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  1. Charles Darwin i 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin blev født d. 12. februar 1809. Hans mest berømte bog, 'Om arternes oprindelse', udkom d. 24. november 1859. Det gør 2009 til noget ganske særligt for både Darwin og evolutionsteorien. Det er nemlig i år både Darwins 200-års fødselsdag og 150-års jubilæet for en af de mest...

  2. The paradoxical advantages and disadvantages of natural selection: the case history of Charles Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, J

    2007-01-01

    The biology of natural selection is an enduring mystery, as is the nature of Charles Darwin's chronic illness. Of the theories advanced to explain the latter, Oedipal conflicts and Chagas' disease are preeminent. Hypomania, however, propelled Darwin to the pinnacle of scientific achievement and good health, the depression that followed condemning him to intellectual stagnation, lethargy, impaired memory and concentration, and incapacitating gastrointestinal disorders. Examples of natural selection in humans are much sought after when, ironically, one need look no further than Darwin himself.

  3. Charles Darwin: genius or plodder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Adam S

    2009-11-01

    There is no doubt about the magnitude of Charles Darwin's contributions to science. There has, however, been a long-running debate about how brilliant he was. His kind of intelligence was clearly different from that of the great physicists who are deemed geniuses. Here, the nature of Darwin's intelligence is examined in the light of Darwin's actual style of working. Surprisingly, the world of literature and the field of neurobiology might supply more clues to resolving the puzzle than conventional scientific history. Those clues suggest that the apparent discrepancy between Darwin's achievements and his seemingly pedestrian way of thinking reveals nothing to Darwin's discredit but rather a too narrow and inappropriate set of criteria for "genius." The implications of Darwin's particular creative gifts with respect to the development of scientific genius in general are briefly discussed.

  4. Charles Darwin and John Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, B.

    2009-11-01

    The influence of John Herschel on the philosophical thoughts of Charles Darwin, both through the former's book, Natural Philosophy, and through their meeting in 1836 at the Cape of Good Hope, is discussed. With Herschel having himself speculated on evolution just a few months before he met Darwin, it is probable that he stimulated at least the beginnings of the latter's lifelong work on the subject.

  5. Charles Darwin's Botanical Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Charles Darwin's botanical studies provide a way to expose students to his work that followed the publication of "On the Origin of Species." We can use stories from his plant investigations to illustrate key concepts in the life sciences and model how questions are asked and answered in science.

  6. Charles Darwin's earthquake reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    As it is the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, 2009 has also been marked as 170 years since the publication of his book Journal of Researches. During the voyage Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great earthquake, which demolished hundreds of buildings, killing and injuring many people. Land was waved, lifted, and cracked, volcanoes awoke and giant ocean waves attacked the coast. Darwin was the first geologist to observe and describe the effects of the great earthquake during and immediately after. These effects sometimes repeated during severe earthquakes; but great earthquakes, like Chile 1835, and giant earthquakes, like Chile 1960, are rare and remain completely unpredictable. This is one of the few areas of science, where experts remain largely in the dark. Darwin suggested that the effects were a result of ‘ …the rending of strata, at a point not very deep below the surface of the earth…' and ‘…when the crust yields to the tension, caused by its gradual elevation, there is a jar at the moment of rupture, and a greater movement...'. Darwin formulated big ideas about the earth evolution and its dynamics. These ideas set the tone for the tectonic plate theory to come. However, the plate tectonics does not completely explain why earthquakes occur within plates. Darwin emphasised that there are different kinds of earthquakes ‘...I confine the foregoing observations to the earthquakes on the coast of South America, or to similar ones, which seem generally to have been accompanied by elevation of the land. But, as we know that subsidence has gone on in other quarters of the world, fissures must there have been formed, and therefore earthquakes...' (we cite the Darwin's sentences following researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). These thoughts agree with results of the last publications (see Nature 461, 870-872; 636-639 and 462, 42-43; 87-89). About 200 years ago Darwin gave oneself airs by the

  7. Charles Darwin 1809-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyhe, John

    2009-02-01

    The year 2009 is the bicentenary of the birth of Charles Darwin and the 150th anniversary of the publication of On the Origin of Species. This article briefly surveys his life and work, dispelling some common myths and summarizes Darwin's achievement and legacy at his death in 1882.

  8. Charles Darwin in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzo, Nelio; Bizzo, Luis Eduardo Maestrelli

    2006-01-01

    Considering geological time as an important epistemological obstacle to the construction of ideas on biological evolution, a study was carried out on the so-called "Darwin Papers". The conclusion was that Charles Darwin's excursion in the Andes during March-April 1835 was a crucial step in this regard. An expedition was carried out in…

  9. Charles Darwin: What Else Did He Write?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra, Tim M.

    1980-01-01

    Lists a number of books written by Charles Darwin, selected to indicate the depth and breadth of Darwin's biological interests. Each entry is described with a short annotation. Also provides a reading list of references about Darwin's life. (CS)

  10. Charles Darwin and panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barloon, T J; Noyes, R

    1997-01-08

    Charles Darwin (1809-1882) suffered from a chronic illness that, throughout much of his adult life, impaired his functioning and severely limited his activities. The writings of this famous scientist as well as biographical materials indicate that he probably suffered from an anxiety disorder. His symptoms, when considered individually, suggest a variety of conditions, but taken together they point toward panic disorder with agoraphobia. This diagnosis brings coherence to Darwin's activities and explains his secluded lifestyle, including difficulty in speaking before groups and meeting with colleagues.

  11. Charles Darwin and the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretó, Juli; Bada, Jeffrey L; Lazcano, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    When Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species 150 years ago he consciously avoided discussing the origin of life. However, analysis of some other texts written by Darwin, and of the correspondence he exchanged with friends and colleagues demonstrates that he took for granted the possibility of a natural emergence of the first life forms. As shown by notes from the pages he excised from his private notebooks, as early as 1837 Darwin was convinced that "the intimate relation of Life with laws of chemical combination, & the universality of latter render spontaneous generation not improbable". Like many of his contemporaries, Darwin rejected the idea that putrefaction of preexisting organic compounds could lead to the appearance of organisms. Although he favored the possibility that life could appear by natural processes from simple inorganic compounds, his reluctance to discuss the issue resulted from his recognition that at the time it was possible to undertake the experimental study of the emergence of life.

  12. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A B

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin's relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in "The Descent of Man". During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig's new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has

  13. Instinto e razão na natureza humana, segundo Hume e Darwin Instinct and reason in human nature in David Hume and Charles Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Claudio Morelli Matos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta discussão pretende mostrar pontos relevantes de uma comparação entre a obra de David Hume e de Charles Darwin, no que toca às capacidades cognitivas humanas e de outros animais. Hume tem uma teoria que explica o conhecimento causal em termos de um instinto natural - o hábito. A presença de tal instinto pode ser entendida remetendo-se a uma teoria geral da natureza, onde o mundo é entendido como governado por leis e regularidades constantes, e sem a suposição da interferência de um plano ou desígnio. Isto conduz Hume à aproximação entre a capacidade cognitiva humana e a de outros animais, que também manifestam um aprendizado instintivo do tipo causal. Darwin, por sua vez, menciona uma graduação de diversas capacidades de conhecimento, diferenciando a ação instintiva da ação que resulta de deliberação e inferência; e aponta para o fato de que muitos animais apresentam um grau significativo de comportamento inteligente. Seu mecanismo de evolução por seleção natural pretende explicar essas características, tanto no homem como nos animais. Disso resulta contemporaneamente uma corrente em epistemologia que tem recebido o nome de epistemologia evolutiva, a qual, ao seguir declaradamente Darwin, carece de uma interpretação mais detalhada do pensamento de Hume, que poderia, supõe-se, oferecer elementos para o tratamento de questões epistemológicas tais como a da capacidade para o conhecimento causal.This discussion intends to show some relevant elements, in order to establish a comparison between the works of David Hume and Charles Darwin concerning human and other animal's cognitive capacities. Hume develops a theory to explain causal knowledge in terms of a natural instinct - habit. The presence of this instinct can be understood by reference to a general theory of nature that conceives the world governed by constant laws and regularities, without any supposition of interference of an external design or intention

  14. Charles Darwin as primatologist: a literature guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, J

    1997-01-01

    Charles Darwin made numerous references to the nonhuman primates in support of his evolutionary thesis. Most such references are found in The Descent of Man [1871] and The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals [1872], but other illuminating statements are scattered throughout Darwin's notebooks, letters, and lesser-known publications. As a research aid to modern primatologists, this paper presents a very nearly complete listing of Darwin's comments on primates, indexed by topic and primate type.

  15. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data

  16. Creative Work: The Case of Charles Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Howard E.; Wallace, Doris B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the evolving systems approach (ESA) to creative work, which emerged from a case study of Charles Darwin. Explains how the ESA differs from other approaches and describes various facets of creative work (networks of enterprise, uniqueness, insight, pluralism, and evolving belief systems and ensembles of metaphor). Emphasizes the…

  17. The first Charles Darwin (1758-78).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Stuart

    2009-11-01

    The paper places the first Charles Darwin in his family context: the eldest son of Dr Erasmus Darwin and Mary Howard. Mention is made of Charles's upbringing and education, with illustrative material taken from his father's writings and from Anna Seward's Memoirs of the Life of Dr Darwin (1804). The part played by Dr Andrew Duncan of the Edinburgh Medical School is established. The award to Charles in March 1778 of the first medal by the Aesculapian Society of Edinburgh is described. The involvement of Dr William Cullen and Dr Joseph Black in the treatment of Charles's fatal infection is evidenced from Erasmus' letters. Attention is given to 'An Elegy on the much-lamented death of a most ingenious young gentleman who lately died in the College at Edinburgh where he was a student' which was written jointly by Duncan and Erasmus in 1778. The Elegy's curious publishing history will be glanced at. The paper concludes with a statement of Charles's great promise as a medical student and of Erasmus' efforts to ensure that his son's achievements were memorialised.

  18. Charles Darwin: A Rare Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Ann

    1980-01-01

    The author draws implications for gifted children from the life of C. Darwin. She notes that gifted children should be encouraged to keep journals, mentors should be available, and gifted students should be encouraged to take time out from normal activities to help determine career choice. (CL)

  19. Evolutionary plant physiology: Charles Darwin's forgotten synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J.

    2009-11-01

    Charles Darwin dedicated more than 20 years of his life to a variety of investigations on higher plants (angiosperms). It has been implicitly assumed that these studies in the fields of descriptive botany and experimental plant physiology were carried out to corroborate his principle of descent with modification. However, Darwin’s son Francis, who was a professional plant biologist, pointed out that the interests of his father were both of a physiological and an evolutionary nature. In this article, we describe Darwin’s work on the physiology of higher plants from a modern perspective, with reference to the following topics: circumnutations, tropisms and the endogenous oscillator model; the evolutionary patterns of auxin action; the root-brain hypothesis; phloem structure and photosynthesis research; endosymbioses and growth-promoting bacteria; photomorphogenesis and phenotypic plasticity; basal metabolic rate, the Pfeffer-Kleiber relationship and metabolic optimality theory with respect to adaptive evolution; and developmental constraints versus functional equivalence in relationship to directional natural selection. Based on a review of these various fields of inquiry, we deduce the existence of a Darwinian (evolutionary) approach to plant physiology and define this emerging scientific discipline as the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the functions of green, sessile organisms from a phylogenetic perspective.

  20. Charles Darwin: um observador do desenvolvimento humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Helena Rubello Valler Celeri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores traduzem, pela primeira vez para o português, o artigo de Charles Darwin "A Biographical Sketch of an Infant", publicado no periódico Mind em julho de 1877. Utilizando anotações de observações do desenvolvimento de seus filhos, especialmente de seu filho mais velho William Erasmus (Doddy, Darwin descreve e estuda, a partir de seu enfoque naturalista, o filhote humano, narrando os primeiros indicativos comportamentais de emoções tais como raiva e medo, curiosidade e senso moral, o brincar e o prazer envolvido nesta atividade, a capacidade de imitação e os primeiros indícios daquilo que hoje conhecemos como "teoria da mente". Colocando-se questões sobre as capacidades do bebê, como eles aprendem e como se comunicam e levantando hipóteses sobre possíveis significados de certos comportamentos, questões ainda hoje fundamentais para o estudo do desenvolvimento humano, Darwin mostra-se também um pioneiro no estudo do bebê e da criança pequena, numa época na qual as capacidades dos bebês eram extremamente subestimadas e desconsideradas.

  1. Charles Robert Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace: their dispute over the units of selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace independently discovered the mechanism of natural selection for evolutionary change. However, they viewed the working of selection differently. For Darwin, selection was always focused on the benefit for the individual. For Wallace, selection was as much something of benefit for the group as for the individual. This difference is traced to their different background political-economic views, with Darwin in favor of Adam Smith's view of society and Wallace following Robert Owen in being a socialist.

  2. Creative work. The case of Charles Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, H E; Wallace, D B

    2001-04-01

    The evolving systems approach (ESA) addresses the need for direct study of the creative process in recognized creators at work, in contrast to indirect methods, such as those used in psychometric studies. The ESA emerged from H. E. Gruber's prolonged study of Charles Darwin's manuscripts, especially the notebooks he kept after the Beagle voyage. Gruber's interviews with J. Piaget about the latter's creative processes, as well as many doctoral dissertations, also helped shape the authors' approach. Using Gruber's (1974/1981) study of Darwin, the authors describe some facets of creative work identified in the course of their work. Among these are networks of enterprise, ensembles of metaphors, insights, and evolving belief systems. Although the ESA emphasizes cognitive processes, social, affective, and esthetic aspects of the case are not neglected. Each creative case is unique, otherwise the individual would not meet the criterion of originality. Uniqueness does not mean isolation; people who differ must and do work together. The integration of all these facets into a plausible system for each creator remains the authors' central task.

  3. [Charles Robert Darwin: the great founder of scientific evolutionism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qian-Jin; Bin, Jie; Zhang, Gen-Fa

    2009-12-01

    Today, we celebrated 200 years since Charles Darwin, one of the world's most creative and influential thinkers, was born. And there happens to be the 150th anniversary of the publication of his famous book, On the Origin of Species. It is verified that On the Origin of Species is an immortal classic book and is still guiding the study of anagenesis in life science as the development of natural science from then on, and even though most of the ideas in the book are well-known at the present age. In the article, we recall the brilliance and predomination life of Darwin, a great sage with rich scientific achievements, review briefly the novel discoveries and theories after him in the field, and then elucidate the focal points and perspectiveas in near future study of evolution.

  4. Scientific Cousins: The Relationship between Charles Darwin and Francis Galton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancher, Raymond E.

    2009-01-01

    This article traces the personal as well as the intellectual and scientific relationship between Charles Darwin and his younger half-cousin Francis Galton. Although they had been on friendly terms as young men, and Darwin had in some ways been a role model for Galton, the two did not share major scientific interests until after the publication of…

  5. Charles Darwin's Reception in Germany and What Followed.

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    Axel Meyer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available 150 years ago, Heinrich Bronn provided in the first German translation of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species a rather liberal interpretation, even adding his own view of Darwin's ideas in an additional 15th chapter. Ernst Haeckel widely popularized his view of Darwinian evolution based on his reading of this translation. This was long seen - probably incorrectly - as the intellectual root of social Darwinism in Germany.

  6. CHARLES R. DARWIN Y EL DESARROLLO DE LA CREATIVIDAD (

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    Miranda Garnier Ximena

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Los 200 años del nacimiento de Charles R. Darwin y los 150 años de la publicación de su libro “El origen de las especies” recuerdan la importancia de la creatividad y de comprender cómo se desarrolla. En este ensayo, analizo la autobiografía de Charles Darwin y concluyo que la creatividad en su vida surgió por interacción entre cualidades personales y una serie de circunstancias. En el análisis, sobresalen elementos que incluyen curiosidad, crecer cerca de la naturaleza, gusto por la lectura y el aprendizaje autónomo, la presencia de buenos mentores, disciplina, experiencia en los métodos de trabajo científico, disposición para establecer una red de científicos, y pasión por lo que se hace. Estos fueron elementos clave para su impacto en biología, geología, psicología, filosofía e incluso en nuestra percepción general del mundo. Se hacen reflexiones para educadores con la intención de promover el desarrollo de la creatividad en nuestros niños, niñas y jóvenes.Abstract:The 200th anniversary of Charles R. Darwin´s birth and the 150th of the publication of his “Origin of Species” remind us of the importance of creativity, and of understanding its development. In this essay, I analyze the autobiography of Charles Darwin and conclude that his creativity resulted from a series of personal qualities and circumstances. The key elements I found include curiosity, growing near nature, passion for reading and for autonomous learning, the role of good mentors, discipline, a disposition to establish a network with other scientists, experience with scientific methods, and passion for what he did. The presence of these elements in his life resulted in his transforming biology, geology, psychology, philosophy, and even our general perception of the world. Reflections for educators are presented with the intention of promoting the development of creativity in our children and youth.

  7. Like grandfather, like grandson: Erasmus and Charles Darwin on evolution.

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    Smith, C U M

    2010-01-01

    Last year (2009) marked the bicentenary of Charles Darwin's birth and the sesquicentenary of The Origin of Species. This article examines the influence of Erasmus Darwin on Charles's evolutionary thought and shows how, in many ways, Erasmus anticipated his much better-known grandson. It discusses the similarity in the mindsets of the two Darwins, asks how far the younger Darwin was exposed to the elder's evolutionary thought, examines the similarities and differences in their theories of evolution, and ends by showing the surprising similarity between their theories of inheritance. Erasmus's influence on Charles is greater than customarily acknowledged, and now is an opportune time to bring the grandfather out from behind the glare of his stellar grandson.

  8. Modelling of Charles Darwin's tsunami reports

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    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great 1835 earthquake. He described his impressions and results of the earthquake-induced natural catastrophe in The Voyage of the Beagle. His description of the tsunami could easily be read as a report from Indonesia or Sri Lanka, after the catastrophic tsunami of 26 December 2004. In particular, Darwin emphasised the dependence of earthquake-induced waves on a form of the coast and the coastal depth: ‘… Talcuhano and Callao are situated at the head of great shoaling bays, and they have always suffered from this phenomenon; whereas, the town of Valparaiso, which is seated close on the border of a profound ocean... has never been overwhelmed by one of these terrific deluges…' . He reports also, that ‘… the whole body of the sea retires from the coast, and then returns in great waves of overwhelming force ...' (we cite the Darwin's sentences following researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). The coastal evolution of a tsunami was analytically studied in many publications (see, for example, Synolakis, C.E., Bernard, E.N., 2006. Philos. Trans. R. Soc., Ser. A, 364, 2231-2265; Tinti, S., Tonini, R. 205. J.Fluid Mech., 535, 11-21). However, the Darwin's reports and the influence of the coastal depth on the formation and the evolution of the steep front and the profile of tsunami did not practically discuss. Recently, a mathematical theory of these phenomena was presented in researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474. The theory describes the waves which are excited due to nonlinear effects within a shallow coastal zone. The tsunami elevation is described by two components: . Here is the linear (prime) component. It describes the wave coming from the deep ocean. is the nonlinear component. This component may become very important near the coastal line. After that the theory of the shallow waves is used. This theory yields the linear equation for and the weakly

  9. Darwin's perplexing paradox: intelligent design in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorvaldsen, Steinar; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Today, many would assume that Charles Darwin absolutely rejected any claim of intelligent design in nature. However, review of his initial writings reveals that Darwin accepted some aspects of this view. His conceptualization of design was founded on both the cosmological and the teleological ideas from classical natural theology. When Darwin discovered the dynamic process of natural selection, he rejected the old teleological argument as formulated by William Paley. However, he was never able to ignore the powerful experience of the beauty and complexity of an intelligently designed universe, as a whole. He corresponded with Asa Gray on religious themes, particularly touching the problem of pain and intelligent design in nature. The term "intelligent design" was probably introduced by William Whewell. Principally for theological and philosophical reasons, Darwin could only accept the concept for the universe as a whole, not with respect to individual elements of the living world.

  10. Could Charles Darwin Teach Psychology in the 1980s?

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    Rigby, Marilyn K.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the implications of Charles Darwin's personal and professional history for an academic career in psychology. Relationships between his theoretical position and the content of an introductory psychology course he might teach and how he might fare in a contemporary academic environment are sketched in this fictionalized account.…

  11. Charles Darwin: His Life, Journeys and Discoveries. A Teacher's Guide.

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    Overy, Caroline

    This handbook aims to: (1) introduce teachers and pupils to Charles Darwin, his life and work at Down House, his voyage on the Beagle, and his evolutionary theory; (2) set his ideas within the wider context of the 19th century; (3) link the subject areas to the British National Curriculum, particularly in history, science, and English at various…

  12. John Tweedie and Charles Darwin in Buenos Aires.

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    Ollerton, Jeff; Chancellor, Gordon; van Wyhe, John

    2012-06-20

    The journey of exploration undertaken by Charles Darwin FRS during the voyage of HMS Beagle has a central place within the historical development of evolutionary theory and has been intensively studied. Despite this, new facts continue to emerge about some of the details of Darwin's activities. Drawing on recently published Darwin material and unpublished letters in the archives of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, we document a hitherto unexamined link between Darwin and John Tweedie (1775-1862), a relatively obscure Scottish gardener turned South American plant collector. All of the available evidence points to a meeting between the two men in Buenos Aires in 1832. Tweedie provided Darwin with information about the geography of the Rio Paraná, including the locality of fossilized wood eroding from the river bank. It also seems likely that Tweedie supplied Darwin with seeds that he later shipped back to John Stevens Henslow in Cambridge. Although this brief meeting was at the time relatively unimportant to either man, echoes of that encounter have resonated with Tweedie's descendants to the present day and have formed the basis for a family story about a written correspondence between Darwin and Tweedie. Local information supplied to Darwin by residents such as Tweedie was clearly important and deserves further attention.

  13. Darwin's Other Bulldog: Charles Kingsley and the Popularisation of Evolution in Victorian England

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    Hale, Piers J.

    2012-01-01

    The nineteenth-century Anglican Priest Charles Kingsley (1819-1875) was a significant populariser of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. Kingsley was successful in this regard because he developed such diverse connections throughout his career. In the 1840s he associated with Chartists and radical journalists; in the 1850s and 1860s…

  14. Charles Darwin (1758-1778) and the history of the early use of digitalis. 1934.

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    Fulton, J F

    1999-12-01

    The evidence which I have just summarized establishes priority of publication concerning the action of digitalis for Erasmus Darwin, but on every other ground, Withering deserves full credit for the discovery. Charles Darwin, the medical student, had been informed of its action by his father and had attempted to account for it on the basis of improvement of lymphatic drainage. But the work, accomplished by the first Charles Darwin is less significant than the abundant evidence of his intellectual ability and precocity, and I have ventured to lay the details of his career before you because of their intrinsic interest and in the hope that the information will serve in a small way to clarify the unsolved problem of the relation of nature to nurture in establishing mental traits and capacities.

  15. Darwin and Teacher: An Analysis of the Mentorship between Charles Darwin and Professor John Henslow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Ann

    1990-01-01

    The paper examines the mentorship between Charles Darwin and his teacher, John Stevens Henslow of Cambridge University (England). The importance of a mentor in stimulating creative productivity is demonstrated through discussion of their teaching and learning styles, their interests, their time spent together, and Henslow's character traits.…

  16. Charles Darwin and the 1835 earthquake at Concepcion, Chile

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    Spall, H.

    1981-01-01

    On a stormy night in October 1836, H.M.S Beagle hove to and dropped anchor at Falmouth, a remote harbor in southwest England. Charles Darwin, the ship's naturalist, came ashore to take the mail coach to Shrewsbury. This was inauspicious end to an epic 5-year voyage around the coast of South America, the results of which were to have a tumultuous impact on scientific thought that has lasted to this day. 

  17. Conmemoración de Charles Darwin (1882

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Mantegazza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tres semanas después de la muerte del biólogo y naturalista inglés, Paolo Mantegazza pronunció el 21 de mayo de 1882 su "Conmemoración de Charles Darwin celebrada en el Real Instituto de Estudios Superiores en Florencia". Traducción de Juan Pérez Andrés.

  18. What psychology students know and believe about Charles Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, T; Rasmussen, C; Wagner, M J

    1997-12-01

    204 introductory and 154 advanced students in psychology were asked about their knowledge of Charles Darwin and endorsement of belief statements about the status of evolutionary theory. Advanced students had higher scores than introductory students on three of six multiple-choice knowledge items and differed from them on all six statements of belief as assessed by chi 2. Advanced students appear to know more about evolutionary theory but may be less inclined to endorse its relevancy to psychology.

  19. 纪念达尔文%In Memeory of Charles Darwin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路甬祥

    2009-01-01

    @@ 今年是达尔文(Charles Robert Darwin,1809-1882)诞辰200周年,也是发表150周年.世界各地都在纪念这位进化论的创始人,因为他不仅是生物学史上划时代的人物,是科学史上的巨匠,而且也是一位人类思想史上的伟人.

  20. The curious case of charles darwin and homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Dana

    2010-03-01

    In 1849, Charles Darwin was so ill that he was unable to work one out of every 3 days, and after having various troubling symptoms for 2-12 years, he wrote to a friend that he was 'going the way of all flesh'. He sought treatment from Dr James Manby Gully, a medical doctor who used water cure and homeopathic medicines. Despite being highly skeptical of these treatments, he experienced a dramatic improvement in his health, though some of his digestive and skin symptoms returned various times in his life. He grew to appreciate water cure, but remained skeptical of homeopathy, even though his own experiments on insectivore plants using what can be described as homeopathic doses of ammonia salts surprised and shocked him with their significant biological effect. Darwin even expressed concern that he should publish these results. Two of Darwin's sons were as incredulous as he was, but their observations confirmed the results of his experiments. Darwin was also known to have read a book on evolution written by a homeopathic physician that Darwin described as similar to his own but 'goes much deeper.'

  1. The Curious Case of Charles Darwin and Homeopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Ullman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1849, Charles Darwin was so ill that he was unable to work one out of every 3 days, and after having various troubling symptoms for 2–12 years, he wrote to a friend that he was ‘going the way of all flesh’. He sought treatment from Dr James Manby Gully, a medical doctor who used water cure and homeopathic medicines. Despite being highly skeptical of these treatments, he experienced a dramatic improvement in his health, though some of his digestive and skin symptoms returned various times in his life. He grew to appreciate water cure, but remained skeptical of homeopathy, even though his own experiments on insectivore plants using what can be described as homeopathic doses of ammonia salts surprised and shocked him with their significant biological effect. Darwin even expressed concern that he should publish these results. Two of Darwin's sons were as incredulous as he was, but their observations confirmed the results of his experiments. Darwin was also known to have read a book on evolution written by a homeopathic physician that Darwin described as similar to his own but ‘goes much deeper.’

  2. [Charles Darwin and the problem of evolutionary progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanskiĭ, N N

    2010-01-01

    According to Ch. Darwin's evolutionary theory, evolutionary progress (interpreted as morpho-physiological progress or arogenesis in recent terminology) is one of logical results of natural selection. At the same time, natural selection does not hold any factors especially promoting evolutionary progress. Darwin emphasized that the pattern of evolutionary changes depends on organism nature more than on the pattern of environment changes. Arogenesis specificity is determined by organization of rigorous biological systems - integral organisms. Onward progressive development is determined by fundamental features of living organisms: metabolism and homeostasis. The concept of social Darwinism differs fundamentally from Darwin's ideas about the most important role of social instincts in progress of mankind. Competition and selection play secondary role in socio-cultural progress of human society.

  3. Charles Darwin's use of theology in the Origin of Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Stephen

    2012-03-01

    This essay examines Darwin's positiva (or positive) use of theology in the first edition of the Origin of Species in three steps. First, the essay analyses the Origin's theological language about God's accessibility, honesty, methods of creating, relationship to natural laws and lack of responsibility for natural suffering; the essay contends that Darwin utilized positiva theology in order to help justify (and inform) descent with modification and to attack special creation. Second, the essay offers critical analysis of this theology, drawing in part on Darwin's mature ruminations to suggest that, from an epistemic point of view, the Origin's positiva theology manifests several internal tensions. Finally, the essay reflects on the relative epistemic importance of positiva theology in the Origin's overall case for evolution. The essay concludes that this theology served as a handmaiden and accomplice to Darwin's science.

  4. A strange horn between Paolo Mantegazza and Charles Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Carla; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    During the preparation of an exhibition in Pavia dedicated to the centennial anniversary of the death of the Italian Pathologist Paolo Mantegazza, a strange cheratinic horn was found at the Museum for the History of the University of Pavia labelled as 'spur of a cock transplanted into an ear of a cow.' After some historical investigation, we found this strange object was at the centre of a scientific correspondence between Mantegazza and Charles Darwin, who made reference to it in his book The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication.

  5. Environmental Education in the Galapagos: 2007 Report to the Charles Darwin Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepath, Carl M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: "Environmental education in the Galapagos: 2007 report to the Charles Darwin Foundation" is a report to the Charles Darwin Foundation (CDF) about the researchers observations about the status of environmental education in the Galapagos in 2006 and 2007. Purpose: This paper reports on environmental education in the Galapagos…

  6. Darwin's "Natural Science of Babies".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Marjorie; Hellal, Paula

    2010-04-01

    In 1877, the newly founded British journal Mind published two papers on child development. The earlier, by Hippolyte Taine, prompted the second article: an account of his own son's development by the naturalist Charles Darwin. In its turn, Darwin's paper, "A Biographical Sketch of an Infant," influenced others. Diary studies similar to Taine's and Darwin's appeared in Mind from 1878. In addition, the medical profession started to consider normal child language acquisition as a comparison for the abnormal. Shortly before his death in 1882, Darwin continued with his theme, setting out a series of proposals for a program of research on child development with suggested methodology and interpretations. Darwin, whose interest in infants and the developing mind predated his 1877 paper by at least 40 years, sought to take the subject out of the nursery and into the scientific domain. The empirical study of the young child's developing mental faculties was a source of evidence with important implications for his general evolutionary theory. The social status of children in England was the subject of considerable discussion around the time Darwin's 1877 paper appeared. Evolutionary theory was still relatively new and fiercely debated, and an unprecedented level of interest was shown by the popular press in advance of the publication. This article considers the events surrounding the publication of Darwin's article in Mind, the notebook of observations on Darwin's children (1839-1856) that served as its basis, and the research that followed publication of "Biographical Sketch." We discuss the impact this article, one of the first infant psychology studies in English, made on the scientific community in Britain in the latter half of the nineteenth century.

  7. Moving with climbing plants from Charles Darwin's time into the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnard, Sandrine; Silk, Wendy K

    2009-07-01

    We provide an overview of research on climbing plants from Charles Darwin to the present day. Following Darwin's interests, this review will focus on functional perspectives including attachment mechanisms and stem structure and function. We draw attention to a number of unsolved problems inviting future research. These include the mechanism for establishment of the twining habit, a quantitative description following the development of a tissue element through space and time, the chemistry of sticky exudates, the microstructure of xylem and the capacity for water storage, the vulnerability to embolism, and the mechanism for embolism repair. In conclusion we cite evidence that, in response to increasing CO(2) concentration, anthropic perturbation and/ or increasing forest fragmentation, lianas are increasing relative to tree species. In the 21st century, we are returning to the multiscale, multidisciplinary approach taken by Darwin to understand natural history.

  8. Mitochondrial disorder caused Charles Darwin's cyclic vomiting syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finsterer J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Josef Finsterer,1 John Hayman21Krankenanstalt Rudolfstiftng, Vienna, Austria; 2Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaBackground: Charles Darwin (CD, “father of modern biology,” suffered from multisystem illness from early adulthood. The most disabling manifestation was cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS. This study aims at finding the possible cause of CVS in CD.Methods: A literature search using the PubMed database was carried out, and CD's complaints, as reported in his personal writings and those of his relatives, friends, colleagues, biographers, were compared with various manifestations of mitochondrial disorders (MIDs, known to cause CVS, described in the literature.Results: Organ tissues involved in CD's disease were brain, nerves, muscles, vestibular apparatus, heart, gut, and skin. Cerebral manifestations included episodic headache, visual disturbance, episodic memory loss, periodic paralysis, hysterical crying, panic attacks, and episodes of depression. Manifestations of polyneuropathy included numbness, paresthesias, increased sweating, temperature sensitivity, and arterial hypotension. Muscular manifestations included periods of exhaustion, easy fatigability, myalgia, and muscle twitching. Cardiac manifestations included episodes of palpitations and chest pain. Gastrointestinal manifestations were CVS, dental problems, abnormal seasickness, eructation, belching, and flatulence. Dermatological manifestations included painful lips, dermatitis, eczema, and facial edema. Treatments with beneficial effects to his complaints were rest, relaxation, heat, and hydrotherapy.Conclusion: CVS in CD was most likely due to a multisystem, nonsyndromic MID. This diagnosis is based upon the multisystem nature of his disease, the fact that CVS is most frequently the manifestation of a MID, the family history, the variable phenotypic expression between affected family members, the fact that symptoms were triggered by stress

  9. The Voyage of the Beagle: Field Work Lessons from Charles Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louis M.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes Charles Darwin's letters to his family during his voyage on H.M.S. Beagle. Relates the information to the development of Darwin's professional identity and the degree to which the concepts, field methods, and research methods revealed in Darwin's personal correspondence are useful to students of educational administration. (MD)

  10. An appreciation of Christiane Groehen: the correspondence between Charles Darwin and Anton Dohrn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Anton Dohrn was introduced to Darwinism by Ernst Haeckel during his student years at Jena, and became an eager disciple of Charles Darwin's work. He founded the Stazione Zoologica in 1872. Darwin became a patron of Dohrn's Stazione, and the two naturalists corresponded regularly. This article discusses their relationship and the contributions of Christiane Groeben to its elucidation.

  11. CHARLES R. DARWIN Y EL DESARROLLO DE LA CREATIVIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Miranda Garnier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los 200 años del nacimiento de Charles R. Darwin y los 150 años de la publicación de su libro "El origen de las especies" recuerdan la importancia de la creatividad y de comprender cómo se desarrolla. En este ensayo, analizo la autobiografía de Charles Darwin y concluyo que la creatividad en su vida surgió por interacción entre cualidades personales y una serie de circunstancias. En el análisis, sobresalen elementos que incluyen curiosidad, crecer cerca de la naturaleza, gusto por la lectura y el aprendizaje autónomo, la presencia de buenos mentores, disciplina, experiencia en los métodos de trabajo científico, disposición para establecer una red de científicos, y pasión por lo que se hace. Estos fueron elementos clave para su impacto en biología, geología, psicología, filosofía e incluso en nuestra percepción general del mundo. Se hacen reflexiones para educadores con la intención de promover el desarrollo de la creatividad en nuestros niños, niñas y jóvenes.

  12. Charles Robert Darwin (to the 200th Birthday and the 150th Anniversary of the publication of the book «On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagin Yu. V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Charles Robert Darwin (to the 200th Birthday and the 150th Anniversary of the publication of the book «On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life»

  13. Ferdinand von Mueller's interactions with Charles Darwin and his response to Darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, A M

    2010-01-01

    Although Ferdinand Mueller (later von Mueller), Government Botanist of Victoria, opposed Darwin's theories when "On the origin of species" was published, there has been little detailed study of the nature of Mueller's opposition from 1860, when he received a presentation copy of "Origin," to his death in 1896. Analysis of Mueller's correspondence and publications shows that he remained a theist and misunderstood key aspects of Darwin's theory. However, Mueller did come to accept that natural selection could operate within a species, although never accepting it could produce speciation. Despite these differences he retained a cordial relationship with Darwin.

  14. Charles Robert Darwin and Argentina's National Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Depetris

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Over 175 years ago Charles Robert Darwin arrived in Argentina to find a bare and boundless plain, the brave centaur called "gaucho", Quaternary fossils everywhere, and a society strikingly strange and aggressive to the British eyes of the young traveller. Although the voyage aboard HMS Beagle was the indispensable way towards increasing his stature as a biologist, Lyell's work awakened an inquisitive geological mind which allowed him to wonder at the splendour of the Andes. Forty-two years after having concluded his voyage on the Beagle, the National Academy of Sciences of Argentina appointed him as an Honorary Member. This must be interpreted as an early gesture of recognition -in the context of those times- to the magnificence of his scientific work.

  15. Neuropsychology of the Emotions: The Charles Darwin contribution

    OpenAIRE

    Yuranny Helena Rojas Garzón; Andrey Velasquez

    2009-01-01

    Fragmento.....Charles Darwin es un gran teórico de la biología y referente inevitable de la “Teoría de la Evolución” expuesta en 1859 en su libro “El Origen de las Especies”, el cual revolucionó el campo científico de la mayoría de disciplinas de aquel entonces. Después de la publicación de su libro “El Origen de las Especies”, un año posterior publica otra obra titulada “Expresión de las Emociones en los Animales y en el Hombre”, libro que se abordará a partir de la elaboración de una reseña...

  16. Neuropsychology of the Emotions: The Charles Darwin contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuranny Helena Rojas Garzón

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fragmento.....Charles Darwin es un gran teórico de la biología y referente inevitable de la “Teoría de la Evolución” expuesta en 1859 en su libro “El Origen de las Especies”, el cual revolucionó el campo científico de la mayoría de disciplinas de aquel entonces. Después de la publicación de su libro “El Origen de las Especies”, un año posterior publica otra obra titulada “Expresión de las Emociones en los Animales y en el Hombre”, libro que se abordará a partir de la elaboración de una reseña critica objeto del presente trabajo.

  17. Charles Darwin and the evolution of human grammatical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Hugh W; Christman, Sarah S

    2010-04-08

    Charles Darwin's evolutionary theories of animal communication were deeply embedded in a centuries-old model of association psychology, whose prodromes have most often been traced to the writings of Aristotle. His notions of frequency of occurrence of pairings have been passed down through the centuries and were a major ontological feature in the formation of associative connectivity. He focused on the associations of cause and effect, contiguity of sequential occurrence, and similarity among items. Cause and effect were often reduced to another type of contiguity relation, so that Aristotle is most often evoked as the originator of the associative bondings through similarity and contiguity, contiguity being the most powerful and frequent means of association. Contiguity eventually became the overriding mechanism for serial ordering of mental events in both perception and action. The notions of concatenation throughout the association psychology took the form of "trains" of events, both sensory and motor, in such a way that serial ordering came to be viewed as an item-by-item string of locally contiguous events. Modern developments in the mathematics of serial ordering have advanced in sophistication since the early and middle twentieth century, and new computational methods have allowed us to reevaluate the serial concatenative theories of Darwin and the associationists. These new models of serial order permit a closer comparative scrutiny between human and nonhuman. The present study considers Darwin's insistence on a "degree" continuity between human and nonhuman animal serial ordering. We will consider a study of starling birdsongs and whether the serial ordering of those songs provides evidence that they have a syntax that at best differs only in degree and not in kind with the computations of human grammatical structures. We will argue that they, in fact, show no such thing.

  18. Discovery of scientific correspondence of P.P.C. Hoek (1851—1914), including three unpublished letters by Charles Darwin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Florence F.J.M.; Winthagen, Diny

    1990-01-01

    Recently the scientific correspondence of the Dutch zoologist P.P.C. Hoek (1851—1914) turned up in the Artis Library. This collection contains three hitherto unpublished letters from Charles Darwin. It appears that Charles Darwin recommended Hoek to the favour of Sir Charles Wyville Thomson upon Hoe

  19. A Trans-Indian Ocean Hydrographic Section at Latitude 32 deg S Data Report of RRS Charles Darwin Cruise 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Data Report of RRS Charles Darwin Cruise #29 by Margaret F. Cook, John M. Toole, and George P. Knapp Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole...Report of RRS Charles Darwin Cruise #29 by Margaret F. Cook, John M. Toole, and George P. Knapp Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole... Charles Darwin was a multi-institution oceanographic effort. A U.S. contingent of thirteen joined by four shipboard technicians from NERC/RVS (Table

  20. Charles Darwin's Origin of Species, directional selection, and the evolutionary sciences today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich

    2009-11-01

    The book On the Origin of Species, published in November 1859, is an "abstract" without references, compiled by Charles Darwin from a much longer manuscript entitled "Natural Selection." Here, I summarize the five theories that can be extracted from Darwin's monograph, explain the true meaning of the phrase "struggle for life" (i.e., competition and cooperation), and outline Darwin's original concept of natural selection in populations of animals and plants. Since neither Darwin nor Alfred R. Wallace distinguished between stabilizing and directional natural selection, the popular argument that "selection only eliminates but is not creative" is still alive today. However, I document that August Weismann (Die Bedeutung der sexuellen Fortpflanzung für die Selektions-Theorie. Gustav Fischer-Verlag, Jena, 1886) and Ivan Schmalhausen (Factors of evolution. The theory of stabilizing selection. The Blackiston Company, Philadelphia, 1949) provided precise definitions for directional (dynamic) selection in nature and illustrate this "Weismann-Schmalhausen principle" with respect to the evolutionary development of novel phenotypes. Then, the modern (synthetic) theory of biological evolution that is based on the work of Theodosius Dobzhansky (Genetics and the origin of species. Columbia University Press, New York, 1937) and others, and the expanded version of this system of theories, are outlined. Finally, I document that symbiogenesis (i.e., primary endosymbiosis, a process that gave rise to the first eukaryotic cells), ongoing directional natural selection, and the dynamic Earth (plate tectonics, i.e., geological events that both created and destroyed terrestrial and aquatic habitats) were the key processes responsible for the documented macroevolutionary patterns in all five kingdoms of life. Since the evolutionary development of the earliest archaic bacteria more than 3,500 mya, the biosphere of our dynamic planet has been dominated by prokaryotic microbes. Eubacteria

  1. Charles Darwin and the origins of plant evolutionary developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, William E; Diggle, Pamela K

    2011-04-01

    Much has been written of the early history of comparative embryology and its influence on the emergence of an evolutionary developmental perspective. However, this literature, which dates back nearly a century, has been focused on metazoans, without acknowledgment of the contributions of comparative plant morphologists to the creation of a developmental view of biodiversity. We trace the origin of comparative plant developmental morphology from its inception in the eighteenth century works of Wolff and Goethe, through the mid nineteenth century discoveries of the general principles of leaf and floral organ morphogenesis. Much like the stimulus that von Baer provided as a nonevolutionary comparative embryologist to the creation of an evolutionary developmental view of animals, the comparative developmental studies of plant morphologists were the basis for the first articulation of the concept that plant (namely floral) evolution results from successive modifications of ontogeny. Perhaps most surprisingly, we show that the first person to carefully read and internalize the remarkable advances in the understanding of plant morphogenesis in the 1840s and 1850s is none other than Charles Darwin, whose notebooks, correspondence, and (then) unpublished manuscripts clearly demonstrate that he had discovered the developmental basis for the evolutionary transformation of plant form.

  2. Bravo Emma! Music in the life and work of Charles Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, J F

    2009-03-01

    The long-term marital dance of Emma and Charles Darwin was set to the routine beat of an almost daily piano recital. Emma was a proficient pianist, and so a quality instrument was a welcome and appropriate house-warming present for their first marital home in London. That same piano accompanied the Darwins on their move to Downe before being upgraded for a newer model, which is still there, whilst another, cheaper piano may have played in Charles Darwin's work, particularly on earthworms. Whilst he lamented his own lack of musicality, Darwin revelled in his wife's prowess, a capacity that he recognised could be inherited, not least through observation of his own children. The evolution of musicality, he reasoned, was rooted in sexual attraction as a form of communication that preceded language.

  3. Zum Verhältnis Charles Darwins zu Alexander v. Humboldt und Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Werner

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Article in German, Abstracts in English and German.While it is well known that Charles Darwin and Alexander von Humboldt appreciated each other's work, Humboldt's influence on Darwin has not yet been thoroughly examined. The following paper shows to what extent Darwin was inspired by Humboldt's publications while writing his Origin of Species.Darwin paid special attention to Humboldt's observations on plant migration and throughout his whole scientific career he used Humboldt's books as a major source of information. In fact, Darwin's last annotations in his copy of the Personal Narrative of travels to the Equinoctial Regions of the New continent during the Years 1799-1804 date back to the last weeks of his life.On the other hand, Darwin rejected many of Humboldt's scientific conclusions. The two authors differed in their assessment of Heinrich Bronn's biological research. Finally, Darwin was dissatisfied with Humboldtís last work Cosmos because it did not contain the information he expected. Darwinís collaboration with Humboldt's travel companion Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg proved to be similarly disappointing. Darwin sent 183 samples of infusoria to Berlin, but the results of Ehrenberg's analysis did not support Darwin's theory on evolution.

  4. Evolution in a fully constituted world: Charles Darwin's debts towards a static world in the Origin of Species (1859).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    The Transformist Revolution was a long intellectual quest that has expanded from the 18th century to today. One area of inquiry after another has confronted the necessity of recasting its object of study under an evolutionary view: human history, geology, biology, astronomy, etc. No single scholar fully managed to make the transition from a static worldview to an evolutionary one during his or her own lifetime; Charles Darwin is no exception. Many versions of evolutionism were proposed during this revolution, versions offering all sorts of compromises between old and new views. Not sufficiently acknowledged in the historiography is the profoundness of Darwin's debts towards the old static view. As a dual child of the Scientific Revolution and natural theology, Darwin inherited key concepts such as stability, completeness, timelessness, unity, permanence, and uniformity. Darwin took these concepts into consideration while erecting his theory of biological evolution. Unsurprisingly, this theory was ill-equipped to embrace the directionality, historicity, and novelty that came along with a new evolutionary world. This paper analyses a fundamental idea at the heart of Darwin's Origins of Species (1859) inherited from a static, stable, and machine-like conception of the world: the notion of a fully constituted world. Although in principle antithetical to the very idea of evolution itself, Darwin found a way to 'loosen up' this notion so as to retain it in a way that allows for some kind of evolutionary change.

  5. Charles Darwin havde et nuanceret syn på dyreforsøg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    2015-01-01

    Jeg har i en tidligere blog været inde på, hvordan Charles Darwins evolutionsteori har haft betydning for vores valg af forsøgsdyr. Men hvordan så Charles Darwin egentlig selv på dyreforsøg og dyrevelfærd? Faktisk var det et emne, der optog ham dybt. Allerede i 1838, over tyve år før offentliggør...... (engelsk: The Descent of Man). Først da turde han på tryk redegøre for, at mennesket og dyrene har fælles ophav....

  6. 'This excellent observer ...': the correspondence between Charles Darwin and James Crichton-Browne, 1869-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, Alison M

    2010-06-01

    Between May 1869 and December 1875, Charles Darwin exchanged more than 40 letters with James Crichton-Browne, superintendent of the West Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum, Wakefield, Yorkshire. This paper charts their relationship within the context of Darwin's wider research networks and methods; it analyses the contribution that Crichton-Browne made to the writing of Expression, arguing that the information he provided materially affected Darwin's thesis, and that it was partly the need to assimilate this that led Darwin to publish Expression separately from Descent. The letters help to reconstruct Crichton-Browne's early research interests, and document Darwin's little-explored role as a patron. Both men are revealed within a collaborative scientific network, with each of them at various times a beneficiary or a promoter.

  7. O Retorno Impossível: Charles Darwin e a Escravidão no Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Sequeira Fernandes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of traveling naturalists and foreign artists in Brazil, both in its colonial period and in the imperialperiod, largely enriched the amount of information available about the country. Charles Darwin was one of those travelerswho, with a simple and objective approach, contributed to this knowledge by pointing out the exuberance of our fl oraand fauna just like the others had done and more emphatically. Unlike many travelers, however, he scarcely referred tothe political and social issues of the land he visited. From his main texts and correspondence one can obtain little but notless useful remarks about that; worthy of note is Darwin’s pointing out the situation of slavery in Brazil, emphasizing theill-treatment that captives were subjected to, particularly in Rio de Janeiro. With a brief report on the main aspects of itsorigins and on the presence of Darwin in Brazil, this paper studies the treatment given to the slaves in the fi rst decades ofthe 19th century taking into account his reports and the negative feeling that would lead him never to want to come backto the country whose natural beauty he had praised so much.

