  16. MicroRNAs regulate p21(Waf1/Cip1) protein expression and the DNA damage response in human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezalova, Dasa; Mraz, Marek; Barta, Tomas; Plevova, Karla; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Holubcova, Zuzana; Jaros, Josef; Dvorak, Petr; Pospisilova, Sarka; Hampl, Ales

    2012-07-01

    Studies of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) commonly describe the nonfunctional p53-p21 axis of the G1/S checkpoint pathway with subsequent relevance for cell cycle regulation and the DNA damage response (DDR). Importantly, p21 mRNA is clearly present and upregulated after the DDR in hESCs, but p21 protein is not detectable. In this article, we provide evidence that expression of p21 protein is directly regulated by the microRNA (miRNA) pathway under standard culture conditions and after DNA damage. The DDR in hESCs leads to upregulation of tens of miRNAs, including hESC-specific miRNAs such as those of the miR-302 family, miR-371-372 family, or C19MC miRNA cluster. Most importantly, we show that the hESC-enriched miRNA family miR-302 (miR-302a, miR-302b, miR-302c, and miR-302d) directly contributes to regulation of p21 expression in hESCs and, thus, demonstrate a novel function for miR-302s in hESCS. The described mechanism elucidates the role of miRNAs in regulation of important molecular pathway governing the G1/S transition checkpoint before as well as after DNA damage.

  17. YB-1 protein: functions and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyabin, Dmitry N; Eliseeva, Irina A; Ovchinnikov, Lev P

    2014-01-01

    The Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1, YBX1) is a member of the family of DNA- and RNA-binding proteins with an evolutionarily ancient and conserved cold shock domain. It falls into a group of intrinsically disordered proteins that do not follow the classical rule 'one protein-one function' but introduce a novel principle stating that a disordered structure suggests many functions. YB-1 participates in a wide variety of DNA/RNA-dependent events, including DNA reparation, pre-mRNA transcription and splicing, mRNA packaging, and regulation of mRNA stability and translation. At the cell level, the multiple activities of YB-1 are manifested as its involvement in cell proliferation and differentiation, stress response, and malignant cell transformation. WIREs RNA 2014, 5:95-110. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1200 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  18. Regulation of human protein S gene (PROS1) transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, Cornelia de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the investigation of the transcriptional regulation of the gene for anticoagulant plasma Protein S, PROS1. Protein S is a cofactor for Protein C in the Protein C anticoagulant pathway. The coagulation cascade is negatively regulated by this pathway through inactivation of activ

  19. The actin binding protein adseverin regulates osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Siavash; Jiang, Hongwei; Wang, Yongqiang; Kuiper, Johannes W P; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Adseverin (Ads), a member of the Gelsolin superfamily of actin binding proteins, regulates the actin cytoskeleton architecture by severing and capping existing filamentous actin (F-actin) strands and nucleating the assembly of new F-actin filaments. Ads has been implicated in cellular secretion, exocytosis and has also been shown to regulate chondrogenesis and megakaryoblastic leukemia cell differentiation. Here we report for the first time that Ads is involved in regulating osteoclastogenesis (OCG). Ads is induced during OCG downstream of RANK-ligand (RANKL) stimulation and is highly expressed in mature osteoclasts. The D5 isoform of Ads is not involved in regulating OCG, as its expression is not induced in response to RANKL. Three clonal Ads knockdown RAW264.7 (RAW) macrophage cell lines with varying degrees of Ads expression and OCG deficiency were generated. The most drastic OCG defect was noted in the clonal cell line with the greatest degree of Ads knockdown as indicated by a lack of TRAcP staining and multinucleation. RNAi mediated knockdown of Ads in osteoclast precursors resulted in distinct morphological changes characterized by altered F-actin distribution and increased filopodia formation. Ads knockdown precursor cells experienced enhanced migration while fusion of knockdown precursors cells was limited. Transient reintroduction of de novo Ads back into the knockdown system was capable of rescuing TRAcP expression but not osteoclast multinucleation most likely due to the transient nature of Ads expression. This preliminary study allows us to conclude that Ads is a RANKL induced early regulator of OCG with a potential role in pre-osteoclast differentiation and fusion. PMID:25275604

  20. The actin binding protein adseverin regulates osteoclastogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Hassanpour

    Full Text Available Adseverin (Ads, a member of the Gelsolin superfamily of actin binding proteins, regulates the actin cytoskeleton architecture by severing and capping existing filamentous actin (F-actin strands and nucleating the assembly of new F-actin filaments. Ads has been implicated in cellular secretion, exocytosis and has also been shown to regulate chondrogenesis and megakaryoblastic leukemia cell differentiation. Here we report for the first time that Ads is involved in regulating osteoclastogenesis (OCG. Ads is induced during OCG downstream of RANK-ligand (RANKL stimulation and is highly expressed in mature osteoclasts. The D5 isoform of Ads is not involved in regulating OCG, as its expression is not induced in response to RANKL. Three clonal Ads knockdown RAW264.7 (RAW macrophage cell lines with varying degrees of Ads expression and OCG deficiency were generated. The most drastic OCG defect was noted in the clonal cell line with the greatest degree of Ads knockdown as indicated by a lack of TRAcP staining and multinucleation. RNAi mediated knockdown of Ads in osteoclast precursors resulted in distinct morphological changes characterized by altered F-actin distribution and increased filopodia formation. Ads knockdown precursor cells experienced enhanced migration while fusion of knockdown precursors cells was limited. Transient reintroduction of de novo Ads back into the knockdown system was capable of rescuing TRAcP expression but not osteoclast multinucleation most likely due to the transient nature of Ads expression. This preliminary study allows us to conclude that Ads is a RANKL induced early regulator of OCG with a potential role in pre-osteoclast differentiation and fusion.

  1. TBL1 and TBLR1 Phosphorylation on Regulated Gene Promoters Overcomes Dual CtBP and NCoR/SMRT Transcriptional Repression Checkpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Perissi, Valentina; Scafoglio, Claudio; Zhang, Jie; Ohgi, Kenneth A.; Rose, David W.; Glass, Christopher K.; Rosenfeld, Michael G.

    2008-01-01

    A key strategy to achieve regulated gene expression in higher eukaryotes is to prevent illegitimate signal-independent activation by imposing robust control on the dismissal of corepressors. Here, we report that many signaling pathways, including Notch, NFkB, and nuclear receptor ligands, are subjected to a dual repression “check point” based on distinct corepressor complexes. Gene activation requires the release of both CtBP1/2- and NCoR/SMRT-dependent repression, through the coordinate acti...

  2. Visualizing the spindle checkpoint in Drosophila spermatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Rebollo, Elena; González, Cayetano

    2000-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint detects defects in spindle structure or in the alignment of the chromosomes on the metaphase plate and delays the onset of anaphase until defects are corrected. Thus far, the evidence regarding the presence of a spindle checkpoint during meiosis in male Drosophila has been indirect and contradictory. On the one hand, chromosomes without pairing partners do not prevent meiosis progression. On the other hand, some conserved components of the spindle checkpoint ma...

  3. Targeting the Checkpoint to Kill Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Benada

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer treatments such as radiotherapy and most of the chemotherapies act by damaging DNA of cancer cells. Upon DNA damage, cells stop proliferation at cell cycle checkpoints, which provides them time for DNA repair. Inhibiting the checkpoint allows entry to mitosis despite the presence of DNA damage and can lead to cell death. Importantly, as cancer cells exhibit increased levels of endogenous DNA damage due to an excessive replication stress, inhibiting the checkpoint kinases alone could act as a directed anti-cancer therapy. Here, we review the current status of inhibitors targeted towards the checkpoint effectors and discuss mechanisms of their actions in killing of cancer cells.

  4. A mitotic phosphorylation feedback network connects Cdk1, Plk1, 53BP1, and Chk2 to inactivate the G(2)/M DNA damage checkpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vugt, Marcel A T M; Gardino, Alexandra K; Linding, Rune;

    2010-01-01

    the DNA damage response. We demonstrate that the non-enzymatic checkpoint adaptor protein 53BP1 is an in vivo target of the cell cycle kinases Cyclin-dependent kinase-1 and Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1). We show that Plk1 binds 53BP1 during mitosis and that this interaction is required for proper inactivation......DNA damage checkpoints arrest cell cycle progression to facilitate DNA repair. The ability to survive genotoxic insults depends not only on the initiation of cell cycle checkpoints but also on checkpoint maintenance. While activation of DNA damage checkpoints has been studied extensively, molecular...... of the DNA damage checkpoint. 53BP1 mutants that are unable to bind Plk1 fail to restart the cell cycle after ionizing radiation-mediated cell cycle arrest. Importantly, we show that Plk1 also phosphorylates the 53BP1-binding checkpoint kinase Chk2 to inactivate its FHA domain and inhibit its kinase activity...

  5. The Aurora B kinase in chromosome biorientation and spindle checkpoint signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica eKrenn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aurora B, a member of the Aurora family of serine/threonine protein kinases, is a key player in chromosome segregation. As part of a macromolecular complex known as the chromosome passenger complex, Aurora B concentrates early during mitosis in the proximity of centromeres and kinetochores, the sites of attachment of chromosomes to spindle microtubules. There, it contributes to a number of processes that impart fidelity to cell division, including kinetochore stabilization, kinetochore-microtubule attachment, and the regulation of a surveillance mechanism named the spindle assembly checkpoint. In the regulation of these processes, Aurora B is the fulcrum of a remarkably complex network of interactions that feed back on its localization and activation state. In this review we discuss the multiple roles of Aurora B during mitosis, focusing in particular on its role at centromeres and kinetochores. Many details of the network of interactions at these locations remain poorly understood, and we focus here on several crucial outstanding questions.

  6. GRID COMPUTING AND CHECKPOINT APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj gupta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Grid computing is a means of allocating the computational power of alarge number of computers to complex difficult computation or problem. Grid computing is a distributed computing paradigm thatdiffers from traditional distributed computing in that it is aimed toward large scale systems that even span organizational boundaries. In this paper we investigate the different techniques of fault tolerance which are used in many real time distributed systems. The main focus is on types of fault occurring in the system, fault detection techniques and the recovery techniques used. A fault can occur due to link failure, resource failure or by any other reason is to be tolerated for working the system smoothly and accurately. These faults can be detected and recovered by many techniques used accordingly. An appropriate fault detector can avoid loss due to system crash and reliable fault tolerance technique can save from system failure. This paper provides how these methods are applied to detect and tolerate faults from various Real Time Distributed Systems. The advantages of utilizing the check pointing functionality are obvious; however so far the Grid community has notdeveloped a widely accepted standard that would allow the Gridenvironment to consciously utilize low level check pointing packages.Therefore, such a standard named Grid Check pointing Architecture isbeing designed. The fault tolerance mechanism used here sets the jobcheckpoints based on the resource failure rate. If resource failureoccurs, the job is restarted from its last successful state using acheckpoint file from another grid resource. A critical aspect for anautomatic recovery is the availability of checkpoint files. A strategy to increase the availability of checkpoints is replication. Grid is a form distributed computing mainly to virtualizes and utilize geographically distributed idle resources. A grid is a distributed computational and storage environment often composed of

  7. The pachytene checkpoint prevents accumulation and phosphorylation of the meiosis-specific transcription factor Ndt80

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, Kuei-Shu; Hong, Eun-Jin Erica; Roeder, G. Shirleen

    2000-01-01

    In budding yeast, many mutants defective in meiotic recombination and chromosome synapsis undergo checkpoint-mediated arrest at the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase. We recovered the NDT80 gene in a screen for genes whose overexpression bypasses the pachytene checkpoint. Ndt80 is a meiosis-specific transcription factor that promotes expression of genes required for exit from pachytene and entry into meiosis I. Herein, we show that the Ndt80 protein accumulates a...

  8. A role for Ddc1 in signaling meiotic double-strand breaks at the pachytene checkpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Eun-Jin Erica; Roeder, G. Shirleen

    2002-01-01

    The pachytene checkpoint prevents meiotic cell cycle progression in response to unrepaired recombination intermediates. We show that Ddc1 is required for the pachytene checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During meiotic prophase, Ddc1 localizes to chromosomes and becomes phosphorylated; these events depend on the formation and processing of double-strand breaks (DSBs). Ddc1 colocalizes with Rad51, a DSB-repair protein, indicating that Ddc1 associates with sites of DSB repair. The Rad24 che...

  9. Intellectual property issues of immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors are drugs that interfere with tumor escape responses. Some members of this class are already approved, and expected to be blockbusters in the future. Many companies have developed patent activities in this field. This article focuses on the patent landscape, and discusses key players and cases related to immune checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:26466763

  10. Effector caspase Dcp-1 and IAP protein Bruce regulate starvation-induced autophagy during Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying-Chen Claire; Chittaranjan, Suganthi; Barbosa, Sharon González; McCall, Kimberly; Gorski, Sharon M

    2008-09-22

    A complex relationship exists between autophagy and apoptosis, but the regulatory mechanisms underlying their interactions are largely unknown. We conducted a systematic study of Drosophila melanogaster cell death-related genes to determine their requirement in the regulation of starvation-induced autophagy. We discovered that six cell death genes--death caspase-1 (Dcp-1), hid, Bruce, Buffy, debcl, and p53-as well as Ras-Raf-mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathway components had a role in autophagy regulation in D. melanogaster cultured cells. During D. melanogaster oogenesis, we found that autophagy is induced at two nutrient status checkpoints: germarium and mid-oogenesis. At these two stages, the effector caspase Dcp-1 and the inhibitor of apoptosis protein Bruce function to regulate both autophagy and starvation-induced cell death. Mutations in Atg1 and Atg7 resulted in reduced DNA fragmentation in degenerating midstage egg chambers but did not appear to affect nuclear condensation, which indicates that autophagy contributes in part to cell death in the ovary. Our study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that coordinately regulate autophagic and apoptotic events in vivo. PMID:18794330

  11. Effector caspase Dcp-1 and IAP protein Bruce regulate starvation-induced autophagy during Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying-Chen Claire; Chittaranjan, Suganthi; Barbosa, Sharon González; McCall, Kimberly; Gorski, Sharon M

    2008-09-22

    A complex relationship exists between autophagy and apoptosis, but the regulatory mechanisms underlying their interactions are largely unknown. We conducted a systematic study of Drosophila melanogaster cell death-related genes to determine their requirement in the regulation of starvation-induced autophagy. We discovered that six cell death genes--death caspase-1 (Dcp-1), hid, Bruce, Buffy, debcl, and p53-as well as Ras-Raf-mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathway components had a role in autophagy regulation in D. melanogaster cultured cells. During D. melanogaster oogenesis, we found that autophagy is induced at two nutrient status checkpoints: germarium and mid-oogenesis. At these two stages, the effector caspase Dcp-1 and the inhibitor of apoptosis protein Bruce function to regulate both autophagy and starvation-induced cell death. Mutations in Atg1 and Atg7 resulted in reduced DNA fragmentation in degenerating midstage egg chambers but did not appear to affect nuclear condensation, which indicates that autophagy contributes in part to cell death in the ovary. Our study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms that coordinately regulate autophagic and apoptotic events in vivo.

  12. Overlapped checkpointing with hardware assist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Christopher J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nunez, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Jun [U. OF CENTRAL FLORIDA (UCF)

    2009-01-01

    We present a new approach to handling the demanding I/O workload incurred during checkpoint writes encountered in High Performance Computing. Prior efforts to improve performance have been primarily bound by mechanical limitations of the hard drive. Our research surpasses this limitation by providing a method to: (1) write checkpoint data to a high-speed, non-volatile buffer, and (2) asynchronously write this data to permanent storage while resuming computation. This removes the hard drive from the critical data path because our I/O node based buffers isolate the compute nodes from the storage servers. This solution is feasible because of industry declines in cost for high-capacity, non-volatile storage technologies. Testing was conducted on a small-scale cluster to prove the design, and then scaled at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Results show a definitive speedup factor for select workloads over writing directly to a typical global parallel file system; the Panasas ActiveScale File System.

  13. Kinase signaling in the spindle checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jungseog; Yu, Hongtao

    2009-06-01

    The spindle checkpoint is a cell cycle surveillance system that ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation. In mitosis, it elicits the "wait anaphase" signal to inhibit the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome until all chromosomes achieve bipolar microtubule attachment and align at the metaphase plate. Because a single kinetochore unattached to microtubules activates the checkpoint, the wait anaphase signal is thought to be generated by this kinetochore and is then amplified and distributed throughout the cell to inhibit the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Several spindle checkpoint kinases participate in the generation and amplification of this signal. Recent studies have begun to reveal the activation mechanisms of these checkpoint kinases. Increasing evidence also indicates that the checkpoint kinases not only help to generate the wait anaphase signal but also actively correct kinetochore-microtubule attachment defects. PMID:19228686

  14. Deacetylation of the mitotic checkpoint protein BubR1 at lysine 250 by SIRT2 and subsequent effects on BubR1 degradation during the prometaphase/anaphase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Tomohisa; Li, Yanze; Kojima, Hirotada; Nakajima, Koichi; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Inoue, Toshiaki

    2014-10-24

    Mitotic catastrophe, a form of cell death that occurs during mitosis and after mitotic slippage to a tetraploid state, plays an important role in the efficacy of cancer cell killing by microtubule inhibitors. Prolonged mitotic arrest at the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a well-known requirement for mitotic catastrophe and, thus, for conferring sensitivity to microtubule inhibitors. We previously reported that downregulation of SIRT2, a member of the sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases, confers resistance to microtubule inhibitors by abnormally prolonging mitotic arrest and thus compromising the cell death pathway after mitotic slippage. Thus, turning off SAC activation after a defined period is an additional requirement for efficient post-slippage death. Here, we investigated whether SIRT2 deacetylates BubR1, which is a core component of the SAC; acetylation of BubR1 at lysine 250 (K250) during prometaphase inhibits its APC/C-dependent proteolysis and thus regulates timing in anaphase entry. We showed that SIRT2 deacetylates BubR1 K250 both in vitro and in vivo. We also found that SIRT2 knockdown leads to increased levels of BubR1 acetylation at prometaphase; however, this increase is not substantial to elevate the levels of total BubR1 or delay the transition from prometaphase to anaphase. The present study shows that SIRT2 is a deacetylase for BubR1 K250, although the abnormally prolonged SAC activation observed in SIRT2 knockdown cells is not accompanied by a change in BubR1 levels or by delayed progression from prometaphase to anaphase.

  15. SOCS proteins in regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazi, Julhash U.; Kabir, Nuzhat N.; Flores Morales, Amilcar;

    2014-01-01

    signaling mediated by RTKs must be tightly regulated by interacting proteins including protein-tyrosine phosphatases and ubiquitin ligases. The suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family proteins are well-known negative regulators of cytokine receptors signaling consisting of eight structurally similar...... proteins, SOCS1-7, and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS). A key feature of this family of proteins is the presence of an SH2 domain and a SOCS box. Recent studies suggest that SOCS proteins also play a role in RTK signaling. Activation of RTK results in transcriptional activation of SOCS......-encoding genes. These proteins associate with RTKs through their SH2 domains and subsequently recruit the E3 ubiquitin machinery through the SOCS box, and thereby limit receptor stability by inducing ubiquitination. In a similar fashion, SOCS proteins negatively regulate mitogenic signaling by RTKs. It is also...

  16. NDR1 modulates the UV-induced DNA-damage checkpoint and nucleotide excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong-Min; Choi, Ji Ye [Department of Biological Science, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Joo Mi [Research Center, Dongnam Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Woong; Leem, Sun-Hee; Koh, Sang Seok [Department of Biological Science, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae-Hong, E-mail: thkang@dau.ac.kr [Department of Biological Science, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-05

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the sole mechanism of UV-induced DNA lesion repair in mammals. A single round of NER requires multiple components including seven core NER factors, xeroderma pigmentosum A–G (XPA–XPG), and many auxiliary effector proteins including ATR serine/threonine kinase. The XPA protein helps to verify DNA damage and thus plays a rate-limiting role in NER. Hence, the regulation of XPA is important for the entire NER kinetic. We found that NDR1, a novel XPA-interacting protein, modulates NER by modulating the UV-induced DNA-damage checkpoint. In quiescent cells, NDR1 localized mainly in the cytoplasm. After UV irradiation, NDR1 accumulated in the nucleus. The siRNA knockdown of NDR1 delayed the repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in both normal cells and cancer cells. It did not, however, alter the expression levels or the chromatin association levels of the core NER factors following UV irradiation. Instead, the NDR1-depleted cells displayed reduced activity of ATR for some set of its substrates including CHK1 and p53, suggesting that NDR1 modulates NER indirectly via the ATR pathway. - Highlights: • NDR1 is a novel XPA-interacting protein. • NDR1 accumulates in the nucleus in response to UV irradiation. • NDR1 modulates NER (nucleotide excision repair) by modulating the UV-induced DNA-damage checkpoint response.

  17. NDR1 modulates the UV-induced DNA-damage checkpoint and nucleotide excision repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the sole mechanism of UV-induced DNA lesion repair in mammals. A single round of NER requires multiple components including seven core NER factors, xeroderma pigmentosum A–G (XPA–XPG), and many auxiliary effector proteins including ATR serine/threonine kinase. The XPA protein helps to verify DNA damage and thus plays a rate-limiting role in NER. Hence, the regulation of XPA is important for the entire NER kinetic. We found that NDR1, a novel XPA-interacting protein, modulates NER by modulating the UV-induced DNA-damage checkpoint. In quiescent cells, NDR1 localized mainly in the cytoplasm. After UV irradiation, NDR1 accumulated in the nucleus. The siRNA knockdown of NDR1 delayed the repair of UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in both normal cells and cancer cells. It did not, however, alter the expression levels or the chromatin association levels of the core NER factors following UV irradiation. Instead, the NDR1-depleted cells displayed reduced activity of ATR for some set of its substrates including CHK1 and p53, suggesting that NDR1 modulates NER indirectly via the ATR pathway. - Highlights: • NDR1 is a novel XPA-interacting protein. • NDR1 accumulates in the nucleus in response to UV irradiation. • NDR1 modulates NER (nucleotide excision repair) by modulating the UV-induced DNA-damage checkpoint response

  18. Ras protein participated in histone acetylation-mediated cell cycle control in Physarum polycephalum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaoxue; LU Jun; ZHAO Yanmei; WANG Xiuli; HUANG Baiqu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that in Physarum polycephalum, a naturally synchronized slime mold, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA), arrestes the cell cycle at the checkpoints of S/G2, G2/M and mitosis exit, and influences the transcription of two ras genes Ppras1 and Pprap1, as well as the Ras protein level. Antibody neutralization experiment using anti-Ras antibody treatment showed that Ras protein played an important role in cell cycle checkpoint control through regulation of the level of Cyclin B1, suggesting that Ras protein might be a key factor for histone acetylation-mediated cell cycle regulation in P. polycephalum.

  19. Clinical Development of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumu Ito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in cancer immunotherapy has been remarkable. Most striking are the clinical development and approval of immunomodulators, also known as immune checkpoint inhibitors. These monoclonal antibodies (mAb are directed to immune checkpoint molecules, which are expressed on immune cells and mediate signals to attenuate excessive immune reactions. Although mAbs targeting tumor associated antigens, such as anti-CD20 mAb and anti-Her2 mAb, directly recognize tumor cells and induce cell death, immune checkpoint inhibitors restore and augment the antitumor immune activities of cytotoxic T cells by blocking immune checkpoint molecules on T cells or their ligands on antigen presenting and tumor cells. Based on preclinical data, many clinical trials have demonstrated the acceptable safety profiles and efficacies of immune checkpoint inhibitors in a variety of cancers. The first in class approved immune checkpoint inhibitor is ipilimumab, an anti-CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 mAb. Two pivotal phase III randomized controlled trials demonstrated a survival benefit in patients with metastatic melanoma. In 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved ipilimumab for metastatic melanoma. Several clinical trials have since investigated new agents, alone and in combination, for various cancers. In this review, we discuss the current development status of and future challenges in utilizing immune checkpoint inhibitors.

  20. Genetic polymorphisms of immune checkpoint proteins PD-1 and TIM-3 are associated with survival of patients with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhu; Li, Na; Li, Fang; Zhou, Zhihua; Sang, Jiao; Jin, Zhao; Liu, Huihui; Han, Qunying; Lv, Yi; Liu, Zhengwen

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain containing molecule 3 (TIM-3) are involved in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study examined the associations of PD1 and TIM3 polymorphisms with the overall survival (OS) of a prospective cohort of 258 HBV-related HCC patients. Results showed that PD1 +8669 G allele-containing genotypes or TIM3 −1516 genotype GG were significantly associated with longer OS (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, PD1 +8669 G allele-containing genotypes and TIM3 −1516 genotype GG were independently associated with longer OS (hazard ratio (HR), 1.835; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.342–2.509; P < 0.001 and HR, 2.070; 95%CI, 1.428–3.002; P < 0.001, respectively). PD1 +8669 G allele-containing genotypes were significantly associated with longer OS in patients receiving surgical (resection or radiofrequency) treatment, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) or supportive and symptomatic treatment. TIM3 −1516 genotype GG was significantly associated with longer OS in TACE patients. In multivariate analysis, PD1 +8669 G allele-containing genotypes were independently associated with longer OS in each treatment population. TIM3 −1516 genotype GG was independently associated with longer OS in patients receiving surgical treatment or TACE. These findings suggest that PD1 +8669 A/G and TIM3 −1516 G/T polymorphisms may affect the prognosis of HBV-related HCC and may be new predictors of prognosis for HCC patients. PMID:27034168

  1. Regulation, Signaling, and Physiological Functions of G-Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrovatkina, Viktoriya; Alegre, Kamela O; Dey, Raja; Huang, Xin-Yun

    2016-09-25

    Heterotrimeric guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G-proteins) mainly relay the information from G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on the plasma membrane to the inside of cells to regulate various biochemical functions. Depending on the targeted cell types, tissues, and organs, these signals modulate diverse physiological functions. The basic schemes of heterotrimeric G-proteins have been outlined. In this review, we briefly summarize what is known about the regulation, signaling, and physiological functions of G-proteins. We then focus on a few less explored areas such as the regulation of G-proteins by non-GPCRs and the physiological functions of G-proteins that cannot be easily explained by the known G-protein signaling pathways. There are new signaling pathways and physiological functions for G-proteins to be discovered and further interrogated. With the advancements in structural and computational biological techniques, we are closer to having a better understanding of how G-proteins are regulated and of the specificity of G-protein interactions with their regulators.

  2. Regulation of intestinal protein metabolism by amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Julien; Goichon, Alexis; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2013-09-01

    Gut homeostasis plays a major role in health and may be regulated by quantitative and qualitative food intake. In the intestinal mucosa, an intense renewal of proteins occurs, at approximately 50% per day in humans. In some pathophysiological conditions, protein turnover is altered and may contribute to intestinal or systemic diseases. Amino acids are key effectors of gut protein turnover, both as constituents of proteins and as regulatory molecules limiting intestinal injury and maintaining intestinal functions. Many studies have focused on two amino acids: glutamine, known as the preferential substrate of rapidly dividing cells, and arginine, another conditionally essential amino acid. The effects of glutamine and arginine on protein synthesis appear to be model and condition dependent, as are the involved signaling pathways. The regulation of gut protein degradation by amino acids has been minimally documented until now. This review will examine recent data, helping to better understand how amino acids regulate intestinal protein metabolism, and will explore perspectives for future studies.

  3. REVIEW OF CHECKPOINTING ALGORITHMS IN DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Gahlan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Checkpointing is the process of saving the status information. Checkpoint is defined as a designated place in a program at which normal processing is interrupted specifically to preserve the status information necessary to allow resumption of processing at a later time. Mobile computing raises many new issues such as lack of stablestorage, low bandwidth of wireless channel, high mobility, and limited battery life. Coordinated checkpointing is an attractive approach for transparently adding fault tolerance to distributed applications since it avoids domino effects and minimizes the stable storage requirement. This paper presents the review of the algorithms,which have been reported in the literature for checkpointing. This paper also covers backward error recovery techniques for distributed systems specially the distributed mobile systems.

  4. A Nonblocking Coordinated Checkpointing Algorithm for Mobile Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachit Garg

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A checkpoint algorithm for mobile computing systems needs to handle many new issues like: mobility, low bandwidth of wireless channels, lack of stable storage on mobile nodes, disconnections, limited battery power and high failure rate of mobile nodes. These issues make traditional checkpointing techniques unsuitable for such environments. Minimum-process coordinated checkpointing is an attractive approach to introduce fault tolerance in mobile distributed systems transparently. This approach is domino-free, requires at most two checkpoints of a process on stable storage, and forces only a minimum number of processes to checkpoint. But, it requires extra synchronization messages, blocking of the underlying computation or taking some useless checkpoints. In this paper, we propose a nonblocking coordinated checkpointing algorithm for mobile computing systems, which requires only a minimum number of processes to take permanent checkpoints. We reduce the message complexity as compared to the Cao-Singhal algorithm [4], while keeping the number of useless checkpoints unchanged. We also address the related issues like: failures during checkpointing, disconnections, concurrent initiations of the algorithm and maintaining exact dependencies among processes. Finally, the paper presents an optimization technique, which significantly reduces the number of useless checkpoints at the cost of minor increase in the message complexity. In coordinated checkpointing, if a single process fails to take its tentative checkpoint; all the checkpoint effort is aborted. We try to reduce this effort by taking soft checkpoints in the first phase at Mobile Hosts.

  5. Skp2 is required for Aurora B activation in cell mitosis and spindle checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Huang, Yu-Fan; Zhou, Xin-Ke; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Yi-Fan; Lv, Xiao-Bin; Gao, Xiu-Rong; Lin, Hui-Kuan; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Huang, Jian-Qing

    2015-01-01

    The Aurora B kinase plays a critical role in cell mitosis and spindle checkpoint. Here, we showed that the ubiquitin E3-ligase protein Skp2, also as a cell-cycle regulatory protein, was required for the activation of Aurora B and its downstream protein. When we restored Skp2 knockdown Hela cells with Skp2 and Skp2-LRR E3 ligase dead mutant we found that Skp2 could rescue the defect in the activation of Aurora B, but the mutant failed to do so. Furthermore, we discovered that Skp2 could interact with Aurora B and trigger Aurora B Lysine (K) 63-linked ubiquitination. Finally, we demonstrated the essential role of Skp2 in cell mitosis progression and spindle checkpoint, which was Aurora B dependent. Our results identified a novel ubiquitinated substrate of Skp2, and also indicated that Aurora B ubiquitination might serve as an important event for Aurora B activation in cell mitosis and spindle checkpoint.

  6. Pch2 acts through Xrs2 and Tel1/ATM to modulate interhomolog bias and checkpoint function during meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Chung Ho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis requires the formation and repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs to form crossovers. Repair is biased toward using the homolog as a substrate rather than the sister chromatid. Pch2 is a conserved member of the AAA(+-ATPase family of proteins and is implicated in a wide range of meiosis-specific processes including the recombination checkpoint, maturation of the chromosome axis, crossover control, and synapsis. We demonstrate a role for Pch2 in promoting and regulating interhomolog bias and the meiotic recombination checkpoint in response to unprocessed DSBs through the activation of axial proteins Hop1 and Mek1 in budding yeast. We show that Pch2 physically interacts with the putative BRCT repeats in the N-terminal region of Xrs2, a member of the MRX complex that acts at sites of unprocessed DSBs. Pch2, Xrs2, and the ATM ortholog Tel1 function in the same pathway leading to the phosphorylation of Hop1, independent of Rad17 and the ATR ortholog Mec1, which respond to the presence of single-stranded DNA. An N-terminal deletion of Xrs2 recapitulates the pch2Δ phenotypes for signaling unresected breaks. We propose that interaction with Xrs2 may enable Pch2 to remodel chromosome structure adjacent to the site of a DSB and thereby promote accessibility of Hop1 to the Tel1 kinase. In addition, Xrs2, like Pch2, is required for checkpoint-mediated delay conferred by the failure to synapse chromosomes.

  7. Constitutive Cdk2 activity promotes aneuploidy while altering the spindle assembly and tetraploidy checkpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Stephan C; Corsino, Patrick E; Davis, Bradley J;

    2013-01-01

    instability. Expression of these complexes in the MCF10A cell line leads to retinoblastoma protein (Rb) hyperphosphorylation, a subsequent increase in proliferation rate, and increased expression of the spindle assembly checkpoint protein Mad2. This results in a strengthening of the spindle assembly...

  8. Regulation of tomato Prf by Pto-like protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucyn, Tatiana S; Wu, Ai-Jiuan; Balmuth, Alexi L; Arasteh, Julia Maryam; Rathjen, John P

    2009-04-01

    Tomato Prf encodes a nucleotide-binding domain shared by Apaf-1, certain R proteins, and CED-4 fused to C-terminal leucine-rich repeats (NBARC-LRR) protein that is required for bacterial immunity to Pseudomonas syringae and sensitivity to the organophosphate fenthion. The signaling pathways involve two highly related protein kinases. Pto kinase mediates direct recognition of the bacterial effector proteins AvrPto or AvrPtoB. Fen kinase is required for fenthion sensitivity and recognition of bacterial effectors related to AvrPtoB. The role of Pto and its association with Prf has been characterized but Fen is poorly described. We show that, similar to Pto, Fen requires N-myristoylation and kinase activity for signaling and interacts with the N-terminal domain of Prf. Thus, the mechanisms of activation of Prf by the respective protein kinases are similar. Prf-Fen interaction is underlined by coregulatory mechanisms in which Prf negatively regulates Fen, most likely by controlling kinase activity. We further characterized negative regulation of Prf by Pto, and show that regulation is mediated by the previously described negative regulatory patch. Remarkably, the effectors released negative regulation of Prf in a manner dependent on Pto kinase activity. The data suggest a model in which Prf associates generally with Pto-like kinases in tightly regulated complexes, which are activated by effector-mediated disruption of negative regulation. Release of negative regulation may be a general feature of activation of NBARC-LRR proteins by cognate effectors.

  9. The internal Cdc20 binding site in BubR1 facilitates both spindle assembly checkpoint signalling and silencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lischetti, Tiziana; Zhang, Gang; Sedgwick, Garry G;

    2014-01-01

    Improperly attached kinetochores activate the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and by an unknown mechanism catalyse the binding of two checkpoint proteins, Mad2 and BubR1, to Cdc20 forming the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). Here, to address the functional role of Cdc20 kinetochore localization...... on the SAC because the IC20BD is also required for efficient SAC silencing. Indeed, the IC20BD can disrupt the MCC providing a mechanism for its role in SAC silencing. We thus uncover an unexpected dual function of the second Cdc20 binding site in BubR1 in promoting both efficient SAC signalling and SAC...

  10. Coevolution of RAC Small GTPases and their Regulators GEF Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    RAC proteins are small GTPases involved in important cellular processes in eukaryotes, and their deregulation may contribute to cancer. Activation of RAC proteins is regulated by DOCK and DBL protein families of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Although DOCK and DBL proteins act as GEFs on RAC proteins, DOCK and DBL family members are evolutionarily unrelated. To understand how DBL and DOCK families perform the same function on RAC proteins despite their unrelated primary structure, phylogenetic analyses of the RAC, DBL, and DOCK families were implemented, and interaction patterns that may suggest a coevolutionary process were searched. Interestingly, while RAC and DOCK proteins are very well conserved in humans and among eukaryotes, DBL proteins are highly divergent. Moreover, correlation analyses of the phylogenetic distances of RAC and GEF proteins and covariation analyses between residues in the interacting domains showed significant coevolution rates for both RAC–DOCK and RAC–DBL interactions. PMID:27226705

  11. UCP2, a mitochondrial protein regulated at multiple levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadelli, Massimo; Dando, Ilaria; Fiorini, Claudia; Palmieri, Marta

    2014-04-01

    An ever-increasing number of studies highlight the role of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in a broad range of physiological and pathological processes. The knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of UCP2 regulation is becoming fundamental in both the comprehension of UCP2-related physiological events and the identification of novel therapeutic strategies based on UCP2 modulation. The study of UCP2 regulation is a fast-moving field. Recently, several research groups have made a great effort to thoroughly understand the various molecular mechanisms at the basis of UCP2 regulation. In this review, we describe novel findings concerning events that can occur in a concerted manner at various levels: Ucp2 gene mutation (single nucleotide polymorphisms), UCP2 mRNA and protein expression (transcriptional, translational, and protein turn-over regulation), UCP2 proton conductance (ligands and post-transcriptional modifications), and nutritional and pharmacological regulation of UCP2.

  12. Asynchronous Checkpoint Migration with MRNet in the Scalable Checkpoint / Restart Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohror, K; Moody, A; de Supinski, B R

    2012-03-20

    Applications running on today's supercomputers tolerate failures by periodically saving their state in checkpoint files on stable storage, such as a parallel file system. Although this approach is simple, the overhead of writing the checkpoints can be prohibitive, especially for large-scale jobs. In this paper, we present initial results of an enhancement to our Scalable Checkpoint/Restart Library (SCR). We employ MRNet, a tree-based overlay network library, to transfer checkpoints from the compute nodes to the parallel file system asynchronously. This enhancement increases application efficiency by removing the need for an application to block while checkpoints are transferred to the parallel file system. We show that the integration of SCR with MRNet can reduce the time spent in I/O operations by as much as 15x. However, our experiments exposed new scalability issues with our initial implementation. We discuss the sources of the scalability problems and our plans to address them.

  13. A molecular switch in the scaffold NHERF1 enables misfolded CFTR to evade the peripheral quality control checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Cláudia A; Matos, Ana Margarida; Dias-Alves, Ângela; Pereira, Joana F; Uliyakina, Inna; Barros, Patrícia; Amaral, Margarida D; Matos, Paulo

    2015-05-19

    The peripheral protein quality control (PPQC) checkpoint removes improperly folded proteins from the plasma membrane through a mechanism involving the E3 ubiquitin ligase CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsc70 interacting protein). PPQC limits the efficacy of some cystic fibrosis (CF) drugs, such as VX-809, that improve trafficking to the plasma membrane of misfolded mutants of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), including F508del-CFTR, which retains partial functionality. We investigated the PPQC checkpoint in lung epithelial cells with F508del-CFTR that were exposed to VX-809. The conformation of the scaffold protein NHERF1 (Na(+)/H(+) exchange regulatory factor 1) determined whether the PPQC recognized "rescued" F508del-CFTR (the portion that reached the cell surface in VX-809-treated cells). Activation of the cytoskeletal regulator Rac1 promoted an interaction between the actin-binding adaptor protein ezrin and NHERF1, triggering exposure of the second PDZ domain of NHERF1, which interacted with rescued F508del-CFTR. Because binding of F508del-CFTR to the second PDZ of NHERF1 precluded the recruitment of CHIP, the coexposure of airway cells to Rac1 activator nearly tripled the efficacy of VX-809. Interference with the NHERF1-ezrin interaction prevented the increase of efficacy of VX-809 by Rac1 activation, but the actin-binding domain of ezrin was not required for the increase in efficacy. Thus, rather than mainly directing anchoring of F508del-CFTR to the actin cytoskeleton, induction of ezrin activation by Rac1 signaling triggered a conformational change in NHERF1, which was then able to bind and stabilize misfolded CFTR at the plasma membrane. These insights into the cell surface stabilization of CFTR provide new targets to improve treatment of CF.

  14. Novel protein controls growth regulators in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A recent study by CAS researchers could add new dimensions to the understanding of downstream signaling mechanism of Brassinosteroids(BRs), a group of plant growth regulators, in rice. Their work was published by the August 21 issue of the Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

  15. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamrait, Sukhbir S; Maubaret, Cecilia; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik;

    2016-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) regulate mitochondrial function, and thus cellular metabolism. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is the central component of endocrine and local tissue renin-angiotensin systems (RAS), which also regulate diverse aspects of whole-body metabolism and mitochondrial...... hypotheses. Firstly, cellular feedback regulation may occur between UCPs and ACE. Secondly, cellular UCP regulation of sACE suggests a novel means of crosstalk between (and mutual regulation of) cellular and endocrine metabolism. This might partly explain the reduced risk of developing diabetes and metabolic...

  16. Form, function, and regulation of ARGONAUTE proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Allison; Vaucheret, Herve

    2010-01-01

    Both transcriptional (TGS) and posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) are conserved eukaryotic gene regulatory mechanisms, integral for taming exogenous (viruses and bacteria) or endogenous (repetitive elements and transposons) invasive nucleic acids to minimize their impact on genome integrity and function. TGS and PTGS also are essential for controlling the expression of protein coding genes throughout development or in response to environmental stimuli. In plants and animals, at least o...

  17. Regulation of Mutant p53 Protein Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayakumaran, Reshma; Tan, Kah Hin; Miranda, Panimaya Jeffreena; Haupt, Sue; Haupt, Ygal

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, p53 has been detected in cancer biopsies by virtue of its high protein expression level which is considered indicative of mutation. Surprisingly, however, mouse genetic studies revealed that mutant p53 is inherently labile, similar to its wild type (wt) counterpart. Consistently, in response to stress conditions, both wt and mutant p53 accumulate in cells. While wt p53 returns to basal level following recovery from stress, mutant p53 remains stable. In part, this can be e...

  18. Regulation of the gibberellin pathway by auxin and DELLA proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Damian P; Davidson, Sandra E; Clarke, Victoria C; Yamauchi, Yukika; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Reid, James B; Ross, John J

    2010-10-01

    The synthesis and deactivation of bioactive gibberellins (GA) are regulated by auxin and by GA signalling. The effect of GA on its own pathway is mediated by DELLA proteins. Like auxin, the DELLAs promote GA synthesis and inhibit its deactivation. Here, we investigate the relationships between auxin and DELLA regulation of the GA pathway in stems, using a pea double mutant that is deficient in DELLA proteins. In general terms our results demonstrate that auxin and DELLAs independently regulate the GA pathway, contrary to some previous suggestions. The extent to which DELLA regulation was able to counteract the effects of auxin regulation varied from gene to gene. For Mendel's LE gene (PsGA3ox1) no counteraction was observed. However, for another synthesis gene, a GA 20-oxidase, the effect of auxin was weak and in WT plants appeared to be completely over-ridden by DELLA regulation. For a key GA deactivation (2-oxidase) gene, PsGA2ox1, the up-regulation induced by auxin deficiency was reduced to some extent by DELLA regulation. A second pea 2-oxidase gene, PsGA2ox2, was up-regulated by auxin, in a DELLA-independent manner. In Arabidopsis also, one 2-oxidase gene was down-regulated by auxin while another was up-regulated. Monitoring the metabolism pattern of GA(20) showed that in Arabidopsis, as in pea, auxin can promote the accumulation of bioactive GA. PMID:20706734

  19. Piezo proteins: regulators of mechanosensation and other cellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagriantsev, Sviatoslav N; Gracheva, Elena O; Gallagher, Patrick G

    2014-11-14

    Piezo proteins have recently been identified as ion channels mediating mechanosensory transduction in mammalian cells. Characterization of these channels has yielded important insights into mechanisms of somatosensation, as well as other mechano-associated biologic processes such as sensing of shear stress, particularly in the vasculature, and regulation of urine flow and bladder distention. Other roles for Piezo proteins have emerged, some unexpected, including participation in cellular development, volume regulation, cellular migration, proliferation, and elongation. Mutations in human Piezo proteins have been associated with a variety of disorders including hereditary xerocytosis and several syndromes with muscular contracture as a prominent feature.

  20. Rab proteins: The key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. - Highlights: • Rab proteins regulate different signalling pathways. • Deregulation of Rabs is the fundamental causes of a variety of human diseases. • This paper gives potential directions in developing therapeutic targets. • This paper also gives ample directions for modulating pathways central to normal physiology. • These are the huge challenges for drug discovery and delivery in near future

  1. Rab proteins: The key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuin, Tanmay [Cell and Developmental Biology Unit, Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag 713104 (India); Roy, Jagat Kumar, E-mail: jkroy@bhu.ac.in [Cytogenetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. - Highlights: • Rab proteins regulate different signalling pathways. • Deregulation of Rabs is the fundamental causes of a variety of human diseases. • This paper gives potential directions in developing therapeutic targets. • This paper also gives ample directions for modulating pathways central to normal physiology. • These are the huge challenges for drug discovery and delivery in near future.

  2. Sphingomyelin Synthases Regulate Protein Trafficking and Secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Subathra, Marimuthu; Qureshi, Asfia; Luberto, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Sphingomyelin synthases (SMS1 and 2) represent a class of enzymes that transfer a phosphocholine moiety from phosphatidylcholine onto ceramide thus producing sphingomyelin and diacylglycerol (DAG). SMS1 localizes at the Golgi while SMS2 localizes both at the Golgi and the plasma membrane. Previous studies from our laboratory showed that modulation of SMS1 and, to a lesser extent, of SMS2 affected the formation of DAG at the Golgi apparatus. As a consequence, down-regulation of SMS1 and SMS2 r...

  3. Molecular Mechanisms of DNA Replication Checkpoint Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Recolin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The major challenge of the cell cycle is to deliver an intact, and fully duplicated, genetic material to the daughter cells. To this end, progression of DNA synthesis is monitored by a feedback mechanism known as replication checkpoint that is untimely linked to DNA replication. This signaling pathway ensures coordination of DNA synthesis with cell cycle progression. Failure to activate this checkpoint in response to perturbation of DNA synthesis (replication stress results in forced cell division leading to chromosome fragmentation, aneuploidy, and genomic instability. In this review, we will describe current knowledge of the molecular determinants of the DNA replication checkpoint in eukaryotic cells and discuss a model of activation of this signaling pathway crucial for maintenance of genomic stability.

  4. Checkpoint triggering in a computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-09-06

    According to an aspect, a method for triggering creation of a checkpoint in a computer system includes executing a task in a processing node of the computer system and determining whether it is time to read a monitor associated with a metric of the task. The monitor is read to determine a value of the metric based on determining that it is time to read the monitor. A threshold for triggering creation of the checkpoint is determined based on the value of the metric. Based on determining that the value of the metric has crossed the threshold, the checkpoint including state data of the task is created to enable restarting execution of the task upon a restart operation.

  5. Regulation of protein translation initiation in response to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proliferating tumor cells require continuous protein synthesis. De novo synthesis of most proteins is regulated through cap-dependent translation. Cellular stress such as ionizing radiation (IR) blocks cap-dependent translation resulting in shut-down of global protein translation which saves resources and energy needed for the stress response. At the same time, levels of proteins required for stress response are maintained or even increased. The study aimed to analyze the regulation of signaling pathways controlling protein translation in response to IR and the impact on Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic and radioprotective protein, which levels rapidly decline upon IR. Protein levels and processing were analyzed by Western blot. The assembly of the translational pre-initiation complex was examined by Immunoprecipitation and pull-down experiments with 7-methyl GTP agarose. To analyze IR-induced cell death, dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation were determined by flow cytometry. Protein levels of the different initiation factors were down-regulated using RNA interference approach. IR induced caspase-dependent cleavage of the translational initiation factors eIF4G1, eIF3A, and eIF4B resulting in disassembly of the cap-dependent initiation complex. In addition, DAP5-dependent initiation complex that regulates IRES-dependent translation was disassembled in response to IR. Moreover, IR resulted in dephosphorylation of 4EBP1, an inhibitor of cap-dependent translation upstream of caspase activation. However, knock-down of eIF4G1, eIF4B, DAP5, or 4EBP1 did not affect IR-induced decline of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1. Our data shows that cap-dependent translation is regulated at several levels in response to IR. However, the experiments indicate that IR-induced Mcl-1 decline is not a consequence of translational inhibition in Jurkat cells

  6. Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells harbor alterations in the major tumor suppressor pathways and cell-cycle checkpoints: analyses using tissue microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Juan F; Camacho, Francisca I; Morente, Manuel; Fraga, Máximo; Montalbán, Carlos; Alvaro, Tomás; Bellas, Carmen; Castaño, Angel; Díez, Ana; Flores, Teresa; Martin, Carmen; Martinez, Miguel A; Mazorra, Francisco; Menárguez, Javier; Mestre, Maria J; Mollejo, Manuela; Sáez, Ana I; Sánchez, Lydia; Piris, Miguel A

    2003-01-15

    Tumoral cells in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) display an increased growth fraction and diminished apoptosis, implying a profound disturbance of the cell cycle and apoptosis regulation. However, limitations of molecular techniques have prevented the analysis of the tumor suppressor pathways and cell-cycle checkpoints. Tissue microarray (TMA) is a powerful tool for analyzing a large number of molecular variables in a large series of tumors, although the feasibility of this technique has not yet been demonstrated in heterogeneous tumors. The expression of 29 genes regulating the cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in 288 HL biopsies using TMA. The sensitivity of the technique was validated by comparing the results with those obtained in standard tissue sections. The results revealed multiple alterations in different pathways and checkpoints, including G1/S and G2/M transition and apoptosis. Striking findings were the overexpression of cyclin E, CDK2, CDK6, STAT3, Hdm2, Bcl2, Bcl-X(L), survivin, and NF-kappaB proteins. A multiparametric analysis identified proteins associated with increased growth fraction (Hdm2, p53, p21, Rb, cyclins A, B1, D3, and E, CDK2, CDK6, SKP2, Bcl-X(L), survivin, STAT1, and STAT3), and proteins associated with apoptosis (NF-kappaB, STAT1, and RB). The analysis also demonstrated that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive cases displayed a characteristic profile, confirming the pathogenic role of EBV in HL. Survival probability depends on multiple biologic factors, including overexpression of Bcl2, p53, Bax, Bcl-X(L), MIB1, and apoptotic index. In conclusion, Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells harbor concurrent and overlapping alterations in the major tumor suppressor pathways and cell-cycle checkpoints. This appears to determine the viability of the tumoral cells and the clinical outcome.