  8. Studying phenotypic evolution in domestic animals: a walk in the footsteps of Charles Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin used domesticated plants and animals as proof of principle for his theory on phenotypic evolution by means of natural selection. Inspired by Darwin's work, we developed an intercross between the wild boar and domestic pigs to study the genetic basis for phenotypic changes during domestication. The difference in coat color is controlled by two major loci. Dominant white color is due to two consecutive mutations in the KIT gene: a 450-kb duplication and a splice mutation. Black spotting is caused by the combined effect of two mutations in MC1R: a missense mutation for dominant black color and a 2-bp insertion leading to a frameshift. A major discovery made using this pedigree is the identification of a single-nucleotide substitution in intron 3 of the gene for insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) that is underlying a quantitative trait locus affecting muscle growth, size of the heart, and fat deposition. The mutation disrupts the interaction with a repressor and leads to threefold increased IGF2 expression in postnatal muscle. In a recent study, we have identified the IGF2 repressor, and this previously unknown protein, named ZBED6, is specific for placental mammals and derived from a domesticated DNA transposon.

  9. Darwin vs. Wallace: When Poetry Dies and When Poetry Survives in the Not-so-Natural Selection of Memetic Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bryce

    2011-01-01

    The theory of memetic evolution--explaining the reproduction of cultural units called "memes"--illuminates the decline of poetry as a cultural presence by clarifying the contrasting attitudes towards poetry manifested by the co-discoverers of natural selection: Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace. Darwin's eventual indifference to poetry…

  10. Biology HERO:CHARLES DARWIN%生物学英雄:查尔斯·达尔文

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Hole; 刘中飞

    2005-01-01

    @@ Charles Darwin did not come up with the idea of evdlution,he was merely the first to come up with an explanation for how evolution worked that explained what he and other biologists saw in the world.

  11. Maestros, ideas y lecturas que cambiaron el pensamiento de Charles Robert Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Priora

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to review Charles Darwin’s teachers, readings, and which ideas and other events had a definite impact on his mental framework, to the extent that they prompted him to dismiss some ideas while adopting others. When discussing Charles Darwin, we will devote to his ancestors, studies, teachers, friendships, readings, and the doubts that nagged him throughout his life. In short, we will refer tothe whole collection of the personal experiences that shaped and transformed his thought, to the point of prompting him to write a book that shook up the world.

  12. From Charles Darwin's botanical country-house studies to modern plant biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, U; Briggs, W R

    2009-11-01

    As a student of theology at Cambridge University, Charles Darwin (1809-1882) attended the lectures of the botanist John S. Henslow (1796-1861). This instruction provided the basis for his life-long interest in plants as well as the species question. This was a major reason why in his book On the Origin of Species, which was published 150 years ago, Darwin explained his metaphorical phrase 'struggle for life' with respect to animals and plants. In this article, we review Darwin's botanical work with reference to the following topics: the struggle for existence in the vegetable kingdom with respect to the phytochrome-mediated shade avoidance response; the biology of flowers and Darwin's plant-insect co-evolution hypothesis; climbing plants and the discovery of action potentials; the power of movement in plants and Darwin's conflict with the German plant physiologist Julius Sachs; and light perception by growing grass coleoptiles with reference to the phototropins. Finally, we describe the establishment of the scientific discipline of Plant Biology that took place in the USA 80 years ago, and define this area of research with respect to Darwin's work on botany and the physiology of higher plants.

  13. Darwin's legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Leonard

    2009-07-01

    Charles Darwin was no theoretical physicist, and I am no biologist. Yet, as a theoretical physicist, I have found much to think about in Darwin's legacy - and in that of his fellow naturalist Alfred Russell Wallace. Darwin's style of science is not usually thought of as theoretical and certainly not mathematical: he was a careful observer of nature, kept copious notes, contributed to zoological collections; and eventually from his vast repertoire of observation deduced the idea of natural selection as the origin of species. The value of theorizing is often dismissed in the biological sciences as less important than observation; and Darwin was the master observer.

  14. The fossil mammals collected byCharles Darwin in South America during his travels on board the HMS Beagle

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Duringthe first two years of his voyage aboard HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin collected aconsiderable number of fossil mammals from various localities in Argentina andUruguay. Among these remains are those of large mammals that Darwin informallyassigned to Megatherium and Mastodon, the only large taxa thenknown for South America, and of small and mediumsized mammals that Darwinrecognized as representing at least two rodents and a horse. The study ofDarwin's collection was entrusted to Richard Owe...

  15. Charles Darwin's beagle voyage, fossil vertebrate succession, and "the gradual birth & death of species".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing view among historians of science holds that Charles Darwin became a convinced transmutationist only in the early spring of 1837, after his Beagle collections had been examined by expert British naturalists. With respect to the fossil vertebrate evidence, some historians believe that Darwin was incapable of seeing or understanding the transmutationist implications of his specimens without the help of Richard Owen. There is ample evidence, however, that he clearly recognized the similarities between several of the fossil vertebrates he collected and some of the extant fauna of South America before he returned to Britain. These comparisons, recorded in his correspondence, his diary and his notebooks during the voyage, were instances of a phenomenon that he later called the "law of the succession of types." Moreover, on the Beagle, he was following a geological research agenda outlined in the second volume of Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology, which implies that paleontological data alone could provide an insight into the laws which govern the appearance of new species. Since Darwin claims in On the Origin of Species that fossil vertebrate succession was one of the key lines of evidence that led him to question the fixity of species, it seems certain that he was seriously contemplating transmutation during the Beagle voyage. If so, historians of science need to reconsider both the role of Britain's expert naturalists and the importance of the fossil vertebrate evidence in the development of Darwin's ideas on transmutation.

  16. Charles Darwin and the firstscientific observations on the patagonian shingle formation (Rodados Patagónicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A. Martínez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available TheRodados Patagónicos is one of the most intriguing lithostratigraphic unitsin the Late Cenozoic of Patagonia. Charles Darwin named these gravels as the "PatagonianShingle Formation", when he discovered them during his trip toPatagonia on board HMS Beagle in 1832. According to the prevailing paradigm ofthe time, he assigned these deposits to a giant transgression during the GreatUniversal Déluge epoch, considering that their formation was related to waveaction along the beach in ancient times. The name of Rodados Patagónicos,as they are generally known in the Argentine geological literature, is usuallyconfusing since it has been applied to a wide number of geological units ofmultiple origin and age. Many authors have discussed the nature and origin ofthese gravels, considering them to have been formed by piedmont, alluvial,colluvial, glaciofluvial, and/or marine processes. Today, it is accepted thatthe term Rodados Patagónicos includes gravel deposits of varied nature and age,perhaps with a prevalence of piedmont genesis in northern Patagonia andglaciofluvial dynamics in southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

  17. More on Darwin's illness: comment on the final diagnosis of Charles Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, William; Meller, William H; Thurber, Steven

    2008-06-20

    Without the possibility of confirmatory exhumation, diagnostic inferences about Darwin's illness must remain speculative. A diagnosis of Darwin's aggregate symptoms must account for not only gastrointestinal distress but also his predominant and excessive retching and the conglomerate of other heterogeneous symptoms. We opine that Crohn's disease, posited as the 'final diagnosis', is not sufficient for subsuming his pleiomorphic symptomatology. An additional proposal is outlined that may help to explain his presentation with heterogeneous symptoms. It incorporates constitutional vulnerabilities, psychosomatic influences and Pavlovian conditioning as explanatory variables.

  18. Charles Darwin's Origin of Species, directional selection, and the evolutionary sciences today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich

    2009-11-01

    The book On the Origin of Species, published in November 1859, is an “abstract” without references, compiled by Charles Darwin from a much longer manuscript entitled “Natural Selection.” Here, I summarize the five theories that can be extracted from Darwin’s monograph, explain the true meaning of the phrase “struggle for life” (i.e., competition and cooperation), and outline Darwin’s original concept of natural selection in populations of animals and plants. Since neither Darwin nor Alfred R. Wallace distinguished between stabilizing and directional natural selection, the popular argument that “selection only eliminates but is not creative” is still alive today. However, I document that August Weismann ( Die Bedeutung der sexuellen Fortpflanzung für die Selektions-Theorie. Gustav Fischer-Verlag, Jena, 1886) and Ivan Schmalhausen ( Factors of evolution. The theory of stabilizing selection. The Blackiston Company, Philadelphia, 1949) provided precise definitions for directional (dynamic) selection in nature and illustrate this “Weismann-Schmalhausen principle” with respect to the evolutionary development of novel phenotypes. Then, the modern (synthetic) theory of biological evolution that is based on the work of Theodosius Dobzhansky ( Genetics and the origin of species. Columbia University Press, New York, 1937) and others, and the expanded version of this system of theories, are outlined. Finally, I document that symbiogenesis (i.e., primary endosymbiosis, a process that gave rise to the first eukaryotic cells), ongoing directional natural selection, and the dynamic Earth (plate tectonics, i.e., geological events that both created and destroyed terrestrial and aquatic habitats) were the key processes responsible for the documented macroevolutionary patterns in all five kingdoms of life. Since the evolutionary development of the earliest archaic bacteria more than 3,500 mya, the biosphere of our dynamic planet has been dominated by

  19. Charles Darwin and psychology at the bicentennial and sesquicentennial: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewsbury, Donald A

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the special issue on Darwin and psychology at the bicentennial of his birth and the sesquicentennial of his publication of On the Origin of Species. His core contributions, as viewed today, were his theory of natural selection, his naturalistic philosophy, and his mass of evidence for evolutionary change. A brief summary of Darwin's life is also presented. Among Darwin's contributions to psychology were his demonstration of the continuity of species, a model for the study of instinct, a book on the expression of the emotions, and a baby biography. Previous celebrations of Darwin and the changing perceptions of his work since its publication are described. Darwin's theory remains an important part of psychology.

  20. "A dedicated missionary". Charles Galton Darwin and the new quantum mechanics in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jaume

    In this paper I discuss the work on quantum physics and wave mechanics by Charles Galton Darwin, a Cambridge wrangler of the last generation, as a case study to better understand the early reception of quantum physics in Britain. I argue that his proposal in the early 1920s to abandon the strict conservation of energy, as well as his enthusiastic embracement of wave mechanics at the end of the decade, can be easily understood by tracing his ontological and epistemological commitments to his early training in the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos. I also suggest that Darwin's work cannot be neglected in a study of quantum physics in Britain, since he was one of very few fellows of the Royal Society able to judge and explain quantum physics and quantum mechanics.

  1. Charles Darwin and Evolution: Illustrating Human Aspects of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampourakis, Kostas; McComas, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the nature of science (NOS) has become recognized as an important element within the K-12 science curriculum. Despite differences in the ultimate lists of recommended aspects, a consensus is emerging on what specific NOS elements should be the focus of science instruction and inform textbook writers and curriculum developers. In this…

  2. An Amphibious Being: How Maritime Surveying Reshaped Darwin's Approach to Natural History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponsel, Alistair

    2016-06-01

    This essay argues that Charles Darwin's distinctive approach to studying distribution and diversity was shaped by his face-to-face interactions with maritime surveyors during the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle (1831-1836). Introducing their hydrographic surveying methods into natural history enabled him to compare fossil and living marine organisms, to compare sedimentary rocks to present-day marine sediments, and to compare landscapes to submarine topology, thereby realizing Charles Lyell's fanciful ambition for a superior form of geology that might be practiced by an "amphibious being." Darwin's theories of continental uplift, coral reef formation, and the origin of species all depended on his amphibious natural history. This essay contributes to our understanding of theorizing in nineteenth-century natural history by illustrating that specific techniques of observing and collecting could themselves help to generate a particular theoretical orientation and, indeed, that such practical experiences were a more proximate source of Darwin's "Humboldtian" interest in distribution and diversity than Alexander von Humboldt's writings themselves. Darwin's debt to the hydrographers became obscured in two ways: through the "funneling" of credit produced by single-authorship publication in natural history and the "telescoping" of memory by which Darwin's new theories made him recall his former researches as though he had originally undertaken them for the very purpose of producing the later theory.

  3. O animal darwiniano: o status das emoções na teoria da mente em Charles darwin

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    O presente trabalho analisa o status das emoções animais na edificação de uma teoria da mente em Charles Darwin, tendo como principais fontes primárias as obras The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (DARWIN, 1998a [1871]) e The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (DARWIN, 1998b [1872]). Defendo que as emoções são um atributo de importância crucial no estabelecimento de uma teoria darwiniana da mente. Dentre os vários componentes da teoria da evolução ...

  4. "My appointment received the sanction of the Admiralty": why Charles Darwin really was the naturalist on HMS Beagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyhe, John

    2013-09-01

    For decades historians of science and science writers in general have maintained that Charles Darwin was not the 'naturalist' or 'official naturalist' during the 1831-1836 surveying voyage of HMS Beagle but instead Captain Robert FitzRoy's 'companion', 'gentleman companion' or 'dining companion'. That is, Darwin was primarily the captain's social companion and only secondarily and unofficially naturalist. Instead, it is usually maintained, the ship's surgeon Robert McCormick was the official naturalist because this was the default or official practice at the time. Although these views have been repeated in countless accounts of Darwin's life, this essay aims to show that they are incorrect.

  5. There is grandeur in this view of Newton: Charles Darwin, Isaac Newton and Victorian conceptions of scientific virtue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Richard

    2014-01-01

    For Victorian men of science, the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century represented a moral awakening. Great theoretical triumphs of inductive science flowed directly from a philosophical spirit that embraced the virtues of self-discipline, courage, patience and humility. Isaac Newton exemplified this union of moral and intellectual excellence. This, at least, was the story crafted by scientific leaders like David Brewster, Thomas Chalmers, John Herschel, Adam Sedgwick and William Whewell. Not everyone accepted this reading of history. Evangelicals who decried the 'materialism' of mainstream science assigned a different meaning to Newton's legacy on behalf of their 'scriptural' alternative. High-church critics of science like John Henry Newman, on the other hand, denied that Newton's secular achievements carried any moral significance at all. These debates over Newtonian standards of philosophical behavior had a decisive influence on Charles Darwin as he developed his theory of evolution by natural selection.

  6. The 'root-brain' hypothesis of Charles and Francis Darwin: Revival after more than 125 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluska, Frantisek; Mancuso, Stefano; Volkmann, Dieter; Barlow, Peter W

    2009-12-01

    This year celebrates the 200(th) aniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin, best known for his theory of evolution summarized in On the Origin of Species. Less well known is that, in the second half of his life, Darwin's major scientific focus turned towards plants. He wrote several books on plants, the next-to-last of which, The Power of Movement of Plants, published together with his son Francis, opened plants to a new view. Here we amplify the final sentence of this book in which the Darwins proposed that: "It is hardly an exaggeration to say that the tip of the radicle thus endowed [with sensitivity] and having the power of directing the movements of the adjoining parts, acts like the brain of one of the lower animals; the brain being seated within the anterior end of the body, receiving impressions from the sense-organs, and directing the several movements." This sentence conveys two important messages: first, that the root apex may be considered to be a 'brain-like' organ endowed with a sensitivity which controls its navigation through soil; second, that the root apex represents the anterior end of the plant body. In this article, we discuss both these statements.

  7. Darwin's Error: Using the Story of Pangenesis to Illustrate Aspects of Nature of Science in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, William F.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a number of aspects of the nature of science that can be illustrated by considering the development of pangenesis, a principle proposed by Charles Darwin to describe the rules of inheritance, explain the source of new variation, and solve other natural history puzzles. Pangenesis--although false--can be used to illustrate…

  8. The Subduction Experiment, Cruise Report, RRS Charles Darwin Cruise Number 73. Subduction 3 Mooring Deployment and Recovery Cruise 30 September-26 October 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    RRS Charles Darwin Cruise Number 73 Subduction 3 Mooring Deployment and Recovery Cruise 30 September -26 October 1992 * by T Richard P. Trask 1.7 i•; A...RRS Charles Darwin cruise number 73 which was the third scheduled Subduction mooring cruise. During this cruise the second setting of the moorings...14 Table A6-1 XBT Positions 82 I S "I U Im ’i i i n I Section 1: Introduction The RRS Charles Darwin departed Funchal, Madeira at 0910 UTC on

  9. Darwinian hydrology: can the methodology Charles Darwin pioneered help hydrologic science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, C.; Troch, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    There have been repeated calls for a Darwinian approach to hydrologic science or for a synthesis of Darwinian and Newtonian approaches, to deepen understanding the hydrologic system in the larger landscape context, and so develop a better basis for predictions now and in an uncertain future. But what exactly makes a Darwinian approach to hydrology "Darwinian"? While there have now been a number of discussions of Darwinian approaches, many referencing Harte (2002), the term is potentially a source of confusion while its connections to Darwin remain allusive rather than explicit. Here we discuss the methods that Charles Darwin pioneered to understand a variety of complex systems in terms of their historical processes of change. We suggest that the Darwinian approach to hydrology follows his lead by focusing attention on the patterns of variation in populations, seeking hypotheses that explain these patterns in terms of the mechanisms and conditions that determine their historical development, using deduction and modeling to derive consequent hypotheses that follow from a proposed explanation, and critically testing these hypotheses against new observations. It is not sufficient to catalogue the patterns or predict them statistically. Nor is it sufficient for the explanations to amount to a "just-so" story not subject to critical analysis. Darwin's theories linked present-day variation to mechanisms that operated over history, and could be independently test and falsified by comparing new observations to the predictions of corollary hypotheses they generated. With a Darwinian framework in mind it is easy to see that a great deal of hydrologic research has already been done that contributes to a Darwinian hydrology - whether deliberately or not. The various heuristic methods that Darwin used to develop explanatory theories - extrapolating mechanisms, space for time substitution, and looking for signatures of history - have direct application in hydrologic science. Some

  10. Charles Darwin's (1809-1882) illness - the role of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyse-Moore, Louis

    2016-09-15

    During most of his adult life, in counterpoint to his fame in describing the theory of evolution, Charles Darwin was chronically ill. He consulted many doctors with only limited and temporary success. His symptoms were many and varied. His doctors favoured dyspepsia or suppressed gout as the diagnosis. The Water Cure was only effective initially. Many diagnoses have been proposed by physicians since then. Perhaps he suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not instead of but as well as other physical problems. His symptoms match with criteria for PTSD. Traumatic episodes from his life are considered in this paper: his mother's painful, sudden death from an acute abdominal event when he was eight; his reaction to seeing operations without anaesthetic; the deaths of three of his children, including his beloved daughter, Annie, aged ten; and being overwhelmed by his chronic, unrelenting symptoms. Trauma had not been conceptualised as a diagnosis in Darwin's time. Rather, hysteria and, in war, irritable heart were names given to what is now called PTSD.

  11. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from CHARLES DARWIN from 1987-11-13 to 1987-12-16 (NCEI Accession 9000119)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected. R/V Charles Darwin was used to collect data. The data consisting of 111 casts was...

  12. RRS "Charles Darwin" Cruise CD170 and RV "Knorr" Cruise KN182-2. RAPID mooring cruise report April - May 2005

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Cunningham; D. Rayner

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the mooring operations conducted during RRS Charles Darwin Cruise CD170 and RV Knorr Cruise KN182-2. Cruise CD170 was conducted between 2 April 2005 and 27 April 2005, and Cruise KN182-2 was conducted between 2 May 2005 and 26 May 2005.\\ud \\ud These cruises were completed as part of the United Kingdom Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) funded RAPID Programme and the United States of America National Science Federation (NSF) funded MOCHA Programme to monitor the ...

  13. Charles Darwin and the World He Changed——Celebrating Charles Darwin's Bicentenary%达尔文和他改变的世界纪念达尔文诞辰200周年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙漫远; 陈振夏

    2009-01-01

    @@ 一 超越时空界限与学科藩篱 1809年2月12日,查尔斯·达尔文(Charles Robert Darwin)出生在英国什罗普郡的历史名城什鲁斯伯里(Shrewsbury).1859年11月24日,他的不朽名著出版,一时洛阳纸贵而影响历久不衰.

  14. RRS "Charles Darwin" Cruise CD168, 02 Feb - 16 Feb 2005. Submarine landslides around the Cape Verde Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    Catastrophic large-scale landslides are a fundamental process in the formation of many oceanic islands. The main aim of cruise CD168 was to carry out a reconnaissance survey of the influence of landsliding on the Cape Verde islands, in the eastern central Atlantic, and to compare this with the known effects of landsliding on the Canary Islands. The data collected during RRS Charles Darwin Cruise, when combined with synthetic aperture radar imagery of the subaerial islands, show clear evidence...

  15. The theory of non-linear transresonant wave phenomena and an examination of Charles Darwin's earthquake reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiev, Sh. U.

    2003-08-01

    A non-linear theory of transresonant wave phenomena based on consideration of perturbed wave equations is presented. In particular, the waves in a surface layer of a porous compressible viscoelastoplastic material are considered. For such layers the 3-D equations of deformable media are reduced to 1-D or 2-D perturbed wave equations. A set of approximate, closed-form, general solutions of these equations are presented, which take into account non-linear, dissipative, dispersive, topographic and boundary effects. Then resonant, site and liquefaction effects are analysed. Resonance is considered as a global parameter. Transresonant evolution of the equations is studied. Within the resonant band, utt~a20∇2u and the perturbed wave equations transform into non-linear diffusion equations, either to a basic highly non-linear ordinary differential equation or to the basic algebraic equation for travelling waves. Resonances can destroy predictability and wave reversibility. Surface topography (valleys, islands, etc.) is considered as a series of earthquake-induced resonators. A non-linear transresonant evolution of smooth seismic waves into shock-, jet- and mushroom-like waves and vortices is studied. The amplitude of the resonant waves may be of the order of the square or cube root of the exciting amplitude. Therefore, seismic waves with a moderate amplitude can be amplified very strongly in natural resonators, whereas strong seismic waves can be attenuated. Reports of the 1835 February 20 Chilean earthquake given by Charles Darwin are qualitatively examined using the non-linear theory. The theory qualitatively describes the `shivering' of islands and ridges, volcano spouts and generation of tsunami-like waves and supports Darwin's opinion that these events were part of a single phenomenon. Same-day earthquake/eruption events and catastrophic amplification of seismic waves near the edge of sediment layers are discussed. At the same time the theory can account for recent

  16. "The orchids have been a splendid sport"--an alternative look at Charles Darwin's contribution to orchid biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Tim Wing; Arditti, Joseph; Cameron, Kenneth M

    2009-12-01

    Charles Darwin's work with orchids and his thoughts about them are of great interest and not a little pride for those who are interested in these plants, but they are generally less well known than some of his other studies and ideas. Much has been published on what led to his other books and views. However, there is a paucity of information in the general literature on how Darwin's orchid book came about. This review will describe how The Various Contrivances by Which Orchids Are Fertilised by Insects came into being and will discuss the taxonomy of the orchids he studied. It also will concentrate on some of the less well-known aspects of Darwin's work and observations on orchids-namely, rostellum, seeds and their germination, pollination effects, and resupination-and their influence on subsequent investigators, plant physiology, and orchid science.

  17. Getting to Darwin: Obstacles to Accepting Evolution by Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thagard, Paul; Findlay, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is central to modern biology, but is resisted by many people. This paper discusses the major psychological obstacles to accepting Darwin's theory. Cognitive obstacles to adopting evolution by natural selection include conceptual difficulties, methodological issues, and coherence problems that…

  18. 'The art itself is nature': Darwin, domestic varieties and the scientific revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkpen, S Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Common to both the scientific and Darwinian revolutions were discussions challenging the distinction between art and nature. Was art a part of nature? Could art be used as a model for nature? This intellectual congruence, however, is more than just nominal. Charles Darwin and Asa Gray, for example, were well-aware of the 17th century debates which preceded them through the works of such revered English writers as William Shakespeare and Thomas Browne. Furthermore, they used their understandings of these debates to inform and express their own thinking about the relation between artificial and natural selection.

  19. Ciência e educação: a propósito do bicentenário do nascimento de Charles Darwin Science and education: about Charles Darwin's 200th birthday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Pino

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa à evocação da memória do grande naturalista e cientista britânico Charles Darwin no bicentenário do seu nascimento. A melhor maneira de evocar sua memória é trazer à reflexão dos leitores as ideias de suas três obras maiores: A origem das espécies (1859, A descendência do homem (1871 e A expressão das emoções no homem e nos animais (1872. Após apresentar a importância e a oportunidade de Darwin no debate contemporâneo, o texto inicia com uma rápida referência aos antecedentes históricos da "teoria da evolução" e às reações que ela produz. Na sequência, a obra de Darwin é situada no contexto histórico da sua época. Apresenta-se também um breve histórico das três obras maiores e uma análise das suas principais ideias. Conclui-se o texto com uma indicação sumária de algumas questões que as ideias de Darwin colocam à ciência contemporânea e, em especial, à reflexão no campo da Educação.This paper evokes the memory of the British naturalist and scientist, Charles Darwin on his 200th birthday. The best way to do so is to invite our readers to reflect on some ideas of three books of his: The origin of species (1859, Descent of man (1871 and The expression of emotions in man and animals (1872. After presenting the importance and appropriateness of Darwin in the contemporaneous debate, the text rapidly explores the historical precedents of the so called "theory of evolution" and the reactions to it. It then situates Darwin's works in its historical context and presents a brief history of these three books and an analysis of their main ideas. As a conclusion, it summarizes how Darwin's ideas question contemporary science and, more particularly, the reflection in the field of education.

  20. The fossil mammals collected byCharles Darwin in South America during his travels on board the HMS Beagle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fernicola

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Duringthe first two years of his voyage aboard HMS Beagle, Charles Darwin collected aconsiderable number of fossil mammals from various localities in Argentina andUruguay. Among these remains are those of large mammals that Darwin informallyassigned to Megatherium and Mastodon, the only large taxa thenknown for South America, and of small and mediumsized mammals that Darwinrecognized as representing at least two rodents and a horse. The study ofDarwin's collection was entrusted to Richard Owen, who described eleven taxabetween 1837 and 1845, including the six following ones: Toxodon platensis,Macrauchenia patachonica, Equus curvidens, Scelidotherium leptocephalum,Mylodon darwini and Glossotherium sp. This contribution provides asynthesis of Darwin's preliminary assignments and evaluates the reasons thatled him to recognize only megatheres and mastodonts for the large fossilremains. Also, it discusses the current taxonomic status of the taxa describedor erected by Owen between 1837 and 1845 and the influence that Owen'staxonomic and phylogenetic conclusions had on the development of Darwin's ideason evolution.

  1. Beagle I and II Voyages: Charles Darwin's rocks and the quest for Mars rock; the Open University's virtual microscope has both

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenzer, S. P.; Tindle, A. G.; Anand, M.; Gibson, E. K.; Pearson, V. K.; Pemberton, D.; Pillinger, C.; Smith, C. L.; Whalley, P.; Kelley, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    ; in the 20th century the Apollo astronauts set foot on the Moon, returning valuable rock samples to Earth. Through collaboration between NASA and the OU it became possible to show lunar samples as virtual thin sections. The Beagle II mission represented a new voyage, following Charles Darwin's footsteps, to horizons well beyond the Earth - on a journey to investigate the planet Mars. Although no samples have yet been returned from the red planet, we do have access to Martian meteorites. Like Moon rock samples, these meteorites are rare and very valuable. So, one way to make them accessible to the general public is via the internet using our virtual microscope technology. Within the framework of the EUROPLANET project, and in collaboration with the Natural History Museum in London we are making such meteorites freely available to all. We plan to extend this collection and make it openly accessible for teaching and outreach activities anywhere and any time. Our current microscopes are located at http://microscope.open.ac.uk.

  2. Darwin's explanation of design: from natural theology to natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco J

    2010-08-01

    Copernicus, Galileo, Newton and other physical scientists ushered in a conception of the universe as matter in motion governed by natural laws. Their discoveries brought about a fundamental revolution, namely a commitment to the postulate that the universe obeys immanent laws that can account for natural phenomena. The workings of the universe were brought into the realm of science: explanation through natural laws. Darwin completed the Copernican revolution by extending it to the living world. Darwin demonstrated the evolution of organisms. More important yet is that he discovered natural selection, the process that explains the "design" of organisms. The adaptations and diversity of organisms, the origin of novel and complex species, even the origin of mankind, could now be explained by an orderly process of change governed by natural laws. The origin of species and the exquisite features of organisms had previously been explained as special creations of an Omniscient God. Darwin brought them into the domain of science. Evolution is a creative process that produces genuine novelty. The creative power of evolution arises from a distinctive interaction between chance and necessity, between random mutation and natural selection.

  3. El cambio climático global en la Patagonia desde el viaje de Charles Darwin hasta nuestros días The global climatic change in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego since voyage of Charles Darwin until present times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rabassa

    2010-08-01

    todos, los glaciares de circo de la Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego desaparecerán durante las próximas dos décadas, y tanto los glaciares de valle como los mantos de hielo de la Patagonia se verán severamente reducidos en su superficie y espesor. Como consecuencia de la desaparición paulatina de los glaciares, se esperan significativos cambios en las condiciones ambientales, hidrológicas, geomorfológicas, turísticas y del patrimonio natural de estas regiones, que afectarán severamente a aquellas comunidades que viven en ellas.The Voyage of the Beagle that brought Charles Darwin to South America in AD 1832- 1835 and particularly, to the present territory of Argentina, was developed under very unfavorable climatic conditions, much colder, drier and windier than today. These circunstances correspond to the dominant conditions during the last phase of the little ice age, which was a global, cold event that characterized the 17th to the 19th centuries. This phase is known as the Dalton Minimum, in reference to the relative small amount of solar spots, which generated a diminution of the solar radiation and in consequence, the lowering of the global mean temperatures in that period. Darwin was perfectly conscious of those climatic conditions, which were clearly shown in Europe at those times and particularly in the Alps, and therefore he is clearly showing that in his writings. Since Darwin's Voyage to Patagonia, the climatic and environmental conditions have changed substantially, particularly after AD 1850 and finally, after the middle portion of the AD 1970's decade. Some of the most important consequences of global climate change are rising mean annual or seasonal temperature, rising or diminishing precipitations at the regional level, rising global sea level, and an increase in the frequency of extreme meteorological events. The impact of these changes has been observed in the glaciers of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, at least since AD 1978 and, particularly, in

  4. Going the whole orang: Darwin, Wallace and the natural history of orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyhe, John; Kjærgaard, Peter C

    2015-06-01

    This article surveys the European discovery and early ideas about orangutans followed by the contrasting experiences with these animals of the co-founders of evolution by natural selection, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. The first non-human great ape that both of them interacted with was the orangutan. They were both profoundly influenced by what they saw, but the contexts of their observations could hardly be more different. Darwin met orangutans in the Zoological Gardens in London while Wallace saw them in the wild in Borneo. In different ways these observations helped shape their views of human evolution and humanity's place in nature. Their findings played a major role in shaping some of the key questions that were pursued in human evolutionary studies during the rest of the nineteenth century.

  5. RRS "Charles Darwin" Cruise 150, 22 Aug - 15 Sep 2003. Benthic ecology and biogeochemistry of the Pakistan Margin

    OpenAIRE

    B. J. Bett

    2004-01-01

    RRS Charles Darwin cruise 150 forms part of a larger programme of research (“Benthic processes in the Arabian Sea: interrelationships between benthos, sediment, biogeochemistry and organic matter cycling”, NER/A/S/2000/01280), focusing on the benthic biogeochemistry of the Pakistan Margin, that includes four cruises in total (CD145, 146, 150 and 151). The primary objectives of the present cruise were: a) to revisit a series of five previously established study sites (A140, A300, A950, A1200 a...

  6. Explosive Volcanic Activity at Extreme Depths: Evidence from the Charles Darwin Volcanic Field, Cape Verdes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, T.; Devey, C. W.; Hansteen, T. H.; Freundt, A.; Kutterolf, S.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions on the deep sea floor have traditionally been assumed to be non-explosive as the high-pressure environment should greatly inhibit steam-driven explosions. Nevertheless, occasional evidence both from (generally slow-) spreading axes and intraplate seamounts has hinted at explosive activity at large water depths. Here we present evidence from a submarine field of volcanic cones and pit craters called Charles Darwin Volcanic Field located at about 3600 m depth on the lower southwestern slope of the Cape Verdean Island of Santo Antão. We examined two of these submarine volcanic edifices (Tambor and Kolá), each featuring a pit crater of 1 km diameter, using photogrammetric reconstructions derived from ROV-based imaging followed by 3D quantification using a novel remote sensing workflow, aided by sampling. The measured and calculated parameters of physical volcanology derived from the 3D model allow us, for the first time, to make quantitative statements about volcanic processes on the deep seafloor similar to those generated from land-based field observations. Tambor cone, which is 2500 m wide and 250 m high, consists of dense, probably monogenetic medium to coarse-grained volcaniclastic and pyroclastic rocks that are highly fragmented, probably as a result of thermal and viscous granulation upon contact with seawater during several consecutive cycles of activity. Tangential joints in the outcrops indicate subsidence of the crater floor after primary emplacement. Kolá crater, which is 1000 m wide and 160 m deep, appears to have been excavated in the surrounding seafloor and shows stepwise sagging features interpreted as ring fractures on the inner flanks. Lithologically, it is made up of a complicated succession of highly fragmented deposits, including spheroidal juvenile lapilli, likely formed by spray granulation. It resembles a maar-type deposit found on land. The eruption apparently entrained blocks of MORB-type gabbroic country rocks with

  7. 3D-Reconstruction of recent volcanic activity from ROV-video, Charles Darwin Seamounts, Cape Verdes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnitschka, T.; Hansteen, T. H.; Kutterolf, S.; Freundt, A.; Devey, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    As well as providing well-localized samples, Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) produce huge quantities of visual data whose potential for geological data mining has seldom if ever been fully realized. We present a new workflow to derive essential results of field geology such as quantitative stratigraphy and tectonic surveying from ROV-based photo and video material. We demonstrate the procedure on the Charles Darwin Seamounts, a field of small hot spot volcanoes recently identified at a depth of ca. 3500m southwest of the island of Santo Antao in the Cape Verdes. The Charles Darwin Seamounts feature a wide spectrum of volcanic edifices with forms suggestive of scoria cones, lava domes, tuff rings and maar-type depressions, all of comparable dimensions. These forms, coupled with the highly fragmented volcaniclastic samples recovered by dredging, motivated surveying parts of some edifices down to centimeter scale. ROV-based surveys yielded volcaniclastic samples of key structures linked by extensive coverage of stereoscopic photographs and high-resolution video. Based upon the latter, we present our workflow to derive three-dimensional models of outcrops from a single-camera video sequence, allowing quantitative measurements of fault orientation, bedding structure, grain size distribution and photo mosaicking within a geo-referenced framework. With this information we can identify episodes of repetitive eruptive activity at individual volcanic centers and see changes in eruptive style over time, which, despite their proximity to each other, is highly variable.

  8. Die ‘vergroening’ van die Christelike godsdiens: Charles Darwin, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin en Lloyd Geering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izak J.J. (Sakkie Spangenberg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The greening of Christianity: Charles Darwin, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin and Lloyd Geering. Since the time of Charles Darwin, evolutionary biology challenged the metanarrative of Christianity which can be summarised as Fall-Redemption-Judgement. Pierre Teilhard de Chardin tried to circumvent these challenges by integrating the traditional Christian doctrines with evolutionary biology. However, he did not succeed since the Catholic Church, time and again, vetoed his theological publications. A number of Protestant theologians promoted his views but even they could not convince ordinary Christians to accept his views. These were too esoteric for Christians. Most of them were convinced that the acceptance of the theory of evolution will eventually undermine their faith. In recent years Lloyd Geering argued a case for the creation of a new narrative in which the Big Bang and the theory of evolution do play a role. He calls it the ‘Greening of Christianity’. This article discusses the metanarrative of Christianity and the challenges the theory of evolution presents before it assesses the views of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin and Lloyd Geering.

  9. Charles Darwin's reputation: how it changed during the twentieth-century and how it may change again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Charles Darwin died in 1882. During the twentieth century his reputation varied through time, as the scientific foundation of evolutionary theory changed. Beginning the century as an intellectual hero, he soon became a virtual footnote as experimental approaches to evolution began to develop. As the Modern Synthesis developed his reputation began to rise again until eventually he was identified as a founding father of the Modern Synthesis itself. In the meantime, developmental approaches to evolution began to challenge certain aspects of the Modern Synthesis. Synthesis authors attempted to refute the relevance of development by methodological arguments, some of them indirectly credited to Darwin. By the end of the century, molecular genetics had given new life to development approaches to evolution, now called evo devo. This must be seen as a refutation of the aforesaid methodological arguments of the Modern Synthesis advocates. By the way, we can also see now how the historiography that credited Darwin with the Synthesis was in error. In conclusion, one more historical revision is suggested.

  10. Analysis on the Design Features of CHARLES DARWIN Jumbo TSHD%CHARLES DARWIN号巨型耙吸船设计特点解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪凯; 刘厚恕

    2012-01-01

    CHARLES DARWIN (30500m3) is one of the remarkable Jumbo TSHDs which have been built since the new century,Besides the character of shallow draft,the breakthrough in deadweight and driving mode of this dredger can be obtained.This paper compares the technical and functional differences between this ship type and the similar ship types,The newest achievement in the design of Jumbo TSHD is thus showed,which can be beneficial to the domestic study and development of Jumbo TSHD,%30500m3 CHARLES DARWIN是新世纪以来国外建造的几艘巨型耙吸挖泥船之一,除了浅吃水特性取得显要成功之外,该船在载重能力、驱动方式等诸多设计方面均有新的突破,本文通过该型船与同类型船主要技术形态及性能参数的比较,展示了超大型耙吸船船型设计技术的最新成就,以期对国内业已开展的相关船型的开发研究能有所裨益.

  11. Charles Darwin in Australia; or How To Introduce Some Local Colour to the Teaching of Evolution, Geology, Meteorology, and the Determination of Longitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Frank W.

    The background to Charles Darwin's little-known visit to Australia, and the account of his experiences while here, provide some invaluable historical material for teaching evolution, geology, meteorology, and the determination of longitude. Indeed, by using his Australian experiences as a foundation, it is possible to explain the theory of…

  12. CHARLES R. DARWIN, SEGUNDO CENTENARIO DE SU NACIMIENTO Y SESQUICENTENARIO DE LA PUBLICACIÓN DE "EL ORIGEN DE LAS ESPECIES"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Conferencia dictada en la Sesión Pública en homenaje a Charles R. Darwin realizada en
    el Salón de Actos de la Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Naturales y Agrimensura de la
    Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, el 19 de junio de 2009

  13. Darwin, microbes and evolution by natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxon, E Richard

    2011-01-01

    Born 200 years ago, Darwin's revolutionary ideas were derived largely from his observations on life forms that evolved relatively recently, including various flowering plants, worms, birds and domesticated animals. Yet, life appeared on planet earth close to 4 billion years ago in the form of unicellular organisms collectively called bacteria. It was only shortly after "On the Origin of Species" was published (1859) that the "germ theory" of infectious diseases was formulated. Microbes (viruses, bacteria, fungi and microparasites) received scant mention in Darwin's writings, although pioneers of the Golden Age of Bacteriology, such as Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), were contemporaries. Today, microbes offer extraordinary testimony and powerful model systems of direct relevance to the essentials of Darwinian selection, such as understanding microbial-host interactions, the evolution of pathogens and the emergence of drug- or vaccine-related resistance.

  14. Danes commemorating Darwin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the Danish 1909 celebrations of the centenary of Charles Darwin's birth on 12 February 1809. I argue that the 1909 meetings, lectures and publications devoted to Darwin and his theory of evolution by natural selection can be characterised by ambivalence: On the one hand...... activities, focusing primarily on celebratory articles carried in widely circulated magazines and newspapers. I identify three types of interpretations of Darwin's ideas which I characterise as ‘radical', ‘evangelical' and ‘safe' science. These different positions were closely linked to the political...... and cultural divisions of the periodical press. Moreover, my analysis of the popular press offers a solid basis for asserting that to most people Darwinism was associated with human evolution, primarily the relationship between man and apes, while more sophisticated discussions about the crisis of Darwinism...

  15. Darwin's Legacy to Comparative Psychology and Ethology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Gordon M.

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin made numerous seminal contributions to the study of animal behavior over his long career. This essay places these contributions in the context of Darwin's life, showing his long-standing interest in psychological and behavioral issues encompassing all species, including humans. Ten areas are highlighted: natural history;…

  16. Correspondence of Charles Darwin on James Torbitt's project to breed blight-resistance potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeArce, M

    2008-01-01

    The most prolific of Darwin's correspondents from Ireland was James Torbitt, an enterprising grocer and wine merchant of 58 North Street, Belfast. Between February 1876 and March 1882, 141 letters were exchanged on the feasibility and ways of supporting one of Torbitt's commercial projects, the large-scale production and distribution of true potato seeds (Solan um tuberosum) to produce plants resistant to the late blight fungus Phytophthora infestans, the cause of repeated potato crop failures and thus the Irish famines in the nineteenth century. Ninety-three of these letters were exchanged between Torbitt and Darwin, and 48 between Darwin and third parties, seeking or offering help and advice on the project. Torbitt's project required selecting the small proportion of plants in an infested field that survived the infection, and using those as parents to produce seeds. This was a direct application of Darwin's principle of selection. Darwin cautiously lobbied high-ranking civil servants in London to obtain government funding for the project, and also provided his own personal financial support to Torbit.

  17. The Nature of War Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    mind, this paper explores and advances a new idea for how to apply Charles Darwin ‟s Theory of Natural Selection to better understand the biological... Charles Darwin had embarked on the HMS Beagle for a five-year scientific voyage that would last from 1831 to 1836. Darwin would later publish two

  18. Charles Darwin's emotional expression "experiment" and his contribution to modern neuropharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Peter J; Kaufman, Rebecca; Harrison, John; Maruff, Paul

    2010-04-08

    In the late 1860s and early 1870s, Darwin had corresponded with the French physician and physiologist, G. B. A. Duchenne, regarding Duchenne's experimental manipulation of human facial expression of emotion, by applying Galvanic electrical stimulation directly to facial muscles. Duchenne had produced a set of over 60 photographic plates to illustrate his view that there are different muscles in the human face that are separately responsible for each individual emotion. Darwin studied this material very carefully and he received permission from Duchenne in 1871 to reproduce several of these images in The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872). Darwin had doubted Duchenne's view that there were individual muscle groups that mediate the expression of dozens of separable emotions, and he wondered whether there might instead be a fewer set of core emotions that are expressed with great stability worldwide and across cultures. Prompted by his doubts regarding the veracity of Duchenne's model, Darwin conducted what may have been the first-ever single-blind study of the recognition of human facial expression of emotion. This single experiment was a little-known forerunner for an entire modern field of study with contemporary clinical relevance. Moreover, his specific question about cross-cultural recognition of the cardinal emotions in faces is a topic that is being actively studied (in the twenty-first century) with the hope of developing novel biomarkers to aid the discovery of new therapies for the treatment of schizophrenia, autism, and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  19. The many lives of Charles Darwin: early biographies and the definitive evolutionist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightman, Bernard

    2010-12-20

    This article focuses on the early book-length biographies of Darwin published from his death in 1882 up to 1900. By making 1900 the cutoff point I can examine the biographies produced when the iconic figure was not yet set in stone, and before the rediscovery of Mendel's work in the early twentieth century and the anniversary celebrations of 1909 changed the way in which Darwin was regarded. Darwin's biographers dealt with three major themes. First, several biographers emphasized his scientific abilities, in particular his powers of observation and his prowess in conducting experiments. Second, many biographers discussed his character, a key issue in determining whether or not he could be trusted as a scientific guide. Finally, his scientific theories and religious beliefs, and how they related to the evolutionary controversy, formed a topic taken up by most biographers. By focusing on these three themes, the biographies published before 1900 were important in shaping the image of Darwin that was forming in American and British culture.

  20. Charles Darwin in modern epidemiology and public health: the celebration continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanage, W P

    2011-01-01

    2009 was Darwin year; his familiar bearded face peered out from a great radiation of TV series, book covers and even a feature film. The reasons for this were his bicentennial and the 150th anniversary of the publication of the Origin of Species. However, there is no reason the celebrations should cease with the turn of the New Year.

  1. What Darwin missed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. K.

    2003-07-01

    Throughout his life, Fred Hoyle had a keen interest in evolution. He argued that natural selection by small, random change, as conceived by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, could not explain either the origin of life or the origin of a new protein. The idea of natural selection, Hoyle told us, wasn't even Darwin's original idea in the first place. Here, in honour of Hoyle's analysis, I propose a solution to Hoyle's dilemma. His solution was life from space - panspermia. But the real key to understanding natural selection is `molecular biodiversity'. This explains the things Darwin missed - the origin of species and the origin of extinction. It is also a beautiful example of the mystery disease that afflicted Darwin for over 40 years, for which we now have an answer.

  2. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from CHARLES DARWIN in the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean from 1986-12-20 to 1987-08-14 (NCEI Accession 9000045)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) data with oxygen was collected off of Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea using Charles Darwin ship as part of Monsoon And...

  3. Oceanographic profile, temperature, salinity, oxygen, and other measurements collected using bottle casts from the CHARLES DARWIN in the North Atlantic from 27 April 1991 to 6 June 1991 (NODC Accession 0000509)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical, and nutrients data were collected from bottle casts in the North Atlantic from the CHARLES DARWIN from 27 April 1991 to 6 June 1991. Data were...

  4. Sympathetic science: Charles Darwin, Joseph Hooker, and the passions of Victorian naturalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endersby, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the complex tangle of emotional and scientific attachments that linked Darwin and botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker. Analyzing their roles as husbands, fathers, and novel readers demonstrates that possessing and expressing sympathy was as important for Victorian naturalists as it was for Victorian husbands. Sympathy was a scientific skill that Victorian naturalists regarded as necessary to fully understand the living world; although sympathy became increasingly gendered as feminine over the course of the century, its importance to male naturalists requires us to rethink the ways gender roles were negotiated in Victorian Britain. Botany was, for men like Darwin and Hooker, an acceptably masculine pursuit that nevertheless allowed--and even required--them to be sensitive and sympathetic.

  5. Charles Darwin and other great men in correspondence with Carl Wilhelm von Naegeli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegeli, W; Wiedemann, H R

    1993-04-15

    The great Swiss-German botanist Carl Wilhelm von Naegeli (1817-1891) was a student of Lorenz Oken, A.P. de Candolle, and Matthias Jacob Schleiden and became a key figure in "genetic" (i.e., evolutionary-developmental) biology in the mid-late 19th century. He was an expert on the hawk-weed, Hieracium and also made important contributions to microbiology. One of his many outstanding students was Carl Correns, one of the 3 rediscoverers of Mendel's work. Naegeli was an early proponent and defender of Darwin. The correspondence preserved in the Naegeli family contains many important letters between Naegeli and his contemporaries. Those from Mendel to Naegeli have passed out of the Naegeli family and were published by Correns earlier in the century. However, exceptionally notable items still in the archives of the Naegeli family include 4 surviving letters from Darwin, 2 letters from Virchow, and 10 from Justus von Liebig. In spite of a lack of appreciation of Mendel's work, we call attention to the importance of those surviving documents from an era in which very few of the greatest naturalists and founders of modern biology--including Goethe, Darwin, Galton, Agassiz, von Humboldt, von Baer--were without "blind spots."

  6. El Legado Radical De Charles R. Darwin A Las Ciencias Sociales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel De La Luz Rodríguez.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay reflects on the theoretical repercussions that Charles Darwin’s The Origin of Species has for the Social Sciences. It contrasts Darwin’s epistemological legacy with his precursors in cultural evolutionary theory, mainly Herbert Spencer and Edward B. Tylor. It is argued that Darwin’s most important lessons for the Social Sciences are in his naturalist writings instead of his writings on human evolution per se.

  7. Causes of mortality of wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz, Galapagos, Ecuador from 2002-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottdenker, Nicole L; Walsh, Timothy; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, Gustavo; Betancourt, Franklin; Cruz, Marilyn; Soos, Catherine; Miller, R Eric; Parker, Patricia G

    2008-10-01

    Necropsy findings were reviewed from wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos Archipelago between 2004 and 2006. One hundred and ninety cases from 27 different species were submitted, and 178 of these cases were evaluated grossly or histologically. Trauma and trauma-related deaths (n=141) dominated necropsy submissions. Infectious causes of avian mortality included myiasis due to Philornis sp. (n=6), avian pox (n=1), and schistosomosis (n=1).