  7. Sch9 regulates intracellular protein ubiquitination by controlling stress responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Qie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein ubiquitination and the subsequent degradation are important means by which aberrant proteins are removed from cells, a key requirement for long-term survival. In this study, we found that the overall level of ubiquitinated proteins dramatically decreased as yeast cell grew from log to stationary phase. Deletion of SCH9, a gene encoding a key protein kinase for longevity control, decreased the level of ubiquitinated proteins in log phase and this effect could be reversed by restoring Sch9 function. We demonstrate here that the decrease of ubiquitinated proteins in sch9Δ cells in log phase is not caused by changes in ubiquitin expression, proteasome activity, or autophagy, but by enhanced expression of stress response factors and a decreased level of oxidative stress. Our results revealed for the first time how Sch9 regulates the level of ubiquitinated proteins and provides new insight into how Sch9 controls longevity.

  8. Regulation of bacterial RecA protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    The RecA protein is a recombinase functioning in recombinational DNA repair in bacteria. RecA is regulated at many levels. The expression of the recA gene is regulated within the SOS response. The activity of the RecA protein itself is autoregulated by its own C-terminus. RecA is also regulated by the action of other proteins. To date, these include the RecF, RecO, RecR, DinI, RecX, RdgC, PsiB, and UvrD proteins. The SSB protein also indirectly affects RecA function by competing for ssDNA binding sites. The RecO and RecR, and possibly the RecF proteins, all facilitate RecA loading onto SSB-coated ssDNA. The RecX protein blocks RecA filament extension, and may have other effects on RecA activity. The DinI protein stabilizes RecA filaments. The RdgC protein binds to dsDNA and blocks RecA access to dsDNA. The PsiB protein, encoded by F plasmids, is uncharacterized, but may inhibit RecA in some manner. The UvrD helicase removes RecA filaments from RecA. All of these proteins function in a network that determines where and how RecA functions. Additional regulatory proteins may remain to be discovered. The elaborate regulatory pattern is likely to be reprised for RecA homologues in archaeans and eukaryotes. PMID:17364684

  9. Garbage Collection in Uncoordinated Checkpointing Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yunlong; CHEN Junliang

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the hard problem of thethorough garbage collection in uncoordinated checkpointing algorithms isstudied. After introduction of the traditional garbage collectingscheme, with which only obsolete checkpoints can be discarded, it isshown that this kind of traditional method may fail to discard anycheckpoint in some special cases, and it is necessary and urgent to finda thorough garbage collecting method, with which all the checkpointsuseless for any future rollback-recovery including the obsolete ones canbe discarded. Then, the Thorough Garbage Collection Theorem is proposedand proved, which ensures the feasibility of the thorough garbagecollection, and gives the method to calculate the set of the usefulcheckpoints as well.

  10. Functions of spindle check-point and its relationship to chromosome instability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    It is generally believed that the equal distribution of genetic materials to two daughter cells during mitosis is the key to cell health and development. During the dynamic process, spindle checkpoint plays a very important role in chromosome movements and final sister chromatid separation. The equal and precise segregation of chromosomes contributes to the genomic stability while aberrant separations result in chromosome instability that causes pathogenesis of certain diseases such as Down's syndrome and cancers. Kinetochore and its regulatory proteins consist of the spindle checkpoint and determine the spatial and temporal orders of chromosome segregation.

  11. A direct role of Mad1 in the spindle assembly checkpoint beyond Mad2 kinetochore recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Thomas; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Sedgwick, Garry G;

    2014-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures accurate chromosome segregation by delaying entry into anaphase until all sister chromatids have become bi-oriented. A key component of the SAC is the Mad2 protein, which can adopt either an inactive open (O-Mad2) or active closed (C-Mad2) conformation...... in the SAC beyond recruitment of C-Mad2 to kinetochores has not yet been addressed. Here, we show that Mad1 is required for mitotic arrest even when C-Mad2 is artificially recruited to kinetochores, indicating that it has indeed an additional function in promoting the checkpoint. The C-terminal globular...

  12. Checkpointing and Recovery in Distributed and Database Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang

    2011-01-01

    A transaction-consistent global checkpoint of a database records a state of the database which reflects the effect of only completed transactions and not the results of any partially executed transactions. This thesis establishes the necessary and sufficient conditions for a checkpoint of a data item (or the checkpoints of a set of data items) to…

  13. Cenp-meta is required for sustained spindle checkpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rubin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cenp-E is a kinesin-like motor protein required for efficient end-on attachment of kinetochores to the spindle microtubules. Cenp-E immunodepletion in Xenopus mitotic extracts results in the loss of mitotic arrest and massive chromosome missegregation, whereas its depletion in mammalian cells leads to chromosome segregation defects despite the presence of a functional spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC. Cenp-meta has previously been reported to be the Drosophila homolog of vertebrate Cenp-E. In this study, we show that cenp-metaΔ mutant neuroblasts arrest in mitosis when treated with colchicine. cenp-metaΔ mutant cells display a mitotic delay. Yet, despite the persistence of the two checkpoint proteins Mad2 and BubR1 on unattached kinetochores, these cells eventually enter anaphase and give rise to highly aneuploid daughter cells. Indeed, we find that cenp-metaΔ mutant cells display a slow but continuous degradation of cyclin B, which eventually triggers the mitotic exit observed. Thus, our data provide evidence for a role of Cenp-meta in sustaining the SAC response.

  14. Selection of checkpoints provided by the ergonomic checkpoints in agriculture tool for mechanized sugarcane harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucy Rodrigues Ferreira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The changing work dynamics of sugarcane harvesting owing to increasing mechanization has submitted workers to new working conditions, including interaction with machinery and equipment, thereby changing the profile of work-related diseases and injuries. One of the ways to solve problems resulting from the impact of mechanization on working conditions is the use of instruments that allow risk identification from man-labor ratio. This study aimed at selecting checkpoints applicable to mechanized sugarcane harvesting provided by the Ergonomic Checkpoints in Agriculture tool. A literature review of the mechanical sugarcane harvesting stages was conducted and, in light of its particularities, checkpoints provided by the aforementioned tool were analyzed. As a result, there were identified thirty-four checkpoints with potential application to mechanical sugarcane harvesting.

  15. Protein Phosphatases Involved in Regulating Mitosis: Facts and Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Fernandes, Gary; Lee, Chang-Woo

    2016-09-01

    Almost all eukaryotic proteins are subject to post-translational modifications during mitosis and cell cycle, and in particular, reversible phosphorylation being a key event. The recent use of high-throughput experimental analyses has revealed that more than 70% of all eukaryotic proteins are regulated by phosphorylation; however, the mechanism of dephosphorylation, counteracting phosphorylation, is relatively unknown. Recent discoveries have shown that many of the protein phosphatases are involved in the temporal and spatial control of mitotic events, such as mitotic entry, mitotic spindle assembly, chromosome architecture changes and cohesion, and mitotic exit. This implies that certain phosphatases are tightly regulated for timely dephosphorylation of key mitotic phosphoproteins and are essential for control of various mitotic processes. This review describes the physiological and pathological roles of mitotic phosphatases, as well as the versatile role of various protein phosphatases in several mitotic events.

  16. Protein Phosphatases Involved in Regulating Mitosis: Facts and Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Fernandes, Gary; Lee, Chang-Woo

    2016-09-01

    Almost all eukaryotic proteins are subject to post-translational modifications during mitosis and cell cycle, and in particular, reversible phosphorylation being a key event. The recent use of high-throughput experimental analyses has revealed that more than 70% of all eukaryotic proteins are regulated by phosphorylation; however, the mechanism of dephosphorylation, counteracting phosphorylation, is relatively unknown. Recent discoveries have shown that many of the protein phosphatases are involved in the temporal and spatial control of mitotic events, such as mitotic entry, mitotic spindle assembly, chromosome architecture changes and cohesion, and mitotic exit. This implies that certain phosphatases are tightly regulated for timely dephosphorylation of key mitotic phosphoproteins and are essential for control of various mitotic processes. This review describes the physiological and pathological roles of mitotic phosphatases, as well as the versatile role of various protein phosphatases in several mitotic events. PMID:27669825

  17. Novel regulation of protein kinase C-η

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Deepanwita; Outram, Shalini Persaud; Basu, Alakananda

    2012-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is the receptor for tumor promoting phorbol esters, which are potent activators of conventional and novel PKCs, but persistent treatment with phorbol esters leads to downregulation of these PKCs. However, PKCη, a novel PKC isozyme, resists downregulation by tumor-promoting phorbol esters, but little is known about how PKCη level is regulated. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation play an important role in regulating activity and stability of PKCs. In the present study, ...

  18. Network motifs in integrated cellular networks of transcription-regulation and protein-protein interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeger-Lotem, Esti; Sattath, Shmuel; Kashtan, Nadav; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Milo, Ron; Pinter, Ron Y.; Alon, Uri; Margalit, Hanah

    2004-04-01

    Genes and proteins generate molecular circuitry that enables the cell to process information and respond to stimuli. A major challenge is to identify characteristic patterns in this network of interactions that may shed light on basic cellular mechanisms. Previous studies have analyzed aspects of this network, concentrating on either transcription-regulation or protein-protein interactions. Here we search for composite network motifs: characteristic network patterns consisting of both transcription-regulation and protein-protein interactions that recur significantly more often than in random networks. To this end we developed algorithms for detecting motifs in networks with two or more types of interactions and applied them to an integrated data set of protein-protein interactions and transcription regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found a two-protein mixed-feedback loop motif, five types of three-protein motifs exhibiting coregulation and complex formation, and many motifs involving four proteins. Virtually all four-protein motifs consisted of combinations of smaller motifs. This study presents a basic framework for detecting the building blocks of networks with multiple types of interactions.

  19. Sex Hormones Regulate Cytoskeletal Proteins Involved in Brain Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Piña-Medina, Ana Gabriela; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    In the brain of female mammals, including humans, a number of physiological and behavioral changes occur as a result of sex hormone exposure. Estradiol and progesterone regulate several brain functions, including learning and memory. Sex hormones contribute to shape the central nervous system by modulating the formation and turnover of the interconnections between neurons as well as controlling the function of glial cells. The dynamics of neuron and glial cells morphology depends on the cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. Cytoskeletal proteins are necessary to form neuronal dendrites and dendritic spines, as well as to regulate the diverse functions in astrocytes. The expression pattern of proteins, such as actin, microtubule-associated protein 2, Tau, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, changes in a tissue-specific manner in the brain, particularly when variations in sex hormone levels occur during the estrous or menstrual cycles or pregnancy. Here, we review the changes in structure and organization of neurons and glial cells that require the participation of cytoskeletal proteins whose expression and activity are regulated by estradiol and progesterone. PMID:26635640

  20. Autoinhibition of Mint1 adaptor protein regulates amyloid precursor protein binding and processing

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Maria F.; Xu, Yibin; Dulubova, Irina; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Richardson, John M.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Rizo, Josep; Ho, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Mint adaptor proteins bind to the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and regulate APP processing associated with Alzheimer’s disease; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying Mint regulation in APP binding and processing remain unclear. Biochemical, biophysical, and cellular experiments now show that the Mint1 phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain that binds to APP is intramolecularly inhibited by the adjacent C-terminal linker region. The crystal structure of a C-terminally extended Mint1 PT...

  1. Binding-regulated click ligation for selective detection of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ya; Han, Peng; Wang, Zhuxin; Chen, Weiwei; Shu, Yongqian; Xiang, Yang

    2016-04-15

    Herein, a binding-regulated click ligation (BRCL) strategy for endowing selective detection of proteins is developed with the incorporation of small-molecule ligand and clickable DNA probes. The fundamental principle underlying the strategy is the regulating capability of specific protein-ligand binding against the ligation between clickable DNA probes, which could efficiently combine the detection of particular protein with enormous DNA-based sensing technologies. In this work, the feasibly of the BRCL strategy is first verified through agarose gel electrophoresis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, and then confirmed by transferring it to a nanomaterial-assisted fluorescence assay. Significantly, the BRCL strategy-based assay is able to respond to target protein with desirable selectivity, attributing to the specific recognition between small-molecule ligand and its target. Further experiments validate the general applicability of the sensing method by tailoring the ligand toward different proteins (i.e., avidin and folate receptor), and demonstrate its usability in complex biological samples. To our knowledge, this work pioneers the practice of click chemistry in probing specific small-molecule ligand-protein binding, and therefore may pave a new way for selective detection of proteins.

  2. Detailed Modeling and Evaluation of a Scalable Multilevel Checkpointing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohror, Kathryn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moody, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bronevetsky, Greg [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); de Supinski, Bronis R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    High-performance computing (HPC) systems are growing more powerful by utilizing more components. As the system mean time before failure correspondingly drops, applications must checkpoint frequently to make progress. But, at scale, the cost of checkpointing becomes prohibitive. A solution to this problem is multilevel checkpointing, which employs multiple types of checkpoints in a single run. Moreover, lightweight checkpoints can handle the most common failure modes, while more expensive checkpoints can handle severe failures. We designed a multilevel checkpointing library, the Scalable Checkpoint/Restart (SCR) library, that writes lightweight checkpoints to node-local storage in addition to the parallel file system. We present probabilistic Markov models of SCR's performance. We show that on future large-scale systems, SCR can lead to a gain in machine efficiency of up to 35 percent, and reduce the load on the parallel file system by a factor of two. In addition, we predict that checkpoint scavenging, or only writing checkpoints to the parallel file system on application termination, can reduce the load on the parallel file system by 20 × on today's systems and still maintain high application efficiency.

  3. Mutual Regulation of FOXM1, NPM and ARF Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Bulbul; Gartel, Andrei L

    2015-01-01

    ARF, NPM and FOXM1 proteins interact with each other in mammalian cells. We showed previously that proteasome inhibitors suppress not only FOXM1 expression, but also the expression of ARF and NPM proteins. Using RNA interference we found that the depletion of each of these proteins by RNAi in human cancer HeLa cells leads to down-regulation of the two other partners, suggesting that these proteins stabilize each other in human cancer cells. Since the suppression of FOXM1 is one of hallmarks of proteasome inhibition, suppression of ARF and NPM by proteasome inhibitors may be explained in part as a secondary effect of downregulation of FOXM1 that modulate stability of ARF and NPM1 proteins.

  4. Rho regulation: DLC proteins in space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Anja C; Olayioye, Monilola A

    2015-08-01

    Rho GTPases function as molecular switches that connect changes of the external environment to intracellular signaling pathways. They are active at various subcellular sites and require fast and tight regulation to fulfill their role as transducers of extracellular stimuli. New imaging technologies visualizing the active states of Rho proteins in living cells elucidated the necessity of precise spatiotemporal activation of the GTPases. The local regulation of Rho proteins is coordinated by the interaction with different guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) that turn on and off GTPase signaling to downstream effectors. GEFs and GAPs thus serve as critical signaling nodes that specify the amplitude and duration of a particular Rho signaling pathway. Despite their importance in Rho regulation, the molecular aspects underlying the spatiotemporal control of the regulators themselves are still largely elusive. In this review we will focus on the Deleted in Liver Cancer (DLC) family of RhoGAP proteins and summarize the evidence gathered over the past years revealing their different subcellular localizations that might account for isoform-specific functions. We will also highlight the importance of their tightly controlled expression in the context of neoplastic transformation.

  5. Mcl-1 Ubiquitination: Unique Regulation of an Essential Survival Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mojsa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mcl-1 is an anti-apoptotic protein of the Bcl-2 family that is essential for the survival of multiple cell lineages and that is highly amplified in human cancer. Under physiological conditions, Mcl-1 expression is tightly regulated at multiple levels, involving transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational processes. Ubiquitination of Mcl-1, that targets it for proteasomal degradation, allows for rapid elimination of the protein and triggering of cell death, in response to various cellular events. In the last decade, a number of studies have elucidated different pathways controlling Mcl-1 ubiquitination and degradation. Four different E3 ubiquitin-ligases (e.g., Mule, SCFβ-TrCP, SCFFbw7 and Trim17 and one deubiquitinase (e.g., USP9X, that respectively mediate and oppose Mcl-1 ubiquitination, have been formerly identified. The interaction between Mule and Mcl-1 can be modulated by other Bcl-2 family proteins, while recognition of Mcl-1 by the other E3 ubiquitin-ligases and deubiquitinase is influenced by phosphorylation of specific residues in Mcl-1. The protein kinases and E3 ubiquitin-ligases that are involved in the regulation of Mcl-1 stability vary depending on the cellular context, highlighting the complexity and pivotal role of Mcl-1 regulation. In this review, we attempt to recapitulate progress in understanding Mcl-1 regulation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  6. Regulation of lipid metabolism by angiopoietin-like proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Wieneke; Kersten, Sander

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs) 3, 4 and 8 have emerged as key regulators of plasma lipid metabolism by serving as potent inhibitors of the enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL). In this review, we provide an integrated picture of the role of ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4 and ANGPTL8 in

  7. Regulation of dopamine transporter function by protein-protein interactions: new discoveries and methodological challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jacob; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Gether, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    cells have also recently become available such as fluorescently tagged cocaine analogues and fluorescent substrates. Here we review the current knowledge about the role of protein-protein interactions in DAT regulation as well as we describe the most recent methodological developments that have been...

  8. STK31 is a cell-cycle regulated protein that contributes to the tumorigenicity of epithelial cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Lin Kuo

    Full Text Available Serine/threonine kinase 31 (STK31 is one of the novel cancer/testis antigens for which its biological functions remain largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate that STK31 is overexpressed in many human colorectal cancer cell lines and tissues. STK31 co-localizes with pericentrin in the centrosomal region throughout all phases of the cell cycle. Interestingly, when cells undergo mitosis, STK31 also localizes to the centromeres, central spindle, and midbody. This localization behavior is similar to that of chromosomal passenger proteins, which are known to be the important players of the spindle assembly checkpoint. The expression of STK31 is cell cycle-dependent through the regulation of a putative D-box near its C-terminal region. Ectopically-expressed STK31-GFP increases cell migration and invasive ability without altering the proliferation rate of cancer cells, whereas the knockdown expression of endogenous STK31 by lentivirus-derived shRNA results in microtubule assembly defects that prolong the duration of mitosis and lead to apoptosis. Taken together, our results suggest that the aberrant expression of STK31 contributes to tumorigenicity in somatic cancer cells. STK31 might therefore act as a potential therapeutic target in human somatic cancers.

  9. Regulated eukaryotic DNA replication origin firing with purified proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeeles, Joseph T P; Deegan, Tom D; Janska, Agnieszka; Early, Anne; Diffley, John F X

    2015-03-26

    Eukaryotic cells initiate DNA replication from multiple origins, which must be tightly regulated to promote precise genome duplication in every cell cycle. To accomplish this, initiation is partitioned into two temporally discrete steps: a double hexameric minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex is first loaded at replication origins during G1 phase, and then converted to the active CMG (Cdc45-MCM-GINS) helicase during S phase. Here we describe the reconstitution of budding yeast DNA replication initiation with 16 purified replication factors, made from 42 polypeptides. Origin-dependent initiation recapitulates regulation seen in vivo. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibits MCM loading by phosphorylating the origin recognition complex (ORC) and promotes CMG formation by phosphorylating Sld2 and Sld3. Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) promotes replication by phosphorylating MCM, and can act either before or after CDK. These experiments define the minimum complement of proteins, protein kinase substrates and co-factors required for regulated eukaryotic DNA replication. PMID:25739503

  10. Heat Shock Proteins in Tendinopathy: Novel Molecular Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal L. Millar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendon disorders—tendinopathies—are the primary reason for musculoskeletal consultation in primary care and account for up to 30% of rheumatological consultations. Whilst the molecular pathophysiology of tendinopathy remains difficult to interpret the disease process involving repetitive stress, and cellular load provides important mechanistic insight into the area of heat shock proteins which spans many disease processes in the autoimmune community. Heat shock proteins, also called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs, are rapidly released following nonprogrammed cell death, are key effectors of the innate immune system, and critically restore homeostasis by promoting the reconstruction of the effected tissue. Our investigations have highlighted a key role for HSPs in tendion disease which may ultimately affect tissue rescue mechanisms in tendon pathology. This paper aims to provide an overview of the biology of heat shock proteins in soft tissue and how these mediators may be important regulators of inflammatory mediators and matrix regulation in tendinopathy.

  11. BCL-2 family proteins as regulators of mitochondria metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Atan

    2016-08-01

    The BCL-2 family proteins are major regulators of apoptosis, and one of their major sites of action are the mitochondria. Mitochondria are the cellular hubs for metabolism and indeed selected BCL-2 family proteins also possess roles related to mitochondria metabolism and dynamics. Here we discuss the link between mitochondrial metabolism/dynamics and the fate of stem cells, with an emphasis on the role of the BID-MTCH2 pair in regulating this link. We also discuss the possibility that BCL-2 family proteins act as metabolic sensors/messengers coming on and off of mitochondria to "sample" the cytosol and provide the mitochondria with up-to-date metabolic information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:26827940

  12. Identification of inhibitors of checkpoint kinase 1 through template screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Thomas P; Klair, Suki; Burns, Samantha; Boxall, Kathy; Cherry, Michael; Fisher, Martin; Westwood, Isaac M; Walton, Michael I; McHardy, Tatiana; Cheung, Kwai-Ming J; Van Montfort, Rob; Williams, David; Aherne, G Wynne; Garrett, Michelle D; Reader, John; Collins, Ian

    2009-08-13

    Checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) is an oncology target of significant current interest. Inhibition of CHK1 abrogates DNA damage-induced cell cycle checkpoints and sensitizes p53 deficient cancer cells to genotoxic therapies. Using template screening, a fragment-based approach to small molecule hit generation, we have identified multiple CHK1 inhibitor scaffolds suitable for further optimization. The sequential combination of in silico low molecular weight template selection, a high concentration biochemical assay and hit validation through protein-ligand X-ray crystallography provided 13 template hits from an initial in silico screening library of ca. 15000 compounds. The use of appropriate counter-screening to rule out nonspecific aggregation by test compounds was essential for optimum performance of the high concentration bioassay. One low molecular weight, weakly active purine template hit was progressed by iterative structure-based design to give submicromolar pyrazolopyridines with good ligand efficiency and appropriate CHK1-mediated cellular activity in HT29 colon cancer cells. PMID:19572549

  13. Ethanol Metabolism Activates Cell Cycle Checkpoint Kinase, Chk2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Dahn L.; Mahan Schneider, Katrina J.; Nuss, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic ethanol abuse results in hepatocyte injury and impairs hepatocyte replication. We have previously shown that ethanol metabolism results in cell cycle arrest at the G2/M transition, which is partially mediated by inhibitory phosphorylation of the cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdc2. To further delineate the mechanisms by which ethanol metabolism mediates this G2/M arrest, we investigated the involvement of upstream regulators of Cdc2 activity. Cdc2 is activated by the phosphatase Cdc25C. The activity of Cdc25C can, in turn, be regulated by the checkpoint kinase, Chk2, which is regulated by the kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). To investigate the involvement of these regulators of Cdc2 activity, VA-13 cells, which are Hep G2 cells modified to efficiently express alcohol dehydrogenase, were cultured in the presence or absence of 25 mM ethanol. Immunoblots were performed to determine the effects of ethanol metabolism on the activation of Cdc25C, Chk2, and ATM. Ethanol metabolism increased the active forms of ATM, and Chk2, as well as the phosphorylated form of Cdc25C. Additionally, inhibition of ATM resulted in approximately 50% of the cells being rescued from the G2/M cell cycle arrest, and ameliorated the inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdc2. Our findings demonstrate that ethanol metabolism activates ATM. ATM can activate the checkpoint kinase Chk2, resulting in phosphorylation of Cdc25C, and ultimately in the accumulation of inactive Cdc2. This may, in part, explain the ethanol metabolism-mediated impairment in hepatocyte replication, which may be important in the initiation and progression of alcoholic liver injury. PMID:21924579

  14. Regulation of thrombosis and vascular function by protein methionine oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Sean X; Stevens, Jeff W; Lentz, Steven R

    2015-06-18

    Redox biology is fundamental to both normal cellular homeostasis and pathological states associated with excessive oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species function not only as signaling molecules but also as redox regulators of protein function. In the vascular system, redox reactions help regulate key physiologic responses such as cell adhesion, vasoconstriction, platelet aggregation, angiogenesis, inflammatory gene expression, and apoptosis. During pathologic states, altered redox balance can cause vascular cell dysfunction and affect the equilibrium between procoagulant and anticoagulant systems, contributing to thrombotic vascular disease. This review focuses on the emerging role of a specific reversible redox reaction, protein methionine oxidation, in vascular disease and thrombosis. A growing number of cardiovascular and hemostatic proteins are recognized to undergo reversible methionine oxidation, in which methionine residues are posttranslationally oxidized to methionine sulfoxide. Protein methionine oxidation can be reversed by the action of stereospecific enzymes known as methionine sulfoxide reductases. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is a prototypical methionine redox sensor that responds to changes in the intracellular redox state via reversible oxidation of tandem methionine residues in its regulatory domain. Several other proteins with oxidation-sensitive methionine residues, including apolipoprotein A-I, thrombomodulin, and von Willebrand factor, may contribute to vascular disease and thrombosis.

  15. Tricornered Kinase Regulates Synapse Development by Regulating the Levels of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajalaxmi Natarajan

    Full Text Available Precise regulation of synapses during development is essential to ensure accurate neural connectivity and function of nervous system. Many signaling pathways, including the mTOR (mechanical Target of Rapamycin pathway operate in neurons to maintain genetically determined number of synapses during development. mTOR, a kinase, is shared between two functionally distinct multi-protein complexes- mTORC1 and mTORC2, that act downstream of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC. We and others have suggested an important role for TSC in synapse development at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ synapses. In addition, our data suggested that the regulation of the NMJ synapse numbers in Drosophila largely depends on signaling via mTORC2. In the present study, we further this observation by identifying Tricornered (Trc kinase, a serine/threonine kinase as a likely mediator of TSC signaling. trc genetically interacts with Tsc2 to regulate the number of synapses. In addition, Tsc2 and trc mutants exhibit a dramatic reduction in synaptic levels of WASP, an important regulator of actin polymerization. We show that Trc regulates the WASP levels largely, by regulating the transcription of WASP. Finally, we show that overexpression of WASP (Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein in trc mutants can suppress the increase in the number of synapses observed in trc mutants, suggesting that WASP regulates synapses downstream of Trc. Thus, our data provide a novel insight into how Trc may regulate the genetic program that controls the number of synapses during development.

  16. Morphogenesis checkpoint kinase Swe1 is the executor of lipolysis-dependent cell-cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Neha; Visram, Myriam; Cristobal-Sarramian, Alvaro; Sarkleti, Florian; Kohlwein, Sepp D

    2015-03-10

    Cell growth and division requires the precise duplication of cellular DNA content but also of membranes and organelles. Knowledge about the cell-cycle-dependent regulation of membrane and storage lipid homeostasis is only rudimentary. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that the breakdown of triacylglycerols (TGs) is regulated in a cell-cycle-dependent manner, by activation of the Tgl4 lipase by the major cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28. The lipases Tgl3 and Tgl4 are required for efficient cell-cycle progression during the G1/S (Gap1/replication phase) transition, at the onset of bud formation, and their absence leads to a cell-cycle delay. We now show that defective lipolysis activates the Swe1 morphogenesis checkpoint kinase that halts cell-cycle progression by phosphorylation of Cdc28 at tyrosine residue 19. Saturated long-chain fatty acids and phytosphingosine supplementation rescue the cell-cycle delay in the Tgl3/Tgl4 lipase-deficient strain, suggesting that Swe1 activity responds to imbalanced sphingolipid metabolism, in the absence of TG degradation. We propose a model by which TG-derived sphingolipids are required to activate the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A(Cdc55)) to attenuate Swe1 phosphorylation and its inhibitory effect on Cdc28 at the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. PMID:25713391

  17. BRCA1 and its phosphorylation involved in caffeine-inhibitable event upstream of G2 checkpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine,which specifically inhibits ATM/ATR kinases,efficiently abrogates the ionizing radiation(IR)-induced G2 arrest and increases the sensitivity of various tumor cells to IR.Mechanisms for the effect of caffeine remain to be elucidated.As a target of ATM/ATR kinases,BRCA1 becomes activated and phosphorylated in response to IR.Thus,in this work,we investigated the possible role of BRCA1 in the effect of caffeine on G2 checkpoint and observed how BRCA1 phosphorylation was regulated in this process.For these purposes,the BRCA1 protein level and the phosphorylation states were analyzed by Western blotting by using an antibody against BRCA1 and phospho-specific antibodies against Ser-1423 and Ser-1524 residues in cells exposed to a combination of IR and caffeine.The results showed that caffeine down-regulated IR-induced BRCA1 expression and specifically abolished BRCA1 phosphorylation of Ser-1524,which was followed by an override of G2 arrest by caffeine.In addition,the ability of BRCA1 to transactivate p21 may be required for MCF-7 but not necessary for Hela response to caffeine.These data suggest that BRCA1 may be a potential target of caffeine.BRCA1 and its phosphorylation are most likely to be involved in the caffeine-inhibitable event upstream of G2 arrest.

  18. Tpr directly binds to Mad1 and Mad2 and is important for the Mad1-Mad2-mediated mitotic spindle checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Sterling, Harry; Burlingame, Alma; McCormick, Frank

    2008-11-01

    The mitotic arrest-deficient protein Mad1 forms a complex with Mad2, which is required for imposing mitotic arrest on cells in which the spindle assembly is perturbed. By mass spectrometry of affinity-purified Mad2-associated factors, we identified the translocated promoter region (Tpr), a component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), as a novel Mad2-interacting protein. Tpr directly binds to Mad1 and Mad2. Depletion of Tpr in HeLa cells disrupts the NPC localization of Mad1 and Mad2 during interphase and decreases the levels of Mad1-bound Mad2. Furthermore, depletion of Tpr decreases the levels of Mad1 at kinetochores during prometaphase, correlating with the inability of Mad1 to activate Mad2, which is required for inhibiting APC(Cdc20). These findings reveal an important role for Tpr in which Mad1-Mad2 proteins are regulated during the cell cycle and mitotic spindle checkpoint signaling.

  19. The Experimental and Clinical Study on the Effect of Curcumin on Cell Cycle Proteins and Regulating Proteins of Apoptosis in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 吴裕丹; 何静; 陈文娟

    2002-01-01

    Summary: To investigate whether the Bcl-2 gene family is involved in modulating mechanism ofapoptosis and change of cell cycle protein induced by curcumin in acute myeloid leukemia HL-60cell line and primary acute myelogenous leukemic cells, the Bcl-2 family member Mcl-l, Bax andBak and cell cycle proteins including P27kipl, P21wafl, cyclin D3 and pRbp- were selected and their ex-pression detected by SABC immuno-histochemical stain method. The attitude of sub-G1 peak inDNA histogram was determined by FCM. The TUNEL positive cell percentage was identified byterminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase ( TdT )-mediated Biotin dUNP end labeling technique. Itwas found that when HL-60 cells were treated with 25 μmol/L curcumin for 24 h, the expressionlevel of Mcl-1 was down-regulated, but that of Bax and Bak up-regulated time-dependently. Therewas significant difference in the expression level of Mcl-1, Bax and Bak between the curcumin-treated groups and control group (P<0. 05-0. 01). At the same time, curcumin had no effect onprogress of cell cycle in primaty acute myelogenous leukemia at newly diagnosis, but could in-crease the peak of Sub-G1 (P<0. 05), and down-regulate the expression of Mcl-1 and up-regulatethe expression of Bax and Bak with the difference being statistically significant. The expression ofP27kipl, P21wafl and pRbp- were elevated and that of cyclin D3 decreased in the presence of curcumin.These findings suggested that the Bcl-2 gene family indeed participated in the regulatory process ofapoptosisinduced by curcumin in HL-60 cells and AML cells. Curcumin can induce apoptosis ofprimary acute myelogenous leukemic cells and disturb cell cycle progression of HL-60 cells. Themechanism appeared to be mediated by perturbing Go/G1 phases checkpoints which associated withup-regulation of P27kipl, P21wafl and pRbp- expression, and down-regulation of cyclin D3.

  20. ORMDL proteins regulate ceramide levels during sterile inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lin; Oyeniran, Clement; Biswas, Debolina D; Allegood, Jeremy; Milstien, Sheldon; Kordula, Tomasz; Maceyka, Michael; Spiegel, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    The bioactive sphingolipid metabolite, ceramide, regulates physiological processes important for inflammation and elevated levels of ceramide have been implicated in IL-1-mediated events. Although much has been learned about ceramide generation by activation of sphingomyelinases in response to IL-1, the contribution of the de novo pathway is not completely understood. Because yeast ORM1 and ORM2 proteins negatively regulate ceramide levels through inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase, the first committed step in ceramide biosynthesis, we examined the functions of individual mammalian ORM orthologs, ORM (yeast)-like (ORMDL)1-3, in regulation of ceramide levels. In HepG2 liver cells, downregulation of ORMDL3 markedly increased the ceramide precursors, dihydrosphingosine and dihydroceramide, primarily from de novo biosynthesis based on [U-(13)C]palmitate incorporation into base-labeled and dual-labeled dihydroceramides, whereas downregulation of each isoform increased dihydroceramides [(13)C]labeled in only the amide-linked fatty acid. IL-1 and the IL-6 family cytokine, oncostatin M, increased dihydroceramide and ceramide levels in HepG2 cells and concomitantly decreased ORMDL proteins. Moreover, during irritant-induced sterile inflammation in mice leading to induction of the acute-phase response, which is dependent on IL-1, expression of ORMDL proteins in the liver was strongly downregulated and accompanied by increased ceramide levels in the liver and accumulation in the blood. Together, our results suggest that ORMDLs may be involved in regulation of ceramides during IL-1-mediated sterile inflammation. PMID:27313060

  1. Regulation of the MAPK pathway by raf kinase inhibitory protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamme, Drieke; Herrero, Ana; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Kolch, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The Raf kinase inhibitor protein 1 (RKIP-1) was the first reported endogenous inhibitor of Raf-1-MEK-ERK/MAPK cascade, by interfering with the phosphorylation of MEK by Raf-1. However, RKIP's functions related to the MAPK signaling are far more complex. Newer data indicate that by modulating different protein-protein interactions, RKIP is involved in fine-tuning cell signaling, modulating ERK dynamics, and regulating cross talk between different pathways. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms by which RKIP controls MAPK signaling at different levels and vice versa and its regulation via feedback phosphorylation. We also focus on several discrepancies and questions that remain, such as the RKIP binding regulation by Raf-1 N-region phosphorylation, the possible B-Raf inhibition, and the effects of RKIP-lipid binding. We also describe how RKIP's role as key signaling modulator of many cell fate decisions leads to the fact that fine control of RKIP activity and regulation is crucial to avoid pathological processes, such as metastasis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and heart failure.

  2. [Cancer immunotherapy by immuno-checkpoint blockade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2015-10-01

    As cancer immunotherapies utilizing anti-tumor T-cell responses, immuno-checkpoint blockade and adoptive T-cell immunotherapy have recently achieved durable responses even in advanced cancer patients with metastases. Administration of antibodies on the T-cell surface, CTLA-4 and PD-1 (or PD-1 ligand PD-L1), resulted in tumor regression of not only melanoma and renal cell cancer which were known to be relatively sensitive to immunotherapy, but also various malignancies including lung, bladder, ovarian, gastric, and head and neck cancers, as well as hematological malignancies such as Hodgkin and B-cell malignant lymphomas. These findings have changed the status of immunotherapy in the development of cancer treatments. Currently, development of combinations employing cancer immunotherapy with immuno-checkpoint blockade, as well as personalized cancer immunotherapy based on the evaluation of pretreatment immune status, are in progress.

  3. Phosphorylation-dependent interactions between Crb2 and Chk1 are essential for DNA damage checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Qu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In response to DNA damage, the eukaryotic genome surveillance system activates a checkpoint kinase cascade. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, checkpoint protein Crb2 is essential for DNA damage-induced activation of downstream effector kinase Chk1. The mechanism by which Crb2 mediates Chk1 activation is unknown. Here, we show that Crb2 recruits Chk1 to double-strand breaks (DSBs through a direct physical interaction. A pair of conserved SQ/TQ motifs in Crb2, which are consensus phosphorylation sites of upstream kinase Rad3, is required for Chk1 recruitment and activation. Mutating both of these motifs renders Crb2 defective in activating Chk1. Tethering Crb2 and Chk1 together can rescue the SQ/TQ mutations, suggesting that the main function of these phosphorylation sites is promoting interactions between Crb2 and Chk1. A 19-amino-acid peptide containing these SQ/TQ motifs is sufficient for Chk1 binding in vitro when one of the motifs is phosphorylated. Remarkably, the same peptide, when tethered to DSBs by fusing with either recombination protein Rad22/Rad52 or multi-functional scaffolding protein Rad4/Cut5, can rescue the checkpoint defect of crb2Δ. The Rad22 fusion can even bypass the need for Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1 complex in checkpoint activation. These results suggest that the main role of Crb2 and 9-1-1 in DNA damage checkpoint signaling is recruiting Chk1 to sites of DNA lesions.

  4. Regulation of heartbeat by G protein-coupled ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A M

    1990-12-01

    The coupling of ion channels to receptors by G proteins is the subject of this American Physiological Society Walter B. Cannon Memorial "Physiology in Perspective" Lecture. This subject is particularly appropriate because it includes a molecular explanation of a homeostatic mechanism involving the autonomic nervous system and the latter subject preoccupied Dr. Cannon during most of his career. With the use of reconstitution methods, we and others have shown that heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins couple receptors to ion channels by both membrane-delimited, direct pathways and cytoplasmic second messenger pathways. Furthermore, one set of receptors may be coupled to as many as three different sets of ion channels to form networks. Dual G protein pathways lead to the prediction of biphasic ion current responses in cell signaling, and this prediction was confirmed. In sinoatrial pacemaker cells, the pacemaking hyperpolarization-activated inward current (If) is directly regulated by the G proteins Gs and Go, and the two can act simultaneously. This could explain the classical observation that vagal inhibition of heart rate is greater during sympathetic stimulation. Because deactivation of the muscarinic response occurs much faster than the G protein alpha-subunit hydrolyzes guanosine 5'-triphosphate, we looked for accessory cellular factors. A surprising result was that the small monomeric ras G protein blocked the muscarinic pathway. The significance of this observation is unknown, but it appears that small and large G proteins may interact in ion channel signaling pathways.

  5. Time-dependent, glucose-regulated Arabidopsis Regulator of G-protein Signaling 1 network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Jaiswal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants lack 7-transmembrane, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs because the G alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein complex is “self-activating”—meaning that it spontaneously exchanges bound GDP for GTP without the need of a GPCR. In lieu of GPCRs, most plants have a seven transmembrane receptor-like regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS protein, a component of the complex that keeps G-protein signaling in its non-activated state. The addition of glucose physically uncouples AtRGS1 from the complex through specific endocytosis leaving the activated G protein at the plasma membrane. The complement of proteins in the AtRGS1/G-protein complex over time from glucose-induced endocytosis was profiled by immunoprecipitation coupled to mass spectrometry (IP-MS. A total of 119 proteins in the AtRGS1 complex were identified. Several known interactors of the complex were identified, thus validating the approach, but the vast majority (93/119 were not known previously. AtRGS1 protein interactions were dynamically modulated by d-glucose. At low glucose levels, the AtRGS1 complex is comprised of proteins involved in transport, stress and metabolism. After glucose application, the AtRGS1 complex rapidly sheds many of these proteins and recruits other proteins involved in vesicular trafficking and signal transduction. The profile of the AtRGS1 components answers several questions about the type of coat protein and vesicular trafficking GTPases used in AtRGS1 endocytosis and the function of endocytic AtRGS1.

  6. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Rawad; Morales, Joshua; Rehman, Yasser; Khurshid, Humera

    2016-08-01

    Cancer is primarily a disease of older adults. The treatment of advanced stage tumors usually involves the use of systemic agents that may be associated with significant risk of toxicity, especially in older patients. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are newcomers to the oncology world with improved efficacy and better safety profiles when compared to traditional cytotoxic drugs. This makes them an attractive treatment option. While there are no elderly specific trials, this review attempts to look at the current available data from a geriatric oncology perspective. We reviewed data from phase III studies that led to newly approved indications of checkpoint inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma, and renal cell cancer. Data were reviewed with respect to response, survival, and toxicity according to three groups: 75 years. Current literature does not allow one to draw definitive conclusions regarding the role of immune checkpoint inhibitors in older adults. However, they may offer a potentially less toxic but equally efficacious treatment option for the senior adult oncology patient. PMID:27287329

  7. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Rawad; Morales, Joshua; Rehman, Yasser; Khurshid, Humera

    2016-08-01

    Cancer is primarily a disease of older adults. The treatment of advanced stage tumors usually involves the use of systemic agents that may be associated with significant risk of toxicity, especially in older patients. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are newcomers to the oncology world with improved efficacy and better safety profiles when compared to traditional cytotoxic drugs. This makes them an attractive treatment option. While there are no elderly specific trials, this review attempts to look at the current available data from a geriatric oncology perspective. We reviewed data from phase III studies that led to newly approved indications of checkpoint inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma, and renal cell cancer. Data were reviewed with respect to response, survival, and toxicity according to three groups: 75 years. Current literature does not allow one to draw definitive conclusions regarding the role of immune checkpoint inhibitors in older adults. However, they may offer a potentially less toxic but equally efficacious treatment option for the senior adult oncology patient.

  8. Brd4 Regulation of Papillomavirus Protein E2 Stability▿

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Gang; Schweiger, Michal-Ruth; Martinez-Noel, Gustavo; Zheng, Leon; Smith, Jennifer A.; Harper, J. Wade; Howley, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    The papillomavirus (PV) E2 protein is an important regulator of the viral life cycle. It has diverse roles in viral transcription, DNA replication, and genome maintenance. Our laboratory has previously identified the cellular bromodomain protein Brd4 as a key interacting partner of E2. Brd4 mediates the transcriptional activation function of E2 and plays an important role in viral genome maintenance in dividing cells. E2 interacts with the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Brd4, and the CTD function...

  9. The Rho-GAP Bem2p plays a GAP-independent role in the morphogenesis checkpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquitz, Aron R.; Harrison, Jacob C.; Bose, Indrani; Zyla, Trevin R.; McMillan, John N.; Lew, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae morphogenesis checkpoint delays mitosis in response to insults that impair actin organization and/or bud formation. The delay is due to accumulation of the inhibitory kinase Swe1p, which phosphorylates the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28p. Having screened through a panel of yeast mutants with defects in cell morphogenesis, we report here that the polarity establishment protein Bem2p is required for the checkpoint response. Bem2p is a Rho-GTPase activating protein (GAP) previously shown to act on Rho1p, and we now show that it also acts on Cdc42p, the GTPase primarily responsible for establishment of cell polarity in yeast. Whereas the morphogenesis role of Bem2p required GAP activity, the checkpoint role of Bem2p did not. Instead, this function required an N-terminal Bem2p domain. Thus, this single protein has a GAP-dependent role in promoting cell polarity and a GAP-independent role in responding to defects in cell polarity by enacting the checkpoint. Surprisingly, Swe1p accumulation occurred normally in bem2 cells, but they were nevertheless unable to promote Cdc28p phosphorylation. Therefore, Bem2p defines a novel pathway in the morphogenesis checkpoint. PMID:12145202

  10. Physiological roles of mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-activated p38-regulated/activated protein kinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergiy; Kostenko; Gianina; Dumitriu; Kari; Jenssen; Lgreid; Ugo; Moens

    2011-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases(MAPKs)are a family of proteins that constitute signaling pathways involved in processes that control gene expression,cell division, cell survival,apoptosis,metabolism,differentiation and motility.The MAPK pathways can be divided into conventional and atypical MAPK pathways.The first group converts a signal into a cellular response through a relay of three consecutive phosphorylation events exerted by MAPK kinase kinases,MAPK kinase,and MAPK.Atypical MAPK pathways are not organized into this three-tiered cascade.MAPK that belongs to both conventional and atypical MAPK pathways can phosphorylate both non-protein kinase substrates and other protein kinases.The latter are referred to as MAPK-activated protein kinases.This review focuses on one such MAPK-activated protein kinase,MAPK-activated protein kinase 5(MK5)or p38-regulated/activated protein kinase(PRAK).This protein is highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom and seems to be the target of both conventional and atypical MAPK pathways.Recent findings on the regulation of the activity and subcellular localization,bona fide interaction partners and physiological roles of MK5/PRAK are discussed.

  11. An oxygen-regulated switch in the protein synthesis machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniacke, James; Holterman, Chet E.; Lachance, Gabriel; Franovic, Aleksandra; Jacob, Mathieu D.; Fabian, Marc R.; Payette, Josianne; Holcik, Martin; Pause, Arnim; Lee, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Protein synthesis involves the translation of ribonucleic acid information into proteins, the building blocks of life. The initial step of protein synthesis consists of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binding to the 7-methylguanosine (m7-GpppG) 5′cap of mRNAs1,2. Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) represses cap-mediated translation by sequestering eIF4E through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent mechanisms3–6. While the internal ribosome entry site is an alternative translation initiation mechanism, this pathway alone cannot account for the translational capacity of hypoxic cells7,8. This raises a fundamental question in biology as to how proteins are synthesized in periods of oxygen scarcity and eIF4E inhibition9. Here, we uncover an oxygen-regulated translation initiation complex that mediates selective cap-dependent protein synthesis. Hypoxia stimulates the formation of a complex that includes the oxygen-regulated hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α), the RNA binding protein RBM4 and the cap-binding eIF4E2, an eIF4E homologue. PAR-CLIP10 analysis identified an RNA hypoxia response element (rHRE) that recruits this complex to a wide array mRNAs, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Once assembled at the rHRE, HIF-2α/RBM4/eIF4E2 captures the 5′cap and targets mRNAs to polysomes for active translation thereby evading hypoxia-induced repression of protein synthesis. These findings demonstrate that cells have evolved a program whereby oxygen tension switches the basic translation initiation machinery. PMID:22678294

  12. CALPAIN AND MARCKS PROTEIN REGULATION OF AIRWAY MUCIN SECRETION

    OpenAIRE

    Lampe, W. Randall; Park, Joungjoa; Fang, Shijing; Crews, Anne L; Adler, Kenneth B.

    2012-01-01

    Hypersecretion of mucin plays an important role in the pathophysiology of many inflammatory airway diseases, including asthma, chronic bronchitis, and cystic fibrosis. Myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) protein has been shown to play an important role in regulation of airway mucin secretion, as peptides analogous to the amino (N)-terminus of MARCKS attenuate mucin secretion by airway epithelium in vitro and in vivo. Here, we investigated a potential role for the protease C...

  13. Gangliosides in cell recognition and membrane protein regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Pablo H. H.; Schnaar, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    Gangliosides, sialic acid-bearing glycosphingolipids, are expressed on all vertebrate cells, and are the major glycans on nerve cells. They are anchored to the plasma membrane through their ceramide lipids with their varied glycans extending into the extracellular space. Through sugar-specific interactions with glycan binding proteins on apposing cells, gangliosides function as receptors in cell-cell recognition, regulating natural killer cell cytotoxicity via Siglec-7 binding, myelin-axon in...

  14. Regulation of alternative splice site selection by reversible protein phosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Novoyatleva, Tatyana

    2007-01-01

    Splicing is the process that removes introns and joins exons from pre-mesenger RNA (pre-mRNA). It is an essential step in pre-mRNA processing that form the mature RNA. Microarray data indicates that approximately 75% of human genes produce transcripts that are alternatively spliced. Alternative splicing is one of the major mechanisms that ultimately generate high number of protein isoforms from a limited number of genes. The proper catalysis and regulation of alternative splice site selection...

  15. Heat Shock Protein 90 Indirectly Regulates ERK Activity by Affecting Raf Protein Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei DOU; Liu-Di YUAN; Jing-Jing ZHU

    2005-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several nerve system diseases. As more and more kinases have been discovered to be the client proteins of the molecular chaperone Hsp90, the use of Hsp90 inhibitors to reduce abnormal kinase activity is a new treatment strategy for nerve system diseases. This study investigated the regulation of the ERK pathway by Hsp90. We showed that Hsp90 inhibitors reduce ERK phosphorylation without affecting the total ERK protein level. Further investigation showed that Raf, the upstream kinase in the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway,forms a complex with Hsp90 and Hsp70. Treating cells with Hsp90 inhibitors facilitates Raf degradation,thereby down-regulating the activity of ERK.

  16. Epigenetic regulation: methylation of histone and non-histone proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Fei; SHI Yang

    2009-01-01

    Histone methylation is believed to play important roles In epigenetic memory in various biological processes. However, questions like whether the methylation marks themselves are faithfully transmit-ted into daughter cells and through what mechanisms are currently under active investigation. Previ-ously, methylation was considered to be irreversible, but the recent discovery of histone lysine de-methylases revealed a dynamic nature of histone methylation regulation on four of the main sites of methylation on histone H3 and H4 tails (H3K4, H3K9, H3K27 and H3K36). Even so, it is stlll unclear whether demethylases specific for the remaining two sites, H3K79 and H4K20, exist. Furthermore, be-sides hlstone proteins, the lysine methylation and demethylation also occur on non-histone proteins,which are probably subjected to similar regulation as histones. This review discusses recent pro-gresses In protein lysine methylation regulation focusing on the above topics, while referring readers to a number of recent reviews for the biochemistry and biology of these enzymes.

  17. Epigenetic regulation: methylation of histone and non-histone proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Histone methylation is believed to play important roles in epigenetic memory in various biological processes. However, questions like whether the methylation marks themselves are faithfully transmit- ted into daughter cells and through what mechanisms are currently under active investigation. Previ- ously, methylation was considered to be irreversible, but the recent discovery of histone lysine de- methylases revealed a dynamic nature of histone methylation regulation on four of the main sites of methylation on histone H3 and H4 tails (H3K4, H3K9, H3K27 and H3K36). Even so, it is still unclear whether demethylases specific for the remaining two sites, H3K79 and H4K20, exist. Furthermore, be- sides histone proteins, the lysine methylation and demethylation also occur on non-histone proteins, which are probably subjected to similar regulation as histones. This review discusses recent pro- gresses in protein lysine methylation regulation focusing on the above topics, while referring readers to a number of recent reviews for the biochemistry and biology of these enzymes.

  18. The Rho-GAP Bem2p plays a GAP-independent role in the morphogenesis checkpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Marquitz, Aron R.; Harrison, Jacob C.; Bose, Indrani; Zyla, Trevin R.; McMillan, John N.; Lew, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae morphogenesis checkpoint delays mitosis in response to insults that impair actin organization and/or bud formation. The delay is due to accumulation of the inhibitory kinase Swe1p, which phosphorylates the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28p. Having screened through a panel of yeast mutants with defects in cell morphogenesis, we report here that the polarity establishment protein Bem2p is required for the checkpoint response. Bem2p is a Rho-GTPase activating protein (G...

  19. Heat Shock Protein 90 regulates encystation in Entamoeba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meetali eSingh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Enteric protozoan Entamoeba histolytica is a major cause of debilitating diarrheal infection worldwide with high morbidity and mortality. Even though the clinical burden of this parasite is very high, this infection is categorized as a neglected disease. Parasite is transmitted through feco-oral route and exhibit two distinct stages namely – trophozoites and cysts. Mechanism and regulation of encystation is not clearly understood. Previous studies have established the role of Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 in regulating stage transition in various protozoan parasites like Giardia, Plasmodium, Leishmania and Toxoplasma. Our study for the first time reports that Hsp90 plays a crucial role in life cycle of Entamoeba as well. We identify Hsp90 to be a negative regulator of encystation in Entamoeba. We also show that Hsp90 inhibition interferes with the process of phagocytosis in Entamoeba. Overall, we show that Hsp90 plays an important role in virulence and transmission of Entamoeba.

  20. Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Immunotherapy: Squaring the Circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A.V. Marzolini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Manipulating the complex interaction between the immune system and tumour cells has been the focus of cancer research for many years, but it is only in the past decade that significant progress has been made in the field of cancer immunotherapy resulting in clinically effective treatments. The blockade of co-inhibitory immune checkpoints, essential for maintaining lymphocyte homeostasis and self-tolerance, by immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies has resulted in the augmentation of anti-tumour responses. The greatest successes so far have been seen with the blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen-4, which has resulted in the first Phase III clinical trial showing an overall survival benefit in metastatic melanoma, and in the blockade of the programmed cell death protein-1 axis. This concise review will focus on the clinical advances made by the blockade of these two pathways and their role in current cancer treatment strategies.

  1. Proteome Analysis of Rice Root Proteins Regulated by Gibberellin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Setsuko Komatsu; Hirosato Konishi

    2005-01-01

    To gain an enhanced understanding of the mechanism by which gibberellins (GAs) regulate the growth and development of plants, it is necessary to identify proteins regulated by GA. Proteome analysis techniques have been applied as a direct,effective, and reliable tool in differential protein expressions. In previous studies,sixteen proteins showed differences in accumulation levels as a result of treatment with GA3, uniconazole, or abscisic acid (ABA), and/or the differences between the GA-deficient semi-dwarf mutant, Tan-ginbozu, and normal cultivars. Among these proteins, aldolase increased in roots treated with GA3, was present at low levels in Tan-ginbozu roots, and decreased in roots treated with uniconazole or ABA. In a root elongation assay, the growth of aldolase-antisense transgenic rice was half of that of vector control transgenic rice. These results indicate that increases in aldolase activity stimulate the glycolytic pathway and may play an important role in the GA-induced growth of roots. In this review, we discuss the relationship among GA, aldolase, and root growth.

  2. Relationship between Protein Accumulation Regulation and Yield Formation in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lihua; LI Jie; LIU Lijun; ZU Wei

    2006-01-01

    Three different genotypes soybeans were adopted in this experiment under three fertilizer levels.The object of this study was to investigate protein accumulation regulation of soybean cultivars under the condition of different nutrient levels, and their effects on soybean yield and quality, and to provide theoretical evidence for breed, cultivation and agricultural production, also man-powered controllable locations. The concentration of N in the leaves declined after seedling stage, then increased again at stage of early flowering, and started to decrease up to leaf senescence, declined rapidly from seed-filling season to stage of yellow ripeness. The concentration of N in the stems and pod walls declined with growth stage. High seed protein genotypes exhibited higher N assimilating and partitioning during whole growth stages. Pod walls were media of N partitioning. Protein was accumulated mainly during the later period of reproductive growth stage up to harvest, so plant growth after stage of yellow ripeness could not be neglected.

  3. The DNA damage and the DNA replication checkpoints converge at the MBF transcription factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Tsvetomira; Alves-Rodrigues, Isabel; Gómez-Escoda, Blanca; Dutta, Chaitali; DeCaprio, James A.; Rhind, Nick; Hidalgo, Elena; Ayté, José

    2013-01-01

    In fission yeast cells, Cds1 is the effector kinase of the DNA replication checkpoint. We previously showed that when the DNA replication checkpoint is activated, the repressor Yox1 is phosphorylated and inactivated by Cds1, resulting in activation of MluI-binding factor (MBF)–dependent transcription. This is essential to reinitiate DNA synthesis and for correct G1-to-S transition. Here we show that Cdc10, which is an essential part of the MBF core, is the target of the DNA damage checkpoint. When fission yeast cells are treated with DNA-damaging agents, Chk1 is activated and phosphorylates Cdc10 at its carboxy-terminal domain. This modification is responsible for the repression of MBF-dependent transcription through induced release of MBF from chromatin. This inactivation of MBF is important for survival of cells challenged with DNA-damaging agents. Thus Yox1 and Cdc10 couple normal cell cycle regulation in unperturbed conditions and the DNA replication and DNA damage checkpoints into a single transcriptional complex. PMID:24006488

  4. The DNA damage and the DNA replication checkpoints converge at the MBF transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Tsvetomira; Alves-Rodrigues, Isabel; Gómez-Escoda, Blanca; Dutta, Chaitali; DeCaprio, James A; Rhind, Nick; Hidalgo, Elena; Ayté, José

    2013-11-01

    In fission yeast cells, Cds1 is the effector kinase of the DNA replication checkpoint. We previously showed that when the DNA replication checkpoint is activated, the repressor Yox1 is phosphorylated and inactivated by Cds1, resulting in activation of MluI-binding factor (MBF)-dependent transcription. This is essential to reinitiate DNA synthesis and for correct G1-to-S transition. Here we show that Cdc10, which is an essential part of the MBF core, is the target of the DNA damage checkpoint. When fission yeast cells are treated with DNA-damaging agents, Chk1 is activated and phosphorylates Cdc10 at its carboxy-terminal domain. This modification is responsible for the repression of MBF-dependent transcription through induced release of MBF from chromatin. This inactivation of MBF is important for survival of cells challenged with DNA-damaging agents. Thus Yox1 and Cdc10 couple normal cell cycle regulation in unperturbed conditions and the DNA replication and DNA damage checkpoints into a single transcriptional complex. PMID:24006488

  5. The pre-B-cell receptor checkpoint in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswaran, J; Sinclair, P; Heidenreich, O; Irving, J; Russell, L J; Hall, A; Calado, D P; Harrison, C J; Vormoor, J

    2015-08-01

    The B-cell receptor (BCR) and its immature form, the precursor-BCR (pre-BCR), have a central role in the control of B-cell development, which is dependent on a sequence of cell-fate decisions at specific antigen-independent checkpoints. Pre-BCR expression provides the first checkpoint, which controls differentiation of pre-B to immature B-cells in normal haemopoiesis. Pre-BCR signalling regulates and co-ordinates diverse processes within the pre-B cell, including clonal selection, proliferation and subsequent maturation. In B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL), B-cell development is arrested at this checkpoint. Moreover, malignant blasts avoid clonal extinction by hijacking pre-BCR signalling in favour of the development of BCP-ALL. Here, we discuss three mechanisms that occur in different subtypes of BCP-ALL: (i) blocking pre-BCR expression; (ii) activating pre-BCR-mediated pro-survival and pro-proliferative signalling, while inhibiting cell cycle arrest and maturation; and (iii) bypassing the pre-BCR checkpoint and activating pro-survival signalling through pre-BCR independent alternative mechanisms. A complete understanding of the BCP-ALL-specific signalling networks will highlight their application in BCP-ALL therapy.

  6. The novel protein KBP regulates mitochondria localization by interaction with a kinesin-like protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorner Cornelia

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the Kinesin-3 family of kinesin-like proteins mediate transport of axonal vesicles (KIF1A, KIF1Bβ, distribution of mitochondria (KIF1Bα and anterograde Golgi to ER vesicle transport (KIF1C. Until now, little is known about the regulation of kinesin-like proteins. Several proteins interact with members of this protein family. Here we report on a novel, KIF1 binding protein (KBP that was identified in yeast two-hybrid screens. Results KBP was identified by using the yeast-two-hybrid system with an amino-terminal fragment of KIF1C as a bait that is strongly homologous to KIF1B. Here we investigated the interaction of KBP and KIF1B. The full length proteins coimmunoprecipitated after overexpression and in untransfected 293 cells. Immunofluorescence experiments revealed that KBP was mainly localized to mitochondria, as has been described for KIF1Bα. Overexpression of a deletion mutant or reduction of the KBP protein level using an anti-sense construct led to an aggregation of mitochondria. Such an effect is probably due to the lower activity of KIF1Bα in the absence of KBP, as was revealed in motility assays. Conclusion KBP is a new binding partner for KIF1Bα that is a regulator of its transport function and thus represents a new type of kinesin interacting protein.

  7. Efficient Checkpointing of Virtual Machines using Virtual Machine Introspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aderholdt, Ferrol [Tennessee Technological University; Han, Fang [Tennessee Technological University; Scott, Stephen L [ORNL; Naughton, III, Thomas J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Computing environments rely heavily on system-level virtualization. This is due to the inherent benefits of virtualization including fault tolerance through checkpoint/restart (C/R) mechanisms. Because clouds are the abstraction of large data centers and large data centers have a higher potential for failure, it is imperative that a C/R mechanism for such an environment provide minimal latency as well as a small checkpoint file size. Recently, there has been much research into C/R with respect to virtual machines (VM) providing excellent solutions to reduce either checkpoint latency or checkpoint file size. However, these approaches do not provide both. This paper presents a method of checkpointing VMs by utilizing virtual machine introspection (VMI). Through the usage of VMI, we are able to determine which pages of memory within the guest are used or free and are better able to reduce the amount of pages written to disk during a checkpoint. We have validated this work by using various benchmarks to measure the latency along with the checkpoint size. With respect to checkpoint file size, our approach results in file sizes within 24% or less of the actual used memory within the guest. Additionally, the checkpoint latency of our approach is up to 52% faster than KVM s default method.

  8. Protein-Protein Interactions in the Regulation of WRKY Transcription Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingjun Chi; Yan Yang; Yuan Zhou; Jie Zhou; Baofang Fan; Jing-Quan Yu; Zhixiang Chen

    2013-01-01

    It has been almost 20 years since the first report of a WRKY transcription factor,SPF1,from sweet potato.Great progress has been made since then in establishing the diverse biological roles of WRKY transcription factors in plant growth,development,and responses to biotic and abiotic stress.Despite the functional diversity,almost all analyzed WRKY proteins recognize the TrGACC/T W-box sequences and,therefore,mechanisms other than mere recognition of the core W-box promoter elements are necessary to achieve the regulatory specificity of WRKY transcription factors.Research over the past several years has revealed that WRKY transcription factors physically interact with a wide range of proteins with roles in signaling,transcription,and chromatin remodeling.Studies of WRKY-interacting proteins have provided important insights into the regulation and mode of action of members of the important family of transcription factors.It has also emerged that the slightly varied WRKY domains and other protein motifs conserved within each of the seven WRKY subfamilies participate in protein-protein interactions and mediate complex functional interactions between WRKY proteins and between WRKY and other regulatory proteins in the modulation of important biological processes.In this review,we summarize studies of protein-protein interactions for WRKY transcription factors and discuss how the interacting partners contribute,at different levels,to the establishment of the complex regulatory and functional network of WRKY transcription factors.

  9. Regulation of protease-activated receptor 1 signaling by the adaptor protein complex 2 and R4 subfamily of regulator of G protein signaling proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Buxin; Siderovski, David P; Neubig, Richard R; Lawson, Mark A; Trejo, Joann

    2014-01-17

    The G protein-coupled protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is irreversibly proteolytically activated by thrombin. Hence, the precise regulation of PAR1 signaling is important for proper cellular responses. In addition to desensitization, internalization and lysosomal sorting of activated PAR1 are critical for the termination of signaling. Unlike most G protein-coupled receptors, PAR1 internalization is mediated by the clathrin adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2) and epsin-1, rather than β-arrestins. However, the function of AP-2 and epsin-1 in the regulation of PAR1 signaling is not known. Here, we report that AP-2, and not epsin-1, regulates activated PAR1-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis via two different mechanisms that involve, in part, a subset of R4 subfamily of "regulator of G protein signaling" (RGS) proteins. A significantly greater increase in activated PAR1 signaling was observed in cells depleted of AP-2 using siRNA or in cells expressing a PAR1 (420)AKKAA(424) mutant with defective AP-2 binding. This effect was attributed to AP-2 modulation of PAR1 surface expression and efficiency of G protein coupling. We further found that ectopic expression of R4 subfamily members RGS2, RGS3, RGS4, and RGS5 reduced activated PAR1 wild-type signaling, whereas signaling by the PAR1 AKKAA mutant was minimally affected. Intriguingly, siRNA-mediated depletion analysis revealed a function for RGS5 in the regulation of signaling by the PAR1 wild type but not the AKKAA mutant. Moreover, activation of the PAR1 wild type, and not the AKKAA mutant, induced Gαq association with RGS3 via an AP-2-dependent mechanism. Thus, AP-2 regulates activated PAR1 signaling by altering receptor surface expression and through recruitment of RGS proteins. PMID:24297163

  10. Regulative Function of Telomerase and Extracelluar Regulated Protein Kinases to Leukemic Cell Apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李登举; 张瑶珍; 曹文静; 孙岚; 徐慧珍; 路武

    2002-01-01

    Summary: In order to investigate the regulative function of telomerase and phosphorylated (acti-vated) extracelluar regulated protein kinase (ERK) i and 2 in the leukemic cell lines HL-60 andK562 proliferation inhibition and apoptosis, three chemotherapeutic drugs Harringtonine (HRT),Vincristine(VCR)and Etoposide(Vp16)were selected as inducers. The proliferation inhibition ratewas detected by MTT method, the cell cycle and cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometryand the telomerase activity was detected by the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP)assay and bioluminescence analysis method. The phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein expression wasdetected by western blot method. The results showed that HRT, VCR and Vp16 could inhibit cellproliferation, induce apoptosis, inhibit telomerase activity and down-regulate the protein expres-sion of phosphorylated ERK. It was suggested that ERK signal transduction pathway was involvedin the down-regulation of telomerase activity and the onset of apoptosis in the leukemic cells treat-ed by HRT, VCR and Vp16.

  11. Protein stability regulators screening assay (Pro-SRSA): protein degradation meets the CRISPR-Cas9 library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanzhong; Kang, Tiebang

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of protein stability is a fundamental issue for biophysical processes, but there has not previously been a convenient and unbiased method of identifying regulators of protein stability. However, as reported in the article entitled "A genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 screening method for protein stability reveals novel regulators of Cdc25A," recently published in Cell Discovery, our team developed a protein stability regulators screening assay (Pro-SRSA) by combining the whole-genome clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats Cas9 (CRISPR-Cas9) library with a dual-fluorescence-based protein stability reporter and high-throughput sequencing to screen for regulators of protein stability. Based on our findings, we are confident that this efficient and unbiased screening method at the genome scale will be used by researchers worldwide to identify regulators of protein stability. PMID:27357860

  12. JNK Signaling: Regulation and Functions Based on Complex Protein-Protein Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeke, András; Misheva, Mariya; Reményi, Attila; Bogoyevitch, Marie A

    2016-09-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), as members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, mediate eukaryotic cell responses to a wide range of abiotic and biotic stress insults. JNKs also regulate important physiological processes, including neuronal functions, immunological actions, and embryonic development, via their impact on gene expression, cytoskeletal protein dynamics, and cell death/survival pathways. Although the JNK pathway has been under study for >20 years, its complexity is still perplexing, with multiple protein partners of JNKs underlying the diversity of actions. Here we review the current knowledge of JNK structure and isoforms as well as the partnerships of JNKs with a range of intracellular proteins. Many of these proteins are direct substrates of the JNKs. We analyzed almost 100 of these target proteins in detail within a framework of their classification based on their regulation by JNKs. Examples of these JNK substrates include a diverse assortment of nuclear transcription factors (Jun, ATF2, Myc, Elk1), cytoplasmic proteins involved in cytoskeleton regulation (DCX, Tau, WDR62) or vesicular transport (JIP1, JIP3), cell membrane receptors (BMPR2), and mitochondrial proteins (Mcl1, Bim). In addition, because upstream signaling components impact JNK activity, we critically assessed the involvement of signaling scaffolds and the roles of feedback mechanisms in the JNK pathway. Despite a clarification of many regulatory events in JNK-dependent signaling during the past decade, many other structural and mechanistic insights are just beginning to be revealed. These advances open new opportunities to understand the role of JNK signaling in diverse physiological and pathophysiological states. PMID:27466283

  13. Negative regulation of lymphocyte activation by the adaptor protein LAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minghua; Granillo, Olivia; Wen, Renren; Yang, Kaiyong; Dai, Xuezhi; Wang, Demin; Zhang, Weiguo

    2005-05-01

    The membrane-associated adaptor protein LAX is a linker for activation of T cells (LAT)-like molecule that is expressed in lymphoid tissues. Upon stimulation of T or B cells, it is phosphorylated and interacts with Grb2 and the p85 subunit of PI3K. LAX, however, is not capable of replacing LAT in the TCR signaling pathway. In this study we report that upon T or B cell activation, the LAX protein was up-regulated dramatically. Although disruption of the LAX gene by homologous recombination had no major impact on lymphocyte development, it caused a significant reduction in CD23 expression on mature B cells. Interestingly, naive LAX(-/-) mice had spontaneous germinal center formation. Compared with normal T and B cells, LAX(-/-) T and B cells were hyperresponsive and had enhanced calcium flux, protein tyrosine phosphorylation, MAPK and Akt activation, and cell survival upon engagement of the T or B AgRs. Our data demonstrate that LAX functions as a negative regulator in lymphocyte signaling.

  14. Type One Protein Phosphatase 1 and Its Regulatory Protein Inhibitor 2 Negatively Regulate ABA Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Xie, Shaojun; Batelli, Giorgia; Wang, Bangshing; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Wang, Xingang; Xing, Lu; Lei, Mingguang; Yan, Jun; Zhu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant growth, development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The core ABA signaling pathway consists of three major components: ABA receptor (PYR1/PYLs), type 2C Protein Phosphatase (PP2C) and SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2). Nevertheless, the complexity of ABA signaling remains to be explored. To uncover new components of ABA signal transduction pathways, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen for SnRK2-interacting proteins. We found that Type One Protein Phosphatase 1 (TOPP1) and its regulatory protein, At Inhibitor-2 (AtI-2), physically interact with SnRK2s and also with PYLs. TOPP1 inhibited the kinase activity of SnRK2.6, and this inhibition could be enhanced by AtI-2. Transactivation assays showed that TOPP1 and AtI-2 negatively regulated the SnRK2.2/3/6-mediated activation of the ABA responsive reporter gene RD29B, supporting a negative role of TOPP1 and AtI-2 in ABA signaling. Consistent with these findings, topp1 and ati-2 mutant plants displayed hypersensitivities to ABA and salt treatments, and transcriptome analysis of TOPP1 and AtI-2 knockout plants revealed an increased expression of multiple ABA-responsive genes in the mutants. Taken together, our results uncover TOPP1 and AtI-2 as negative regulators of ABA signaling. PMID:26943172

  15. Spindle Size Scaling Contributes to Robust Silencing of Mitotic Spindle Assembly Checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Liu, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Chromosome segregation during mitosis hinges on proper assembly of the microtubule spindle that establishes bipolar attachment to each chromosome. Experiments demonstrate allometry of mitotic spindles and a universal scaling relationship between spindle size and cell size across metazoans, which indicates a conserved principle of spindle assembly at play during evolution. However, the nature of this principle is currently unknown. Researchers have focused on deriving the mechanistic underpinning of the size scaling from the mechanical aspects of the spindle assembly process. In this work we take a different standpoint and ask: What is the size scaling for? We address this question from the functional perspectives of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). SAC is the critical surveillance mechanism that prevents premature chromosome segregation in the presence of unattached or misattached chromosomes. The SAC signal gets silenced after and only after the last chromosome-spindle attachment in mitosis. We previously established a model that explains the robustness of SAC silencing based on spindle-mediated spatiotemporal regulation of SAC proteins. Here, we refine the previous model, and find that robust and timely SAC silencing entails proper size scaling of mitotic spindle. This finding provides, to our knowledge, a novel, function-oriented angle toward understanding the observed spindle allometry, and the universal scaling relationship between spindle size and cell size in metazoans. In a broad sense, the functional requirement of robust SAC silencing could have helped shape the spindle assembly mechanism in evolution. PMID:27602734

  16. The SFP1 gene product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates G2/M transitions during the mitotic cell cycle and DNA-damage response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In eukaryotic cells, checkpoint pathways arrest cell-cycle progression if a particular event has failed to complete appropriately or if an important intracellular structure is defective or damaged. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that lack the SFP1 gene fail to arrest at the G2 DNA-damage checkpoint in response to genomic injury, but maintain their ability to arrest at the replication and spindle-assembly checkpoints. sfp1D mutants are characterized by a premature entrance into mitosis during a normal (undamaged) cell cycle, while strains that overexpress Sfp1p exhibit delays in G2. Sfp1p therefore acts as a repressor of the G2/M transition, both in the normal cell cycle and in the G2 checkpoint pathway. Sfp1 is a nuclear protein with two Cys2His2 zinc-finger domains commonly found in transcription factors. We propose that Sfp1p regulates the expression of gene products involved in the G2/M transition during the mitotic cell cycle and the DNA-damage response. In support of this model, overexpression of Sfp1p induces the expression of the PDS1 gene, which is known to encode a protein that regulates the G2 checkpoint. (author)

  17. The effect of the intra-S-phase checkpoint on origins of replication in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnani, Neerja; Dutta, Anindya

    2011-03-15

    Although many chemotherapy drugs activate the intra-S-phase checkpoint pathway to block S-phase progression, not much is known about how and where the intra-S-phase checkpoint regulates origins of replication in human chromosomes. A genomic analysis of replication in human cells in the presence of hydroxyurea (HU) revealed that only the earliest origins fire, but the forks stall within 2 kb and neighboring clusters of dormant origins are activated. The initiation events are located near expressed genes with a preference for transcription start and end sites, and when they are located in intergenic regions they are located near regulatory factor-binding regions (RFBR). The activation of clustered neo-origins by HU suggests that there are many potential replication initiation sites in permissive parts of the genome, most of which are not used in a normal S phase. Consistent with this redundancy, we see multiple sites bound to MCM3 (representative of the helicase) in the region flanking three out of three origins studied in detail. Bypass of the intra-S-phase checkpoint by caffeine activates many new origins in mid- and late-replicating parts of the genome. The intra-S-phase checkpoint suppresses origin firing after the loading of Mcm10, but before the recruitment of Cdc45 and AND-1/CTF4; i.e., after helicase loading but before helicase activation and polymerase loading. Interestingly, Cdc45 recruitment upon checkpoint bypass was accompanied by the restoration of global Cdk2 kinase activity and decrease in both global and origin-bound histone H3 Lys 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), consistent with the suggestion that both of these factors are important for Cdc45 recruitment.

  18. Chemogenetic profiling identifies RAD17 as synthetically lethal with checkpoint kinase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, John Paul; Srivas, Rohith; Gross, Andrew; Li, Jianfeng; Jaehnig, Eric J; Sun, Su Ming; Bojorquez-Gomez, Ana; Licon, Katherine; Sivaganesh, Vignesh; Xu, Jia L; Klepper, Kristin; Yeerna, Huwate; Pekin, Daniel; Qiu, Chu Ping; van Attikum, Haico; Sobol, Robert W; Ideker, Trey

    2015-11-01

    Chemical inhibitors of the checkpoint kinases have shown promise in the treatment of cancer, yet their clinical utility may be limited by a lack of molecular biomarkers to identify specific patients most likely to respond to therapy. To this end, we screened 112 known tumor suppressor genes for synthetic lethal interactions with inhibitors of the CHEK1 and CHEK2 checkpoint kinases. We identified eight interactions, including the Replication Factor C (RFC)-related protein RAD17. Clonogenic assays in RAD17 knockdown cell lines identified a substantial shift in sensitivity to checkpoint kinase inhibition (3.5-fold) as compared to RAD17 wild-type. Additional evidence for this interaction was found in a large-scale functional shRNA screen of over 100 genotyped cancer cell lines, in which CHEK1/2 mutant cell lines were unexpectedly sensitive to RAD17 knockdown. This interaction was widely conserved, as we found that RAD17 interacts strongly with checkpoint kinases in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the setting of RAD17 knockdown, CHEK1/2 inhibition was found to be synergistic with inhibition of WEE1, another pharmacologically relevant checkpoint kinase. Accumulation of the DNA damage marker γH2AX following chemical inhibition or transient knockdown of CHEK1, CHEK2 or WEE1 was magnified by knockdown of RAD17. Taken together, our data suggest that CHEK1 or WEE1 inhibitors are likely to have greater clinical efficacy in tumors with RAD17 loss-of-function. PMID:26437225

  19. DMPD: Post-transcriptional regulation of proinflammatory proteins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15075353 Post-transcriptional regulation of proinflammatory proteins. Anderson P, P...l) (.csml) Show Post-transcriptional regulation of proinflammatory proteins. PubmedID 15075353 Title Post-tr...anscriptional regulation of proinflammatory proteins. Authors Anderson P, Phillip

  20. Protein kinase D regulates cell death pathways in experimental pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhen eYuan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and acinar cell necrosis are two major pathological responses of acute pancreatitis, a serious disorder with no current therapies directed to its molecular pathogenesis. Serine/threonine protein kinase D family, which includes PKD/PKD1, PKD2, and PKD3, has been increasingly implicated in the regulation of multiple physiological and pathophysiological effects. We recently reported that PKD/PKD1, the predominant PKD isoform expressed in rat pancreatic acinar cells, mediates early events of pancreatitis including NF-kappaB activation and inappropriate intracellular digestive enzyme activation. In current studies, we investigated the role and mechanisms of PKD/PKD1 in the regulation of necrosis in pancreatic acinar cells by using two novel small molecule PKD inhibitors CID755673 and CRT0066101 and molecular approaches in in vitro and in vivo experimental models of acute pancreatitis. Our results demonstrated that both CID755673 and CRT0066101 are PKD-specific inhibitors and that PKD/PKD1 inhibition by either the chemical inhibitors or specific PKD/PKD1 siRNAs attenuated necrosis while promoting apoptosis induced by pathological doses of cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK in pancreatic acinar cells. Conversely, upregulation of PKD expression in pancreatic acinar cells increased necrosis and decreased apoptosis. We further showed that PKD/PKD1 regulated several key cell death signals including inhibitors of apoptotic proteins (IAPs, caspases, receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1 to promote necrosis. PKD/PKD1 inhibition by CID755673 significantly ameliorated necrosis and severity of pancreatitis in an in vivo experimental model of acute pancreatitis. Thus, our studies indicate that PKD/PKD1 is a key mediator of necrosis in acute pancreatitis and that PKD/PKD1 may represent a potential therapeutic target in acute pancreatitis.

  1. Regulation of RNA binding proteins in trypanosomatid protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, María Albertina; Cervini, Gabriela; Cassola, Alejandro

    2016-02-26

    Posttranscriptional mechanisms have a critical role in the overall outcome of gene expression. These mechanisms are especially relevant in protozoa from the genus Trypanosoma, which is composed by death threatening parasites affecting people in Sub-saharan Africa or in the Americas. In these parasites the classic view of regulation of transcription initiation to modulate the products of a given gene cannot be applied. This is due to the presence of transcription start sites that give rise to long polycistronic units that need to be processed costranscriptionally by trans-splicing and polyadenylation to give mature monocistronic mRNAs. Posttranscriptional mechanisms such as mRNA degradation and translational repression are responsible for the final synthesis of the required protein products. In this context, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in trypanosomes have a relevant role as modulators of mRNA abundance and translational repression by associating to the 3' untranslated regions in mRNA. Many different RBPs have been proposed to modulate cohorts of mRNAs in trypanosomes. However, the current understanding of their functions lacks a dynamic view on the different steps at which these RBPs are regulated. Here, we discuss different evidences to propose regulatory events for different RBPs in these parasites. These events vary from regulated developmental expression, to biogenesis of cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes in the nucleus, and condensation of RBPs and mRNA into large cytoplasmic granules. Finally, we discuss how newly identified posttranslational modifications of RBPs and mRNA metabolism-related proteins could have an enormous impact on the modulation of mRNA abundance. To understand these modifications is especially relevant in these parasites due to the fact that the enzymes involved could be interesting targets for drug therapy. PMID:26981203

  2. Lysine methylation regulates the pRb tumour suppressor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, S; Khaire, N; Inche, A; Carr, S; La Thangue, N B

    2010-04-22

    The pRb tumour suppressor protein has a central role in coordinating early cell cycle progression. An important level of control imposed on pRb occurs through post-translational modification, for example, phosphorylation. We describe here a new level of regulation on pRb, mediated through the targeted methylation of lysine residues, by the methyltransferase Set7/9. Set7/9 methylates the C-terminal region of pRb, both in vitro and in cells, and methylated pRb interacts with heterochromatin protein HP1. pRb methylation is required for pRb-dependent cell cycle arrest and transcriptional repression, as well as pRb-dependent differentiation. Our results indicate that methylation can influence the properties of pRb, and raise the interesting possibility that methylation modulates pRb tumour suppressor activity.

  3. Scaffold Proteins Regulating Extracellular Regulated Kinase Function in Cardiac Hypertrophy and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yan; Sheikh, Farah

    2016-01-01

    The mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway is a central downstream signaling pathway that is activated in cardiac muscle cells during mechanical and agonist-mediated hypertrophy. Studies in genetic mouse models deficient in ERK-associated MAPK components pathway have further reinforced a direct role for this pathway in stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy and disease. However, more recent studies have highlighted that these signaling pathways...

  4. Quantitative phosphoproteomics of protein kinase SnRK1 regulated protein phosphorylation in Arabidopsis under submergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hsing-Yi; Wen, Tuan-Nan; Wang, Ying-Tsui; Shih, Ming-Che

    2016-04-01

    SNF1 RELATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 (SnRK1) is proposed to be a central integrator of the plant stress and energy starvation signalling pathways. We observed that the Arabidopsis SnRK1.1 dominant negative mutant (SnRK1.1 (K48M) ) had lower tolerance to submergence than the wild type, suggesting that SnRK1.1-dependent phosphorylation of target proteins is important in signalling pathways triggered by submergence. We conducted quantitative phosphoproteomics and found that the phosphorylation levels of 57 proteins increased and the levels of 27 proteins decreased in Col-0 within 0.5-3h of submergence. Among the 57 proteins with increased phosphorylation in Col-0, 38 did not show increased phosphorylation levels in SnRK1.1 (K48M) under submergence. These proteins are involved mainly in sugar and protein synthesis. In particular, the phosphorylation of MPK6, which is involved in regulating ROS responses under abiotic stresses, was disrupted in the SnRK1.1 (K48M) mutant. In addition, PTP1, a negative regulator of MPK6 activity that directly dephosphorylates MPK6, was also regulated by SnRK1.1. We also showed that energy conservation was disrupted in SnRK1.1 (K48M) , mpk6, and PTP1 (S7AS8A) under submergence. These results reveal insights into the function of SnRK1 and the downstream signalling factors related to submergence. PMID:27029354

  5. Transcriptional regulation by protein kinase A in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanggan Hu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A defect in the PKA1 gene encoding the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate (cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA is known to reduce capsule size and attenuate virulence in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Conversely, loss of the PKA regulatory subunit encoded by pkr1 results in overproduction of capsule and hypervirulence. We compared the transcriptomes between the pka1 and pkr1 mutants and a wild-type strain, and found that PKA influences transcript levels for genes involved in cell wall synthesis, transport functions such as iron uptake, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and glycolysis. Among the myriad of transcriptional changes in the mutants, we also identified differential expression of ribosomal protein genes, genes encoding stress and chaperone functions, and genes for secretory pathway components and phospholipid synthesis. The transcriptional influence of PKA on these functions was reminiscent of the linkage between transcription, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and the unfolded protein response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Functional analyses confirmed that the PKA mutants have a differential response to temperature stress, caffeine, and lithium, and that secretion inhibitors block capsule production. Importantly, we also found that lithium treatment limits capsule size, thus reinforcing potential connections between this virulence trait and inositol and phospholipid metabolism. In addition, deletion of a PKA-regulated gene, OVA1, revealed an epistatic relationship with pka1 in the control of capsule size and melanin formation. OVA1 encodes a putative phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein that appears to negatively influence capsule production and melanin accumulation. Overall, these findings support a role for PKA in regulating the delivery of virulence factors such as the capsular polysaccharide to the cell surface and serve to highlight the importance of secretion and phospholipid metabolism as potential

  6. PAT proteins, an ancient family of lipid droplet proteins that regulate cellular lipid stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Perry E; Tansey, John T; Welte, Michael A

    2009-06-01

    The PAT family of lipid droplet proteins includes 5 members in mammals: perilipin, adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP), tail-interacting protein of 47 kDa (TIP47), S3-12, and OXPAT. Members of this family are also present in evolutionarily distant organisms, including insects, slime molds and fungi. All PAT proteins share sequence similarity and the ability to bind intracellular lipid droplets, either constitutively or in response to metabolic stimuli, such as increased lipid flux into or out of lipid droplets. Positioned at the lipid droplet surface, PAT proteins manage access of other proteins (lipases) to the lipid esters within the lipid droplet core and can interact with cellular machinery important for lipid droplet biogenesis. Genetic variations in the gene for the best-characterized of the mammalian PAT proteins, perilipin, have been associated with metabolic phenotypes, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. In this review, we discuss how the PAT proteins regulate cellular lipid metabolism both in mammals and in model organisms. PMID:19375517

  7. Photoreactive synthetic regulator of protein function and methods of use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauner, Dirk; Isacoff, Ehud Y; Kramer, Richard H; Banghart, Matthew R; Fortin, Doris L; Mourot, Alexandre

    2015-03-31

    The present disclosure provides a photoreactive synthetic regulator of protein function. The present disclosure further provides a light-regulated polypeptide that includes a subject synthetic regulator. Also provided are cells and membranes comprising a subject light-regulated polypeptide. The present disclosure further provides methods of modulating protein function, involving use of light.

  8. Immune checkpoints in cancer clinical trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elad Sharon; Howard Streicher; Priscila Goncalves; Helen XChen

    2014-01-01

    Immunology-based therapy is rapidly developing into an effective treatment option for a surprising range of cancers. We have learned over the last decade that powerful immunologic effector cells may be blocked by inhibitory regulatory pathways controlled by specific molecules often called“immune checkpoints.” These checkpoints serve to control or turn off the immune response when it is no longer needed to prevent tissue injury and autoimmunity. Cancer cells have learned or evolved to use these mechanisms to evade immune control and elimination. The development of a new therapeutic class of drugs that inhibit these inhibitory pathways has recently emerged as a potent strategy in oncology. Three sets of agents have emerged in clinical trials exploiting this strategy. These agents are antibody-based therapies targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen4 (CTLA4), programmed cell death1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). These inhibitors of immune inhibition have demonstrated extensive activity as single agents and in combinations. Clinical responses have been seen in melanoma, renal cellcarcinoma, non-smal celllung cancer, and several other tumor types. Despite the autoimmune or inflammatory immune-mediated adverse effects which have been seen, the responses and overall survival benefits exhibited thus far warrant further clinical development.

  9. Biological significance of the focus on DNA damage checkpoint factors remained after irradiation of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews recent reports on the focus formation and participation to checkpoint of (such phosphorylated (P-d) as below) ATM and H2AX, MDC1, 53BP1 and NBS1, and discusses their role in DNA damage checkpoint induction mainly around authors' studies. When the cell is irradiated by ionizing radiation, the subtype histone like H2AX is P-d and the formed focus', seen in the nucleus on immuno-fluorographic observation, represents the P-d H2AX at the damaged site of DNA. The role of P-d ATM (the product of causative gene of ataxia-telangiectasia mutation, a protein kinase) has been first shown by laser beam irradiation. Described are discussions on the roles and functions after irradiation in focus formation and DNA damage checkpoint of P-d H2AX (a specific histone product by the radiation like γ-ray as above), P-d ATM, MDC1 (a mediator of DNA damage check point protein 1), 53BP1, (a p53 binding protein) and NBS1 (the product of the causative gene of Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome). Authors have come to point out the remained focal size increase as implications of the efficient repair of damaged DNA, and the second cycled p53 accumulation, of tumor suppression. Thus evaluation of biological significance of these aspects, scarcely noted hitherto, is concluded important. (S.I.)

  10. Dpb11/TopBP1 plays distinct roles in DNA replication, checkpoint response and homologous recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germann, Susanne Manuela; Østergaard, Vibe Hallundbæk; Haas, Caroline;

    2011-01-01

    DPB11/TopBP1 is an essential evolutionarily conserved gene involved in initiation of DNA replication and checkpoint signaling. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dpb11 forms nuclear foci that localize to sites of DNA damage in G1, S and G2 phase, a recruitment that is conserved for its...... homologue TopBP1 in Gallus gallus. Damage-induced Dpb11 foci are distinct from Sld3 replication initiation foci. Further, Dpb11 foci are dependent on the checkpoint proteins Mec3 (9-1-1 complex) and Rad24, and require the C-terminal domain of Dpb11. Dpb11 foci are independent of the checkpoint kinases Mec1...... and Tel1, and of the checkpoint mediator Rad9. In a site-directed mutagenesis screen, we identify a separation-of-function mutant, dpb11-PF, that is sensitive to DSB-inducing agents yet remains proficient for DNA replication and the S-phase checkpoint at the permissive temperature. The dpb11-PF mutant...

  11. DMTCP: Scalable User-Level Transparent Checkpointing for Cluster Computations

    CERN Document Server

    Ansel, Jason; Arya, Kapil

    2008-01-01

    As the size of clusters increases, failures are becoming increasingly frequent. Applications must become fault tolerant if they are to run for extended periods of time. We present DMTCP (Distributed MultiThreaded CheckPointing), the first user-level distributed checkpointing package not dependent on a specific message passing library. This contrasts with existing approaches either specific to libraries such as MPI or requiring kernel modification. DMTCP provides fault tolerance through checkpointing. DMTCP transparently checkpoints general cluster computations consisting of many nodes, processes, and threads. DMTCP automatically accounts for TCP/IP sockets, UNIX domain sockets, pipes, ptys (pseudo-terminals), signal handlers, ordinary file descriptors, shared file descriptors, and other operating system artifacts. We demonstrate checkpointing and restart of applications communicating through MPICH2, OpenMPI, and sockets directly. These applications were written with a variety of languages including Fortran, C...

  12. Regulation of polar auxin transport by protein and lipid kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armengot, Laia; Marquès-Bueno, Maria Mar; Jaillais, Yvon

    2016-07-01

    The directional transport of auxin, known as polar auxin transport (PAT), allows asymmetric distribution of this hormone in different cells and tissues. This system creates local auxin maxima, minima, and gradients that are instrumental in both organ initiation and shape determination. As such, PAT is crucial for all aspects of plant development but also for environmental interaction, notably in shaping plant architecture to its environment. Cell to cell auxin transport is mediated by a network of auxin carriers that are regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. Here we review our current knowledge on some aspects of the 'non-genomic' regulation of auxin transport, placing an emphasis on how phosphorylation by protein and lipid kinases controls the polarity, intracellular trafficking, stability, and activity of auxin carriers. We describe the role of several AGC kinases, including PINOID, D6PK, and the blue light photoreceptor phot1, in phosphorylating auxin carriers from the PIN and ABCB families. We also highlight the function of some receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and two-component histidine kinase receptors in PAT, noting that there are probably RLKs involved in co-ordinating auxin distribution yet to be discovered. In addition, we describe the emerging role of phospholipid phosphorylation in polarity establishment and intracellular trafficking of PIN proteins. We outline these various phosphorylation mechanisms in the context of primary and lateral root development, leaf cell shape acquisition, as well as root gravitropism and shoot phototropism. PMID:27242371

  13. A DNA damage checkpoint in Caulobacter crescentus inhibits cell division through a direct interaction with FtsW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Joshua W; Hopkins, Alexander C; Laub, Michael T

    2011-06-15

    Following DNA damage, cells typically delay cell cycle progression and inhibit cell division until their chromosomes have been repaired. The bacterial checkpoint systems responsible for these DNA damage responses are incompletely understood. Here, we show that Caulobacter crescentus responds to DNA damage by coordinately inducing an SOS regulon and inhibiting the master regulator CtrA. Included in the SOS regulon is sidA (SOS-induced inhibitor of cell division A), a membrane protein of only 29 amino acids that helps to delay cell division following DNA damage, but is dispensable in undamaged cells. SidA is sufficient, when overproduced, to block cell division. However, unlike many other regulators of bacterial cell division, SidA does not directly disrupt the assembly or stability of the cytokinetic ring protein FtsZ, nor does it affect the recruitment of other components of the cell division machinery. Instead, we provide evidence that SidA inhibits division by binding directly to FtsW to prevent the final constriction of the cytokinetic ring.

  14. A molecular clock regulates angiopoietin-like protein 2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadomatsu, Tsuyoshi; Uragami, Shota; Akashi, Makoto; Tsuchiya, Yoshiki; Nakajima, Hiroo; Nakashima, Yukiko; Endo, Motoyoshi; Miyata, Keishi; Terada, Kazutoyo; Todo, Takeshi; Node, Koichi; Oike, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Various physiological and behavioral processes exhibit circadian rhythmicity. These rhythms are usually maintained by negative feedback loops of core clock genes, namely, CLOCK, BMAL, PER, and CRY. Recently, dysfunction in the circadian clock has been recognized as an important foundation for the pathophysiology of lifestyle-related diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. We have reported that angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) contributes to the pathogenesis of these lifestyle-related diseases by inducing chronic inflammation. However, molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of ANGPTL2 expression are poorly understood. Here, we assess circadian rhythmicity of ANGPTL2 expression in various mouse tissues. We observed that ANGPTL2 rhythmicity was similar to that of the PER2 gene, which is regulated by the CLOCK/BMAL1 complex. Promoter activity of the human ANGPTL2 gene was significantly induced by CLOCK and BMAL1, an induction markedly attenuated by CRY co-expression. We also identified functional E-boxes in the ANGPTL2 promoter and observed occupancy of these sites by endogenous CLOCK in human osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, Cry-deficient mice exhibited arrhythmic Angptl2 expression. Taken together, these data suggest that periodic expression of ANGPTL2 is regulated by a molecular clock.

  15. A molecular clock regulates angiopoietin-like protein 2 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Kadomatsu

    Full Text Available Various physiological and behavioral processes exhibit circadian rhythmicity. These rhythms are usually maintained by negative feedback loops of core clock genes, namely, CLOCK, BMAL, PER, and CRY. Recently, dysfunction in the circadian clock has been recognized as an important foundation for the pathophysiology of lifestyle-related diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. We have reported that angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2 contributes to the pathogenesis of these lifestyle-related diseases by inducing chronic inflammation. However, molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of ANGPTL2 expression are poorly understood. Here, we assess circadian rhythmicity of ANGPTL2 expression in various mouse tissues. We observed that ANGPTL2 rhythmicity was similar to that of the PER2 gene, which is regulated by the CLOCK/BMAL1 complex. Promoter activity of the human ANGPTL2 gene was significantly induced by CLOCK and BMAL1, an induction markedly attenuated by CRY co-expression. We also identified functional E-boxes in the ANGPTL2 promoter and observed occupancy of these sites by endogenous CLOCK in human osteosarcoma cells. Furthermore, Cry-deficient mice exhibited arrhythmic Angptl2 expression. Taken together, these data suggest that periodic expression of ANGPTL2 is regulated by a molecular clock.

  16. Regulation of Nuclear Localization of Signaling Proteins by Cytokinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieber, J.J.

    2010-05-01

    Cytokinins are a class of mitogenic plant hormones that play an important role in most aspects of plant development, including shoot and root growth, vascular and photomorphogenic development and leaf senescence. A model for cytokinin perception and signaling has emerged that is similar to bacterial two-component phosphorelays. In this model, binding of cytokinin to the extracellular domain of the Arabidopsis histidine kinase (AHKs) receptors induces autophosphorylation within the intracellular histidine-kinase domain. The phosphoryl group is subsequently transferred to cytosolic Arabidopsis histidine phosphotransfer proteins (AHPs), which have been suggested to translocate to the nucleus in response to cytokinin treatment, where they then transfer the phosphoryl group to nuclear-localized response regulators (Type-A and Type-B ARRs). We examined the effects of cytokinin on AHP subcellular localization in Arabidopsis and, contrary to expectations, the AHPs maintained a constant nuclear/cytosolic distribution following cytokinin treatment. Furthermore, mutation of the conserved phosphoacceptor histidine residue of the AHP, as well as disruption of multiple cytokinin signaling elements, did not affect the subcellular localization of the AHP proteins. Finally, we present data indicating that AHPs maintain a nuclear/cytosolic distribution by balancing active transport into and out of the nucleus. Our findings suggest that the current models indicating relocalization of AHP protein into the nucleus in response to cytokinin are incorrect. Rather, AHPs actively maintain a consistent nuclear/cytosolic distribution regardless of the status of the cytokinin response pathway.

  17. Expression of Tyrosine Hydroxylase is Negatively Regulated Via Prion Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Marcio Henrique Mello; Glezer, Isaias; Xavier, Andre Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Alberti Paiva; Pino, Jessica Monteiro Volejnik; Zamith, Thiago Panaro; Vieira, Taynara Fernanda; Antonio, Bruno Brito; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Martins, Vilma Regina; Lee, Kil Sun

    2016-07-01

    Cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is a glycoprotein of the plasma membrane that plays pleiotropic functions by interacting with multiple signaling complexes at the cell surface. Recently, a number of studies have reported the involvement of PrP(C) in dopamine metabolism and signaling, including its interactions with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine receptors. However, the outcomes reported by independent studies are still debatable. Therefore in this study, we investigated the effects of PrP(C) on the TH expression during the differentiation of N2a cells with dibutyryl-cAMP, a well-known cAMP analog that activates TH transcription. Upon differentiation, TH was induced with concomitant reduction of PrP(C) at protein level, but not at mRNA level. shRNA-mediated PrP(C) reduction increased the basal level of TH at both mRNA and protein levels without dibutyryl-cAMP treatment. This phenotype was reversed by re-expression of PrP(C). PrP(C) knockdown also potentiated the effect of dibutyryl-cAMP on TH expression. Our findings suggest that PrP(C) has suppressive effects on TH expression. As a consequence, altered PrP(C) functions may affect the regulation of dopamine metabolism and related neurological disorders.

  18. The meiotic recombination checkpoint is regulated by checkpoint rad+ genes in fission yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Shimada, Midori; Nabeshima, Kentaro; Tougan, Takahiro; NOJIMA, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    During the course of meiotic prophase, intrinsic double-strand breaks (DSBs) must be repaired before the cell can engage in meiotic nuclear division. Here we investigate the mechanism that controls the meiotic progression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe that have accumulated excess meiotic DSBs. A meiotic recombination-defective mutant, meu13Δ, shows a delay in meiotic progression. This delay is dependent on rec12+, namely on DSB formation. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that...