  8. Reflection of Naturalism and Darwinism in Dreiser' s Sister Carrie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2009-01-01

    Naturalism is a significant school of literature in American literary history. This thesis mainly reviews the background, development, and characteristic of the realism and naturalism literature, and states the significant person in Naturalism literature-Dreiser and his. important literary position and analyzes the reflection of naturalism and Darwinism in Sister Carrie. Through the analysis of determinism, desire, ethics and detail description, a conclusion is made: the factors affecting the novel' s writing not only include the author' s own experiences but also the main social ideology in his living years.

  9. Is neural Darwinism Darwinism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belle, T

    1997-01-01

    Neural Darwinism is a theory of cognition developed by Gerald Edelman along with George Reeke and Olaf Sporns at Rockefeller University. As its name suggests, neural Darwinism is modeled after biological Darwinism, and its authors assert that the two processes are strongly analogous. both operate on variation in a population, amplifying the more adaptive individuals. However, from a computational perspective, neural Darwinism is quite different from other models of natural selection, such as genetic algorithms. The individuals of neural Darwinism do not replicate, thus robbing the process of the capacity to explore new solutions over time and ultimately reducing it to a random search. Because neural Darwinism does not have the computational power of a truly Darwinian process, it is misleading to label it as such. to illustrate this disparity in adaptive power, one of Edelman's early computer experiments, Darwin I, is revisited, and it is shown that adding replication greatly improves the adaptive power of the system.

  10. Responding to soil erosion in Spain: from Charles Darwin to John Thornes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imeson, A.

    2009-07-01

    During a discussion of the European Soil Framework Directive last year, John Thornes commented on the paradox that although there was much scientific progress in understanding desertification and erosion, relatively few scientists were responding to the opportunity of responding. Most scientists passively accept the situation of little effective soil and land governance in Europe John Thornes thought that one difficulty is that researchers work in isolation and assume someone else is caring about the big picture. those looking after the big picture are in fact managing soil and land from the perspectives of things such as rural poverty reduction and food security and interventions for farmer's. These are in themselves excellent points of view but they need to be balanced and limited by guidelines provided from the perspective of the requirements of medium and long term soil conservation and protection. There is an absolute need for a European Soil Conservation service as there is in the United States and china. As Darwin said when looking at the increase in population of animals in South America: There must be something limiting growth. Now the only thing limiting growth in many places might be erosion and desertification. (Author) 13 refs.

  11. Pteridoflora do Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin (Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brasil Pteridoflora of the "Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin" (Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto César Pessôa Santiago

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento florístico das pteridófitas ocorrentes no Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, município de Igarassu, Pernambuco, Brasil. A área é um remanescente de Floresta Atlântica que está em processo de preservação há aproximadamente 40 anos. Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das pteridófitas e seus aspectos ecológicos em Pernambuco, foram realizadas 13 excursões, no período de um ano e meio, para observação e coleta das plantas, acompanhando as estações chuvosa e seca. Foram registradas 21 espécies, distribuídas em 16 gêneros e 12 famílias: Thelypteridaceae (5 spp., Polypodiaceae (3 spp., Schizaeaceae (3 spp., Blechnaceae (2 spp., Aspleniaceae (1sp., Cyatheaceae (1 sp., Davalliaceae (1 sp., Dennstaedtiaceae (1 sp., Dryopteridaceae (1 sp., Pteridaceae (1sp., Selaginellaceae (1 sp. e Vittariaceae (1 sp.. Foi registrada uma nova referência para o Nordeste do Brasil: Schizaea subtrijuga Mart. Predominam as espécies herbáceas, terrícolas, hemicriptófitas, ciófilas, encontradas principalmente no interior da mata. Apesar da maioria das espécies registradas serem amplamente distribuídas no Estado, a presença de espécies não muito frequentes em áreas de Floresta Atlântica em Pernambuco, como Cyclodium meniscioides (Willd. C. Presl, Salpichlaena volubilis (Kaulf. J. Sm., Polypodium aureum L. var. aureum e Selaginella dendricola Jenman e o registro de uma nova referência para o Nordeste, evidenciam a importância desta pteridoflora.This paper presents a floristic survey of the pteridophytes of the "Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin", located at the municipality of Igarassu, Pernambuco State, Brazil. This area is a remnant of the Atlantic forest, which has been preserved during the last 40 years. In order to contribute to the knowledge of the ferns and its ecological traits in Pernambuco, 13 field expeditions were made during a period of one year and a half. Thus observations and collection of

  12. Darwin's "Imaginary Illustrations": Creatively Teaching Evolutionary Concepts & the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Alan C.

    2010-01-01

    An overlooked feature of Darwin's work is his use of "imaginary illustrations" to show that natural selection is competent to produce adaptive, evolutionary change. When set in the context of Darwin's methodology, these thought experiments provide a novel way to teach natural selection and the nature of science.

  13. "A Capital and Novel Argument": Charles Darwin's Notebooks and the Productivity of Rhetorical Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Nathan

    2005-01-01

    With the rise of poststructuralist critiques of the autonomous subject, attention has shifted from the nature of "intentional persuasion" to the constitutive nature of discourse. Although this turn has led to valuable new insights into the nature of rhetoric, it also threatens to discount one of the most vital contributions of the rhetorical…

  14. Ever since Darwin? ¿Siempre desde Darwin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO A CAMUS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the whole year 2009, the global biological community has celebrated the legacy of Charles Darwin, commemorating the anniversaries of his birth and the publication of "The origin", one of the most influential books of modern history. In this context, the Revista Chilena de Historia Natural inaugurates its new "Special Features" section with four independent essays dealing with the past, present and future of Darwin's ideas. This initial presentation focuses on some loóse ends of this Darwinfest, particularly on some forgotten anniversaries directly or indirectly related with Darwin's, and summarizes the contributions of the three essays following this introduction in the present issue.Durante todo el año 2009, la comunidad biológica global ha celebrado el legado de Charles Darwin, conmemorando los aniversarios de su nacimiento y de la publicación del "Origen", uno de los libros más influyentes en la historia moderna. En este contexto, la Revista Chilena de Historia Natural inaugura su nueva sección de "Temas Especiales" con cuatro ensayos independientes que tratan sobre el pasado, presente y futuro de las ideas de Darwin. Esta presentación inicial se enfoca en algunos cabos sueltos de la celebración darwiniana, particularmente en algunos aniversarios olvidados relacionados directa o indirectamente con los de Darwin, y resume las contribuciones de los tres ensayos que siguen a esta introducción en este número de la revista.

  15. El cambio climático global en la Patagonia desde el viaje de Charles Darwin hasta nuestros días

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rabassa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El viaje del Beagle que trajo a Charles Darwin a América del Sur entre 1832 y 1835 AD y en particular, al territorio argentino, se desarrolló bajo condiciones climáticas muy desfavorables: frías, secas y ventosas, correspondientes a las condiciones predominantes en la última fase de la pequeña edad del hielo, un episodio frío global que caracterizó a los siglos XVII, XVIII y XIX. Esta fase es conocida como mínimo de Dalton, en referencia a la disminución relativa de la frecuencia de las manchas solares, lo cual redunda en una disminución de la radiación solar y como consecuencia, en menores temperaturas medias globales en ese período. Darwin fue perfectamente consciente de dichas condiciones climáticas, que se manifestaban fuertemente en Europa, en particular en los Alpes, y así lo transmite en sus escritos. Desde el viaje de Darwin a la Patagonia, las condiciones climáticas y ambientales cambiaron sustancialmente, especialmente luego de 1850 AD y, finalmente, después de mediados de la década de 1970 AD. Algunas de las más importantes consecuencias del cambio climático global son el aumento de la temperatura media anual o la temperatura estacional, la elevación o disminución de las precipitaciones al nivel regional, el continuo ascenso global del nivel del mar y un incremento significativo de la frecuencia de eventos meteorológicos extremos. El impacto de esos cambios ha sido observado en los glaciares de Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego, por lo menos desde 1978 AD, y particularmente en la última década del siglo XX. Los impactos más notables son la rápida recesión de las márgenes del hielo en los glaciares, el adelgazamiento de la cobertura glacial, la elevación de la línea de nieve regional y la reducción de las áreas andinas bajo condiciones de suelos permanentemente congelados (permafrost, como han demostrado estudios científicos recientes. A la tasa presente de recesión del hielo glacial, la mayoría, si no

  16. Charles Darwin's Observations on the Behaviour of Earthworms and the Evolutionary History of a Giant Endemic Species from Germany, Lumbricus badensis (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kutschera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The British naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882 began and ended his almost 45-year-long career with observations, experiments, and theories related to earthworms. About six months before his death, Darwin published his book on The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms, With Observations on their Habits (1881. Here we describe the origin, content, and impact of Darwin's last publication on earthworms (subclass Oligochaeta, family Lumbricidae and the role of these annelids as global “ecosystem reworkers” (concept of bioturbation. In addition, we summarize our current knowledge on the reproductive behaviour of the common European species Lumbricus terrestris. In the second part of our account we describe the biology and evolution of the giant endemic species L. badensis from south western Germany with reference to the principle of niche construction. Biogeographic studies have shown that the last common ancestor of L. badensis, and the much smaller sister-taxon, the Atlantic-Mediterranean L. friendi, lived less than 10 000 years ago. Allopatric speciation occurred via geographically isolated founder populations that were separated by the river Rhine so that today two earthworm species exist in different areas.

  17. Considering the Role and Nature of the Scientist: The Case of Darwin and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Serap Öz

    2015-01-01

    For many students, preconceived notions about Darwin are among the most significant obstacles in learning about the theory of evolution by natural selection. I present an activity designed to eliminate this obstacle and encourage empathizing with Darwin, utilizing the history-of-science approach. Through the activity, students' negative thoughts…

  18. Considering the Role and Nature of the Scientist: The Case of Darwin and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Serap Öz

    2015-01-01

    For many students, preconceived notions about Darwin are among the most significant obstacles in learning about the theory of evolution by natural selection. I present an activity designed to eliminate this obstacle and encourage empathizing with Darwin, utilizing the history-of-science approach. Through the activity, students' negative…

  19. "A great complication of circumstances"--Darwin and the economy of nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    In 1749, Linnaeus presided over the dissertation "Oeconomia Naturae," which argued that each creature plays an important and particular role in nature's economy. This phrase should be familiar to readers of Darwin, for he claims in the Origin that "all organic beings are striving, it may be said, to seize on each place in the economy of nature." Many scholars have discussed the influence of political economy on Darwin's ideas. In this paper, I take a different tack, showing that Darwin's idea of an economy of nature stemmed from the views of earlier naturalists like Linnaeus and Lyell. I argue, in the first section of the paper, that Linnaeus' idea of oeconomia naturae is derived from the idea of the animal economy, and that his idea of politia naturae is an extension of the idea of a politia civitatis. In the second part, I explore the use of the concept of stations in the work of De Candolle and Lyell - the precursor to Darwin's concept of places. I show in the third part of the paper that the idea of places in an economy of nature is employed by Darwin at many key points in his thinking: his discussion of the Galapagos birds, his reading of Malthus, etc. Finally, in the last section, I demonstrate that the idea of a place in nature's economy is essential to Darwin's account of divergence. To tell his famous story of divergence and adaptation, Darwin needed the economy of nature.

  20. From Darwin's Origin of Species toward a theory of natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boero, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    Darwin is the father of evolutionary theory because he identified evolutionary patterns and, with Natural Selection, he ascertained the exquisitely ecological ultimate processes that lead to evolution. The proximate processes of evolution he proposed, however, predated the discovery of genetics, the backbone of modern evolutionary theory. The later discovery of the laws of inheritance by Mendel and the rediscovery of Mendel in the early 20th century led to two reforms of Darwinism: Neo-Darwinism and the Modern Synthesis (and subsequent refinements). If Darwin's evolutionary thought required much refinement, his ecological insight is still very modern. In the first edition of The Origin of Species, Darwin did not use either the word "evolution" or the word "ecology". "Ecology" was not coined until after the publication of the Origin. Evolution, for him, was the origin of varieties, then species, which he referred to as well-marked varieties, whereas, instead of using ecology, he used "the economy of nature". The Origin contains a high proportion of currently accepted ecological principles. Darwin labelled himself a naturalist. His discipline (natural history) was a blend of ecology and evolution in which he investigated both the patterns and the processes that determine the organization of life. Reductionist approaches, however, often keep the two disciplines separated from each other, undermining a full understanding of natural phenomena that might be favored by blending ecology and evolution through the development of a modern Theory of Natural History based on Darwin's vision of the study of life.

  1. Is Darwinism past its "sell-by" date? The Origin of Species at 150.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Many people worry that the theory of evolution that Charles Darwin gave in his Origin of Species is now dated and no longer part of modern science. This essay challenges this claim, arguing that the central core of the Origin is as vital today as it ever was, although naturally the science keeps moving on. Darwin provided the foundation not the finished product.

  2. Darwin and his pigeons. The analogy between artificial and natural selection revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Bert

    2012-01-01

    The analogy between artificial selection of domestic varieties and natural selection in nature was a vital element of Darwin's argument in his Origin of Species. Ever since, the image of breeders creating new varieties by artificial selection has served as a convincing illustration of how the theory works. In this paper I argue that we need to reconsider our understanding of Darwin's analogy. Contrary to what is often assumed, nineteenth-century animal breeding practices constituted a highly controversial field that was fraught with difficulties. It was only with considerable effort that Darwin forged his analogy, and he only succeeded by downplaying the importance of two other breeding techniques - crossing of varieties and inbreeding - that many breeders deemed essential to obtain new varieties. Part of the explanation for Darwin's gloss on breeding practices, I shall argue, was that the methods of his main informants, the breeders of fancy pigeons, were not representative of what went on in the breeding world at large. Darwin seems to have been eager to take the pigeon fanciers at their word, however, as it was only their methods that provided him with the perfect analogy with natural selection. Thus while his studies of domestic varieties were important for the development of the concept of natural selection, the reverse was also true: Darwin's comprehension of breeding practices was moulded by his understanding of the working of natural selection in nature. Historical studies of domestic breeding practices in the eighteenth and nineteenth century confirm that, besides selection, the techniques of inbreeding and crossing were much more important than Darwin's interpretation allowed for. And they still are today. This calls for a reconsideration of the pedagogic use of Darwin's analogy too.

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the CHARLES DARWIN in the Indian Ocean from 2002-03-01 to 2002-04-15 (NODC Accession 0108226)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108226 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from CHARLES DARWIN in the Indian Ocean from 2002-03-01 to 2002-04-15...

  4. Alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the BELGICA, CHARLES DARWIN and METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1997-06-01 to 1999-09-01 (NODC Accession 0115763)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115763 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from BELGICA, CHARLES DARWIN and METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean...

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the BELGICA, CHARLES DARWIN and others in the Bay of Biscay, English Channel and others from 1993-04-01 to 1995-11-01 (NODC Accession 0115608)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115608 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from BELGICA, CHARLES DARWIN, DISCOVERY, HEINCKE, MADORNINA, METEOR,...

  6. Darwinism in Context: An interdisciplinary, highly contextualized course on nature of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Kampourakis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe a course, titled Darwinism in Context, which focuses on the social, cultural and scientific influences on the development of Darwin's theory. This was an interdisciplinary, highly contextualized nature of science course that aimed to help students learn about a core nature of science aspect: that there are historical, cultural and social influences on the practice and directions of science. For this purpose, the course was based on a well-documented historical case study: the development of Darwin's theory. The course consisted of five classes that focused on: (a Victorian society, (b the views and beliefs of scholars that had an impact on Darwin's thinking (historical influences, (c aspects of Darwin's personal and social life that influenced the publication of his theory (social influences, (d the reception of Darwin's theory and the relationship between religion and science (cultural influences and (e the relationship between science and literature. In all cases, teaching included presentations of the historical events but was mostly based on the analysis and discussion of excerpts from the respective original writings. During the classes only a few examples were presented; students were motivated to study further the original writings and identify some key concepts and ideas after the classes. It is concluded that this kind of highly contextualized nature of science instruction can provide students with a more authentic view of science.

  7. Charles Darwin and the oldestglacial events in Patagonia: the erratic blocks of the Río Santa Cruz valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Strelin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Althoughthe depositational environment assigned by Darwin to the large erratic blocksand gravels in the Río Santa Cruz valley has been reinterpreted, hisgeomorphological and stratigraphic observations are still in force. The largeerratic blocks he described as crowning the Condor Cliff terrace and spread atthe bottom of the valley just east of this locality (Sites 2 and 3, are nowinterpreted as indicators of the maximum glacial expansion in Patagonia.Similar blocks, though of a different lithology, accumulated over a lowerterrace located up-valley (Site 4, are now linked to moraines and glacifluvialterraces of the Penultimate Glaciation. Finally, in addition to the erraticblock discovered by Darwin in the lower Río Santa Cruz valley (Site 1, thereare others - recently discovered - which probably account for a catastrophicevent ascribed to a big glacier-lake outburst during the last interglacial.

  8. The Darwins and Wells: from revolution to evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-04-01

    In the biography of his grandfather (Erasmus Darwin), Charles Darwin hinted that his father (Robert Darwin) had received parental assistance in conducting and writing his medical thesis (which concerned afterimages). The experiments also involved visual vertigo, and they were elaborated by the senior Darwin in his Zoonomia, published in 1794. Erasmus Darwin's interpretation was in terms of trying to pursue peripheral afterimages formed during rotation; it was at variance with one published two years earlier by William Charles Wells, who had investigated the visual consequences of body rotation when the body is subsequently still. Wells penned two retorts to the Darwins' theory; although they were not accepted by Erasmus, he did devise a human centrifuge, models of which were employed in later studies of vertigo. Wells's ideas on evolution were expressed in a paper delivered to the Royal Society (in 1813) but not published in its Transactions. Commenting on the case of a white woman, part of whose skin was black, he proposed a process of change that was akin to natural selection. His ideas were acknowledged by Charles Darwin in the fourth edition of On the Origin of Species.

  9. Race, Racism, and Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the views of Darwinist evolution on issues regarding race and how this contributed to the spread of racism in the United States. The writings of Charles Darwin and a myriad of his followers are examined, including Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and others. The influence of Darwinism in contributing to the growth of…

  10. Darwin i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klassiske danske oversættelser af Charles Darwins skrifter, bl.a. Om Arternes Oprindelse, Menneskets Afstamning, Rejse om Jorden og Live og Breve. Indeholder også forskellige 1800-tals reaktioner til Darwin sammen med en række introduktioner, bibliografier og andre ressourcer for studerende og...

  11. Darwin and his publisher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, David

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin's publisher John Murray played an important, if often underrated, role in bringing his theories to the public. As their letters and publishing archives show they had a friendly, business like and successful relationship. This was despite fundamental scientific and religious differences between the men. In addition to publishing Darwin, Murray also published many of the critical and supportive works and reviews which Darwin's own works excited.

  12. From Darwin's Origin of Species toward a theory of natural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Darwin is the father of evolutionary theory because he identified evolutionary patterns and, with Natural Selection, he ascertained the exquisitely ecological ultimate processes that lead to evolution. The proximate processes of evolution he proposed, however, predated the discovery of genetics, the backbone of modern evolutionary theory. The later discovery of the laws of inheritance by Mendel and the rediscovery of Mendel in the early 20th century led to two reforms of Darwinism: Neo-Darwinism and the Modern Synthesis (and subsequent refinements). If Darwin's evolutionary thought required much refinement, his ecological insight is still very modern. In the first edition of The Origin of Species, Darwin did not use either the word “evolution” or the word “ecology”. “Ecology” was not coined until after the publication of the Origin. Evolution, for him, was the origin of varieties, then species, which he referred to as well-marked varieties, whereas, instead of using ecology, he used “the economy of nature”. The Origin contains a high proportion of currently accepted ecological principles. Darwin labelled himself a naturalist. His discipline (natural history) was a blend of ecology and evolution in which he investigated both the patterns and the processes that determine the organization of life. Reductionist approaches, however, often keep the two disciplines separated from each other, undermining a full understanding of natural phenomena that might be favored by blending ecology and evolution through the development of a modern Theory of Natural History based on Darwin's vision of the study of life. PMID:26097722

  13. Darwinizing the Danes, 1859-1909

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Peter C.; Gregersen, Niels Henrik; Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Charles Darwin is a crucial figure in nineteenth-century science with an extensive and varied reception in different countries and disciplines. His theory had a revolutionary impact not only on biology, but also on other natural sciences and the new social sciences. The term ‘Darwinism', already...... popular in Darwin's lifetime, ranged across many different areas and ideological aspects. and his own ideas about the implications of evolution for human cognitive, emotional, social and ethical capacities were often interpreted in a way that did not mirror his own intentions. The implications...... for religious, philosophical and political issues and institutions remain as momentous today as in his own time. This volume conveys the many-sidedness of Darwin's reception and exhibit his far-reaching impact on our self- understanding as human beings....

  14. Making a Theist out of Darwin: Asa Gray's Post-Darwinian Natural Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Hunter, T.

    2012-07-01

    In March of 1860 the eminent Harvard Botanist and orthodox Christian Asa Gray began promoting the Origin of Species in hopes of securing a fair examination of Darwin's evolutionary theory among theistic naturalists. To this end, Gray sought to demonstrate that Darwin had not written atheistically and that his theory of evolution by natural selection had not presented any new scientific or theological difficulties for traditional Christian belief. From his personal correspondence with the author of the Origin, Gray well knew that Darwin did not affirm God's "particular" design of nature but conceded to the possibility that evolution proceeded according to "designed laws." From this concession, Gray attempted to develop a post-Darwinian natural theology which encouraged theistic naturalists to view God's design of nature through the evolutionary process in a manner similar to the way in which they viewed God's Providential interaction with human history. Indeed, securing a fair reading of the Origin was not Gray's sole aim as a promoter of Darwinian ideas. In Darwin's theory of natural selection, Gray believed he had discovered the means by which a more robust natural theological conception of the living and evolving natural world could be developed. In this paper I outline Gray's efforts to produce and popularize a theistic interpretation of Darwinian theory in order to correct various misconceptions concerning Gray's natural theological views and their role in the Darwinian Revolution.

  15. Grapple with a Giant Squid at the Natural History Museum's Darwin Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkler, Abigail; Collins, Sally

    2009-01-01

    The Natural History Museum's new Darwin Centre fulfils three main roles. It is a state-of-the-art scientific research and collections facility, but it is also an awe-inspiring new public space that allows visitors to explore the natural world in an exciting and innovative way. With its opening, students can experience the relevance of the science…

  16. Charles Robert Darwin:The great founder of scientific evolutionism%达尔文——科学进化论的奠基者

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁前进; 邴杰; 张根发

    2009-01-01

    2009年,时逢英国博物学家查尔斯·罗伯特·达尔(Charles Robert Darwin,1809-1882)诞辰200周年,进化论光辉著作发表150周年.历史的发展不断认证达尔文的一书是生物学史上不朽的经典著作,如今所提及的许多观点已成为人尽皆知的常识,并且还在不断地发展、完善,为人类认识自然和自身发展指点方向.文章追忆了先贤的卓越科学贡献和科学探索精神,并对百年来科学进步和进化论的发展重要成果进行了简要的评述,指出了进化论未来研究的重点问题.

  17. Darwin's passionate environmentalism or the dangerous fallacy of the 'All-sufficiency of natural selection' theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, David

    2012-01-01

    Following his last edition of the Origin of Species in 1872, Darwin spent much of the rest of his life searching for possible mechanisms, such as the pangenes in the blood, which would communicate information from the environment to the genome. In each of his six editions of the 'Origin', he stated that there were two forces in evolution - natural selection and conditions of existence. Of the two, he claims that the latter is the more powerful. In so doing, he recognized that natural selection could only operate within the bounds of possibility, that is the environment. August Weismann claimed that conditions of existence had no place in evolution. His publication, the 'All-sufficiency of natural selection', was based on mutilation (cutting tails of rodents and watching the next generation grow tails), which has nothing to do with Darwin's concept of conditions of existence. Nonetheless, evolutionary biologists in general followed the line of the 'all sufficiency' theory and ignored Darwin's conditions of existence, which in other words means the environment. Natural selection has a weak predictive power as it is based on random events. However, the conditions of existence have, by contrast, strong predictive powers that can be tested. The environmental views of two of the greatest evolutionists, Lamarck and Darwin, have been consistently ignored by most evolution theorists who came after them, continuing for over 200 years. Looking at the fossil record through the eyes of Darwin's conditions of existence, not to mention the recent changes in height and shape over the last century, it is possible to draw important conclusions about the past and predictions of the future. With new knowledge of epigenetics, it is perhaps time that Darwin's conditions of existence were given a second hearing.

  18. Darwin's Invention: Inheritance & the "Mad Dream" of Pangenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, William F.

    2012-01-01

    This article recounts the story of the development of pangenesis, a principle proposed by Charles Darwin to describe the rules of inheritance and the source of new variation, two concepts vital to his proposal of evolution by natural selection. Historical accounts such as this are infrequently included in texts and classroom discussions but can…

  19. The Curatorial Turn in the Darwin Year 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Voss

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the ‘curatorial turn’ was originally coined by Daniel Birnbaum, director of the 2009 Venice Biennale, and denoted interest in the exhibition as an alternative to the book by contemporary philosophers such as Jean-François Lyotard and Bruno Latour. During the 2009 Darwin anniversary, exhibitions revealed the most surprising insights in Darwin scholarship. ‘Darwin and the Search for Origins’ in Frankfurt and ‘Endless Forms: Charles Darwin, Natural Science and the Visual Arts’ in New Haven and Cambridge demonstrated the Darwinian component in Western twentieth-century' 'visual culture at large. Through the exhibition format they unearthed the diversity of visual rhetorics of Darwinism in the nineteenth century and showed how evolutionary theory became the new mythology of the coming age.

  20. Darwin the scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, J

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin's experimental investigations show him to have been a superb practical researcher. These skills are often underestimated today when assessing Darwin's achievement in the Origin of Species and his other books. Supported by a private income, he turned his house and gardens into a Victorian equivalent of a modern research station. Darwin participated actively in the exchange of scientific information via letters and much of his research was also carried out through correspondence. Although this research was relatively small scale in practice, it was large scale in intellectual scope. Darwin felt he had a strong desire to understand or explain whatever he observed.

  1. On the Hypothetico-Deductive Nature of Science--Darwin's Finches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    2009-01-01

    Allchin (2006) has misinterpreted a classic case of hypothetico-deductive (HD) science in terms of his preferred "let's-gather-some-data-and-see-what-emerges" view. The misrepresentation concerns the research program of Peter and Rosemary Grant on Darwin's finches. The present essay argues that the Grants' research is HD in nature and includes a…

  2. Darwin's Arguments in Favour of Natural Selection and against Special Creationism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In many places in "The Origin of Species", Darwin compares his own theory of Natural Selection favourably with Special Creationism which comes off as a bad second best. He does this using some version of the argument form known as "Inference to the Best Explanation". The first part of this paper is methodological. It considers Whewell's notion of…

  3. Darwin, natural selection and the biological essentiality of aluminium and silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    If one was asked to produce a set of 'Trump Cards' based upon 'Forces of Nature Defining Life on Earth' then which card would be 'Top Trump'? I was recently chastised on the Darwin Today website for suggesting Darwin and 'natural selection' rather than, for example, Newton and 'gravity'. Although there is no denying the significance of gravity, my argument in favour of natural selection is simply that gravity is just one factor that contributes towards an outcome which ultimately is defined by natural selection. Both the beauty and the brilliance of natural selection are reflected in its omnipotence to explain the myriad observations of life and, as I will affirm herein, its explanation of the biological essentiality of aluminium and silicon is no exception.

  4. Darwin 101 (Enhanced): From Earth to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2015-01-01

    Charles Darwin was a modest man, yet one of the great revolutionaries of intellectual history. Born into a culture wedded to Genesis, he brought biology into the realm of natural world. The implications range from of the "why" questions of biology, to our view societies to our ability to combat AIDS. In our era of genomics and space exploration, these insights are being applied to the age-old question: are we alone?

  5. Darwin's Galapagos finches in modern biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzhanov, Arhat

    2010-04-12

    One of the classic examples of adaptive radiation under natural selection is the evolution of 15 closely related species of Darwin's finches (Passeriformes), whose primary diversity lies in the size and shape of their beaks. Since Charles Darwin and other members of the Beagle expedition collected these birds on the Galápagos Islands in 1835 and introduced them to science, they have been the subjects of intense research. Many biology textbooks use Darwin's finches to illustrate a variety of topics of evolutionary theory, such as speciation, natural selection and niche partitioning. Today, as this Theme Issue illustrates, Darwin's finches continue to be a very valuable source of biological discovery. Certain advantages of studying this group allow further breakthroughs in our understanding of changes in recent island biodiversity, mechanisms of speciation and hybridization, evolution of cognitive behaviours, principles of beak/jaw biomechanics as well as the underlying developmental genetic mechanisms in generating morphological diversity. Our objective was to bring together some of the key workers in the field of ecology and evolutionary biology who study Darwin's finches or whose studies were inspired by research on Darwin's finches. Insights provided by papers collected in this Theme Issue will be of interest to a wide audience.

  6. Genetic evidence that Darwin was right about criminality: nature, not nurture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschetti, Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    Darwin maintained that man's behaviours, just as the ones of the lower animals, are not cultural products of learning, but constitute evolutionarily selected innate traits that can be transmitted through biological inheritance. Coherently, Darwin wrote that "some elimination of the worst dispositions is always in progress... Malefactors are executed...so that they cannot freely transmit their bad qualities". Darwin's evolutionary deterministic views about the innateness of human behaviours and the heritability of criminal tendencies proved genially farsighted. Indeed, the scientific evidence that they are genetically determined became indisputable just in this century, about 120 years after Darwin's death. This article, besides discussing human genetic variation and the genetic basis of pro-social traits, focuses on the recent and mounting evidence that points to genes for antisocial behaviours, genes for criminality, and genes for violence. All of them contribute to discredit further the scientifically untenable cultural dogma claiming that human behaviours reflect nurture, represented by social environments, not nature, in the form of biological factors. Genes for criminality and violence also concur to demolish the ideological dogma espoused by those who assert that criminality is a result of poverty and unemployment. The falsity of that politically biased dogma, as argued in this article, is also demonstrated by the fact that Brazil, despite significant reductions of poverty, socioeconomic disparities, and unemployment during the last five years, is facing a spiralling increase in criminal misdeeds, including homicides, which have reached an alarming rate that is nearly fivefold higher than the already worrying one of the USA.

  7. RRS "Charles Darwin" Cruise 178, 14 Mar - 11 Apr 2006. 3D seismic acquisition over mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cadiz and submarine landslides in the Eivissa Channel, western Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, D. G.; C. Berndt

    2006-01-01

    The major aims of Charles Darwin Cruise 178 were to obtain (i) 3D seismic imagery, video transects and swath bathymetry maps of mud volcanoes in the southern Gulf of Cadiz, (ii) video transects across suspected cold water coral reefs in the Alboran Sea and (iii) 3D seismic imagery of submarine landslides in the Eivissa Channel, immediately east of the Balearic Islands in the western Mediterranean Sea. The cruise was in support of the EU Framework 6 ‘HERMES’ project (Hotspot Ecosystem Research...

  8. Darwin hoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avedis Aznavurian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el siglo XXI, las ideas expresadas por Charles Darwin siguen provocando discusiones y polémicas que trascienden el ámbito de la ciencia y se enfrentan, dentro de las ciencias biológicas, a puntos de vista divergentes acerca de la ortodoxia darwiniana planteando hipótesis evolucionistas con fundamentos científicos; en este artículo se examinan también las posibilidades y los logros en este siglo, revisando las interpretaciones y la aplicación de las ideas básicas a problemas científicos actuales como la conciencia y la medicina darwiniana

  9. Agency and industry : Charles C. Gillispie’s "The Natural History of Industry," then and now

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, L.L.

    2013-01-01

    Charles Coulston Gillispie’s “The Discovery of the Leblanc Process” and “The Natural History of Industry” (Isis 48 (1957): 152–70, 398–407) were unique, yet characteristic of their era. Together, they engaged with discussions of the historical relationship between science and industry. While influen

  10. RRS "Charles Darwin" Cruise 169, 17 Feb-19 Mar 2005. Hydrothermal exploration of the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    OpenAIRE

    German, C.R.; Parson, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal objective of this cruise was to identify the first site or sites of high temperature hydrothermal venting anywhere on the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, to characterize their geological setting, preliminary chemical nature and to identify, where possible, the nature of any vent-endemic species that might inhabit such vents to investigate whether this ridge system might represent a new biogeographic province. Initially we used the TOBI deep-tow sidescan system equipped with a CTD s...

  11. Darwin as a student of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Bernard

    2010-02-01

    In The Expression of the Emotions, Charles Darwin documents evolutionary continuity between animals and humans, emphasizing the universality of expressions in man. Most of the book addresses human behavior, and its influence on the study of animal behavior has been weak. The issue of natural selection is remarkably absent from this book, which relies on the inheritance of acquired characters rather than on a genuine Darwinian logic. Yet Konrad Lorenz considered Darwin to be a forerunner of behavioral biology. The reason was to be found in The Descent of Man and chapter VIII of The Origin of Species, where Darwin provides an explanation of behavior through selection, stating that the same mechanisms explaining morphological changes also account for gradual improvements in instincts. He assessed the accuracy of his evolutionary theory by directly studying animal behavior, hence laying the foundations of behavioral research for the next century.

  12. Charles Darwin Goes to School: The Role of Cartoons and Narrative in Setting Science in an Historical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa da Silva, Paulo Roberto; Correia, Paulo Rogerio Miranda; Infante-Malachias, Maria Elena

    2009-01-01

    Science education is under revision. Recent changes in society require changes in education to respond to new demands. Scientific literacy can be considered a new goal of science education and the epistemological gap between natural sciences and literacy disciplines must be overcome. The history of science is a possible bridge to link these…

  13. O show de Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Shapin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available As comemorações dos 200 anos de nascimento de Charles Darwin revelaram menos sobre a figura histórica do cientista vitoriano do que sobre o lugar da ciência e do cientista na cultura moderna. O artigo explora os eventos do "Dia de Darwin" e a produção recente sobre o "pai da teoria da evolução" com a intenção de ligá-los à recepção contemporânea da obra (e da figura de Charles Darwin.The celebrations of the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth were less about the historical figure of the Victorian scientist than about the place of science and the scientist in modern culture. The article explores the "Darwin Day" events and recent books on the "father of the theory of evolution" in order to relate them to the contemporary reception of Darwin's life and work.

  14. Systemic darwinism.

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    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-08-19

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality.

  15. Danes commemorating Darwin: apes and evolution at the 1909 anniversary.

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    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2010-10-01

    This article analyses the Danish 1909 celebrations of the centenary of Charles Darwin's birth on 12 February 1809. I argue that the 1909 meetings, lectures and publications devoted to Darwin and his theory of evolution by natural selection can be characterised by ambivalence: on the one hand, tribute to a great man of science who established a new view of nature and, on the other hand, scepticism towards the Darwinian mechanism of natural selection and the wider religious and political implications drawn from his theory. The article examines both professional and popular commemorative activities, focusing primarily on celebratory articles carried in widely circulated magazines and newspapers. I identify three types of interpretations of Darwin's ideas which I characterise as 'radical', 'evangelical' and 'safe' science. These different positions were closely linked to the political and cultural divisions of the periodical press. Moreover, my analysis of the popular press offers a solid basis for asserting that to most people Darwinism was associated with human evolution, primarily the relationship between man and apes, while more sophisticated discussions about the crisis of Darwinism prominent among naturalists played only a secondary role in the public arena. This article demonstrates the value of using newspapers as historical sources when looking for public images of Darwin, popular receptions of Darwinism and representations of science in general.

  16. Cento e Quarenta Anos sem Charles Darwin Bastam: sobre variedades, espécies e indivíduos

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    Ricardo Wainzbort

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing some difficulties regarding the species definition problem in biology. I will try to show that typological concept defines species as fixed, immutable entities. After this, I will consider some passages of Origin of Species in the attempt to characterize Darwinian species as populations that may be modified, through natural processes, into new species. Besides, I will present the biological concept of species, trying to discuss problems of not making distinctions between species as classes and species as concrete individuals. Then, I will point out some different definitions, alternative to the biological concept. Finally, I will delineate some consequences of species definition discussion to own human species (Homo sapiens

  17. Darwin, malthus, süssmilch, and euler: the ultimate origin of the motivation for the theory of natural selection.

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    Klyve, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    It is fairly well known that Darwin was inspired to formulate his theory of natural selection by reading Thomas Malthus's Essay on the Principle of Population. In fact, by reading Darwin's notebooks, we can even locate one particular sentence which started Darwin thinking about population and selection. What has not been done before is to explain exactly where this sentence - essentially Malthus's ideas about geometric population growth - came from. In this essay we show that eighteenth century mathematician Leonhard Euler is responsible for this sentence, and in fact forms the beginning of the logical chain which leads to the creation of the theory of natural selection. We shall examine the fascinating path taken by a mathematical calculation, the many different lenses through which it was viewed, and the path through which it eventually influenced Darwin.

  18. Exploration and Exploitation of Victorian Science in Darwin's Reading Notebooks

    CERN Document Server

    Murdock, Jaimie; DeDeo, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Search in an environment with an uncertain distribution of resources involves a trade-off between local exploitation and distant exploration. This extends to the problem of information foraging, where a knowledge-seeker shifts between reading in depth and studying new domains. To study this, we examine the reading choices made by one of the most celebrated scientists of the modern era: Charles Darwin. Darwin built his theory of natural selection in part by synthesizing disparate parts of Victorian science. When we analyze his extensively self-documented reading we find shifts, on multiple timescales, between choosing to remain with familiar topics and seeking cognitive surprise in novel fields. On the longest timescales, these shifts correlate with major intellectual epochs of his career, as detected by Bayesian epoch estimation. When we compare Darwin's reading path with publication order of the same texts, we find Darwin more adventurous than the culture as a whole.

  19. The meaning of Darwin's 'abominable mystery'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, William E

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin's "abominable mystery" has come to symbolize just about all aspects of the origin and early evolution of flowering plants. Yet, there has never been an analysis of precisely what Darwin thought was so abominably mysterious. Here I explicate Darwin's thoughts and frustrations with the fossil record of flowering plants as revealed in correspondence with Joseph Hooker, Gaston de Saporta, and Oswald Heer between 1875 and 1881. I also examine the essay by John Ball that prompted Darwin to write his "abominable mystery" letter to Hooker in July of 1879. Contrary to what is generally believed, Darwin's abominable mystery has little if anything to do with the fossil prehistory of angiosperms, identification of the closest relatives of flowering plants, questions of the homologies (and character transformations) of defining features of flowering plants, or the phylogeny of flowering plants themselves. Darwin's abominable mystery and his abiding interest in the radiation of angiosperms were never driven primarily by a need to understand the literal text of the evolutionary history of flowering plants. Rather, Darwin was deeply bothered by what he perceived to be an abrupt origin and highly accelerated rate of diversification of flowering plants in the mid-Cretaceous. This led Darwin to create speculative arguments for a long, gradual, and undiscovered pre-Cretaceous history of flowering plants on a lost island or continent. Darwin also took refuge in the possibility that a rapid diversification of flowering plants in the mid-Cretaceous might, if real, have a biological explanation involving coevolutionary interactions between pollinating insects and angiosperms. Nevertheless, although generations of plant biologists have seized upon Darwin's abominable mystery as a metaphor for their struggle to understand angiosperm history, the evidence strongly suggests that the abominable mystery is not about angiosperms per se. On the contrary, Darwin's abominable mystery

  20. Darwin's foil: the evolving uses of William Paley's Natural Theology 1802-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Adam R

    2014-03-01

    This essay traces the divergent readings of William Paley's 1802 Natural Theology from its initial publication to the recent controversies over intelligent design. It argues that the misinterpretation of the Natural Theology as a scientific argument about the origins of complex life-which Darwin's Origin of Species refutes-did not develop all at once. Rather this reading evolved gradually, drawing from a variety of uses and appropriations during the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This study demonstrates the fluidity of "science" and "religion" during these centuries, and highlights the role that genres of science popularization play in altering the meaning of those categories.

  1. More than a Mentor: Leonard Darwin's Contribution to the Assimilation of Mendelism into Eugenics and Darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpente, Norberto

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses the contribution to evolutionary theory of Leonard Darwin (1850-1943), the eighth child of Charles Darwin. By analysing the correspondence Leonard Darwin maintained with Ronald Aylmer Fisher in conjunction with an assessment of his books and other written works between the 1910s and 1930s, this article argues for a more prominent role played by him than the previously recognised in the literature as an informal mentor of Fisher. The paper discusses Leonard's efforts to amalgamate Mendelism with both Eugenics and Darwinism in order for the first to base their policies on new scientific developments and to help the second in finding a target for natural selection. Without a formal qualification in biological sciences and as such mistrusted by some "formal" scientists, Leonard Darwin engaged with key themes of Darwinism such as mimicry, the role of mutations on speciation and the process of genetic variability, arriving at important conclusions concerning the usefulness of Mendelian genetics for his father's theory.

  2. Darwin and Emotion Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    In his book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of…

  3. The theory of Darwin

    CERN Multimedia

    Thuillier,P

    1984-01-01

    Biographie de Charles Darwin, naturaliste anglaise (1809 - 1882), qui demeurait fameux dans l'histoire des sciences, parce qu'il a inventé une théorie qui permet de rendre compte rationnellement en principe de la formation des diverses formes vivantes que nous voyons

  4. Diversidade de Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae coletados com armadilha de interceptação de vôo no Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, Igarassu-PE, Brasil Diversity of Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae collected with flight intercept trap in the Charles Darwin Ecologic Refuge, Igarassu-PE, Brazil

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    Cristiane Maria Queiroz da Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar riqueza, abundância, diversidade e equitabilidade das espécies de Scarabaeinae em dois ambientes no Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin (RECD, Pernambuco. As coletas foram realizadas com armadilha de interceptação de vôo entre os meses de Abril e Junho de 2007, totalizando seis coletas. Foram capturados 4576 escarabeíneos, pertencentes a 35 espécies, 15 gêneros e seis tribos. Sete novos registros de espécies foram feitos para Pernambuco, passando de 26 para 33 espécies. As tribos registradas foram Canthonini, Ateuchini, Coprini, Phanaeini, Eurystenini e Onthophagini. Os gêneros melhor representados foram: Dichotomius com 84,6% dos besouros coletados, seguido por Canthidium com 7,62% e Canthon com 2,48%. A espécie Dichotomius aff.sericeus foi a mais abundante com 3889 indivíduos. Em todo o estudo foram verificadas 17 espécies para a área aberta, sendo 11 restritas a esse ambiente, enquanto para mata foram registradas 24, sendo 18 espécies restritas. Grande parte dos indivíduos capturados na mata foi da espécie D. aff.sericeus, enquanto no ambiente aberto nenhum indivíduo desta espécie foi coletado. Os estimadores indicaram uma estimativa máxima de riqueza de 21 espécies para o ambiente aberto e 32 espécies para o ambiente de mata. A curva de acumulação de espécies baseada em valores de riqueza observada média para os dois ambientes do RECD, não apresentou tendência a assíntota.The objective of this work was to study richness, abundance, diversity and equitability of the species of Scarabaeinae, in two environments in the Charles Darwin Ecology Refuge (CDER, Pernambuco. Sampling was carried with flight intercept trap from April through June 2007, totaling six samples. 4576 scarabaeinaes, belonging to 35 species, 15 genera and six tribes were captured. Seven new species records were found for Pernambuco, whose known fauna increased from 26 to 33 species. The tribes recorded were

  5. Science, evolution and natural selection: in praise of Darwin at the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn of Naples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Copernicus, Galileo, Newton and other physical scientists ushered in a conception of the universe as matter in motion governed by natural laws. Their discoveries brought about a fundamental revolution, namely a commitment to the postulate that the universe obeys immanent laws that can account for natural phenomena. The workings of the universe were brought into the realm of science: explanation through natural laws. Darwin completed the Copernican revolution by extending it to the living world. Darwin demonstrated the evolution of organisms. More important yet is that he discovered natural selection, the process that explains the 'design' of organisms. The adaptations and diversity of organisms, the origin of novel and complex species, even the origin of mankind, could now be explained by an orderly process of change governed by natural laws. The origin of species and the exquisite features of organisms had previously been explained as special creations of an omniscient God. Darwin brought them into the domain of science.

  6. Engaging with Lyell: Alfred Russel Wallace's Sarawak Law and Ternate papers as reactions to Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J T

    2013-12-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) and Charles Darwin (1809-1882) are honored as the founders of modern evolutionary biology. Accordingly, much attention has focused on their relationship, from their independent development of the principle of natural selection to the receipt by Darwin of Wallace's essay from Ternate in the spring of 1858, and the subsequent reading of the Wallace and Darwin papers at the Linnean Society on 1 July 1858. In the events of 1858 Wallace and Darwin are typically seen as central players, with Darwin's friends Charles Lyell (1797-1875) and Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) playing supporting roles. This narrative has resulted in an under-appreciation of a more central role for Charles Lyell as both Wallace's inspiration and foil. The extensive anti-transmutation arguments in Lyell's landmark Principles of Geology were taken as the definitive statement on the subject. Wallace, in his quest to solve the mystery of species origins, engaged with Lyell's arguments in his private field notebooks in a way that is concordant with his engagement with Lyell in the 1855 and 1858 papers. I show that Lyell was the object of Wallace's Sarawak Law and Ternate papers through a consideration of the circumstances that led Wallace to send his Ternate paper to Darwin, together with an analysis of the material that Wallace drew upon from the Principles. In this view Darwin was, ironically, intended for a supporting role in mediating Wallace's attempted dialog with Lyell.

  7. Darwin and inheritance: the influence of Prosper Lucas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Solano, Ricardo; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Rosaura

    2009-01-01

    An important historical relation that has hardly been addressed is the influence of Prosper Lucas's Treatise on Natural Inheritance on the development of Charles Darwin's concepts related to inheritance. In this article we trace this historical connection. Darwin read Lucas's Treatise in 1856. His reading coincided with many changes concerning his prior ideas on the transmission and expression of characters. We consider that this reading led him to propose a group of principles regarding prepotency, hereditary diseases, morbid tendencies and atavism; following Lucas, he called these principles: laws of inheritance.

  8. From Ends to Causes (and Back Again) by Metaphor: The Paradox of Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Schellens, Tammy; Soetaert, Ronald; Van Keer, Hilde; Braeckman, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection is one of the most famous metaphors in the history of science. Charles Darwin used the metaphor and the underlying analogy to frame his ideas about evolution and its main driving mechanism into a full-fledged theory. Because the metaphor turned out to be such a powerful epistemic tool, Darwin naturally assumed that he could also…

  9. Reflections on Darwin and Darwinizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, George

    2009-01-01

    Although there is a vast literature about Darwin there remains an urgent need, particularly in the field of literary studies, for greater understanding of his work. This essay examines current trends in Darwinian criticism, contrasting Literary Darwinism--which seeks in literature the "human nature" being defined by evolutionary psychology--with other models of Darwinian criticism provided by historians of science and literary scholars, models that bring together a sense of historical context with original attention to form and language. Such attention points toward future work that might alter our understanding of Darwin's achievement, both as scientist and writer, and thus change our sense of the affective implications of the world he represents.

  10. Darwin: German mystic or French rationalist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The notion that Charles Darwin embraced the German Romantic tradition seems plausible, given the early influence of Alexander von Humboldt. But this view fails to do justice to other scientific traditions. Darwin was a protégé of the Englishman John Stevens Henslow and was a follower of the Scott Charles Lyell. He had important debts to French scientists, notably Henri Milne-Edwards, Etienne and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Alphonse de Candolle. Many Germans were quite supportive of Darwin, but not all of these were encumbered by idealistic metaphysical baggage. Both Darwin and Anton Dohrn treated science as very much a cosmopolitan enterprise.