  19. An Expanded Role for AMP-activated Protein Kinase-Regulator of Myocardial Protein Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Baskin, Kedryn K.; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    Rudolph Schoenheimer’s concept of the “dynamic state of body constituents” has existed since the 1940s, but the idea that heart muscle cells renew themselves from within is relatively new. Many studies have elucidated the interaction of metabolic pathways for energy provision and contraction of the heart, and work in the field has uncovered novel metabolic regulators of enzyme action. However, the impact of myocardial energy metabolism on myocardial protein turnover has received little attent...

  20. Leptin and Fasting Regulate Rat Gastric Glucose-Regulated Protein 58

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana B. Bravo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The stomach secretes a wide range of peptides with essential metabolic functions, and thereby plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Disulfide isomerase glucose-regulated protein 58 (GRp58 is a molecular chaperone member of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress signaling pathway, which is a marker for human gastric cancer. Since GRp58 seems to be regulated by a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pattern shift, we used the 2DE gel methodology and peptide mass fingerprinting-protein identification by means of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We show that gastric mucosa GRp58 is dephosphorylated by fasting, and this effect is blunted when fasted rats are treated with leptin. Furthermore, we assessed the gene expression of GRp58 under different physiological settings known to be associated with energy homeostasis (fasting, leptin treatment and leptin deficiency. We found that intraperitoneal administration of leptin increases whereas leptin deficiency decreases GRp58 mRNA levels. However, GRp58 expression remains unchanged after fasting, indicating that leptin actions on GRp58 are no direct sensitivity to fasting. Dissection of the molecular pathways mediating the interactions between ER stress-related factors and nutrient availability, as well as their target genes, may open a new avenue for the study of obesity and other metabolic disorders.

  1. Ribosomal protein S7 regulates arsenite-induced GADD45α expression by attenuating MDM2-mediated GADD45α ubiquitination and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Li, Xiaoguang; Dong, Wen; Jin, Rui; Ma, Hanghang; Yang, Pingxun; Hu, Meiru; Li, Yi; Hao, Yi; Yuan, Shengtao; Huang, Junjian; Song, Lun

    2013-05-01

    The stress-responding protein, GADD45α, plays important roles in cell cycle checkpoint, DNA repair and apoptosis. In our recent study, we demonstrate that GADD45α undergoes a dynamic ubiquitination and degradation in vivo, which process can be blocked by the cytotoxic reagent, arsenite, resulting in GADD45α accumulation to activate JNKs cell death pathway, thereby revealing a novel mechanism for the cellular GADD45α functional regulation. But the factors involved in GADD45α stability modulations are unidentified. Here, we demonstrated that MDM2 was an E3 ubiquitin ligase for GADD45α. One of MDM2-binding partner, ribosomal protein S7, interacted with and stabilized GADD45α through preventing the ubiquitination and degradation of GADD45α mediated by MDM2. This novel function of S7 is unrelated to p53 but seems to depend on S7/MDM2 interaction, for the S7 mutant lacking MDM2-binding ability lost its function to stabilize GADD45α. Further investigations indicated that arsenite treatment enhanced S7-MDM2 interaction, resulting in attenuation of MDM2-dependent GADD45α ubiquitination and degradation, thereby leading to GADD45α-dependent cell death pathway activation. Silencing S7 expression suppressed GADD45α-dependent cytotoxicity induced by arsenite. Our findings thus identify a novel function of S7 in control of GADD45α stabilization under both basal and stress conditions and its significance in mediating arsenite-induced cellular stress.

  2. Auxin acts independently of DELLA proteins in regulating gibberellin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, James B; Davidson, Sandra E; Ross, John J

    2011-03-01

    Shoot elongation is a vital process for plant development and productivity, in both ecological and economic contexts. Auxin and bioactive gibberellins (GAs), such as GA1, play critical roles in the control of elongation, along with environmental and endogenous factors, including other hormones such as the brassinosteroids. The effect of auxins, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), is at least in part mediated by its effect on GA metabolism, since auxin up-regulates biosynthesis genes such as GA 3-oxidase and GA 20-oxidase and down regulates GA catabolism genes such as GA 2-oxidases, leading to elevated levels of bioactive GA 1. In our recent paper, we have provided evidence that this action of IAA is largely independent of DELLA proteins, the negative regulators of GA action, since the auxin effects are still present in the DELLA-deficient la cry-s genotype of pea. This was a crucial issue to resolve, since like auxin, the DELLAs also promote GA 1 synthesis and inhibit its deactivation. DELLAs are deactivated by GA, and thereby mediate a feedback system by which bioactive GA regulates its own level. However, our recent results, in themselves, do not show the generality of the auxin-GA relationship across species and phylogenetic groups or across different tissue types and responses. Further, they do not touch on the ecological benefits of the auxin-GA interaction. These issues are discussed below as well as the need for the development of suitable experimental systems to allow this process to be examined. PMID:21358281

  3. Huntingtin-associated protein 1 interacts with breakpoint cluster region protein to regulate neuronal differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai-Tsang Huang

    Full Text Available Alterations in microtubule-dependent trafficking and certain signaling pathways in neuronal cells represent critical pathogenesis in neurodegenerative diseases. Huntingtin (Htt-associated protein-1 (Hap1 is a brain-enriched protein and plays a key role in the trafficking of neuronal surviving and differentiating cargos. Lack of Hap1 reduces signaling through tropomyosin-related kinases including extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK, resulting in inhibition of neurite outgrowth, hypothalamic dysfunction and postnatal lethality in mice. To examine how Hap1 is involved in microtubule-dependent trafficking and neuronal differentiation, we performed a proteomic analysis using taxol-precipitated microtubules from Hap1-null and wild-type mouse brains. Breakpoint cluster region protein (Bcr, a Rho GTPase regulator, was identified as a Hap1-interacting partner. Bcr was co-immunoprecipitated with Hap1 from transfected neuro-2a cells and co-localized with Hap1A isoform more in the differentiated than in the nondifferentiated cells. The Bcr downstream effectors, namely ERK and p38, were significantly less activated in Hap1-null than in wild-type mouse hypothalamus. In conclusion, Hap1 interacts with Bcr on microtubules to regulate neuronal differentiation.

  4. Negative immune checkpoints on T lymphocytes and their relevance to cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śledzińska, Anna; Menger, Laurie; Bergerhoff, Katharina; Peggs, Karl S; Quezada, Sergio A

    2015-12-01

    The term 'inhibitory checkpoint' refers to the broad spectrum of co-receptors expressed by T cells that negatively regulate T cell activation thus playing a crucial role in maintaining peripheral self-tolerance. Co-inhibitory receptor ligands are highly expressed by a variety of malignancies allowing evasion of anti-tumour immunity. Recent studies demonstrate that manipulation of these co-inhibitory pathways can remove the immunological brakes that impede endogenous immune responses against tumours. Antibodies that block the interactions between co-inhibitory receptors and their ligands have delivered very promising clinical responses, as has been shown by recent successful trials targeting the CTLA-4 and PD-1 pathways. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of action and expression pattern of co-inhibitory receptors on different T cells subsets, emphasising differences between CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. We also summarise recent clinical findings utilising immune checkpoint blockade.

  5. Protein kinase C mediates cholinergically regulated protein phosphorylation in a Cl(-)-secreting epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, J A

    1990-02-01

    T84 cell monolayers were used to study the cholinergic regulation of protein phosphorylation in epithelial cells. When T84 cell monolayers are labeled with 32Pi and stimulated with carbachol, six proteins exhibit altered phosphorylation. The most prominent response is a fivefold increase in labeling of p83, an acidic protein of Mr 83,000. Increasing labeling of p83 parallels stimulated secretion with respect to the onset of agonist action, agonist potency, and antagonism by atropine. However, the p83 and secretory responses differ in that the p83 response is more sustained. When T84 cell fractions are incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP, Ca2(+)-phospholipid stimulates p83 labeling. Phosphorylation of p83 also occurs when a T84 cell extract is incubated with purified protein kinase C and when intact cells are exposed to phorbol myristate acetate. p83 does not become phosphorylated in cell fractions incubated with adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) or in monolayers stimulated with agonists acting via cAMP. Thus carbachol stimulates the phosphorylation of an endogenous substrate for protein kinase C in T84 cells. The duration of this phosphorylation response suggests that protein kinase C may mediate a sustained response to carbachol, possibly acting to limit the duration of stimulated secretion.

  6. Overview and management of toxicities of immune checkpoint-blocking drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economopoulou Panagiota

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunotherapy is considered to be the most important breakthrough in cancer management in the past few years. This success was based on the scientific understanding of immune mechanisms due to improvement in preclinical science and the introduction of new methods of investigation. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs are among the most promising drugs in the field of immune-oncology; they represent monoclonal antibodies that modulate the effects of immune checkpoints, such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4 and Programmed Cell Death protein 1 (PD-1, which are co-inhibitory signals responsible for immune suppression. Despite clinical benefits, ICIs are immune activating agents that are associated with a number of important side effects (immune-related adverse events-irAEs, attributed to organ-specific inflammation. Herein, we review the toxicities of ICIs, highlighting the importance of early identification and management.

  7. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A New Opportunity in the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Mittica

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC is the leading cause of death for gynecological cancer. The standard treatment for advanced stage is the combination of optimal debulking surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. Nevertheless, recurrence is frequent (around 70% and prognosis is globally poor. New therapeutic agents are needed to improve survival. Since EOC is strongly immunogenic, immune checkpoint inhibitors are under evaluation for their capacity to contrast the “turn off” signals expressed by the tumor to escape the immune system and usually responsible for self-tolerance maintenance. This article reviews the literature on anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, and anti-PD-L2 antibodies in EOC and highlights their possible lines of development. Further studies are needed to better define the prognostic role of the immune checkpoint inhibitors, to identify predictors of response and the optimal clinical setting in EOC.

  8. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A New Opportunity in the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittica, Gloria; Genta, Sofia; Aglietta, Massimo; Valabrega, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death for gynecological cancer. The standard treatment for advanced stage is the combination of optimal debulking surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. Nevertheless, recurrence is frequent (around 70%) and prognosis is globally poor. New therapeutic agents are needed to improve survival. Since EOC is strongly immunogenic, immune checkpoint inhibitors are under evaluation for their capacity to contrast the "turn off" signals expressed by the tumor to escape the immune system and usually responsible for self-tolerance maintenance. This article reviews the literature on anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, and anti-PD-L2 antibodies in EOC and highlights their possible lines of development. Further studies are needed to better define the prognostic role of the immune checkpoint inhibitors, to identify predictors of response and the optimal clinical setting in EOC. PMID:27447625

  9. Retinoblastoma protein: a central processing unit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Poznic

    2009-06-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (pRb) is one of the key cell-cycle regulating proteins and its inactivation leads to neoplastic transformation and carcinogenesis. This protein regulates critical G1-to-S phase transition through interaction with the E2F family of cell-cycle transcription factors repressing transcription of genes required for this cell-cycle check-point transition. Its activity is regulated through network sensing intracellular and extracellular signals which block or permit phosphorylation (inactivation) of the Rb protein. Mechanisms of Rb-dependent cell-cycle control have been widely studied over the past couple of decades. However, recently it was found that pRb also regulates apoptosis through the same interaction with E2F transcription factors and that Rb–E2F complexes play a role in regulating the transcription of genes involved in differentiation and development.

  10. Retinoblastoma protein: a central processing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poznic, M

    2009-06-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (pRb) is one of the key cell-cycle regulating proteins and its inactivation leads to neoplastic transformation and carcinogenesis. This protein regulates critical G1 -to-S phase transition through interaction with the E2F family of cell-cycle transcription factors repressing transcription of genes required for this cell-cycle check-point transition. Its activity is regulated through network sensing intracellular and extracellular signals which block or permit phosphorylation (inactivation) of the Rb protein. Mechanisms of Rb-dependent cell-cycle control have been widely studied over the past couple of decades. However, recently it was found that pRb also regulates apoptosis through the same interaction with E2F transcription factors and that Rb-E2F complexes play a role in regulating the transcription of genes involved in differentiation and development.

  11. Managing Adverse Events With Immune Checkpoint Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadu, Ramona; Zobniw, Chrystia; Diab, Adi

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and anti programmed cell death 1/programmed cell death 1 ligand antibodies) have shown impressive clinical activity in multiple cancer types. Despite achieving great clinical success, challenges and limitations of these drugs as monotherapy or various combinational strategies include the development of a unique set of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) that can be severe and even fatal. Therefore, identification of patients at risk, prevention, consistent communication between patients and medical team, rapid recognition, and treatment of irAEs are critical in optimizing treatment outcomes. This review focuses on the description of more common irAEs and provides a suggested approach for management of specific irAEs. PMID:27111908

  12. FORMAL VERIFICATION OF DISTRIBUTED CHECKPOINTING USING EVENT-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Chandra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of complex system makes challenging task for correct software development. Due to faulty specification, software may involve errors. The traditional testing methods are not sufficient to verify the correctness of such complex system. In order to capture correct system requirements and rigorous reasoning about the problems, formal methods are required. Formal methods are mathematical techniques that provide precise specification of problems with their solutions and proof of correctness. In this paper, we have done formal verification of check pointing process in a distributed database system using Event B. Event-B is an event driven formal method which is used to develop formal models of distributed database systems. In a distributed database system, the database is stored at different sites that are connected together through the network. Checkpoint is a recovery point which contains the state information about the site. In order to do recovery of a distributed transaction a global checkpoint number (GCPN is required. A global checkpoint number decides which transaction will be included for recovery purpose. All transactions whose timestamp are less than global checkpoint number will be marked as before checkpoint transaction (BCPT and will be considered for recovery purpose. The transactions whose timestamp are greater than GCPN will be marked as after checkpoint transaction (ACPT and will be part of next global checkpoint number.

  13. Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G. (IBM Research, Ireland, Mulhuddart, Dublin); Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

  14. Prion protein expression regulates embryonic stem cell pluripotency and differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miranda

    Full Text Available Cellular prion protein (PRNP is a glycoprotein involved in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs. Although the physiological function of PRNP is largely unknown, its key role in prion infection has been extensively documented. This study examines the functionality of PRNP during the course of embryoid body (EB differentiation in mouse Prnp-null (KO and WT embryonic stem cell (ESC lines. The first feature observed was a new population of EBs that only appeared in the KO line after 5 days of differentiation. These EBs were characterized by their expression of several primordial germ cell (PGC markers until Day 13. In a comparative mRNA expression analysis of genes playing an important developmental role during ESC differentiation to EBs, Prnp was found to participate in the transcription of a key pluripotency marker such as Nanog. A clear switching off of this gene on Day 5 was observed in the KO line as opposed to the WT line, in which maximum Prnp and Nanog mRNA levels appeared at this time. Using a specific antibody against PRNP to block PRNP pathways, reduced Nanog expression was confirmed in the WT line. In addition, antibody-mediated inhibition of ITGB5 (integrin αvβ5 in the KO line rescued the low expression of Nanog on Day 5, suggesting the regulation of Nanog transcription by Prnp via this Itgb5. mRNA expression analysis of the PRNP-related proteins PRND (Doppel and SPRN (Shadoo, whose PRNP function is known to be redundant, revealed their incapacity to compensate for the absence of PRNP during early ESC differentiation. Our findings provide strong evidence for a relationship between Prnp and several key pluripotency genes and attribute Prnp a crucial role in regulating self-renewal/differentiation status of ESC, confirming the participation of PRNP during early embryogenesis.

  15. Loss of the Greatwall Kinase Weakens the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diril, M Kasim; Bisteau, Xavier; Kitagawa, Mayumi; Caldez, Matias J; Wee, Sheena; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kaldis, Philipp

    2016-09-01

    The Greatwall kinase/Mastl is an essential gene that indirectly inhibits the phosphatase activity toward mitotic Cdk1 substrates. Here we show that although Mastl knockout (MastlNULL) MEFs enter mitosis, they progress through mitosis without completing cytokinesis despite the presence of misaligned chromosomes, which causes chromosome segregation defects. Furthermore, we uncover the requirement of Mastl for robust spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) maintenance since the duration of mitotic arrest caused by microtubule poisons in MastlNULL MEFs is shortened, which correlates with premature disappearance of the essential SAC protein Mad1 at the kinetochores. Notably, MastlNULL MEFs display reduced phosphorylation of a number of proteins in mitosis, which include the essential SAC kinase MPS1. We further demonstrate that Mastl is required for multi-site phosphorylation of MPS1 as well as robust MPS1 kinase activity in mitosis. In contrast, treatment of MastlNULL cells with the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OKA) rescues the defects in MPS1 kinase activity, mislocalization of phospho-MPS1 as well as Mad1 at the kinetochore, and premature SAC silencing. Moreover, using in vitro dephosphorylation assays, we demonstrate that Mastl promotes persistent MPS1 phosphorylation by inhibiting PP2A/B55-mediated MPS1 dephosphorylation rather than affecting Cdk1 kinase activity. Our findings establish a key regulatory function of the Greatwall kinase/Mastl->PP2A/B55 pathway in preventing premature SAC silencing. PMID:27631493

  16. Diabetes regulates fructose absorption through thioredoxin-interacting protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotimas, James R; Lee, Austin W; Schmider, Angela B; Carroll, Shannon H; Shah, Anu; Bilen, Julide; Elliott, Kayla R; Myers, Ronald B; Soberman, Roy J; Yoshioka, Jun; Lee, Richard T

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic studies suggest that the absorptive capacity of the small intestine for fructose is limited, though the molecular mechanisms controlling this process remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that thioredoxin-interacting protein (Txnip), which regulates glucose homeostasis in mammals, binds to fructose transporters and promotes fructose absorption by the small intestine. Deletion of Txnip in mice reduced fructose transport into the peripheral bloodstream and liver, as well as the severity of adverse metabolic outcomes resulting from long-term fructose consumption. We also demonstrate that fructose consumption induces expression of Txnip in the small intestine. Diabetic mice had increased expression of Txnip in the small intestine as well as enhanced fructose uptake and transport into the hepatic portal circulation. The deletion of Txnip in mice abolished the diabetes-induced increase in fructose absorption. Our results indicate that Txnip is a critical regulator of fructose metabolism and suggest that a diabetic state can promote fructose uptake. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18313.001 PMID:27725089

  17. Regulation of embryonic cell adhesion by the prion protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Málaga-Trillo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Prion proteins (PrPs are key players in fatal neurodegenerative disorders, yet their physiological functions remain unclear, as PrP knockout mice develop rather normally. We report a strong PrP loss-of-function phenotype in zebrafish embryos, characterized by the loss of embryonic cell adhesion and arrested gastrulation. Zebrafish and mouse PrP mRNAs can partially rescue this knockdown phenotype, indicating conserved PrP functions. Using zebrafish, mouse, and Drosophila cells, we show that PrP: (1 mediates Ca(+2-independent homophilic cell adhesion and signaling; and (2 modulates Ca(+2-dependent cell adhesion by regulating the delivery of E-cadherin to the plasma membrane. In vivo time-lapse analyses reveal that the arrested gastrulation in PrP knockdown embryos is due to deficient morphogenetic cell movements, which rely on E-cadherin-based adhesion. Cell-transplantation experiments indicate that the regulation of embryonic cell adhesion by PrP is cell-autonomous. Moreover, we find that the local accumulation of PrP at cell contact sites is concomitant with the activation of Src-related kinases, the recruitment of reggie/flotillin microdomains, and the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, consistent with a role of PrP in the modulation of cell adhesion via signaling. Altogether, our data uncover evolutionarily conserved roles of PrP in cell communication, which ultimately impinge on the stability of adherens cell junctions during embryonic development.

  18. DELLA proteins regulate arbuscule formation in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floss, Daniela S; Levy, Julien G; Lévesque-Tremblay, Véronique; Pumplin, Nathan; Harrison, Maria J

    2013-12-17

    Most flowering plants are able to form endosymbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In this mutualistic association, the fungus colonizes the root cortex and establishes elaborately branched hyphae, called arbuscules, within the cortical cells. Arbuscule development requires the cellular reorganization of both symbionts, and the resulting symbiotic interface functions in nutrient exchange. A plant symbiosis signaling pathway controls the development of the symbiosis. Several components of the pathway have been identified, but transcriptional regulators that control downstream pathways for arbuscule formation are still unknown. Here we show that DELLA proteins, which are repressors of gibberellic acid (GA) signaling and function at the nexus of several signaling pathways, are required for arbuscule formation. Arbuscule formation is severely impaired in a Medicago truncatula Mtdella1/Mtdella2 double mutant; GA treatment of wild-type roots phenocopies the della double mutant, and a dominant DELLA protein (della1-Δ18) enables arbuscule formation in the presence of GA. Ectopic expression of della1-Δ18 suggests that DELLA activity in the vascular tissue and endodermis is sufficient to enable arbuscule formation in the inner cortical cells. In addition, expression of della1-Δ18 restores arbuscule formation in the symbiosis signaling pathway mutant cyclops/ipd3, indicating an intersection between DELLA and symbiosis signaling for arbuscule formation. GA signaling also influences arbuscule formation in monocots, and a Green Revolution wheat variety carrying dominant DELLA alleles shows enhanced colonization but a limited growth response to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

  19. Anaphase onset before complete DNA replication with intact checkpoint responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Rosell, Jordi; De Piccoli, Giacomo; Cordon-Preciado, Violeta;

    2007-01-01

    Cellular checkpoints prevent mitosis in the presence of stalled replication forks. Whether checkpoints also ensure the completion of DNA replication before mitosis is unknown. Here, we show that in yeast smc5-smc6 mutants, which are related to cohesin and condensin, replication is delayed, most...... significantly at natural replication-impeding loci like the ribosomal DNA gene cluster. In the absence of Smc5-Smc6, chromosome nondisjunction occurs as a consequence of mitotic entry with unfinished replication despite intact checkpoint responses. Eliminating processes that obstruct replication fork...

  20. Methylation of ribosomal protein S10 by protein-arginine methyltransferase 5 regulates ribosome biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jinqi; Wang, Yaqing; Liang, Yuheng; Zhang, Yongqing; Bao, Shilai; Xu, Zhiheng

    2010-04-23

    Modulation of ribosomal assembly is a fine tuning mechanism for cell number and organ size control. Many ribosomal proteins undergo post-translational modification, but their exact roles remain elusive. Here, we report that ribosomal protein s10 (RPS10) is a novel substrate of an oncoprotein, protein-arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5). We show that PRMT5 interacts with RPS10 and catalyzes its methylation at the Arg(158) and Arg(160) residues. The methylation of RPS10 at Arg(158) and Arg(160) plays a role in the proper assembly of ribosomes, protein synthesis, and optimal cell proliferation. The RPS10-R158K/R160K mutant is not efficiently assembled into ribosomes and is unstable and prone to degradation by the proteasomal pathway. In nucleoli, RPS10 interacts with nucleophosmin/B23 and is predominantly concentrated in the granular component region, which is required for ribosome assembly. The RPS10 methylation mutant interacts weakly with nucleophosmin/B23 and fails to concentrate in the granular component region. Our results suggest that PRMT5 is likely to regulate cell proliferation through the methylation of ribosome proteins, and thus reveal a novel mechanism for PRMT5 in tumorigenesis.

  1. Replication factor C3 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a small subunit of replication factor C complex, plays a role in both replication and damage checkpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, M; Okuzaki, D; Tanaka, S; Tougan, T; Tamai, K K; Shimoda, C; Nojima, H

    1999-12-01

    We report here the isolation and functional analysis of the rfc3(+) gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which encodes the third subunit of replication factor C (RFC3). Because the rfc3(+) gene was essential for growth, we isolated temperature-sensitive mutants. One of the mutants, rfc3-1, showed aberrant mitosis with fragmented or unevenly separated chromosomes at the restrictive temperature. In this mutant protein, arginine 216 was replaced by tryptophan. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis suggested that rfc3-1 cells had defects in DNA replication. rfc3-1 cells were sensitive to hydroxyurea, methanesulfonate (MMS), and gamma and UV irradiation even at the permissive temperature, and the viabilities after these treatments were decreased. Using cells synchronized in early G2 by centrifugal elutriation, we found that the replication checkpoint triggered by hydroxyurea and the DNA damage checkpoint caused by MMS and gamma irradiation were impaired in rfc3-1 cells. Association of Rfc3 and Rad17 in vivo and a significant reduction of the phosphorylated form of Chk1 in rfc3-1 cells after treatments with MMS and gamma or UV irradiation suggested that the checkpoint signal emitted by Rfc3 is linked to the downstream checkpoint machinery via Rad17 and Chk1. From these results, we conclude that rfc3(+) is required not only for DNA replication but also for replication and damage checkpoint controls, probably functioning as a checkpoint sensor. PMID:10588638

  2. Eavesdropping on the cytoskeleton: progress and controversy in the yeast morphogenesis checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaton, Mignon A; Lew, Daniel J

    2006-12-01

    The morphogenesis checkpoint provides a link between bud formation and mitosis in yeast. In this pathway, insults affecting the actin or septin cytoskeleton trigger a cell cycle arrest, mediated by the Wee1 homolog Swe1p, which catalyzes the inhibitory phosphorylation of the mitosis-promoting cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) on a conserved tyrosine residue. Analyses of Swe1p phosphorylation have mapped 61 sites targeted by CDKs and Polo-related kinases, which control both Swe1p activity and Swe1p degradation. Although the sites themselves are not evolutionarily conserved, the control of Swe1p degradation exhibits many conserved features, and is linked to DNA-responsive checkpoints in vertebrate cells. At the 'sensing' end of the checkpoint, recent work has begun to shed light on how septins are organized and how they impact Swe1p regulators. However, the means by which Swe1p responds to actin perturbations once a bud has formed remains controversial. PMID:17055334

  3. Immunologic checkpoints in cancer therapy: focus on the programmed death-1 (PD-1 receptor pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momtaz P

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Parisa Momtaz,1,2 Michael A Postow1,2 1Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA; 2Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA Abstract: T-lymphocytes have the potential to recognize cancer antigens as foreign and therefore eliminate them. However, immune checkpoints such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA-4 and programmed cell death (PD-1 receptor and its ligands (PD-L1, PD-L2 suppress the activity of T-lymphocytes. Advances in the understanding of immunology and its role in cancer have led to the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors that block CTLA-4 and PD-1 and result in durable responses in patients with a wide range of cancers. PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors are currently in many stages of clinical investigation, and the anti-PD-1 antibody, pembrolizumab, was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Many questions remain to be answered, such as the optimal administration schedule, biomarkers that associate with benefit, and potential for use of PD-1 agents in combination approaches. Nonetheless, immunotherapy with PD-1 blocking antibodies is now becoming an integral part in the management of cancer. Keyword: immune checkpoints, immunotherapy, programmed cell death protein-1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4

  4. Immune checkpoint blockade therapy: The 2014 Tang prize in biopharmaceutical science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Shan Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The first Tang Prize for Biopharmaceutical Science has been awarded to Prof. James P. Allison and Prof. Tasuku Honjo for their contributions leading to an entirely new way to treat cancer by blocking the molecules cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4 and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1 that turn off immune response. The treatment, called "immune checkpoint blockade therapy," has opened a new therapeutic era. Here the discoveries of the immune checkpoints and how they contribute to the maintenance of self-tolerance, as well as how to protect tissues from the excess immune responses causing damage are reviewed. The efforts made by Prof. Allison and Prof. Honjo for developing the most promising approaches to activate therapeutic antitumor immunity are also summarized. Since these certain immune checkpoint pathways appear to be one of the major mechanisms resulting in immune escape of tumors, the presence of anti-CTLA-4 and/or anti-PD-1 should contribute to removal of the inhibition signals for T cell activation. Subsequently, it will enhance specific T cell activation and, therefore, strengthen antitumor immunity.

  5. miR-125b promotes cell death by targeting spindle assembly checkpoint gene MAD1 and modulating mitotic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjya, S; Nath, S; Ghose, J; Maiti, G P; Biswas, N; Bandyopadhyay, S; Panda, C K; Bhattacharyya, N P; Roychoudhury, S

    2013-03-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a 'wait-anaphase' mechanism that has evolved in eukaryotic cells in response to the stochastic nature of chromosome-spindle attachments. In the recent past, different aspects of the SAC regulation have been described. However, the role of microRNAs in the SAC is vaguely understood. We report here that Mad1, a core SAC protein, is repressed by human miR-125b. Mad1 serves as an adaptor protein for Mad2 - which functions to inhibit anaphase entry till the chromosomal defects in metaphase are corrected. We show that exogenous expression of miR-125b, through downregulation of Mad1, delays cells at metaphase. As a result of this delay, cells proceed towards apoptotic death, which follows from elevated chromosomal abnormalities upon ectopic expression of miR-125b. Moreover, expressions of Mad1 and miR-125b are inversely correlated in a variety of cancer cell lines, as well as in primary head and neck tumour tissues. We conclude that increased expression of miR-125b inhibits cell proliferation by suppressing Mad1 and activating the SAC transiently. We hypothesize an optimum Mad1 level and thus, a properly scheduled SAC is maintained partly by miR-125b.

  6. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of plant chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Bigeard, Jean

    2014-07-10

    In eukaryotes, most of the DNA is located in the nucleus where it is organized with histone proteins in a higher order structure as chromatin. Chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins contribute to DNA-related processes such as replication and transcription as well as epigenetic regulation. Protein functions are often regulated by PTMs among which phosphorylation is one of the most abundant PTM. Phosphorylation of proteins affects important properties, such as enzyme activity, protein stability, or subcellular localization. We here describe the main specificities of protein phosphorylation in plants and review the current knowledge on phosphorylation-dependent regulation of plant chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins. We also outline some future challenges to further elucidate protein phosphorylation and chromatin regulation.

  7. A New Adaptive Checkpointing Strategy for Mobile Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENChaoguang; ZUODecheng; YANGXiaozong

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive checkpointing strategy is an efficient recovery scheme, which is suitable for mobile computing system. However, all existing adaptive checkpointing schemes are not correct to recover system when failure occurs in some special period. In this paper, the issues that will lead to system inconsistency are first discussed and then a new adaptive strategy that can recover system to correct consistent state is proposed. Our algorithm improves system recovery performance because only failure process needs rollback through logging.

  8. Role of CTCF protein in regulating FMR1 locus transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lanni

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS, the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability, is caused by epigenetic silencing of the FMR1 gene, through expansion and methylation of a CGG triplet repeat (methylated full mutation. An antisense transcript (FMR1-AS1, starting from both promoter and intron 2 of the FMR1 gene, was demonstrated in transcriptionally active alleles, but not in silent FXS alleles. Moreover, a DNA methylation boundary, which is lost in FXS, was recently identified upstream of the FMR1 gene. Several nuclear proteins bind to this region, like the insulator protein CTCF. Here we demonstrate for the first time that rare unmethylated full mutation (UFM alleles present the same boundary described in wild type (WT alleles and that CTCF binds to this region, as well as to the FMR1 gene promoter, exon 1 and intron 2 binding sites. Contrariwise, DNA methylation prevents CTCF binding to FXS alleles. Drug-induced CpGs demethylation does not restore this binding. CTCF knock-down experiments clearly established that CTCF does not act as insulator at the active FMR1 locus, despite the presence of a CGG expansion. CTCF depletion induces heterochromatinic histone configuration of the FMR1 locus and results in reduction of FMR1 transcription, which however is not accompanied by spreading of DNA methylation towards the FMR1 promoter. CTCF depletion is also associated with FMR1-AS1 mRNA reduction. Antisense RNA, like sense transcript, is upregulated in UFM and absent in FXS cells and its splicing is correlated to that of the FMR1-mRNA. We conclude that CTCF has a complex role in regulating FMR1 expression, probably through the organization of chromatin loops between sense/antisense transcriptional regulatory regions, as suggested by bioinformatics analysis.

  9. DMTCP: bringing interactive checkpoint-restart to Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Kapil; Cooperman, Gene

    2015-01-01

    DMTCP (Distributed MultiThreaded CheckPointing) is a mature checkpoint-restart package. It operates in user space without kernel privilege, and adapts to application-specific requirements through plugins. While DMTCP has been able to checkpoint Python and IPython ‘from the outside’ for many years, a Python module has recently been created to support DMTCP. IPython support is included through a new DMTCP plugin. A checkpoint can be requested interactively within a Python session or under the control of a specific Python program. Further, the Python program can execute specific Python code prior to checkpoint, upon resuming (within the original process) and upon restarting (from a checkpoint image). Applications of DMTCP are demonstrated for: (i) Python-based graphics using virtual network client, (ii) a fast/slow technique to use multiple hosts or cores to check one (Cython Behnel S et al 2011 Comput. Sci. Eng. 13 31-39) computation in parallel, and (iii) a reversible debugger, FReD, with a novel reverse-expression watchpoint feature for locating the cause of a bug.

  10. An Analysis of Checkpointing Algorithms for Distributed Mobile Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Khunteta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed snapshots are an important building block for distributed systems, and are useful for constructing efficient checkpointing protocols, among other uses. Direct application of these algorithms to mobile systems is not easible, however, due to differences in the environment in which mobile systems operate, relative to general distributed systems. The mobile computing environment introduces newchallenges in the area of fault-tolerant computing. Compared to traditional distributed environments, wireless networks are typically slower, providing lower throughput and latency, comparing to wireline networks. In addition, the mobile hosts have limited computation esources, are often exposed to harsh operating environment that makes them more likely to fail, and can roam while operating. Over the past two decades, intensive research work has been carried out on providing efficient checkpointing protocols in traditional distributed computing. Recently, more attention has been paid to providing checkpointing protocols for mobile systems. Some of these protocols have been adapted from the traditional distributed environment; others have been created from scratch for mobile systems. Checkpoint is defined as a designated place in a program at which normal processing is interrupted specifically to preserve the status information necessary to allow resumption of processing at alater time. Checkpointing is the process of saving the status information. This paper surveys the algorithms which have been reported in the literature for checkpointing in Mobile Distributed systems.

  11. A survey of checkpointing algorithms for parallel and distributed computers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Kalaiselvi; V Rajaraman

    2000-10-01

    Checkpoint is defined as a designated place in a program at which normal processing is interrupted specifically to preserve the status information necessary to allow resumption of processing at a later time. Checkpointing is the process of saving the status information. This paper surveysthe algorithms which have been reported in the literature for checkpointing parallel/distributed systems. It has been observed that most of the algorithms published for checkpointing in message passing systems are based on the seminal article by Chandy and Lamport. A large number of articles have been published in this area by relaxing the assumptions made in this paper and by extending it to minimise the overheads of coordination and context saving. Checkpointing for sharedmemory systems primarily extend cache coherence protocolstomaintain a consistent memory. All of them assume that the main memory is safe for storing the context. Recently algorithms have been published for distributed shared memory systems, which extend the cache coherence protocols used in shared memory systems. They however also include methods for storing the status of distributed memory in stable storage. Most of the algorithms assume that there is no knowledge about the programs being executed.It is howeverfelt that in development of parallel programs the user has to do a fair amount of work in distributing tasks and this information can be effectively used to simplify checkpointing and rollback recovery.

  12. A Tunable Checkpointing Algorithm for Distributed Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungchae Lim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of a distributed checkpointing algorithm is to efficiently restore the execution state of distributed applications in face of hardware or software failures. Originally, such algorithms were devised for fixed networking systems, of which computing components communicate with each other via wired networks. Therefore, those algorithms usually suffer from heavy networking costs coming from frequent data transits over wireless networks, if they are used in the wireless computing environment. In this paper, to reduce usage of wireless communications, our checkpointing algorithm allows the distributed mobile application to tune the level of its checkpointing strictness. The strictness is defined by the maximum rollback distance (MRD that says how many recent local checkpoints can be rolled back in the worst case. Since our algorithm have more flexibility in checkpointing schedule due to the use of MRD, it is possible to reduce the number of enforced local checkpointing. In particular, the amount of data transited on wirelesses networks becomes smaller than in earlier methods; thus, our algorithm provides less communication cost and shortened blocking time.

  13. Complex regulation of CREB-binding protein by homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2

    KAUST Repository

    Kovács, Krisztián A.

    2015-11-01

    CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 are transcriptional coactivators involved in numerous biological processes that affect cell growth, transformation, differentiation, and development. In this study, we provide evidence of the involvement of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) in the regulation of CBP activity. We show that HIPK2 interacts with and phosphorylates several regions of CBP. We demonstrate that serines 2361, 2363, 2371, 2376, and 2381 are responsible for the HIPK2-induced mobility shift of CBP C-terminal activation domain. Moreover, we show that HIPK2 strongly potentiates the transcriptional activity of CBP. However, our data suggest that HIPK2 activates CBP mainly by counteracting the repressive action of cell cycle regulatory domain 1 (CRD1), located between amino acids 977 and 1076, independently of CBP phosphorylation. Our findings thus highlight a complex regulation of CBP activity by HIPK2, which might be relevant for the control of specific sets of target genes involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Regulation of PCNA-protein interactions for genome stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Niels; Gibbs-Seymour, Ian; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) has a central role in promoting faithful DNA replication, providing a molecular platform that facilitates the myriad protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions that occur at the replication fork. Numerous PCNA-associated proteins compete for binding to ...

  15. The regulation of protein content and quality in national and international food standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Janine L

    2012-08-01

    Food regulation aims to protect public health through a safe and nutritious food supply produced by a compliant food industry. Food standards of developed countries generally do not regulate protein content or protein quality because the risk of dietary protein inadequacy in their national populations is very low. Protein is nevertheless regulated for reasons of product quality or protein labelling or to minimise assessed health risks associated with consumption of certain animal- and vegetable-protein foods; analogue products that extend or simulate commonly available animal-protein foods; and special purpose foods such as infant formula and foods, supplementary and medical foods, and foods for weight loss. The extent and approach to protein regulation varies greatly among jurisdictions but where it occurs, it is applied through minimum and sometimes maximum limits on protein content or quality measures or both using an inter-related approach. Protein quality measures range from amino acid profiles and digestibility corrected scores to protein rating, a rat bioassay and reference proteins not further described. Regulatory methods for protein quality determination are referenced to the published scientific literature or developed nationally. Internationally, the Codex Alimentarius regulates the protein content and quality of some foods. The Codex approach varies according to the food but is similar to the approaches used in national and regional food regulation. This paper provides a comparison of the regulation of protein in foods using examples from the food regulations of Australia New Zealand, Canada, the European Union, the United States of America and the Codex Alimentarius. PMID:23107530

  16. Piperine causes G1 phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in melanoma cells through checkpoint kinase-1 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neel M Fofaria

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the cytotoxic effects of piperine, a major constituent of black and long pepper in melanoma cells. Piperine treatment inhibited the growth of SK MEL 28 and B16 F0 cells in a dose and time-dependent manner. The growth inhibitory effects of piperine were mediated by cell cycle arrest of both the cell lines in G1 phase. The G1 arrest by piperine correlated with the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and induction of p21. Furthermore, this growth arrest by piperine treatment was associated with DNA damage as indicated by phosphorylation of H2AX at Ser139, activation of ataxia telangiectasia and rad3-related protein (ATR and checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1. Pretreatment with AZD 7762, a Chk1 inhibitor not only abrogated the activation of Chk1 but also piperine mediated G1 arrest. Similarly, transfection of cells with Chk1 siRNA completely protected the cells from G1 arrest induced by piperine. Piperine treatment caused down-regulation of E2F1 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb. Apoptosis induced by piperine was associated with down-regulation of XIAP, Bid (full length and cleavage of Caspase-3 and PARP. Furthermore, our results showed that piperine treatment generated ROS in melanoma cells. Blocking ROS by tiron protected the cells from piperine mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These results suggest that piperine mediated ROS played a critical role in inducing DNA damage and activation of Chk1 leading to G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  17. The protein factor-arrest 11 (Far11) is essential for the toxicity of human caspase-10 in yeast and participates in the regulation of autophagy and the DNA damage signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa-Santamaría, Patricia; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José L

    2012-08-24

    The heterologous expression of human caspase-10 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces a lethal phenotype, which includes some hallmarks of apoptosis and autophagy, alterations in the intra-S checkpoint, and cell death. To determine the cellular processes and pathways that are responsible of the caspase-10-induced cell death we have designed a loss-of-function screening system to identify genes that are essential for the lethal phenotype. We observed that the ER-Golgi-localized family of proteins Far, MAPK signaling, the autophagy machinery, and several kinases and phosphatases are essential for caspase-10 toxicity. We also found that the expression of caspase-10 elicits a simultaneous activation of the MAP kinases Fus3, Kss1, and Slt2. Furthermore, the protein Far11, which is a target of MAP kinases, is essential for the dephosphorylation of Atg13 and, consequently, for the induction of autophagy. In addition, Far11 participates in the regulation of the DNA damage response through the dephosphorylation of Rad53. Finally, we have also demonstrated that Far11 is able to physically interact with the phosphatases Pph21, Pph22, and Pph3. Overall, our results indicate that the expression of human caspase-10 in S. cerevisiae activates an intracellular death signal that depends on the Far protein complex and that Far11 may function as a regulator subunit of phosphatases in different processes, thus representing a mechanistic link between them. PMID:22782902

  18. Autogenous Regulation of Splicing of the Transcript of a Yeast Ribosomal Protein Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabeva, Mariana D.; Post-Beittenmiller, Martha A.; Warner, Jonathan R.

    1986-08-01

    The gene for a yeast ribosomal protein, RPL32, contains a single intron. The product of this gene appears to participate in feedback control of the splicing of the intron from the transcript. This autogenous regulation of splicing provides a striking analogy to the autogenous regulation of translation of ribosomal proteins in Escherichia coli.

  19. Autogenous regulation of splicing of the transcript of a yeast ribosomal protein gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Dabeva, M. D.; Post-Beittenmiller, M A; Warner, J R

    1986-01-01

    The gene for a yeast ribosomal protein, RPL32, contains a single intron. The product of this gene appears to participate in feedback control of the splicing of the intron from the transcript. This autogenous regulation of splicing provides a striking analogy to the autogenous regulation of translation of ribosomal proteins in Escherichia coli.

  20. Regulation of orange carotenoid protein activity in cyanobacterial photoprotection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurotte, A.; Lopez Igual, R.; Wilson, A.; Comolet, L.; Bourcier de Carbon, C.; Xiao, F.; Kirilovsky, D.

    2015-01-01

    Plants, algae, and cyanobacteria have developed mechanisms to decrease the energy arriving at reaction centers to protect themselves from high irradiance. In cyanobacteria, the photoactive Orange Carotenoid Protein (OCP) and the Fluorescence Recovery Protein are essential elements in this mechanism.

  1. Post-translational modification and regulation of human Spir protein

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi, Sreeja

    2011-01-01

    Spir proteins are the primodial members of the emerging group of actin nucleation factors, which initiate actin polymerization by binding monomeric actin to one or multiple Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) homology-2 domains. Spir proteins are implicated in diverse cellular processes including actin dynamics, vesicle trafficking as well as Drosophila and mammalian oogenesis. Despite the biological roles of Spir was interpreted to an extent in the fields of protein and membrane interact...

  2. ANDROGEN REGULATION OF PROSTATIC STEROID BINDING PROTEIN GENE TRANSCRIPTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYong-Lian; ZHOUZong-Xun; ZHANGYou-Duan; PARKERMalcolmG

    1989-01-01

    Prostatic steroid binding protein (PSBP) is a major protein secreted in the rat ventral prostate (V.P.) and also one of the components in seminal fluid, The potential importance of this protein in male fertility emerged from its ability of binding cholesterol which might modulate the proportion of phospholipids and cholesterol in sperm making it suitable

  3. In-silico modeling of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Ibrahim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mitotic Spindle Assembly Checkpoint ((MSAC is an evolutionary conserved mechanism that ensures the correct segregation of chromosomes by restraining cell cycle progression from entering anaphase until all chromosomes have made proper bipolar attachments to the mitotic spindle. Its malfunction can lead to cancer. PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We have constructed and validated for the human (MSAC mechanism an in silico dynamical model, integrating 11 proteins and complexes. The model incorporates the perspectives of three central control pathways, namely Mad1/Mad2 induced Cdc20 sequestering based on the Template Model, MCC formation, and APC inhibition. Originating from the biochemical reactions for the underlying molecular processes, non-linear ordinary differential equations for the concentrations of 11 proteins and complexes of the (MSAC are derived. Most of the kinetic constants are taken from literature, the remaining four unknown parameters are derived by an evolutionary optimization procedure for an objective function describing the dynamics of the APC:Cdc20 complex. MCC:APC dissociation is described by two alternatives, namely the "Dissociation" and the "Convey" model variants. The attachment of the kinetochore to microtubuli is simulated by a switching parameter silencing those reactions which are stopped by the attachment. For both, the Dissociation and the Convey variants, we compare two different scenarios concerning the microtubule attachment dependent control of the dissociation reaction. Our model is validated by simulation of ten perturbation experiments. CONCLUSION: Only in the controlled case, our models show (MSAC behaviour at meta- to anaphase transition in agreement with experimental observations. Our simulations revealed that for (MSAC activation, Cdc20 is not fully sequestered; instead APC is inhibited by MCC binding.

  4. Mathematical model of a cell size checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Vilela

    Full Text Available How cells regulate their size from one generation to the next has remained an enigma for decades. Recently, a molecular mechanism that links cell size and cell cycle was proposed in fission yeast. This mechanism involves changes in the spatial cellular distribution of two proteins, Pom1 and Cdr2, as the cell grows. Pom1 inhibits Cdr2 while Cdr2 promotes the G2 → M transition. Cdr2 is localized in the middle cell region (midcell whereas the concentration of Pom1 is highest at the cell tips and declines towards the midcell. In short cells, Pom1 efficiently inhibits Cdr2. However, as cells grow, the Pom1 concentration at midcell decreases such that Cdr2 becomes activated at some critical size. In this study, the chemistry of Pom1 and Cdr2 was modeled using a deterministic reaction-diffusion-convection system interacting with a deterministic model describing microtubule dynamics. Simulations mimicked experimental data from wild-type (WT fission yeast growing at normal and reduced rates; they also mimicked the behavior of a Pom1 overexpression mutant and WT yeast exposed to a microtubule depolymerizing drug. A mechanism linking cell size and cell cycle, involving the downstream action of Cdr2 on Wee1 phosphorylation, is proposed.

  5. Multiple Defects of Cell Cycle Checkpoints in U937-ASPI3K, an U937 Cell Mutant Stably Expressing Anti-Sense ATM Gene cDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    (Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene (ATM) functions in control of cell cycle checkpoints in responding to DNA damage and protects cells from undergoing apoptosis. Knock-out within tumor cells of endogenous ATM will achieve therapeutic benefits and nable a better understanding of the decisive mechanisms of cell death or survival in response to DNA damaging agents. ) In present paper, we sought to characterize the cell cycle checkpoint profiles in U937-ASPI3K, a U937 cell mutant that was previously established with endogenous ATM knock-out phenotype. Synchronized U937-ASPI3K was exposed to 137Cs irradiation, G1, S, G2/M cell cycle checkpoint profiles were evaluated by determining cell cycle kinetics, p53/p21 protein, cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and p34CDC2 kinase activity in response to irradiation. U937-ASPI3K exhibited multiple defects in cell cycle checkpoints as defined by failing to arrest cells upon irradiation. The accumulation of cellular p53/p21 protein and inhibition of CDK kinase was also abolished in U937-ASPI3K. It was concluded that the stable expression of anti-sense PI3K cDNA fragment completely abolished multiple cell cycle checkpoints in U937-ASPI3K, and hence U937-ASPI3K with an AT-like phenotype could serves as a valuable model system for investigating the signal transduction pathway in responding to DNA damaging-based cancer therapy.

  6. Positive muscle protein net balance and differential regulation of atrogene expression after resistance exercise and milk protein supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitelseder, Søren; Agergaard, Jakob; Doessing, Simon;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Resistance exercise and amino acid availability are positive regulators of muscle protein net balance (NB). However, anabolic responses to resistance exercise and protein supplementation deserve further elucidation. The purpose was to compare intakes of whey, caseinate (both: 0.30 g/kg lean...

  7. Cellular prion protein expression is not regulated by the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lewis

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of molecular and cellular links between Alzheimer's disease (AD and prion diseases. The cellular prion protein, PrP(C, modulates the post-translational processing of the AD amyloid precursor protein (APP, through its inhibition of the β-secretase BACE1, and oligomers of amyloid-β bind to PrP(C which may mediate amyloid-β neurotoxicity. In addition, the APP intracellular domain (AICD, which acts as a transcriptional regulator, has been reported to control the expression of PrP(C. Through the use of transgenic mice, cell culture models and manipulation of APP expression and processing, this study aimed to clarify the role of AICD in regulating PrP(C. Over-expression of the three major isoforms of human APP (APP(695, APP(751 and APP(770 in cultured neuronal and non-neuronal cells had no effect on the level of endogenous PrP(C. Furthermore, analysis of brain tissue from transgenic mice over-expressing either wild type or familial AD associated mutant human APP revealed unaltered PrP(C levels. Knockdown of endogenous APP expression in cells by siRNA or inhibition of γ-secretase activity also had no effect on PrP(C levels. Overall, we did not detect any significant difference in the expression of PrP(C in any of the cell or animal-based paradigms considered, indicating that the control of cellular PrP(C levels by AICD is not as straightforward as previously suggested.