  11. Darwin, medicine and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushotham, A D; Sullivan, R

    2010-02-01

    'Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution'! So said Theodore Dobzhansky. It is extraordinary how little Darwinism and post-Darwinian evolutionary science has penetrated medicine despite the fact that all biology is built upon its foundations. Randy Nesse, one of the fathers of Darwinian medicine, recently observed that doctors 'know the facts but not the origins'. Clearly, then, in this auspicious year-200 years since Charles Darwin's birth and 150 years since the first edition of the Origin of Species-it is time to reconsider Darwin's legacy to medicine and to invite evolution back into the biomedical fold. Here, we consider the legacy of Darwin and the contribution of the other great evolutionists such as Ernst Mayr to cancer and medicine.

  12. Darwinism in the Light of Orthodoxy: Scientific Transformism Based on Materialism and Naturalism

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    Gheorghe Istodor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Darwin and his transformism is the most serious challenge to the religious faith of the Church, initial being challenged the presence and God’s creative work in the living universe of the nature, and finally to challenge the existence of God as the Creator, being replaced by an eternal matters and by a blind and random natural process called natural selection. Darwinian theory proposes a dangerous road that starts from deism – with Anglican theistic accents – accepted in his time to an agnosticism and an atheism worst to strike materialism that have an ideological origins placing the foundations of ateization process of many generations starting with modernism, postmodernism and until today.

  13. 76 FR 34212 - Lake Charles Exports, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... Charles Exports, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY...-contract authorization to export up to 15 million metric tons per annum (mmtpa) of domestic natural gas as liquefied natural gas (LNG) for a 25-year period, commencing the earlier of the date of first export or...

  14. On the Way to the Origin: Darwin's Evolutionary Insight and Its Rhetorical Transformation. The Van Zelst Lecture in Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John Angus

    Several implications for the understanding of the Darwinian revolution follow from an analysis of the role of colloquial language and prudential reason in Charles Darwin's quest for a theory of evolution. First, the term "natural selection" is not merely or even primarily a technical term and thus cannot be understood accurately apart…

  15. On the Way to the Origin: Darwin's Evolutionary Insight and Its Rhetorical Transformation. The Van Zelst Lecture in Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John Angus

    Several implications for the understanding of the Darwinian revolution follow from an analysis of the role of colloquial language and prudential reason in Charles Darwin's quest for a theory of evolution. First, the term "natural selection" is not merely or even primarily a technical term and thus cannot be understood accurately apart from the…

  16. Wallace, Darwin and Ternate 1858.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles H

    2014-06-20

    Recent debates on the mailing date of Alfred Russel Wallace's 'Ternate essay' to Charles Darwin in the spring of 1858 have ignored certain details that, once taken into account, alter the matter considerably. Here, a closer look is taken at the critical question of whether Wallace's manuscript-accompanying letter represented a reply to the Darwin letter that arrived in Ternate on 9 March; it is concluded that it very probably did not.

  17. Under the influence of Malthus's law of population growth: Darwin eschews the statistical techniques of Aldolphe Quetelet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariew, André

    2007-03-01

    Charles Darwin, James Clerk Maxwell, and Francis Galton were all aware, by various means, of Aldolphe Quetelet's pioneering work in statistics. Darwin, Maxwell, and Galton all had reason to be interested in Quetelet's work: they were all working on some instance of how large-scale regularities emerge from individual events that vary from one another; all were rejecting the divine interventionistic theories of their contemporaries; and Quetelet's techniques provided them with a way forward. Maxwell and Galton all explicitly endorse Quetelet's techniques in their work; Darwin does not incorporate any of the statistical ideas of Quetelet, although natural selection post-twentieth century synthesis has. Why not Darwin? My answer is that by the time Darwin encountered Malthus's law of excess reproduction he had all he needed to answer about large scale regularities in extinctions, speciation, and adaptation. He didn't need Quetelet.

  18. Epilepsy research 150 years after Darwin's theory of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Fulvio A; Terra, Vera C; Scorza, Carla A; Arida, Ricardo M; Cavalheiro, Esper A

    2009-12-01

    On February 12, 2009, we commemorated the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth and the 150th anniversary of the publication of the first edition of the 'On the origin of species'. Only in the sixth edition of the Origin Darwin explicitly stated that natural selection applied to the brain as to all other organs and contemporary epilepsy research plays an interesting role in this scenario. Epilepsy affects approximately 3 percent of the general population and is a complex disease. At least 11 genes have now been described for human epilepsy and over 50 more genes have been identified in animal models of epilepsy. The complex gene to gene interactions and gene-environment interactions may account for epilepsy susceptibility and antiepileptic drug response. Darwin's thoughts on evolution are relevant to understand these gene interactions, contributing to current development of new treatments and prevention of chronic diseases, such as epilepsy.

  19. Darwin and Reductionisms: Victorian, Neo-Darwinian and Postgenomic Biologies

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    Angelique Richardson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the open-ended Darwinism of Charles Darwin, George Lewes, George Eliot and Thomas Hardy with reductive post-Weismann and early eugenist views and more recent neo-Darwinian ideas including literary Darwinism. It argues that some Victorians had a clear sense of the complexities of the natural world, and of the centrality of environment to life. This awareness contrasts with the processes of divorce and isolation that underpin neo-Darwinian understandings of evolutionary development. But biologists and philosophers of biology are now emphasising the complex and dynamic relations between organism and environment in ways that would have appealed to Darwin’s contemporaries. The article establishes that there are significant parallels between mid-Victorian and postgenomic thought.

  20. Darwin's Book: On the Origin of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jonathan

    2013-09-01

    This essay is an interpretation of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species. It focuses on the contents of the Origin as Darwin intended them to be understood and the background to the work, thus revealing the originality (or otherwise) of the work.

  1. Nietzsche’s reception of Darwinism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, Pieter

    1979-01-01

    It has been generally assumed that the influence of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution on Friedrich Nietzsche (1844- 1900) is to be understood in terms of Nietzsche's concept """"Obermensch"""" (overman). Hardly any attention has been paid to the question of the status of Darwin's theory in Nietzs

  2. Making a Theist out of Darwin: Asa Gray's Post-Darwinian Natural Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, T. Russell

    2012-01-01

    In March of 1860 the eminent Harvard Botanist and orthodox Christian Asa Gray began promoting the Origin of Species in hopes of securing a fair examination of Darwin's evolutionary theory among theistic naturalists. To this end, Gray sought to demonstrate that Darwin had not written atheistically and that his theory of evolution by natural…

  3. The Darwin of pangenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    The Darwin of pangenesis is very much another Darwin. Pangenesis is Darwin's comprehensive theory of generation, his theory about all sexual and asexual modes of reproduction and growth. He never explicitly integrated pangenesis with his theory of natural selection. He first formulated pangenesis in the 1840s and integrated it with the physiology, including the cytology, of that era. It was, therefore, not consilient with the newer cytology of the 1860s when he published it in 1868. By reflecting on the role of pangenesis in Darwin's life and work, we can learn to take a wider view of his most general theorising about animal and plant life.

  4. The practice of classification and the theory of evolution, and what the demise of Charles Darwin's tree of life hypothesis means for both of them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, W Ford

    2009-08-12

    Debates over the status of the tree of life (TOL) often proceed without agreement as to what it is supposed to be: a hierarchical classification scheme, a tracing of genomic and organismal history or a hypothesis about evolutionary processes and the patterns they can generate. I will argue that for Darwin it was a hypothesis, which lateral gene transfer in prokaryotes now shows to be false. I will propose a more general and relaxed evolutionary theory and point out why anti-evolutionists should take no comfort from disproof of the TOL hypothesis.

  5. The naturalist and the nuances: Sentimentalism, moral values, and emotional expression in Darwin and the anatomists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupouy, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Comparing Charles Darwin's account of emotional expression to previous nineteenth-century scientific studies on the same subject, this article intends to locate the exact nature of Darwin's break in his 1872 book (as well as in his earlier notebooks). In contrast to a standard view that approaches this question in the framework of the creationism/evolutionism dichotomy, I argue that Darwin's account distinguishes itself primarily by its distance toward the sentimentalist values and moral hierarchies that were traditionally linked with the study of expression--an attitude that is not an inevitable ingredient of the theory of evolution. However, Darwin's approach also reintroduces another kind of hierarchy in human expression, but one based on attenuation and self-restraint in the exhibition of expressive signs.

  6. The Influence of Darwin on Evolutionary Algorithms from "Dinner with Darwin"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbye, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The "Dinner with Darwin" event held at the National Association of Biology Teachers Conference over several successive years represented an innovative forum for exploring the ways that the work of Charles Darwin has had an impact in fields quite far removed from biology. Through a wide-ranging discussion by panel participants, drawn from a number…

  7. A history of altruism focusing on Darwin, Allee and E.O. Wilson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domondon, Andrew T

    2013-06-01

    The problem of altruism refers to the apparent difficulty in reconciling the existence of altruists, individuals who reduce their own fitness to increase the fitness of others, with natural selection. A historical and philosophical overview of solutions to this apparent contradiction is presented through a close reading of the key texts of Charles Darwin, Warder C. Allee and Edward O. Wilson. Following an analysis of Darwin's explanation for altruism, I examine the ideas of group selection and kin selection advanced by Allee and Wilson, respectively, Attention is also given to the philosophical implications each associated with their respective solutions.

  8. Charles Darwin and the oldestglacial events in Patagonia: the erratic blocks of the Río Santa Cruz valley Charles Darwin y las glaciacionesmás antiguas de Patagonia: los bloques erráticos del alto valle del Río Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Strelin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Althoughthe depositational environment assigned by Darwin to the large erratic blocksand gravels in the Río Santa Cruz valley has been reinterpreted, hisgeomorphological and stratigraphic observations are still in force. The largeerratic blocks he described as crowning the Condor Cliff terrace and spread atthe bottom of the valley just east of this locality (Sites 2 and 3, are nowinterpreted as indicators of the maximum glacial expansion in Patagonia.Similar blocks, though of a different lithology, accumulated over a lowerterrace located up-valley (Site 4, are now linked to moraines and glacifluvialterraces of the Penultimate Glaciation. Finally, in addition to the erraticblock discovered by Darwin in the lower Río Santa Cruz valley (Site 1, thereare others - recently discovered - which probably account for a catastrophicevent ascribed to a big glacier-lake outburst during the last interglacial.No obstante haber sidoreinterpretado el ambiente depositacional asignado por Darwin a los grandesbloques erráticos y rodados del valle del río Santa Cruz, siguen vigentes susobservaciones geomorfológicas y estratigráficas. Los grandes bloques erráticosque describe coronando la terraza de Condor Cliff y dispersos en el fondo delvalle inmediatamente al este de esta localidad (Sitios 2 y 3, soninterpretados ahora como indicadores de la máxima expansión glaciaria de la Patagonia. Bloques similares, aunque de dispar litología, acumulados sobre una terraza másbaja situada río arriba (Sitio 4, se vinculan actualmente a morenas y terrazasglacifluviales de la Penúltima Glaciación. Finalmente, al bloque erráticodescubierto por Darwin en el tramo inferior del valle del río Santa Cruz (Sitio1, se le suman otros -de reciente descubrimiento- que probablemente den cuentade un evento catastrófico atribuible al vaciamiento de un gran lago glaciardurante el último interglaciar.

  9. [Darwin and bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann D, Walter

    2009-02-01

    As in 2009 the scientific world celebrates two hundreds years from the birthday of Charles Darwin and one hundred and fifty from the publication of The Origin of Species, an analysis of his complete work is performed, looking for any mention of bacteria. But it seems that the great naturahst never took knowledge about its existence, something rather improbable in a time when the discovery of bacteria shook the medical world, or he deliberately ignored them, not finding a place for such microscopic beings into his theory of evolution. But the bacteria badly affected his familiar life, killing scarlet fever one of his children and worsening to death the evolution of tuberculosis of his favourite Annie. Darwin himself could suffer the sickness of Chagas, whose etiological agent has a similar level to bacteria in the scale of evolution.

  10. Imagen del mundo, percepción y descripción de la naturaleza. Un estudio comparado en torno a las presuposiciones onto-epistemológicas en la poesía romántica inglesa y la prosa científica de Charles Darwin

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Pazos, Bárbara

    2016-01-01

    615 p. Esta tesis es un estudio comparado de las descripciones de la naturaleza de dos tipos de sujeto cognitivo: de un lado, poetas reconocidos del Romanticismo inglés como William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Percy Bysshe Shelley y John Keats; de otro, dos naturalistas destacados como Alexander von Humboldt y sobre todo Charles Darwin.Se pretende así sacar a la luz rasgos onto-epistemológicos de la WV sobre la que ambos tipos de sujeto cognitivo construyen sus descripciones paisa...

  11. Darwins begejstring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Ingen anden videnskabelig teori har som Darwins evolutionsteori skabt så megen debat uden for videnskabelige kredse. I år kan vi fejre både Darwins 200 års fødselsdag og 150-året for hans hovedværk Om Arternes Oprindelse. Artiklen kan læses på: http://www.aktuelnat.au.dk/fileadmin/an/nr-1/an1......darwins-bg.pdf....

  12. Introducing Darwinism to Toronto's post-1887 reconstituted medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, John P M

    2011-01-01

    Charles Darwin's scientific paradigm was largely welcomed in Canadian academic biology and medicine, while reaction among other faculty and laypeople ranged from interest to outrage. In 1874, Ramsay Wright, a Darwinian-era biologist from Edinburgh, was appointed to the University of Toronto's Chair of Natural History. Over his 38-year career Wright integrated the evolutionary perspective into medical and biology teaching without accentuating its controversial source. He also applied the emerging German experimental research model and laboratory technology. This study identifies five categories of scientific and personal influences upon Wright through archival research on biographical sources and his writings.

  13. The 1909 Darwin celebration. Reexamining evolution in the light of Mendel, mutation, and meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Marsha L

    2006-09-01

    In June 1909, scientists and dignitaries from 167 different countries gathered in Cambridge to celebrate the hundredth anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth and the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of Origin of Species. The event was one of the most magnificent commemorations in the annals of science. Delegates gathered within the cloisters of Cambridge University not only to honor the "hero" of evolution but also to reassess the underpinnings of Darwinism at a critical juncture. With the mechanism of natural selection increasingly under attack, evolutionary theory was in disarray. Against this backdrop, biologists weighed the impact of several new developments--the rediscovery of Mendel's laws of heredity, de Vriesian mutation theory, and the linkage of sex-cell division (recently named "meiosis") to the mechanism of heredity. The 1909 Darwin celebration thus represents a significant watershed in the history of modem biology that allows historians to assess the status of evolution prior to the advent of the chromosome theory of genetics.

  14. Was Darwin a creationist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosans, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the Origin of Species, Darwin contrasts his theory of natural selection with the theory that God independently created each species. This makes it seem as though the Origin offers a scientific alternative to a theological worldview. A few months after the Origin appeared, however, the eminent anatomist Richard Owen published a review that pointed out the theological assumptions of Darwin's theory. Owen worked in the tradition of rational morphology, within which one might suggest that evolution occurs by processes that are continuous with those by which life arises from matter; in contrast, Darwin rested his account of life's origins on the notion that God created one or a few life forms upon which natural selection could act. Owen argued that Darwin's reliance on God to explain the origins of life makes his version of evolution no less supernatural than the special creationist that Darwin criticizes: although Darwin limits God to one or a few acts of creation, he still relies upon God to explain life's existence.

  15. Darwin and his Mathematical Inspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Andrea

    2008-07-01

    I have been kindly asked by the organizers of the BIOCOMP2007 conference to provide a short sketch of Charles Darwin's contribution to science, and of the role mathematics has played in his discoveries and in subsequent developments. I felt flattered by the invitation but rather unfit to it, since I have no particular expertise in evolutionary theory, and even less in its history; eventually, I decided to accept the invitation, appreciating the opportunity to read some more about Darwin, and the importance of making his contribution better known, at a time where teaching at school the theory of evolution is coming under attack also in Italy (perhaps under American influence). I hope to be able here to give a glimpse of the history of Darwinian thought, and of some current research areas, that will lead some readers towards further reading. There are many excellent books available now about Darwin and Darwinian theory, and my presentation is based on many of them, listed in the Bibliography; I found especially illuminating the book by Gayon Darwinism's Struggle for Survival, a history of theoretical Darwinism illustrating the scientific content, and the philosophical implications, of the debates on evolutionary theory at Darwin's time and up to the "modern synthesis".

  16. Darwin's Book: "On the Origin of Species"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This essay is an interpretation of Charles Darwin's "Origin of Species". It focuses on the contents of the "Origin" as Darwin intended them to be understood and the background to the work, thus revealing the originality (or otherwise) of the work.

  17. Charles Dickens and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosnett, J E

    1994-01-01

    Through some characters in his novels, Charles Dickens recorded observations on the nature of epileptic seizures, their causes and provocation, and their consequences. Three of his main characters, Monks, Guster, and Bradley Headstone, had seizures which Dickens realistically described.

  18. Darwin in domineesland: een reconstructie van de wijze waarop geleerde Nederlanders Darwins evolutietheorie filosofisch beoordeelden, 1859-1877

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Leeuwenburgh (Bart)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn zijn proefschrift Darwin in domineesland geeft Bart Leeuwenburgh een overzicht van het debat dat in Nederland ontstond over de evolutietheorie, na de publicatie van Charles Darwins On the Origin of Species in 1859. Hierbij trekt een bonte stoet voorbij van bedaarde wetenschappers, gen

  19. Galapagos: Darwin, evolution, and ENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestone, Charles D

    2009-10-01

    This year is especially important in the history of the theory of evolution; 2009 is the bicentennial anniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin and the sesquicentennial anniversary of his publication, The Origin of Species. Darwin visited the Galapagos Islands as a young man, which greatly influenced his thinking. My son Jim and I had the good fortune to visit these islands in January 2009 and see firsthand what led Darwin to arrive at his monumental insights into the origins of life on this planet. I have described my observations and related some of this experience to the ear, nose, and throat, albeit with whimsy in several instances. Nonetheless, some of the adaptations in the animals on these unique islands may have bearing on my hypotheses related to the incidence and pathogenesis of otitis media in humans. It is hoped the reader will share my enthusiasm for the experience we had on these fantastic islands and tour them in the future.

  20. Darwin and Dostoyevsky: twins

    OpenAIRE

    Kováč, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    The Russian poet Fyodor Dostoyevsky published an insightful treatise on human nature in his novel ‘The Brothers Karamazov' in 1880. His account of humanity may offer as much insight into human nature for scientists as Darwin's The Descent of Man.

  1. Darwin's Perplexing Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorvaldsen, Steinar; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    from classical natural theology. When Darwin discovered the dynamic process of natural selection, he rejected the old teleological argument as formulated by William Paley. However, he was never able to ignore the powerful experience of the beauty and complexity of an intelligently designed universe...

  2. Naturalizing semiotics: The triadic sign of Charles Sanders Peirce as a systems property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilstrup, Mogens

    2015-12-01

    The father of pragmatism, Charles Sanders Peirce, gave in 1903 the following definition of a sign: "A Sign, or Representamen, is a First which stands in such a genuine triadic relation to a Second, called its Object, as to be capable of determining a Third, called its Interpretant, to assume the same triadic relation to its Object in which it stands itself to the same Object. The triadic relation is genuine, that is its three members are bound together by it in a way that does not consist in any complexus of dyadic relations". Despite its cult status and its pragmatic foundation, the Peircean sign has never revealed its true potential by being integrated into a formal system. In the present report, a reconstruction of the sign model is presented, which may at first appear somewhat obvious and superficial. However by use of the reconstructed model, the above statement and the majority of Peirce's other statements about the nature of signs fall into place. Instead of defining three links between Object (O), Representamen (R), and Interpretant (I), the sign is described as having a single three-dimensional link, specifying its location in a three dimensional (O,R,I) linkage space. To understand and explain sign function, the process of sign utilization (semiosis) has to be divided into two temporally separated phases, a sign-establishment phase where a three-dimensional link (Ψ(O,R,I)) is formed between three sign elements, and a later sign-interpretation phase where the established linkage is used for inferring significance to a novel phenomenon, if this satisfies the criteria for being a Representamen for the sign. Numerous statements from Peirce indicate that he used a two-staged semiosis paradigm although he did not state that explicitly. The three-dimensional model was primarily constructed for use in biosemiotics, as an exploratory frame for mapping the evolutionary establishment of sign links, which logically must have preceded the fixation of any regulatory

  3. Darwinism and ethology. The role of natural selection in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervet, J; Soleilhavoup, M

    1997-11-01

    The role of behaviour in biological evolution is examined within the context of Darwinism. All Darwinian models are based on the distinction of two mechanisms: one that permits faithful transmission of a feature from one generation to another, and another that differentially regulates the degree of this transmission. Behaviour plays a minimal role as an agent of transmission in the greater part of the animal kingdom; by contrast, the forms it may assume strongly influence the mechanisms of selection regulating the different rates of transmission. We consider the decisive feature of the human species to be the existence of a phenotypical system of cultural coding characterized by precision and reliability which are the distinctive feature of genetic coding in animals. We examine the consequences for the application of the Darwinian model to human history.

  4. Quantum Darwinism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurek, Wojciech H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Quantum Darwinism - proliferation, in the environment, of multiple records of selected states of the system (its information-theoretic progeny) - explains how quantum fragility of individual state can lead to classical robustness of their multitude.

  5. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, B.; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....

  6. Darwins aktualitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    - han får os til at diskutere os selv. Uddrag af PETER C. KJÆRGAARDs tale ved åbningen af Darwin-udstillingen på Statens Naturhistoriske Museum d. 4. februar. Udgivelsesdato: Marts......- han får os til at diskutere os selv. Uddrag af PETER C. KJÆRGAARDs tale ved åbningen af Darwin-udstillingen på Statens Naturhistoriske Museum d. 4. februar. Udgivelsesdato: Marts...

  7. Darwin and Wagner: Evolution and Aesthetic Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergaard, Edvin

    2011-01-01

    Two of the most influential works of the Western nineteenth century were completed in 1859: Charles Darwin's "The Origin of Species" and Richard Wagner's opera "Tristan and Isolde." Although created within very different cultural traditions, these works show some striking similarities: both brought about a critical, long-lasting debate and caused…

  8. The prominent absence of Alfred Russel Wallace at the Darwin anniversaries in Germany in 1909, 1959 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossfeld, Uwe; Olsson, Lennart

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that the contribution of Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913) to the development of the "Darwinian" principle of natural selection has often been neglected. Here we focus on how the three anniversaries to celebrate the origin of the Darwin-Wallace theory in Germany in 1909, in 1959 in the divided country, as well as in 2009, have represented Charles Robert Darwin's and Alfred Russell Wallace's contributions. We have analyzed books and proceedings volumes related to these anniversaries, and the main result is that Wallace was almost always ignored, or only mentioned in passing. In 1909, Ernst Haeckel gave a talk in Jena, later published under the title The worldview of Darwin and Lamarck (Das Weltbild von Darwin und Lamarck), but not as the Darwin-Wallace concept. Haeckel mentions Wallace only once. In two important proceedings volumes from the 1959 anniversaries, Wallace was ignored. The only fair treatment of Wallace is given in another book, a collection of documents edited by Gerhard Heberer, for which the author selected nine key documents and reprinted excerpts (1959). Three of them were articles by Wallace, including the Sarawak- and Ternate-papers of 1855 and 1858, respectively. An analysis of the dominant themes during the celebrations of 2009 shows that none of the six topics had much to do with Wallace and his work. Thus, the tendency to exclude Alfred Russell Wallace is an international phenomenon, and largely attributable to the "Darwin industry".

  9. Charles Darwin’s lost Cinereous Harrier found in the collection of the National Museum of Natural History Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grouw, van H.; Steinheimer, F.D.

    2008-01-01

    During reorganisation of the Leiden bird collection a mounted harrier was found what seemed to be one of the still lost specimens collected by Darwin. After closer research it turned out it was indeed the last missing harrier of the Darwin collection.

  10. Darwinism and the Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Verma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Darwinism and the church have been in conflict right from the inception of the former. A recent expression of this conflict has appeared in the form of the Concept of Intelligent Design (ID, which amounts to the special creation concept, which is in religious scriptures. ID is not science, and the Natural Selection Theory of Evolution, propounded by Darwin, is a well established scientific theory. Intermixing science and religion, as ID is, is not advisable. However, science and religion are both human needs.

  11. Charles Lyell and scientific thinking in geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgili, Carmina

    2007-07-01

    Charles Lyell (1797-1875) was born at Kinnordy, Scotland. His father, an amateur botanist, and his grandfather, a navigator, gave him very soon a taste for the observation of the Nature. He went to the Oxford University to study classical literature, but he also followed the geological course of William Buckland. After having been employed as jurist for some years, in 1827 he decided on a career of geologist and held the chair of geology of the King's College of London, from 1831 on. He was a contemporary of Cuvier, Darwin, von Humboldt, Hutton, Lavoisier, and was elected 'membre correspondant' of the 'Académie des sciences, France', in January 1862. Charles Lyell is one of the eminent geologists who initiated the scientific thinking in geology, in which his famous volumes of the Principles of Geology were taken as the authority. These reference volumes are based on multiple observations and field works collected during numerous fieldtrips in western Europe (principally Spain, France, and Italy) and North America. To his name are attached, among others: ( i) the concept of uniformitarism (or actualism), which was opposed to the famous catastrophism, in vogue at that time, and which may be summarized by the expression "The present is the key to the past"; ( ii) the division of the Tertiary in three series denominated Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene, due to the study of the age of strata by fossil faunas; ( iii) the theory according to which the orogenesis of a mountain chain, as the Pyrenees, results from different pulsations on very long time scales and was not induced by a unique pulsation during a short and intense period. The uniformity of the laws of Nature is undeniably a principle Charles Lyell was the first to state clearly and to apply to the study of the whole Earth's crust, which opened a new era in geology.

  12. Quantum Darwinism as a Darwinian process

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, John

    2010-01-01

    The Darwinian nature of Wojciech Zurek's theory of Quantum Darwinism is evaluated against the criteria of a Darwinian process as understood within Universal Darwinism. The characteristics of a Darwinian process are developed including the consequences of accumulated adaptations resulting in adaptive systems operating in accordance with Friston's free energy principle and employing environmental simulations. Quantum theory, as developed in Zurek's research program and encapsulated by his theory of Quantum Darwinism is discussed from the view that Zurek's derivation of the measurement axioms implies that the evolution of a quantum system entangled with environmental entities is determined solely by the nature of the entangled system. There need be no further logical foundation. Quantum Darwinism is found to conform to the Darwinian paradigm in unexpected detail and is thus may be considered a theory within the framework of Universal Darwinism. With the inclusion of Quantum Darwinism within Universal Darwinism a...

  13. EL DARWINISMO EN COLOMBIA: VISIONES DE LA NATURALEZA Y LA SOCIEDAD Darwinism in Colombia: Visions of nature and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLGA RESTREPO FORERO

    Full Text Available Como ocurría en otros países latinoamericanos, durante el último cuarto del siglo XIX, el darwinismo generó en Colombia intensas discusiones entre sus partidarios y opositores. En el presente trabajo se describe el ambiente social en que se inscribieron las polémicas y se muestra la diferente participación que tuvieron distintos grupos, entre ellos, naturalistas, médicos, intelectuales, abogados, políticos y estudiantes universitarios, quienes vincularon la teoría de la evolución a sus diversas preocupaciones. Se evidencia cómo el debate fue simultáneamente científico y político, y abarcó temas como la reforma educativa y la educación de los jóvenes y de las mujeres, la religión y las relaciones entre la Iglesia y el Estado, y preguntas fundamentales acerca de la nación y la constitución racial de la población. Las polémicas en torno al darwinismo involucraron indistintamente al positivismo de Spencer y sus ideas acerca de la sociedad, la naturaleza humana y los límites del naturalismo científico.As was the case in other Latin-American countries, during the last quarter of the 19th century in Colombia, Darwinism generated intense discussion between its followers and its opponents. In the present work, I describe the social environment in which these polemics occurred and the participation of different groups, including naturalists, physicians, intellectuals, lawyers, politicians and university students, all of whom linked the theory of evolution to their different concerns. I present evidence about how the debate was simultaneously scientific and political and covered themes such as educational reform and the education of young people and women, religion and the relations between the Church and the State, and fundamental questions about the nation and the racial constitution of the population. The polemics around Darwinism were indistinctly related to the positivism of Spencer and his ideas about society, human nature and

  14. Darwin as a plant scientist: a Southern Hemisphere perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Stephen D; Lambers, Hans

    2009-08-01

    Events around the world this year celebrate the bicentenary of the birth of Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and the sesquicentenary of publication of his most important work, The Origin of Species (Darwin 1859). The associated plethora of books and papers now appearing to commemorate Darwin's work continue the traditional emphasis on his zoological and geological contributions. There has been some recent attention directed towards Darwin's relatively unsung but significant accomplishments as a botanist. Here, we bring together a review of Darwin's botanical discoveries and experiments and relevant aspects of his geological investigations, with a focus on the Southern Hemisphere. This is a relatively unexplored aspect of Darwin's contributions that yields some new insights meriting future research.

  15. Defining Darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, David L

    2011-03-01

    Evolutionary theory seems to lend itself to all sorts of misunderstanding. In this paper I strive to decrease such confusions, for example, between Darwinism and Darwinians, propositions and people, organisms and individuals, species as individuals versus species as classes, homologies and homoplasies, and finally essences versus histories.

  16. Darwin por Manoel Bomfim Darwin by Manoel Bomfim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Noboru Uemori

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A noção de "luta pela existência" de Charles Darwin foi apropriada por diversas tendências intelectuais e serviu a vários propósitos políticos. Ela deu suporte para aqueles que queriam legitimar o capitalismo, fazer apologia do individualismo, do mercado, do fim dos monopólios e da competição. Ensejou concepções conservadoras como a prática da eugenia, a justificação do elitismo, da conquista e da colonização dos europeus sobre as populações asiáticas e africanas e o racismo. A idéia de luta pela existência foi trabalhada, também, por intelectuais que defendiam a idéia de que lutar pela vida relacionava-se à solidariedade e à cooperação. Manoel Bomfim sofreu influência de Darwin e beneficiou-se de suas idéias para elaborar argumentos, graças aos quais foi visto por seus intérpretes como um autor "radical" e original.Charles Darwin's notion of a 'struggle for existence' has been appropriated by several intellectual currents of opinion, and used for various political purposes. It has served to support free market capitalism, as an apologia of individualism, the market, the end of monopolies, and competition. Conservative conceptions have been based on it: the practice of eugenics, the justification of elitism, of the conquest and colonization of Asian and African peoples by the European, and of racism. On the other hand, the idea of a struggle for existence has been worked on by intellectuals who argued that it was related to solidarity and cooperation. Manoel Bomfim was influenced by Darwin and used his ideas to form arguments which have led his interpreters to see him as a 'radical' and original author.

  17. Balancing Necessity and Fallibilism: Charles Sanders Peirce on the Status of Mathematics and its Intersection with the Inquiry into Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ronald

    An interest in Charles Sanders Peirce and pragmatist thought in general emerged in the United States in the middle of last century to exert a powerful influence on a generation of American philosophers educated in the 1940s and 1950s, including Abner Shimony, whose thought is the occasion for this paper. Those threads in Peirce's work related to developing a scientifically informed worldview and metaphysics were the natural influences on Abner and this paper will begin by briefly reviewing a number of these threads and their influences in his writings. This sets the scene for the main project of the paper, an earlier historical project on a related aspect of Peirce's thought—his understanding of mathematics and its place in the description of nature. Mathematics was a foundational discipline for Peirce, one with qualities of necessity and certainty, features that stand in interesting contrast and tension to Peirce's view of an evolving nature which is governed by chance and our knowledge of which is always fallible and thus open to revision. Exploring these issues reveals deep background beliefs structuring Peirce's thought. The paper concludes in the contemporary realm with the speculation that due to the scientific developments of the 20th century, aspects of Peirce's work that formed a vision for a scientific metaphysics for earlier generations may be less relevant now. Nevertheless, the naturalistic spirit and orientation of Peirce's work remains compelling and productive.

  18. Darwin taxonomist: Barnacles and shell burrowing barnacles Darwin taxónomo: cirrípedos y cirrípedos perforadores de conchas

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This bibliographic review revisits circumstances in which the wharf, shell burrowing barnacle, Cryptophialus minutus, was first collected by Charles Darwin in southern Chile, in 1836. Further, explores how its collection marked Darwin's taxonomical interest in Cirripedia. A short review analyzes the initial number of extant species of Cirripedia, as described by Darwin and the present situation, with emphasis on recent collections of C. minutus in the southern tip of South America.Esta revisi...

  19. Drink, dames & disease: Erasmus Darwin on inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Philip K

    2007-12-01

    Dr Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) readily acknowledged that diseases including gout, consumption, scrofula, epilepsy, and insanity were hereditarily transferred. He also viewed a particular interconnectedness between intemperance (alcoholism) and other hereditary diseases. Darwin's view of 'hereditary' incorporated a malleable admixture of nature and nurture causes. Consistent with his deistic beliefs that development on the Earth followed no fixed plan, Darwin argued that hereditary diseases were not predestined. To overcome or prevent disease, Darwin argued that one must learn how best to exert power over nature and to improve nurture.

  20. The origins of diversity: Darwin's conditions and epigenetic variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, David E

    2007-01-01

    This short history of evolutionary thought during the last few centuries describes how some of our foremost thinkers have debated--and still do--the precise mechanisms at the roots of evolutionary change. Commentators frequently contradicted themselves, as well as each other. The popularity of Christian fundamentalism waned following the World Wars. Eventually the rug was pulled from beneath it--till a more recent reaction. Amidst all this babble coming from numerous towers of Babel over centuries, we failed to see Charles Darwin as the great environmentalist: who said environmental conditions, whilst working hand in glove with natural selection, constituted the more important 'law'. A bird's eye view of 18th and 19th century evolutionary thought is considered against the climate of those times (politics, industrial revolution, trade, religious expansionism, etc). Darwinism superseded Lamarckism helped by the neo-Darwinism of Weismann, higher mathematics, population genetics--the 'Modern Synthesis' of 1935--culminating in the discovery of the double helix by Watson, Crick et al, assuring us of the correctness of 'primacy of DNA theory'. Stimulation and challenge is currently fuelled by exciting nascent knowledge of epigenetic variations and Cairnsian 'adaptive mutations'. The work of Marcus Pembrey and Barry Keverne tracking human and animal variation back generationally describing how 'genomic imprinting' causes reversible heritable change from slight variations in the chromosomes of parents, grandparents, great-grandparents and parents to be. The purpose of this thesis is to put forward a new theme proposed neither by Lamarck or Darwin. We stand on the threshold of the first paradigm change for 150 years.

  1. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...

  2. Darwin's Eclipse Concerned Function versus Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Warren W.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on a article by Dewsbury (February-March 2009) in which he stated, "Darwin provided a viable mechanism for evolutionary change, natural selection" (p. 67). Although this view is consistent with the modern synthesis, the author argues that (a) the natural selection "mechanism" provided by Darwin was not initially accepted by scientists…

  3. Naturalizing semiotics: The triadic sign of Charles Sanders Peirce as a systems property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilstrup, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    of Peirce's other statements about the nature of signs fall into place. Instead of defining three links between Object (O), Representamen (R), and Interpretant (I), the sign is described as having a single three-dimensional link, specifying its location in a three dimensional (O,R,I) linkage space...... explanations offered by Peirce about his sign model. I make no claim that Peirce used a similar type of three-dimensional model, because he explicitly used the chemical atom as naturalization (natural scientific explanation) for his sign model, an interesting but problematic analogy. In order to discuss common...... without a sign interpreting systems or without some kind of memory function. A sign interpreter will thus harbor a semiotic scaffold that consists of at least an input sensor and an interpreting system coupled to a memory function. Further border conditions for semiotic scaffolds will be introduced...

  4. Epilepsy research 150 years after Darwin's theory of evolution Pesquisas em epilepsia 150 anos após a teoria da evolução de Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio A. Scorza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available On February 12, 2009, we commemorated the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth and the 150th anniversary of the publication of the ûrst edition of the "On the origin of species". Only in the sixth edition of the Origin Darwin explicitly stated that natural selection applied to the brain as to all other organs and contemporary epilepsy research plays an interesting role in this scenario. Epilepsy affects approximately 3 percent of the general population and is a complex disease. At least 11 genes have now been described for human epilepsy and over 50 more genes have been identified in animal models of epilepsy. The complex gene to gene interactions and gene-environment interactions may account for epilepsy susceptibility and antiepileptic drug response. Darwin's thoughts on evolution are relevant to understand these gene interactions, contributing to current development of new treatments and prevention of chronic diseases, such as epilepsy.Em 12 de Fevereiro de 2009 nós comemoramos o aniversário de 200 anos de Charles Darwin e os 150 anos da publicação da primeira edição do livro "A Origem das Espécies". Apenas na sexta edição do livro A Origem, Darwin explicitamente definiu que a seleção natural se aplicava ao cérebro, assim como a todos os outros órgãos e as pesquisas contemporâneas em epilepsia tem um papel interessante neste cenário. A epilepsia afeta aproximadamente 3% da população geral e é uma doença complexa. Ao menos 11 genes foram descritos até o momento na epilepsia humana e mais de 50 genes foram identificados em modelos animais de epilepsia. As complexas interações gene-gene e genes-meio ambiente podem estar relacionadas com a susceptibilidade à epilepsia e respostas às drogas antiepilépticas. Os pensamentos de Darwin quanto à evolução são relevantes para a compreensão dessas interações gênicas, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de novos tratamentos e na prevenção de doenças cr

  5. Substantive uniformitarianism and Darwinism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    Darwin's theory of evolution has two themes: common descent and natural selection. The first has been controversial from the beginning to the present day, but is now well supported by geological and biological evidence. The idea of natural selection was inspired by Malthus' Essay on the Principle of Population and by the Weltanschauung of his time. Geological evidence, commonly negative, was dismissed as artifact of imperfect geological record. Variation, adaptation, and survival of the fittest are the three steps of natural selection. Adaptation implies the presence of stable environments as the goal; changes, if any, had to be gradual, slow enough for organisms to adapt. The definition of fitness also depends upon frame of reference; fitness has no meaning in a rapidly changing world. Recent geochemical, sedimentological, and paleontological studies revealed past occurrences of convulsive environmental changes as probably causes of biotic crises. Extinction was often not, as Darwin believed, the consequence of multiplication of species and selection of the fittest. Extinction could be the cause of several episodes of accelerated evolution when ecologic niches had been liberated after a catastrophe. The geological investigations of the century after Darwin indicated the inadequacy of those ideas which had been postulated on the basis of social philosophy.

  6. The Most Important of All the Organs: Darwin on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacyna, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses Charles Darwin's interest in topics that may broadly be defined as "neurological" in character. Using published and manuscript materials, it examines the sources of Darwin's knowledge of neurological matters and seeks to explain why questions concerning the relation of mind and brain both in humans and other animals were…

  7. Did Darwin change his mind about the Fuegians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radick, Gregory

    2010-06-01

    Shocked by what he considered to be the savagery he encountered in Tierra del Fuego, Charles Darwin ranked the Fuegians lowest among the human races. An enduring story has it, however, that Darwin was later so impressed by the successes of missionaries there, and by the grandeur they discovered in the native tongue, that he changed his mind. This story has served diverse interests, religious and scientific. But Darwin in fact continued to view the Fuegians as he had from the start, as lowly but improvable. And while his case for their unity with the other human races drew on missionary evidence, that evidence concerned emotional expression, not language.

  8. Some of the Best Online Darwin Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Velle, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Ask most men or women in the street who Charles Darwin was and the chances are that they will know something of the work he did: the work that has revolutionised our understanding of the living world and our place in it. The 200th centenary of his birth was in February 2009. Over the 150 years since the publication of his seminal work On the…

  9. News Note: Herschel-Darwin commemoration dinner

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Coning, Chris

    2016-08-01

    On the evening of 15 June 1836 Charles Darwin had dinner with John Herschel in Cape Town. The year 2016 makes it 180 years since this event took place. Auke Slotegraaf and Chris de Coning decided that the event should be commemorated. A total of 15 people attended the dinner, which was held on 15 June at a restaurant in the house occupied by the astronomer Fearon Fallows in 1821. It was a very informal evening and there were three speakers.

  10. Vitalism and the Darwin Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, James

    2012-08-01

    There are currently both scientific and public debates surrounding Darwinism. In the scientific debate, the details of evolution are in dispute, but not the central thesis of Darwin's theory; in the public debate, Darwinism itself is questioned. I concentrate on the public debate because of its direct impact on education in the United States. Some critics of Darwin advocate the teaching of intelligent design theory along with Darwin's theory, and others seek to eliminate even the mention of evolution from science classes altogether. Many of these critics base their objections on the claim that non-living matter cannot give rise to living matter. After considering some of the various meanings assigned to `vitalism' over the years, I argue that a considerable portion of Darwin deniers support a literal version of vitalism that is not scientifically respectable. Their position seems to be that since life cannot arise naturally, Darwin's theory accomplishes nothing: If it can only account for life forms changing from one to another (even this is disputed by some) but not how life arose in the first place, what's the point? I argue that there is every reason to believe that living and non-living matter differ only in degree, not in kind, and that all conversation about Darwinism should start with the assumption that abiogenesis is possible unless or until compelling evidence of its impossibility is presented. That is, I advocate a position that the burden of proof lies with those who claim "Life only comes from life." Until that case is made, little weight should be given to their position.

  11. Darwin and the Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrave, S Adam

    2011-01-01

    Does the prima facie contradiction between the Declaration of Independence's description of the separate and unique "creation" of human beings and Darwin's evolutionary account indicate a broader contradiction between theories of human rights and Darwinian evolution? While similar troubling questions have been raised and answered in the affirmative since Darwin's time, this article renews, updates and significantly fortifies such answers with original arguments. If a "distilled" formulation of the Declaration's central claims, shorn of complicating entanglements with both theology and comprehensive philosophical doctrines, may still be in contradiction with Darwinian evolutionary theory, this should be cause for substantial concern on the part of all normative political theorists, from Straussians to Rawlsians. Despite the notable recent efforts of a few political theorists, evolutionary ethicists and sociobiologists to establish the compatibility of Darwinian evolutionary theory with moral norms such as the idea of natural or human rights, I argue that significant obstacles remain.

  12. Quantum Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Wojciech Hubert

    2009-03-01

    Quantum Darwinism describes the proliferation, in the environment, of multiple records of selected states of a quantum system. It explains how the quantum fragility of a state of a single quantum system can lead to the classical robustness of states in their correlated multitude; shows how effective `wave-packet collapse' arises as a result of the proliferation throughout the environment of imprints of the state of the system; and provides a framework for the derivation of Born's rule, which relates the probabilities of detecting states to their amplitudes. Taken together, these three advances mark considerable progress towards settling the quantum measurement problem.

  13. Evolution of evolution theory since Charles Darwin%达尔文学说问世以来生物进化论的发展概况及其展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒德干

    2014-01-01

    The development of evolutionary theory, from the original Darwinism through Neo-Lamarckism, Mendelism, Neo-Darwinism to the modern synthetic theory, is herein reviewed. The synthetic theory is again challenged by the new information from molecular investigations and new significant fossil discoveries. As a result, the neutral mutation-random hypothesis and the Three-episode Cambrian Explosion hypothesis were proposed.%综述了自达尔文学说诞生以来,生物进化论经历了孟德尔颗粒遗传理论、新拉马克主义、新达尔文主义直到现代综合进化论建立的发展历程。然而,综合论更面临着来自分子生物学新信息和古生物学重大新发现的挑战和发展机遇,由此产生了分子中性遗传漂变假说和三幕式寒武大爆发假说。

  14. Darwin and Religion: Correcting the Caricatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, John Hedley

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written on the subject of Darwinism and religion, but rather less on the development of Darwin's own thinking on religious matters and how it changed over time. What were his religious, or anti-religious, beliefs? Did he believe that his theory of evolution by natural selection was incompatible with belief in a Creator? Was it his…

  15. Darwin on woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Claudine

    2010-02-01

    In his 1871 book The Descent of Man, Darwin exposed the idea of sexual selection as a major principle of human evolution. His main hypothesis, which was already briefly presented in The Origin of Species, is that there exists, besides "natural selection", another form of selection, milder in its effect, but no less efficient. This selection is operated by females to mate and reproduce with some partners that are gifted with more qualities than others, and more to their taste. At more evolved stages, sexual selection was exerted by men who became able to choose the women most attractive to their taste. However, Darwin insists, sexual selection in the human species is limited by a certain number of cultural practices. If Darwin's demonstration sometimes carried the prejudices of his times regarding gender differences he was the first who took into account the importance of sexual choices in his view on evolution, and who insisted on the evolutionary role of women at the dawn of humanity. Thus, he opened the space for a rich reflection, which after him was widely developed and discussed in anthropological and gender studies.

  16. DARWIN O EL FALSO CONFLICTO ENTRE LA TEORÍA DE LA SELECCIÓN NATURAL Y LA HIPÓTESIS DE LA PANGÉNESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUGENIO ANDRADE PEREZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Teniendo como objetivo buscar una compresión más integral de la obra de Darwin, presento una reflexión sobre el desarrollo de sus ideas, resaltando las influencias que la visión mecánica de la naturaleza, el lamarckismo y las teorías recapitulacionistas alemanas, ejercieron sobre él. Se destaca la originalidad de la teoría de la selección natural surgida por comparación con el cruce dirigido y fundamentada en una interpretación de la naturaleza como sistema económico donde se aplica la ley de población de Malthus. Sin embargo, la preocupación de Darwin por el origen de la variación lo llevó a considerar el carácter complejo de este problema y en particular, lo relacionado con la influencia del medio ambiente en la variación evolutiva. En este contexto se destaca la importancia histórica que tiene su fallida presentación de la hipótesis de la pangénesis. Para concluir se muestra que a pesar de que el concepto de evolución por selección natural presupone la existencia de variaciones individuales azarosas, Darwin continuó con su intento obstinado de encontrar las leyes de la variación, las cuales creyó haber explicado mediante esta hipótesis.

  17. La Regla de Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Caponi

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Taking as a starting point Brandon's account of the principle of natural selection, we argue that it is possible to consider such a principle as bearing the same status of the principle of causation, to wit, that of a methodological rule whose function would be to introduce a "teleological mode of inquiring the living". This way of understanding the principle of natural selection will drive us into an interpretation of Darwinism that is close to that one argued for by Daniel Dennett.

  18. Darwin's evolutionary philosophy: the laws of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, E S

    1978-01-01

    The philosophical or metaphysical architecture of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is analyzed and discussed. It is argued that natural selection was for Darwin a paradigmatic case of a natural law of change -- an exemplar of what Ghiselin (1969) has called selective retention laws. These selective retention laws lie at the basis of Darwin's revolutionary world view. In this essay special attention is paid to the consequences for Darwin's concept of species of his selective retention laws. Although Darwin himself explicity supported a variety of nominalism, implicit in the theory of natural selection is a solution to the dispute between nominalism and realism. It is argued that, although implicit, this view plays a very important role in Darwin's theory of natural selection as the means for the origin of species. It is in the context of these selective retention laws and their philosophical implications that Darwin's method is appraised in the light of recent criticisms, and the conclusion drawn that he successfully treated some philosophical problems by approaching them through natural history. Following this an outline of natural selection theory is presented in which all these philosophical issues are highlighted.

  19. Darwin teleologist? Design in The orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoquet, Thierry

    2010-02-01

    Focusing on "The Orchids," this article aims at disentangling the concepts of teleology, design and natural theology. It refers to several contemporary critics of Darwin (Kölliker, Argyll, Royer, Candolle, Delpino) to challenge Huxley's interpretation that Darwin's system was "a deathblow" to teleology. "The Orchids" seems rather to be a "flank-movement" (Gray): it departs from the Romantic theories of transmutation and the "imaginary examples" of the Origin; it focuses on empirical data and on teleological structures. Although Darwin refers to natural selection, his readers mock him for his fascination for delicate morphological contrivances and co-adaptations - a sign that he was inescapably lured to finality. Some even suggested that his system was a "theodicy". In the history of Darwinism, "The Orchids" reveals "another" quite unexpected and heterodox Darwin: freed from the hypothetical fancies of the Origin, and even suggesting a new kind of physico-theology.

  20. Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Luis

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications.

  1. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced by a...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium......We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...

  2. Bioturbation: a fresh look at Darwin's last idea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Middelburg, J.J.; Heip, C.H.R.

    2006-01-01

    Bioturbation refers to the biological reworking of soils and sediments, and its importance for soil processes and geomorphology was first realised by Charles Darwin, who devoted his last scientific book to the subject. Here, we review some new insights into the evolutionary and ecological role of bi

  3. Charles Lalo

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Philosophe de l’art français, Charles Lalo (1877–1953) est un des représentants de l’école socio-positiviste, fortement influencé par la sociologie d’Emil Durkheim, et en amont par Auguste Comte. Un des fondateurs, avec Basch notamment, en 1931, de l’Association pour l’étude des arts et les recherches relatives à l’art  future Société française d’esthétique , Lalo lui succède à la chaire d’esthétique et de science de l’artà la Sorbonne. Il est le premier directeur du groupe de travail sur l...

  4. The "Annie hypothesis": did the death of his daughter cause Darwin to "give up Christianity"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wyhe, John; Pallen, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    This article examines one of the most widely believed episodes in the life of Charles Darwin, that the death of his daughter Annie in 1851 caused the end of Darwin's belief in Christianity, and according to some versions, ended his attendance of church on Sundays. This hypothesis, it is argued, is commonly treated as a straightforward true account of Darwin's life, yet there is little or no supporting evidence. Furthermore, we argue, there is sufficient evidence that Darwin's loss of faith occurred before Annie's death.

  5. Hipótesis de Naturalización de Darwin evaluada en la flora exótica de Chile continental Darwin's Naturalization Hypothesis assessed in the alien flora of continental Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR M ESCOBEDO

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La Hipótesis de Naturalización de Darwin (HND plantea que el éxito de naturalización de especies exóticas se ve favorecido cuando el parentesco filogenético entre el colonizador y la comunidad recipiente es distante, debido a que esta situación reduciría la intensidad de la competencia entre especies. Inversamente, especies cercanas filogenéticamente mantendrían alta intensidad de competencia, reduciendo la probabilidad de naturalización. Desde el punto de vista poblacional, el concepto de naturalización es dinámico e involucra dos componentes: el aumento progresivo del tamaño y la distribución espacial de la población invasiva. En el presente estudio, centramos nuestra atención en el componente espacial de la naturalización, evaluando el papel del parentesco filogenético como determinante de la naturalización en la flora exótica presente en Chile continental. Siguiendo la predicción de la HND, sería posible esperar que aquellas especies exóticas emparentadas con la flora nativa debiesen mostrar rangos distribucionales menos extensos que taxa exóticas distantes filogenéticamente. Utilizando el ordenamiento taxonómico APG III como indicador del parentesco filogenético, nuestro análisis mostró que taxa exóticas congenéricas a taxa nativas tienen rangos distribucionales en promedio más extensos que aquellos de parentesco más distante (i.e. especies que pertenecen a familias u órdenes no representados en la flora nativa del país. Estos hallazgos no apoyan la HND ya que las taxa más distantes muestran rangos más reducidos. Los resultados sugieren que el parentesco filogenético podría haber facilitado la naturalización de plantas exóticas en Chile continental, al menos para especies que pertenecen a géneros y familias ya representados en la flora nativa.The Darwin's Naturalization Hypothesis (DNH states that the successful naturalization of alien species is favored when the phylogenetic relationship between

  6. Music, Play and Darwin's Children: Pedagogical Reflections of and on the Ontogeny/Phylogeny Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannan, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between ideas about the role and purpose of music introduced in the major publications of Charles Darwin, and the fields of child development, music education and pedagogy. It also considers the significant influence on Darwin's work of his own biography and family life. In the global village of…

  7. EVOLUCIONISTA Y DARWIN Evolutionary Economics and Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVÁN D. HERNANDEZ U

    Full Text Available A partir del siglo XIX, se tomaron dos caminos distintos en la historia de la ciencia económica. Casi simultáneamente, la revolución darwiniana y la revolución marginalista tuvieron lugar pero sus intenciones ulteriores no pudieron ser más opuestas. La teoría de Darwin de la evolución de las especies por medio de la selección natural, se convirtió en un desafío a la visión del mundo dominante: la newtoniana (Witt, 1999. Este desafío al ideal newtoniano, fue influido, paradójicamente, por estímulos intelectuales proveniente de pensadores fuera de la biología. Estas influencias emanaron de la filosofía liberal del -dejar pasar, dejar hacer- de los siglos XVIII y de principios del siglo XIX. De los diarios de Darwin se destaca la correspondencia con Herbert Spencer, en donde se denota una clara influencia del trabajo de economistas-filósofos como Adam Smith, de la llamada escuela de Edimburgo, y Robert Malthus. Lo paradójico de esta situación es que ahora es Darwin quien, de vuelta, influye sobre los economistas modernos. La revolución darwiniana en la economía moderna consiste en mostrar al capitalismo como un proceso evolucionario explicado por procesos del cambio de patrones en las relaciones entre entidades. Pero gran parte de este estudio de influencia darwiniana no tiene que ver en sí con el estudio de la biología. Está relacionado con los principios y conceptos que definen el mecanismo evolucionario que es fundamento del desarrollo de la teoría evolucionista moderna. Desde el estudio del sistema natural, y sus disciplinas ¿qué podemos aprender en el campo de lo social en los temas de adaptabilidad, ante la adversidad y bio y sociodiversidad? El alto de emprenderismo en regiones y países latinoamericanos es síntoma de resiliencia social y adaptabilidad. Es en la adversidad donde se encuentra más variedad de comportamientos y hay más condiciones ante desafíos estresantes. Dado que la teoría convencional de

  8. DARWIN O EL FALSO CONFLICTO ENTRE LA TEORÍA DE LA SELECCIÓN NATURAL Y LA HIPÓTESIS DE LA PANGÉNESIS Darwin or the False Conflict Between the Theory of Natural Selection and the Hypotheses Pangenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUGENIO ANDRADE PEREZ

    Full Text Available Teniendo como objetivo buscar una compresión más integral de la obra de Darwin, presento una reflexión sobre el desarrollo de sus ideas, resaltando las influencias que la visión mecánica de la naturaleza, el lamarckismo y las teorías recapitulacionistas alemanas, ejercieron sobre él. Se destaca la originalidad de la teoría de la selección natural surgida por comparación con el cruce dirigido y fundamentada en una interpretación de la naturaleza como sistema económico donde se aplica la ley de población de Malthus. Sin embargo, la preocupación de Darwin por el origen de la variación lo llevó a considerar el carácter complejo de este problema y en particular, lo relacionado con la influencia del medio ambiente en la variación evolutiva. En este contexto se destaca la importancia histórica que tiene su fallida presentación de la hipótesis de la pangénesis. Para concluir se muestra que a pesar de que el concepto de evolución por selección natural presupone la existencia de variaciones individuales azarosas, Darwin continuó con su intento obstinado de encontrar las leyes de la variación, las cuales creyó haber explicado mediante esta hipótesis.In order to provide a more integral view of Darwin’s work, I present the development of his ideas, showing the influence of the mechanical view of nature on one hand, and the Lamarckian recapitulationism on the other. The originality of the theory of evolution by natural selection is highlighted, while showing its connection with the analogy with breeders directed crosses and its theoretical justification inspired in Mathus population theory. However, it is explained how Darwin’s concern with the problem of the origin of evolutionary variations led him to consider the role of the environment in the production of variants. In this context it is explained the historical importance of his ill-fated hypothesis of pangenesis. To conclude, it is shown that though the concept of

  9. The concept of music evolution in Herbert Spencer’s and Charles Darwin’s theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrov Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the discourses on music in Herbert Spencer’s and Charles Darwin’s theories of evolution. Even though both Spencer and Darwin construed music as a carrier of the expression of affects and a part of a ubiquitous evolutional process towards ever increasing progress of culture, these authors’ discourses differed from each other in the understanding of the origin and function of music. Darwin considered music as being one of the (natural means of making a selection during the process of evolution of the humans as a biological species. Notwithstanding certain similarities to Darwin, Spencer (as well as his followers discussed music as a part of a socio-cultural evolution, which entailed an approach to music as a historical and cultural phenomenon. I will here elaborate the position of the discourses on music in Spencer’s and Darwin’s general theories of evolution, point out to the relevant aspects of the concept of music evolution and mention the influence that these theories had on the 19th-century official discourses on music.

  10. Gilson, Darwin, and Intelligent Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond J. FitzGerald

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article starts with stating the fact that today there is an increasing recognition of difficulties with Darwinism accompanied by vigorous responses on the part of Darwin’s defenders; among the instances of challenge to the dominant theory, one can find a book of Gilson, From Aristotle to Darwin and Back Again, and those behind the Intelligent Design movement. In relating the book of Gilson to the ID proponents, the author concludes that, while in some ways they are on the same side in opposing the anti-creation thrust of Darwinism, Gilson is neutral on the validity or truth of Darwin’s biological hypothesis. Gilson, however, whose book preceded the ID movement by some twenty years, seeks to analyze Darwinism from the perspective of the classical philosophy of nature. He well understands that, according to modern scientific method, final causes are excluded from consideration, but he calls for a biophilosophy which will be open to the reality of human experience as Aristotle was and recognize that teleology is present in nature. According to him, even if teleology seems to be a contestable explanation, chance as understood by Darwinists is the pure absence of explanation.

  11. Darwin and the popularization of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightman, Bernard

    2010-03-20

    Evolution was popularized from 1860 to 1900 in the USA and Britain in a wide variety of media. Here I investigate traditional texts associated with the intellectual elite, including philosophical or scientific monographs, sermons, and published lectures. Evolution was rarely popularized in ways that reflected Darwin's major contribution to biology, his theory of natural selection. This meant that the reading audience more often encountered an alternative to Darwin's naturalistic, non-directional and non-progressive evolutionary perspective. There were at least four different versions of evolution circulating in the period from 1860 to 1900, and only one conformed to Darwin's vision.

  12. Darwinism and the Expansion of Evolutionary Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    1982-04-01

    The essence of Darwinism lies in the claim that natural selection is a creative force, and in the reductionist assertion that selection upon individual organisms is the locus of evolutionary change. Critiques of adaptationism and gradualism call into doubt the traditional consequences of the argument for creativity, while a concept of hierarchy, with selection acting upon such higher-level ``individuals'' as demes and species, challenges the reductionist claim. An expanded hierarchical theory would not be Darwinism, as strictly defined, but it would capture, in abstract form, the fundamental feature of Darwin's vision--direction of evolution by selection at each level.

  13. Understanding phototropism: from Darwin to today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jennifer J; Roberts, Diana; Liscum, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Few individuals have had the lasting impact on such a breadth of science as Charles Darwin. While his writings about time aboard the HMS Beagle, his study of the Galapagos islands (geology, fauna, and flora), and his theories on evolution are well known, less appreciated are his studies on plant growth responses to a variety of environmental stimuli. In fact, Darwin, together with the help of his botanist son Francis, left us an entire book, 'The power of movements in plants', describing his many, varied, and insightful observations on this topic. Darwin's findings have provided an impetus for an entire field of study, the study of plant tropic responses, or differential growth (curvature) of plant organs in response to directional stimuli. One tropic response that has received a great deal of attention is the phototropic response, or curvature response to directional light. This review summarizes many of the most significant advancements that have been made in our understanding of this response and place these recent findings in the context of Darwin's initial observations.

  14. Protestant Responses to Darwinism in Denmark, 1859-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The clergyman N.F.S. Grundtvig's followers, who constituted a major fraction within the Danish Evangelical-Lutheran Established Church, were the most vocal Danish commentators on the religious consequences of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution from 1859 to 1914. While evangelicals and high......-churchmen within the church remained critical of evolution throughout the period, the Grundtvigians were divided over the issue. Orthodox Grundtvigians criticized Darwinism on philosophical and biblical grounds, while liberal neo-Grundtvigians came to terms with evolution by combining Grundtvig's critique...

  15. Spanish Darwinian iconography: Darwin and evolutionism portrayed in Spanish press cartoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Martí; Mateu, Anna

    2013-11-01

    The theory of evolution has played a major role in the press since it was put forward by Charles Darwin in 1859. Its key role in biology and human philosophy is reflected by its presence in press cartoons, sections where the image of social reality is depicted in a more direct and satirical light. Through cartoons, artists have used their ingenuity or wit to portray one of the most controversial scientific figures of the past two centuries. This study examines the views portrayed by Spanish cartoonists about Charles Darwin and evolutionary theory in 2009, the bicentenary of the naturalist's birth and the celebration of 150 years since the publication of On the Origin of Species. These cartoons show how the controversy between Darwinism and religion remain latent in the heart of Spanish society, and how the figure of Darwin has become one of the main icons of science.

  16. Evolution and the eye: the Darwin bicentennial and the sesquicentennial of the origin of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Ronald S

    2008-11-01

    Evolution is an essential concept for anyone who considers science to be the best way to understand the natural world. It is as fully established as any scientific principle can be and is the great unifying theme in all of biology, as integral to understanding life-forms as gravity is to understanding the cosmos. On the bicentennial of the birth of Charles Darwin in 1809, and 150 years after the publication of On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859, we should remember the main features of eye evolution and the prominent place the eye holds in the development and refinement of evolutionary theory. A few highlights include the antiquity of rhodopsin, the ready capacity of an eye to evolve, the effect of eyes on the diversification of life-forms, and the promising influence of genetics on developmental and evolutionary biology.

  17. Darwin forest at agua de la zorra: the first in situ forest discovered in South America by Darwin in 1835

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Brea; Analía E. Artabe; Luis A. Spalletti

    2009-01-01

    The Agua de la Zorra area (near Uspallata, Mendoza, Argentina) is one of the best renowned fossil localities of the country because of its spectacular in situ fossil forest. This forest was discovered by Charles Darwin in 1835, who described this forest as monotypic and assigned it a Tertiary age. Nowadays, this fossil locality is known as the Darwin Forest. Over a century and a half later it was reinterpreted as a mixed Middle Triassic forest and a new fossil monotypic palaeocommunity of hor...

  18. NERC's Biogeochemical Ocean Flux Study (North Atlantic Data Set) was collected aboard the RRS DISCOVERY and CHARLES DARWIN in the North Atlantic Ocean from 19890417 to 19910728 (NODC Accession 0000708)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Biogeochemical Ocean Flux Study (BOFS) was a Community Research Project of the Marine and Atmospheric Sciences Directorate of the Natural Environment Research...

  19. Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, Alan

    2009-11-12

    Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's 'formal Darwinism project'. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science.

  20. Natural history's hypothetical moments: narratives of contingency in Victorian culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tina Young

    2009-01-01

    This essay focuses on the ways in which works by Robert Chambers, Charles Darwin, and George Eliot encouraged readers to imagine the future as contingent. But where Chambers alludes to Charles Babbage's computational engine and the period's life insurance industry to hint at the role of contingency in natural history, Darwin insists on the importance of contingently determined outcomes to speciation. The "Origin" consistently exercises the reader's speculative energies by generating conditional statements, causal hypotheses, adn diverging alternatives. "Adam Bede" constitutes its characters' interior lives around the proliferation of such contingent narratives. To reflect on the future or on the past, these works suggest, demands a temporal, moral, and narrative complexity in one's thinking.

  1. ECONOMIA EVOLUCIONISTA Y DARWIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Ivan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A partir del siglo xix, se tomaron dos caminos distintos en la historia de la ciencia económica. Casi simultáneamente, la revolución darwiniana y la revolución marginalista tuvieron lugar pero sus intenciones ulteriores no pudieron ser más opuestas. Las grandes teorías Darwin acerca de la evolución de la vida en la tierra y la evolución de las especies por medio de la selección natural, se convirtieron en no menos que un desafío a la visión del mundo dominante: la newtoniana (Witt 1999. Este desafío al ideal newtoniano, fue influido, paradójicamente, por estímulos intelectuales de pensadores fuera de la biología. Estas influencias emanaron de la filosofía social del "dejar pasar, dejar hacer" liberal de los siglos xviii y de principios del siglo xix. De los diarios de Darwin se destaca la correspondencia con Herbert Spencer, en donde se denota una clara influencia del trabajo de economistas-filósofos como Adam Smith, de la llamada Escuela de Edimburgo, y Robert Malthus. Lo paradójico de esta situación es que ahora es Darwin quien, de vuelta, influye sobre los economistas modernos. La revolución darwiniana en la economía moderna consiste en mostrar al capitalismo como un proceso evolucionario explicado por procesos del cambio de patrones en las relaciones entre entidades. Pero gran parte de este estudio de influencia darwiniana no tiene que ver en sí  con el estudio de la biología. Está relacionado con los principios y conceptos que definen el mecanismo evolucionario que es fundamento del desarrollo de la teoría evolucionista moderna. Desde el estudio del sistema natural,y sus disciplinas ¿qué podemos aprender en el campo de lo social en los temas de adaptabilidad, ante la adversidad y bio- y sociodiversidad? El alto grado de emprenderismo en regiones y países latinoamericanos

  2. Darwin's Sacred Cause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    of scholarly specialists and been appropriated by money makers. One could not help thinking about this as, in the autumn of 2008, the publisher began hyping Darwin's Sacred Cause as ‘one of the major contributions to the worldwide Darwin anniversary celebrations in 2009' Udgivelsesdato: February...

  3. Darwinism: Evolution or Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Niles R.

    1989-01-01

    Maintains that Darwin's theory of evolution was more than a science versus religion debate; rather it was a revolutionary concept that influenced numerous social and political ideologies and movements throughout western history. Traces the impact of Darwin's work historically, utilizing a holistic approach. (RW)

  4. Evolutionary ethics from Darwin to Moore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2003-01-01

    Evolutionary ethics has a long history, dating all the way back to Charles Darwin. Almost immediately after the publication of the Origin, an immense interest arose in the moral implications of Darwinism and whether the truth of Darwinism would undermine traditional ethics. Though the biological thesis was certainly exciting, nobody suspected that the impact of the Origin would be confined to the scientific arena. As one historian wrote, 'whether or not ancient populations of armadillos were transformed into the species that currently inhabit the new world was certainly a topic about which zoologists could disagree. But it was in discussing the broader implications of the theory...that tempers flared and statements were made which could transform what otherwise would have been a quiet scholarly meeting into a social scandal' (Farber 1994, 22). Some resistance to the biological thesis of Darwinism sprung from the thought that it was incompatible with traditional morality and, since one of them had to go, many thought that Darwinism should be rejected. However, some people did realize that a secular ethics was possible so, even if Darwinism did undermine traditional religious beliefs, it need not have any effects on moral thought. Before I begin my discussion of evolutionary ethics from Darwin to Moore, I would like to make some more general remarks about its development. There are three key events during this history of evolutionary ethics. First, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of the Species (Darwin 1859). Since one did not have a fully developed theory of evolution until 1859, there exists little work on evolutionary ethics until then. Shortly thereafter, Herbert Spencer (1898) penned the first systematic theory of evolutionary ethics, which was promptly attacked by T.H. Huxley (Huxley 1894). Second, at about the turn of the century, moral philosophers entered the fray and attempted to demonstrate logical errors in Spencer's work; such errors were alluded

  5. Bayesian Methods and Universal Darwinism

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, John

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian methods since the time of Laplace have been understood by their practitioners as closely aligned to the scientific method. Indeed a recent champion of Bayesian methods, E. T. Jaynes, titled his textbook on the subject Probability Theory: the Logic of Science. Many philosophers of science including Karl Popper and Donald Campbell have interpreted the evolution of Science as a Darwinian process consisting of a 'copy with selective retention' algorithm abstracted from Darwin's theory of Natural Selection. Arguments are presented for an isomorphism between Bayesian Methods and Darwinian processes. Universal Darwinism, as the term has been developed by Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett and Susan Blackmore, is the collection of scientific theories which explain the creation and evolution of their subject matter as due to the operation of Darwinian processes. These subject matters span the fields of atomic physics, chemistry, biology and the social sciences. The principle of Maximum Entropy states that system...

  6. Darwin and the divine experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    In Denmark Darwin’s theory of evolution was known early on and viewed with respect, but did not make immediate scientific converts. In the 1870s, when Darwinism was promoted by free thinkers, public debates began to flourish, but religious reactions were remarkably few and mostly undramatic. Since...... natural theology was not assumed by Lutheran theologians, the issue of design vs. chance was not prevalent. Discussions focused rather on scripture and the general challenge of naturalism, and if Darwin’s name was included, the concern was human uniqueness and the social consequences of Darwinism....... Religious responses thus targeted the materialism of semi-popular Darwinism more than the substance of Darwin’s theory. Around 1900, however, many aspects of Darwin’s theory were accepted. At that time, however, leading biologists found that Darwin’s theory needed to be complemented by a Lamarckian emphasis...

  7. Human Dynamics: The Correspondence Patterns of Darwin and Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, J G

    2005-01-01

    While living in different historical era, Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and Albert Einstein (1879-1955) were both prolific correspondents: Darwin sent (received) at least 7,591 (6,530) letters during his lifetime while Einstein sent (received) over 14,500 (16,200). Before email scientists were part of an extensive university of letters, the main venue for exchanging new ideas and results. But were the communication patterns of the pre-email times any different from the current era of instant access? Here we show that while the means have changed, the communication dynamics has not: Darwin's and Einstein's pattern of correspondence and today's electronic exchanges follow the same scaling laws. Their communication belongs, however, to a different universality class from email communication, providing evidence for a new class of phenomena capturing human dynamics.

  8. Looking at Darwin: portraits and the making of an icon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Janet

    2009-09-01

    With increased attention on the visual in the history of science, there is renewed interest in the role of portraiture and other forms of personal imagery in constructing scientific reputation and the circulation of scientific ideas. This essay indicates some directions in which researchers could push forward by studying the dissemination of pictures and portraits of Charles Darwin. Selected portraits are discussed, with particular attention paid to their circulation. The mode of production and original intent of these portraits is briefly addressed, but the thrust of the argument is to highlight subsequent shifts in usage. While self-fashioning is an important part of the story, it is useful also to dwell on the rise and diversification of printed media in conjunction with escalating interest in Darwin as a celebrity figure. Historicizing the variety of opportunities that people have had of "looking"at Darwin adds considerably to our understanding of scientific fame.

  9. Darwin taxonomist: Barnacles and shell burrowing barnacles Darwin taxónomo: cirrípedos y cirrípedos perforadores de conchas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN CARLOS CASTILLA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This bibliographic review revisits circumstances in which the wharf, shell burrowing barnacle, Cryptophialus minutus, was first collected by Charles Darwin in southern Chile, in 1836. Further, explores how its collection marked Darwin's taxonomical interest in Cirripedia. A short review analyzes the initial number of extant species of Cirripedia, as described by Darwin and the present situation, with emphasis on recent collections of C. minutus in the southern tip of South America.Esta revisión bibliográfica describe las circunstancias en el que el cirrípedo enano, Crypophialus minutus, perforador de conchas, fue recolectado por Charles Darwin en el sur de Chile, en 1836. Además, cómo esta recolección marcó el interés taxonómico de Darwin en Cirripedia. Se presenta una revisión resumida sobre el número inicial de especies vivas de Cirripedia, como fueron descritas por Darwin, y la situación actual, con énfasis en recolecciones recientes de C. minutus en el cono sur de Suramérica.

  10. DARWIN mission proposal to ESA

    CERN Document Server

    Leger, Alain

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of extra-solar planets is one of the greatest achievements of modern astronomy. There are now more than 200 such objects known, and the recent detection of planets with masses approximately 5 times that of Earth demonstrates that extra-solar planets of low mass exist. In addition to providing a wealth of scientific information on the formation and structure of planetary systems, these discoveries capture the interest of both scientists and the wider public with the profound prospect of the search for life in the Universe. We propose an L-type mission, called Darwin, whose primary goal is the study of terrestrial extrasolar planets and the search for life on them. By its very nature, Darwin advances the first Grand Theme of ESA Cosmic Vision. Accomplishing the mission objectives will require collaborative science across disciplines ranging from planet formation and atmospheres to chemistry and biology, and these disciplines will reap profound rewards from their contributions to the Darwin mission...

  11. DARWIN Y LOS DILEMAS SOCIALES Darwin and the Social Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO ROSAS

    Full Text Available Describo el proyecto de explicación darwiniana de la moral siguiendo los lineamientos básicos de Darwin, como fueron expuestos en el Origen del hombre. A diferencia de la interpretación tradicional, sostengo que Darwin no asumió, y que no es forzoso asumir en una perspectiva darwiniana, un conflicto inevitable entre la selección individual y la selección de grupo en la explicación de la moral. Ambas trabajan en sinergia favoreciendo los rasgos que soportan el comportamiento moral en humanos. Sostengo también que de este proyecto se derivan dos enseñanzas importantes, una para la filosofía moral y otra para la concepción de la selección natural. La primera es que los dilemas sociales están en el corazón de la moral humana; la segunda es que la cooperación está en el núcleo de la selección natural. Ilustro el segundo punto con investigaciones recientes sobre la evolución de los organismos multicelulares.I describe the project of a Darwinian explanation of morality following Darwin’s basic ideas as expressed in The Descent of Man. In contrast to the traditional interpretation, I argue that Darwin did not assume, nor is it necessary to assume in a Darwinian perspective, an inevitable conflict between individual and group selection in the explanation of morality. Both operate in synergy to favor traits that support moral behavior. I also argue that two teachings result from this Darwinian project, one for moral philosophy and the other for the theory of natural selection. The first puts social dilemmas in the heart of human morality; the second puts cooperation in the core of natural selection. I illustrate the second point with recent research into the evolution of multicellular organisms.

  12. Impact of Irgarol 1051 on the larval development and metamorphosis of Balanus amphitirite Darwin, diatom, Amphora coffeaformis and natural biofilm

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, D.V.

    The effect of Irgarol 1051 on the biofilm-forming diatom, Amphora coffeaformis, and on natural biofilm was assessed. A reduction in the number of A. coffeaformis cells within a biofilm was observed after treatment with Irgarol 1051, confirming its...

  13. Darwins øje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedin, Gry

    2012-01-01

    I artiklen diskuteres beskrivelsen af øjne og perception i J.P. Jacobsens roman Niels Lyhne (1880). Det analyseres det, hvordan Jacobsen håndterer de ændringer på dette felt, som Darwins udviklingshistorie bidrog til, og som udforskedes i detaljer af den tyske fysiolog Hermann von Helmholtz. Der...... forholdet mellem J.P. Jacobsens litterære værker og hans engagement som oversætter og formidler af Darwin fra en ny vinkel. I stedet for at se på tematiske sammenfald med Darwin undersøges de metodologiske og epistemologiske. Herved bliver det tydeligt, at Jacobsen ikke bare indoptager og formidler Darwin...

  14. Darwin as Metaphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Ballou

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to Steven Shapin’s query in the 'London Review of Books', 'Why such homage?', 'I look at Darwin as a metaphor for creativity, and how Darwin, as evidenced in his own metaphysical notebooks, imagined and performed acts of creation in his pursuit of science. Many of Darwin’s ideas were first conceptualised imaginatively, instinctively almost. In this way, he created concepts, rather than simply discovering them. I include a brief discussion of my experience of rendering Darwin and his life into a portrait in 75 poems and also a discussion of the bio-pic Creation'. As species change over time, but are still related, so a portrait of Darwin is a descendent of the historical man and his words, but is no longer the historical man. 

  15. Charles Darwin’s Mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Hayman, John

    2013-01-01

    Charles Darwin’s long-term illness has been the subject of much speculation. His numerous symptoms have led to conclusions that his illness was essentially psychogenic in nature. These diagnoses have never been fully convincing, however, particularly in regard to the proposed underlying psychological background causes of the illness. Similarly, two proposed somatic causes of illness, Chagas disease and arsenic poisoning, lack credibility and appear inconsistent with the lifetime history of th...

  16. Putting Darwin in His Place: The Need to Watch Our Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braterman, Paul S.; Holbrook, J. Britt

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the use of language in debating evolution, and suggest careful choice of the terms by which people describe both themselves and their opponents. Present-day evolution science is solidly based on fact, and is as far advanced from Charles Darwin's original theory as present-day chemistry is from Dalton's atomic…

  17. Our Way to Understand the World: Darwin's Controversial Inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Salomon, Michael

    Shortly after he had completed the first draft of his theory of evolution in 1844, Charles Darwin wrote to his friend Joseph Hooker, the botanist, that publishing the theory seemed to him "like confessing a murder" (Glaubrecht 2009, p. 161). Right from the beginning, Darwin was aware of the far-reaching impact his theory would have. And this was probably one of the main reasons for his postponing the publication of his ideas for such a long time. After the completion of the 230 page text in 1844, it was another 15 years (!) before his famous book On the Origin of Species was published. Since that time 150 years have passed, but the theory of evolution is as controversial as ever. Darwin's dangerous idea is still putting many traditional world views through some very hard tests. This is the central theme to which I have devoted the following thoughts. I have divided my study into three parts: I shall start by shedding some light on the conflict between Darwin's challenging idea and traditional (Christian) beliefs, a conflict that has lasted till this very day. In the second part, I want to focus on the ideological abuse of the theory of evolution. The third and final part introduces Julian Huxley's concept of 'evolutionary humanism', which links Darwin's scientific inheritance with a distinctly humanist ethic.

  18. Darwin at Orchis Bank: Selection after the Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabb, Kathryn

    2016-02-01

    Darwin's first publication after the Origin of Species was a volume on orchids that expanded on the theory of adaptation through natural selection introduced in his opus. Here I argue that On the Various Contrivances by which British and Foreign Orchids are Fertilised by Insects (1862) is not merely an empirical confirmation of his theory. In response to immediate criticisms of his metaphor of natural selection, Darwin uses Orchids to present adaptation as the result of innumerable natural laws, rather than discrete acts analogous to conscious choices. The means of selection among polliniferous plants cannot be neatly classed under the Origin's categories of artificial, natural, or sexual selection. Along with Darwin's exploration of sexual selection in his later works, Orchids serves to undo the restrictive metaphor so firmly established by the Origin and to win over those of Darwin's contemporaries who were committed advocates of natural law but suspicious of evolution by natural selection.

  19. 'Where is the damned collection?' Charles Davies Sherborn's listing of named natural science collections and its successors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    C. D. Sherborn published in 1940, under the imprint of Cambridge University Press but at his own expense, Where is the - Collection? This idiosyncratic listing of named natural science collections, and their fates, was useful, but incomplete, and uneven in its accuracy. It is argued that those defects were inevitable, given Sherborn's age and wartime conditions, and that what might seem one of Sherborn's less impressive works was in fact a pioneering work highly influential in stimulating the production of successor works now much used in curation, and in systematic and descriptive biology and palaeontology. The book also contributed to the development of collections research in the natural sciences, and the history of collections and of museums.

  20. Darwinism in Quantum Systems?

    CERN Document Server

    Iqbal, A

    2002-01-01

    We find quantum mechanics playing a role in evolutionary dynamics described by the notion of an Evolutionary Stable Strategy (ESS). An ESS being a refinement of Nash equilibrium concept is a stable strategy in an evolutionary game with replicator dynamic as the underlying process. We investigate ESSs in two and three player symmetric quantum games played by the proposed scheme of applying $^{\\prime}$identity$^{\\prime}$ and $^{\\prime}$Pauli spin-flip$^{\\prime}$ operators on an initial state with classical probabilities. The mixed Nash equilibrium (NE) we search for is not affected by a switchover between two forms of the game, one quantized and other classical, however it is an ESS when the game is played classically.We show no such mixed NE exists for two player games but there is a class of three player games where they do exist.Our results imply that an evolutionary approach originating with Darwin's idea of natural selection can be used even for quantum systems. It also indicates the possibility of genetic...

  1. Darwin's "strange inversion of reasoning".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Daniel

    2009-06-16

    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection unifies the world of physics with the world of meaning and purpose by proposing a deeply counterintuitive "inversion of reasoning" (according to a 19th century critic): "to make a perfect and beautiful machine, it is not requisite to know how to make it" [MacKenzie RB (1868) (Nisbet & Co., London)]. Turing proposed a similar inversion: to be a perfect and beautiful computing machine, it is not requisite to know what arithmetic is. Together, these ideas help to explain how we human intelligences came to be able to discern the reasons for all of the adaptations of life, including our own.

  2. [Does Darwinism really contribute to ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkin, B M

    2003-01-01

    The author questions Ghilarov's (2003) claim that Darwinism has high explanatory power in ecology. He is agree with S.V. Meyen who believed that beside synthetic theory of evolution (the popular variant on Darwinism) other explanations of evolution are possible. It is emphasized that several processes (e.g., diversification and unification of species at one trophic level, as well as individual and diffusive coadaptations of species of different levels) can contribute to community evolution. Communities cannot be considered as units of natural selection.

  3. Darwin on Race, Gender, and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Bhatia, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's theories of natural selection and sexual selection are significant scientific achievements, although his understanding of race and gender was defined and limited by his own life circumstances and the sociohistorical context within which he worked. This article considers the ways in which race, gender, and culture were represented and…

  4. Vitalism and the Darwin Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, James

    2012-01-01

    There are currently both scientific and public debates surrounding Darwinism. In the scientific debate, the details of evolution are in dispute, but not the central thesis of Darwin's theory; in the public debate, Darwinism itself is questioned. I concentrate on the public debate because of its direct impact on education in the United States. Some…

  5. Atypical charles bonnet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Priti; Jain, Rajan; Tripathi, Vaibhav

    2013-10-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is not uncommon disorder. It may not present with all typical symptoms and intact insight. Here, a case of atypical CBS is reported where antipsychotics were not effective. Patient improved completely after restoration of vision.

  6. DARWIN Y LOS DILEMAS SOCIALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO ROSAS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Describo el proyecto de explicación darwiniana de la moral siguiendo los lineamientos básicos de Darwin, como fueron expuestos en el Origen del hombre. A diferencia de la interpretación tradicional, sostengo que Darwin no asumió, y que no es forzoso asumir en una perspectiva darwiniana, un conflicto inevitable entre la selección individual y la selección de grupo en la explicación de la moral. Ambas trabajan en sinergia favoreciendo los rasgos que soportan el comportamiento moral en humanos. Sostengo también que de este proyecto se derivan dos enseñanzas importantes, una para la filosofía moral y otra para la concepción de la selección natural. La primera es que los dilemas sociales están en el corazón de la moral humana; la segunda es que la cooperación está en el núcleo de la selección natural. Ilustro el segundo punto con investigaciones recientes sobre la evolución de los organismos multicelulares.

  7. SELECCIÓN NATURAL Y MORALIDAD

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Rosas

    2006-01-01

    Resumen: En este ensayo abordo los intentos, relativamente recientes, de dar una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación por selección natural. Mi exposición tiene una introducción y cuatro partes: en la primera explico en qué consiste la paradoja del altruismo biológico. En la segunda expongo la solución que apela a la selección de grupos, recientemente resurgida; la solución que presuntamente aplicó Charles Darwin cuando formuló sus reflexiones biológicas sobre la moralidad humana. En l...

  8. Combating plant diseases--the Darwin connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollomon, Derek W; Brent, Keith J

    2009-11-01

    Although Darwin knew of plant diseases, he did not study them as part of his analysis of natural selection. Effective plant disease control has only been developed after his death. This article explores the relevance of Darwin's ideas to three problem areas with respect to diseases caused by fungi: emergence of new diseases, loss of disease resistance bred into plants and development of fungicide resistance. Darwin's concept of change through natural or artificial selection relied on selection of many small changes, but subsequent genetic research has shown that change can also occur through large steps. Appearance of new diseases can involve gene duplication, transfer or recombination, but all evidence points to both host plant resistance and fungicide susceptibility being overcome through point mutations. Because the population size of diseases such as rusts and powdery and downy mildews is so large, all possible point mutations are likely to occur daily, even during moderate epidemics. Overcoming control measures therefore reflects the overall fitness of these mutants, and much resource effort is being directed towards assessment of their fitness, both in the presence and in the absence of selection. While recent developments in comparative genomics have caused some revision of Darwin's ideas, experience in managing plant disease control measures clearly demonstrates the relevance of concepts he introduced 150 years ago. It also reveals the remarkable speed and the practical impact of adaptation in wild microorganism populations to changes in their environment, and the difficulty of stopping or delaying such adaptation.

  9. Lloyd Morgan's theory of instinct: from Darwinism to neo-Darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, R J

    1977-01-01

    Darwin's proposal of two sources of instinct--natural selection and inherited habit--fostered among late nineteenth century evolutionists a variety of conflicting notions concerning the mechanisms of evolution. The British comparative psychologist C. Lloyd Morgan was a cardinal figure in restructuring the orthodox Darwinian conception to relieve the confusion besetting it and to meet the demands of the new biology of Weismann. This paper traces the development of Morgan's ideas about instinct against the background of his philosophic assumptions and the views of instinct theorists from Darwin and Romanes to McDougall and Lorenz.

  10. Darwin's contribution to the development of the Panspermia theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demets, René

    2012-10-01

    The contributions of Svante Arrhenius, William Thomson, Hermann von Helmholtz, Hermann Richter, and Ferdinand Cohn to the development of the Panspermia theory have extensively been reviewed by Arrhenius himself (1908), Oparin ( 1938 ), and Kamminga ( 1982 ). Reading the original publications reveals the pivotal role that Charles Darwin must have played in shaping their ideas-an aspect that has not been highlighted before. It is argued that The Origin of Species not only kick-started the scientific development of the Panspermia theory in the 19(th) century but that biological evolution was an integral building block of it.

  11. Darwin forest at agua de la zorra: the first in situ forest discovered in South America by Darwin in 1835 El Bosque Darwin en Agua de la Zorra: El primer bosque in situ descubierto en América del Sur por Darwin en 1835

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Brea; Analía E. Artabe; Luis A. Spalletti

    2009-01-01

    The Agua de la Zorra area (near Uspallata, Mendoza, Argentina) is one of the best renowned fossil localities of the country because of its spectacular in situ fossil forest. This forest was discovered by Charles Darwin in 1835, who described this forest as monotypic and assigned it a Tertiary age. Nowadays, this fossil locality is known as the Darwin Forest. Over a century and a half later it was reinterpreted as a mixed Middle Triassic forest and a new fossil monotypic palaeocommunity of hor...

  12. The Darwinian tension: Romantic science and the causal laws of nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Hajo

    2015-10-01

    There have been attempts to subsume Charles Darwin's theory of evolution under either one of two distinct intellectual traditions: early Victorian natural science and its descendants in political economy (as exemplified by Herschel, Lyell, or Malthus) and the romantic approach to art and science emanating from Germany (as exemplified by Humboldt and Goethe). In this paper, it will be shown how these traditions may have jointly contributed to the design of Darwin's theory. The hypothesis is that their encounter created a particular tension in the conception of his theory which first opened up its characteristic field and mode of explanation. On the one hand, the domain of the explanandum was conceived of under a holistic and aesthetic view of nature that, in its combination with refined techniques of observation, was deeply indebted to Humboldt in particular. On the other hand, Darwin fashioned explanations for natural phenomena, so conceived, in order to identify their proper causes in a Herschelian spirit. The particular interaction between these two traditions in Darwin, it is concluded, paved the way for a transfer of the idea of causal laws to animate nature while salvaging the romantic idea of a complex, teleological and harmonious order of nature.

  13. Atypical charles bonnet syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Arun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS is not uncommon disorder. It may not present with all typical symptoms and intact insight. Here, a case of atypical CBS is reported where antipsychotics were not effective. Patient improved completely after restoration of vision.

  14. [Charles Bukowski's acne].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmer, F A; Bahmer, J A

    2012-04-01

    In his autobiography, Charles Bukowski (1920-1994) describes his severe acne conglobata, his experience with therapy, family conflicts and emotional tension. Despite the stigmatization by his acne scars, Bukowski became a philobatic writer and a true chronist of the American way of life in the second half of the 20th century, writing in a coarse and obscene language.

  15. Charles Dickens: Multiform Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melvin H.

    In both speaking and writing, the goal is communication with the intended audience. Rejecting the view that rhetoric is based on an established set of conventions, this article examines the writings of Charles Dickens as models of rhetorical expression. Passages from Dicken's novels illustrate how the writer violated grammatical rules and broke…

  16. The Great Struggles of Life: Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Darwin envisioned a scientific revolution for psychology. His theories of natural and sexual selection identified two classes of struggles--the struggle for existence and the struggle for mates. The emergence of evolutionary psychology and related disciplines signals the fulfillment of Darwin's vision. Natural selection theory guides scientists to…

  17. Empathy's purity, sympathy's complexities; De Waal, Darwin and Adam Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weele, Cor

    2011-07-01

    Frans de Waal's view that empathy is at the basis of morality directly seems to build on Darwin, who considered sympathy as the crucial instinct. Yet when we look closer, their understanding of the central social instinct differs considerably. De Waal sees our deeply ingrained tendency to sympathize (or rather: empathize) with others as the good side of our morally dualistic nature. For Darwin, sympathizing was not the whole story of the "workings of sympathy"; the (selfish) need to receive sympathy played just as central a role in the complex roads from sympathy to morality. Darwin's understanding of sympathy stems from Adam Smith, who argued that the presence of morally impure motives should not be a reason for cynicism about morality. I suggest that De Waal's approach could benefit from a more thorough alignment with the analysis of the workings of sympathy in the work of Darwin and Adam Smith.

  18. The ongoing evolution of humanness: perspectives from Darwin to de Chardin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Buckeridge

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The nature of humanness is discussed from observations made by Aristotle in 4th-century Greece, through to those of Charles Darwin, Teilhard de Chardin and William Shakespeare. Attempts to define humanness upon a narrow range of criteria, as some have tried, is argued as flawed, for humanness is more elusive than a single or a few demonstrated phenomena. The path that Darwin pursued in determining the place of humans in nature in his book The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex is assessed from a 19thcentury perspective; the difficulties he faced, both personally and with the broader public, are reviewed and then evaluated in a modern context. Darwin’s thesis adheres to scientific principles, and is debated, defended and later verified on these principles. This is somewhat at variance to the approach adopted by the priest-scientist de Chardin a century later in his major work, The Phenomenon of Man—in which an attempt is made to reconcile a deep Christian faith with science. De Chardin scores well from a theological viewpoint, but fails on scientific grounds as his thesis moves beyond the realms of empiricism into mysticism. Surprisingly, de Chardin’s predicament of a future wherein human evolution enters a new stage of consciousness through the noosphere (an invisible layer of thought encompassing the globe has been partially realised through the worldwide web, although the nature of the web is almost certainly not what de Chardin might have anticipated, or desired. Science too fails to answer all, particularly the nature of God. Darwin considered the Creator in several of his works and does not dismiss the concept of a farseeing deity, although we are left with the notion that he died agnostic. Humanness is derived from an elevated moral code and this is reflected in our arts, particularly literature, wherein we may temporally reflect upon quintessential human traits such as mercy. However, expression of the arts is only

  19. Bayesian Methods and Universal Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John

    2009-12-01

    Bayesian methods since the time of Laplace have been understood by their practitioners as closely aligned to the scientific method. Indeed a recent Champion of Bayesian methods, E. T. Jaynes, titled his textbook on the subject Probability Theory: the Logic of Science. Many philosophers of science including Karl Popper and Donald Campbell have interpreted the evolution of Science as a Darwinian process consisting of a `copy with selective retention' algorithm abstracted from Darwin's theory of Natural Selection. Arguments are presented for an isomorphism between Bayesian Methods and Darwinian processes. Universal Darwinism, as the term has been developed by Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett and Susan Blackmore, is the collection of scientific theories which explain the creation and evolution of their subject matter as due to the Operation of Darwinian processes. These subject matters span the fields of atomic physics, chemistry, biology and the social sciences. The principle of Maximum Entropy states that Systems will evolve to states of highest entropy subject to the constraints of scientific law. This principle may be inverted to provide illumination as to the nature of scientific law. Our best cosmological theories suggest the universe contained much less complexity during the period shortly after the Big Bang than it does at present. The scientific subject matter of atomic physics, chemistry, biology and the social sciences has been created since that time. An explanation is proposed for the existence of this subject matter as due to the evolution of constraints in the form of adaptations imposed on Maximum Entropy. It is argued these adaptations were discovered and instantiated through the Operations of a succession of Darwinian processes.

  20. Sisyphean evolution in Darwin's finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Bailey D; Zink, Robert M

    2015-08-01

    The trajectory of speciation involves geographic isolation of ancestral populations followed by divergence by natural selection, genetic drift or sexual selection. Once started, the process may experience fits and starts, as sometimes diverging populations intermittently reconnect. In theory populations might cycle between stages of differentiation and never attain species status, a process we refer to as Sisyphean evolution. We argue that the six putative ground finch species (genus Geospiza) of the Galápagos Islands represent a dramatic example of Sisyphean evolution that has been confused with the standard model of speciation. The dynamic environment of the Galápagos, closely spaced islands, and frequent dispersal and introgression have prevented the completion of the speciation process. We suggest that morphological clusters represent locally adapted ecomorphs, which might mimic, and have been confused with, species, but these ecomorphs do not form separate gene pools and are ephemeral in space and time. Thus the pattern of morphological, behavioural and genetic variation supports recognition of a single species of Geospiza, which we suggest should be recognized as Darwin's ground finch (Geospiza magnirostris). We argue that instead of providing an icon of insular speciation and adaptive radiation, which is featured in nearly every textbook on evolutionary biology, Darwin's ground finch represents a potentially more interesting phenomenon, one of transient morphs trapped in an unpredictable cycle of Sisyphean evolution. Instead of revealing details of the origin of species, the mechanisms underlying the transient occurrence of ecomorphs provide one of the best illustrations of the antagonistic effects of natural selection and introgression.

  1. Darwin as a geologist in Africa – dispelling the myths and unravelling a confused knot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Master

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two myths persist concerning the role played by Charles Darwin as a geologist in Africa during his epic voyage around the world (1831–1836. The first myth is that Darwin was a completely self-taught geologist, with no formal training. The second myth is that it was Darwin who finally solved the problem of the granite–schist contact at the famous Sea Point coastal exposures in Cape Town, after deliberately setting out to prove his predecessors wrong. These myths are challenged by the now ample evidence that Darwin had excellent help in his geological education from the likes of Robert Jameson, John Henslow and Adam Sedgwick. The story of Darwin and his predecessors at the Sea Point granite contact has become confused, and even conflated, with previous descriptions by Basil Hall (1813 and Clark Abel (1818. Here, the historical record is unravelled and set straight, and it is shown from the evidence of his notebooks that Darwin was quite unaware of the outcrops in Cape Town. His erudite account of the contact was a result of the 8 years spent in writing and correspondence after his return to England and not because of his brilliant insights on the outcrop, as the myth would have it. While there has been little to indicate Darwin’s landfalls in Africa, a new plaque now explains the geology of the Sea Point Contact, and includes a drawing of Darwin’s ship, the Beagle, and quotes from his work.