  8. Bigenomic transcriptional regulation of all thirteen cytochrome c oxidase subunit genes by specificity protein 1

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Shilpa S.; Johar, Kaid; Wong-Riley, Margaret T. T.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is one of only four known bigenomic proteins, with three mitochondria-encoded subunits and 10 nucleus-encoded ones derived from nine different chromosomes. The mechanism of regulating this multi-subunit, bigenomic enzyme is not fully understood. We hypothesize that specificity protein 1 (Sp1) functionally regulates the 10 nucleus-encoded COX subunit genes directly and the three mitochondrial COX subunit genes indirectly by regulating mitochondrial transcription fact...

  9. Phosphorylation Regulates Binding of the Human Papillomavirus Type 8 E2 Protein to Host Chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Sekhar, Vandana; Alison A McBride

    2012-01-01

    The papillomavirus E2 proteins are indispensable for the viral life cycle, and their functions are subject to tight regulation. The E2 proteins undergo posttranslational modifications that regulate their properties and roles in viral transcription, replication, and genome maintenance. During persistent infection, the E2 proteins from many papillomaviruses act as molecular bridges that tether the viral genomes to host chromosomes to retain them within the host nucleus and to partition them to ...

  10. Lipid bilayer regulation of membrane protein function: gramicidin channels as molecular force probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbæk, Jens August; Collingwood, S.A.; Ingolfsson, H.I.;

    2010-01-01

    Membrane protein function is regulated by the host lipid bilayer composition. This regulation may depend on specific chemical interactions between proteins and individual molecules in the bilayer, as well as on non-specific interactions between proteins and the bilayer behaving as a physical enti...... use of gramicidin channels as molecular force probes for studying this mechanism, with a unique ability to discriminate between consequences of changes in monolayer curvature and bilayer elastic moduli....

  11. Immune checkpoint inhibitors and prostate cancer: a new frontier?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Modena

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in the treatment of metastatic castrationresistant prostate cancer (mCRPC, agents that provide durable disease control and long-term survival are still needed. It is a fact that a tumor-induced immunosuppressive status (mediated by aberrant activation of inhibitory immune checkpoint pathways as a mechanism to evade host immune surveillance plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cancer, including prostate cancer (PC, making CRPC patients suitable candidates for immunotherapy. Therefore, growing interest of anticancer research aims at blocking immune checkpoints (mainly targeting CTLA-4 and PD1/PD-L1 pathways to restore and enhance cellular-mediated antitumor immunity and achieve durable tumor regression. In this review, we describe the current knowledge regarding the role of immune checkpoints in mediating PC progression, focusing on CTLA-4 and PD1 pathways. We also provide current clinical data available, an update on ongoing trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors in PC. Finally, we discuss the necessity to identify prognostic and predictive biomarkers of immune activity, and we analyze new immune checkpoints with a role as promising targets for PC therapy.

  12. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Prostate Cancer: A New Frontier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modena, Alessandra; Ciccarese, Chiara; Iacovelli, Roberto; Brunelli, Matteo; Montironi, Rodolfo; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Massari, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), agents that provide durable disease control and long-term survival are still needed. It is a fact that a tumor-induced immunosuppressive status (mediated by aberrant activation of inhibitory immune checkpoint pathways as a mechanism to evade host immune surveillance) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cancer, including prostate cancer (PC), making CRPC patients suitable candidates for immunotherapy. Therefore, growing interest of anticancer research aims at blocking immune checkpoints (mainly targeting CTLA-4 and PD1/PD-L1 pathways) to restore and enhance cellular-mediated antitumor immunity and achieve durable tumor regression. In this review, we describe the current knowledge regarding the role of immune checkpoints in mediating PC progression, focusing on CTLA-4 and PD1 pathways. We also provide current clinical data available, an update on ongoing trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors in PC. Finally, we discuss the necessity to identify prognostic and predictive biomarkers of immune activity, and we analyze new immune checkpoints with a role as promising targets for PC therapy. PMID:27471580

  13. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Prostate Cancer: A New Frontier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modena, Alessandra; Ciccarese, Chiara; Iacovelli, Roberto; Brunelli, Matteo; Montironi, Rodolfo; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Massari, Francesco

    2016-04-15

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), agents that provide durable disease control and long-term survival are still needed. It is a fact that a tumor-induced immunosuppressive status (mediated by aberrant activation of inhibitory immune checkpoint pathways as a mechanism to evade host immune surveillance) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cancer, including prostate cancer (PC), making CRPC patients suitable candidates for immunotherapy. Therefore, growing interest of anticancer research aims at blocking immune checkpoints (mainly targeting CTLA-4 and PD1/PD-L1 pathways) to restore and enhance cellular-mediated antitumor immunity and achieve durable tumor regression. In this review, we describe the current knowledge regarding the role of immune checkpoints in mediating PC progression, focusing on CTLA-4 and PD1 pathways. We also provide current clinical data available, an update on ongoing trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors in PC. Finally, we discuss the necessity to identify prognostic and predictive biomarkers of immune activity, and we analyze new immune checkpoints with a role as promising targets for PC therapy.

  14. Berkeley lab checkpoint/restart (BLCR) for Linux clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Paul H.; Duell, Jason C.

    2006-09-01

    This article describes the motivation, design and implementation of Berkeley Lab Checkpoint/Restart (BLCR), a system-level checkpoint/restart implementation for Linux clusters that targets the space of typical High Performance Computing applications, including MPI. Application-level solutions, including both checkpointing and fault-tolerant algorithms, are recognized as more time and space efficient than system-level checkpoints, which cannot make use of any application-specific knowledge. However, system-level checkpointing allows for preemption, making it suitable for responding to ''fault precursors'' (for instance, elevated error rates from ECC memory or network CRCs, or elevated temperature from sensors). Preemption can also increase the efficiency of batch scheduling; for instance reducing idle cycles (by allowing for shutdown without any queue draining period or reallocation of resources to eliminate idle nodes when better fitting jobs are queued), and reducing the average queued time (by limiting large jobs to running during off-peak hours, without the need to limit the length of such jobs). Each of these potential uses makes BLCR a valuable tool for efficient resource management in Linux clusters.

  15. Berkeley lab checkpoint/restart (BLCR) for Linux clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the motivation, design and implementation of Berkeley Lab Checkpoint/Restart (BLCR), a system-level checkpoint/restart implementation for Linux clusters that targets the space of typical High Performance Computing applications, including MPI. Application-level solutions, including both checkpointing and fault-tolerant algorithms, are recognized as more time and space efficient than system-level checkpoints, which cannot make use of any application-specific knowledge. However, system-level checkpointing allows for preemption, making it suitable for responding to ''fault precursors'' (for instance, elevated error rates from ECC memory or network CRCs, or elevated temperature from sensors). Preemption can also increase the efficiency of batch scheduling; for instance reducing idle cycles (by allowing for shutdown without any queue draining period or reallocation of resources to eliminate idle nodes when better fitting jobs are queued), and reducing the average queued time (by limiting large jobs to running during off-peak hours, without the need to limit the length of such jobs). Each of these potential uses makes BLCR a valuable tool for efficient resource management in Linux clusters

  16. Message Efficient Checkpointing and Rollback Recovery in Heterogeneous Mobile Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, Parmeet Kaur; Singh, Awadhesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous networks provide an appealing way of expanding the computing capability of mobile networks by combining infrastructure-less mobile ad-hoc networks with the infrastructure-based cellular mobile networks. The nodes in such a network range from low-power nodes to macro base stations and thus, vary greatly in their capabilities such as computation power and battery power. The nodes are susceptible to different types of transient and permanent failures and therefore, the algorithms designed for such networks need to be fault-tolerant. The article presents a checkpointing algorithm for the rollback recovery of mobile hosts in a heterogeneous mobile network. Checkpointing is a well established approach to provide fault tolerance in static and cellular mobile distributed systems. However, the use of checkpointing for fault tolerance in a heterogeneous environment remains to be explored. The proposed protocol is based on the results of zigzag paths and zigzag cycles by Netzer-Xu. Considering the heterogeneity prevalent in the network, an uncoordinated checkpointing technique is employed. Yet, useless checkpoints are avoided without causing a high message overhead.

  17. Protein implicated in nonsyndromic mental retardation regulates protein kinase A (PKA) activity

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Tawashi, Azza

    2012-02-28

    Mutation of the coiled-coil and C2 domain-containing 1A (CC2D1A) gene, which encodes a C2 domain and DM14 domain-containing protein, has been linked to severe autosomal recessive nonsyndromic mental retardation. Using a mouse model that produces a truncated form of CC2D1A that lacks the C2 domain and three of the four DM14 domains, we show that CC2D1A is important for neuronal differentiation and brain development. CC2D1A mutant neurons are hypersensitive to stress and have a reduced capacitytoformdendritesandsynapsesinculture. Atthebiochemical level,CC2D1Atransduces signals to the cyclic adenosine 3?,5?-monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway during neuronal cell differentiation. PKA activity is compromised, and the translocation of its catalytic subunit to the nucleus is also defective in CC2D1A mutant cells. Consistently, phosphorylation of the PKA target cAMP-responsive element-binding protein, at serine 133, is nearly abolished in CC2D1A mutant cells. The defects in cAMP/PKA signaling were observed in fibroblast, macrophage, and neuronal primary cells derived from the CC2D1A KO mice. CC2D1A associates with the cAMP-PKA complex following forskolin treatment and accumulates in vesicles or on the plasma membrane in wild-type cells, suggesting that CC2D1A may recruit the PKA complex to the membrane to facilitate signal transduction. Together, our data show that CC2D1A is an important regulator of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway, which may be the underlying cause for impaired mental function in nonsyndromic mental retardation patients with CC2D1A mutation. 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Reconstruction of the yeast protein-protein interaction network involved in nutrient sensing and global metabolic regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Jens

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several protein-protein interaction studies have been performed for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using different high-throughput experimental techniques. All these results are collected in the BioGRID database and the SGD database provide detailed annotation of the different proteins. Despite the value of BioGRID for studying protein-protein interactions, there is a need for manual curation of these interactions in order to remove false positives. Results Here we describe an annotated reconstruction of the protein-protein interactions around four key nutrient-sensing and metabolic regulatory signal transduction pathways (STP operating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reconstructed STP network includes a full protein-protein interaction network including the key nodes Snf1, Tor1, Hog1 and Pka1. The network includes a total of 623 structural open reading frames (ORFs and 779 protein-protein interactions. A number of proteins were identified having interactions with more than one of the protein kinases. The fully reconstructed interaction network includes all the information available in separate databases for all the proteins included in the network (nodes and for all the interactions between them (edges. The annotated information is readily available utilizing the functionalities of network modelling tools such as Cytoscape and CellDesigner. Conclusions The reported fully annotated interaction model serves as a platform for integrated systems biology studies of nutrient sensing and regulation in S. cerevisiae. Furthermore, we propose this annotated reconstruction as a first step towards generation of an extensive annotated protein-protein interaction network of signal transduction and metabolic regulation in this yeast.

  19. Gene regulation in response to protein disulphide isomerase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Per; Tachibana, Christine; Bruun, Anette W;

    2003-01-01

    We have examined the activities of promoters of a number of yeast genes encoding resident endoplasmic reticulum proteins, and found increased expression in a strain with severe protein disulphide isomerase deficiency. Serial deletion in the promoter of the MPD1 gene, which encodes a PDI1-homologu...... element. The sequence (GACACG) does not resemble the unfolded protein response element. It is present in the upstream regions of the MPD1, MPD2, KAR2, PDI1 and ERO1 genes....

  20. REGULATION OF THE UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE BY MICRORNAS

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoszewska, Sylwia; Kochan, Kinga; Madanecki, Piotr; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Ochocka, Renata; Collawn, James F.; Bartoszewski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive response to stress that is caused by an accumulation of misfolded proteins in the lumen of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is therefore an important component of cellular homeostasis. During ER stress, the UPR increases the protein folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum to relieve the stress, and failure to recover leads to apoptosis. Specific cellular mechanisms, therefore, are required for the cellular recovery phase after UPR activat...

  1. Protein Kinase C-δ mediates down-regulation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein: involvement in apoptosis induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reported previously that NSC606985, a camptothecin analogue, induces apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells through proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta (ΔPKC-δ). By subcellular proteome analysis, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) was identified as being significantly down-regulated in NSC606985-treated leukemic NB4 cells. HnRNP K, a docking protein for DNA, RNA, and transcriptional or translational molecules, is implicated in a host of processes involving the regulation of gene expression. However, the molecular mechanisms of hnRNP K reduction and its roles during apoptosis are still not understood. In the present study, we found that, following the appearance of the ΔPKC-δ, hnRNP K protein was significantly down-regulated in NSC606985, doxorubicin, arsenic trioxide and ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. We further provided evidence that ΔPKC-δ mediated the down-regulation of hnRNP K protein during apoptosis: PKC-δ inhibitor could rescue the reduction of hnRNP K; hnRNP K failed to be decreased in PKC-δ-deficient apoptotic KG1a cells; conditional induction of ΔPKC-δ in U937T cells directly down-regulated hnRNP K protein. Moreover, the proteasome inhibitor also inhibited the down-regulation of hnRNP K protein by apoptosis inducer and the conditional expression of ΔPKC-δ. More intriguingly, the suppression of hnRNP K with siRNA transfection significantly induced apoptosis. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that proteolytically activated PKC-δ down-regulates hnRNP K protein in a proteasome-dependent manner, which plays an important role in apoptosis induction.

  2. Auxin-regulated changes in protein phosphorylation in pea epicotyl segments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.S.N.; Chengappa, S.; Raghothama, K.G.; Poovaiah, B.W.

    1987-04-01

    Auxin-regulated changes in protein phosphorylation were studied by labeling pea epicotyl segments with (/sup 32/P) PO/sub 4//sup 3 -/ and analyzing the phosphoproteins by two dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis. Analysis of phosphoproteins revealed auxin-regulated changes in the phosphorylation of specific polypeptides. In the presence of auxin, phosphorylation of 23,000, 82,000, 105,000 and 110,000 molecular weight polypeptides was markedly decreased whereas phosphorylation of 19,000, 24,000, 28,000 molecular weight polypeptides was increased. Some of these changes are very rapid and could be observed within minutes. Furthermore, their studies with calmodulin antagonists indicate the possible involvement of calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and/or phosphatases in auxin-regulated changes in protein phosphorylation. In view of these results, they suggest that auxin-regulated protein phosphorylation could be the one of the earliest events in regulating diverse physiological processes by this hormone.

  3. Expression and Location of Glucose-regulated Protein 78 in Testis and Epididymis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To know the role of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78/BiP/HSPA5 in spermatogenesis and its expression and location in the testis and epididymis. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect GRP78 location and expression in the testis and epididymis. Results: Glucose-regulated protein 78 was observed in spermatocytes, round spermatids and interstitial cells of the testis and in principal cells of the epididymis. Glucose-regulated protein 78 was first detected in the rat testis at postnatal day 14. Thereafter, the protein level increased gradually with age and was maintained at a high and stable state after postnatal day 28. In the rat, GRP78 was expressed in the principal cells but not in clear cells of the epididymis. Conclusion: Glucose-regulated protein 78 participates in the process of spermatogenesis.

  4. Focal adhesion kinase regulates expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Baotran; Huang, Grace; Golubovskaya, Vita M

    2014-01-01

    Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) plays an important role in cancer cell survival. Previous microarray gene profiling study detected inverse regulation between expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and FAK, where down-regulation of FAK by siRNA in MCF-7 cells caused up-regulation of TXNIP mRNA level, and in contrast up-regulation of doxycyclin- induced FAK caused repression of TXNIP. In the present report, we show that overexpression of FAK in MCF-7 cells repressed TXNIP promoter activity. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) down-regulated endogenous FAK and up-regulated TXNIP protein level, and treatment with 5-FU decreased FAK protein expression and up-regulated TXNIP protein expression in 293 cells. Moreover, silencing of FAK with siRNA increased TXNIP protein expression, while overexpression of FAK inhibited TXNIP protein expression in 293 cells. In addition, treatment of DBTRG glioblastoma cells with FAK inhibitor Y15 increased TXNIP mRNA, decreased cancer cell viability and increased apoptosis. These results for the first time demonstrate FAK-regulated TXNIP expression which is important for apoptotic, survival and oxidative stress signaling pathways in cancer cells. PMID:23387972

  5. NEW EMBO MEMBER’S REVIEW: Viral and bacterial proteins regulating apoptosis at the mitochondrial level

    OpenAIRE

    Boya, Patricia; Roques, Bernard,; Kroemer, Guido

    2001-01-01

    Mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) is a critical step of several apoptotic pathways. Some infectious intracellular pathogens can regulate (induce or inhibit) apoptosis of their host cells at the mitochondrial level, by targeting proteins to mitochondrial membranes that either induce or inhibit MMP. Pathogen-encoded mitochondrion-targeted proteins may or may not show amino acid sequence homology to Bcl-2-like proteins. Among the Bcl-2-unrelated, mitochondrion-targeted proteins, seve...

  6. Proteins are secreted by both constitutive and regulated secretory pathways in lactating mouse mammary epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Lactating mammary epithelial cells secrete high levels of caseins and other milk proteins. The extent to which protein secretion from these cells occurs in a regulated fashion was examined in experiments on secretory acini isolated from the mammary glands of lactating mice at 10 d postpartum. Protein synthesis and secretion were assayed by following the incorporation or release, respectively, of [35S]methionine-labeled TCA-precipitable protein. The isolated cells incorporated [35S]methionine ...

  7. Low-Overhead Non-Blocking Checkpointing Scheme for Mobile Computing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEN Chaoguang; CAO Liujuan; WANG Liwen; XU Zhenpeng

    2007-01-01

    When applied to mobile computing systems, checkpoint protocols for distributed computing systems would face many new challenges, such as low wireless bandwidth, frequent disconnections, and lack of stable storage at mobile hosts. This paper proposes a novel checkpoint protocol to effectively reduce the coordinating overhead. By using a communication vector, only a few processes participate in the checkpointing event. During checkpointing, the scheme can save the time used to trace the dependency tree by sending checkpoint requests to dependent processes at once. In addition, processes are non-blocking in this scheme, since the inconsistency is resolved by the piggyback technique. Hence the unnecessary and orphan messages can be avoided. Compared with the traditional coordinated checkpoint approach, the proposed non-blocking algorithm obtains a minimal number of processes to take checkpoints. It also reduces the checkpoint latency, which brings less overhead to mobile host with limited resources.

  8. Proteomic Study Identifies Proteins Involved in Brassinosteroid Regulation of Rice Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengru Wang; Ming-Yi Bai; Zhiping Deng; Juan A. Oses-Prieto; Alma L. Burlingame; Tiegang Lu; Kang Chong; Zhi-Yong Wang

    2010-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential hormones for growth and development of plant. In rice, BRs regulate multiple developmental processes and affect many important traits such as height, leaf angle, fertility and seed filling. We identified brassinosteroid-regulated proteins in rice using proteomic approaches and performed functional analysis of some BR-regulated proteins by overexpression experiments. Using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) followed by protein identification by mass spectrometry, we compared proteomic differences in the shoots and roots of the BR-insensitive mutant d61-4 and BR-deficient mutant brd1-3. We identified a large number of proteins differentially expressed in the mutants compared with wild type control. These include a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein (OsGRP1)and a DREPP2 protein, which showed reduced levels in the BR mutants. Overexpression of these two proteins partially suppressed the dwarf phenotype of the Arabidopsis BR-insensitive mutant bri1-5. In contrast to the reduced protein level, the RNA level of OsGRP1 was not significantly affected in the BR mutants or by BR treatment, suggesting BR regulation of OsGRP1 at the posttranslational level. This study identifies many BR-regulated proteins and demonstrates that OsGRP1 functions downstream in the BR signal transduction pathway to promote cell expansion.

  9. Phosphorylation-induced mechanical regulation of intrinsically disordered neurofilament protein assemblies

    CERN Document Server

    Malka-Gibor, Eti; Laser-Azogui, Adi; Doron, Ofer; Zingerman-Koladko, Irena; Medalia, Ohad; Beck, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The biological function of protein assemblies was conventionally equated with a unique three-dimensional protein structure and protein-specific interactions. However, in the past 20 years it was found that some assemblies contain long flexible regions that adopt multiple structural conformations. These include neurofilament (NF) proteins that constitute the stress-responsive supportive network of neurons. Herein, we show that NF networks macroscopic properties are tuned by enzymatic regulation of the charge found on the flexible protein regions. The results reveal an enzymatic (phosphorylation) regulation of macroscopic properties such as orientation, stress-response and expansion in flexible protein assemblies. Together with a model explaining the attractive electrostatic interactions induced by enzymatically added charges, we demonstrate that phosphorylation-regulation is far richer and versatile than previously considered.

  10. Integrated cellular network of transcription regulations and protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Bor-Sen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the accumulation of increasing omics data, a key goal of systems biology is to construct networks at different cellular levels to investigate cellular machinery of the cell. However, there is currently no satisfactory method to construct an integrated cellular network that combines the gene regulatory network and the signaling regulatory pathway. Results In this study, we integrated different kinds of omics data and developed a systematic method to construct the integrated cellular network based on coupling dynamic models and statistical assessments. The proposed method was applied to S. cerevisiae stress responses, elucidating the stress response mechanism of the yeast. From the resulting integrated cellular network under hyperosmotic stress, the highly connected hubs which are functionally relevant to the stress response were identified. Beyond hyperosmotic stress, the integrated network under heat shock and oxidative stress were also constructed and the crosstalks of these networks were analyzed, specifying the significance of some transcription factors to serve as the decision-making devices at the center of the bow-tie structure and the crucial role for rapid adaptation scheme to respond to stress. In addition, the predictive power of the proposed method was also demonstrated. Conclusions We successfully construct the integrated cellular network which is validated by literature evidences. The integration of transcription regulations and protein-protein interactions gives more insight into the actual biological network and is more predictive than those without integration. The method is shown to be powerful and flexible and can be used under different conditions and for different species. The coupling dynamic models of the whole integrated cellular network are very useful for theoretical analyses and for further experiments in the fields of network biology and synthetic biology.

  11. Heat Shock Proteins in Tendinopathy: Novel Molecular Regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Neal L. Millar; George A. C. Murrell

    2012-01-01

    Tendon disorders—tendinopathies—are the primary reason for musculoskeletal consultation in primary care and account for up to 30% of rheumatological consultations. Whilst the molecular pathophysiology of tendinopathy remains difficult to interpret the disease process involving repetitive stress, and cellular load provides important mechanistic insight into the area of heat shock proteins which spans many disease processes in the autoimmune community. Heat shock proteins, also called damage-as...

  12. Abundant protein phosphorylation potentially regulates Arabidopsis anther development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Juanying; Zhang, Zaibao; You, Chenjiang; Zhang, Xumin; Lu, Jianan; Ma, Hong

    2016-09-01

    As the male reproductive organ of flowering plants, the stamen consists of the anther and filament. Previous studies on stamen development mainly focused on single gene functions by genetic methods or gene expression changes using comparative transcriptomic approaches, especially in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana However, studies on Arabidopsis anther protein expression and post-translational modifications are still lacking. Here we report proteomic and phosphoproteomic studies on developing Arabidopsis anthers at stages 4-7 and 8-12. We identified 3908 high-confidence phosphorylation sites corresponding to 1637 phosphoproteins. Among the 1637 phosphoproteins, 493 were newly identified, with 952 phosphorylation sites. Phosphopeptide enrichment prior to LC-MS analysis facilitated the identification of low-abundance proteins and regulatory proteins, thereby increasing the coverage of proteomic analysis, and facilitated the analysis of more regulatory proteins. Thirty-nine serine and six threonine phosphorylation motifs were uncovered from the anther phosphoproteome and further analysis supports that phosphorylation of casein kinase II, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and 14-3-3 proteins is a key regulatory mechanism in anther development. Phosphorylated residues were preferentially located in variable protein regions among family members, but they were they were conserved across angiosperms in general. Moreover, phosphorylation might reduce activity of reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes and hamper brassinosteroid signaling in early anther development. Most of the novel phosphoproteins showed tissue-specific expression in the anther according to previous microarray data. This study provides a community resource with information on the abundance and phosphorylation status of thousands of proteins in developing anthers, contributing to understanding post-translational regulatory mechanisms during anther development. PMID:27531888

  13. Bone morphogenetic protein-2: a potential regulator in scleral remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jianmin; Cui, Dongmei; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Shaowei; Hu, Shoulong; Li, Chuanxu; Zeng, Junwen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is a member of the main subgroup of bone morphogenetic proteins within the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. BMP-2 is involved in numerous cellular functions including development, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix synthesis. We examined BMP-2 expression in human scleral fibroblasts (HSF) and assessed the effects of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) on HSF proliferation, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and tissue i...

  14. Regulation of the G1 phase of the mammalian cell cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In any multi-cellular organism, the balance between cell division and cell death maintains a constant cell num ber. Both cell division cycle and cell death are highly regulated events. Whether the cell will proceed through the cycle or not, depends upon whether the conditions re quired at the checkpoints during the cycle are filfilled. In higher eucaryotic cells, such as mammalian cells, signals that arrest the cycle usually act at a G1 checkpoint. Cells that pass this restriction point are committed to complete the cycle. Regulation of the G1 phase of the cell cycle is extremely complex and involves many different families of proteins such as retinoblastoma family, cyclin dependent kinases, cyclins, and cyclin kinase inhibitors.

  15. TDP-43 regulates endogenous retrovirus-K viral protein accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manghera, Mamneet; Ferguson-Parry, Jennifer; Douville, Renée N

    2016-10-01

    The concomitant expression of neuronal TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) and human endogenous retrovirus-K (ERVK) is a hallmark of ALS. Since the involvement of TDP-43 in retrovirus replication remains controversial, we sought to evaluate whether TDP-43 exerts an effect on ERVK expression. In this study, TDP-43 bound the ERVK promoter in the context of inflammation or proteasome inhibition, with no effect on ERVK transcription. However, over-expression of ALS-associated aggregating forms of TDP-43, but not wild-type TDP-43, significantly enhanced ERVK viral protein accumulation. Human astrocytes and neurons further demonstrated cell-type specific differences in their ability to express and clear ERVK proteins during inflammation and proteasome inhibition. Astrocytes, but not neurons, were able to clear excess ERVK proteins through stress granule formation and autophagy. In vitro findings were validated in autopsy motor cortex tissue from patients with ALS and neuro-normal controls. We further confirmed marked enhancement of ERVK in cortical neurons of patients with ALS. Despite evidence of enhanced stress granule and autophagic response in ALS cortical neurons, these cells failed to clear excess ERVK protein accumulation. This highlights how multiple cellular pathways, in conjunction with disease-associated mutations, can converge to modulate the expression and clearance of viral gene products from genomic elements such as ERVK. In ALS, ERVK protein aggregation is a novel aspect of TDP-43 misregulation contributing towards the pathology of this neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27370226

  16. Viral infections and cell cycle G2/M regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Y.ZHAO; Robert T.ELDER

    2005-01-01

    Progression of cells from G2 phase of the cell cycle to mitosis is a tightly regulated cellular process that requires activation of the Cdc2 kinase, which determines onset of mitosis in all eukaryotic cells. In both human and fission yeast(Schizosaccharomyces pombe) cells, the activity of Cdc2 is regulated in part by the phosphorylation status of tyrosine 15(Tyr15) on Cdc2, which is phosphorylated by Wee1 kinase during late G2 and is rapidly dephosphorylated by the Cdc25 tyrosine phosphatase to trigger entry into mitosis. These Cdc2 regulators are the downstream targets of two well-characterized G2/M checkpoint pathways which prevent cells from entering mitosis when cellular DNA is damaged or when DNA replication is inhibited. Increasing evidence suggests that Cdc2 is also commonly targeted by viral proteins,which modulate host cell cycle machinery to benefit viral survival or replication. In this review, we describe the effect of viral protein R (Vpr) encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on cell cycle G2/M regulation. Based on our current knowledge about this viral effect, we hypothesize that Vpr induces cell cycle G2 arrest through a mechanism that is to some extent different from the classic G2/M checkpoints. One the unique features distinguishing Vpr-induced G2 arrest from the classic checkpoints is the role of phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in Vpr-induced G2 arrest.Interestingly, PP2A is targeted by a number of other viral proteins including SV40 small T antigen, polyomavirus T antigen, HTLV Tax and adenovirus E4orf4. Thus an in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying Vpr-induced G2 arrest will provide additional insights into the basic biology of cell cycle G2/M regulation and into the biological significance of this effect during host-pathogen interactions.

  17. Relationship between spindle checkpoint and embryo aneuploidy%纺锤体检测点与胚胎非整倍体的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琨; 任育宏; 张学红; 薛石龙

    2013-01-01

    纺锤体检测点对有丝分裂和减数分裂中期与后期转换过程中纺锤体的形成起着非常重要的作用,其组成成分最初是在发芽的酵母中通过基因检测证实,此后发展到人,大量细胞中均发现某些检测蛋白.研究表明,纺锤体检测系统参与雌性哺乳动物减数分裂的调控,防止胚胎非整倍体的发生.本文阐述在有丝分裂和减数分裂中关于纺锤体检测点的研究进展,了解检测信号传导通路及其在减数分裂中防止染色体异常的作用,进一步探讨胚胎非整倍体发生的原因.%Spindle checkpoint plays a very important role on the mitotic and meiotic metaphase and anaphase transition process in which spindle is developed.Its composition is confirmed initially in budding yeast by genetic testing,and then some detecting proteins were found in human cells.It is found that spindle detection system is involved in the regulation of mammalian female meiosis and prevents the occurrence of embryo aneuploidy.Therefore,this paper elaborated the research progress of spindle checkpoint development in mitosis and meiosis,learning more about the detection signal transduction pathway and its role in prevention of abnormal chromosome in meiosis,to further explore the causes of embryo aneuploidy.

  18. Transcriptional regulation of oncogenic protein kinase Cϵ (PKCϵ) by STAT1 and Sp1 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, HongBin; Gutierrez-Uzquiza, Alvaro; Garg, Rachana; Barrio-Real, Laura; Abera, Mahlet B; Lopez-Haber, Cynthia; Rosemblit, Cinthia; Lu, Huaisheng; Abba, Martin; Kazanietz, Marcelo G

    2014-07-11

    Overexpression of PKCϵ, a kinase associated with tumor aggressiveness and widely implicated in malignant transformation and metastasis, is a hallmark of multiple cancers, including mammary, prostate, and lung cancer. To characterize the mechanisms that control PKCϵ expression and its up-regulation in cancer, we cloned an ∼ 1.6-kb promoter segment of the human PKCϵ gene (PRKCE) that displays elevated transcriptional activity in cancer cells. A comprehensive deletional analysis established two regions rich in Sp1 and STAT1 sites located between -777 and -105 bp (region A) and -921 and -796 bp (region B), respectively, as responsible for the high transcriptional activity observed in cancer cells. A more detailed mutagenesis analysis followed by EMSA and ChIP identified Sp1 sites in positions -668/-659 and -269/-247 as well as STAT1 sites in positions -880/-869 and -793/-782 as the elements responsible for elevated promoter activity in breast cancer cells relative to normal mammary epithelial cells. RNAi silencing of Sp1 and STAT1 in breast cancer cells reduced PKCϵ mRNA and protein expression, as well as PRKCE promoter activity. Moreover, a strong correlation was found between PKCϵ and phospho-Ser-727 (active) STAT1 levels in breast cancer cells. Our results may have significant implications for the development of approaches to target PKCϵ and its effectors in cancer therapeutics.

  19. Tumor-suppressor genes, cell cycle regulatory checkpoints, and the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cell cycle (or cell-division cycle is a series of events that take place in a cell, leading to its division and duplication. Cell division requires cell cycle checkpoints (CPs that are used by the cell to both monitor and regulate the progress of the cell cycle. Tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs or antioncogenes are genes that protect the cell from a single event or multiple events leading to cancer. When these genes mutate, the cell can progress to a cancerous state. We aimed to perform a narrative review, based on evaluation of the manuscripts published in MEDLINE-indexed journals using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms "tumor suppressor′s genes," "skin," and "cell cycle regulatory checkpoints." We aimed to review the current concepts regarding TSGs, CPs, and their association with selected cutaneous diseases. It is important to take into account that in some cell cycle disorders, multiple genetic abnormalities may occur simultaneously. These abnormalities may include intrachromosomal insertions, unbalanced division products, recombinations, reciprocal deletions, and/or duplication of the inserted segments or genes; thus, these presentations usually involve several genes. Due to their complexity, these disorders require specialized expertise for proper diagnosis, counseling, personal and family support, and genetic studies. Alterations in the TSGs or CP regulators may occur in many benign skin proliferative disorders, neoplastic processes, and genodermatoses.

  20. Coincident light and clock regulation of pseudoresponse regulator protein 37 (PRR37) controls photoperiodic flowering in sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variation in flowering time was essential during widespread crop domestication and optimal timing of reproduction remains critical to modern agriculture. Ma1, the major repressor of flowering in sorghum in long days, was identified as the pseudo-response regulator protein PRR37. Three prr37 allele...

  1. Probing the Mec1ATR Checkpoint Activation Mechanism with Small Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanrooij, Paulina H; Tannous, Elias; Kumar, Sandeep; Navadgi-Patil, Vasundhara M; Burgers, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Yeast Mec1, the ortholog of human ATR, is the apical protein kinase that initiates the cell cycle checkpoint in response to DNA damage and replication stress. The basal activity of Mec1 kinase is activated by cell cycle phase-specific activators. Three distinct activators stimulate Mec1 kinase using an intrinsically disordered domain of the protein. These are the Ddc1 subunit of the 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp (ortholog of human and Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rad9), the replication initiator Dpb11 (ortholog of human TopBP1 and S. pombe Cut5), and the multifunctional nuclease/helicase Dna2. Here, we use small peptides to determine the requirements for Mec1 activation. For Ddc1, we identify two essential aromatic amino acids in a hydrophobic environment that when fused together are proficient activators. Using this increased insight, we have been able to identify homologous motifs in S. pombe Rad9 that can activate Mec1. Furthermore, we show that a 9-amino acid Dna2-based peptide is sufficient for Mec1 activation. Studies with mutant activators suggest that binding of an activator to Mec1 is a two-step process, the first step involving the obligatory binding of essential aromatic amino acids to Mec1, followed by an enhancement in binding energy through interactions with neighboring sequences.

  2. Functional Characterization of the Canine Heme-Regulated eIF2α Kinase: Regulation of Protein Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimon C. Kanelakis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI negatively regulates protein synthesis by phosphorylating eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF2α thereby inhibiting protein translation. The importance of HRI in regulating hemoglobin synthesis in erythroid cells makes it an attractive molecular target in need of further characterization. In this work, we have cloned and expressed the canine form of the HRI kinase. The canine nucleotide sequence has 86%, 82%, and 81% identity to the human, mouse, and rat HRI, respectively. It was noted that an isoleucine residue in the ATP binding site of human, rat, and mouse HRI is replaced by a valine in the canine kinase. The expression of canine HRI protein by in vitro translation using wheat germ lysate or in Sf9 cells using a baculovirus expression system was increased by the addition of hemin. Following purification, the canine protein was found to be 72 kD and showed kinase activity determined by its ability to phosphorylate a synthetic peptide substrate. Quercetin, a kinase inhibitor known to inhibit mouse and human HRI, inhibits canine HRI in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, quercetin is able to increase de novo protein synthesis in canine reticulocytes. We conclude that the canine is a suitable model species for studying the role of HRI in erythropoiesis.

  3. Engineering FKBP-Based Destabilizing Domains to Build Sophisticated Protein Regulation Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlin An

    Full Text Available Targeting protein stability with small molecules has emerged as an effective tool to control protein abundance in a fast, scalable and reversible manner. The technique involves tagging a protein of interest (POI with a destabilizing domain (DD specifically controlled by a small molecule. The successful construction of such fusion proteins may, however, be limited by functional interference of the DD epitope with electrostatic interactions required for full biological function of proteins. Another drawback of this approach is the remaining endogenous protein. Here, we combined the Cre-LoxP system with an advanced DD and generated a protein regulation system in which the loss of an endogenous protein, in our case the tumor suppressor PTEN, can be coupled directly with a conditionally fine-tunable DD-PTEN. This new system will consolidate and extend the use of DD-technology to control protein function precisely in living cells and animal models.

  4. Microarray and Proteomic Analysis of Brassinosteroid- and Gibberellin-Regulated Gene and Protein Expression in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangxiao Yang; Setsuko Komatsu

    2004-01-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) are two groups of plant growth regulators essential for normal plant growth and development. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism by which BR and GA regulate the growth and development of plants, especially the monocot plant rice, it is necessary to identify and analyze more genes and proteins that are regulated by them. With the availability of draft sequences of two major types, japonica and indica rice, it has become possible to analyze expression changes of genes and proteins at genome scale. In this review, we summarize rice functional genomic research by using microarray and proteomic approaches and our recent research results focusing on the comparison of cDNA microarray and proteomic analyses of BR- and GA-regulated gene and protein expression in rice. We believe our findings have important implications for understanding the mechanism by which BR and GA regulate the growth and development of rice.

  5. Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Zøllner; Ängquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Physiological evidence indicates that high-protein diets reduce caloric intake and increase thermogenic response, which may prevent weight gain and regain after weight loss. Clinical trials have shown such effects, whereas observational cohort studies suggest an association...... between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals......, and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein) of the matched trial participants. RESULTS: Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger...

  6. Characterization of Adapter Protein NRBP as a Negative Regulator of T Cell Activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; LIN Zhi-xin; WU Jun

    2008-01-01

    Adapter proteins can regulate the gene transcriptions in disparate signaling pathway by interacting with multiple signaling molecules, including T cell activation signaling. Nuclear receptor binding protein (NRBP), a novel adapter protein, represents a small family of evolutionarily conserved proteins with homologs in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), Drosophila melanogaster (D.melanogaster), mouse and human. Here, we demonstrated that overexpression of NRBP in Jurkat TAg cells specifically impairs T cell receptor (TCR) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/ionomycin-mediated signaling leading to nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) promoter activation. Furthermore, the N-terminal of NRBP is necessary for its regulation of NFAT activation. Finally, we showed that NRBP has minimal effect on both TCR- and PMA-induced CD69 up-regulation in Jurkat TAg cells, which suggests that NRBP may function downstream of protein kinase C (PKC)/Ras pathway.

  7. Calcium binding protein-mediated regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels linked to human diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasrin NFJATBAKHSH; Zhong-ping FENG

    2011-01-01

    Calcium ion entry through voltage-gated calcium channels is essential for cellular signalling in a wide variety of cells and multiple physiological processes. Perturbations of voltage-gated calcium channel function can lead to pathophysiological consequences. Calcium binding proteins serve as calcium sensors and regulate the calcium channel properties via feedback mechanisms. This review highlights the current evidences of calcium binding protein-mediated channel regulation in human diseases.

  8. Diacylglycerol kinase theta and zeta isoforms: regulation of activity, protein binding partners and physiological functions

    OpenAIRE

    Los, Alrik Pieter

    2007-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) phosphorylate the second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) yielding phosphatidic acid (PA). In this thesis, we investigated which structural domains of DGKtheta are required for DGK activity. Furthermore, we showed that DGKzeta binds to and is activated by the Retinoblastoma tumour suppressor protein (pRB) and the pRB-related proteins p107 and p130, key regulators of the cell-cycle, differentiation and apoptosis. The interaction between pRB and DGKzeta is regulated ...

  9. Attachment issues : kinetochore transformations and spindle checkpoint silencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etemad, Banafsheh; Kops, Geert Jpl

    2016-01-01

    Cell division culminates in the segregation of duplicated chromosomes in opposite directions prior to cellular fission. This process is guarded by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), which prevents the anaphase of cell division until stable connections between spindle microtubules and the kinetoc

  10. Immune-Checkpoint Blockade and Active Immunotherapy for Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Ahn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer immunotherapy has made tremendous progress, including promising results in patients with malignant gliomas. Nonetheless, the immunological microenvironment of the brain and tumors arising therein is still believed to be suboptimal for sufficient antitumor immune responses for a variety of reasons, including the operation of “immune-checkpoint” mechanisms. While these mechanisms prevent autoimmunity in physiological conditions, malignant tumors, including brain tumors, actively employ these mechanisms to evade from immunological attacks. Development of agents designed to unblock these checkpoint steps is currently one of the most active areas of cancer research. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in the field of brain tumor immunology with particular foci in the area of immune-checkpoint mechanisms and development of active immunotherapy strategies. In the last decade, a number of specific monoclonal antibodies designed to block immune-checkpoint mechanisms have been developed and show efficacy in other cancers, such as melanoma. On the other hand, active immunotherapy approaches, such as vaccines, have shown encouraging outcomes. We believe that development of effective immunotherapy approaches should ultimately integrate those checkpoint-blockade agents to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic approaches. With these agents available, it is going to be quite an exciting time in the field. The eventual success of immunotherapies for brain tumors will be dependent upon not only an in-depth understanding of immunology behind the brain and brain tumors, but also collaboration and teamwork for the development of novel trials that address multiple layers of immunological challenges in gliomas.

  11. Checkpoint adaptation and recovery: back with Polo after the break

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, M.A.T.M. van; Medema, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    S. cerevisiae cells that are unable to repair a double strand break ultimately escape the DNA damage checkpoint arrest and enter mitosis. This process called 'adaptation' depends on functional Cdc5, a Polo-like kinase, and was long thought to be limited to single-cell organisms. However, the recent

  12. Sustaining the spindle assembly checkpoint to improve cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Roberta; Della Monica, Rosa; Grieco, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    To prevent chromosome segregation errors, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) delays mitosis exit until proper spindle assembly. We found that the FCP1 phosphatase and its downstream target WEE1 kinase oppose the SAC, promoting mitosis exit despite malformed spindles. We further showed that targeting this pathway might be useful for cancer therapy. PMID:27308561

  13. Immune-Checkpoint Blockade and Active Immunotherapy for Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Brian J. [Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Brain Tumor Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Pollack, Ian F. [Brain Tumor Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Okada, Hideho, E-mail: okadah@upmc.edu [Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Brain Tumor Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has made tremendous progress, including promising results in patients with malignant gliomas. Nonetheless, the immunological microenvironment of the brain and tumors arising therein is still believed to be suboptimal for sufficient antitumor immune responses for a variety of reasons, including the operation of “immune-checkpoint” mechanisms. While these mechanisms prevent autoimmunity in physiological conditions, malignant tumors, including brain tumors, actively employ these mechanisms to evade from immunological attacks. Development of agents designed to unblock these checkpoint steps is currently one of the most active areas of cancer research. In this review, we summarize recent progresses in the field of brain tumor immunology with particular foci in the area of immune-checkpoint mechanisms and development of active immunotherapy strategies. In the last decade, a number of specific monoclonal antibodies designed to block immune-checkpoint mechanisms have been developed and show efficacy in other cancers, such as melanoma. On the other hand, active immunotherapy approaches, such as vaccines, have shown encouraging outcomes. We believe that development of effective immunotherapy approaches should ultimately integrate those checkpoint-blockade agents to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic approaches. With these agents available, it is going to be quite an exciting time in the field. The eventual success of immunotherapies for brain tumors will be dependent upon not only an in-depth understanding of immunology behind the brain and brain tumors, but also collaboration and teamwork for the development of novel trials that address multiple layers of immunological challenges in gliomas.

  14. Checkpoint adaptation and recovery : back with Polo after the break

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Marcel A T M; Medema, René H

    2004-01-01

    S. cerevisiae cells that are unable to repair a double strand break ultimately escape the DNA damage checkpoint arrest and enter mitosis. This process called 'adaptation' depends on functional Cdc5, a Polo-like kinase, and was long thought to be limited to single-cell organisms. However, the recent

  15. Proteins regulating cyclin dependent kinases Cdk4 and Cdk5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorthamer, M.J.M.W.

    1999-01-01

    The exact passage through the eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by the progressive activation and inactivation of a family Cdk-s. Cancer cells evolve from normal cells when some essential processes in a dividing cell malfunction. This causes inappropriate replication, segregation and repair of the

  16. Myocardin-related Transcription Factor Regulates Nox4 Protein Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozycki, Matthew; Bialik, Janne Folke; Speight, Pam;

    2016-01-01

    TGFβ-induced expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is essential for fibroblast-myofibroblast transition. Rho has been implicated in Nox4 regulation, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), a Rho/actin polymerization-controlled coactivator...

  17. Checkpointing for graceful degradation in distributed embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sababha, Belal Hussein

    Graceful degradation is an approach to developing dependable safety-critical embedded applications, where redundant active or standby resources are used to cope with faults through a system reconfiguration at run-time. Compared to traditional hardware and software redundancy, it is a promising technique that may achieve dependability with a significant reduction in cost, size, weight, and power requirements. Reconfiguration at run-time necessitates using proper checkpointing protocols to support state reservation to ensure correct task restarts after a system reconfiguration. One of the most common checkpointing protocols are communication induced checkpointing (CIC) protocols, which are well developed and understood for large parallel and information systems, but not much has been done for resource limited embedded systems. This work implements and evaluates some of the most common CIC protocols in a periodic resource constrained distributed embedded system for graceful degradation purposes. A test-bed has been developed and used for the evaluation of the various protocols. The implemented protocols are thoroughly studied and performances are contrasted. Specifically the periodicity property and how it benefits checkpointing in embedded systems is investigated. This work introduces a unique effort of CIC protocol implementation and evaluation in the field of distributed embedded systems. Other than providing a test-bed for graceful degradation support, this work shows that some checkpointing protocols that are not efficient in large information systems and supercomputers perform well in embedded systems. We show that a simple index-based CIC protocol, such as the BCS protocol, is more appropriate in embedded system applications compared to other protocols that piggyback a significant amount of information to reduce the number of forced checkpoints. Finally, this work proposes a whole graceful degradation approach to achieve fault tolerance in resource constrained

  18. Tetraspan proteins: regulators of renal structure and function.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caplan, M.J.; Kamsteeg, E.J.; Duffield, A.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Members of the tetraspan family are widely expressed and poorly understood. An emerging literature suggests that through their interactions with other membrane proteins they play central or regulatory roles in a wide variety of physiological processes. This review will discuss sel

  19. METHOXYCHLOR REGULATES RAT UTERINE ESTROGEN-INDUCED PROTEIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methoxychlor (MXC), a pesticide, affects fertility and the uterus. o address the question of whether MXC acts like estradiol (E2) at the molecular level, we used immature rat uteri to compare the effects of MXC and E2 on the estrogen-induced protein (IP), also known as creatine k...

  20. Leading at the Front: How EB Proteins Regulate Microtubule Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Taviare

    2012-02-01

    Microtubules are the most rigid of the cytoskeletal filaments, they provide the cell's scaffolding, form the byways on which motor proteins transport intracellular cargo and reorganize to form the mitotic spindle when the cell needs to divide. These biopolymers are composed of alpha and beta tubulin monomers that create hollow cylindrical nanotubes with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 17 nm. At steady state concentrations, microtubules undergo a process known as dynamic instability. During dynamic instability the length of individual microtubules is changing as the filament alternates between periods of growth to shrinkage (catastrophe) and shrinkage to growth (rescue). This process can be enhanced or diminished with the addition of microtubule associated proteins (MAPs). MAPs are microtubule binding proteins that stabilize, destabilize, or nucleate microtubules. We will discuss the effects of the stabilizing end-binding proteins (EB1, EB2 and EB3), on microtubule dynamics observed in vitro. The EBs are a unique family of MAPs known to tip track and enhance microtubule growth by stabilizing the ends. This is a different mechanism than those employed by structural MAPs such as tau or MAP4.

  1. Inactivation, stabilization and redox regulation of iron-containing proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    SummaryMicroperoxidases: kinetics and stability.Microperoxidases are small enzymes prepared by proteolytic digestion of cytochromes c. The proteolytic removal of most of the protein environment allows these enzymes to use a wide variety of substrates in peroxidase-

  2. Role of adaptor proteins in motor regulation and membrane transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Schlager (Max)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Active transport along the cytoskeleton is a process essential for proper cellular function. Although much is known about the motor proteins that generate the necessary force and the cytoskeleton that provides the cellular infrastructure, many questions still remain. Fo

  3. A Mur regulator protein in the extremophilic bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Miraj Ul Hussain Shah

    Full Text Available Ferric uptake regulator (Fur is a transcriptional regulator that controls the expression of genes involved in the uptake of iron and manganese, as well as vital nutrients, and is essential for intracellular redox cycling. We identified a unique Fur homolog (DR0865 from Deinococcus radiodurans, which is known for its extreme resistance to radiation and oxidants. A dr0865 mutant (Mt-0865 showed a higher sensitivity to manganese stress, hydrogen peroxide, gamma irradiation and ultraviolet (UV irradiation than the wild-type R1 strain. Cellular manganese (Mn ion (Mn2+ analysis showed that Mn2+, copper (Cu2+, and ferric (Fe3+ ions accumulated significantly in the mutant, which suggests that the dr0865 gene is not only involved in the regulation of Mn2+ homeostasis, but also affects the uptake of other ions. In addition, transcriptome profiles under MnCl2 stress showed that the expression of many genes involved in Mn metabolism was significantly different in the wild-type R1 and DR0865 mutant (Mt-0865. Furthermore, we found that the dr0865 gene serves as a positive regulator of the manganese efflux pump gene mntE (dr1236, and as a negative regulator of Mn ABC transporter genes, such as dr2283, dr2284 and dr2523. Therefore, it plays an important role in maintaining the homoeostasis of intracellular Mn (II, and also other Mn2+, zinc (Zn2+ and Cu2+ ions. Based on its role in manganese homeostasis, DR0865 likely belongs to the Mur sub-family of Fur homolog.