  2. Teaching Darwin: Contemporary Social Studies through Controversial Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Helge

    2010-01-01

    I explore Darwin and his Theory of Natural Selection from a Social Science perspective and a social studies approach of inquiry into contemporary issues. This approach augments the more common natural science focus on the mechanics of natural selection and evolution in favor of a focus on social issues, controversy, and dialog necessary to support…

  3. A perspective on (neo-Darwinism (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.M. Strauss

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A perspective on (neo-Darwinism first of all has to account for those assumptions derived from the humanities, causing neo-Darwinism not to be a purely special scientific or natural scientific theory. A discussion of the many-sidedness of living entities highlights the difficulties surrounding a definition of biology. Attention is briefly given to the physicalism of Darwin’s 1859 work before the quest for origins is discussed. These considerations pave the way for an assessment of striking shortcomings in the thought of Darwin and his followers. In particular, modern nominalism is identified as an important source for neo-Darwinism, especially manifest in the idea that organisms are not types and do not have types (Simpson. Darwin’s idea of incremental (continuous change both in respect of the genesis of a complex organ (or the origination of the first living entity and of successive fossil forms contradict the current state of affairs – and the same applies to his own radical idea that “injurious” variations will be eliminated immediately by natural selection, for it cannot be reconciled to the role of mutations in neo-Darwinian theory. In addition neo-Darwinian paleontologists pointed out that evolution requires intermediate forms and paleontology does not provide them (Kitts and explicitly confessed that they have paid lip-service to the idea of change while they knew all the time that it was not true (Eldredge: the dominant theme of the paleontological record is stasis, constancy – a type appears and remains constant for millions of years before it disappears (Gould. The supposition of incremental continuity received a further blow from the “Cambrian explosion”, the “nasty fact” that most “major animal groups appeared simultaneously” about 530 million years ago. A few aspects of the uniqueness of humankind are treated as well as the confused picture found in an attempt to synthesise neo-Darwinism and Christianity. In

  4. Charles John Huffam Dickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Charles John Huffam Dickens(7 February1812-9 June 1870)was an English writer and social critic.He created some of the world’s most memorable fictional characters and is generally regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian period.During his life,his works enjoyed unprecedented fame,and by the twentieth centuryhis literary genius was broadly acknowledged by critics and scholars.His novels

  5. Darwin's observation in South America: what did he find at agua de la zorra, Mendoza province?

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Poma; Vanesa D Litvak; Magdalena Koukharsky; E. Beatriz Maisonnave; Sonia Quenardelle

    2009-01-01

    Scarcely 23 km from Uspallata, along the track of the old national highway 7, lies the district of Agua de la Zorra, in Mendoza province in western Argentina. Charles Darwin visited the area during his South American journeys in the 19th century and discovered a geological sequence that contained a paleoflora never described before. The flora includes an important number of species, particularly what is considered a small conifer forest with many silicified trunks still in life position. Darw...

  6. Darwin and Spencer on the origin of music: is music the food of love?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Finding an evolutionary explanation for the origins of music serves as a rich test of broader ideas on the emergence of mind and the evolution of mental processes. Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer both offered evolutionary explanations for the origins of music, indicating the importance of the question for these two leading nineteenth-century students of "descent with modification." Their discussion unfolded between the publication of Spencer's "The origin and function of music" in 1857 and Darwin's commentaries on music in The Descent of Man in 1871 with an addendum Spencer offered to his original article in light of Darwin's views. They had conflicting views on the lines of causation, asked differing questions, and had fundamentally different approaches. Their exchange laid the foundation for the discussion among contemporary adaptationists and nonadaptationists and contributed to the thinking of those who argue for Mixed Origins of Music or that it is a Transformative Technology of Mind.

  7. Lake Charles CCS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leib, Thomas [Leucadia Energy, LLC, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Cole, Dan [Denbury Onshore, LLC, Plano, TX (United States)

    2015-06-30

    In late September 2014 development of the Lake Charles Clean Energy (LCCE) Plant was abandoned resulting in termination of Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project which was a subset the LCCE Plant. As a result, the project was only funded through Phase 2A (Design) and did not enter Phase 2B (Construction) or Phase 2C (Operations). This report was prepared relying on information prepared and provided by engineering companies which were engaged by Leucadia Energy, LLC to prepare or review Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) for the Lake Charles Clean Energy Project, which includes the Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project in Lake Charles, Louisiana. The Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) Project was to be a large-scale industrial CCS project intended to demonstrate advanced technologies that capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources into underground formations. The Scope of work was divided into two discrete sections; 1) Capture and Compression prepared by the Recipient Leucadia Energy, LLC, and 2) Transport and Sequestration prepared by sub-Recipient Denbury Onshore, LLC. Capture and Compression-The Lake Charles CCS Project Final Technical Report describes the systems and equipment that would be necessary to capture CO2 generated in a large industrial gasification process and sequester the CO2 into underground formations. The purpose of each system is defined along with a description of its equipment and operation. Criteria for selection of major equipment are provided and ancillary utilities necessary for safe and reliable operation in compliance with environmental regulations are described. Construction considerations are described including a general arrangement of the CCS process units within the overall gasification project. A cost estimate is provided, delineated by system area with cost breakdown showing equipment, piping and materials

  8. Dunes in Darwin Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03039 Dunes in Darwin Crater The dunes and sand deposits in this image are located on the floor of Darwin Crater. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 57.4S, Longitude 340.2E. 17 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Nietzsche's aesthetic critique of Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Charles H

    2011-01-01

    Despite his position as one of the first philosophers to write in the "post-Darwinian" world, the critique of Darwin by Friedrich Nietzsche is often ignored for a host of unsatisfactory reasons. I argue that Nietzsche's critique of Darwin is important to the study of both Nietzsche's and Darwin's impact on philosophy. Further, I show that the central claims of Nietzsche's critique have been broadly misunderstood. I then present a new reading of Nietzsche's core criticism of Darwin. An important part of Nietzsche's response can best be understood as an aesthetic critique of Darwin, reacting to what he saw as Darwin having drained life of an essential component of objective aesthetic value. For Nietzsche, Darwin's theory is false because it is too intellectual, because it searches for rules, regulations, and uniformity in a realm where none of these are to be found - and, moreover, where they should not be found. Such a reading goes furthest toward making Nietzsche's criticism substantive and relevant. Finally, I attempt to relate this novel explanation of Nietzsche's critique to topics in contemporary philosophy of biology, particularly work on the evolutionary explanation of culture.

  10. [Darwin in the Republic of Letters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    For those accustomed to thinking that the modern cultural dimension arose under the banner of a clash between the so-called "two cultures," the figure of Darwin the "humanist" could reserve numerous surprises. It was above all the well-known paleontologist S.J. Gould who pointed them out. He went so far as to track down, in the Italian cultural roots from Saint Francis to Galileo, an element of continuity between his own Darwinism and our literary tradition that passes through the writing of the masterpieces of the nineteenth-century natural sciences. On the basis of a similar, and also audacious, rereading of the cultural history, the essay proposes to indicate some possible developments of the new dialogue undertaken, beginning with the insertion of the scientist Darwin in the European horizon of the Republic of Letters. There are then indicated some historical-cultural categories that would merit reconsideration: the new figure of intellectual of the twenty-first century, the idea of a science immersed in the historical contingency and in the concrete pleasure of the subject that knows, the role of "sweetness" and of "wonder" also in the most rigorous study, and lastly the need of an in-depth knowledge of the Darwinian writing, not as a curiosity for the educational trend of the era of positivism, but as an indispensable epistemological requisite for a correct understanding of its science.

  11. Epigenetics and the evolution of Darwin's Finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Michael K; Gurerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Haque, M Muksitul; Nilsson, Eric E; Koop, Jennifer A H; Knutie, Sarah A; Clayton, Dale H

    2014-07-24

    The prevailing theory for the molecular basis of evolution involves genetic mutations that ultimately generate the heritable phenotypic variation on which natural selection acts. However, epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of phenotypic variation may also play an important role in evolutionary change. A growing number of studies have demonstrated the presence of epigenetic inheritance in a variety of different organisms that can persist for hundreds of generations. The possibility that epigenetic changes can accumulate over longer periods of evolutionary time has seldom been tested empirically. This study was designed to compare epigenetic changes among several closely related species of Darwin's finches, a well-known example of adaptive radiation. Erythrocyte DNA was obtained from five species of sympatric Darwin's finches that vary in phylogenetic relatedness. Genome-wide alterations in genetic mutations using copy number variation (CNV) were compared with epigenetic alterations associated with differential DNA methylation regions (epimutations). Epimutations were more common than genetic CNV mutations among the five species; furthermore, the number of epimutations increased monotonically with phylogenetic distance. Interestingly, the number of genetic CNV mutations did not consistently increase with phylogenetic distance. The number, chromosomal locations, regional clustering, and lack of overlap of epimutations and genetic mutations suggest that epigenetic changes are distinct and that they correlate with the evolutionary history of Darwin's finches. The potential functional significance of the epimutations was explored by comparing their locations on the genome to the location of evolutionarily important genes and cellular pathways in birds. Specific epimutations were associated with genes related to the bone morphogenic protein, toll receptor, and melanogenesis signaling pathways. Species-specific epimutations were significantly overrepresented in these

  12. Charles Dickens' old people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, D C; Charles, L A

    Charles Dickens, rare among authors of any period, presented a host of elderly and old characters in his novels and stories. More than 120 such characters were identified, distributed among four levels of involvement (protagonist to minor role) and six categories of behavior (warm and sympathetic to villainous and threatening). The two-thirds male, one-third female characters tended to be concentrated at the minor, rather than major, levels of involvement in plots, but they represented a great range of behavior. Dickens' old people were fully engaged in life and society and were not age-stereotyped.

  13. Charles et ses images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Baron

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Bovary est probablement le personnage qui a été le plus transformé par les cinéastes qui ont adapté le roman de Flaubert. Si les premiers adaptateurs l’ont traité en victime, peu à peu, le cinéma a commencé à souligner la dimension néfaste sous-jacente du personnage et à lui faire porter une large part de responsabilité dans la descente aux enfers d’Emma. Depuis Pierre Renoir, touchant et authentique, jusqu’à Gregg Edelman, le mari de Little children qui fantasme sur les photos d’une pin-up virtuelle, en passant par les images plus ou moins pathétiques ou ridicules de Van Heflin, Aribert Wäscher, Alberto Bello, Jean-François Balmer, Farooq Shaikh ou Luis-Miguel Cintra, Charles, plus que tout autre personnage du roman, a subi une incroyable métamorphose en s’ancrant dans la civilisation de chacun des pays et de chacune des décennies successives qui l’ont porté à l’écran.From the 1930s to the present, Charles Bovary is probably the most altered character in the adaptations of Flaubert’s novel. The first directors made a victim of him, but gradually, the cinema began to emphasize his deleterious dimension and attributed to him a large part of the responsibility for Emma’s grief. From Pierre Renoir, touching and authentic, to Gregg Edelman, who fantasizes on a pornographic website in Todd Field’s Little Children, the more or less pathetic or ridiculous portrayals given by Van Heflin, Aribert Wäscher,Alberto Bello, Jean-François Balmer, Farooq Shaikh or Luis-Miguel Cintra, show that more than any other character in the novel, Charles has been submitted to a serious metamorphosis by being interpreted on screen according to each country’s civilization and the successive decades of filming.

  14. PLACO CHARLES DE GAULLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.H.Rosbach

    1996-01-01

    Fervorpae supreniris la avenuon deChamps Elysees. La celo estis la Triumfarkokaj la Tombo de la Nekonata Soldato.Centon da metroj antaǚ Plato Charles deGaulle mi transiris la avenuon.Mi haltis e la rando de la ronda placo,ob-servante la teruran trafikon. Centoj da aǚtoj,miloj da aǚtoj aperis maldekstre de mi, preter-fulmis, kuris ien, elektante diversajn avenuojnpot eliri el la placo. Estis la sama viglo kiel en

  15. The challenge of instinctive behaviour and Darwin's theory of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo-García, Alejandro

    2016-03-01

    In the Origin of Species (1859), Darwin argued that his revolutionary theory of evolution by natural selection represented a significant breakthrough in the understanding of instinctive behaviour. However, many aspects in the development of his thinking on behavioural phenomena indicate that the explanation of this particular organic feature was by no means an easy one, but that it posed an authentic challenge - something that Darwin himself always recognized. This paper explores Darwin's treatment of instincts within his theory of natural selection. Particular attention is given to elucidate how he tackled the difficulties of explaining instincts as evolving mental features. He had to explain and demonstrate its inheritance, variation, and gradual accumulation within populations. The historical and philosophical aspects of his theory are highlighted, as well as his study of the case in which the explanation of instincts represented a 'special difficulty'; that is, the sterile castes of social insects.

  16. Neural Darwinism and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anil K; Baars, Bernard J

    2005-03-01

    Neural Darwinism (ND) is a large scale selectionist theory of brain development and function that has been hypothesized to relate to consciousness. According to ND, consciousness is entailed by reentrant interactions among neuronal populations in the thalamocortical system (the 'dynamic core'). These interactions, which permit high-order discriminations among possible core states, confer selective advantages on organisms possessing them by linking current perceptual events to a past history of value-dependent learning. Here, we assess the consistency of ND with 16 widely recognized properties of consciousness, both physiological (for example, consciousness is associated with widespread, relatively fast, low amplitude interactions in the thalamocortical system), and phenomenal (for example, consciousness involves the existence of a private flow of events available only to the experiencing subject). While no theory accounts fully for all of these properties at present, we find that ND and its recent extensions fare well.

  17. Revisiting the eclipse of Darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    The article sums up a number of points made by the author concerning the response to Darwinism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and repeats the claim that a proper understanding of the theory's impact must take account of the extent to which what are now regarded as the key aspects of Darwin's thinking were evaded by his immediate followers. Potential challenges to this position are described and responded to.

  18. Saving Darwin's muse: evolutionary genetics for the recovery of the Floreana mockingbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeck, Paquita E A; Beaumont, Mark A; James, Karen E; Grant, Rosemary B; Grant, Peter R; Keller, Lukas F

    2010-04-23

    The distribution of mockingbird species among the Galápagos Islands prompted Charles Darwin to question, for the first time in writing, the 'stability of species'. Some 50 years after Darwin's visit, however, the endemic Floreana mockingbird (Mimus trifasciatus) had become extinct on Floreana Island and, today, only two small populations survive on two satellite islets. As Darwin noted, rarity often precedes extinction. To avert extinction, plans are being developed to reintroduce M. trifasciatus to Floreana. Here, we integrate evolutionary thinking and conservation practice using coalescent analyses and genetic data from contemporary and museum samples, including two collected by Darwin and Robert Fitzroy on Floreana in 1835. Our microsatellite results show substantial differentiation between the two extant populations, but our coalescence-based modelling does not indicate long, independent evolutionary histories. One of the populations is highly inbred, but both harbour unique alleles present on Floreana in 1835, suggesting that birds from both islets should be used to establish a single, mixed population on Floreana. Thus, Darwin's mockingbird specimens not only revealed to him a level of variation that suggested speciation following geographical isolation but also, more than 170 years later, return important information to their place of origin for the conservation of their conspecifics.

  19. Dog fight: Darwin as animal advocate in the antivivisection controversy of 1875.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, David Allan

    2009-12-01

    The traditional characterization of Charles Darwin as a strong advocate of physiological experimentation on animals was posited in Richard French's Antivivisection and medical science in Victorian England (1975), where French portrayed him as a soldier in Thomas Huxley's efforts to preserve anatomical experimentation on animals unfettered by government regulation. That interpretation relied too much on, inter alia, Huxley's own description of the legislative battles of 1875, and shared many historians' propensity to foster a legacy of Darwin as a leader among a new wave of scientists, even where personal interests might indicate a conflicting story. Animal rights issues concerned more than mere science for Darwin, however, and where debates over other scientific issues failed to inspire Darwin to become publicly active, he readily joined the battle over vivisection, helping to draft legislation which, in many ways, was more protective of animal rights than even the bills proposed by his friend and anti-vivisectionist, Frances Power Cobbe. Darwin may not have officially joined Cobbe's side in the fight, but personal correspondence of the period between 1870 and 1875 reveals a man whose first interest was to protect animals from inhumane treatment, and second to protect the reputations of those men and physiologists who were his friends, and who he believed incapable of inhumane acts. On this latter point he and Cobbe never did reach agreement, but they certainly agreed on the humane treatment of animals, and the need to proscribe various forms of animal experimentation.

  20. The Mastodon in the room: how Darwinian is neo-Darwinism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Daniel R

    2011-03-01

    Failing to acknowledge substantial differences between Darwinism and neo-Darwinism impedes evolutionary biology. Darwin described evolution as the outcome of interactions between the nature of the organism and the nature of the conditions, each relatively autonomous but both historically and spatially intertwined. Furthermore, he postulated that the nature of the organism was more important than the nature of the conditions, leading to natural selection as an inevitable emergent product of biological systems. The neo-Darwinian tradition assumed a creative rather than selective view of natural selection, with the nature of the organism determined by the nature of the conditions, rendering the nature of the organism and temporal contingency unnecessary. Contemporary advances in biology, specifically the phylogenetics revolution and evo-devo, underscore the significance of history and the nature of the organism in biology. Darwinism explains more biology better, and better resolves apparent anomalies between living systems and more general natural laws, than does neo-Darwinism. The "extended" or "expanded" synthesis currently called for by neo-Darwinians is Darwinism.

  1. Darwin's triggering mechanism of volcano eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    Charles Darwin wrote that ‘… the elevation of many hundred square miles of territory near Concepcion is part of the same phenomenon, with that splashing up, if I may so call it, of volcanic matter through the orifices in the Cordillera at the moment of the shock;…' and ‘…a power, I may remark, which acts in paroxysmal upheavals like that of Concepcion, and in great volcanic eruptions,…'. Darwin reports that ‘…several of the great chimneys in the Cordillera of central Chile commenced a fresh period of activity ….' In particular, Darwin reported on four-simultaneous large eruptions from the following volcanoes: Robinson Crusoe, Minchinmavida, Cerro Yanteles and Peteroa (we cite the Darwin's sentences following his The Voyage of the Beagle and researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). Let us consider these eruptions taking into account the volcano shape and the conduit. Three of the volcanoes (Minchinmavida (2404 m), Cerro Yanteles (2050 m), and Peteroa (3603 m)) are stratovolcanos and are formed of symmetrical cones with steep sides. Robinson Crusoe (922 m) is a shield volcano and is formed of a cone with gently sloping sides. They are not very active. We may surmise, that their vents had a sealing plug (vent fill) in 1835. All these volcanoes are conical. These common features are important for Darwin's triggering model, which is discussed below. The vent fill material, usually, has high level of porosity and a very low tensile strength and can easily be fragmented by tension waves. The action of a severe earthquake on the volcano base may be compared with a nuclear blast explosion of the base. It is known, that after a underground nuclear explosion the vertical motion and the surface fractures in a tope of mountains were observed. The same is related to the propagation of waves in conical elements. After the explosive load of the base. the tip may break and fly off at high velocity. Analogous phenomenon may be generated as a result of a

  2. Natural Secret in Social Development: Implications from Charles Darwin's Evolution Theory%自然奥秘也深藏在社会之中——达尔文进化论的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林德宏

    2009-01-01

    达尔文从人工育种的考察中提出了"人工选择"的概念,引申出"自然选择"的概念,并由此提出以自然选择为核心的物种进化论.他还吸取了英国经济学、社会学、伦理学和哲学的一些观点.这表明自然奥秘也深藏在社会之中,社会科学对自然科学研究也有启迪作用.

  3. Making "Nature" the history of a scientific journal

    CERN Document Server

    Baldwin, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    Making "Nature" is the first book to chronicle the foundation and development of Nature, one of the world's most influential scientific institutions. Now nearing its hundred and fiftieth year of publication, Nature is the international benchmark for scientific publication. Its contributors include Charles Darwin, Ernest Rutherford, and Stephen Hawking, and it has published many of the most important discoveries in the history of science, including articles on the structure of DNA, the discovery of the neutron, the first cloning of a mammal, and the human genome. But how did Nature become such an essential institution? In Making "Nature," Melinda Baldwin charts the rich history of this extraordinary publication from its foundation in 1869 to current debates about online publishing and open access. This pioneering study not only tells Nature's story but also sheds light on much larger questions about the history of science publishing, changes in scientific communication, and shifting notions of "scientific comm...

  4. LAS CONCEPCIONES DE LA NATURALEZA DE DARWIN Y GOETHE,DISCUTIDAS POR TRES FILÓSOFOS ALEMANES(NIETSZCHE, CASSIRER Y SIMMEL Darwin’s and Goethe’s Conceptions of Nature, Discussed by Three German Philosophers (Nietzsche, Cassirer and Simmel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÉSTOR JAVIER ZÚÑIGA

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan las semejanzas y diferencias entre las concepciones de la naturaleza de Darwin y Goethe, discutidas por tres filósofos alemanes: Friedrich Nietzsche, Ernst Cassirer y Georg Simmel. La discusión se centra principalmente en reconocer el método histórico del cambio caprichoso funcional por parte de los tres filósofos, como un principio estructuralista de la metodología histórica y las diferencias sobre los enfoques explicativos: el goethiano morfológico y el darwiniano funcionalista. Nietzsche y Cassirer integran en sus filosofías aspectos de la teoría morfológica goethiana, y aunque reconocen en la teoría de Darwin la importancia de la expli-cación histórica, rechazan lo que ellos consideran la permanencia de la explicación teleológica en la teoría de Darwin. Por otra parte, Simmel establece una relación entre las concepciones de Goethe y Darwin, por medio del concepto de acción, mediante éste, intenta disolver la dicotomía formalismo-funcionalismo.In this paper, similarities and differences between the conceptions of nature of Darwin and Goethe are discussed by three German philosophers: Friedrich Nietzsche, Ernst Cassirer and Georg Simmel. The discussion focuses mainly on two issues: first, recognition of the historical method of quirky functional shift by the three philosophers, as a structural principle of historical methodology and second, recognition of differences in explanatory approaches, the Goethe morphological and the Darwinian functionalism. Cassirer and Nietzsche integrate into their philosophies morphological aspects of Goethe’s theory, and while recognizing the importance of Darwin’s theory of historical explanation, reject what they consider the permanence of teleological explanation in the theory of Darwin. Moreover, Simmel establishes a relationship between the ideas of Goethe and Darwin, via the concept of action, through this, attempts to dissolve the dichotomy formalism-functionalism.

  5. Characters named Charles or Charley in novels by Charles Dickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Herbert

    2007-10-01

    12 fictional characters named Charles or Charley are contained in eight of the 14 completed novels by Charles Dickens. Most of the author's namesakes have humorous attributes, an unusually close relationship with one or more other characters, and a happy subsequent life. Three stages of the author's adult life are youthful, mature, and after separation from his wife. The fictional namesakes are most humorous in the author's youthful stage and least humorous after separation from his wife. The 12 fictional namesakes of Charles Dickens are compared with the two fictional namesakes of Jane Austen.

  6. From Ends to Causes (and Back Again) by Metaphor: The Paradox of Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancke, Stefaan; Schellens, Tammy; Soetaert, Ronald; Van Keer, Hilde; Braeckman, Johan

    2014-04-01

    Natural selection is one of the most famous metaphors in the history of science. Charles Darwin used the metaphor and the underlying analogy to frame his ideas about evolution and its main driving mechanism into a full-fledged theory. Because the metaphor turned out to be such a powerful epistemic tool, Darwin naturally assumed that he could also employ it as an educational tool to inform his contemporaries about his findings. Moreover, by using the metaphor Darwin was able to bring his theory in accordance with both the dominant philosophy of science in his time and the respected tradition of natural theology. However, as he introduced his theory of evolution by natural selection in On the origin of species in 1859, the metaphor also turned out to have a serious downside. Because of its intentional overtones, his contemporaries systematically misunderstood his metaphor not as a natural mechanism causing evolution to occur but as an agent who works towards particular ends. The difference in success between natural selection as an epistemic tool and its failure as an educational tool is labelled as a paradox. We explain the paradox from a cognitive perspective and discuss the implications for teaching evolution.

  7. Quantum Darwinism in Quantum Brownian Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Kohout, Robin; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2008-12-01

    Quantum Darwinism—the redundant encoding of information about a decohering system in its environment—was proposed to reconcile the quantum nature of our Universe with apparent classicality. We report the first study of the dynamics of quantum Darwinism in a realistic model of decoherence, quantum Brownian motion. Prepared in a highly squeezed state—a macroscopic superposition—the system leaves records whose redundancy increases rapidly with initial delocalization. Redundancy appears rapidly (on the decoherence time scale) and persists for a long time.

  8. Darwin's diagram of divergence of taxa as a causal model for the origin of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzat, Juan L

    2014-03-01

    On the basis that Darwin's theory of evolution encompasses two logically independent processes (common descent and natural selection), the only figure in On the Origin of Species (the Diagram of Divergence of Taxa) is often interpreted as illustrative of only one of these processes: the branching patterns representing common ancestry. Here, I argue that Darwin's Diagram of Divergence of Taxa represents a broad conceptual model of Darwin's theory, illustrating the causal efficacy of natural selection in producing well-defined varieties and ultimately species. The Tree Diagram encompasses the idea that natural selection explains common descent and the origin of organic diversity, thus representing a comprehensive model of Darwin's theory on the origin of species. I describe Darwin's Tree Diagram in relation to his argumentative strategy under the vera causa principle, and suggest that the testing of his theory based on the evidence from the geological record, the geographical distribution of organisms, and the mutual affinities of organic beings can be framed under the hypothetico-deductive method. Darwin's Diagram of Divergence of Taxa therefore represents a broad conceptual model that helps understanding the causal construction of Darwin's theory of evolution, the structure of his argumentative strategy, and the nature of his scientific methodology.

  9. Literature and Science for a January Term: Darwin and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSieno, Robert P.; Horn, Frederick D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a one month intensive course, offered at Westminster College, entitled Science and Literature: A Study in Values.'' The interdisciplinary course is an attempt to break down the barriers of specialization, and to focus on the reactions of students, scientists, and humanists to Darwin's theory of evolution and natural selection. (JR)

  10. Darwin and sexual selection: One hundred years of misunderstanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veuille, Michel

    2010-02-01

    Darwin's book on the Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871) is often viewed as the continuation of The Origin of Species published 12 years earlier (1859), both because of the implicit parallelism between natural selection and sexual selection, and because Darwin himself presents the book as developing a subject (man) which he intentionally omitted in the Origin. But the Descent can also be viewed as the continuation of his book on Variation published three years earlier (1868). Firstly because Darwin's hypothesis of pangenesis links the selection process to the origin of variation through use and disuse, an idea underlying his speculations on the origin of moral sense in humans. Second because like the action of the horticulturist on his domestic crops, sexual selection exerted by one sex on the other sex can develop fancy traits that are not easily accounted for by their utility to the selected organism itself, such as artistic taste, pride, courage, and the morphological differences between human populations. These traits are difficult to reconcile with pangenesis. They add up to other contradictions of the book possibly resulting from Darwin's erroneous inference about the mechanism of inheritance, like those on the determination of sex-ratio, or the confusion between individual adaptation and the advantage to the species. These inconsistencies inaugurate a weakening of the Darwinian message, which will last 50 years after his death. They contributed to the neglect of sexual selection for a century. Darwin however maintained a logical distinction between evolutionary mechanisms and hereditary mechanisms, and an epistemological distinction between evolutionary theory and Pangenesis hypothesis. In the modern context of Mendelian genetics, Darwin's sexual selection retrospectively appears as luminous an idea in its pure principle as natural selection, even though the mechanisms governing the evolution of sexual choice in animals remain largely

  11. Darwin's "beloved barnacles": tough lessons in variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannouris, Costas

    2011-01-01

    In 1846, burdened by insecurity and self-doubt, and having been convinced that he needed to study some group of organisms closely, Darwin embarked on an eight-year odyssey in the protean and perplexing world of barnacles. At the time, he was searching for evidence in support of his theory of evolution by natural selection. In the course of his long study of barnacles, however, he was not just validating his preexisting theoretical system, but was also modifying his views on such fundamental aspects as the universality of individual variation, which is the focus of this paper. According to this notion, the members of any population of living things are expected to exhibit sufficient differences from one another for natural selection to operate. By emphasizing the theoretical value of the barnacle project, my analysis contributes to the historiographic tradition which highlights the significance of the period between the first comprehensive formulation of the theory of evolution by natural selection in 1844 and its urgent publication in the late 1850s. In the course of these years, Darwin's theory was not just accumulating empirical laurels, but was also expected to adapt to a changing conceptual landscape.

  12. Darwin and the linguists: the coevolution of mind and language, part 2. The language-thought relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen G

    2008-03-01

    This paper examines Charles Darwin's idea that language-use and humanity's unique cognitive abilities reinforced each other's evolutionary emergence-an idea Darwin sketched in his early notebooks, set forth in his Descent of man (1871), and qualified in Descent's second (1874) edition. Darwin understood this coevolution process in essentially Lockean terms, based on John Locke's hints about the way language shapes thinking itself. Ironically, the linguist Friedrich Max Müller attacked Darwin's human descent theory by invoking a similar thesis, the German romantic notion of an identity between language and thought. Although Darwin avoided outright contradiction, when he came to defend himself against Müller's attacks, he undercut some of his own argumentation in favor of the coevolution idea. That is, he found it difficult to counter Müller's argument while also making a case for coevolution. Darwin's efforts in this area were further complicated by British and American writers who held a naturalistic view of speech origins yet still taught that language had been invented by fully evolved homo sapiens, thus denying coevolution.

  13. Darwin's observation in South America: what did he find at agua de la zorra, Mendoza province? Las observaciones de Darwin en Sudamérica: ¿Qué encontró en Agua de la Zorra, provincia de Mendoza?

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Poma; Vanesa D Litvak; Magdalena Koukharsky; E. Beatriz Maisonnave; Sonia Quenardelle

    2009-01-01

    Scarcely 23 km from Uspallata, along the track of the old national highway 7, lies the district of Agua de la Zorra, in Mendoza province in western Argentina. Charles Darwin visited the area during his South American journeys in the 19th century and discovered a geological sequence that contained a paleoflora never described before. The flora includes an important number of species, particularly what is considered a small conifer forest with many silicified trunks still in life position. Darw...

  14. Visual hallucinations: charles bonnet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Tiffany; Del Castillo, Jorge

    2012-12-01

    The following is a case of Charles Bonnet syndrome in an 86-year-old woman who presented with visual hallucinations. The differential diagnosis of visual hallucinations is broad and emergency physicians should be knowledgeable of the possible etiologies.

  15. Charles Dickens kao europski autor

    OpenAIRE

    Grgić, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    The Reception of Charles Dickens in Europe. Volumes I-II. Ur. Michael Hollington (sv. XIX. u nizu The Reception of British and Irish Authors in Europe). London – New Delhi – New York – Sydney: Bloomsbury. 2013. 703 str.

  16. Charles Dickens 2012 - et essay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Essayet plæderer i 200-året for Charles Dickens' fødsel for hans forfatterskabs fortsatte aktualitet, og samtidig for en nyoversættelse til dansk.......Essayet plæderer i 200-året for Charles Dickens' fødsel for hans forfatterskabs fortsatte aktualitet, og samtidig for en nyoversættelse til dansk....

  17. DARWIN Y LA IMPOSIBILIDAD DE CAUSAS FINALES EN LA BIOLOGÍA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁLVARO CORRAL CUARTAS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La teoría de la selección natural propuesta por Charles Darwin en su obra El origen de las especies no solo colocó las bases para una explicación coherente de los hechos fundamentales de la biología (el origen común de los seres vivos, la diversidad de individuos y especies y la transmisión de características hereditarias, sino que además introdujo maneras nuevas de hacer filosofía. La teoría de la selección natural hace superflua cualquier posibilidad de apelar a explicaciones de tipo finalista en la ciencia. Desde Aristóteles se conocen cuatro tipos de causa: la material, la formal, la eficiente y la final. Aunque la causa eficiente es el paradigma de explicación por exce- lencia de las ciencias naturales, la causa final sigue desempeñando un papel explicativo, por cuanto parece estar arraigada en nuestra estructura humana de pensamiento y la tendencia a presentar explicaciones finalistas sigue siendo recalcitrante. Quizá por estar los seres humanos tan familiarizados con la complejidad inherente a los procesos de diseño en las artes y en la técnica y quizá por la circunstancia de que los seres humanos organizamos casi todas nuestras acciones en torno a propósitos, es decir, a la definición de unos fines para los cuales buscamos unos medios, suponemos por vía de analogía que la naturaleza en su complejidad exige la presencia y acción de un diseñador inteligente. Kant en la Crítica de la facultad de juzgar hace una defensa del carácter “irrenunciable al género humano” de este modelo explicativo. Para contro- vertir esta opinión milenaria, me apoyaré, en investigaciones recientes de Richard Dawkins y de otros biólogos contemporáneos para mostrar con la evolución de ojos en la naturaleza que el surgimiento de órganos de alta complejidad puede ser explicado sin problema con la teoría de la selección natural propuesta por Darwin en 1859.

  18. Darwin y la imposibilidad de causas finales en la biología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corral Cuartas Álvaro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La teoría de la selección natural propuesta por Charles Darwin en su obra El Origen de las Especies no sólo colocó las bases para una explicación coherente de los hechos fundamentales de la biología (el origen común de los seres vivos, la diversidad de individuos y especies y la transmisión de características hereditarias, sino que además introduce maneras nuevas de hacer filosofía. La teoría de la selección natural hace superflua cualquier posibilidad de apelar a explicaciones de tipo finalista en la ciencia. Desde Aristóteles se conocen cuatro tipos de causa: la material, la formal, la eficiente y la final. Aunque la causa eficiente es el paradigma de explicación por excelencia de las ciencias empíricas, la causa final sigue desempeñando un papel explicativo, por cuanto parece estar arraigada en nuestra estructura humana de pensamiento y la tendencia a presentar explicaciones finalistas sigue siendo recalcitrante. Quizá por estar los seres humanos tan familiarizados con la complejidad inherente a los procesos de diseño en las artes y en la técnica, suponemos por vía de analogía que la naturaleza en su complejidad exige la presencia y acción de un diseñador inteligente. Kant en la Crítica de la facultad de juzgar hace una defensa del carácter “irrenunciable” de este modelo explicativo. Para controvertir esta opinión, me apoyaré, en recientes investigaciones de Richard Dawkins y de otros biólogos contemporáneos para mostrar con la evolución de ojos en la naturaleza que el surgimiento de órganos de alta complejidad puede ser explicado sin

  19. Charles Bonnet syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanov Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS is a condition that causes visual hallucinations in patients without any mental illnesses. CBS is characterized by the presence of vivid, complex and recurrent visual hallucinations, and do not occur in the setting or as part of delirium or other psychological illnesses. The condition is present in patients who have visual loss due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD, cataracts and/or other ocular diseases that influence vision. Case report. A 81-year-od woman reported to ophthalmologist complaining of visual hallucinations that consisted of white pigeons. Hallucinations were present for two years and she was well aware that hallucinations were unreal. Mental illnesses were excluded by the psychiatrist. Complete ophthalmologic examination was performed, and finding revealed visual acuity of 0.3 (right eye and 0.5 (left eye, in both eyes cataracts and AMD (wet form. Optical coherence tomography confirmed the fundoscopic finding of AMD. The patient rejected treatment of cataracts and AMD due to old age, and hallucinations persisted. Conclusion. CBS should be considered in patients with visual hallucinations and ocular diseases that influence vision. It is essential to distinguish CBS from mental illnesses, since patients with CBS are fully aware that hallucinations are not real. Awareness of CBS could help physicians upon referring patients to ophthalmologists instead of psychiatrists, and therefore avoid patients being misdiagnosed.

  20. Darwin på arabisk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riexinger, Martin Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Det var to revolutionære spor, som i begyndelsen af 1800-talet gødede jorden for introduktionen af Darwins evolutionsteori i Mellemøsten, og muslimer spillede stort set ingen rolle for den udviklingen. Ny bog om islam og evolutionsteorien.......Det var to revolutionære spor, som i begyndelsen af 1800-talet gødede jorden for introduktionen af Darwins evolutionsteori i Mellemøsten, og muslimer spillede stort set ingen rolle for den udviklingen. Ny bog om islam og evolutionsteorien....

  1. Tracing the origin of a scientific legend by Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy (RPYS): the legend of the Darwin finches

    CERN Document Server

    Marx, Werner

    2013-01-01

    In a previews paper we introduced the quantitative method named Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy (RPYS). With this method one can determine the historical roots of research fields and quantify their impact on current research. RPYS is based on the analysis of the frequency with which references are cited in the publications of a specific research field in terms of the publication years of these cited references. In this study, we illustrate that RPYS can also be used to reveal the origin of scientific legends. We selected Darwin finches as an example for illustration. Charles Darwin, the originator of evolutionary theory, was given credit for finches he did not see and for observations and insights about the finches he never made. We have shown that a book published in 1947 is the most-highly cited early reference cited within the relevant literature. This book had already been revealed as the origin of the term Darwin finches by Sulloway through careful historical analysis.

  2. A temática darwiniana em Freud: um exame das referências a Darwin na obra freudiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Galletti Ferretti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa examinar as referências a Charles Darwin (1809-1882 na obra freudiana buscando verificar qual o uso que Freud fez da teoria darwiniana e a que conceitos desta aludiu quando citou o nome do célebre evolucionista inglês. Assim, aborda-se o tema da influência de Darwin sobre Freud por meio de uma via mais evidente que, no entanto, foi pouco explorada. Essa abordagem mostra-se profícua, na medida em que fornece sólidas indicações de que o fundador da psicanálise buscou em Darwin não apenas subsídios conceituais a respeito da dinâmica anímica humana

  3. Succession of functions, from Darwin to Dohrn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caianiello, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    By formulating in 1875 his major theoretical achievement, the "principle of succession of functions", Dohrn was consciously entering the controversy between Darwin and Mivart. Dohrn's principle enjoyed the approval of Darwin, but not his enthusiasm. The paper examines the evolution of Darwin's original idea of 'conversion of functions' in the 6th edition of his Origin, following Mivart's criticism, and contrasts the overtly functionalist interpretation entailed in Dohrn's formulation with Darwin's increasing structuralist hesitations as to the origin of evolutionary novelty. A more accurate analysis of Dohrn's principle, however, appears to corroborate the thesis that Dohrn was equally receptive to Darwin's argument as to Mivart's criticism.

  4. Darwin and Lincoln: their legacy of human dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earls, Felton

    2010-01-01

    The legacy of Charles Darwin and Abraham Lincoln is to champion the dignity inherent in every human being. The moment of the bicentennial of their births provides an opportunity to celebrate and reflect on ways they have shaped our understanding and commitment to human rights. The naturalist and the constitutional lawyer, so different in circumstance and discipline, were morally allied in the mission to eradicate slavery. The profound lessons to be extracted from the lives of these two icons bind us to the agonizing reality that nearly 150 years after Gettysburg and the publication of the Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, there remains much work to do toward advancing the security, respect, and equality of our species. This article describes how Darwin and Lincoln's inspiring legacies guided the author's personal choices as a scientist and activist. The essay concludes with a set of questions and challenges that confront us, foremost among which is the need to balance actions in response to the violation of negative rights by actions in the pursuit of positive rights.

  5. Playing Darwin. Part A. Experimental evolution in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Margarida

    2010-09-01

    In 2009 we celebrate Charles Darwin's second centenary, and 150 years since the publication of 'The Origin of Species'. After so many years, what has changed in the way we understand Evolution? Obviously we have now a full understanding of the mechanisms underlying heritability. Many molecular tools are available, allowing among other things to reconstruct more accurately the evolutionary history of species and use a comparative approach to infer evolutionary processes. But we can also study evolution in action. Such studies-Experimental Evolution-help us to characterize in detail the evolutionary processes and patterns as a function of environmental challenges, the previous history and present state of populations, and the interactions between such factors. We have now a wide variety of organisms that have been studied with this approach, exploring a diversity of potentialities, in biological characteristics and genetic tools, and covering a variety of evolutionary questions. In this short article I will illustrate the potentialities of Experimental Evolution, focusing in three studies in Drosophila. These and other studies of Experimental Evolution illustrate that Evolution is often local, involving complex patterns and processes, which lead both to specific adaptations and to biological diversity, as Darwin already stated clearly in 'The Origin of Species'.

  6. Deceived by orchids: sex, science, fiction and Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endersby, Jim

    2016-06-01

    Between 1916 and 1927, botanists in several countries independently resolved three problems that had mystified earlier naturalists - including Charles Darwin: how did the many species of orchid that did not produce nectar persuade insects to pollinate them? Why did some orchid flowers seem to mimic insects? And why should a native British orchid suffer 'attacks' from a bee? Half a century after Darwin's death, these three mysteries were shown to be aspects of a phenomenon now known as pseudocopulation, whereby male insects are deceived into attempting to mate with the orchid's flowers, which mimic female insects; the males then carry the flower's pollen with them when they move on to try the next deceptive orchid. Early twentieth-century botanists were able to see what their predecessors had not because orchids (along with other plants) had undergone an imaginative re-creation: Darwin's science was appropriated by popular interpreters of science, including the novelist Grant Allen; then H.G. Wells imagined orchids as killers (inspiring a number of imitators), to produce a genre of orchid stories that reflected significant cultural shifts, not least in the presentation of female sexuality. It was only after these changes that scientists were able to see plants as equipped with agency, actively able to pursue their own, cunning reproductive strategies - and to outwit animals in the process. This paper traces the movement of a set of ideas that were created in a context that was recognizably scientific; they then became popular non-fiction, then popular fiction, and then inspired a new science, which in turn inspired a new generation of fiction writers. Long after clear barriers between elite and popular science had supposedly been established in the early twentieth century, they remained porous because a variety of imaginative writers kept destabilizing them. The fluidity of the boundaries between makers, interpreters and publics of scientific knowledge was a highly

  7. The New Outlook for Science. Science and Belief: from Copernicus to Darwin, Block VI, Units 15-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Open Univ., Walton, Bletchley, Bucks (England).

    This text contains units 15-16 in the Open University course, Science and Belief: from Copernicus to Darwin. It is an inter-faculty second level course in the history of science. Unit 15 is concerned with Nature and History and includes uniformitarianism, human history, evolutionism, and Darwinism. Unit objectives, readings, and questions with the…

  8. Planning, Decisions, and Human Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, George

    1998-01-01

    Brings the perspectives of five individuals (Sigmund Freud, Karl Marx, Charles Darwin, Johann von Herder, James Madison) to the question of why humans behave as they do when faced with the need for decision making and change in higher education. Argues that effecting change is easier if leaders attend to the concerns and fears of those affected by…

  9. Darwin and the geological controversies over the steady-state worldview in the 1830s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohau, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of this paper, I will show that although Darwin's geological works only covered the first years of his scientific career, these played a non-negligible role in the earth sciences of the mid-nineteenth century. His intellectual proximity with Charles Lyell often made him his disciple. This is indeed the case with respect to debates over 'gradual' soil movements and 'catastrophic' soil movements, and for 'steady-state' cycles as opposed to 'directionalistic' ones. This being said, it is also true that in South America Darwin saw geological processes which were incompatible with Lyell's explanations. It must therefore be recognized that Darwin held a middle-of-the-road position between uniformitarianism (Lyell) and catastrophism (Humbolt and von Buch), at least as far as some geological questions were concerned. In the second part of the paper, debates on geological issues during Darwin's active years will be put in the methodological context of the Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century.

  10. Darwin's observation in South America: what did he find at agua de la zorra, Mendoza province?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Poma

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Scarcely 23 km from Uspallata, along the track of the old national highway 7, lies the district of Agua de la Zorra, in Mendoza province in western Argentina. Charles Darwin visited the area during his South American journeys in the 19th century and discovered a geological sequence that contained a paleoflora never described before. The flora includes an important number of species, particularly what is considered a small conifer forest with many silicified trunks still in life position. Darwin described and interpreted the sequence as sedimentary; his records show a very detailed level of observation. He also wondered about the processes that would cause the burial of the paleoflora, which he considered had happened in a marine sedimentary environment. In the modern geological framework and after a detailed study of the rocks containing the trunks, it is now interpreted that the conifer forest was buried by pyroclastic flows. Darwin accurately described the fine volcanic materials as an essential part of the deposit, but the key of the enigma about the origin of the deposits and the burial of the forest is the identification of the pyroclastic flow features; these were unknown process at the time of Darwin´s observations and interpretation.

  11. [Charles Bonnet syndrome and visual hallucination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amardeep; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome is characterized by vivid, complex and recurrent visual hallucinations occurring in psychologically normal people. Though not related to any specific eye condition, it commonly affects visually impaired elderly persons and is thus an important differential diagnosis to many conditions which cause visual hallucinations. Patients usually retain insight into the unreal nature of their hallucination. The hallucinatory experiences are generally not distressing, but patients may fear impending insanity. There is no specific treatment for this condition which in most cases is self-limiting.

  12. William Keith Brooks and the naturalist's defense of Darwinism in the late-nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Richard

    2015-06-01

    William Keith Brooks was an American zoologist at Johns Hopkins University from 1876 until his death in 1908. Over the course of his career, Brooks staunchly defended Darwinism, arguing for the centrality of natural selection in evolutionary theory at a time when alternative theories, such as neo-Lamarckism, grew prominent in American biology. In his book The Law of Heredity (1883), Brooks addressed problems raised by Darwin's theory of pangenesis. In modifying and developing Darwin's pangenesis, Brooks proposed a new theory of heredity that sought to avoid the pitfalls of Darwin's hypothesis. In so doing he strengthened Darwin's theory of natural selection by undermining arguments for the inheritance of acquired characteristics. In later attacks on neo-Lamarckism, Brooks consistently defended Darwin's theory of natural selection on logical grounds, continued to challenge the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, and argued that natural selection best explained a wide range of adaptations. Finally, he critiqued Galton's statistical view of heredity and argued that Galton had resurrected an outmoded typological concept of species, one which Darwin and other naturalists had shown to be incorrect. Brooks's ideas resemble the "biological species concept" of the twentieth century, as developed by evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr and others. The late-nineteenth century was not a period of total "eclipse" of Darwinism, as biologists and historians have hitherto seen it. Although the "Modern Synthesis" refers to the reconciliation of post-Mendelian genetics with evolution by natural selection, we might adjust our understanding of how the synthesis developed by seeing it as the culmination of a longer discussion that extends back to the late-nineteenth century.

  13. Looking for Darwin's footprints in the microbial world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, B. Jesse; David, Lawrence A.; Friedman, Jonathan; Alm, Eric J.

    2009-03-30

    As we observe the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birthday, microbiologists interested in the application of Darwin's ideas to the microscopic world have a lot to celebrate: an emerging picture of the (mostly microbial) Tree of Life at ever-increasing resolution, an understanding of horizontal gene transfer as a driving force in the evolution of microbes, and thousands of complete genome sequences to help formulate and refine our theories. At the same time, quantitative models of the microevolutionary processes shaping microbial populations remain just out of reach, a point that is perhaps most dramatically illustrated by the lack of consensus on how (or even whether) to define bacterial species. We summarize progress and prospects in bacterial population genetics, with an emphasis on detecting the footprint of positive Darwinian selection in microbial genomes.

  14. Social Darwinism: from reality to myth and from myth to reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becquemont, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Considering the variety of contradictory definitions which have been attributed to the term in the course of more than a century, one may be tempted to admit that 'Social Darwinism' can be reduced to a social myth. But it seems nevertheless necessary to answer the question: what has been called 'Social Darwinism' for more than one century and why was the expression used in a negative way to express contradictory opinions which sometimes have nothing to do with Darwin's theory. What we still call 'Social Darwinism' is the result of a misunderstanding: the theories expressed under that phrase have little to do with the Darwinian concepts of natural selection or descent with modification. They have their origin in a pre-darwinian conception of the struggle for existence, which Darwin used in a metaphorical sense. This confusion will then appear to refer clearly to the relationship we establish between biology and society, whether biological laws are directly prolonged in society, or more or less intermingle in a close network. The issue of the definition of Social Darwinism depends obviously on the possible answers to this question, and so does the issue of redefining Darwinism at large.

  15. Education and Utopia: Robert Owen and Charles Fourier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, David

    2011-01-01

    The aims of education, and the appropriate means of realising them, are a recurring preoccupation of utopian authors. The utopian socialists Robert Owen (1771-1858) and Charles Fourier (1772-1837) both place human nature at the core of their educational views, and both see education as central to their wider objective of social and political…

  16. ECONOMÍA EVOLUCIONISTA Y DARWIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVÁN D. HERNANDEZ U.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del siglo XIX, se tomaron dos caminos distintos en la historia de la ciencia económica. Casi simultáneamente, la revolución darwiniana y la revolución marginalista tuvieron lugar pero sus intenciones ulteriores no pudieron ser más opuestas. La teoría de Darwin de la evolución de las especies por medio de la selección natural, se convirtió en un desafío a la visión del mundo dominante: la newtoniana (Witt, 1999. Este desafío al ideal newtoniano, fue influido, para- dójicamente, por estímulos intelectuales proveniente de pensadores fuera de la biología. Estas influencias emanaron de la filosofía liberal del “dejar pasar, dejar hacer” de los siglos XVIII y de principios del siglo XIX. De los diarios de Darwin se destaca la correspondencia con Herbert Spencer, en donde se denota una clara influencia del trabajo de economistas-filósofos como Adam Smith, de la llamada escuela de Edimburgo, y Robert Malthus. Lo paradójico de esta situación es que ahora es Darwin quien, de vuelta, influye sobre los economistas modernos. La revolución darwiniana en la economía moderna consiste en mostrar al capitalismo como un proceso evolucionario explicado por procesos del cambio de patrones en las relaciones entre entidades. Pero gran parte de este estudio de influencia darwiniana no tiene que ver en sí con el estudio de la biología. Está relacionado con los principios y conceptos que definen el mecanismo evolucionario que es fundamento del desarrollo de la teoría evolucionista moderna. Desde el estudio del sistema natural, y sus disciplinas ¿qué podemos aprender en el campo de lo social en los temas de adaptabilidad, ante la adversidad y bio y sociodiversidad? El alto de emprenderismo en regiones y países latinoamericanos es síntoma de resiliencia social y adaptabilidad. Es en la adversidad donde se encuentra más variedad de comportamientos y hay más condiciones ante desafíos estresantes. Dado que la teoría convencional

  17. Anxiety and Charles Bonnet Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geueke, Anna; Morley, Michael G.; Morley, Katharine; Lorch, Alice; Jackson, MaryLou; Lambrou, Angeliki; Wenberg, June; Oteng-Amoako, Afua

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Some persons with Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) suffer significant anxiety because of their visual hallucinations, while others do not. The aim of the study presented here was to compare levels of anxiety in persons with low vision with and without CBS. Methods: This retrospective study compared the level of anxiety in 31 persons…

  18. Visual Hallucinations: Charles Bonnet Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Jan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The following is a case of Charles Bonnet syndrome in an 86-year-old woman who presented with visual hallucinations. The differential diagnosis of visual hallucinations is broad and emergency physicians should be knowledgeable of the possible etiologies.

  19. CHARLES PEYROU - French version only

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    La famille de Charles Peyrou exprime ici ses vifs remerciements à tous les amis et collègues du CERN, qui lui ont témoigné leur sympathie, par leur présence, par des fleurs, par des messages. Ces signes d'amitié ont été d'un grand réconfort.

  20. Charles Gelso: The "Real" Person

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Clara E.

    2010-01-01

    Charles Gelso has had a major influence in counseling psychology with his contributions to the literature in many areas such as research methodology, research training, psychotherapy outcome, and the therapeutic relationship as well as in his work as an editor and as a teacher and mentor. This interview with Gelso highlights the early experiences,…

  1. Darwin's “strange inversion of reasoning”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection unifies the world of physics with the world of meaning and purpose by proposing a deeply counterintuitive “inversion of reasoning” (according to a 19th century critic): “to make a perfect and beautiful machine, it is not requisite to know how to make it” [MacKenzie RB (1868) (Nisbet & Co., London)]. Turing proposed a similar inversion: to be a perfect and beautiful computing machine, it is not requisite to know what arithmetic is. Together, these ideas help to explain how we human intelligences came to be able to discern the reasons for all of the adaptations of life, including our own. PMID:19528651

  2. What would have happened if Darwin had known Mendel (or Mendel's work)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzano, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The question posed by the title is usually answered by saying that the "synthesis" between the theory of evolution by natural selection and classical genetics, which took place in 1930s-40s, would have taken place much earlier if Darwin had been aware of Mendel and his work. What is more, it nearly happened: it would have been enough if Darwin had cut the pages of the offprint of Mendel's work that was in his library and read them! Or, if Mendel had come across Darwin in London or paid him a visit at his house in the outskirts! (on occasion of Mendel's trip in 1862 to that city). The aim of the present paper is to provide elements for quite a different answer, based on further historical evidence, especially on Mendel's works, some of which mention Darwins's studies.

  3. Los guisantes mágicos de Darwin y Mendel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galera, Andrés

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Presently work analyzes the hereditary models proposed by Darwin and Mendel to explain the evolutionary history of the Earth. The comparison shows us two faced biological theories, governed, one, for the principle of the natural selection, the other for the mutation.



    En el presente trabajo analizamos los modelos hereditarios propuestos por Darwin y Mendel para explicar la historia evolutiva de la Tierra. De la comparación resultan dos teorías biológicas enfrentadas, regidas una por el principio de la selección natural y la otra por la mutación.

  4. [Darwinism as a constraint of ecological pluralism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giliarov, A M

    2003-01-01

    In his respond to critical remarks of Mirkin (2003), the author claims that pluralism in ecology is not only its strength but also a weakness. Contemporary ecology became less pluralistic and this can be considered as good sign of maturing science. Ecological pluralism can be exemplified by the coexistence in 1920-30s of two different approaches to plant community: that of Frederic Clements in USA and that of Josias Braun-Blanquet in France. However the way to progress in this branch of ecology was paved rather by heretical ideas of Henry Gleason in USA and Ramensky in Russia (both authors independently developed non-holistic view of community as an assemblage of individualistically distributed species) than by "peaceful" coexistence of well-established schools, representatives of which tried not to interfere into argumentation of each other. Notable success in ecology of last decades was connected with several new methodologies, e.g. macroecology that concerned large scale of space and time. However Darwinism in its attempt to explain the order of nature referring to its origin remains the most universal and fruitful methodology of ecology. The success of Darwinism in ecology is understandable because this generalizing theory is based on the same universal principles that underlie the survival of any population. Ecologists and evolutionary biologists trying to understand various natural patterns actually deal with the same fundamental laws, i.e. exponential population growth, limitation of this growth by resource shortage and/or press of predators, the existence of individual variability in survival, etc.

  5. Darwinism, not mutationism, explains the design of organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andy

    2013-04-01

    Shapiro claims that advances in molecular genetics have undermined Darwinism, leading him to advocate mutationism. However, this extreme view is bourne out of conceptual error. He has misunderstood the distinction between gradualism and saltationism, which do not concern the rate of genetic change, but rather the emergence of complex design. And he has misunderstood the relationship between the dynamics of natural selection and the agency of individual organisms: these are not competing hypotheses, but rather alternative conceptualizations of the same phenomenon.

  6. 76 FR 38302 - Safety Zone; Cape Charles Fireworks, Cape Charles Harbor, Cape Charles, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... navigable waters of Cape Charles City Harbor centered on position 37 15'46.5'' N/076 01'30'' W (NAD 1983... of materials, performance, design, or operation; test methods; sampling procedures; and related... the human environment. This rule is categorically excluded, under figure 2-1, paragraph (34)(g),...

  7. Schrodinger's cat versus Darwin

    OpenAIRE

    Silagadze, Z. K.

    2009-01-01

    Sun Wu-k'ung, an immortal Monkey-King of Chaos learns modern physics from the Patriarch Bodhi and questions the Darwinian evolution. He finds that the modern physics indicates towards the intelligent design as a vastly more probably origin of humans than the random evolution by mutations and natural selection.

  8. Why Darwin would have loved evolutionary game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joel S

    2016-09-14

    Humans have marvelled at the fit of form and function, the way organisms' traits seem remarkably suited to their lifestyles and ecologies. While natural selection provides the scientific basis for the fit of form and function, Darwin found certain adaptations vexing or particularly intriguing: sex ratios, sexual selection and altruism. The logic behind these adaptations resides in frequency-dependent selection where the value of a given heritable phenotype (i.e. strategy) to an individual depends upon the strategies of others. Game theory is a branch of mathematics that is uniquely suited to solving such puzzles. While game theoretic thinking enters into Darwin's arguments and those of evolutionists through much of the twentieth century, the tools of evolutionary game theory were not available to Darwin or most evolutionists until the 1970s, and its full scope has only unfolded in the last three decades. As a consequence, game theory is applied and appreciated rather spottily. Game theory not only applies to matrix games and social games, it also applies to speciation, macroevolution and perhaps even to cancer. I assert that life and natural selection are a game, and that game theory is the appropriate logic for framing and understanding adaptations. Its scope can include behaviours within species, state-dependent strategies (such as male, female and so much more), speciation and coevolution, and expands beyond microevolution to macroevolution. Game theory clarifies aspects of ecological and evolutionary stability in ways useful to understanding eco-evolutionary dynamics, niche construction and ecosystem engineering. In short, I would like to think that Darwin would have found game theory uniquely useful for his theory of natural selection. Let us see why this is so.

  9. Is Darwin dangerous?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    What defines a topic as controversial? How does one measure its significance? Is it what commentators find controversial, what most people think, or what generates the most heated debates? There is general agreement that evolution has been a controversial topic since the mid-nineteenth century...... narrative of science and religion with evolution versus creation has been and still is a particular favourite with the press. Consequently the media is complicit in maintaining evolution as a controversial topic. This is the reality natural history museums have to deal with when communicating evolution...

  10. On Darwin's 'metaphysical notebooks'. I: teleology and the project of a theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabi, L

    2001-01-01

    Huxley's essay On the Reception of the 'Origin of Species' brings us close to the issue of cause and of why- and how-questions in the understanding of the living world. The present contribution, which is divided into two parts, reviews the problem of Teleology as conceived by Huxley and re-examines Darwin as the author who revealed the existence of a 'foundations problem' in the explanation of an entire realm of nature, i.e., the problem of explaining such realm in terms of its own, specific legality, or iuxta sua propria principia. In the first part the enquiry is mainly focused on the secularization of natural history after Paley; in the second part it is mainly focused on the desubjectivization of the inquiry into natural history after Erasmus Darwin and Lamarck. The second part will be published in the next issue of Rivista di Biologia/Biology Forum. In the first part below an analysis is made of Notebooks M and N. The author disputes the correctness of conceiving them only as the works where Darwin envisages the 'metaphysical' themes later to become the subject of The Expression of the Emotions. He suggests to conceive of them also as the works where Darwin defines the terms of the general project of his own, peculiar evolutionary theory. The author then outlines the intellectual progress of Darwin from the inosculation to the transmutation hypotheses. Darwin's reading of Malthus appears to be analytically decisive, because it offers him the vintage point to attack the metaphysical and theological citadels on the morphological side. Darwin is thus able to re-consider Erasmus' comprehensive zoonomic project, by displacing it, however, from the old idea of the scala naturae to the new one of the "coral of life", and by emphasising the distinction between "the fittest" and "the best" vs. the tradition of Natural Theology.

  11. Scientific evaluation of Charles Dickens

    OpenAIRE

    Simkin, M. V.

    2009-01-01

    I report the results of the test, where the takers had to tell the prose of Charles Dickens from that of Edward Bulwer-Lytton, who is considered by many to be the worst writer in history of letters. The average score is about 50%, which is on the level of random guessing. This suggests that the quality of Dickens' prose is the same as of that of Bulwer-Lytton.

  12. The Darwin-Breit magnetic interaction and superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Essen, Hanno

    2013-01-01

    A number of facts indicating the relevance of the Darwin magnetic interaction energy in the superconducting phase are pointed out. The magnetic interaction term derived by Darwin is the same as the, so called, Breit term in relativistic quantum mechanics. While this term always is a small perturbation in few body systems it can be shown to be potentially dominating in systems of large numbers of electrons. It is therefore a natural candidate in the explanation of emergent phenomena---phenomena that only occur in sufficiently large systems. The dimensionless parameter that indicates the importance of the magnetic energy is the number of electrons times the classical electron radius divided by the size of the system. The number of electrons involved are only the electrons at the Fermi surface; electrons with lower energy cannot contribute to current density and thus not to the magnetic field. The conventional understanding of superconductivity has always been problematic and no really reductionistic derivation ...

  13. Darwinism determines technological survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevc, F.; Harkness, S.

    1996-10-01

    In an industry where new power plant planning and budgeting cycles stretch from one to three years, where a typical new generation product takes from five to 10 years to successfully enter the market and where some plants have a 30- to 50-year economic life, change is an evolutionary process. However, that change, driven by the application of new technologies, is inevitable. Twenty-five years ago, in 1971, gas turbines were perceived to have limited applications and were primarily used for part-time peaking duty. Today, they are the baseload, new power generation technology of choice. Nevertheless, more than 55% of the US`s electricity is still generated by coal-fired steam turbine plants, the technology of choice 25 years ago. Power generation technologies will evolve further, but it`s doubtful there will be any new concepts that are not evident in today`s laboratories. Twenty-five years from now, today`s coal-fires team turbine plants will still provide the majority of the electricity generated in the US. However, new natural gas or syngas-fired combined-cycle plants will make up the majority of the new additions, perhaps as much as 20% of the overall installed capacity in 2021. Still, during the next 25 years, a number of new generation technologies should become economically competitive and enter the market. Technologies moving from today`s demonstrations to widespread applications include: gasification, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, fuel cell hybrid cycles, and solar photovoltaics.

  14. Young Darwin and the ecology and extinctionof pleistocene south american fossil mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio F. Vizcaíno

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Duringhis two years in South America Charles Darwin became fascinated not only withthe lush vegetation of Brazil, but also with the gigantic Pleistocene mammals that hefound in the drier areas of Uruguay, and in the pampas and Patagonian coast of Argentina. These findings includedvarious ground sloths and glyptodonts among xenarthrans, and hoofed herbivoreslike Toxodon and Macrauchenia, in addition to horses and smallrodents. He concluded that the general assumption that large animals requireluxuriant vegetation was false and that vitiated the reasoning of geologists onsome aspects of Earth's history. He also reflected on the evident changes thatoccurred in the continent, the extinct fauna of which suggested to him ananalogy to southern parts of Africa. He wondered about our ignorance of biological traits inextinct creatures and the reasons for their extinction. Thus, not only did Darwin inspire phylogeneticstudies on fossil mammal lineages, he also opened a gate to the research ontheir behaviour, physiology and extinction; i.e., their palaeobiology. Whereasthe first approach was largely developed in South America beginning about thesecond half of the 19th century due to the intellectual influence ofFlorentino Ameghino, palaeobiology became a much more recent line of work, inapparent relation to innovations in methodology and technology. Thiscontribution provides an overview of recent contributions on the palaeobiologyof Pleistocene fossil mammals of South America as attempts to provide answers for Darwin's questions.

  15. Darwin forest at agua de la zorra: the first in situ forest discovered in South America by Darwin in 1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brea

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Agua de la Zorra area (near Uspallata, Mendoza, Argentina is one of the best renowned fossil localities of the country because of its spectacular in situ fossil forest. This forest was discovered by Charles Darwin in 1835, who described this forest as monotypic and assigned it a Tertiary age. Nowadays, this fossil locality is known as the Darwin Forest. Over a century and a half later it was reinterpreted as a mixed Middle Triassic forest and a new fossil monotypic palaeocommunity of horsetails was discovered. This palaeovegetation is included in the Paramillo Formation (i.e., lower section the Potrerillos Formation of northwestern Cuyo Basin, Mendoza province (69°12' W and 32°30' S. The sediments were deposited in a sinuous fluvial system, in which channel-filling sand bodies were associated with mud-dominated floodplain deposits. The palaeoforest grew on an andisol soil that developed on volcaniclastic floodplain deposits. It had a density of 427 -759 trees per hectare, and was constituted by conifers and corystosperms distributed in two arboreal strata. The highest reached 20-26 m tall, and was dominated by corystosperms, but it also included the tallest conifers. The second stratum, mainly composed of conifers, ranged between 16-20 m tall. The forest has also emergent corystosperms, which reached 30 m tall. The understorey was composed of ferns. Growth ring anatomy suggests that conifers could have had an evergreen habit. Structure of vegetation, growth ring analyses and sedimentation suggest that the forest developed under dry, subtropical, and strongly seasonal conditions.

  16. DARWIN Y LA IMPOSIBILIDAD DE CAUSAS FINALES EN LA BIOLOGÍA Darwin and the Impossibility of Final Causes in Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁLVARO CORRAL CUARTAS

    Full Text Available La teoría de la selección natural propuesta por Charles Darwin en su obra El origen de las especies no solo colocó las bases para una explicación coherente de los hechos fundamentales de la biología (el origen común de los seres vivos, la diversidad de individuos y especies y la transmisión de características hereditarias, sino que además introdujo maneras nuevas de hacer filosofía. La teoría de la selección natural hace superflua cualquier posibilidad de apelar a explicaciones de tipo finalista en la ciencia. Desde Aristóteles se conocen cuatro tipos de causa: la material, la formal, la eficiente y la final. Aunque la causa eficiente es el paradigma de explicación por exce-lencia de las ciencias naturales, la causa final sigue desempeñando un papel explicativo, por cuanto parece estar arraigada en nuestra estructura humana de pensamiento y la tendencia a presentar explicaciones finalistas sigue siendo recalcitrante. Quizá por estar los seres humanos tan familiarizados con la complejidad inherente a los procesos de diseño en las artes y en la técnica y quizá por la circunstancia de que los seres humanos organizamos casi todas nuestras acciones en torno a propósitos, es decir, a la definición de unos fines para los cuales buscamos unos medios, suponemos por vía de analogía que la naturaleza en su complejidad exige la presencia y acción de un diseñador inteligente. Kant en la Crítica de la facultad de juzgar hace una defensa del carácter "irrenunciable al género humano" de este modelo explicativo. Para contro-vertir esta opinión milenaria, me apoyaré, en investigaciones recientes de Richard Dawkins y de otros biólogos contemporáneos para mostrar con la evolución de ojos en la naturaleza que el surgimiento de órganos de alta complejidad puede ser explicado sin problema con la teoría de la selección natural propuesta por Darwin en 1859.Darwin’s theory of natural selection in The Origin of Species not only laid

  17. Natural Selection and Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rosas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo abordo los intentos, relativamente recientes, de dar una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación por selección natural. Mi exposición tiene una introducción y cuatro partes: en la primera explico en qué consiste la paradoja del altruismo biológico. En la segunda expongo la solución que apela a la selección de grupos, recientemente resurgida; la solución que presuntamente aplicó Charles Darwin cuando formuló sus reflexiones biológicas sobre la moralidad humana. En la tercera expongo la solución sociobiológica, que opta por negar que la selección natural pueda explicar directamente la moralidad humana. La moralidad se presenta más bien como opuesta a la naturaleza diseñada por selección natural. En la cuarta parte desarrollo brevemente una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación que beneficia a los individuos. No opone la moralidad a la naturaleza, ni apela a la selección de grupos. Se sirve de un mecanismo de selección que opera a través de preferencias en la interacción social.Abstract:In this essay, I address recent attempts to account for morality as an adaptation due to natural selection. After a brief introduction, my exposition has four sections. I first explain the paradox of biological altruism. Second, I explain the solution to the paradox in terms of group selection. This solution was presumably applied by Darwin himself as he discussed human morality, and it has experienced a recent revival, though it remains suspicious to most biologists. In the third section I offer a socio-biological solution that opts for denying that morality can be explained by any form of natural selection. Morality is opposed to human nature as designed by natural selection. In the fourth, I argue for an explanation in terms of individual selection. It does not oppose morality to nature, and does not need the workings of group selection; rather, it operates through the agents’ psychological preferences

  18. Aesthetic evolution by mate choice: Darwin's really dangerous idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prum, Richard O

    2012-08-19

    Darwin proposed an explicitly aesthetic theory of sexual selection in which he described mate preferences as a 'taste for the beautiful', an 'aesthetic capacity', etc. These statements were not merely colourful Victorian mannerisms, but explicit expressions of Darwin's hypothesis that mate preferences can evolve for arbitrarily attractive traits that do not provide any additional benefits to mate choice. In his critique of Darwin, A. R. Wallace proposed an entirely modern mechanism of mate preference evolution through the correlation of display traits with male vigour or viability, but he called this mechanism natural selection. Wallace's honest advertisement proposal was stridently anti-Darwinian and anti-aesthetic. Most modern sexual selection research relies on essentially the same Neo-Wallacean theory renamed as sexual selection. I define the process of aesthetic evolution as the evolution of a communication signal through sensory/cognitive evaluation, which is most elaborated through coevolution of the signal and its evaluation. Sensory evaluation includes the possibility that display traits do not encode information that is being assessed, but are merely preferred. A genuinely Darwinian, aesthetic theory of sexual selection requires the incorporation of the Lande-Kirkpatrick null model into sexual selection research, but also encompasses the possibility of sensory bias, good genes and direct benefits mechanisms.

  19. Evolution by epigenesis: farewell to Darwinism, neo- and otherwise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balon, Eugene K

    2004-01-01

    In the last 25 years, criticism of most theories advanced by Darwin and the neo-Darwinians has increased considerably, and so did their defense. Darwinism has become an ideology, while the most significant theories of Darwin were proven unsupportable. The critics advanced other theories instead of 'natural selection' and the survival of the fittest'. 'Saltatory ontogeny' and 'epigenesis' are such new theories proposed to explain how variations in ontogeny and novelties in evolution are created. They are reviewed again in the present essay that also tries to explain how Darwinians, artificially kept dominant in academia and in granting agencies, are preventing their acceptance. Epigenesis, the mechanism of ontogenies, creates in every generation alternative variations in a saltatory way that enable the organisms to survive in the changing environments as either altricial or precocial forms. The constant production of two such forms and their survival in different environments makes it possible, over a sequence of generations, to introduce changes and establish novelties--the true phenomena of evolution. The saltatory units of evolution remain far-from-stable structures capable of self-organization and self-maintenance (autopoiesis).

  20. The Lake Charles CCS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doug Cathro

    2010-06-30

    The Lake Charles CCS Project is a large-scale industrial carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) project which will demonstrate advanced technologies that capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from industrial sources into underground formations. Specifically the Lake Charles CCS Project will accelerate commercialization of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage from industrial sources by leveraging synergy between a proposed petroleum coke to chemicals plant (the LCC Gasification Project) and the largest integrated anthropogenic CO{sub 2} capture, transport, and monitored sequestration program in the U.S. Gulf Coast Region. The Lake Charles CCS Project will promote the expansion of EOR in Texas and Louisiana and supply greater energy security by expanding domestic energy supplies. The capture, compression, pipeline, injection, and monitoring infrastructure will continue to sequester CO{sub 2} for many years after the completion of the term of the DOE agreement. The objectives of this project are expected to be fulfilled by working through two distinct phases. The overall objective of Phase 1 was to develop a fully definitive project basis for a competitive Renewal Application process to proceed into Phase 2 - Design, Construction and Operations. Phase 1 includes the studies attached hereto that will establish: the engineering design basis for the capture, compression and transportation of CO{sub 2} from the LCC Gasification Project, and the criteria and specifications for a monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) plan at the Hastings oil field in Texas. The overall objective of Phase 2, provided a successful competitive down-selection, is to execute design, construction and operations of three capital projects: (1) the CO{sub 2} capture and compression equipment, (2) a Connector Pipeline from the LLC Gasification Project to the Green Pipeline owned by Denbury and an affiliate of Denbury, and (3) a comprehensive MVA system at the Hastings oil field.

  1. Geology of the area of Bahía Blanca, Darwin's view and the presentknowledge: a story of 10 million years Geología del área de Bahía Blanca, los comentarios de Darwin y elconocimiento actual: una historia de 10millones de años

    OpenAIRE

    Quattrocchio,Mirta E; Cecilia M. Deschamps; Carlos A. Zavala; Silvia C. Grill; Ana M. Borrome

    2009-01-01

    Theaim of this paper is to give an updated outlook of the scenery described byCharles Darwin when he visited Bahía Blanca and surrounding areas, following the itinerary during hisvoyage on board HMS Beagle. Such an outlook is a state of the art of thecurrent understanding of the Late Miocene-Holocene history in the southwestern Pampas (Argentina). Multidisciplinaryresults were integrated in a chronosequence chart synthesizing the suggestedspace-time correlation of the recognized events. Some ...

  2. 达尔文的宗教观%The Evolution of Charles Darwin's Religious Conviction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳博赟

    2014-01-01

    本文是对达尔文的宗教观演化过程的考证.达尔文早年的时候是正统的圣公会信徒,并且在剑桥大学接受神学教育,预备出任神职.但他毕业之后并没有直接成为神职人员,而是随“猎犬号”出海,在南美、澳洲等地进行科学考察.航行归来之后,达尔文渐渐对正统基督教教义产生了怀疑.在心爱的女儿不幸夭折之后,他放弃了对位格上帝的信仰,成为了自然神论者.《物种起源》就是出版于这个时期.到了晚年,达尔文对创造者上帝的信仰也淡化以至于无有,成为了不可知论者.他虽然有的时候仍然倾向于相信超自然上帝的存在,但并未回归正统基督教信仰.

  3. 达尔文对我的影响%Charles Darwin's influence on my life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洛杰·梅森; 张晓

    2009-01-01

    查尔斯·达尔文生于1809年2月12日。200年后,他在我的祖国英国成了民族英雄。全世界各地都在以各种形式纪念他的200年诞辰,比如,电视、广播、图书、博物馆展览、研讨会,以及各种各样的活动。今年也正值达尔文的著作《物种起源》——这本备受争议的书一一出版150年。

  4. On the origin of death: Paul and Augustine meet Charles Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izak J.J. Spangenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the 4th century, Christian theologians have linked Romans 5:12–21 with Genesis 2–3. Augustine (354–430, one of the Latin fathers of the Church, propagated the idea of ‘original sin’ according to his reading of these chapters. This idea eventually became a fixed doctrine in Western Christianity and a large number of Christians still believe and proclaim that humans would have lived for ever but for the misconduct of Adam and Eve. They also proclaim that Jesus, through his obedience, death and resurrection, re-established God’s original creation plan. Death was conquered and eternal life can be inherited by all who believe in Jesus as saviour and second Adam. However, since both the introduction of the theory of evolution into biology and the paradigm shift in biblical studies (at the end of the 19th century, the view that death was to be linked to ‘original sin’ came under severe criticism. This article argues that Romans 5:12–21 and Genesis 2–3 do not support the idea of ‘original sin’ and that death is a normal part of life on earth, as argued by evolutionary biologists and proclaimed by many Old Testament texts.

  5. Quantum Darwinism in hazy environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Quan, H. T.; Zurek, Wojciech

    2010-03-01

    Quantum Darwinism provides an information-theoretic framework for the emergence of the classical world from the quantum substrate. It recognizes that we - the observers - acquire our information about the ``systems of interest'' indirectly from their imprints on the environment. Objectivity, a key property of the classical world, arises via the proliferation of redundant information into the environment where many observers can then intercept it and independently determine the state of the system. After a general introduction to this framework, we demonstrate how non-ideal initial states of the environment (e.g., mixed states) affect its ability to act as a communication channel for information about the system. The environment's capacity for transmitting information is directly related to its ability to increase its entropy. Therefore, environments that remain nearly invariant under the Hamiltonian dynamics, such as very mixed states, have a diminished ability to transmit information. However, despite this, the environment almost always redundantly transmits information about the system.

  6. Climate Prediction Center Darwin Sea Level Pressure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It contains Darwin sea level pressures and anomalies during 1951-present. The anomalies are departures...

  7. Darwin and the Universities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Ruth

    1984-01-01

    The struggle for academic freedom in nineteenth century Ontario was closely bound to the acceptance of evolutionary theory. A history is given of the impact of Darwin's theories on the evolution of academic freedom in Canadian universities. (CJB)

  8. Paleontology and Darwin's Theory of Evolution: The Subversive Role of Statistics at the End of the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, Marco

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines the subversive role of statistics paleontology at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. In particular, I will focus on German paleontology and its relationship with statistics. I argue that in paleontology, the quantitative method was questioned and strongly limited by the first decade of the 20th century because, as its opponents noted, when the fossil record is treated statistically, it was found to generate results openly in conflict with the Darwinian theory of evolution. Essentially, statistics questions the gradual mode of evolution and the role of natural selection. The main objections to statistics were addressed during the meetings at the Kaiserlich-Königliche Geologische Reichsanstalt in Vienna in the 1880s. After having introduced the statistical treatment of the fossil record, I will use the works of Charles Léo Lesquereux (1806-1889), Joachim Barrande (1799-1833), and Henry Shaler Williams (1847-1918) to compare the objections raised in Vienna with how the statistical treatment of the data worked in practice. Furthermore, I will discuss the criticisms of Melchior Neumayr (1845-1890), one of the leading German opponents of statistical paleontology, to show why, and to what extent, statistics were questioned in Vienna. The final part of this paper considers what paleontologists can derive from a statistical notion of data: the necessity of opening a discussion about the completeness and nature of the paleontological data. The Vienna discussion about which method paleontologists should follow offers an interesting case study in order to understand the epistemic tensions within paleontology surrounding Darwin's theory as well as the variety of non-Darwinian alternatives that emerged from the statistical treatment of the fossil record at the end of the 19th century.

  9. Charles Peyrou: 1918-2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Charles Peyrou, who was one of the outstanding personalities at CERN for thirty years, passed away on 6 April 2003. Born in Oloron-Sainte-Marie (France) on 18 May 1918, Charles Peyrou studied at the Ecole Polytechnique, where he attended the first class given by Louis Leprince-Ringuet in 1936. Here, he was part of the small group of enthusiastic physicists who took part in the first cosmic ray experiments. In 1938, the group built its first chamber, a large Wilson chamber in a magnetic field, operating with Geiger counters. After the war, following his appointment as chief engineer of one of the large national technical institutes known as the Corps de l'Etat, he was detached to his old laboratory to resume research on cosmic rays, and a system of two superimposed cloud chambers was set up at the Pic du Midi. This device proved very effective in the study of the strange particles that were starting to be detected at that time. Here, for example, the disintegration of the K meson into a muon and a neutrino wa...

  10. Darwin, la evolución y el lenguaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Casas Navarro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En esta comunicación, dilucidaremos el problema del origen del lenguajedesde una perspectiva evolucionista. Nuestras reflexiones giraránen torno a preguntas como las siguientes: ¿Es el lenguaje producto deuna adaptación? ¿El desarrollo del lenguaje se puede dar cuenta con lahipótesis de una evolución gradual? O, según la pintoresca expresiónde Diamond (1994: 219, cómo conformar “una imagen coherente de laevolución del lenguaje de nuestros ancestros, desde los gruñidos hastalos sonetos de Shakespeare”. Dado que el análisis de estos tópicos sehará desde su raíz, nos remontaremos a las ideas de Charles Darwinsobre el asunto. Evidentemente, no nos circunscribiremos a una simpleexégesis de la obra darwiniana; en consecuencia, incidiremos en losenfoques y datos de las investigaciones más recientes. En particular,haremos una referencia a la obra de Noam Chomsky y al proyecto queél denomina “Biolingüística”. Esta última acotación es relevante porqueentre Darwin y el lingüista norteamericano se erigió, hace unas décadas,un desacuerdo íntimo que, en los últimos años, podría haber sidosuperado.

  11. [Mental health in Pointe-St-Charles : towards collective responsibility.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, L

    1978-01-01

    The Pointe St-Charles Community Clinic is a popular, user-run clinic, where psychiatric treatment is integrated into the services of the medical-social teams, and where, more globally, an attitude of a collective responsability for mental health is beginning to develop as a result of the active involvement, on the part of both clinic workers and users, in the social change process and the optimal use of the natural community ressource network.

  12. Contribuições axiológicas à educação científica: valores cognitivos e a seleção natural de Darwin Axiological contributions to science education: cognitive values and Darwin's natural selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irinéa de Lourdes Batista

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, muitos autores têm discorrido sobre o papel dos valores nas atividades científicas. Ao se buscar por novas maneiras de se compreenderem os motivos, processos e resultados dessas atividades, considerável relevância é atribuída ao fato de que as práticas científicas devem ser compreendidas segundo seu contexto histórico-social. Pautando-se na pertinência de pesquisas comprometidas com o estudo das influências axiológicas na dinâmica da Ciência, apresenta-se, neste artigo, uma discussão acerca do papel que os valores cognitivos podem desempenhar na compreensão de uma teoria biológica - seleção natural - mediante uma síntese histórico-epistemológica e demais aportes histórico-filosóficos, com o objetivo de investigar o desenvolvimento de uma nova estratégia de abordagem para o ensino dos conteúdos evolutivos no ensino de Biologia.In recent years, many authors have discussed the role of values in scientific activities. When searching for new ways to understand the reasons, processes and results of these activities, considerable relevance is given to the fact that scientific practices should be understood according to their social historical context. Based on the relevance of research committed to the study of the axiological influences on the dynamics of science, the present article discusses the role that the cognitive values may have upon the understanding of a biological theory - natural selection - through an epistemological historical synthesis and other philosophic historical contributions, aiming to investigate the development of a new strategic approach to teaching the evolutionary content in Biology teaching.

  13. As teorias de Lamarck e Darwin nos livros didáticos de Biologia no Brasil Lamarck's and Darwin's theories in text books of Biology in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argus Vasconcelos de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As teorias de Lamarck e Darwin são analisadas numa amostra de livros didáticos brasileiros de biologia, num período de sessenta anos. A de Darwin ocupa, nos livros didáticos, uma área maior do que a de Lamarck. Nestes é variável a extensão do conteúdo de Lamarck. Dentre os livros, destacam-se as edições do BSCS. Nestas, pela primeira vez, é apresentado o exemplo da figura do alongamento do pescoço da girafa, para ilustrar as diferenças de abordagem entre as teorias, e reproduzido desde então na maioria dos livros didáticos. Na teoria de Darwin, o principal conceito referenciado pelos autores é o da seleção natural, e, na de Lamarck, a herança dos caracteres adquiridos. As duas teorias são diferentemente apresentadas nos livros didáticos de biologia no Brasil. Darwin é apresentado como modelo de cientista e Lamarck como um teórico especulativo, tendo a sua teoria consideravelmente deformada, distante da formulação original.Theories formulated by Lamarck and Darwin are analyzed in a sample of Brazilian textbooks on biology published in a period of sixty years. Darwin's theory is covered more than Lamarck's theory. Among the analyzed books, an important mention must be addressed for BSCS editions, since the example of the elongation of the giraffes" necks for illustrating differences between both theories is presented in this series for the first time, and since then has been adopted by the majority of other textbooks on biology. The main concepts presented as representative of Darwin's and Lamarck's theories by all textbooks are natural selection and the inheritance of acquired characters, respectively. Not only theories but also the authors are differently presented in reviewed textbooks: while Darwin is presented as a model of scientist, Lamarck appears as a speculative theoretician, his theoretical propositions being remarkably deformed and changed from their original formulations.

  14. The influence of James and Darwin on Cajal and his research into the neuron theory and evolution of the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Francisco R M; Nogueira, Maria I; Defelipe, Javier

    2014-01-01

    In this article we discuss the influence of William James and Charles Darwin on the thoughts of Santiago Ramón y Cajal concerning the structure, plasticity, and evolution of the nervous system at the cellular level. Here we develop Cajal's notion that neuronal theory is a necessary condition to explain the plasticity of neural connections. Although the roots of the term "plasticity" in reference to neuroscience are not completely clear, Cajal was an important figure in the propagation and popularization of its use. It is true that he carried out a large number of studies throughout his career in favor of the neuronal theory, but perhaps one of the most interesting aspects of his studies was his innovative capacity to interpret structure as being the result of evolutionary mechanisms, i.e., natural selection. This capacity would ultimately lead Cajal to the conclusion that, in relation to the histology of the nervous system, such selection occurs in the establishment of connections between cells. The present article is divided into five sections: (1) Learning and general notions of organic plasticity in the 19th century; (2) The idea of "mental" plasticity proposed by James; (3) Neuronal theory and "structural" plasticity: general considerations; (4) Evolutionary factors of the nervous system in Cajal's work; and (5) Final considerations.

  15. The influence of James and Darwin on Cajal and his research into the neuron theory and evolution of the nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rômulo Monte Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss the influence of William James and Charles Darwin on the thoughts of Ramón y Cajal concerning the structure, plasticity and evolution of the nervous system at the cellular level. Here we develop Cajal’s notion that neuronal theory is a necessary condition to explain the plasticity of neural connections. Although the roots of the term ‘plasticity’ in reference to neuroscience are not completely clear, Cajal was an important figure in the propagation and popularization of its use. It is true that he carried out a large number of studies throughout his career in favor of the neuronal theory, but perhaps one of the most interesting aspects of his studies was his innovative capacity to interpret structure as being the result of evolutionary mechanisms, i.e., natural selection. This capacity would ultimately lead Cajal to the conclusion that, in relation to the histology of the nervous system, such selection occurs in the establishment of connections between cells.

  16. The Darwin Enterprise: From Scientific Icon to Global Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1970s historians were beginning to complain about “The Darwin Industry” as being too crowded. Enough was enough, many felt, firmly believing that historians could not possibly go on saying something interesting about Darwin. Since then, historians of science working on Darwin and evol......In the early 1970s historians were beginning to complain about “The Darwin Industry” as being too crowded. Enough was enough, many felt, firmly believing that historians could not possibly go on saying something interesting about Darwin. Since then, historians of science working on Darwin...

  17. Foundations of a mathematical theory of darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Charles J K; Crewe, Paul; Grafen, Alan; Gratwick, Richard

    2014-08-01

    This paper pursues the 'formal darwinism' project of Grafen, whose aim is to construct formal links between dynamics of gene frequencies and optimization programmes, in very abstract settings with general implications for biologically relevant situations. A major outcome is the definition, within wide assumptions, of the ubiquitous but problematic concept of 'fitness'. This paper is the first to present the project for mathematicians. Within the framework of overlapping generations in discrete time and no social interactions, the current model shows links between fitness maximization and gene frequency change in a class-structured population, with individual-level uncertainty but no uncertainty in the class projection operator, where individuals are permitted to observe and condition their behaviour on arbitrary parts of the uncertainty. The results hold with arbitrary numbers of loci and alleles, arbitrary dominance and epistasis, and make no assumptions about linkage, linkage disequilibrium or mating system. An explicit derivation is given of Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection in its full generality.

  18. Darwin ò el conflicto aparente entre la teoría de la selección natural y la hipótesis de la pangénesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Luis Eugenio

    2009-12-01

    ]>

    RESUMEN

    Tendiendo como objetivo buscar una compresión más integral de la obra de Darwin, presento una reflexión sobre el desarrollo de sus ideas, resaltando las influencias que la visión mecánica de la naturaleza por un lado y el lamarckismo y las teorías recapitulacionistas por el otro, ejercieron sobre él. Se destaca la originalidad de su propuesta de teoría de la selección natural surgida por comparación con el cruce dirigido y fundamentada en una interpretación de la naturaleza como sistema económico donde se aplica la ley de población de Malthus. Sin embargo, quiero relatar que su preocupación por el estudio de las leyes de la variación lo llevo a matizar varias situaciones donde muestra la dificultad de explicar la influencia del medio ambiente en la variación evolutiva. En este contexto se comprende

  19. Darwin without borders? Looking at 'generalised Darwinism' through the prism of the 'hourglass model'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit, Georgy S; Hossfeld, Uwe

    2011-12-01

    This article critically analyzes the arguments of the 'generalized Darwinism' recently proposed for the analysis of social-economical systems. We argue that 'generalized Darwinism' is both restrictive and empty. It is restrictive because it excludes alternative (non-selectionist) evolutionary mechanisms such as orthogenesis, saltationism and mutationism without any examination of their suitability for modeling socio-economic processes and ignoring their important roles in the development of contemporary evolutionary theory. It is empty, because it reduces Darwinism to an abstract triple-principle scheme (variation, selection and inheritance) thus ignoring the actual structure of Darwinism as a complex and dynamic theoretical structure inseparable from a very detailed system of theoretical constraints. Arguing against 'generalised Darwinism' we present our vision of the history of evolutionary biology with the help of the 'hourglass model' reflecting the internal dynamic of competing theories of evolution.

  20. THE TRAGIC IN CHARLES BUKOWSKI

    OpenAIRE

    LUIS FERNANDO GONCALVES BALBY

    2014-01-01

    Esta dissertação pretende lançar luz sobre a escrita poética de Charles Bukowski pela relação por ela estabelecida com a filosofia trágica de Nietzsche lida, a sua vez, com o auxílio da obra Nietzsche e a filosofia de Deleuze. Tal aproximação entre a atividade do poeta e o pensamento dos filósofos sustenta-se nas referências comuns pelos conceitos de força, corpo, vontade, potência e arte. Sendo assim, a perspectiva de análise da dissertação afasta-se das noções de biográfico e auto ficcional...

  1. Mental Darwinism and the evolution of the emotion-processing mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langs, R

    1996-01-01

    The cognitive mental module with which humans process and adapt to emotionally charged environmental or triggering events is identified as the emotion-processing mind. The current architecture of this mental module presents several anomalous features. In an effort to clarify their basis, the evolution of this module is traced for the 6,000,000-year history of hominid existence. In addition, the nature of its current adaptive resources are explored as a way of introducing mental Darwinism, the concept that the emotion-processing mind is an adaptive entity that operates according to the principles of universal Darwinism.

  2. DARWIN Y LA PARADOJA DE LAS ISLAS VACÍAS Darwin and the Empty Island Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN FELIPE BLANCO

    Full Text Available Aunque se conoce el interés y fascinación de Darwin por la naturaleza marina a través de sus tratados sobre arrecifes coralinos, islas oceánicas y balanos, poco se comenta sobre los múltiples ejemplos dulceacuícolas que él utilizó para plantear la -teoría de la migración- dentro de -El origen-. Ésta plantea que la fauna y la flora se -dispersan- desde los continentes hacia las islas oceánicas. Sin embargo, en la islas muy alejadas de los centros de origen la probabilidad de colonización es muy baja y por lo tanto solo se encuentra una fracción de la biota continental, pudiendo considerarse en algunos casos -vacías-. Aunque las corrientes de agua de dichas islas también se consideran -vacías-, Darwin propuso un mecanismo para explicar la presencia de peces -dulceacuícolas- en las mismas, y por lo tanto no podrían considerarse -vacías-, lo cual plantea una paradoja. El mecanismo planteado por él coincide con el ciclo de vida conocido actualmente como diádromo en el cual los individuos de muchas especies de peces, camarones y gasterópodos requieren de aguas marinas y dulces para completar su desarrollo. La diadromía es una convergencia evolutiva que apareció en diferentes linajes a partir de ancestros tanto marinos como dulceacuícolas. En este ensayo se discute la evolución de la fauna dulceacuícola insular, sus implicaciones ecológicas y evolutivas, y algunos modelos experimentales. Finalmente, se discute sobre los impactos de las represas en islas tropicales y subtropicales sobre las especies diádromas.Although Darwin's fascination and interest on marine nature are well known due to his treatises about coral reefs, oceanic islands, and barnacles, little is commented about the many -freshwater- examples that he provided for supporting -The Migration Theory- in his book -The Origin of the Species-. According to this theory, faunas and floras disperse from continents to oceanic islands. However, those islands located at

  3. Charles bonnet syndrome: treating nonpsychiatric hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Diem; Osterweil, Dan; Hoffman, Janice

    2013-03-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is characterized by recurrent or persistent complex visual hallucinations that occur in visually impaired individuals with intact cognition and no evidence of psychiatric illness. Patients usually retain insight into the unreal nature of their hallucinations.3,4 CBS is often misdiagnosed, and predominantly affects elderly patients with vision changes (e.g., age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and cataract). While many require only the assurance of the benign nature of the hallucinations, nonpharmacological and pharmacological interventions have been reported to be useful in the treatment of CBS. This case involves an 83-year-old female, with a two-year history of CBS, who presented to the clinic with worsening visual hallucinations over the past few months. She was starting to lose insight into her hallucinations secondary to her new diagnosis of dementia. Several pharmacological agents were explored to determine the most appropriate choice for our patient. Ultimately, this patient was started on donepezil (reported to be successful in a CBS case report), which helped improve her cognitive function. At future follow-up visits, her hallucinations improved and her cognitive function stabilized. Pharmacists should be aware of CBS and its treatment options to properly assist physicians in the medication-selection process to alleviate distress experienced by patients with CBS. In patients who may benefit from pharmacological treatment, physicians should weigh the risks and benefits of the different treatment options. Donepezil can be a favorable option in CBS patients with Alzheimer's type dementia.

  4. Getting Our History Right: Six Errors about Darwin and His Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiram Caton

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Darwin Exhibition created by the American Museum of Natural History is the centerpiece of the bicentennial of Darwin's birth. It opened in November 2005 and will circulate to a number of museums before terminating at the London Natural History Museum in February 2009. The Exhibition is also a major contributor to online instruction about evolution for schools. The quality of the Exhibition's narrative is accordingly of some significance. This paper argues that the narrative is the legendary history that dominates public opinion. The legend has been thoroughly disassembled by historical research over recent decades. My criticism is organized as six theses. (1 Publication of the Origin was not a sudden (“revolutionary” interruption of Victorian society's confident belief in the traditional theological world-view. (2 The Origin did not “revolutionize” the biological sciences by removing the creationist premise or introducing new principles. (3 The Origin did not revolutionize Victorian public opinion. The public considered Darwin and Spencer to be teaching the same lesson, known today as “Social Darwinism”, which, though fashionable, never achieved dominance. (4 Many biologists expressed significant disagreements with Darwin's principles. (5 Darwin made little or no contribution to the renovation of theology. His public statements on Providence were inconsistent and the liberal reform of theology was well advanced by 1850. (6 The so-called “Darwinian revolution” was, at the public opinion level, the fashion of laissez-faire economic beliefs backed by Darwin and Spencer's inclusion of the living world in the economic paradigm.

  5. Giuseppe Sergi, "champion" of Darwinism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpone, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The Italian anthropologist, psychologist and evolutionist Giuseppe Sergi (1841-1936) may be regarded in some respects today as an "atypical" Darwinist, but, almost paradoxically, he was considered a "champion" of Darwinism by colleagues and commentators of his own time. Probably, two aspects of his work are responsible for this apparent anomaly: his faith in the so-called soft inheritance and his claims regarding a theory concerning the polyphyletic origin of human races. The soft inheritance theory, however, was needed by Sergi to support ideas regarding the complexity of inheritance in man, a fact that, in his opinion, could not completely be put down to mechanical laws, and polygeny was useful when trying to rectify the problem concerning the incompleteness of the fossil record. In both cases, it is possible to show that he was involved in supporting Darwinian theory during the most severe crisis of its consensus in Italy and at International level, between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. Finally, the apparent unorthodox features which can be found in Sergi's ideas appear to be, in Kuhnian terms, ad hoc hypotheses put forward by Sergi himself in order to support the paradigm.

  6. Darwin-industrien i højt gear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Darwin-industrien i højt gear. Næste år bliver et 'Darwin-år' - både tilhængere og kritikere gør sig klar. Udgivelsesdato: 12. december......Darwin-industrien i højt gear. Næste år bliver et 'Darwin-år' - både tilhængere og kritikere gør sig klar. Udgivelsesdato: 12. december...

  7. Darwin and Lotka: Two Concepts of Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kreager

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Population was the subject of two major conceptual developments in the second quarter of the 20th century. Both were inspired by evolutionary biology. Lotka developed a mathematics of evolution in human and other species by analogy to thermodynamic models. His theory followed demographic practice in treating populations as closed units, commonly macro-scale, and in inferring underlying processes of change from aggregate outcomes. In contrast, the evolutionary synthesis - a collaborative product of research in experimental and population genetics, natural history, and related fields of biology - followed Darwin in insisting that close observation of small-scale population processes and local environments is necessary to understand population change. Because gene-environment interactions rely on expanding and contracting networks of individuals, the populations in question are by nature open. Despite the apparent conflict between these positions, the synthesis broke new ground in the history of population thought by showing how the two approaches could be combined. Demography, however, moved away from evolutionary and population biology as a source of theory in the early post-war era, and this conceptual redevelopment of population was scarcely remarked upon. More recently, the tremendous development of genetics has recalled demographers' attention to evolutionary theory as an inescapable element of modern population thought. This paper provides a historical introduction to mid-20th-century developments in Darwinian population thinking, and the implications of its dual conceptualisation of population for demography. Its potential importance extends beyond the problem of gene-environment interactions to many aspects of social network analysis.

  8. Introducing Students to Darwin via the Voyage of HMS "Beagle"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swab, Janice C.