  4. PREFACE: Physics approaches to protein interactions and gene regulation Physics approaches to protein interactions and gene regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinov, Ruth; Panchenko, Anna R.; Przytycka, Teresa

    2011-06-01

    Physics approaches focus on uncovering, modeling and quantitating the general principles governing the micro and macro universe. This has always been an important component of biological research, however recent advances in experimental techniques and the accumulation of unprecedented genome-scale experimental data produced by these novel technologies now allow for addressing fundamental questions on a large scale. These relate to molecular interactions, principles of bimolecular recognition, and mechanisms of signal propagation. The functioning of a cell requires a variety of intermolecular interactions including protein-protein, protein-DNA, protein-RNA, hormones, peptides, small molecules, lipids and more. Biomolecules work together to provide specific functions and perturbations in intermolecular communication channels often lead to cellular malfunction and disease. A full understanding of the interactome requires an in-depth grasp of the biophysical principles underlying individual interactions as well as their organization in cellular networks. Phenomena can be described at different levels of abstraction. Computational and systems biology strive to model cellular processes by integrating and analyzing complex data from multiple experimental sources using interdisciplinary tools. As a result, both the causal relationships between the variables and the general features of the system can be discovered, which even without knowing the details of the underlying mechanisms allow for putting forth hypotheses and predicting the behavior of the systems in response to perturbation. And here lies the strength of in silico models which provide control and predictive power. At the same time, the complexity of individual elements and molecules can be addressed by the fields of molecular biophysics, physical biology and structural biology, which focus on the underlying physico-chemical principles and may explain the molecular mechanisms of cellular function. In this issue

  5. Polycomb-group proteins in hematopoietic stem cell regulation and hematopoietic neoplasms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radulovic, V.; de Haan, G.; Klauke, K.

    2013-01-01

    The equilibrium between self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. In particular, Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins have been shown to be involved in this process by repressing genes involved in cell-cycle regulation and differentiation. PcGs are

  6. Fibulin-1C, C1 Esterase Inhibitor and Glucose Regulated Protein 75 Interact with the CREC Proteins, Calumenin and Reticulocalbin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, G. A. W.; Ludvigsen, M.; Jacobsen, C.;

    2015-01-01

    Affinity purification, immunoprecipitation, gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to identify fibulin-1C, C1 esterase inhibitor and glucose regulated protein 75, grp75, as binding partners of the CREC proteins, calumenin and reticulocalbin. Surface plasmon resonance was used to verify...... interacted with both proteins with an estimated dissociation constant at 1 mu M for reticulocalbin and 150 nM for calumenin. The interaction, at least for calumenin, was dependent upon the presence of Ca2+ with strong interaction at 3.5 mM while no detectable interaction could be found at 0.1 mM. Grp75 binds...

  7. Bone morphogenetic protein-2: a potential regulator in scleral remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianmin; Cui, Dongmei; Yang, Xiao; Wang, Shaowei; Hu, Shoulong; Li, Chuanxu

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is a member of the main subgroup of bone morphogenetic proteins within the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. BMP-2 is involved in numerous cellular functions including development, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix synthesis. We examined BMP-2 expression in human scleral fibroblasts (HSF) and assessed the effects of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) on HSF proliferation, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2). Methods We used confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM) to study BMP-2 distribution in HSF cells and frozen human scleral sections. The influence of rhBMP-2 on cell proliferation at different concentrations (0 ng/ml, 1 ng/ml, 10 ng/ml, and 100 ng/ml) was evaluated by the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of rhBMP-2 on the cell cycle were investigated with flow cytometric analysis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to examine MMP-2 and TIMP-2 mRNAs and secreted proteins in HSF that were incubated with rhBMP-2. Results BMP-2 protein expression from human sclera was confirmed by CFM. Cell proliferation was significantly increased with 100 ng/ml rhBMP-2 in a time-dependent manner (p<0.05). The HSF cell cycle moved to the S and S+G2M phases after rhBMP-2 stimulation at 100 ng/ml compared to normal cells (p<0.05). TIMP-2 mRNA levels were significantly increased in HSF incubated for 24 h with 100 ng/ml rhBMP-2 (p<0.01). A 48 h incubation with 10 ng/ml or 100 ng/ml rhBMP-2 resulted in significantly increased TIMP-2 mRNA and protein expression and significantly decreased MMP-2 mRNA expression (p<0.01) while MMP-2 protein expression significantly decreased at 100 ng/ml rhBMP-2 (p<0.01). Conclusions Human sclera fibroblasts expressed BMP-2, which promoted cell proliferation, and elicited changes in MMP-2 and TIMP-2

  8. Direct and indirect control of the initiation of meiotic recombination by DNA damage checkpoint mechanisms in budding yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Argunhan

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination plays an essential role in the proper segregation of chromosomes at meiosis I in many sexually reproducing organisms. Meiotic recombination is initiated by the scheduled formation of genome-wide DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. The timing of DSB formation is strictly controlled because unscheduled DSB formation is detrimental to genome integrity. Here, we investigated the role of DNA damage checkpoint mechanisms in the control of meiotic DSB formation using budding yeast. By using recombination defective mutants in which meiotic DSBs are not repaired, the effect of DNA damage checkpoint mutations on DSB formation was evaluated. The Tel1 (ATM pathway mainly responds to unresected DSB ends, thus the sae2 mutant background in which DSB ends remain intact was employed. On the other hand, the Mec1 (ATR pathway is primarily used when DSB ends are resected, thus the rad51 dmc1 double mutant background was employed in which highly resected DSBs accumulate. In order to separate the effect caused by unscheduled cell cycle progression, which is often associated with DNA damage checkpoint defects, we also employed the ndt80 mutation which permanently arrests the meiotic cell cycle at prophase I. In the absence of Tel1, DSB formation was reduced in larger chromosomes (IV, VII, II and XI whereas no significant reduction was found in smaller chromosomes (III and VI. On the other hand, the absence of Rad17 (a critical component of the ATR pathway lead to an increase in DSB formation (chromosomes VII and II were tested. We propose that, within prophase I, the Tel1 pathway facilitates DSB formation, especially in bigger chromosomes, while the Mec1 pathway negatively regulates DSB formation. We also identified prophase I exit, which is under the control of the DNA damage checkpoint machinery, to be a critical event associated with down-regulating meiotic DSB formation.

  9. Sex hormones regulate cytoskeletal proteins involved in brain plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    VALERIA eHANSBERG-PASTOR; ALIESHA eGONZÁLEZ-ARENAS; ANA GABRIELA PIÑA-MEDINA; IGNACIO eCAMACHO-ARROYO

    2015-01-01

    In the brain of female mammals, including humans, a number of physiological and behavioral changes occur as a result of sex hormone exposure. Estradiol and progesterone regulate several brain functions including learning and memory. Sex hormones contribute to shape the central nervous system by modulating the formation and turnover of the interconnections between neurons as well as controlling the function of glial cells. The dynamics of neuron and glial cells morphology depend on the cytoske...

  10. Sex Hormones Regulate Cytoskeletal Proteins Involved in Brain Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Piña-Medina, Ana Gabriela; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    In the brain of female mammals, including humans, a number of physiological and behavioral changes occur as a result of sex hormone exposure. Estradiol and progesterone regulate several brain functions, including learning and memory. Sex hormones contribute to shape the central nervous system by modulating the formation and turnover of the interconnections between neurons as well as controlling the function of glial cells. The dynamics of neuron and glial cells morphology depends on the cytos...

  11. Hkat, a novel nutritionally regulated transmembrane protein in adipose tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Ren Zhang

    2012-01-01

    White adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ regulating many aspects of whole body physiology and pathology. Adipogenesis, a process in which premature cells differentiate into adipocytes, is a complex process that includes orchestrated changes in gene expression and cell morphology in response to various nutritional and hormonal stimuli. To profile transcriptome changes in response to nutritional stimulation, we performed RNA-seq on fat in mice treated with either a high-fat diet or fas...

  12. Caenorhabditis elegans intersectin: a synaptic protein regulating neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Simon; Malabarba, Maria Grazia; Krag, Claudia;

    2007-01-01

    Intersectin is a multifunctional protein that interacts with components of the endocytic and exocytic pathways, and it is also involved in the control of actin dynamics. Drosophila intersectin is required for viability, synaptic development, and synaptic vesicle recycling. Here, we report...... phenotype, under physiological conditions. However, they display aldicarb-hypersensitivity, compatible with a negative regulatory role of ITSN-1 on neurotransmission. ITSN-1 physically interacts with dynamin and EHS-1, two proteins involved in synaptic vesicle recycling. We have previously shown that EHS-1...... is a positive modulator of synaptic vesicle recycling in the nematode, likely through modulation of dynamin or dynamin-controlled pathways. Here, we show that ITSN-1 and EHS-1 have opposite effects on aldicarb sensitivity, and on dynamin-dependent phenotypes. Thus, the sum of our results identifies dynamin...

  13. Model for evaluating patterned charge regulation contribution to electrostatic interactions between proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, Dawn; Martini, K. Michael; Langner, Andreas; Ross, David; Harkin, Anthony; Nelson, Edward; Thurston, George

    2010-03-01

    We study the pattern-specific work of charging for two spherical model proteins in close proximity in ionic solution, using a grand-canonical partition function together with a coarse-grained, linear Debye-Huckel model to calculate the needed work of charging for each possible proton occupancy configuration. We seek to delineate a parameter-space phase diagram to characterize the circumstances under which patterned charge regulation, attractions due to heterogeneous protein charging patterns, and screened net protein charge could individually dominate the electrostatic portion of the interaction between model particles. Within the model, we place titratable residues in accordance with the tertiary protein structure, as is done in the case of a single protein within the Tanford-Kirkwood protein electrostatics model. We use Monte-Carlo simulation and analytical work to evaluate how the local statistics of the charging patterns on each protein respond to close proximity and relative orientation of neighboring proteins.

  14. Redox Regulation of the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Yingying Han; Qilong Wang; Ping Song; Yi Zhu; Ming-Hui Zou

    2010-01-01

    Redox state is a critical determinant of cell function, and any major imbalances can cause severe damage or death. Objectives The aim of this study is to determine if AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a cellular energy sensor, is activated by oxidants generated by Berberine in endothelial cells (EC). Methods Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were exposed to Berberine. AMPK activity and reactive oxygen species were monitored after the incubation. Results In BAEC, Berberine caused a dos...

  15. Insulin Regulates the Unfolded Protein Response in Human Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Boden, Guenther; Cheung, Peter; Salehi, Sajad; Homko, Carol; Loveland-Jones, Catherine; Jayarajan, Senthil; Stein, T Peter; Williams, Kevin Jon; Liu, Ming-Lin; Barrero, Carlos A.; Merali, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is increased in obesity and is postulated to be a major contributor to many obesity-related pathologies. Little is known about what causes ER stress in obese people. Here, we show that insulin upregulated the unfolded protein response (UPR), an adaptive reaction to ER stress, in vitro in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in vivo, in subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue of nondiabetic subjects, where it increased the UPR dose dependently over the entire physiologic insulin ra...

  16. Redox Regulation of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Activity by Hydroxyl Radical

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Fan-Guo; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that transient production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important signaling event triggered by the activation of various cell surface receptors. Major targets of H2O2 include protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Oxidation of the active site Cys by H2O2 abrogates PTP catalytic activity, thereby potentially furnishing a mechanism to ensure optimal tyrosine phosphorylation in response to a variety of physiological stimuli. ...

  17. Skeletal muscle as a regulator of the longevity protein, Klotho

    OpenAIRE

    KeithGAvin; PaulMCoen; DonnaStolz; JohnJDubé; FabrisiaAmbrosio

    2014-01-01

    Klotho is a powerful longevity protein that has been linked to the prevention of muscle atrophy, osteopenia, and cardiovascular disease. Similar anti-aging effects have also been ascribed to exercise and physical activity. While an association between muscle function and Klotho expression has been previously suggested from longitudinal cohort studies, a direct relationship between circulating Klotho and skeletal muscle has not been investigated. In this paper, we present a review of the liter...

  18. Bordetella pertussis iron regulated proteins as potential vaccine components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Hayes, Jimena; Erben, Esteban; Lamberti, Yanina; Principi, Guido; Maschi, Fabricio; Ayala, Miguel; Rodriguez, Maria Eugenia

    2013-08-01

    Bordetella pertussis is the etiologic agent of whooping cough, an illness whose incidence has been increasing over the last decades. Pertussis reemergence despite high vaccination coverage, together with the recent isolation of circulating strains deficient in some of the vaccine antigens, highlight the need for new vaccines. Proteins induced under physiological conditions, such as those required for nutrient acquisition during infection, might represent good targets for better preventive strategies. By mean of serological proteome analysis we identified two novel antigens of B. pertussis potentially involved in iron acquisition during host colonization. We had previously demonstrated that one of them, designated IRP1-3, is protective against pertussis infection in mice. In the present study, we show that the other antigen, named AfuA (BP1605), is a highly antigenic protein, exposed on the bacterial surface, conserved among clinical isolates and expressed during infection. Immunization of mice with the recombinant AfuA induced opsonophagocytic antibodies which could explain the protection against B. pertussis infection conferred by mice immunization with rAfuA. Importantly, we found that the addition of rAfuA and rIRP1-3 proteins to the commercial three pertussis components acellular vaccine significantly increased its protective activity. Taken together, our results point at these two antigens as potential components of a new generation of acellular vaccines.

  19. The Impact of Trans-Regulation on the Evolutionary Rates of Metazoan Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ching; Cheng, Jen-Hao; Tsai, Zing Tsung-Yeh; Tsai, Huai-Kuang; Chuang, Trees-Juen

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factor (TF) and microRNA (miRNA) are two crucial trans-regulatory factors that coordinately control gene expression. Understanding the impacts of these two factors on the rate of protein sequence evolution is of great importance in evolutionary biology. While many biological factors associated with evolutionary rate variations have been studied, evolutionary analysis of simultaneously accounting for TF and miRNA regulations across metazoans is still uninvestigated. Here, we provide a series of statistical analyses to assess the influences of TF and miRNA regulations on evolutionary rates across metazoans (human, mouse and fruit fly). Our results reveal that the negative correlations between trans-regulation and evolutionary rates hold well across metazoans, but the strength of TF regulation as a rate indicator becomes weak when the other confounding factors that may affect evolutionary rates are controlled. We show that miRNA regulation tends to be a more essential indicator of evolutionary rates than TF regulation, and the combination of TF and miRNA regulations has a significant dependent effect on protein evolutionary rates. We also show that trans-regulation (especially miRNA regulation) is much more important in human/mouse than in fruit fly in determining protein evolutionary rates, suggesting a considerable variation in rate determinants between vertebrates and invertebrates. PMID:23658220

  20. Integrative Genome-wide Analysis Reveals Cooperative Regulation of Alternative Splicing by hnRNP Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C. Huelga

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how RNA binding proteins control the splicing code is fundamental to human biology and disease. Here, we present a comprehensive study to elucidate how heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoparticle (hnRNP proteins, among the most abundant RNA binding proteins, coordinate to regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS in human cells. Using splicing-sensitive microarrays, crosslinking and immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (CLIP-seq, and cDNA sequencing, we find that more than half of all AS events are regulated by multiple hnRNP proteins and that some combinations of hnRNP proteins exhibit significant synergy, whereas others act antagonistically. Our analyses reveal position-dependent RNA splicing maps, in vivo consensus binding sites, a surprising level of cross- and autoregulation among hnRNP proteins, and the coordinated regulation by hnRNP proteins of dozens of other RNA binding proteins and genes associated with cancer. Our findings define an unprecedented degree of complexity and compensatory relationships among hnRNP proteins and their splicing targets that likely confer robustness to cells.

  1. MicroRNA regulation of F-box proteins and its role in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhao-Hui; Pfeffer, Lawrence M

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous non-coding RNAs, which play critical roles in cancer development by suppressing gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In general, oncogenic miRNAs are upregulated in cancer, while miRNAs that act as tumor suppressors are downregulated, leading to decreased expression of tumor suppressors and upregulated oncogene expression, respectively. F-box proteins function as the substrate-recognition components of the SKP1-CUL1-F-box (SCF)-ubiquitin ligase complex for the degradation of their protein targets by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Therefore F-box proteins and miRNAs both negatively regulate target gene expression post-transcriptionally. Since each miRNA is capable of fine-tuning the expression of multiple target genes, multiple F-box proteins may be suppressed by the same miRNA. Meanwhile, one F-box proteins could be regulated by several miRNAs in different cancer types. In this review, we will focus on miRNA-mediated downregulation of various F-box proteins, the resulting stabilization of F-box protein substrates and the impact of these processes on human malignancies. We provide insight into how the miRNA: F-box protein axis may regulate cancer progression and metastasis. We also consider the broader role of F-box proteins in the regulation of pathways that are independent of the ubiquitin ligase complex and how that impacts on oncogenesis. The area of miRNAs and the F-box proteins that they regulate in cancer is an emerging field and will inform new strategies in cancer treatment.

  2. Sclerostin binds and regulates the activity of cysteine-rich protein 61

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Theodore A. [Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Bhattacharya, Resham; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Kumar, Rajiv, E-mail: rkumar@mayo.edu [Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2010-01-29

    Sclerostin, a secreted glycoprotein, regulates osteoblast function. Using yeast two-hybrid and direct protein interaction analyses, we demonstrate that sclerostin binds the Wnt-modulating and Wnt-modulated, extracellular matrix protein, cysteine-rich protein 61 (Cyr61, CCN1), which regulates mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation, osteoblast and osteoclast function, and angiogenesis. Sclerostin was shown to inhibit Cyr61-mediated fibroblast attachment, and Cyr61 together with sclerostin increases vascular endothelial cell migration and increases osteoblast cell division. The data show that sclerostin binds to and influences the activity of Cyr61.

  3. The DNA damage checkpoint response to replication stress: A Game of Forks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eJossen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Conditions challenging replication fork progression, collectively referred to as replication stress, represent a major source of genomic instability and are associated to cancer onset. The replication checkpoint, a specialized branch of the DNA damage checkpoint, monitors fork problems and triggers a cellular response aimed at preserving genome integrity. Here, we review the mechanisms by which the replication checkpoint monitors and responds to replication stress, focusing on the checkpoint-mediated pathways contributing to protect replication fork integrity. We discuss how cells achieve checkpoint signaling inactivation once replication stress is overcome and how a failure to timely revert checkpoint-mediated changes in cellular physiology might impact on replication dynamics and genome integrity. We also highlight the checkpoint function as an anti-cancer barrier preventing cells malignant transformation following oncogene-induced replication stress.

  4. Dropping in on the lipid droplet- tumor protein D52 (TPD52) as a new regulator and resident protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuyan; Frost, Sarah; Byrne, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Lipid droplets are essential for both the storage and retrieval of excess cellular nutrients, and their biology is regulated by a diverse range of cellular proteins, some of which function at the lipid droplet. Numerous studies have characterized lipid droplet proteomes in different organisms and cell types, and RNAi whole genome screening studies have examined the genetic regulation of lipid storage in C. elegans and D. melanogaster. While tumor protein D52 (TPD52) did not emerge from earlier studies as a strong candidate, exogenous expression of human TPD52 in cultured cells resulted in significantly increased numbers of lipid droplets, and oleic acid supplementation increased TPD52 detection at both lipid droplets and the Golgi apparatus. These results suggest that direct testing of proteins that are infrequently but recurrently identified in proteomic and RNAi screening studies may identify novel lipid droplet regulators. While the analysis of these possibly lower-abundance or itinerant lipid droplet proteins may be more technically challenging, such proteins could facilitate a more detailed interrogation of emerging aspects of lipid droplet biology. PMID:27617178

  5. Biosynthesis of milk fat, protein, and lactose: roles of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Johan S; Lohakare, Jayant; Bionaz, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The demand for high-quality milk is increasing worldwide. The efficiency of milk synthesis can be improved by taking advantage of the accumulated knowledge of the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of genes coding for proteins involved in the synthesis of fat, protein, and lactose in the mammary gland. Research in this area is relatively new, but data accumulated in the last 10 years provide a relatively clear picture. Milk fat synthesis appears to be regulated, at least in bovines, by an interactive network between SREBP1, PPARγ, and LXRα, with a potential role for other transcription factors, such as Spot14, ChREBP, and Sp1. Milk protein synthesis is highly regulated by insulin, amino acids, and amino acid transporters via transcriptional and posttranscriptional routes, with the insulin-mTOR pathway playing a central role. The transcriptional regulation of lactose synthesis is still poorly understood, but it is clear that glucose transporters play an important role. They can also cooperatively interact with amino acid transporters and the mTOR pathway. Recent data indicate the possibility of nutrigenomic interventions to increase milk fat synthesis by feeding long-chain fatty acids and milk protein synthesis by feeding amino acids. We propose a transcriptional network model to account for all available findings. This model encompasses a complex network of proteins that control milk synthesis with a cross talk between milk fat, protein, and lactose regulation, with mTOR functioning as a central hub.

  6. Transcript-specific translational regulation in the unfolded protein response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Tom; Hanfrey, Colin; Bishop, Amy L; Michael, Anthony J; Avery, Simon V; Archer, David B

    2008-02-20

    Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes stress and induces the unfolded protein response (UPR). Genome-wide analysis of translational regulation in response to the UPR-inducing agent dithiothreitol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reported. Microarray analysis, confirmed using qRT-PCR, identified transcript-specific translational regulation. Transcripts with functions in ribosomal biogenesis and assembly were translationally repressed. In contrast, mRNAs from known UPR genes, encoding the UPR transcription factor Hac1p, the ER-oxidoreductase Ero1p and the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) protein Der1p, were enriched in polysomal fractions, indicating translational up-regulation. Splicing of HAC1 mRNA is shown to be required for efficient ribosomal loading.

  7. Novel function of the retinoblastoma protein in fat: regulation of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; te Riele, Hein; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    the major energy store and brown adipocytes being potent energy-dissipaters through thermogenesis. Yet, little is known about factors differentially regulating the formation of white and brown fat cells. Members of the retinoblastoma protein family (pRB, p107, p130) have been implicated in the regulation...... of adipocyte differentiation, and expression and phosphorylation of the three retinoblastoma family proteins oscillate in a characteristic manner during differentiation of the white preadipocyte cell line 3T3-L1. We have recently demonstrated a surprising function of the retinoblastoma protein...... in the regulation of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation in vitro and possibly in vivo. Here we summarize the current knowledge on the retinoblastoma protein in fat cells, with particular emphasis on its potential role in adipocyte lineage commitment and differentiation....

  8. Novel regulation of Ski protein stability and endosomal sorting by actin cytoskeleton dynamics in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Victorio, Genaro; Caligaris, Cassandre; Del Valle-Espinosa, Eugenio; Sosa-Garrocho, Marcela; González-Arenas, Nelly R; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; Briones-Orta, Marco A; Macías-Silva, Marina

    2015-02-13

    TGF-β-induced antimitotic signals are highly regulated during cell proliferation under normal and pathological conditions, such as liver regeneration and cancer. Up-regulation of the transcriptional cofactors Ski and SnoN during liver regeneration may favor hepatocyte proliferation by inhibiting TGF-β signals. In this study, we found a novel mechanism that regulates Ski protein stability through TGF-β and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Ski protein is distributed between the nucleus and cytoplasm of normal hepatocytes, and the molecular mechanisms controlling Ski protein stability involve the participation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Cytoplasmic Ski is partially associated with actin and localized in cholesterol-rich vesicles. Ski protein stability is decreased by TGF-β/Smads, GPCR/Rho signals, and actin polymerization, whereas GPCR/cAMP signals and actin depolymerization promote Ski protein stability. In conclusion, TGF-β and GPCR signals differentially regulate Ski protein stability and sorting in hepatocytes, and this cross-talk may occur during liver regeneration.

  9. The impact of whey protein isolate on energy balance regulation

    OpenAIRE

    McAllan, Liam

    2014-01-01

    Using C57BL/6J mice fed whey protein isolate (WPI) enriched high fat (HFD) or low-fat diets (LFD), this study tested the hypothesis that WPI directly impacts on adiposity by influencing lipid metabolism. WPI suppressed HFD-induced body fat and increased lean mass at 8 weeks of dietary challenge despite elevated plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) levels, suggesting reduced TAG storage. WPI reduced HFD-associated hypothalamic leptin and insulin receptor (IR) mRNA expression, and prevented HFD-associa...

  10. A new Speedy/RINGO protein may help regulate male meiosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yukiko Yamazaki; W Steven Ward

    2011-01-01

    @@ Reproductive biology, although seen as a specialty study area, has many unique biology models that offer insight into the regulation of cellular processes that are shared by many different cell types.The most celebrated example of this was the discovery of the cyclins and their role in cell cycle regulation in Xenopus oocytes.1-4 Meiosis is one such aspect of this field that presents an important window for the study of both cell cycle regulation and chromatin structure.Meiosis only occurs in the testis and ovaries, and only in the germ cells that eventually produce sper-matogonia and oocytes.5 In this issue, Cheng and colleagues6 present data to suggest that a novel protein they originally identified in the rat testis, called LM23, is crucial for the regulation of meiosis in spermatogenesis.It is perhaps fitting that LM23 is a member of a family of proteins called Speedy/RINGO that regulate cyclins.7

  11. PHYSIOLOGY AND GENETIC ASPECTS OF THE REGULATION OF EXPRESSION MILK PROTEIN GENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Bulla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For the genetic improvement of milk composition and milk yield, both the typing of different protein variants and knowledge about the regulation of expression of the different milk protein genes are important. Some of the processing properties of milk are dependent on the milk composition. Information about the DNA sequence and genes involved in the expression of the milk protein genes,therefore,is big importance for genetic improvement of these traits in animals breeding programmes.In recent years more data has become available concerning the regulation of expression of the milk protein genes and as might have been expected from the complex multihormonal control of these genes it appears to be rather complex. Although several mammary gland specific factors that play a role in expression of some of these genes have been identified,none of these factors has been shown to be involved in the expression of all or the majority of the milk protein genes.

  12. Golgi-localized STELLO proteins regulate the assembly and trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Nikolovski, Nino; Sorieul, Mathias; Vellosillo, Tamara; McFarlane, Heather E; Dupree, Ray; Kesten, Christopher; Schneider, René; Driemeier, Carlos; Lathe, Rahul; Lampugnani, Edwin; Yu, Xiaolan; Ivakov, Alexander; Doblin, Monika S; Mortimer, Jenny C; Brown, Steven P; Persson, Staffan; Dupree, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, cellulose is a key structural component of the plant cell wall. Cellulose is produced at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes (CSCs), which are assembled in the endomembrane system and trafficked to the plasma membrane. While several proteins that affect CesA activity have been identified, components that regulate CSC assembly and trafficking remain unknown. Here we show that STELLO1 and 2 are Golgi-localized proteins that can interact with CesAs and control cellulose quantity. In the absence of STELLO function, the spatial distribution within the Golgi, secretion and activity of the CSCs are impaired indicating a central role of the STELLO proteins in CSC assembly. Point mutations in the predicted catalytic domains of the STELLO proteins indicate that they are glycosyltransferases facing the Golgi lumen. Hence, we have uncovered proteins that regulate CSC assembly in the plant Golgi apparatus. PMID:27277162

  13. Chapter Three - Ubiquitination and Protein Turnover of G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases in GPCR Signaling and Cellular Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penela, P

    2016-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are responsible for regulating a wide variety of physiological processes, and distinct mechanisms for GPCR inactivation exist to guarantee correct receptor functionality. One of the widely used mechanisms is receptor phosphorylation by specific G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), leading to uncoupling from G proteins (desensitization) and receptor internalization. GRKs and β-arrestins also participate in the assembly of receptor-associated multimolecular complexes, thus initiating alternative G-protein-independent signaling events. In addition, the abundant GRK2 kinase has diverse "effector" functions in cellular migration, proliferation, and metabolism homeostasis by means of the phosphorylation or interaction with non-GPCR partners. Altered expression of GRKs (particularly of GRK2 and GRK5) occurs during pathological conditions characterized by impaired GPCR signaling including inflammatory syndromes, cardiovascular disease, and tumor contexts. It is increasingly appreciated that different pathways governing GRK protein stability play a role in the modulation of kinase levels in normal and pathological conditions. Thus, enhanced GRK2 degradation by the proteasome pathway occurs upon GPCR stimulation, what allows cellular adaptation to chronic stimulation in a physiological setting. β-arrestins participate in this process by facilitating GRK2 phosphorylation by different kinases and by recruiting diverse E3 ubiquitin ligase to the receptor complex. Different proteolytic systems (ubiquitin-proteasome, calpains), chaperone activities and signaling pathways influence the stability of GRKs in different ways, thus endowing specificity to GPCR regulation as protein turnover of GRKs can be differentially affected. Therefore, modulation of protein stability of GRKs emerges as a versatile mechanism for feedback regulation of GPCR signaling and basic cellular processes. PMID:27378756

  14. Approaches to Optimizing Animal Cell Culture Process: Substrate Metabolism Regulation and Protein Expression Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanxing

    Some high value proteins and vaccines for medical and veterinary applications by animal cell culture have an increasing market in China. In order to meet the demands of large-scale productions of proteins and vaccines, animal cell culture technology has been widely developed. In general, an animal cell culture process can be divided into two stages in a batch culture. In cell growth stage a high specific growth rate is expected to achieve a high cell density. In production stage a high specific production rate is stressed for the expression and secretion of qualified protein or replication of virus. It is always critical to maintain high cell viability in fed-batch and perfusion cultures. More concern has been focused on two points by the researchers in China. First, the cell metabolism of substrates is analyzed and the accumulation of toxic by-products is decreased through regulating cell metabolism in the culture process. Second, some important factors effecting protein expression are understood at the molecular level and the production ability of protein is improved. In pace with the rapid development of large-scale cell culture for the production of vaccines, antibodies and other recombinant proteins in China, the medium design and process optimization based on cell metabolism regulation and protein expression improvement will play an important role. The chapter outlines the main advances in metabolic regulation of cell and expression improvement of protein in animal cell culture in recent years.

  15. Correlation of apical fluid-regulating channel proteins with lung function in human COPD lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runzhen Zhao

    Full Text Available Links between epithelial ion channels and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD are emerging through animal model and in vitro studies. However, clinical correlations between fluid-regulating channel proteins and lung function in COPD remain to be elucidated. To quantitatively measure epithelial sodium channels (ENaC, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, and aquaporin 5 (AQP5 proteins in human COPD lungs and to analyze the correlation with declining lung function, quantitative western blots were used. Spearman tests were performed to identify correlations between channel proteins and lung function. The expression of α and β ENaC subunits was augmented and inversely associated with lung function. In contrast, both total and alveolar type I (ATI and II (ATII-specific CFTR proteins were reduced. The expression level of CFTR proteins was associated with FEV1 positively. Abundance of AQP5 proteins and extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3 was decreased and correlated with spirometry test results and gas exchange positively. Furthermore, these channel proteins were significantly associated with severity of disease. Our study demonstrates that expression of ENaC, AQP5, and CFTR proteins in human COPD lungs is quantitatively associated with lung function and severity of COPD. These apically located fluid-regulating channels may thereby serve as biomarkers and potent druggable targets of COPD.

  16. Role 14-3-3 Protein in Regulation Some Cellular Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagam Khudhair

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to review an overview of the current information on the structure of proteins 14-3-3 and their complexes, in addition to that it provides insights into the mechanisms of their functions. The 14-3-3 proteins are from families maintain regulatory molecules expressed in all eukaryotic cells. It was discovered before thirty years, it is attributes of 14-3-3 proteins are able to connect a large number of signalling proteins are functionally diverse, including kinases, phosphatases and transmembrane receptors. 14-3-3 proteins play an important role in a variety of vital regulatory processes, such as protein regulation, apoptotic cell death and cell cycle control. In this review, we discussed the structural basis of 14-3-3 proteins, common structural features of their complexes, Phosphorylation, Cell cycle and Apoptosis.

  17. The LSD1-interacting protein GILP is a LITAF domain protein that negatively regulates hypersensitive cell death in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanping He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypersensitive cell death, a form of avirulent pathogen-induced programmed cell death (PCD, is one of the most efficient plant innate immunity. However, its regulatory mechanism is poorly understood. AtLSD1 is an important negative regulator of PCD and only two proteins, AtbZIP10 and AtMC1, have been reported to interact with AtLSD1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify a novel regulator of hypersensitive cell death, we investigate the possible role of plant LITAF domain protein GILP in hypersensitive cell death. Subcellular localization analysis showed that AtGILP is localized in the plasma membrane and its plasma membrane localization is dependent on its LITAF domain. Yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays demonstrated that AtGILP interacts with AtLSD1. Pull-down assays showed that both the N-terminal and the C-terminal domains of AtGILP are sufficient for interactions with AtLSD1 and that the N-terminal domain of AtLSD1 is involved in the interaction with AtGILP. Real-time PCR analysis showed that AtGILP expression is up-regulated by the avirulent pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 avrRpt2 (Pst avrRpt2 and fumonisin B1 (FB1 that trigger PCD. Compared with wild-type plants, transgenic plants overexpressing AtGILP exhibited significantly less cell death when inoculated with Pst avrRpt2, indicating that AtGILP negatively regulates hypersensitive cell death. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the LITAF domain protein AtGILP localizes in the plasma membrane, interacts with AtLSD1, and is involved in negatively regulating PCD. We propose that AtGILP functions as a membrane anchor, bringing other regulators of PCD, such as AtLSD1, to the plasma membrane. Human LITAF domain protein may be involved in the regulation of PCD, suggesting the evolutionarily conserved function of LITAF domain proteins in the regulation of PCD.

  18. Redox regulation of the AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Han

    Full Text Available Redox state is a critical determinant of cell function, and any major imbalances can cause severe damage or death.The aim of this study is to determine if AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, a cellular energy sensor, is activated by oxidants generated by Berberine in endothelial cells (EC.Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC were exposed to Berberine. AMPK activity and reactive oxygen species were monitored after the incubation.In BAEC, Berberine caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in the phosphorylation of AMPK at Thr172 and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC at Ser79, a well characterized downstream target of AMPK. Concomitantly, Berberine increased peroxynitrite, a potent oxidant formed by simultaneous generation of superoxide and nitric oxide. Pre-incubation of BAEC with anti-oxidants markedly attenuated Berberine-enhanced phosphorylation of both AMPK and ACC. Consistently, adenoviral expression of superoxide dismutase and pretreatment of L-N(G-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME; a non-selective NOS inhibitor blunted Berberine-induced phosphorylation of AMPK. Furthermore, mitochondria-targeted tempol (mito-tempol pretreatment or expression of uncoupling protein attenuated AMPK activation caused by Berberine. Depletion of mitochondria abolished the effects of Berberine on AMPK in EC. Finally, Berberine significantly increased the phosphorylation of LKB1 at Ser307 and gene silencing of LKB1 attenuated Berberine-enhanced AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation in BAEC.Our results suggest that mitochondria-derived superoxide anions and peroxynitrite are required for Berberine-induced AMPK activation in endothelial cells.

  19. Abrogation of Chk1-mediated S/G2 checkpoint by UCN-01 enhances ara-C-induced cytotoxicity in human colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-guang SHAO; Chun-Xia CAO; Yves POMMIER

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) affects cell cycle progression in arabinosylcytosine (ara-C) treated human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells. METHODS: Cytotoxicity, DNA synthesis, cell cycle distribution,protein level, and kinase activity were determined by clonogenic assay, flow cytometry, DNA synthesis assay,immunoblotting, and kinase assays, respectively. RESULTS: UCN-01 abrogated an S/G2-phase checkpoint in HT29 cells treated with ara-C. When UCN-01 was added after treatment with ara-C, the rate of recovery of DNA synthesis was enhanced and colony-forming ability diminished. Thus, premature recovery of DNA synthesis was associated with increased cytotoxicity. Measurements of cyclin A and B protein levels, Cdk2 and Cdc2 kinase activities, Cdc25C phosphorylation, and Chkl kinase activity were consistent with UCN-01-induced abrogation of the S/G2-phase checkpoint in ara-C treated cells. CONCLUSION: The abrogation of the S/G2 checkpoint may be due to inhibition of Chkl kinase by UCN-01. The enhanced cytotoxicity produced when UCN-01 was combined with ara-C suggested a rationale for the use of this drug combination for tumors that might be susceptible to cell cycle checkpoint abrogation.

  20. Regulation of the interaction between protein kinase C-related protein kinase 2 (PRK2) and its upstream kinase, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dettori, Rosalia; Sonzogni, Silvina; Meyer, Lucas;

    2009-01-01

    The members of the AGC kinase family frequently exhibit three conserved phosphorylation sites: the activation loop, the hydrophobic motif (HM), and the zipper (Z)/turn-motif (TM) phosphorylation site. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) phosphorylates the activation loop of...... numerous AGC kinases, including the protein kinase C-related protein kinases (PRKs). Here we studied the docking interaction between PDK1 and PRK2 and analyzed the mechanisms that regulate this interaction. In vivo labeling of recombinant PRK2 by (32)P(i) revealed phosphorylation at two sites, the...... the mechanism that negatively regulates the docking interaction of PRK2 to the upstream kinase PDK1 is directly linked to the activation mechanism of PRK2 itself. Finally, our results indicate that the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the interaction between PRK2 and PDK1 are specific for PRK2...

  1. TIS11 Family Proteins and Their Roles in Posttranscriptional Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Baou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression of mRNAs containing adenine-uridine rich elements (AREs in their 3 untranslated regions is mediated by a number of different proteins that interact with these elements to either stabilise or destabilise them. The present review concerns the TPA-inducible sequence 11 (TIS11 protein family, a small family of proteins, that appears to interact with ARE-containing mRNAs and promote their degradation. This family of proteins has been extensively studied in the past decade. Studies have focussed on determining their biochemical functions, identifying their target mRNAs, and determining their roles in cell functions and diseases.

  2. A spatial focusing model for G protein signals. Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) protien-mediated kinetic scaffolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huailing; Wade, Susan M; Woolf, Peter J; Linderman, Jennifer J; Traynor, John R; Neubig, Richard R

    2003-02-28

    Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) are GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAPs), which can inhibit heterotrimeric G protein pathways. In this study, we provide experimental and theoretical evidence that high concentrations of receptors (as at a synapse) can lead to saturation of GDP-GTP exchange making GTP hydrolysis rate-limiting. This results in local depletion of inactive heterotrimeric G-GDP, which is reversed by RGS GAP activity. Thus, RGS enhances receptor-mediated G protein activation even as it deactivates the G protein. Evidence supporting this model includes a GTP-dependent enhancement of guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate (GTPgammaS) binding to G(i) by RGS. The RGS domain of RGS4 is sufficient for this, not requiring the NH(2)- or COOH-terminal extensions. Furthermore, a kinetic model including only the GAP activity of RGS replicates the GTP-dependent enhancement of GTPgammaS binding observed experimentally. Finally in a Monte Carlo model, this mechanism results in a dramatic "spatial focusing" of active G protein. Near the receptor, G protein activity is maintained even with RGS due to the ability of RGS to reduce depletion of local Galpha-GDP levels permitting rapid recoupling to receptor and maintained G protein activation near the receptor. In contrast, distant signals are suppressed by the RGS, since Galpha-GDP is not depleted there. Thus, a novel RGS-mediated "kinetic scaffolding" mechanism is proposed which narrows the spatial range of active G protein around a cluster of receptors limiting the spill-over of G protein signals to more distant effector molecules, thus enhancing the specificity of G(i) protein signals.

  3. DNA replication checkpoint signaling depends on a Rad53-Dbf4 N-terminal interaction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chou; Kenworthy, Jessica; Gabrielse, Carrie; Hänni, Christine; Zegerman, Philip; Weinreich, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) are essential to initiate DNA replication at individual origins. During replication stress, the S-phase checkpoint inhibits the DDK- and CDK-dependent activation of late replication origins. Rad53 kinase is a central effector of the replication checkpoint and both binds to and phosphorylates Dbf4 to prevent late-origin firing. The molecular basis for the Rad53-Dbf4 physical interaction is not clear but occurs through the Dbf4 N terminus. Here we found that both Rad53 FHA1 and FHA2 domains, which specifically recognize phospho-threonine (pT), interacted with Dbf4 through an N-terminal sequence and an adjacent BRCT domain. Purified Rad53 FHA1 domain (but not FHA2) bound to a pT Dbf4 peptide in vitro, suggesting a possible phospho-threonine-dependent interaction between FHA1 and Dbf4. The Dbf4-Rad53 interaction is governed by multiple contacts that are separable from the Cdc5- and Msa1-binding sites in the Dbf4 N terminus. Importantly, abrogation of the Rad53-Dbf4 physical interaction blocked Dbf4 phosphorylation and allowed late-origin firing during replication checkpoint activation. This indicated that Rad53 must stably bind to Dbf4 to regulate its activity.

  4. The Phosphorylation-Dependent Regulation of Mitochondrial Proteins in Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kanamaru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To maintain cellular homeostasis, cells are equipped with precise systems that trigger the appropriate stress responses. Mitochondria not only provide cellular energy but also integrate stress response signaling pathways, including those regulating cell death. Several lines of evidence suggest that the mitochondrial proteins that function in this process, such as Bcl-2 family proteins in apoptosis and phosphoglycerate mutase family member 5 (PGAM5 in necroptosis, are regulated by several kinases. It has also been suggested that the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of mitochondrial fission machinery, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1, facilitates appropriate cellular stress responses. However, mitochondria themselves are also damaged by various stresses. To avoid the deleterious effects exerted by damaged mitochondria, cells remove these mitochondria in a selective autophagic degradation process called mitophagy. Interestingly, several kinases, such as PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1 in mammals and stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases in yeast, have recently been shown to be involved in mitophagy. In this paper, we focus on the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of mitochondrial proteins and discuss the roles of this regulation in the mitochondrial and cellular stress responses.

  5. Structure-based design, discovery and development of checkpoint kinase inhibitors as potential anti-cancer therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Thomas P; Jones, Alan M; Collins, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Checkpoint kinase inhibitors offer the promise of enhancing the effectiveness of widely prescribed cancer chemotherapies and radiotherapy by inhibiting the DNA damage response, as well as the potential for single agent efficacy. Areas covered This article surveys structural insights into the checkpoint kinases CHK1 and CHK2 that have been exploited to enhance the selectivity and potency of small molecule inhibitors. The use of mechanistic cellular assays to guide the optimisation of inhibitors is reviewed. The status of the current clinical candidates and emerging new clinical contexts for CHK1 and CHK2 inhibitors are discussed, including the prospects for single agent efficacy. Expert opinion Protein bound water molecules play key roles in structural features that can be targeted to gain high selectivity for either enzyme. The results of early phase clinical trials of checkpoint inhibitors have been mixed, but significant progress has been made in testing the combination of CHK1 inhibitors with genotoxic chemotherapy. Second generation CHK1 inhibitors are likely to benefit from increased selectivity and oral bioavailability. While the optimum therapeutic context for CHK2 inhibition remains unclear, the emergence of single agent preclinical efficacy for CHK1 inhibitors in specific tumour types exhibiting constitutive replication stress represents exciting progress in exploring the therapeutic potential of these agents. PMID:23594139

  6. A Varp-Binding Protein, RACK1, Regulates Dendrite Outgrowth through Stabilization of Varp Protein in Mouse Melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubashi, Soujiro; Ohbayashi, Norihiko; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2016-08-01

    Varp (VPS9-ankyrin repeat protein) in melanocytes is thought to function as a key player in the pigmentation of mammals. Varp regulates two different melanocyte functions: (i) transport of melanogenic enzymes to melanosomes by functioning as a Rab32/38 effector and (ii) promotion of dendrite outgrowth by functioning as a Rab21-guanine nucleotide exchange factor. The Varp protein level has recently been shown to be negatively regulated by proteasomal degradation through interaction of the ankyrin repeat 2 (ANKR2) domain of Varp with Rab40C. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Varp escapes from Rab40C and retains its own expression level remain completely unknown. Here, we identified RACK1 (receptor of activated protein kinase C 1) as a Varp-ANKR2 binding partner and investigated its involvement in Varp stabilization in mouse melanocytes. The results showed that knockdown of endogenous RACK1 in melanocytes caused dramatic reduction of the Varp protein level and inhibition of dendrite outgrowth, and intriguingly, overexpression of RACK1 inhibited the interaction between Varp and Rab40C and counteracted the negative effect of Rab40C on dendrite outgrowth. These findings indicated that RACK1 competes with Rab40C for binding to the ANKR2 domain of Varp and regulates dendrite outgrowth through stabilization of Varp in mouse melanocytes. PMID:27066885

  7. Subunits of the Drosophila actin-capping protein heterodimer regulate each other at multiple levels.

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    Ana Rita Amândio

    Full Text Available The actin-Capping Protein heterodimer, composed of the α and β subunits, is a master F-actin regulator. In addition to its role in many cellular processes, Capping Protein acts as a main tumor suppressor module in Drosophila and in humans, in part, by restricting the activity of Yorkie/YAP/TAZ oncogenes. We aimed in this report to understand how both subunits regulate each other in vivo. We show that the levels and capping activities of both subunits must be tightly regulated to control F-actin levels and consequently growth of the Drosophila wing. Overexpressing capping protein α and β decreases both F-actin levels and tissue growth, while expressing forms of Capping Protein that have dominant negative effects on F-actin promote tissue growth. Both subunits regulate each other's protein levels. In addition, overexpressing one of the subunit in tissues knocked-down for the other increases the mRNA and protein levels of the subunit knocked-down and compensates for its loss. We propose that the ability of the α and β subunits to control each other's levels assures that a pool of functional heterodimer is produced in sufficient quantities to restrict the development of tumor but not in excess to sustain normal tissue growth.

  8. Subunits of the Drosophila actin-capping protein heterodimer regulate each other at multiple levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amândio, Ana Rita; Gaspar, Pedro; Whited, Jessica L; Janody, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The actin-Capping Protein heterodimer, composed of the α and β subunits, is a master F-actin regulator. In addition to its role in many cellular processes, Capping Protein acts as a main tumor suppressor module in Drosophila and in humans, in part, by restricting the activity of Yorkie/YAP/TAZ oncogenes. We aimed in this report to understand how both subunits regulate each other in vivo. We show that the levels and capping activities of both subunits must be tightly regulated to control F-actin levels and consequently growth of the Drosophila wing. Overexpressing capping protein α and β decreases both F-actin levels and tissue growth, while expressing forms of Capping Protein that have dominant negative effects on F-actin promote tissue growth. Both subunits regulate each other's protein levels. In addition, overexpressing one of the subunit in tissues knocked-down for the other increases the mRNA and protein levels of the subunit knocked-down and compensates for its loss. We propose that the ability of the α and β subunits to control each other's levels assures that a pool of functional heterodimer is produced in sufficient quantities to restrict the development of tumor but not in excess to sustain normal tissue growth.

  9. SLX4-SLX1 Protein-independent Down-regulation of MUS81-EME1 Protein by HIV-1 Viral Protein R (Vpr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaohong; DeLucia, Maria; Ahn, Jinwoo

    2016-08-12

    Evolutionarily conserved structure-selective endonuclease MUS81 forms a complex with EME1 and further associates with another endonuclease SLX4-SLX1 to form a four-subunit complex of MUS81-EME1-SLX4-SLX1, coordinating distinctive biochemical activities of both endonucleases in DNA repair. Viral protein R (Vpr), a highly conserved accessory protein in primate lentiviruses, was previously reported to bind SLX4 to mediate down-regulation of MUS81. However, the detailed mechanism underlying MUS81 down-regulation is unclear. Here, we report that HIV-1 Vpr down-regulates both MUS81 and its cofactor EME1 by hijacking the host CRL4-DCAF1 E3 ubiquitin ligase. Multiple Vpr variants, from HIV-1 and SIV, down-regulate both MUS81 and EME1. Furthermore, a C-terminally truncated Vpr mutant and point mutants R80A and Q65R, all of which lack G2 arrest activity, are able to down-regulate MUS81-EME1, suggesting that Vpr-induced G2 arrest is not correlated with MUS81-EME1 down-regulation. We also show that neither the interaction of MUS81-EME1 with Vpr nor their down-regulation is dependent on SLX4-SLX1. Together, these data provide new insight on a conserved function of Vpr in a host endonuclease down-regulation.

  10. G-patch domain and KOW motifs-containing protein, GPKOW; a nuclear RNA-binding protein regulated by protein kinase A

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background: Post-transcriptional processing of pre-mRNA takes place in several steps and requires involvement of a number of RNA-binding proteins. How pre-mRNA processing is regulated is in large enigmatic. The catalytic (C) subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) is a serine/threonine kinase, which regulates numerous cellular processes including pre-mRNA splicing. Despite that a significant fraction of the C subunit is found in splicing factor compartments in the nucleus, there are no indications ...

  11. The Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI genes regulate seed germination by modulating degradation of ABI5 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenming; Guan, Chunmei; Feng, Jian; Liang, Yan; Zhan, Ni; Zuo, Jianru; Ren, Bo

    2016-07-01

    In Arabidopsis, the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a vital role in inhibiting seed germination and in post-germination seedling establishment. In the ABA signaling pathway, ABI5, a basic Leu zipper transcription factor, has important functions in the regulation of seed germination. ABI5 protein localizes in nuclear bodies, along with AFP, COP1, and SIZ1, and was degraded through the 26S proteasome pathway. However, the mechanisms of ABI5 nuclear body formation and ABI5 protein degradation remain obscure. In this study, we found that the Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI (CRWN) proteins, predicted nuclear matrix proteins essential for maintenance of nuclear morphology, also participate in ABA-controlled seed germination by regulating the degradation of ABI5 protein. During seed germination, the crwn mutants are hypersensitive to ABA and have higher levels of ABI5 protein compared to wild type. Genetic analysis suggested that CRWNs act upstream of ABI5. The observation that CRWN3 colocalizes with ABI5 in nuclear bodies indicates that CRWNs might participate in ABI5 protein degradation in nuclear bodies. Moreover, we revealed that the extreme C-terminal of CRWN3 protein is necessary for its function in the response to ABA in germination. Our results suggested important roles of CRWNs in ABI5 nuclear body organization and ABI5 protein degradation during seed germination. PMID:26564029

  12. Function, regulation and pathological roles of the Gab/DOS docking proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wöhrle Franziska U

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since their discovery a little more than a decade ago, the docking proteins of the Gab/DOS family have emerged as important signalling elements in metazoans. Gab/DOS proteins integrate and amplify signals from a wide variety of sources including growth factor, cytokine and antigen receptors as well as cell adhesion molecules. They also contribute to signal diversification by channelling the information from activated receptors into signalling pathways with distinct biological functions. Recent approaches in protein biochemistry and systems biology have revealed that Gab proteins are subject to complex regulation by feed-forward and feedback phosphorylation events as well as protein-protein interactions. Thus, Gab/DOS docking proteins are at the centre of entire signalling subsystems and fulfil an important if not essential role in many physiological processes. Furthermore, aberrant signalling by Gab proteins has been increasingly linked to human diseases from various forms of neoplasia to Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we provide a detailed overview of the structure, effector functions, regulation and evolution of the Gab/DOS family. We also summarize recent findings implicating Gab proteins, in particular the Gab2 isoform, in leukaemia, solid tumours and other human diseases.

  13. Regulating the ethylene response of a plant by modulation of F-box proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongwei [Beijing, CN; Ecker, Joseph R [Carlsbad, CA

    2014-01-07

    The relationship between F-box proteins and proteins invovled in the ethylene response in plants is described. In particular, F-box proteins may bind to proteins involved in the ethylene response and target them for degradation by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. The transcription factor EIN3 is a key transcription factor mediating ethylne-regulated gene expression and morphological responses. EIN3 is degraded through a ubiquitin/proteasome pathway mediated by F-box proteins EBF1 and EBF2. The link between F-box proteins and the ethylene response is a key step in modulating or regulating the response of a plant to ethylene. Described herein are transgenic plants having an altered sensitivity to ethylene, and methods for making transgenic plant haing an althered sensitivity to ethylene by modulating the level of activity of F-box proteins. Methods of altering the ethylene response in a plant by modulating the activity or expression of an F-box protein are described. Also described are methods of identifying compounds that modulate the ethylene response in plants by modulating the level of F-box protein expression or activity.

  14. The transmembrane domain of TACE regulates protein ectodomain shedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojin Li; Liliana Pérez; Zui Pan; Huizhou Fan

    2007-01-01

    Numerous membrane proteins are cleaved by tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE), which causes the release of their ectodomains. An ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) family member, TACE contains several noncatalytic domains whose roles in ectodomain shedding have yet to be fully resolved. Here, we have explored the function of the transmembrane domain (TM) of TACE by coupling molecular engineering and functional analysis. A TM-free TACE construct that is anchored to the plasma membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylino-sitol (GPI)-binding polypeptide failed to restore shedding of transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and L-selectin in cells lacking endogenous TACE activity. Substitution of the TACE TM with that of the prolactin receptor or platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) also resulted in severe loss of TGF-α shedding, but had no effects on the cleavage of TNF-α and L-selectin. Replacement of the TM in TGF-a with that of L-selectin enabled TGF-a shedding by the TACE mutants carrying the TM of prolactin receptor and PDGFR. Taken together, our observations suggest that anchorage of TACE to the lipid bilayer through a TM is required for efficient cleavage of a broad spectrum of substrates, and that the amino-acid sequence of TACE TM may play a role in regulatory specificity among TACE substrates.

  15. Skeletal muscle as a regulator of the longevity protein, Klotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith G Avin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Klotho is a powerful longevity protein that has been linked to the prevention of muscle atrophy, osteopenia, and cardiovascular disease. Similar anti-aging effects have also been ascribed to exercise and physical activity. While an association between muscle function and klotho expression has been previously suggested from longitudinal cohort studies, a direct relationship between circulating klotho and skeletal muscle has not been investigated. In this paper, we present a review of the literature and preliminary evidence that, together, suggests klotho expression may be modulated by skeletal muscle activity. Our pilot clinical findings performed in young and aged individuals suggest that circulating klotho levels are upregulated in response to an acute exercise bout, but that the response may be dependent on fitness level. A similar upregulation of circulating klotho is also observed in response to an acute exercise in young and old mice, suggesting this may be a good model for mechanistically probing the role of physical activity on klotho expression. Finally, we highlight overlapping signaling pathways that are modulated by both klotho and skeletal muscle and propose potential mechanisms for cross-talk between the two. It is hoped that this review will stimulate further consideration of the relationship between skeletal muscle activity and klotho expression, potentially leading to important insights into the well-documented systemic anti-aging effects of exercise.

  16. Dissection of brassinosteroid-regulated proteins in rice embryos during germination by quantitative proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian-Feng; Xiong, Min; Xu, Peng; Huang, Li-Chun; Zhang, Chang-Quan; Liu, Qiao-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs), essential plant-specific steroidal hormones, function in a wide spectrum of plant growth and development events, including seed germination. Rice is not only a monocotyledonous model plant but also one of the most important staple food crops of human beings. Rice seed germination is a decisive event for the next-generation of plant growth and successful seed germination is critical for rice yield. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms on how BR modulates seed germination in rice. In the present study, we used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) based proteomic approach to study BR-regulated proteome during the early stage of seed germination. The results showed that more than 800 BR-responsive proteins were identified, including 88 reliable target proteins responsive to stimuli of both BR-deficiency and BR-insensitivity. Moreover, 90% of the 88 target proteins shared a similar expression change pattern. Gene ontology and string analysis indicated that ribosomal structural proteins, as well as proteins involved in protein biosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolisms were highly clustered. These findings not only enrich BR-regulated protein database in rice seeds, but also allow us to gain novel insights into the molecular mechanism of BR regulated seed germination. PMID:27703189

  17. Potential Genes for Regulation of Milk Protein Synthesis in Dairy Goat Mammary Gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Dan; Zhang Na; Nan Xue-mei; Li Qing-zhang; Gao Xue-jun

    2016-01-01

    The lactating mammary gland is a prodigious protein-producing factory, but the milk protein synthesis mechanisms are not well understood. The major objective of this paper was to elucidate which genes and pathways were involved in the regulation of milk protein synthesis in the dairy goat mammary gland. Total 36 primiparous Guanzhong dairy goats were allotted in 12 groups according to their mammary development stages: days 90 and 150 of virgin, days 30, 90, and 150 of pregnancy, days 1, 10, 35, and 60 of lactation and days 3, 7, and 21 of involution (three animals per group). Mammary tissue RNA was isolated for quantitative real-time RT-PCR of four casein genes alpha-s1 casein (CSN1S1), alpha-s2 casein (CSN1S2), beta-casein (CSN2) and casein kappa (CSN3), four whey protein genes lactoglobulin (LGB), lactalbumin (LALBA), lactofarrin (LTF), and Whey acidic protein (WAP) and the genes which were potentially to regulate dairy goat milk protein synthesis at the level of transcription or translation [prolactin receptor (PRLR), AKT1, signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5), E74-Like Factor 5 (ELF5), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (EIF4E-BP1), S6kinase (S6K) and caveolin 1]. The results showed that all genes were up-regulated in lactation period. The expressions of PRLR, AKT1, STAT5, ELF5, and S6K were similar to mRNA expressions of milk proteins. Our results indicated that milk protein synthesis in dairy goat mammary gland was possibly regulated by these genes.

  18. Checkpoint signaling from a single DNA interstrand crosslink

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Yehoyada, Merav; Wang, Lily C; Kozekov, Ivan D.; Rizzo, Carmelo J.; Gottesman, Max E.; Gautier, Jean

    2009-01-01

    DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) are the most toxic lesions induced by chemotherapeutic agents such as Mitomycin C and Cisplatin. By covalently linking both DNA strands, ICLs prevent DNA melting, transcription, and replication. Studies on ICL signaling and repair have been limited because these drugs generate additional DNA lesions that trigger checkpoint signaling. Here, we monitor sensing, signaling from and repairing of a single, site-specific ICL in cell-free extract derived from Xenopus...

  19. AMP-activated protein kinase in contraction regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism: necessary and/or sufficient?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Richter, Erik

    2009-01-01

    In skeletal muscle, the contraction-activated heterotrimeric 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein is proposed to regulate the balance between anabolic and catabolic processes by increasing substrate uptake and turnover in addition to regulating the transcription of proteins involved...

  20. Protein phosphatase 2A isotypes regulate cell surface expression of the T cell receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst; Menné, C; Kastrup, J;

    2001-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying T cell receptor (TCR) down-regulation have been extensively studied during the last decade. Whereas the importance of phosphorylation in this process has been established, it is less certain whether dephosphorylation plays a role in TCR down-regulation. In this study, we...... show that inhibition of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP2A family had a biphasic effect on TCR expression. Thus, low concentrations of PP2A inhibitors induced TCR down-regulation, whereas higher concentrations of PP2A inhibitors induced TCR up-regulation. The effect of PP2A inhibition was...... independent of phosphorylation of the CD3gamma endocytosis motif. Whereas TCR down-regulation was caused by a partial inhibition of exocytosis, TCR up-regulation was caused by an inhibition of endocytosis. The effects on exocytosis and endocytosis were not restricted to the TCR, indicating a more general...

  1. Yersinia effector YopO uses actin as bait to phosphorylate proteins that regulate actin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei Lin; Grimes, Jonathan M; Robinson, Robert C

    2015-03-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia species evade host immune systems through the injection of Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) into phagocytic cells. One Yop, YopO, also known as YpkA, induces actin-filament disruption, impairing phagocytosis. Here we describe the X-ray structure of Yersinia enterocolitica YopO in complex with actin, which reveals that YopO binds to an actin monomer in a manner that blocks polymerization yet allows the bound actin to interact with host actin-regulating proteins. SILAC-MS and biochemical analyses confirm that actin-polymerization regulators such as VASP, EVL, WASP, gelsolin and the formin diaphanous 1 are directly sequestered and phosphorylated by YopO through formation of ternary complexes with actin. This leads to a model in which YopO at the membrane sequesters actin from polymerization while using the bound actin as bait to recruit, phosphorylate and misregulate host actin-regulating proteins to disrupt phagocytosis.

  2. Neuronal process structure and growth proteins are targets of heavy PTM regulation during brain development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Alistair V G; Schwämmle, Veit; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Brain development is a process requiring precise control of many different cell types. One method to achieve this is through specific and temporally regulated modification of proteins in order to alter structure and function. Post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins is known...... to have wide-ranging and substantial effects on cellular function, both as part of signalling network modulation and more directly by modifying the function of key proteins. In this study, we show that PTM regulation is differentially targeted at different areas of the proteome, and that cytoskeletal...... provides one of the most comprehensive sets of individual PTM site regulation data for mammalian brain tissue. This will provide a valuable resource for those wishing to perform comparisons or meta-analyses of large scale PTMomic data, as are becoming increasingly common. Furthermore, being focussed...

  3. Solution conformation of the response regulator proteins from Deinococcus radiodurans studied by SAXS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li-Qin; LIU Ying; LIU Peng; DONG Yu-Hui

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the solution conformation of the response regulator proteins from Deinococcus radiodurans was studied by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS).The SAXS curves of Dr-rrA in solutions were obtained at Beamline 1W2A of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF).Two possible conformations of the response regulator proteins,compact and incompact conformations,have been represented by the known crystallographic structures.And theoretical solution scattering curves of the two possible conformations were calculated and fitted to the experimental scattering curve of Dr-rrA,respectively.The result indicates that the solution conformation of the response regulator proteins is inclined to the compact one,which is in agreement with the result of biochemical experiments.

  4. Solution conformation of the response regulator proteins from Deinococcus radiodurans studied by SAXS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qin; Liu, Ying; Liu, Peng; Dong, Yu-Hui

    2011-10-01

    In this paper the solution conformation of the response regulator proteins from Deinococcus radiodurans was studied by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The SAXS curves of Dr-rrA in solutions were obtained at Beamline 1W2A of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). Two possible conformations of the response regulator proteins, compact and incompact conformations, have been represented by the known crystallographic structures. And theoretical solution scattering curves of the two possible conformations were calculated and fitted to the experimental scattering curve of Dr-rrA, respectively. The result indicates that the solution conformation of the response regulator proteins is inclined to the compact one, which is in agreement with the result of biochemical experiments.

  5. Learning common lessons and checkpoints form human error incidents. Maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CRIEPI has been conducting detailed and structured analyses of all human error incidents collected from Japanese Licensee Event Reports using J-HPES (Japanese version of HPES) as an analysis method. Results obtained by the analyses have been stored in J-HPES database. This paper described the process to analyze J-HPES data concerning maintenance systematically to extract problems identified in the process of error action and checkpoints for preventing errors. Human error actions of these J-HPES data are classified by viewpoints of error mode and work type. As to each of these error categories, problems are extracted based on J-HPES causal relation charts in following three viewpoints: acts at workplace, activities, and preconditions of job. Moreover, checkpoints for preventing errors are developed referring proposed countermeasures in J-HPES database. In order to share these results, we started to issue 4-pages booklets 'Catch the Point' periodically. In future, based on these results, we will publish a teaching material. We also have a plan to store the contents of Catch the Point in a database, which facilitate users to find necessary checkpoints and hazards before they start their activities. (author)

  6. Targeting lung cancer through inhibition of checkpoint kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Gussgard Syljuåsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of checkpoint kinases ATR, Chk1 and Wee1 are currently being tested in preclinical and clinical trials. Here, we review the basic principles behind the use of such inhibitors as anticancer agents, and particularly discuss their potential for treatment of lung cancer. As lung cancer is one of the most deadly cancers, new treatment strategies are highly needed. We discuss how checkpoint kinase inhibition in principle can lead to selective killing of lung cancer cells while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Several features of lung cancer may potentially be exploited for targeting through inhibition of checkpoint kinases, including mutated p53, low ERCC1 levels, amplified Myc, tumor hypoxia and presence of lung cancer stem cells. Synergistic effects have also been reported between inhibitors of ATR/Chk1/Wee1 and conventional lung cancer treatments, such as gemcitabine, cisplatin or radiation. Altogether, inhibitors of ATR, Chk1 and Wee1 are emerging as new cancer treatment agents, likely to be useful in lung cancer treatment. However, as lung tumors are very diverse, the inhibitors are unlikely to be effective in all patients, and more work is needed to determine how such inhibitors can be utilized in the most optimal ways.

  7. The Escherichia Coli Hfq Protein: An Unattended DNA-Transactions Regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, Grzegorz M; Szalewska-Pałasz, Agnieszka; Kubiak, Krzysztof; Malabirade, Antoine; Grange, Wilfried; Arluison, Veronique; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    The Hfq protein was discovered in Escherichia coli as a host factor for bacteriophage Qβ RNA replication. Subsequent studies indicated that Hfq is a pleiotropic regulator of bacterial gene expression. The regulatory role of Hfq is ascribed mainly to its function as an RNA-chaperone, facilitating interactions between bacterial non-coding RNA and its mRNA target. Thus, it modulates mRNA translation and stability. Nevertheless, Hfq is able to interact with DNA as well. Its role in the regulation of DNA-related processes has been demonstrated. In this mini-review, it is discussed how Hfq interacts with DNA and what is the role of this protein in regulation of DNA transactions. Particularly, Hfq has been demonstrated to be involved in the control of ColE1 plasmid DNA replication, transposition, and possibly also transcription. Possible mechanisms of these Hfq-mediated regulations are described and discussed. PMID:27517037

  8. PINCH proteins regulate cardiac contractility by modulating integrin-linked kinase-protein kinase B signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meder, Benjamin; Huttner, Inken G; Sedaghat-Hamedani, Farbod; Just, Steffen; Dahme, Tillman; Frese, Karen S; Vogel, Britta; Köhler, Doreen; Kloos, Wanda; Rudloff, Jessica; Marquart, Sabine; Katus, Hugo A; Rottbauer, Wolfgang

    2011-08-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an essential component of the cardiac mechanical stretch sensor and is bound in a protein complex with parvin and PINCH proteins, the so-called ILK-PINCH-parvin (IPP) complex. We have recently shown that inactivation of ILK or β-parvin activity leads to heart failure in zebrafish via reduced protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) activation. Here, we show that PINCH proteins localize at sarcomeric Z disks and costameres in the zebrafish heart and skeletal muscle. To investigate the in vivo role of PINCH proteins for IPP complex stability and PKB signaling within the vertebrate heart, we inactivated PINCH1 and PINCH2 in zebrafish. Inactivation of either PINCH isoform independently leads to instability of ILK, loss of stretch-responsive anf and vegf expression, and progressive heart failure. The predominant cause of heart failure in PINCH morphants seems to be loss of PKB activity, since PKB phosphorylation at serine 473 is significantly reduced in PINCH-deficient hearts and overexpression of constitutively active PKB reconstitutes cardiac function in PINCH morphants. These findings highlight the essential function of PINCH proteins in controlling cardiac contractility by granting IPP/PKB-mediated signaling.

  9. Interaction of a plant pseudo-response regulator with a calmodulin-like protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perochon, Alexandre; Dieterle, Stefan; Pouzet, Cecile; Aldon, Didier; Galaud, Jean-Philippe [UMR 5546 CNRS/Universite Toulouse 3, Pole de Biotechnologie vegetale, BP 42617 Auzeville, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan cedex (France); Ranty, Benoit, E-mail: ranty@scsv.ups-tlse.fr [UMR 5546 CNRS/Universite Toulouse 3, Pole de Biotechnologie vegetale, BP 42617 Auzeville, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan cedex (France)

    2010-08-06

    Research highlights: {yields} The pseudo-response regulator PRR2 specifically binds CML9, a calmodulin-like protein {yields} The interaction is confirmed in plant cell nuclei {yields} The interaction requires an intact PRR2 protein. -- Abstract: Calmodulin (CaM) plays a crucial role in the regulation of diverse cellular processes by modulating the activities of numerous target proteins. Plants possess an extended CaM family including numerous CaM-like proteins (CMLs), most of which appear to be unique to plants. We previously demonstrated a role for CML9 in abiotic stress tolerance and seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. We report here the isolation of PRR2, a pseudo-response regulator as a CML9 interacting protein by screening an expression library prepared from Arabidopsis seedlings with CML9 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid system. PRR2 is similar to the response regulators of the two-component system, but lacks the invariant residue required for phosphorylation by which response regulators switch their output response, suggesting the existence of alternative regulatory mechanisms. PRR2 was found to bind CML9 and closely related CMLs but not a canonical CaM. Mapping analyses indicate that an almost complete form of PRR2 is required for interaction with CML9, suggesting a recognition mode different from the classical CaM-target peptide complex. PRR2 contains several features that are typical of transcription factors, including a GARP DNA recognition domain, a Pro-rich region and a Golden C-terminal box. PRR2 and CML9 as fusion proteins with fluorescent tags co-localized in the nucleus of plant cells, and their interaction in the nuclear compartment was validated in planta by using a fluorophore-tagged protein interaction assay. These findings suggest that binding of PRR2 to CML9 may be an important mechanism to modulate the physiological role of this transcription factor in plants.

  10. mTOR Signaling in Protein Translation Regulation: Implications in Cancer Genesis and Therapeutic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehvish Showkat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available mTOR is a central nutrient sensor that signals a cell to grow and proliferate. Through distinct protein complexes it regulates different levels of available cellular energy substrates required for cell growth. One of the important functions of the complex is to maintain available amino acid pool by regulating protein translation. Dysregulation of mTOR pathway leads to aberrant protein translation which manifests into various pathological states. Our review focuses on the role mTOR signaling plays in protein translation and its physiological role. It also throws some light on available data that show translation dysregulation as a cause of pathological complexities like cancer and the available drugs that target the pathway for cancer treatment.

  11. Associations between transcriptional changes and protein phenotypes provide insights into immune regulation in corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuess, Lauren E; Pinzόn C, Jorge H; Weil, Ernesto; Mydlarz, Laura D

    2016-09-01

    Disease outbreaks in marine ecosystems have driven worldwide declines of numerous taxa, including corals. Some corals, such as Orbicella faveolata, are particularly susceptible to disease. To explore the mechanisms contributing to susceptibility, colonies of O. faveolata were exposed to immune challenge with lipopolysaccharides. RNA sequencing and protein activity assays were used to characterize the response of corals to immune challenge. Differential expression analyses identified 17 immune-related transcripts that varied in expression post-immune challenge. Network analyses revealed several groups of transcripts correlated to immune protein activity. Several transcripts, which were annotated as positive regulators of immunity were included in these groups, and some were downregulated following immune challenge. Correlations between expression of these transcripts and protein activity results further supported the role of these transcripts in positive regulation of immunity. The observed pattern of gene expression and protein activity may elucidate the processes contributing to the disease susceptibility of species like O. faveolata. PMID:27109903

  12. Regulation of SUMO2 Target Proteins by the Proteasome in Human Cells Exposed to Replication Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bursomanno, Sara; McGouran, Joanna F; Kessler, Benedikt M;

    2015-01-01

    In human cells, SUMO2 is predominantly conjugated to target proteins in response to cellular stress. Previous studies suggested that proteins conjugated to SUMO2, but not to SUMO1, could be regulated by the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome system. Hence, we set out to understand the role of the prot......In human cells, SUMO2 is predominantly conjugated to target proteins in response to cellular stress. Previous studies suggested that proteins conjugated to SUMO2, but not to SUMO1, could be regulated by the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome system. Hence, we set out to understand the role...... of genome instability, which is suggested to drive tumorigenesis and possibly aging, our data will facilitate future functional studies in the fields of DNA metabolism and cancer biology....

  13. Endogenous occurrence of protein S-guanylation in Escherichia coli: Target identification and genetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsuki, Hiroyasu; Jung, Minkyung; Zhang, Tianli; Ono, Katsuhiko; Ida, Tomoaki; Kunieda, Kohei; Ihara, Hideshi; Akaike, Takaaki; Sawa, Tomohiro

    2016-09-01

    8-Nitroguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-nitro-cGMP) is a nitrated cGMP derivative formed in response to nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). It can cause a post-translational modification (PTM) of protein thiols through cGMP adduction (protein S-guanylation). Accumulating evidence has suggested that, in mammals, S-guanylation of redox-sensor proteins may implicate in regulation of adaptive responses against ROS-associated oxidative stress. Occurrence as well as protein targets of S-guanylation in bacteria remained unknown, however. Here we demonstrated, for the first time, the endogenous occurrence of protein S-guanylation in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Western blotting using anti-S-guanylation antibody clearly showed that multiple proteins were S-guanylated in E. coli. Interestingly, some of those proteins were more intensely S-guanylated when bacteria were cultured under static culture condition than shaking culture condition. It has been known that E. coli is deficient of guanylate cyclase, an enzyme indispensable for 8-nitro-cGMP formation in mammals. We found that adenylate cyclase from E. coli potentially catalyzed 8-nitro-cGMP formation from its precursor 8-nitroguanosine 5'-triphosphate. More importantly, E. coli lacking adenylate cyclase showed significantly reduced formation of S-guanylated proteins. Our S-guanylation proteomics successfully identified S-guanylation protein targets in E. coli, including chaperons, ribosomal proteins, and enzymes which associate with protein synthesis, redox regulation and metabolism. Understanding of functional impacts for protein S-guanylation in bacterial signal transduction is necessary basis for development of potential chemotherapy and new diagnostic strategy for control of pathogenic bacterial infections. PMID:27473654

  14. Glucocorticoids and 11β-HSD1 are major regulators of intramyocellular protein metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan-Smith, Zaki K; Doig, Craig L; Sherlock, Mark; Stewart, Paul M; Lavery, Gareth G

    2016-01-01

    The adverse metabolic effects of prescribed and endogenous glucocorticoid excess, ‘Cushing’s syndrome’, create a significant health burden. While skeletal muscle atrophy and resultant myopathy is a clinical feature, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these changes are not fully defined. We have characterized the impact of glucocorticoids upon key metabolic pathways and processes regulating muscle size and mass including: protein synthesis, protein degradation, and myoblast proliferation in both murine C2C12 and human primary myotube cultures. Furthermore, we have investigated the role of pre-receptor modulation of glucocorticoid availability by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in these processes. Corticosterone (CORT) decreased myotube area, decreased protein synthesis, and increased protein degradation in murine myotubes. This was supported by decreased mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF1), decreased activating phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), decreased phosphorylation of 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), and increased mRNA expression of key atrophy markers including: atrogin-1, forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a), myostatin (MSTN), and muscle-ring finger protein-1 (MuRF1). These findings were endorsed in human primary myotubes, where cortisol also decreased protein synthesis and increased protein degradation. The effects of 11-dehydrocorticosterone (11DHC) (in murine myotubes) and cortisone (in human myotubes) on protein metabolism were indistinguishable from that of CORT/cortisol treatments. Selective 11β-HSD1 inhibition blocked the decrease in protein synthesis, increase in protein degradation, and reduction in myotube area induced by 11DHC/cortisone. Furthermore, CORT/cortisol, but not 11DHC/cortisone, decreased murine and human myoblast proliferative capacity. Glucocorticoids are potent regulators of skeletal muscle protein homeostasis and myoblast proliferation. Our data underscores the potential use

  15. Glucocorticoids and 11β-HSD1 are major regulators of intramyocellular protein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Stuart A; Hassan-Smith, Zaki K; Doig, Craig L; Sherlock, Mark; Stewart, Paul M; Lavery, Gareth G

    2016-06-01

    The adverse metabolic effects of prescribed and endogenous glucocorticoid excess, 'Cushing's syndrome', create a significant health burden. While skeletal muscle atrophy and resultant myopathy is a clinical feature, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these changes are not fully defined. We have characterized the impact of glucocorticoids upon key metabolic pathways and processes regulating muscle size and mass including: protein synthesis, protein degradation, and myoblast proliferation in both murine C2C12 and human primary myotube cultures. Furthermore, we have investigated the role of pre-receptor modulation of glucocorticoid availability by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in these processes. Corticosterone (CORT) decreased myotube area, decreased protein synthesis, and increased protein degradation in murine myotubes. This was supported by decreased mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF1), decreased activating phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), decreased phosphorylation of 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), and increased mRNA expression of key atrophy markers including: atrogin-1, forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a), myostatin (MSTN), and muscle-ring finger protein-1 (MuRF1). These findings were endorsed in human primary myotubes, where cortisol also decreased protein synthesis and increased protein degradation. The effects of 11-dehydrocorticosterone (11DHC) (in murine myotubes) and cortisone (in human myotubes) on protein metabolism were indistinguishable from that of CORT/cortisol treatments. Selective 11β-HSD1 inhibition blocked the decrease in protein synthesis, increase in protein degradation, and reduction in myotube area induced by 11DHC/cortisone. Furthermore, CORT/cortisol, but not 11DHC/cortisone, decreased murine and human myoblast proliferative capacity. Glucocorticoids are potent regulators of skeletal muscle protein homeostasis and myoblast proliferation. Our data underscores the potential use of

  16. Endogenous occurrence of protein S-guanylation in Escherichia coli: Target identification and genetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsuki, Hiroyasu; Jung, Minkyung; Zhang, Tianli; Ono, Katsuhiko; Ida, Tomoaki; Kunieda, Kohei; Ihara, Hideshi; Akaike, Takaaki; Sawa, Tomohiro

    2016-09-01

    8-Nitroguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-nitro-cGMP) is a nitrated cGMP derivative formed in response to nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). It can cause a post-translational modification (PTM) of protein thiols through cGMP adduction (protein S-guanylation). Accumulating evidence has suggested that, in mammals, S-guanylation of redox-sensor proteins may implicate in regulation of adaptive responses against ROS-associated oxidative stress. Occurrence as well as protein targets of S-guanylation in bacteria remained unknown, however. Here we demonstrated, for the first time, the endogenous occurrence of protein S-guanylation in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Western blotting using anti-S-guanylation antibody clearly showed that multiple proteins were S-guanylated in E. coli. Interestingly, some of those proteins were more intensely S-guanylated when bacteria were cultured under static culture condition than shaking culture condition. It has been known that E. coli is deficient of guanylate cyclase, an enzyme indispensable for 8-nitro-cGMP formation in mammals. We found that adenylate cyclase from E. coli potentially catalyzed 8-nitro-cGMP formation from its precursor 8-nitroguanosine 5'-triphosphate. More importantly, E. coli lacking adenylate cyclase showed significantly reduced formation of S-guanylated proteins. Our S-guanylation proteomics successfully identified S-guanylation protein targets in E. coli, including chaperons, ribosomal proteins, and enzymes which associate with protein synthesis, redox regulation and metabolism. Understanding of functional impacts for protein S-guanylation in bacterial signal transduction is necessary basis for development of potential chemotherapy and new diagnostic strategy for control of pathogenic bacterial infections.

  17. Overview of OVATE FAMILY PROTEINS, a novel class of plant-specific growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shucai eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OVATE FAMILY PROTEINS (OFPs are a class of proteins with a conserved OVATE domain. OVATE protein was first identified in tomato as a key regulator of fruit shape. OFPs are plant-specific proteins that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom including mosses and lycophytes. Transcriptional activity analysis of Arabidopsis OFPs (AtOFPs in protoplasts suggests that they act as transcription repressors. Functional characterization of OFPs from different plant species including Arabidopsis, rice, tomato, pepper and banana suggests that OFPs regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development, which is likely achieved by interacting with different types of transcription factors including the KNOX and BELL classes, and/or directly regulating the expression of target genes such as Gibberellin 20 oxidase (GA20ox. Here, we examine how OVATE was originally identified, summarize recent progress in elucidation of the roles of OFPs in regulating plant growth and development, and describe possible mechanisms underpinning this regulation. Finally, we review potential new research directions that could shed additional light on the functional biology of OFPs in plants.

  18. Nuclear translocation of EGF receptor regulated by Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent membrane protein 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO; Yongguang; SONG; Xin; TAN; Yunnian; LIN; Xiaofeng; ZH

    2004-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is considered to be the major oncogenic protein of EBV encoded proteins, and also it has always been the core of the oncogenic mechanism of EBV. Traditional receptor theory demonstrates that cell surface receptors exert biological functions on the membrane, which neither enter into the nucleus nor directly affect the transcription of the target genes. But, advanced studies on nuclear translocation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family have greatly developed our knowledge of the biological function of cell surface receptors. In this study, we used Tet-on LMP1 HNE2 cell line as a cell model, which is a dual-stable LMP1 integrated NPC cell line and the expression of LMP1 in which could be regulated by Tet system. We found that LMP1 could regulate the nuclear translocation of EGFR in a dose-dependent manner from both quantitative and qualitative levels through the Western blot analysis and the immunofluorescent analysis with a laser scanning confocal microscope. We further demonstrated that the nuclear localization sequence of EGFR played some roles in the location of the protein within the nucleus under LMP1 regulation, and the nuclear accumulation of EGFR regulated by LMP1 was in a ligand-independent manner. These findings provide a novel view that the regulation of LMP1 on the nuclear translocation of EGFR is critical for the process of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  19. Overview of OVATE FAMILY PROTEINS, A Novel Class of Plant-Specific Growth Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shucai; Chang, Ying; Ellis, Brian

    2016-01-01

    OVATE FAMILY PROTEINS (OFPs) are a class of proteins with a conserved OVATE domain. OVATE protein was first identified in tomato as a key regulator of fruit shape. OFPs are plant-specific proteins that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom including mosses and lycophytes. Transcriptional activity analysis of Arabidopsis OFPs (AtOFPs) in protoplasts suggests that they act as transcription repressors. Functional characterization of OFPs from different plant species including Arabidopsis, rice, tomato, pepper, and banana suggests that OFPs regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development, which is likely achieved by interacting with different types of transcription factors including the KNOX and BELL classes, and/or directly regulating the expression of target genes such as Gibberellin 20 oxidase (GA20ox). Here, we examine how OVATE was originally identified, summarize recent progress in elucidation of the roles of OFPs in regulating plant growth and development, and describe possible mechanisms underpinning this regulation. Finally, we review potential new research directions that could shed additional light on the functional biology of OFPs in plants. PMID:27065353

  20. TOG Proteins Are Spatially Regulated by Rac-GSK3β to Control Interphase Microtubule Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn P Trogden

    Full Text Available Microtubules are regulated by a diverse set of proteins that localize to microtubule plus ends (+TIPs where they regulate dynamic instability and mediate interactions with the cell cortex, actin filaments, and organelles. Although individual +TIPs have been studied in depth and we understand their basic contributions to microtubule dynamics, there is a growing body of evidence that these proteins exhibit cross-talk and likely function to collectively integrate microtubule behavior and upstream signaling pathways. In this study, we have identified a novel protein-protein interaction between the XMAP215 homologue in Drosophila, Mini spindles (Msps, and the CLASP homologue, Orbit. These proteins have been shown to promote and suppress microtubule dynamics, respectively. We show that microtubule dynamics are regionally controlled in cells by Rac acting to suppress GSK3β in the peripheral lamellae/lamellipodium. Phosphorylation of Orbit by GSK3β triggers a relocalization of Msps from the microtubule plus end to the lattice. Mutation of the Msps-Orbit binding site revealed that this interaction is required for regulating microtubule dynamic instability in the cell periphery. Based on our findings, we propose that Msps is a novel Rac effector that acts, in partnership with Orbit, to regionally regulate microtubule dynamics.

  1. Involvement of 14-3-3 Proteins in Regulating Tumor Progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Ju; Jan, Yee-Jee; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Liang, Shu-Man; Liou, Jun-Yang

    2015-01-01

    There are seven mammalian isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein, which regulate multiple cellular functions via interactions with phosphorylated partners. Increased expression of 14-3-3 proteins contributes to tumor progression of various malignancies. Several isoforms of 14-3-3 are overexpressed and associate with higher metastatic risks and poorer survival rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ζ regulate HCC cell proliferation, tumor growth and chemosensitivity via modulating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 signal pathways. Moreover, 14-3-3ε suppresses E-cadherin and induces focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression, thereby enhancing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and HCC cell migration. 14-3-3ζ forms complexes with αB-crystallin, which induces EMT and is the cause of sorafenib resistance in HCC. Finally, a recent study has indicated that 14-3-3σ induces heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression, which increases HCC cell migration. These results suggest that selective 14-3-3 isoforms contribute to cell proliferation, EMT and cell migration of HCC by regulating distinct targets and signal pathways. Targeting 14-3-3 proteins together with specific downstream effectors therefore has potential to be therapeutic and prognostic factors of HCC. In this article, we will overview 14-3-3's regulation of its downstream factors and contributions to HCC EMT, cell migration and proliferation. PMID:26083935

  2. Involvement of 14-3-3 Proteins in Regulating Tumor Progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yi-Ju [Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan 350, Taiwan (China); Jan, Yee-Jee [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Ko, Bor-Sheng [Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Liang, Shu-Man; Liou, Jun-Yang, E-mail: jliou@nhri.org.tw [Institute of Cellular and System Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan 350, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-15

    There are seven mammalian isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein, which regulate multiple cellular functions via interactions with phosphorylated partners. Increased expression of 14-3-3 proteins contributes to tumor progression of various malignancies. Several isoforms of 14-3-3 are overexpressed and associate with higher metastatic risks and poorer survival rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ζ regulate HCC cell proliferation, tumor growth and chemosensitivity via modulating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 signal pathways. Moreover, 14-3-3ε suppresses E-cadherin and induces focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression, thereby enhancing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and HCC cell migration. 14-3-3ζ forms complexes with αB-crystallin, which induces EMT and is the cause of sorafenib resistance in HCC. Finally, a recent study has indicated that 14-3-3σ induces heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression, which increases HCC cell migration. These results suggest that selective 14-3-3 isoforms contribute to cell proliferation, EMT and cell migration of HCC by regulating distinct targets and signal pathways. Targeting 14-3-3 proteins together with specific downstream effectors therefore has potential to be therapeutic and prognostic factors of HCC. In this article, we will overview 14-3-3’s regulation of its downstream factors and contributions to HCC EMT, cell migration and proliferation.

  3. Involvement of 14-3-3 Proteins in Regulating Tumor Progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Wu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are seven mammalian isoforms of the 14-3-3 protein, which regulate multiple cellular functions via interactions with phosphorylated partners. Increased expression of 14-3-3 proteins contributes to tumor progression of various malignancies. Several isoforms of 14-3-3 are overexpressed and associate with higher metastatic risks and poorer survival rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. 14-3-3β and 14-3-3ζ regulate HCC cell proliferation, tumor growth and chemosensitivity via modulating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and p38 signal pathways. Moreover, 14-3-3ε suppresses E-cadherin and induces focal adhesion kinase (FAK expression, thereby enhancing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and HCC cell migration. 14-3-3ζ forms complexes with αB-crystallin, which induces EMT and is the cause of sorafenib resistance in HCC. Finally, a recent study has indicated that 14-3-3σ induces heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 expression, which increases HCC cell migration. These results suggest that selective 14-3-3 isoforms contribute to cell proliferation, EMT and cell migration of HCC by regulating distinct targets and signal pathways. Targeting 14-3-3 proteins together with specific downstream effectors therefore has potential to be therapeutic and prognostic factors of HCC. In this article, we will overview 14-3-3's regulation of its downstream factors and contributions to HCC EMT, cell migration and proliferation.

  4. Diverse protein regulations on PHA formation in Ralstonia eutropha on short chain organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Eun Lee, Qing X. Li, Jian Yu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic acids are considered as potential substrates for biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkaonates. The acids may also be the metabolic inhibitors at moderate concentration levels. In this study, Ralstonia eutropha was used to elucidate the protein regulations when the bacterial cells pre-cultivated on glucose were exposed to three representative short chain organic acids, acetic, propionic and levulinic acids. The research compared and examined the proteins that might participate in PHA metabolism, primary metabolism, and cell's defense systems. A number of proteins were found to be induced in R. eutropha by using 1D-PAGE and nano-liquid chromatography tandem MS/MS. With the proteins being up-regulated, a dramatic change occurred in the induction of PHA metabolism, including fatty acid biosynthesis for acetate, β-oxidation for propionate and both for levulinic acid. Acetate kinase was induced in response to the presence of acetate or levulinic acid. The organic acids induced several proteins involved in amino acid biosynthesis, purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis, and cofactor biosynthesis in R. eutropha, but the regulations had a great variation. R. eutropha might employ different regulation mechanisms to maintain cell growth and PHA formation when the cells are exposed to the organic acids as sole source of carbon and energy.

  5. Regulation of starch accumulation by granule-associated plant 14-3-3 proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Sehnke, Paul C.; Chung, Hwa-Jee; Wu, Ke; Ferl, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    In higher plants the production of starch is orchestrated by chloroplast-localized biosynthetic enzymes, namely starch synthases, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, and starch branching and debranching enzymes. Diurnal regulation of these enzymes, as well as starch-degrading enzymes, influences both the levels and composition of starch, and is dependent in some instances upon phosphorylation-linked regulation. The phosphoserine/threonine-binding 14-3-3 proteins partici...

  6. Bardet–Biedl syndrome proteins 1 and 3 regulate the ciliary trafficking of polycystic kidney disease 1 protein

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Xuefeng; Driscoll, Kaitlin; Yao, Gang; Raed, Anas; Wu, Maoqing; Beales, Philip L.; Zhou, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Bardet–Biedl syndrome (BBS) and autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) are two genetically distinct ciliopathies but share common phenotypes such as renal cysts. Seven BBS proteins form a complex called the BBSome which is localized at the basal body or ciliary axoneme and regulates the ciliary entry or flagellar exit of several signaling molecules. Here, we demonstrate that, unlike the seven-span somatostatin receptor 3 or the leptin receptor that interacts with all subunits of...

  7. Endosomal SNARE proteins regulate CFTR activity and trafficking in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilan, Frédéric; Nacfer, Magali; Fresquet, Fleur; Norez, Caroline; Melin, Patricia; Martin-Berge, Alice; Costa de Beauregard, Marie-Alyette; Becq, Frédéric; Kitzis, Alain; Thoreau, Vincent

    2008-07-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein is a chloride channel localized at the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells. We previously described that syntaxin 8, an endosomal SNARE (Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor Attachment protein REceptor) protein, interacts with CFTR and regulates its trafficking to the plasma membrane and hence its channel activity. Syntaxin 8 belongs to the endosomal SNARE complex which also contains syntaxin 7, vti1b and VAMP8. Here, we report that these four endosomal SNARE proteins physically and functionally interact with CFTR. In LLC-PK1 cells transfected with CFTR and in Caco-2 cells endogenously expressing CFTR, we demonstrated that endosomal SNARE protein overexpression inhibits CFTR activity but not swelling- or calcium-activated iodide efflux, indicating a specific effect upon CFTR activity. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation experiments in LLC-PK1-CFTR cells showed that CFTR and SNARE proteins belong to a same complex and pull-down assays showed that VAMP8 and vti1b preferentially interact with CFTR N-terminus tail. By cell surface biotinylation and immunofluorescence experiments, we evidenced that endosomal SNARE overexpression disturbs CFTR apical targeting. Finally, we found a colocalization of CFTR and endosomal SNARE proteins in Rab11-positive recycling endosomes, suggesting a new role for endosomal SNARE proteins in CFTR trafficking in epithelial cells.

  8. Proteomic and Functional Analyses Reveal MAPK1 Regulates Milk Protein Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Jun Gao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available L-Lysine (L-Lys is an essential amino acid that plays fundamental roles in protein synthesis. Many nuclear phosphorylated proteins such as Stat5 and mTOR regulate milk protein synthesis. However, the details of milk protein synthesis control at the transcript and translational levels are not well known. In this current study, a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE/MS-based proteomic technology was used to identify phosphoproteins responsible for milk protein synthesis in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs. The effect of L-Lys on DCMECs was analyzed by CASY technology and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The results showed that cell proliferation ability and β-casein expression were enhanced in DCMECs treated with L-Lys. By phosphoproteomics analysis, six proteins, including MAPK1, were identified up-expressed in DCMECs treated with 1.2 mM L-Lys for 24 h, and were verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and western blot. Overexpression and siRNA inhibition of MAPK1 experiments showed that MAPK1 upregulated milk protein synthesis through Stat5 and mTOR pathway. These findings that MAPK1 involves in regulation of milk synthesis shed new insights for understanding the mechanisms of milk protein synthesis.

  9. Regulation of DEAH/RHA Helicases by G-Patch Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Robert-Paganin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA helicases from the DEAH/RHA family are present in all the processes of RNA metabolism. The function of two helicases from this family, Prp2 and Prp43, is regulated by protein partners containing a G-patch domain. The G-patch is a glycine-rich domain discovered by sequence alignment, involved in protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interaction. Although it has been shown to stimulate the helicase’s enzymatic activities, the precise role of the G-patch domain remains unclear. The role of G-patch proteins in the regulation of Prp43 activity has been studied in the two biological processes in which it is involved: splicing and ribosome biogenesis. Depending on the pathway, the activity of Prp43 is modulated by different G-patch proteins. A particular feature of the structure of DEAH/RHA helicases revealed by the Prp43 structure is the OB-fold domain in C-terminal part. The OB-fold has been shown to be a platform responsible for the interaction with G-patch proteins and RNA. Though there is still no structural data on the G-patch domain, in the current model, the interaction between the helicase, the G-patch protein, and RNA leads to a cooperative binding of RNA and conformational changes of the helicase.

  10. Regulator of G-protein signaling - 5 (RGS5 is a novel repressor of hedgehog signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Mahoney

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling plays fundamental roles in morphogenesis, tissue repair, and human disease. Initiation of Hh signaling is controlled by the interaction of two multipass membrane proteins, patched (Ptc and smoothened (Smo. Recent studies identify Smo as a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR-like protein that signals through large G-protein complexes which contain the Gαi subunit. We hypothesize Regulator of G-Protein Signaling (RGS proteins, and specifically RGS5, are endogenous repressors of Hh signaling via their ability to act as GTPase activating proteins (GAPs for GTP-bound Gαi, downstream of Smo. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrate that RGS5 over-expression inhibits sonic hedgehog (Shh-mediated signaling and osteogenesis in C3H10T1/2 cells. Conversely, signaling is potentiated by siRNA-mediated knock-down of RGS5 expression, but not RGS4 expression. Furthermore, using immuohistochemical analysis and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP, we demonstrate that RGS5 is present with Smo in primary cilia. This organelle is required for canonical Hh signaling in mammalian cells, and RGS5 is found in a physical complex with Smo in these cells. We therefore conclude that RGS5 is an endogenous regulator of Hh-mediated signaling and that RGS proteins are potential targets for novel therapeutics in Hh-mediated diseases.

  11. Distinct Mechanisms Regulate ATGL-Mediated Adipocyte Lipolysis by Lipid Droplet Coat Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xingyuan; Heckmann, Bradlee L; Zhang, Xiaodong; Smas, Cynthia M.; Liu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the key triacylglycerol hydrolase in adipocytes. The precise mechanisms by which ATGL action is regulated by lipid droplet (LD) coat proteins and responds to hormonal stimulation are incompletely defined. By combining usage of loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we sought to determine the respective roles of perilipin 1 and fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) in the control of ATGL-mediated lipolysis in adipocytes. Knockdown of endogenous perilipin 1 expre...

  12. A chemical screen identifies class A G-protein coupled receptors as regulators of cilia

    OpenAIRE

    Avasthi, Prachee; Marley, Aaron; Lin, Henry; Gregori-Puigjane, Elisabet; Shoichet, Brian K.; von Zastrow, Mark; Marshall, Wallace F.

    2012-01-01

    Normal cilia length and motility are critical for proper cellular function. Prior studies of the regulation of ciliary structure and length have primarily focused on the intraflagellar transport machinery and motor proteins required for ciliary assembly and disassembly. However, several mutants with abnormal length flagella highlight the importance of signaling proteins as well. In this study, an unbiased chemical screen was performed to uncover signaling pathways that are critical for ciliog...

  13. Endothelial Function and the Regulation of Muscle Protein Anabolism in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Timmerman, Kyle L.; Volpi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with aging, is a major contributor to frailty and morbidity in older adults. Recent evidence has emerged suggesting that endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance of muscle protein metabolism may significantly contribute to the development of sarcopenia. In this article we review: 1) recent studies and theories on the regulation of skeletal muscle protein balance in older adults; 2) the link between insulin-resistance of muscle pr...

  14. Hormone response element binding proteins: novel regulators of vitamin D and estrogen signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Lisse, Thomas S.; Hewison, Martin; Adams, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Insights from vitamin D-resistant New World primates and their human homologues as models of natural and pathological insensitivity to sterol/steroid action have uncovered a family of novel intracellular vitamin D and estrogen regulatory proteins involved in hormone action. The proteins, known as “vitamin D or estrogen response element-binding proteins”, behave as potent cis-acting, transdominant regulators to inhibit steroid receptor binding to DNA response elements and is responsible for vi...

  15. Hepatitis C virus core protein induces energy metabolism disorders of hepatocytes by down-regulation of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog-1 and adenosine monophosphate-acti vated protein kinase signaling pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于建武

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the role of silent mating type information regulation2homotog-1(SIRT1)-adenosine monophosphate(AMP)-activated protein kinase(AMPK) signaling pathway in hepatitis C virus core protein(HCV-core)induced energy metabolism disorders

  16. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK mediates nutrient regulation of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP in pancreatic beta-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maayan Shaked

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP regulates critical biological processes including inflammation, stress and apoptosis. TXNIP is upregulated by glucose and is a critical mediator of hyperglycemia-induced beta-cell apoptosis in diabetes. In contrast, the saturated long-chain fatty acid palmitate, although toxic to the beta-cell, inhibits TXNIP expression. The mechanisms involved in the opposing effects of glucose and fatty acids on TXNIP expression are unknown. We found that both palmitate and oleate inhibited TXNIP in a rat beta-cell line and islets. Palmitate inhibition of TXNIP was independent of fatty acid beta-oxidation or esterification. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK has an important role in cellular energy sensing and control of metabolic homeostasis; therefore we investigated its involvement in nutrient regulation of TXNIP. As expected, glucose inhibited whereas palmitate stimulated AMPK. Pharmacologic activators of AMPK mimicked fatty acids by inhibiting TXNIP. AMPK knockdown increased TXNIP expression in presence of high glucose with and without palmitate, indicating that nutrient (glucose and fatty acids effects on TXNIP are mediated in part via modulation of AMPK activity. TXNIP is transcriptionally regulated by carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP. Palmitate inhibited glucose-stimulated ChREBP nuclear entry and recruitment to the Txnip promoter, thereby inhibiting Txnip transcription. We conclude that AMPK is an important regulator of Txnip transcription via modulation of ChREBP activity. The divergent effects of glucose and fatty acids on TXNIP expression result in part from their opposing effects on AMPK activity. In light of the important role of TXNIP in beta-cell apoptosis, its inhibition by fatty acids can be regarded as an adaptive/protective response to glucolipotoxicity. The finding that AMPK mediates nutrient regulation of TXNIP may have important implications for the pathophysiology and treatment

  17. Regulation of the activity of the dual-function DnaA protein in Caulobacter crescentus.

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    Carmen Fernandez-Fernandez

    Full Text Available DnaA is a conserved essential bacterial protein that acts as the initiator of chromosomal replication as well as a master transcriptional regulator in Caulobacter crescentus. Thus, the intracellular levels of active DnaA need to be tightly regulated during the cell cycle. Our previous work suggested that DnaA may be regulated at the level of its activity by the replisome-associated protein HdaA. Here, we describe the construction of a mutant DnaA protein [DnaA(R357A]. The R357 residue in the AAA+ domain of the C. crescentus DnaA protein is equivalent to the R334 residue of the E. coli DnaA protein, which is required for the Regulatory Inactivation of DnaA (RIDA. We found that the expression of the DnaA(R357A mutant protein in C. crescentus, but not the expression of the wild-type DnaA protein at similar levels, causes a severe phenotype of over-initiation of chromosomal replication and that it blocks cell division. Thus, the mutant DnaA(R357A protein is hyper-active to promote the initiation of DNA replication, compared to the wild-type DnaA protein. DnaA(R357A could not replace DnaA in vivo, indicating that the switch in DnaA activity once chromosomal replication has started may be an essential process in C. crescentus. We propose that the inactivation of DnaA is the main mechanism ensuring that chromosomal replication starts only once per cell cycle. We further observed that the R357A substitution in DnaA does not promote the activity of DnaA as a direct transcriptional activator of four important genes, encoding HdaA, the GcrA master cell cycle regulator, the FtsZ cell division protein and the MipZ spatial regulator of cell division. Thus, the AAA+ domain of DnaA may play a role in temporally regulating the bifunctionality of DnaA by reallocating DnaA molecules from initiating DNA replication to transcribing genes within the unique DnaA regulon of C. crescentus.

  18. Regulation of the activity of the dual-function DnaA protein in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Carmen; Gonzalez, Diego; Collier, Justine

    2011-01-01

    DnaA is a conserved essential bacterial protein that acts as the initiator of chromosomal replication as well as a master transcriptional regulator in Caulobacter crescentus. Thus, the intracellular levels of active DnaA need to be tightly regulated during the cell cycle. Our previous work suggested that DnaA may be regulated at the level of its activity by the replisome-associated protein HdaA. Here, we describe the construction of a mutant DnaA protein [DnaA(R357A)]. The R357 residue in the AAA+ domain of the C. crescentus DnaA protein is equivalent to the R334 residue of the E. coli DnaA protein, which is required for the Regulatory Inactivation of DnaA (RIDA). We found that the expression of the DnaA(R357A) mutant protein in C. crescentus, but not the expression of the wild-type DnaA protein at similar levels, causes a severe phenotype of over-initiation of chromosomal replication and that it blocks cell division. Thus, the mutant DnaA(R357A) protein is hyper-active to promote the initiation of DNA replication, compared to the wild-type DnaA protein. DnaA(R357A) could not replace DnaA in vivo, indicating that the switch in DnaA activity once chromosomal replication has started may be an essential process in C. crescentus. We propose that the inactivation of DnaA is the main mechanism ensuring that chromosomal replication starts only once per cell cycle. We further observed that the R357A substitution in DnaA does not promote the activity of DnaA as a direct transcriptional activator of four important genes, encoding HdaA, the GcrA master cell cycle regulator, the FtsZ cell division protein and the MipZ spatial regulator of cell division. Thus, the AAA+ domain of DnaA may play a role in temporally regulating the bifunctionality of DnaA by reallocating DnaA molecules from initiating DNA replication to transcribing genes within the unique DnaA regulon of C. crescentus.

  19. Identiifcation of the Regulator of G-Protein Signaling Protein Responsive to Plant Hormones and Abiotic Stresses in Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yun; ZHU Xia; ZHU Xiao-bin; YU Yi-fan; GE Hui-min; GAO Yong; LIANG Jian-sheng

    2014-01-01

    Regulator of G protein signaling proteins (RGS) accelerate the rate of GTP hydrolysis by Gαproteins, thus acting as negative regulators of G-protein signaling. Studies on Arabidopsis and soybean have proven that RGS proteins are physiologically important in plants and contribute to the signaling pathways regulated by different stimuli. Brassica napus is an important agriculturally relevant plant, the wildly planted oilseed rape in the world, which possesses an identiifed Gα, Gβand Gγsubunits. In the present study, we identiifed and characterized a Brassica napus RGS gene, BnRGS1, which contained an open reading frame of 1 380 bp encoding a putative 52.6 kDa polypeptide of 459 amino acids, within seven putative transmembrane domains in the N-terminal and RGS box in the C-terminal. BnRGS1 is located on the membrane in onion epidermal cells and tobacco leaves, and interacts with BnGA1 in the mating-based split-ubiquitin system. The expression levels of BnRGS1 were quite different in different tissues and developmental stages, and induced by abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The effects of gibberellin (GA3) and brassinolide (BR) on the expression of BnRGS1 were irregular under the concentrations tested. Moreover, the transcript level of BnRGS1 was also induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG), whereas remained little changed by 200 mmol L-1 NaCl. These results suggested that the BnRGS1 may be involved in B. napus response to plant hormone signaling and abiotic stresses.

  20. Recent Progress in Understanding Subtype Specific Regulation of NMDA Receptors by G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs are the largest family of receptors whose ligands constitute nearly a third of prescription drugs in the market. They are widely involved in diverse physiological functions including learning and memory. NMDA receptors (NMDARs, which belong to the ionotropic glutamate receptor family, are likewise ubiquitously expressed in the central nervous system (CNS and play a pivotal role in learning and memory. Despite its critical contribution to physiological and pathophysiological processes, few pharmacological interventions aimed directly at regulating NMDAR function have been developed to date. However, it is well established that NMDAR function is precisely regulated by cellular signalling cascades recruited downstream of G protein coupled receptor (GPCR stimulation. Accordingly, the downstream regulation of NMDARs likely represents an important determinant of outcome following treatment with neuropsychiatric agents that target selected GPCRs. Importantly, the functional consequence of such regulation on NMDAR function varies, based not only on the identity of the GPCR, but also on the cell type in which relevant receptors are expressed. Indeed, the mechanisms responsible for regulating NMDARs by GPCRs involve numerous intracellular signalling molecules and regulatory proteins that vary from one cell type to another. In the present article, we highlight recent findings from studies that have uncovered novel mechanisms by which selected GPCRs regulate NMDAR function and consequently NMDAR-dependent plasticity.

  1. Trm9-Catalyzed tRNA Modifications Regulate Global Protein Expression by Codon-Biased Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wenjun; Babu, I. Ramesh; Su, Dan; Yin, Shanye; Begley, Thomas J.; Dedon, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional modifications of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) have long been recognized to play crucial roles in regulating the rate and fidelity of translation. However, the extent to which they determine global protein production remains poorly understood. Here we use quantitative proteomics to show a direct link between wobble uridine 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl (mcm5) and 5-methoxy-carbonyl-methyl-2-thio (mcm5s2) modifications catalyzed by tRNA methyltransferase 9 (Trm9) in tRNAArg(UCU) and tRNAGlu(UUC) and selective translation of proteins from genes enriched with their cognate codons. Controlling for bias in protein expression and alternations in mRNA expression, we find that loss of Trm9 selectively impairs expression of proteins from genes enriched with AGA and GAA codons under both normal and stress conditions. Moreover, we show that AGA and GAA codons occur with high frequency in clusters along the transcripts, which may play a role in modulating translation. Consistent with these results, proteins subject to enhanced ribosome pausing in yeast lacking mcm5U and mcm5s2U are more likely to be down-regulated and contain a larger number of AGA/GAA clusters. Together, these results suggest that Trm9-catalyzed tRNA modifications play a significant role in regulating protein expression within the cell. PMID:26670883

  2. Trm9-Catalyzed tRNA Modifications Regulate Global Protein Expression by Codon-Biased Translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Deng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-transcriptional modifications of transfer RNAs (tRNAs have long been recognized to play crucial roles in regulating the rate and fidelity of translation. However, the extent to which they determine global protein production remains poorly understood. Here we use quantitative proteomics to show a direct link between wobble uridine 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl (mcm5 and 5-methoxy-carbonyl-methyl-2-thio (mcm5s2 modifications catalyzed by tRNA methyltransferase 9 (Trm9 in tRNAArg(UCU and tRNAGlu(UUC and selective translation of proteins from genes enriched with their cognate codons. Controlling for bias in protein expression and alternations in mRNA expression, we find that loss of Trm9 selectively impairs expression of proteins from genes enriched with AGA and GAA codons under both normal and stress conditions. Moreover, we show that AGA and GAA codons occur with high frequency in clusters along the transcripts, which may play a role in modulating translation. Consistent with these results, proteins subject to enhanced ribosome pausing in yeast lacking mcm5U and mcm5s2U are more likely to be down-regulated and contain a larger number of AGA/GAA clusters. Together, these results suggest that Trm9-catalyzed tRNA modifications play a significant role in regulating protein expression within the cell.

  3. SRFR1 negatively regulates plant NB-LRR resistance protein accumulation to prevent autoimmunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhong Li

    Full Text Available Plant defense responses need to be tightly regulated to prevent auto-immunity, which is detrimental to growth and development. To identify negative regulators of Resistance (R protein-mediated resistance, we screened for mutants with constitutive defense responses in the npr1-1 background. Map-based cloning revealed that one of the mutant genes encodes a conserved TPR domain-containing protein previously known as SRFR1 (SUPPRESSOR OF rps4-RLD. The constitutive defense responses in the srfr1 mutants in Col-0 background are suppressed by mutations in SNC1, which encodes a TIR-NB-LRR (Toll Interleukin1 Receptor-Nucleotide Binding-Leu-Rich Repeat R protein. Yeast two-hybrid screens identified SGT1a and SGT1b as interacting proteins of SRFR1. The interactions between SGT1 and SRFR1 were further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation analysis. In srfr1 mutants, levels of multiple NB-LRR R proteins including SNC1, RPS2 and RPS4 are increased. Increased accumulation of SNC1 is also observed in the sgt1b mutant. Our data suggest that SRFR1 functions together with SGT1 to negatively regulate R protein accumulation, which is required for preventing auto-activation of plant immunity.

  4. SRFR1 Negatively Regulates Plant NB-LRR Resistance Protein Accumulation to Prevent Autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingzhong; Li, Shuxin; Bi, Dongling; Cheng, Yu Ti; Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuelin

    2010-01-01

    Plant defense responses need to be tightly regulated to prevent auto-immunity, which is detrimental to growth and development. To identify negative regulators of Resistance (R) protein-mediated resistance, we screened for mutants with constitutive defense responses in the npr1-1 background. Map-based cloning revealed that one of the mutant genes encodes a conserved TPR domain-containing protein previously known as SRFR1 (SUPPRESSOR OF rps4-RLD). The constitutive defense responses in the srfr1 mutants in Col-0 background are suppressed by mutations in SNC1, which encodes a TIR-NB-LRR (Toll Interleukin1 Receptor-Nucleotide Binding-Leu-Rich Repeat) R protein. Yeast two-hybrid screens identified SGT1a and SGT1b as interacting proteins of SRFR1. The interactions between SGT1 and SRFR1 were further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation analysis. In srfr1 mutants, levels of multiple NB-LRR R proteins including SNC1, RPS2 and RPS4 are increased. Increased accumulation of SNC1 is also observed in the sgt1b mutant. Our data suggest that SRFR1 functions together with SGT1 to negatively regulate R protein accumulation, which is required for preventing auto-activation of plant immunity. PMID:20862316

  5. Proteomic analysis of down-regulated proteins in colonic mucosa of chronic slow transit constipation rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xingwei; Liu Haifeng; Xu Mei; Chen Gang; He Juntang; Wang Guoan; Teng Xiaochun; Fang Dianchun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the alternations of proteins in the colonic mucosa of chronic slow transit constipation (STC) rats with a 2-DE-based proteomic method and analyze the function of these down-regulated proteins so as to provide theoretical basis for the pathogenesis of intestinal mucosa of chronic STC rats. Methods: STC model was established by feeding rats with 8 mg/(kg·d) diphenoxylate for 120 d. An experimental model of chronic STC rat was used for separation of proteomics from colonic mucosa using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Proteins altered in expressional level were identified by Image Master 2DElite, mass spectrometry, and bibliometrics were applied to identify the differential protein expression and their clinical significance and function were analyzed. Results: Obvious differential protein expression was observed in the pathogenesis of STC, including mast cell protease (Al), non-specific dipeptidase (A2) and chondrosome succinate dehydrogenase precursor (A3). The expressions of Al, A2 and A3 were down-regulated in the gel graph of STC rats. Conclusion: The down-regulation of chondrosome succinate dehydrogenase, mast cell protease as well as non-specific dipeptidase in rat colon suggests the functional impairment of the oxidoreduction of mitochondrion is very important in the genesis and development of STC. The immunological reaction of STC rats is weakened, and the function of digesting and absorbing protein may be damaged to some extent.

  6. Flow-dependent regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: role of protein kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Yong Chool; Jo, Hanjoong

    2003-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells are directly and continuously exposed to fluid shear stress generated by blood flow. Shear stress regulates endothelial structure and function by controlling expression of mechanosensitive genes and production of vasoactive factors such as nitric oxide (NO). Though it is well known that shear stress stimulates NO production from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear and controversial. Shear-induced production of NO involves Ca2+/calmodulin-independent mechanisms, including phosphorylation of eNOS at several sites and its interaction with other proteins, including caveolin and heat shock protein-90. There have been conflicting results as to which protein kinases-protein kinase A, protein kinase B (Akt), other Ser/Thr protein kinases, or tyrosine kinases-are responsible for shear-dependent eNOS regulation. The functional significance of each phosphorylation site is still unclear. We have attempted to summarize the current status of understanding in shear-dependent eNOS regulation.

  7. RNAi mediated acute depletion of Retinoblastoma protein (pRb promotes aneuploidy in human primary cells via micronuclei formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovino Flora

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in chromosome number or structure as well as supernumerary centrosomes and multipolar mitoses are commonly observed in human tumors. Thus, centrosome amplification and mitotic checkpoint dysfunctions are believed possible causes of chromosomal instability. The Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (RB participates in the regulation of synchrony between DNA synthesis and centrosome duplication and it is involved in transcription regulation of some mitotic genes. Primary human fibroblasts were transfected transiently with short interfering RNA (siRNA specific for human pRb to investigate the effects of pRb acute loss on chromosomal stability. Results Acutely pRb-depleted fibroblasts showed altered expression of genes necessary for cell cycle progression, centrosome homeostasis, kinetochore and mitotic checkpoint proteins. Despite altered expression of genes involved in the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC the checkpoint seemed to function properly in pRb-depleted fibroblasts. In particular AURORA-A and PLK1 overexpression suggested that these two genes might have a role in the observed genomic instability. However, when they were post-transcriptionally silenced in pRb-depleted fibroblasts we did not observe reduction in the number of aneuploid cells. This finding suggests that overexpression of these two genes did not contribute to genomic instability triggered by RB acute loss although it affected cell proliferation. Acutely pRb-depleted human fibroblasts showed the presence of micronuclei containing whole chromosomes besides the presence of supernumerary centrosomes and aneuploidy. Conclusion Here we show for the first time that RB acute loss triggers centrosome amplification and aneuploidy in human primary fibroblasts. Altogether, our results suggest that pRb-depleted primary human fibroblasts possess an intact spindle checkpoint and that micronuclei, likely caused by mis-attached kinetochores that in turn trigger

  8. Sobriety checkpoints in Thailand: a review of effectiveness and developments over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditsuwan, Vallop; Veerman, J Lennert; Bertram, Melanie; Vos, Theo

    2015-03-01

    This review describes the legal basis for and implementation of sobriety checkpoints in Thailand and identifies factors that influenced their historical development and effectiveness. The first alcohol and traffic injury control law in Thailand was implemented in 1934. The 0.05 g/100 mL blood alcohol concentration limit was set in 1994. Currently, 3 types of sobriety checkpoints are used: general police checkpoints, selective breath testing, and special event sobriety checkpoints. The authors found few reports on the strategies, frequencies, and outcomes for any of these types of checkpoints, despite Thailand having devoted many resources to their implementation. In Thailand and other low-middle income countries, it is necessary to address the country-specific barriers to successful enforcement (including political and logistical issues, lack of equipment, and absence of other supportive alcohol harm reduction measures) before sobriety checkpoints can be expected to be as effective as reported in high-income countries.

  9. Emodnet Med Sea Check-Point - Indicators for decision- maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Sophie; Claverie, Vincent; Blanc, Frédérique

    2015-04-01

    The Emodnet Checkpoint projects aim is to assess the cost-effectiveness, reliability and utility of the existing monitoring at the sea basin level. This involves the development of monitoring system indicators and a GIS Platform to perform the assessment and make it available. Assessment or production of Check-Point information is made by developing targeted products based on the monitoring data and determining whether the products are meeting the needs of industry and public authorities. Check-point users are the research community, the 'institutional' policy makers for IMP and MSFD implementation, the 'intermediate users', i.e., users capable to understand basic raw data but that benefit from seeing the Checkpoint targeted products and the assessment of the fitness for purpose. We define assessment criteria aimed to characterize/depict the input datasets in terms of 3 territories capable to show performance and gaps of the present monitoring system, appropriateness, availability and fitness for purpose. • Appropriateness: What is made available to users? What motivate/decide them to select this observation rather than this one. • Availability: How this is made available to the user? Place to understand the readiness and service performance of the EU infrastructure • Fitness for use / fitness for purpose: Ability for non-expert user to appreciate the data exploitability (feedback on efficiency & reliability of marine data) For each territory (appropriateness, Availability and Fitness for purpose / for use), we define several indicators. For example, for Availability we define Visibility, Accessibility and Performance. And Visibility is itself defined by "Easily found" and "EU service". So these indicators can be classified according to their territory and sub-territory as seen above, but also according to the complexity to build them. Indicators are built from raw descriptors in 3 stages:  Stage 1: to give a neutral and basic status directly computed from

  10. Protein disulfide isomerase-like protein 1-1 controls endosperm development through regulation of the amount and composition of seed proteins in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Jeong Kim

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI is a chaperone protein involved in oxidative protein folding by acting as a catalyst and assisting folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. A genome database search showed that rice contains 19 PDI-like genes. However, their functions are not clearly identified. This paper shows possible functions of rice PDI-like protein 1-1 (PDIL1-1 during seed development. Seeds of the T-DNA insertion PDIL1-1 mutant, PDIL1-1Δ, identified by genomic DNA PCR and western blot analysis, display a chalky phenotype and a thick aleurone layer. Protein content per seed was significantly lower and free sugar content higher in PDIL1-1Δ mutant seeds than in the wild type. Proteomic analysis of PDIL1-1Δ mutant seeds showed that PDIL1-1 is post-translationally regulated, and its loss causes accumulation of many types of seed proteins including glucose/starch metabolism- and ROS (reactive oxygen species scavenging-related proteins. In addition, PDIL1-1 strongly interacts with the cysteine protease OsCP1. Our data indicate that the opaque phenotype of PDIL1-1Δ mutant seeds results from production of irregular starch granules and protein body through loss of regulatory activity for various proteins involved in the synthesis of seed components.

  11. Toxicities of the anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, J; Page, D B; Li, B T; Connell, L C; Schindler, K; Lacouture, M E; Postow, M A; Wolchok, J D

    2015-12-01

    Immune checkpoint antibodies that augment the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 pathway have demonstrated antitumor activity across multiple malignancies, and gained recent regulatory approval as single-agent therapy for the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma and nonsmall-cell lung cancer. Knowledge of toxicities associated with PD-1/PD-L1 blockade, as well as effective management algorithms for these toxicities, is pivotal in order to optimize clinical efficacy and safety. In this article, we review selected published and presented clinical studies investigating single-agent anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy and trials of combination approaches with other standard anticancer therapies, in multiple tumor types. We summarize the key adverse events reported in these studies and their management algorithms. PMID:26371282

  12. Down-regulation of CTLA-4 by HIV-1 Nef protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed El-Far; Catherine Isabelle; Nicolas Chomont; Martin Bourbonnière; Simone Fonseca; Petronela Ancuta; Yoav Peretz; Younes Chouikh; Rabih Halwani; Olivier Schwartz; Joaquín Madrenas; Freeman, Gordon J.; Jean-Pierre Routy; Haddad, Elias K.; Rafick-Pierre Sékaly

    2013-01-01

    International audience HIV-1 Nef protein down-regulates several cell surface receptors through its interference with the cell sorting and trafficking machinery. Here we demonstrate for the first time the ability of Nef to down-regulate cell surface expression of the negative immune modulator CTLA-4. Down-regulation of CTLA-4 required the Nef motifs DD175, EE155 and LL165, all known to be involved in vesicle trafficking. Disruption of the lysosomal functions by pH-neutralizing agents preven...

  13. Proteomic analysis identifies interleukin 11 regulated plasma membrane proteins in human endometrial epithelial cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanton Peter G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the peri-implantation period, the embryo adheres to an adequately prepared or receptive endometrial surface epithelium. Abnormal embryo adhesion to the endometrium results in embryo implantation failure and infertility. Endometrial epithelial cell plasma membrane proteins critical in regulating adhesion may potentially be infertility biomarkers or targets for treating infertility. Interleukin (IL 11 regulates human endometrial epithelial cells (hEEC adhesion. Its production is abnormal in women with infertility. The objective of the study was to identify IL11 regulated plasma membrane proteins in hEEC in vitro using a proteomic approach. Methods Using a 2D-differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE electrophoresis combined with LCMS/MS mass spectrometry approach, we identified 20 unique plasma membrane proteins differentially regulated by IL11 in ECC-1 cells, a hEEC derived cell line. Two IL11 regulated proteins with known roles in cell adhesion, annexin A2 (ANXA2 and flotillin-1 (FLOT1, were validated by Western blot and immunocytochemistry in hEEC lines (ECC-1 and an additional cell line, Ishikawa and primary hEEC. Flotilin-1 was further validated by immunohistochemistry in human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle (n = 6-8/cycle. Results 2D-DIGE analysis identified 4 spots that were significantly different between control and IL11 treated group. Of these 4 spots, there were 20 proteins that were identified with LCMS/MS. Two proteins; ANXA2 and FLOT1 were chosen for further analyses and have found to be significantly up-regulated following IL11 treatment. Western blot analysis showed a 2-fold and a 2.5-fold increase of ANXA2 in hEEC membrane fraction of ECC-1 and Ishikawa cells respectively. Similarly, a 1.8-fold and a 2.3/2.4-fold increase was also observed for FLOT1 in hEEC membrane fraction of ECC-1 and Ishikawa cells respectively. In vitro, IL11 induced stronger ANXA2 expression on cell surface of primary h

  14. AMP-activated protein kinase regulates nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase expression in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandauer, Josef; Vienberg, Sara Gry; Andersen, Marianne Agerholm;

    2013-01-01

    -activated protein kinase (AMPK) increases sirtuin activity by elevating NAD levels. As NAM directly inhibits sirtuins, increased Nampt activation or expression could be a metabolic stress response. Evidence suggests that AMPK regulates Nampt mRNA content, but whether repeated AMPK activation is necessary for...... increasing Nampt protein levels is unknown. To this end, we assessed whether exercise training- or 5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR)-mediated increases in skeletal muscle Nampt abundance are AMPK dependant. One-legged knee-extensor exercise training in humans increased Nampt protein...

  15. Identification of Hypoxia-Regulated Proteins Using MALDI-Mass Spectrometry Imaging Combined with Quantitative Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djidja, Marie-Claude; Chang, Joan; Hadjiprocopis, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    quantitative proteomics combined with MALDI-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). Here we present a comprehensive hypoxic proteome study and are the first to investigate changes in situ using tumor samples. In vitro quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of the hypoxic proteome was performed on breast cancer......-regulated protein localization within tumor sections. Here we identified more than 100 proteins, both novel and previously reported, that were associated with hypoxia. Several proteins were localized in hypoxic regions, as identified by MALDI-MSI. Visualization and data extrapolation methods for the in vitro SILAC...

  16. Planar cell polarity proteins differentially regulate extracellular matrix organization and assembly during zebrafish gastrulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Michael R; Mundell, Nathan A; Sawyer, Leah M; Dunlap, Julie A; Jessen, Jason R

    2013-11-01

    Zebrafish gastrulation cell movements occur in the context of dynamic changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and require the concerted action of planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins that regulate cell elongation and mediolateral alignment. Data obtained using Xenopus laevis gastrulae have shown that integrin-fibronectin interactions underlie the formation of polarized cell protrusions necessary for PCP and have implicated PCP proteins themselves as regulators of ECM. By contrast, the relationship between establishment of PCP and ECM assembly/remodeling during zebrafish gastrulation is unclear. We previously showed that zebrafish embryos carrying a null mutation in the four-pass transmembrane PCP protein vang-like 2 (vangl2) exhibit increased matrix metalloproteinase activity and decreased immunolabeling of fibronectin. These data implicated for the first time a core PCP protein in the regulation of pericellular proteolysis of ECM substrates and raised the question of whether other zebrafish PCP proteins also impact ECM organization. In Drosophila melanogaster, the cytoplasmic PCP protein Prickle binds Van Gogh and regulates its function. Here we report that similar to vangl2, loss of zebrafish prickle1a decreases fibronectin protein levels in gastrula embryos. We further show that Prickle1a physically binds Vangl2 and regulates both the subcellular distribution and total protein level of Vangl2. These data suggest that the ability of Prickle1a to impact fibronectin organization is at least partly due to effects on Vangl2. In contrast to loss of either Vangl2 or Prickle1a function, we find that glypican4 (a Wnt co-receptor) and frizzled7 mutant gastrula embryos with disrupted non-canonical Wnt signaling exhibit the opposite phenotype, namely increased fibronectin assembly. Our data show that glypican4 mutants do not have decreased proteolysis of ECM substrates, but instead have increased cell surface cadherin protein expression and increased intercellular

  17. Assays Used to Study the DNA Replication Checkpoint in Fission Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Noguchi, Eishi; Ansbach, Alison B.; Noguchi, Chiaki; Russell, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The DNA replication checkpoint, also known as the intra-S or S-phase checkpoint, plays a central role in ensuring the accuracy of DNA replication. When replication is impeded by DNA damage or other conditions, this checkpoint delays cell cycle progression and coordinates resumption of replication with DNA repair pathways. One of its critical functions is to stabilize stalled replication forks in a replication-competent state, presumably by maintaining proper assembly of replisome components a...

  18. Checkpoint Defects Leading to Premature Mitosis Also Cause Endoreplication of DNA in Aspergillus nidulans

    OpenAIRE

    De Souza, Colin P. C.; Ye, Xiang S.; Osmani, Stephen A.

    1999-01-01

    The G2 DNA damage and slowing of S-phase checkpoints over mitosis function through tyrosine phosphorylation of NIMXcdc2 in Aspergillus nidulans. We demonstrate that breaking these checkpoints leads to a defective premature mitosis followed by dramatic rereplication of genomic DNA. Two additional checkpoint functions, uvsB and uvsD, also cause the rereplication phenotype after their mutation allows premature mitosis in the presence of low concentrations of hydroxyurea. uvsB is shown to encode ...

  19. G2 Checkpoint Responses in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, Anne

    2013-03-18

    This project focused on the mechanism and biological significance of the G2 arrest response to replication stress in plants. We employed both forward and reverse genetic approaches to identify genes required for this response. A total of 3 different postdocs, 5 undergraduates, and 2 graduate students participated in the project. We identified several genes required for damage response in plants, including homologs of genes previously identified in animals (ATM and ATR), novel, a plant-specific genes (SOG1) and a gene known in animals but previously thought to be missing from the Arabidopsis genome (ATRIP). We characterized the transcriptome of gamma-irradiated plants, and found that plants, unlike animals, express a robust transcriptional response to damage, involving genes that regulate the cell cycle and DNA metabolism. This response requires both ATM and the transcription factor SOG1. We found that both ATM and ATR play a role in meiosis in plants. We also found that plants have a cell-type-specific programmed cell death response to ionizing radiation and UV light, and that this response requires ATR, ATM, and SOG1. These results were published in a series of 5 papers.

  20. Regulation of Ikaros function by casein kinase 2 and protein phosphatase 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy; K; Erbe; Aleksandar; Savic; Sinisa; Dovat

    2011-01-01

    The Ikaros gene encodes a zinc finger,DNA-binding protein that regulates gene transcription and chromatin remodeling.Ikaros is a master regulator of hematopoiesis and an established tumor suppressor.Moderate alteration of Ikaros activity (e.g.haploinsufficiency) appears to be sufficient to promote malignant transformation in human hematopoietic cells.This raises questions about the mechanisms that normally regulate Ikaros function and the potential of these mechanisms to contribute to the development of leukemia.The focus of this review is the regulation of Ikaros function by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation.Site-specific phosphorylation of Ikaros by casein kinase 2 (CK2) controls Ikaros DNA-binding ability and subcellular localization.As a consequence,the ability of Ikaros to regulate cell cycle progression,chromatin remodeling,target gene expression,and thymocyte differentiation are controlled by CK2.In addition,hyperphosphorylation of Ikaros by CK2 leads to decreased Ikaros levels due to ubiquitinmediated degradation.Dephosphorylation of Ikaros by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) acts in opposition to CK2 to increase Ikaros stability and restore Ikaros DNA binding ability and pericentromeric localization.Thus,the CK2 and PP1 pathways act in concert to regulate Ikaros activity in hematopoiesis and as a tumor suppressor.This highlights the importance of these signal transduction pathways as potential mediators of leukemogenesis via their role in regulating the activities of Ikaros.

  1. Strigolactone-Regulated Proteins Revealed by iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhou [ORNL; Czarnecki, Olaf [ORNL; Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Yang, Jun [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL; Pan, Chongle [ORNL; Chen, Jay [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a new class of plant hormones. In addition to acting as a key inhibitor of shoot branching, SLs stimulate seed germination of root parasitic plants and promote hyphal branching and root colonization of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. They also regulate many other aspects of plant growth and development. At the transcription level, SL-regulated genes have been reported. However, nothing is known about the proteome regulated by this new class of plant hormones. Here, a quantitative proteomics approach using an isobaric chemical labeling reagent, iTRAQ, to identify the proteome regulated by SLs in Arabidopsis seedlings is presented. It was found SLs regulate the expression of about three dozens of proteins that have not been previously assigned to SL pathways. These findings provide a new tool to investigate the molecular mechanism of action of SLs.

  2. The homeodomain protein ladybird late regulates synthesis of milk proteins during pregnancy in the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M Attardo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of tissue and development specific gene expression patterns underlies the functional specialization of organs in multi-cellular organisms. In the viviparous tsetse fly (Glossina, the female accessory gland is specialized to generate nutrients in the form of a milk-like secretion to support growth of intrauterine larva. Multiple milk protein genes are expressed specifically in the female accessory gland and are tightly linked with larval development. Disruption of milk protein synthesis deprives developing larvae of nutrients and results in extended larval development and/or in abortion. The ability to cause such a disruption could be utilized as a tsetse control strategy. Here we identify and delineate the regulatory sequence of a major milk protein gene (milk gland protein 1:mgp1 by utilizing a combination of molecular techniques in tsetse, Drosophila transgenics, transcriptomics and in silico sequence analyses. The function of this promoter is conserved between tsetse and Drosophila. In transgenic Drosophila the mgp1 promoter directs reporter gene expression in a tissue and stage specific manner orthologous to that of Glossina. Analysis of the minimal required regulatory region of mgp1, and the regulatory regions of other Glossina milk proteins identified putative homeodomain protein binding sites as the sole common feature. Annotation and expression analysis of Glossina homeodomain proteins identified ladybird late (lbl as being accessory gland/fat body specific and differentially expressed between lactating/non-lactating flies. Knockdown of lbl in tsetse resulted in a significant reduction in transcript abundance of multiple milk protein genes and in a significant loss of fecundity. The role of Lbl in adult reproductive physiology is previously unknown. These results suggest that Lbl is part of a conserved reproductive regulatory system that could have implications beyond tsetse to other vector insects such as mosquitoes. This

  3. The Homeodomain Protein Ladybird Late Regulates Synthesis of Milk Proteins during Pregnancy in the Tsetse Fly (Glossina morsitans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Benoit, Joshua B.; Michalkova, Veronika; Patrick, Kevin R.; Krause, Tyler B.; Aksoy, Serap

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of tissue and development specific gene expression patterns underlies the functional specialization of organs in multi-cellular organisms. In the viviparous tsetse fly (Glossina), the female accessory gland is specialized to generate nutrients in the form of a milk-like secretion to support growth of intrauterine larva. Multiple milk protein genes are expressed specifically in the female accessory gland and are tightly linked with larval development. Disruption of milk protein synthesis deprives developing larvae of nutrients and results in extended larval development and/or in abortion. The ability to cause such a disruption could be utilized as a tsetse control strategy. Here we identify and delineate the regulatory sequence of a major milk protein gene (milk gland protein 1:mgp1) by utilizing a combination of molecular techniques in tsetse, Drosophila transgenics, transcriptomics and in silico sequence analyses. The function of this promoter is conserved between tsetse and Drosophila. In transgenic Drosophila the mgp1 promoter directs reporter gene expression in a tissue and stage specific manner orthologous to that of Glossina. Analysis of the minimal required regulatory region of mgp1, and the regulatory regions of other Glossina milk proteins identified putative homeodomain protein binding sites as the sole common feature. Annotation and expression analysis of Glossina homeodomain proteins identified ladybird late (lbl) as being accessory gland/fat body specific and differentially expressed between lactating/non-lactating flies. Knockdown of lbl in tsetse resulted in a significant reduction in transcript abundance of multiple milk protein genes and in a significant loss of fecundity. The role of Lbl in adult reproductive physiology is previously unknown. These results suggest that Lbl is part of a conserved reproductive regulatory system that could have implications beyond tsetse to other vector insects such as mosquitoes. This system is critical

  4. Adaptor protein sorting nexin 17 regulates amyloid precursor protein trafficking and processing in the early endosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Jiyeon; Retamal, Claudio; Cuitino, Loreto; Caruano-Yzermans, Amy; Shin, Jung-Eun; van Kerkhof, Peter; Marzolo, Maria-Paz; Bu, Guojun

    2008-01-01

    Accumulation of extracellular amyloid beta peptide (A beta), generated from amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing by beta- and gamma-secretases, is toxic to neurons and is central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Production of A beta from APP is greatly affected by the subcellular loca

  5. Regulator of G protein signalling-1 (RGS1) selectively regulates gut T cell trafficking and colitic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Deena L.; Abeler-Dörner, Lucie; Raine, Tim; Hwang, II-Young; Jandke, Anett; Wencker, Melanie; Deban, Livija; Rudd, Christopher E.; Irving, Peter M.; Kehrl, John H.; Hayday, Adrian C.

    2011-01-01

    The Regulator of G Protein Signaling 1 [RGS1] gene is associated with celiac disease, multiple sclerosis (MS) and Type I diabetes (T1D), which are all T cell-mediated pathologies. And yet there is no reported analysis of RGS1 biology in human T cells. This study shows that RGS1 expression is substantially higher in T cells from human gut versus peripheral blood, and that this can be exaggerated in intestinal inflammation. Elevated RGS1 levels profoundly reduce T cell migration to lymphoid-hom...

  6. GPR158/179 regulate G protein signaling by controlling localization and activity of the RGS7 complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Orlandi, Cesare; Posokhova, Ekaterina; Masuho, Ikuo; Ray, Thomas A; Hasan, Nazarul; Gregg, Ronald G; Martemyanov, Kirill A.

    2012-01-01

    The extent and temporal characteristics of G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling are shaped by the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins, which promote G protein deactivation. With hundreds of GPCRs and dozens of RGS proteins, compartmentalization plays a key role in establishing signaling specificity. However, the molecular details and mechanisms of this process are poorly understood. In this paper, we report that the R7 group of RGS regulators is controlled by interaction wi...

  7. McrEngine: A Scalable Checkpointing System Using Data-Aware Aggregation and Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzima Zerin Islam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available High performance computing (HPC systems use checkpoint-restart to tolerate failures. Typically, applications store their states in checkpoints on a parallel file system (PFS. As applications scale up, checkpoint-restart incurs high overheads due to contention for PFS resources. The high overheads force large-scale applications to reduce checkpoint frequency, which means more compute time is lost in the event of failure. We alleviate this problem through a scalable checkpoint-restart system, mcrEngine. McrEngine aggregates checkpoints from multiple application processes with knowledge of the data semantics available through widely-used I/O libraries, e.g., HDF5 and netCDF, and compresses them. Our novel scheme improves compressibility of checkpoints up to 115% over simple concatenation and compression. Our evaluation with large-scale application checkpoints show that mcrEngine reduces checkpointing overhead by up to 87% and restart overhead by up to 62% over a baseline with no aggregation or compression.

  8. Action-oriented use of ergonomic checkpoints for healthy work design in different settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2007-12-01

    Recent experiences in the action-oriented use of ergonomic checkpoints in different work settings are reviewed. The purpose is to know what features are useful for healthy work design adjusted to each local situation. Based on the review results, common features of ergonomic checkpoints used in participatory training programs for improving workplace conditions in small enterprises, construction sites, home work and agriculture in industrially developing countries in Asia are discussed. These checkpoints generally compile practical improvement options in a broad range of technical areas, such as materials handling, workstation design, physical environment and work organization. Usually, "action checklists" comprising the tiles of the checkpoints are used together. A clear focus is placed on readily applicable low-cost options. Three common features of these various checkpoints appear to be important. First, the checkpoints represent typical good practices in multiple areas. Second, each how-to section of these checkpoints presents simple improvements reflecting basic ergonomic principles. Examples of these principles include easy reach, fewer and faster transport, elbow-level work, coded displays, isolated or screened hazards and shared teamwork. Third, the illustrated checkpoints accompanied by corresponding checklists are used as group work tools in short-term training courses. Many practical improvements achieved are displayed in websites for inter-country work improvement networks. It is suggested to promote the use of locally adjusted checkpoints in various forms of participatory action-oriented training in small-scale workplaces and in agriculture particularly in industrially developing countries.

  9. Action-oriented use of ergonomic checkpoints for healthy work design in different settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2007-12-01

    Recent experiences in the action-oriented use of ergonomic checkpoints in different work settings are reviewed. The purpose is to know what features are useful for healthy work design adjusted to each local situation. Based on the review results, common features of ergonomic checkpoints used in participatory training programs for improving workplace conditions in small enterprises, construction sites, home work and agriculture in industrially developing countries in Asia are discussed. These checkpoints generally compile practical improvement options in a broad range of technical areas, such as materials handling, workstation design, physical environment and work organization. Usually, "action checklists" comprising the tiles of the checkpoints are used together. A clear focus is placed on readily applicable low-cost options. Three common features of these various checkpoints appear to be important. First, the checkpoints represent typical good practices in multiple areas. Second, each how-to section of these checkpoints presents simple improvements reflecting basic ergonomic principles. Examples of these principles include easy reach, fewer and faster transport, elbow-level work, coded displays, isolated or screened hazards and shared teamwork. Third, the illustrated checkpoints accompanied by corresponding checklists are used as group work tools in short-term training courses. Many practical improvements achieved are displayed in websites for inter-country work improvement networks. It is suggested to promote the use of locally adjusted checkpoints in various forms of participatory action-oriented training in small-scale workplaces and in agriculture particularly in industrially developing countries. PMID:18572793

  10. Protein-Carbohydrate Interaction between Sperm and the Egg-Coating Envelope and Its Regulation by Dicalcin, a Xenopus laevis Zona Pellucida Protein-Associated Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Miwa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein-carbohydrate interaction regulates multiple important processes during fertilization, an essential biological event where individual gametes undergo intercellular recognition to fuse and generate a zygote. In the mammalian female reproductive tract, sperm temporarily adhere to the oviductal epithelium via the complementary interaction between carbohydrate-binding proteins on the sperm membrane and carbohydrates on the oviductal cells. After detachment from the oviductal epithelium at the appropriate time point following ovulation, sperm migrate and occasionally bind to the extracellular matrix, called the zona pellucida (ZP, which surrounds the egg, thereafter undergoing the exocytotic acrosomal reaction to penetrate the envelope and to reach the egg plasma membrane. This sperm-ZP interaction also involves the direct interaction between sperm carbohydrate-binding proteins and carbohydrates within the ZP, most of which have been conserved across divergent species from mammals to amphibians and echinoderms. This review focuses on the carbohydrate-mediated interaction of sperm with the female reproductive tract, mainly the interaction between sperm and the ZP, and introduces the fertilization-suppressive action of dicalcin, a Xenopus laevis ZP protein-associated protein. The action of dicalcin correlates significantly with a dicalcin-dependent change in the lectin-staining pattern within the ZP, suggesting a unique role of dicalcin as an inherent protein that is capable of regulating the affinity between the lectin and oligosaccharides attached on its target glycoprotein.

  11. Protein-Carbohydrate Interaction between Sperm and the Egg-Coating Envelope and Its Regulation by Dicalcin, a Xenopus laevis Zona Pellucida Protein-Associated Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Naofumi

    2015-05-22

    Protein-carbohydrate interaction regulates multiple important processes during fertilization, an essential biological event where individual gametes undergo intercellular recognition to fuse and generate a zygote. In the mammalian female reproductive tract, sperm temporarily adhere to the oviductal epithelium via the complementary interaction between carbohydrate-binding proteins on the sperm membrane and carbohydrates on the oviductal cells. After detachment from the oviductal epithelium at the appropriate time point following ovulation, sperm migrate and occasionally bind to the extracellular matrix, called the zona pellucida (ZP), which surrounds the egg, thereafter undergoing the exocytotic acrosomal reaction to penetrate the envelope and to reach the egg plasma membrane. This sperm-ZP interaction also involves the direct interaction between sperm carbohydrate-binding proteins and carbohydrates within the ZP, most of which have been conserved across divergent species from mammals to amphibians and echinoderms. This review focuses on the carbohydrate-mediated interaction of sperm with the female reproductive tract, mainly the interaction between sperm and the ZP, and introduces the fertilization-suppressive action of dicalcin, a Xenopus laevis ZP protein-associated protein. The action of dicalcin correlates significantly with a dicalcin-dependent change in the lectin-staining pattern within the ZP, suggesting a unique role of dicalcin as an inherent protein that is capable of regulating the affinity between the lectin and oligosaccharides attached on its target glycoprotein.

  12. The Role of the NHERF-1 and NHERF-2 Adapter Proteins in Intestinal Ion Transport Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Broere (Nellie)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe chloride channel CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) and the sodium/proton exchanger NHE3 are key proteins involved in transepithelial ion and water transport in several epithelial tissues, including the intestine. In this thesis we mainly focus on the role of

  13. Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhary, Chuna Ram; Kumar, Chanchal; Gnad, Florian;

    2009-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a reversible posttranslational modification of proteins and plays a key role in regulating gene expression. Technological limitations have so far prevented a global analysis of lysine acetylation's cellular roles. We used high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify 3600 ly...

  14. Effect of regional muscle location but not adiposity on mitochondrial biogenesis-regulating proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponce-González, Jesús Gustavo; Ara, Ignacio; Larsen, Steen;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine if the expression of the mitochondrial biogenesis-regulating proteins SIRT1, SIRT3 and PGC-1alpha in human skeletal muscle is influenced by adiposity. METHOD: Twenty-nine male subjects were recruited into three groups: control (n = 10), obese (n = 1...

  15. Regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by LKB1 and CaMKK in adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gormand, Amélie; Henriksson, Emma; Ström, Kristoffer;

    2011-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates cellular and whole body energy homeostasis. In adipose tissue, activation of AMPK has been demonstrated in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli. However, the upstream kinase that activates AMPK in adipocytes...

  16. Regulation of glutamine synthetase by regulatory protein PII in Klebsiella aerogenes mutants lacking adenylyltransferase.

    OpenAIRE

    Reuveny, Z; Foor, F; Magasanik, B

    1981-01-01

    A mutation of Klebsiella aerogenes causing production of an altered PII regulatory protein which stimulates overadenylylation of glutamine synthetase and also prevents its derepression was combined with mutations abolishing the activity of adenylyltransferase. The results support the idea that PII plays a role in the regulation of the level of glutamine synthetase which is independent of its interaction with adenylyltransferase.

  17. Regulation of behavioral circadian rhythms and clock protein PER1 by the deubiquitinating enzyme USP2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yaoming; Duguay, David; Bédard, Nathalie;

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous 24-hour rhythms are generated by circadian clocks located in most tissues. The molecular clock mechanism is based on feedback loops involving clock genes and their protein products. Post-translational modifications, including ubiquitination, are important for regulating the clock...

  18. Proteomics analysis of apoptosis-regulating proteins in tissues with different radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to identify of radiosusceptibility proteins in tissues with different radiosensitivity. C3H/HeJ mice were exposed to 10 Gy. The tissues were processed for proteins extraction and were analyzed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis. The proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionizing time-of-flight mass spectrometry and validated by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. The peaks of apoptosis levels were 35.3±1.7% and 0.6±0.2% in the spleen and the liver, respectively, after ionizing radiation. Analysis of liver tissue showed that the expression level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) related proteins such as cytochrome c, glutathione S transferase, NADH dehydrogenase and peroxiredoxin VI increased after radiation. The expression level of cytochrome c increased to 3-fold after ionizing radiation in both tissues. However in spleen tissue, the expression level of various kinds of apoptosis regulating proteins increased after radiation. These involved iodothyronine, CD 59A glycoprotein precursor, fas antigen and tumor necrosis factor -inducible protein TSG-6nprecursor after radiation. The difference in the apoptosis index between the liver and spleen tissues is closely associated with the expression of various kinds of apoptosis-related proteins. The result suggests that the expression of apoptosis-related protein and redox proteins play important roles in this radiosusceptibility. (author)

  19. Evidence for selective regulation of the phosphorylation of myocyte proteins by isoproterenol and prostaglandin E1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J S; Bowling, N; King, K L; Boder, G B

    1982-01-12

    Both isoproterenol and prostaglandin E1 increased the activation state of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in cultured myocytes; however, only isoproterenol enhanced phosphorylase activity and contractile state. Following the incubation of intact myocytes with 32PO3-(4), 32 phosphoproteins were resolved from total cellular proteins by electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels followed by autoradiography. Isoproterenol stimulated 32PO3-(4) incorporation into 16 proteins, including 2 phosphoproteins not observed under control conditions. By contrast, prostaglandin E1 neither caused a measurable change in the protein phosphorylation pattern nor interfered with isoproterenol's capacity to do so. Isoproterenol stimulated myocyte protein phosphorylation in either the presence or absence of extracellular Ca2+. The results suggest that the regulation of protein phosphorylation following adenylate cyclase stimulation is: (1) an agonist-specific process and not due solely to a random accumulation of intracellular cycle AMP and activation of protein kinase; (2) the Ca2+ mobilization component of beta-receptor activation does not account for the paradoxical effects of isoproterenol and prostaglandin E1; (3) activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase does not always result in an enhancement of protein phosphorylation.

  20. Plasma membrane calcium ATPase proteins as novel regulators of signal transduction pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary; Louisa; Holton; Michael; Emerson; Ludwig; Neyses; Angel; L; Armesilla

    2010-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that plasma membrane calcium ATPases (PMCAs) play a key role as regulators of calcium-triggered signal transduction pathways via interaction with partner proteins. PMCAs regulate these pathways by targeting specific proteins to cellular sub-domains where the levels of intracellular freecalcium are kept low by the calcium ejection properties of PMCAs. According to this model, PMCAs have been shown to interact functionally with the calcium-sensitive proteins neuronal nitric oxide synthase, calmodulindependent serine protein kinase, calcineurin and endothelial nitric oxidase synthase. Transgenic animals with altered expression of PMCAs are being used to evaluate the physiological significance of these interactions. To date, PMCA interactions with calcium-dependent partner proteins have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system via regulation of the nitric oxide and calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells pathways. This new evidence suggests that PMCAs play a more sophisticated role than the mere ejection of calcium from the cells, by acting as modulators of signaling transduction pathways.