    2010-01-01

    I use the diary that Darwin wrote during the voyage of HMS Beagle and recent images of a few of the places he visited to illustrate some comparisons between Darwin's world and ours. For today's students, increasingly committed to environmental issues, this may be an especially promising way to introduce Darwin.

  9. Darwin's observation in South America: what did he find at agua de la zorra, Mendoza province? Las observaciones de Darwin en Sudamérica: ¿Qué encontró en Agua de la Zorra, provincia de Mendoza?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Poma

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Scarcely 23 km from Uspallata, along the track of the old national highway 7, lies the district of Agua de la Zorra, in Mendoza province in western Argentina. Charles Darwin visited the area during his South American journeys in the 19th century and discovered a geological sequence that contained a paleoflora never described before. The flora includes an important number of species, particularly what is considered a small conifer forest with many silicified trunks still in life position. Darwin described and interpreted the sequence as sedimentary; his records show a very detailed level of observation. He also wondered about the processes that would cause the burial of the paleoflora, which he considered had happened in a marine sedimentary environment. In the modern geological framework and after a detailed study of the rocks containing the trunks, it is now interpreted that the conifer forest was buried by pyroclastic flows. Darwin accurately described the fine volcanic materials as an essential part of the deposit, but the key of the enigma about the origin of the deposits and the burial of the forest is the identification of the pyroclastic flow features; these were unknown process at the time of Darwin´s observations and interpretation.A escasos 23 km de Uspallata, a lo largo de la antigua ruta nacional 7, se encuentra la localidad de Agua de la Zorra en la provincia de Mendoza al oeste de Argentina. La región fue explorada por Charles Darwin durante su viaje por Sudamérica en el siglo XIX. Allí descubrió una secuencia geológica conteniendo una paleoflora que no había sido descripta hasta entonces. La flora incluye un importante número de especies y particularmente, un pequeño bosque de coníferas, los que se encuentran silicificados, y en posición de vida. Darwin describió e interpretó la secuencia como sedimentaria; sus notas y descripciones muestran un alto nivel de detalle en las observaciones. Darwin además se cuestion

  10. Legacy of Enid Charles, 1894-1972

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wargon, Sylvia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Without a doubt, Enid Charles was an important pioneer and innovator who worked as a demographer and population statistics specialist in both developed and developing countries, until she was almost 70 years of age.

  11. Darwin and Darwinism: the (alleged) social implications of the origin of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, H Allen

    2009-11-01

    Most scientific theories, even revolutionary ones, change the practice of a particular science but have few consequences for culture or society at large. But Darwinism, it has often been said, is different in this respect. Since the publication of The Origin of Species, many have claimed that Darwinism has a number of profound social implications. Here, I briefly consider three of these: the economic, the political, and the religious. I suggest that, for the most part, these supposed implications have been misconstrued or exaggerated. Indeed, it is reasonably clear that the chain of implication sometimes primarily ran in the opposite direction-from, for instance, economics and political theory to Darwinism.

  12. Darwin on the Treatment of Animals: His Thoughts Then and His Influence Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Donna Yarri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution has seriously challenged traditional religious views on the origins of life, as well as on our human-animal similarities. Darwin is often referenced in literature on animal ethics with regard to his contention that the difference between humans and other animals is one of degree rather than of kind. This paper posits that Darwin’s writings and theory make more positive contributions to the contemporary debate on animal ethics than for which he has previously been given credit. This paper addresses important aspects of Darwin’s theory for understanding our relationship with other animals and the implications for their subsequent treatment. First, this paper considers themes in Darwin’s original writings regarding relationships among different species; second, enhancements to his theory in support of these themes; and third, recommendations for how these themes can and should inform our moral reasoning and successive treatment of other animals.

  13. The Evolution of Charles Dickens' Humanitarian Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆华

    2001-01-01

    Charles Dickens, as an important English novelist, criticised the English society of the Victorian Age,which reflects his humanitarian outlook. His humanitarian outlook includes his early optimism and mature satire as well as sentiment during the climax of his creation and his late years. Furthermore, Dickens' life experience as a man which helped to form his humanitarian outlook provided him with boundless writing resources, and then, he produced many excellent works.key words: Charles Dickens; the Victorian Age; Humanitarian Outlook; Evolution.

  14. Research and Application of the Darwin Streaming Server%Darwin Streaming server的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 周南; 高庆

    2008-01-01

    介绍了Darwin streaming server(DSS)源码的架构和核心流程;详细分析了Darwin streaming server的关键技术:媒体封包和流量控制:最后给出了Darwin streaming server的应用实例.

  15. Acute Charles Bonnet Syndrome following Hughes procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michelle E; Pointdujour-Lim, Renelle; Lally, Sara; Shields, Carol L; Rabinowitz, Michael P

    2016-10-01

    A 69-year-old male experienced monocular formed visual hallucinations after occlusion of the right eye following resection of eyelid basal cell carcinoma and reconstruction with a Hughes procedure (tarsoconjunctival flap). His symptoms included recurrent, well-defined, organized, complex, formed images of small children playing in the snow. These visual phenomena occurred only in the occluded eye, began several hours after surgery, and recurred intermittently several times daily for 4 days, lasting several minutes with each occurrence. The patient retained insight into the false nature of the images throughout the duration of his symptoms, and the hallucinations resolved spontaneously while the flap was still in place. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS) following a Hughes procedure in a patient with normal visual acuity in the non-occluded fellow eye. Unlike other reported cases of acute onset CBS following transient monocular occlusion, hallucinations in the occluded eye remitted prior to restoration of vision in the occluded eye. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the potential for CBS following even transient monocular occlusion and should consider warning patients about its potential to occur.

  16. [Charles Gerhardt's life and work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondel-Mégrelis, Marika

    2008-05-01

    Charles Gerhardt's life and work is rather well-known thanks to Grimaux and Tiffeneau. His reform of the equivalents, his classification, his obtention of organic acid anhydrids and his famous Treatise of Organic Chemistry. His active collaboration to the Revue scientifique et industrielle du Docteur Quesneville, the creation of his Comptes-Rendus des Travaux de Chimie. Are not so often quoted. Thanks to his translations and reviews, German chemical advancements became well known in France Gerhardt was Liebig's translator for almost all his life, even through the fluctuations of their personal relation. He was the representative of German chemistry in France. With Auguste Laurent, with whom he is constantly associated, things need to be examined precisely. Laurent and Gerhardt, friends at a moment, cannot be confounded. Though they worked together for some years, they were not engaged in a similar project. Besides an experimentalist, Laurent was essentially a theorician of chemistry, whereas Gerhardt refused to think about atoms and arrangements. Formulas have to describe relations between facts, in no case anything about arrangements. For posterity however, Gerhardt will be, on the same level as Laurent, the creator of modern chemistry doctrines.

  17. Charles Wagley: mentor and colleague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine L. Margolis

    Full Text Available Professor Charles Wagley was my mentor at Columbia University, my colleague at the University of Florida and a dear friend. His influence on me can be summarized in one word: Brazil. From the time I took his course, "Peoples of Brazil", as a first semester graduate student at Columbia I was captivated and most of my subsequent field research and publications have had Brazilian themes. Under Dr. Wagley's direction I did field research for my dissertation in the coffee region of northern Paraná and focused on the shift from coffee cultivation to cattle ranching and the social and economic consequences of that change. My subsequent research in the area involved the impact of frost on this shift in economic base as well as one of its results: the flight of poor Brazilians to Paraguay. Then starting in the late 1980s my research shifted and I began focusing on Brazilian immigrants in New York City. This was part of a growing movement of Brazilians arriving in New York, elsewhere in the United States and in Europe and Japan. Since then most of my subsequent research and publications have been on this new wave of international migrants

  18. Darwin and the Evolution of Human Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Karl; Hilbe, Christian

    Humans are characterized by a high propensity for cooperation. The emergence and stability of this trait is one of the hottest topics in evolutionary game theory, and leads to a wide variety of models offering a rich source of complex dynamics based on social interactions. This chapter offers an overview of different approaches to this topic (such as kin selection, group selection, direct and indirect reciprocity) and relates it to some of the views that Darwin expressed over 150 years ago. It turns out that, in many cases, Darwin displayed a remarkably lucid intuition of the major issues affecting the complex mechanisms promoting the evolution of cooperation.

  19. Inspiration in the harness of daily labor. Darwin, botany, and the triumph of evolution, 1859-1868.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Charles Darwin hoped that a large body of working naturalists would embrace evolution after the Origin of Species appeared in late 1859. He was disappointed. His evolutionary ideas at first made painfully little progress in the scientific community. But by 1863 the tide had turned dramatically, and within five years evolution became scientific orthodoxy in Britain. The Origin's reception followed this peculiar trajectory because Darwin had not initially tied its theory to productive original scientific investigation, which left him vulnerable to charges of reckless speculation. The debate changed with his successful application of evolution to original problems, most notably orchid fertilization, the subject of a well-received book in 1862. Most of Darwin's colleagues found the argument of the Origin convincing when they realized that it functioned productively in the day-to-day work of science-and not before. The conceptual force of the Origin, however outwardly persuasive, acquired full scientific legitimacy only when placed "in the harness of daily labour".

  20. Postglacial Fringing-Reef to Barrier-Reef conversion on Tahiti links Darwin's reef types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchon, Paul; Granados-Corea, Marian; Abbey, Elizabeth; Braga, Juan C.; Braithwaite, Colin; Kennedy, David M.; Spencer, Tom; Webster, Jody M.; Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2014-01-01

    In 1842 Charles Darwin claimed that vertical growth on a subsiding foundation caused fringing reefs to transform into barrier reefs then atolls. Yet historically no transition between reef types has been discovered and they are widely considered to develop independently from antecedent foundations during glacio-eustatic sea-level rise. Here we reconstruct reef development from cores recovered by IODP Expedition 310 to Tahiti, and show that a fringing reef retreated upslope during postglacial sea-level rise and transformed into a barrier reef when it encountered a Pleistocene reef-flat platform. The reef became stranded on the platform edge, creating a lagoon that isolated it from coastal sediment and facilitated a switch to a faster-growing coral assemblage dominated by acroporids. The switch increased the reef's accretion rate, allowing it to keep pace with rising sea level, and transform into a barrier reef. This retreat mechanism not only links Darwin's reef types, but explains the re-occupation of reefs during Pleistocene glacio-eustacy. PMID:24845540

  1. A Field Trip to the Archaean in Search of Darwin's Warm Little Pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damer, Bruce

    2016-05-25

    Charles Darwin's original intuition that life began in a "warm little pond" has for the last three decades been eclipsed by a focus on marine hydrothermal vents as a venue for abiogenesis. However, thermodynamic barriers to polymerization of key molecular building blocks and the difficulty of forming stable membranous compartments in seawater suggest that Darwin's original insight should be reconsidered. I will introduce the terrestrial origin of life hypothesis, which combines field observations and laboratory results to provide a novel and testable model in which life begins as protocells assembling in inland fresh water hydrothermal fields. Hydrothermal fields are associated with volcanic landmasses resembling Hawaii and Iceland today and could plausibly have existed on similar land masses rising out of Earth's first oceans. I will report on a field trip to the living and ancient stromatolite fossil localities of Western Australia, which provided key insights into how life may have emerged in Archaean, fluctuating fresh water hydrothermal pools, geological evidence for which has recently been discovered. Laboratory experimentation and fieldwork are providing mounting evidence that such sites have properties that are conducive to polymerization reactions and generation of membrane-bounded protocells. I will build on the previously developed coupled phases scenario, unifying the chemical and geological frameworks and proposing that a hydrogel of stable, communally supported protocells will emerge as a candidate Woese progenote, the distant common ancestor of microbial communities so abundant in the earliest fossil record.

  2. ARIMA模型在达尔文通信模式研究中的运用%An Application of ARIMA model in Study of Darwin's Mail Communication Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏士超; 高亮; 孙士钊; 李林灿

    2013-01-01

    首先利用ARIMA模型,研究了进化论的提出者查尔斯·达尔文(Charles R.Darwin,1809/02/12-1882/04/19)从1866到1879年期间的通信量变化规律,并根据模型优化的AIC和BIC准则求得ARIMA优化模型.接着,应用ARIMA优化模型,对达尔文1880至1881年的月通信数量的时间序列进行了预测.预测的月通信数量与实际通信数量的对比说明,ARIMA优化模型拟合效果良好,并能够较好的反映达尔文学术生涯后期实际通信量的时间变化规律.研究结果表明,ARIMA优化模型可以作为一种研究人类通信模式的有效模型加以广泛应用.%In this paper,time series of Charles R.Darwin's mail communication is investigated by ARIMA model.This time series is about Darwin's mail volume,including sent from and received by Darwin,during 1866 to 1879.According to BIC criterion,we get a group of parameters for ARIMA model.To forecast the Darwin's mail volume during 1880 to 1881,we employ ARIMA model with previously obtained parameters.The results show that the forecast of ARIMA model fit well with the real mail volume during 1880 to 1881,and ARIMA model with given parameters can reflect the time evolution of Darwin's mail communication in his scientific career.The results also show that the ARIMA model can be widely used as an effective model to study the human's mail communication pattern.

  3. Genealogy of John and Charles Bell: their relationship with the children of Charles Shaw of Ayr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, M

    2005-11-01

    The Reverend William Bell had six children who survived infancy. Two of his sons entered the legal profession and two other sons became distinguished anatomists and surgeons--John Bell, said for 20 years to have been the leading operating surgeon in Britain and throughout the world--and Sir Charles Bell, possibly the most distinguished anatomist and physiologist of his day. Information is not known about the fifth son or their sister. Charles Shaw, a lawyer of Ayr, had four sons and two daughters who survived infancy. Two of his sons, John and Alexander, became anatomists and later surgeons at the Middlesex Hospital, and both worked closely with Charles Bell at the Great Windmill Street School of Anatomy. His third son entered the law and his fourth son became a distinguished soldier. The two daughters of Charles Shaw married into the Bell family: Barbara married George Joseph Bell and Marion married Mr (later Sir) Charles Bell.

  4. Tidal Friction: Darwin's Theory Re-Visited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz-Mello, Sylvio

    2009-05-01

    Our knowledge of tidal friction is even today directly founded on Darwin's theory. Many progresses from studies done in the past century deserve mention. To quote just a few, we may mention Love's theory on the elastic response of one body submitted to an external potential and the understanding of the role played by tides in generating heat in synchronous planetary satellites. We may also mention the many applications that leaded to the understanding of the evolution of systems with close-in satellites, the Earth-Moon system in the first place, and those concerning systems formed by close binary stars. However, notwithstanding the existence of some high-order formal theories, the essential of our knowledge is yet nowadays the one established by Darwin and crucial questions on the action of viscosity, for instance, remains unanswered. We still are strongly tied to Darwin's assumption that the tidal waves lag proportionally to frequency or, in some favorable cases (e.g. the Earth), that the lags are constants. We intend to critically review our current understanding of Darwin's theory and some of its limitations.

  5. [Revisiting Darwin's theory of heredity-Pangenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Sheng

    2013-05-01

    Pangenesis, an early theory of heredity, has been regarded as Darwin's error for a long time. The main reason is that it explains the inheritance of acquired characteristics and graft hybridization, which were largely thought to be wrong. In addition, Galton's blood transfusion experiments obtained negative results, and no evidence was found to support Darwin's hypothetical gemmules-molecular carriers of hereditary characteristics, which are supposed to be thrown off by cells and are able to circulate throughout the body. Now, there are growing evidence for the inheritance of acquired characteristics and graft hybridization. The discovery of circulating nucleic acids indicates that there are indeed inherited molecules which can move between cells of the organism, providing evidence for the chemical existence of Darwin's gemmules. This paper briefly introduces Darwin's Pangenesis, the main reasons that it was ignored, the new evidence in support of it and our own rethinking about it. A new understanding of Pangenesis brings a broader perspective on genetics, evolution, and medicine.

  6. Darwin's Final Message: We Have No Honour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, James

    2000-01-01

    Examines current views in Great Britain on the genetic basis of violence and crime. Argues that evolutionary heretics have a flawed understanding of genetics and defend an anti-scientific concept of free will. Maintains that arguments within Darwinism have allowed evolutionary heretics to promote their own agenda and to continue to abuse the most…

  7. Congressional Social Darwinism and the American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinderman, Abraham

    1978-01-01

    Summarizing a congressional report on civil and military treatment of American Indians, this article asserts that the social Darwinism of the day prevailed among all congressional committee members ("Even friends of the Indian... knew American expansionism, technology, and racial ideology would reduce the Indian to a pitiful remnant...) (JC)

  8. Affine transformations capture beak shape variation in Darwin's Finches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Michael; Campas, Otger; Mallarino, Riccardo; Abzhanov, Arhat

    2009-11-01

    Evolution by natural selection has resulted in extraordinary morphological complexity of living organisms, whose description has thus far defied any precise mathematical characterization linked to the underlying developmental genetics. Here we demonstrate that the morphological diversity of the beaks of Darwin's finches, the classical example of adaptive morphological radiation, is quantitatively accounted for through the mathematical group of affine transformations. Specifically, we show that all beak shapes of Ground Finches (genus Geospiza) are related by scaling transformations (a subgroup of the affine group), and the same scheme occurs for all the beak shapes of Tree and Warbler finches. This analysis shows that the beak shapes within each of these groups differ only by their scales, such as length and depth, each of which is knownto be under genetic control.The complete morphological variability within the beaks of Darwin's finches can be explained by extending the scaling transformations to the entire affine group, by including shear transformations. Altogether our results suggest that the mathematical theory of groups can help decode morphological variability, and points to a potentially hierarchical structure of morphological diversity and the underlying developmental processes.

  9. SELECCIÓN NATURAL Y MORALIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rosas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este ensayo abordo los intentos, relativamente recientes, de dar una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación por selección natural. Mi exposición tiene una introducción y cuatro partes: en la primera explico en qué consiste la paradoja del altruismo biológico. En la segunda expongo la solución que apela a la selección de grupos, recientemente resurgida; la solución que presuntamente aplicó Charles Darwin cuando formuló sus reflexiones biológicas sobre la moralidad humana. En la tercera expongo la solución sociobiológica, que opta por negar que la selección natural pueda explicar directamente la moralidad humana. La moralidad se presenta más bien como opuesta a la naturaleza diseñada por selección natural. En la cuarta parte desarrollo brevemente una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación que beneficia a los individuos. No opone la moralidad a la naturaleza, ni apela a la selección de grupos. Se sirve de un mecanismo de selección que opera través de preferencias en la interacción social.

  10. Can Mathematics be Justified by Natural Logic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Lothar; Sommer, Hanns

    2010-11-01

    Charles Darwin claimed that the forms and the behaviour of living beings can be explained from their will to survive. But what are the consequences of this idea for humans knowledge, their theories of nature and their mathematics?. We discuss the view that even Plato's objective world of mathematical objects does not exist absolutely, without the intentions of mathematicians. Using Husserl's Phenomenological Method, cognition can be understood as a process by which meaning is deduced from empirical data relative to intentions. Thereby the essential structure of any cognition process can be detected and this structure is mirrored in logic. A natural logic becomes the direct result of cognition. Only in a second step, mathematics is obtained by abstraction from natural logic. In this way mathematics gains a well-defined foundation and is no longer part of a dubious 'a-priori knowledge' (Kant). This access to mathematics offers a new look on many old problems, e.g. the Petersburg problem and the problem 'P = NP?'. We demonstrate that this new justification of mathematics has also important applications in Artificial Intelligence. Our method provides a procedure to construct an adequate logic to solve most efficiently the problems of a given problem class. Thus, heuristics can be tailor-made for the necessities of applications.

  11. [Lamarck needs Darwin: the search for purpose in the study of evolution and of history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Lamarck's theory of the inheritance of acquired characteristics and immediate responses to environmental challenges has offered a promise of protagonism of human beings and their fellow travellers, the other organisms, in the evolutionary process. Darwin's theory about evolution by natural selection does not offer this consolation and does not presuppose anything else other than gradual changes in the composition of natural populations. The study of ecology, ethology, neurobiology, animal culture, psychology and human history reveals that the lamarckian interpretations of change and character transmission processes always assume what they intend to explain, that is previous processes of darwinian evolution that guarantee the adaptive nature of the observed responses. The permanent search of direction and intentionality in evolutionary processes by many scientists suggests the limited acceptance of materialistic explanations as those offered by Darwin's theory.

  12. Dois Likes de Darwin aos trabalhos de Carlos Ribeiro : ainda a questão do Homem Terciário

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    O autor tem como pano de fundo duas cartas assinadas por Charles Darwin (1809-1882), descobertas recentemente entre o acervo epistolar da Comissão Geológica de Portugal (1857-1918), hoje incorporado no Arquivo Histórico do Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia. Com base nessa documentação, recorda o envolvimento de Carlos Ribeiro (1813-1882), engenheiro chefe da Comissão e arqueólogo, na controversa questão do “Homem do Terciário português”, discutindo a possível ligação d...

  13. Professional Training for TRADOC Environmental and Natural Resource Professionals. Volume 2. Source Listings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    0- -0- -0 -0 -0 -0 -0- School Name: Bryant College School Address: 450 Douglas Pike. Smithfield RI 02917 Respondent: Timothy Cartwright . (401)232-6210...Research Arrangements With Other Institutions: Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, Oak Ridge Associated universities, Charles Darwin Research Station

  14. In Defense of Darwin's Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Bruce G.; Handford, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Examines issues regarding the defensibility and utility of natural selection as a scientific theory, focusing on the process of population change over time. Topics considered include criticisms of Darwinian theory, tautology and the meaning of fitness, the ability of theories to predict and explain, and the sufficiency of natural selection. (DH)

  15. Complex visual hallucinations in a Parkinson patient: don't blame James if it's Charles's fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Kurt

    2013-03-01

    A patient with a history of Parkinson's disease and severe bilateral peripheral vision loss due to vitreous hemorrhages had complex visual hallucinations that persisted for three days and appeared every morning on awakening. The persistent nature of these hallucinations, the patient's preserved insight, and the presence of severe visual impairment was suggestive for Charles Bonnet syndrome rather than Parkinson-related hallucinations. A treatment with carbamazepine was started and proved to be successful. Physicians treating Parkinson patients should be familiar with Charles Bonnet syndrome and consider it as a potential alternative etiology for visual hallucinations, especially when the patient has severely impaired vision and when the hallucinations are sustained during wakefulness.

  16. Group adaptation, formal darwinism and contextual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, S; Paternotte, C

    2012-06-01

    We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659-671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's 'formal Darwinism' project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions under which the selection-optimization links hold at the group level. We focus on an important distinction between two ways of understanding the links, which have different implications regarding group adaptationism. We show how the formal Darwinism approach can be reconciled with G.C. Williams' famous analysis of group adaptation, and we consider the relationships between group adaptation, the Price equation approach to multi-level selection, and the alternative approach based on contextual analysis.

  17. Low awareness of the Charles Bonnet syndrome in patients attending a retinal clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Amardeep; Subhi, Yousif; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Visually impaired patients may experience visual hallucinations due to the Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS). While benign in nature, these hallucinations may cause distress in those unfamiliar with the phenomenon. The overall purpose of this study was to determine the degree of awareness of CBS...

  18. Young Darwin and the ecology and extinctionof pleistocene south american fossil mammals El joven Darwin y la ecología y extinción de los mamíferos fósilessudamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio F. Vizcaíno

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Duringhis two years in South America Charles Darwin became fascinated not only withthe lush vegetation of Brazil, but also with the gigantic Pleistocene mammals that hefound in the drier areas of Uruguay, and in the pampas and Patagonian coast of Argentina. These findings includedvarious ground sloths and glyptodonts among xenarthrans, and hoofed herbivoreslike Toxodon and Macrauchenia, in addition to horses and smallrodents. He concluded that the general assumption that large animals requireluxuriant vegetation was false and that vitiated the reasoning of geologists onsome aspects of Earth's history. He also reflected on the evident changes thatoccurred in the continent, the extinct fauna of which suggested to him ananalogy to southern parts of Africa. He wondered about our ignorance of biological traits inextinct creatures and the reasons for their extinction. Thus, not only did Darwin inspire phylogeneticstudies on fossil mammal lineages, he also opened a gate to the research ontheir behaviour, physiology and extinction; i.e., their palaeobiology. Whereasthe first approach was largely developed in South America beginning about thesecond half of the 19th century due to the intellectual influence ofFlorentino Ameghino, palaeobiology became a much more recent line of work, inapparent relation to innovations in methodology and technology. Thiscontribution provides an overview of recent contributions on the palaeobiologyof Pleistocene fossil mammals of South America as attempts to provide answers for Darwin's questions.Durante los dos añosque Charles Darwin estuvo en América del Sur no sólo se deslumbró con laprofusa vegetación de Brasil, si no también con los gigantescos mamíferospleistocenos que colectó en áreas más secas de Uruguay y en la pampa y la costapatagónica de Argentina. Sus hallazgos incluyeron distintos perezosos ygliptodontes, ungulados herbívoros como Toxodon y Macrauchenia,además de caballos y pequeños roedores

  19. Quantum Darwinism for mixed-state environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Haitao; Zwolak, Michael; Zurek, Wojciech

    2009-03-01

    We exam quantum darwinism when a system is in the presence of a mixed environment, and we find a general relation between the mutual information for the mixed-state environment and the change of the entropy of the fraction of the environment. We then look at a particular solvable model, and we numerically exam the time evolution of the ``mutual information" for large environment. Finally we discuss about the exact expressions for all entropies and the mutual information at special time.

  20. Indication for quantum Darwinism in electron billiards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, R.; Akis, R.; Meisels, R.; Kuchar, F.; Ferry, D. K.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics in electron billiards by using classical and quantum mechanical calculations. We report on the existence of pointer states in single-dot and double-dot electron billiards. Additionally, we show that the two types of pointer states have the propensity to create offspring, i.e. they can be observed in the individual modes propagating between the external reservoirs. This can be understood as an indication that quantum Darwinism is present in the electron billiards.

  1. From Neo-Darwinism to Epigenetic Inheritance

    OpenAIRE

    Axholm, Ida; Ranum, Kasper; Al-Makdisi Razeeghi, Redaa

    2014-01-01

    Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance is at variance with the neo-Darwinian theory of inheritance, and this possibly has important implications for how we view evolution, since it could allow for a kind of inheritance of acquired characteristics. We have applied Imre Lakatos and Thomas Kuhn’s models of scientific change and investigated if they can accurately describe the change in the view on inheritance from neo-Darwinism to a view that includes transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, ...

  2. [The Charles Bonnet syndrome and dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baerdemaeker, E; Bouckaert, F; D'Haenen, H

    2009-01-01

    An 83-year-old visually impaired woman was admitted to the hospital because of complex visual hallucinations. Her symptoms were indicative of the Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS). On the basis of this case we explore the relationship between CBS and dementia and discuss the different opinions on this topic.

  3. Charles Dickens, Social Worker in His Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-01-01

    As the world marks the 200th anniversary of Charles Dickens's birth, social workers may take note of the contributions Dickens made to 19th century social reform. Ever the advocate for people who were poor and oppressed, Dickens, in his timeless fictional narratives, continues to have relevance for contemporary social justice advocacy. This…

  4. A FENOMENOLOGIA PRAGMATICISTA DE CHARLES S. PEIRCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio Tibério Quirino de Medeiros

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available o presente trabalho propõe uma aproximação entre a filosofia de Kant e afenomenologia pragmaticista de Charles Peirce, buscando assinalar a relação entre aconcepção de experiência e fenômeno pertencentes a estas concepções teóricas.

  5. [The life and times of Charles Richet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richet, Gabriel; Estingoy, Pierrette

    2003-01-01

    In 1913 Charles Richet received the Nobel Prize of Medicine and Physiology for his work on anaphylaxis, which he discovered with Paul Portier in 1902. The 335 letters received by Charles Richet shortly thereafter shed some light on his position in the European world at the time. In the field of biomedical sciences, he distinguished himself with his constant determination to blend physiology, and clinical studies, which irritated the fundamentalists and clinicians at the time; The circumspection of the latter in regard to anaphylaxis is evident in their letters. For wasn't anaphylaxis an experimental pathogen occurence, devoid obvious clinical correlations, in comparison to Pasteur's immunology with its serums and vaccinations, firmly relevant to modern medicine? An abundant non-biological correspondence arrived from various horizons-cultural, literary, metapsychistnatalist, pacifist, as well as those concerned with civil justice and civil liberties, the Intellectuals. Strangely, Charles Richet, who was actively engaged in such struggles, is barely mentioned in the index of recent works devoted to the role played by these Intellectuals. Was Charles not an Intellectual? Or has the expression come to mean something different today?

  6. [Charles II of Spain, the bewitched].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda L, Jaime

    2008-02-01

    The death of King Charles II, the Bewitched, ended two centuries of sovereignity of the Habsburg dynasty in Spain. Since his birth in 1661, he presented a peculiar set of physical, psychiatric and behavioral signs, such as respiratory and diarrheal diseases, recurrent seizures and deep developmental delay. It was not until his adulthood when his infertility became evident, being incapable of conceiving a heir, even though he married twice. Such a constellation of ominous signs motivated a curious investigation, which concluded that the king was hexed at the age of 14 years in order to take away his throne, his health and his capacity to procreate. Based on contemporary medical knowledge, it is possible that Charles IIhad a rare autosomal recessive inherited genopathy asa consequence of the frequent inbreeding among his ancestors. On the other hand, its is also possible that Charles II presented Klinefelter Syndrome, the most frequent sex chromosome disorder in humans and the most common cause of hypogonadism and infertility in males. The hypothesis that Charles II was bewitched reflects a deep belief in supernatural phenomena among the Castilian society at the beginning of the 18th century, an idea transmitted across generations, currently present in many societies worldwide.

  7. Charles Edwin Bentley: A Genuine Emancipator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummett, Clifton O.

    1979-01-01

    Charles Bentley was a dental practitioner, organizer, educator, intellectual, author, researcher, speaker and musician. His contributions to dental health care were universally applicable, but they were grudgingly accepted by mainstream dentistry in the United States. He was criticized by many fellow Blacks and envied by many White colleagues.…

  8. Describing Service-Oriented Architecture by Extended Darwin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tao; SHEN Mei-e; YING Shi; YE Peng; LIANG Zao-qing

    2005-01-01

    Describing Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is critical in the development of Web-based system. In this paper, an approach for describing SOA by extended Darwin is proposed. The requirements for describing SOA, which are different from that of ordinary architecture, are highlighted firstly, and then a solution for extending Darwin is presented. Using the extended Darwin, service components and connectors can be described explicit by the extended construct, as well as precise operational semantics of SOA by the π-calculus. Finally an example of supply-chain management system is given for manifesting the effect of the extended Darwin.

  9. Proton Radius, Darwin-Foldy Term and Radiative Corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Jentschura, U D

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the role of the so-called Darwin-Foldy term in the evaluation of the proton and deuteron charge radii from atomic hydrogen spectroscopy and nuclear scattering data. The question of whether this term should be included or excluded from the nuclear radius has been controversially discussed in the literature. We attempt to clarify which literature values correspond to which conventions. A detailed discussion of the conventions appears useful because a recent experiment [R. Pohl et al., Nature vol. 466, p. 213 (2010)] has indicated that there is a discrepancy between the proton charge radii inferred from ordinary ("electronic") atomic hydrogen and muonic hydrogen. We also investigate the role of quantum electrodynamic radiative corrections in the determination of nuclear radii from scattering data, and propose a definition of the nuclear self energy which is compatible with the subtraction of the radiative corrections in scattering experiments.

  10. Adaptation as process: the future of Darwinism and the legacy of Theodosius Dobzhansky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depew, David J

    2011-03-01

    Conceptions of adaptation have varied in the history of genetic Darwinism depending on whether what is taken to be focal is the process of adaptation, adapted states of populations, or discrete adaptations in individual organisms. I argue that Theodosius Dobzhansky's view of adaptation as a dynamical process contrasts with so-called "adaptationist" views of natural selection figured as "design-without-a-designer" of relatively discrete, enumerable adaptations. Correlated with these respectively process and product oriented approaches to adaptive natural selection are divergent pictures of organisms themselves as developmental wholes or as "bundles" of adaptations. While even process versions of genetical Darwinism are insufficiently sensitive to the fact much of the variation on which adaptive selection works consists of changes in the timing, rate, or location of ontogenetic events, I argue that articulations of the Modern Synthesis influenced by Dobzhansky are more easily reconciled with the recent shift to evolutionary developmentalism than are versions that make discrete adaptations central.

  11. Universal Darwinism As a Process of Bayesian Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John O

    2016-01-01

    Many of the mathematical frameworks describing natural selection are equivalent to Bayes' Theorem, also known as Bayesian updating. By definition, a process of Bayesian Inference is one which involves a Bayesian update, so we may conclude that these frameworks describe natural selection as a process of Bayesian inference. Thus, natural selection serves as a counter example to a widely-held interpretation that restricts Bayesian Inference to human mental processes (including the endeavors of statisticians). As Bayesian inference can always be cast in terms of (variational) free energy minimization, natural selection can be viewed as comprising two components: a generative model of an "experiment" in the external world environment, and the results of that "experiment" or the "surprise" entailed by predicted and actual outcomes of the "experiment." Minimization of free energy implies that the implicit measure of "surprise" experienced serves to update the generative model in a Bayesian manner. This description closely accords with the mechanisms of generalized Darwinian process proposed both by Dawkins, in terms of replicators and vehicles, and Campbell, in terms of inferential systems. Bayesian inference is an algorithm for the accumulation of evidence-based knowledge. This algorithm is now seen to operate over a wide range of evolutionary processes, including natural selection, the evolution of mental models and cultural evolutionary processes, notably including science itself. The variational principle of free energy minimization may thus serve as a unifying mathematical framework for universal Darwinism, the study of evolutionary processes operating throughout nature.

  12. Universal Darwinism as a process of Bayesian inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Oberon Campbell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many of the mathematical frameworks describing natural selection are equivalent to Bayes’ Theorem, also known as Bayesian updating. By definition, a process of Bayesian Inference is one which involves a Bayesian update, so we may conclude that these frameworks describe natural selection as a process of Bayesian inference. Thus natural selection serves as a counter example to a widely-held interpretation that restricts Bayesian Inference to human mental processes (including the endeavors of statisticians. As Bayesian inference can always be cast in terms of (variational free energy minimization, natural selection can be viewed as comprising two components: a generative model of an ‘experiment’ in the external world environment, and the results of that 'experiment' or the 'surprise' entailed by predicted and actual outcomes of the ‘experiment’. Minimization of free energy implies that the implicit measure of 'surprise' experienced serves to update the generative model in a Bayesian manner. This description closely accords with the mechanisms of generalized Darwinian process proposed both by Dawkins, in terms of replicators and vehicles, and Campbell, in terms of inferential systems. Bayesian inference is an algorithm for the accumulation of evidence-based knowledge. This algorithm is now seen to operate over a wide range of evolutionary processes, including natural selection, the evolution of mental models and cultural evolutionary processes, notably including science itself. The variational principle of free energy minimization may thus serve as a unifying mathematical framework for universal Darwinism, the study of evolutionary processes operating throughout nature.

  13. Evolution of ageing since Darwin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michael R. Rose; Molly K. Burke; Parvin Shahrestani; Laurence D. Mueller

    2008-12-01

    In the late 19th century, the evolutionary approach to the problem of ageing was initiated by August Weismann, who argued that natural selection was more important for ageing than any physiological mechanism. In the mid-twentieth century, J. B. S. Haldane, P. B. Medawar and G. C. Williams informally argued that the force of natural selection falls with adult age. In 1966, W. D. Hamilton published formal equations that showed mathematically that two ‘forces of natural selection’ do indeed decline with age, though his analysis was not genetically explicit. Brian Charlesworth then developed the required mathematical population genetics for the evolution of ageing in the 1970’s. In the 1980’s, experiments using Drosophila showed that the rate of ageing evolves as predicted by Hamilton’s ‘forces of natural selection’. The discovery of the cessation of ageing late in life in the 1990’s was followed by its explanation in terms of evolutionary theory based on Hamilton’s forces. Recently, it has been shown that the cessation of ageing can also be manipulated experimentally using Hamilton’s ‘forces of natural selection’. Despite the success of evolutionary research on ageing, mainstream gerontological research has largely ignored both this work and the opportunity that it provides for effective intervention in ageing.

  14. Darwin's Difficulties and Students' Struggles with Trait Loss: Cognitive-Historical Parallelisms in Evolutionary Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Minsu; Nehm, Ross H.

    2014-05-01

    Although historical changes in scientific ideas sometimes display striking similarities with students' conceptual progressions, some scholars have cautioned that such similarities lack meaningful commonalities. In the history of evolution, while Darwin and his contemporaries often used natural selection to explain evolutionary trait gain or increase, they struggled to use it to convincingly account for cases of trait loss or decrease. This study examines Darwin's evolutionary writings about trait gain and loss in the Origin of Species (On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. D. Appleton, New York, 1859) and compares them to written evolutionary explanations for trait gain and loss in a large (n > 500), cross-cultural and cross-sectional sample (novices and experts from the USA and Korea). Findings indicate that significantly more students and experts applied natural selection to cases of trait gain, but like Darwin and his contemporaries, they more often applied `use and disuse' and `inheritance of acquired characteristics' to episodes of trait loss. Although the parallelism between Darwin's difficulties and students' struggles with trait loss are striking, significant differences also characterize explanatory model structure. Overall, however, students and scientists struggles to explain trait loss—which is a very common phenomenon in the history of life—appear to transcend time, place, and level of biological expertise. The significance of these findings for evolution education are discussed; in particular, the situated nature of biological reasoning, and the important role that the history of science can play in understanding cognitive constraints on science learning.

  15. Darwin's Difficulties and Students' Struggles with Trait Loss: Cognitive-Historical Parallelisms in Evolutionary Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Minsu; Nehm, Ross H.

    2014-01-01

    Although historical changes in scientific ideas sometimes display striking similarities with students' conceptual progressions, some scholars have cautioned that such similarities lack meaningful commonalities. In the history of evolution, while Darwin and his contemporaries often used natural selection to explain evolutionary trait gain or…

  16. 物竞天择,适者生存——解析达尔文主义在萨姆·谢泼德家庭三部曲中的体现%Survival of the Fittest --A Study on Darwinism in Sam Shepard' s Family Trilogy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程玲

    2012-01-01

    Darwinism, also called Darwinian Theory, is a theory of biological evolution developed by British biologist, Charles Darwin, in the middle of the 19th century, which is considered to be the most important landmark in the history of mankind. In literary criticism, it is a new trend to unscramble literary works from the aspect of Darwinism, which is called literary Darwinism. The objective of this paper is to make a brief survey on the Darwinism manifested in Sam Shepard' s family trilogy from a particular point of view of literary Darwinism, aiming to analyze the fatality of the characters.%随着比较文学的发展壮大,跨学科研究成为文学研究的新亮点,达尔文主义也随之被赋予了强烈的人文色彩,出现了利用进化论的观点剖析文学作品的研究,达尔文文学主义也逐渐成为文学批评研究领域的新方向。本文运用文学达尔文主义理论对当代美国最富影响的剧作家萨姆.谢泼德的家庭三部曲进行解读,旨在剖析剧中人物的悲剧宿命。

  17. Kropotkin between Lamarck and Darwin: the impossible synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girón, Álvaro

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Prince P.A. Kropotkin (1842-1921 was the most important leader of revolutionary anarchism of his generation. He was also a respected explorer, geographer, and wrote a variety of books on the French Revolution, prison systems and Russian literature. However, he is better known for his contribution to the debate on Social Darwinism, exemplified by his book Mutual Aid. A Factor Evolution (1902. Actually, Kropotkin was trying to build his own brand of evolutionary Ethics: a complete socio-biology consistent with revolutionary goals. But there was a serious obstacle. The presence of the Malthusian population laws at the very core of Darwinism blocked any potential progress in this direction. Kropotkin tried to extirpate the Malthusian sting by making a critical analysis of natural selection and proposing a synthesis between Lamarck and Darwin in the 1910s.
    The aim of this article is to study the basics of the argument deployed by Kropotkin. It has been paid especial attention to the criticisms addressed to the hard heredity theory of August Weismann, and the reasons why Kropotkin’s contribution in this field has been ignored.

    El príncipe P.A. Kropotkin (1842-1921 fue el líder mas importante del anarquismo revolucionario de su generación. El fue también un respetado explorador y geógrafo, y escribió una variada serie de libros sobre la revolución francesa, el sistema de prisiones o la literatura rusa. Sin embargo, el es más conocido por su contribución al debate sobre el Darwinismo Social, ejemplificada por su libro El apoyo mutuo. Un factor de la evolución (1902. En realidad, Kropotkin estaba tratando de construir su particular versión de la ética evolucionista: una acabada sociobiología consistente con los objetivos revolucionarios. Pero existía un serio obstáculo. La presencia de las leyes de la población maltusianas en el mismo corazón del darwinismo bloqueaban cualquier tipo de progreso en esa dirección. Kropotkin

  18. Darwin's explanation of races by means of sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Roberta L

    2012-09-01

    In Darwin's Sacred Cause, Adrian Desmond and James Moore contend that "Darwin would put his utmost into sexual selection because the subject intrigued him, no doubt, but also for a deeper reason: the theory vindicated his lifelong commitment to human brotherhood" (2009: p. 360). Without questioning Desmond and Moore's evidence, I will raise some puzzles for their view. I will show that attention to the structure of Darwin's arguments in the Descent of Man shows that they are far from straightforward. As Desmond and Moore note, Darwin seems to have intended sexual selection in non-human animals to serve as evidence for sexual selection in humans. However, Darwin's account of sexual selection in humans was different from the canonical cases that Darwin described at great length. If explaining the origin of human races was the main reason for introducing sexual selection, and if sexual selection was a key piece of Darwin's anti-slavery arguments, then it is puzzling why Darwin would have spent so much time discussing cases that did not really support his argument for the origin of human races, and it is also puzzling that his argument for the origin of human races would be so (atypically) poor.

  19. The Curriculum Potential of Darwin's Theory of Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Pinchas

    1993-01-01

    Two dilemmas occur in studying Darwin's Theory of Evolution. One, concerning pedagogy, is solvable by offering theory basics in middle school and in-depth study in high school. Another, concerning faith, is extremely sensitive. The paper discusses successful approaches, noting the place of Darwin's theory in all-elective high school biology. (SM)

  20. Developing of the future: scaffolded Darwinism in societal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Claes; Törnberg, Anton; Törnberg, Petter

    2014-08-01

    We sympathize with the project of a synthetic approach for devising a "theory of intentional change" and agree that Darwinism should be central in such a theory. But Darwinism is not the only process of evolution that needs to be included. Evolutionary biology itself has taken such a turn recently, with the emergence of developmental evolutionary approaches.

  1. Classical system boundaries cannot be determined within quantum Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Chris

    Multiple observers who interact with environmental encodings of the states of a macroscopic quantum system S as required by quantum Darwinism cannot demonstrate that they are jointly observing S without a joint a priori assumption of a classical boundary separating S from its environment E. Quantum Darwinism cannot, therefore, be regarded as providing a purely quantum-mechanical explanation of the "emergence" of classicality.

  2. The explanatory logic and ontological commitments of generalized Darwinism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoelhorst, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The recent debate about the value of Darwinism as a source of ontological foundations for evolutionary economics reduces to a disagreement about whether or not the causal logic of Darwinism applies to economic evolution. However, this logic has not yet been fully specified. While the explanantia of

  3. Pragmatisme dalam Filsafat Kontemporer: Analisa atas pemikiran Charles S. Peirce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaqim Mustaqim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Filsafat menurut bahasa berasal dari Griek (Yunani berasal dari kata Pilos (cinta, Sophos (kebijaksanaan, “Mahabatul Hikmah” pecinta ilmu pengetahuan. Filsafat menurut term: ingin tahu dengan mendalam (cinta pada kebijaksanaan. Phytagoras mengatakan bahwa pengetahuan dalam artinya yang lengkap tidak sesuai untuk manusia . tiap-tiap orang yang mengalami kesukaran-kesukaran dalam memperolehnya dan meskipun menghabiskan seluruh umurnya, namun ia tidak akan mencapai tepinya. Jadi pengetahuan adalah perkara yang kita cari dan kita ambil sebagian darinya tanpa mencakup keseluruhannya. Oleh karena itu, maka kita bukan ahli pengetahuan, melainkan pencari dan pencinta pengetahuan. Secara istilah, Penulis mengutip pendapat Muhtar yahya bahwa berfikir filsafat ialah “pemikiran yang sedalam-dalamnya yang bebas dan teliti bertujuan hanya mencari hakikat kebenaran tentang alam semesta, alam manusia dan dibalik alam”. Pragmatisme dalam Filsafat Kontemporer: Dalam bidang filsafat ilmu, pemikiran Charles Sanders Peirce merupakan suatu hal yang mendasar bagi siapa saja yang berminat mengkaji Islam, karena akar pemikiran studi agama terdapat dalam struktur pemikiran Peirce. Dikenal sebagai perintis dan tokoh utama aliran filsafat pragmatisme.  Pierce juga termasuk salah satu pioner dalam logika matematika abad ke-19.  Secara profesional, ia adalah seorang ilmuwan praktisi ahli geodesi, astronomi, dan kimia. Epistemologi Peirce berlatar belakang prgamatis dan ahli logika, epistemologinya banyak disampaikan melalui logikanya, oleh karenanya epitemologi Peirce digolongkan sebagai epistemologi kontemporer. Peirce dengan filsafat pragmatisme (filsafat bertindak, memandang bahwa; suatu hipotesa dianggap benar apabila mendatangkan manfaat. Pragmatisme dikatagorikan dalam teori kebenaran. Peirce membagi kebenaran menjadi dua, yakni kebenaran transendental dan kebenaran kompleks. Kebenaran kompleks terdiri dari kebenaran etis (psikologis yaitu keselarasan

  4. Darwin's emotions: The scientific self and the sentiment of objectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul

    2009-12-01

    Darwin's emotional life has been a preoccupation of biographers and popularizers, while his research on emotional expression has been of keen interest to anthropologists and psychologists. Much can be gained, however, by looking at Darwin's emotions from both sides, by examining the relationship between his emotional experience and his scientific study of emotion. Darwin developed various techniques for distancing himself from his objects of study and for extracting emotional "objects" from feeling subjects. In order to investigate emotions scientifically, his own emotional life, his feelings for others, had to give way-or did it? This question has implications well beyond the life of Darwin, moral implications about the effects of scientific discipline on those who practice it and on the animals and people subjected to it. This dual approach to Darwin's emotions also allows us to address a conundrum of recent histories of "objectivity"--namely, the status of the scientific self as a feeling subject.

  5. Reconstructing Anaximander's biological model unveils a theory of evolution akin to Darwin's, though centuries before the birth of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanato, Siro Igino

    2016-08-01

    Anaximander's fragments on biology report a theory of evolution, which, unlike the development of other biological systems in the ancient Aegean, is naturalistic and is not based on metaphysics. According to Anaximander, evolution affected all living beings, including humans. The first biological systems formed in an aquatic environment, and were encased in a rugged and robust envelope. Evolution progressed with modifications that enabled the formation of more dynamic biological systems. For instance, after reaching land, the robust armors around aquatic beings dried up, and became brittle, This led to the loss of the armor and the development of more mobile life forms. Anaximander's theory combines observations of animals with speculations, and as such mirrors the more famous theory of evolution by Charles Darwin expressed 24 centuries later. The poor reception received by Anaximander's model in his time, illustrates a zeitgeist that would explain the contemporary lag phase in the development of biology and, as a result, medicine, in the ancient western world.

  6. Darwin forest at agua de la zorra: the first in situ forest discovered in South America by Darwin in 1835 El Bosque Darwin en Agua de la Zorra: El primer bosque in situ descubierto en América del Sur por Darwin en 1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brea

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Agua de la Zorra area (near Uspallata, Mendoza, Argentina is one of the best renowned fossil localities of the country because of its spectacular in situ fossil forest. This forest was discovered by Charles Darwin in 1835, who described this forest as monotypic and assigned it a Tertiary age. Nowadays, this fossil locality is known as the Darwin Forest. Over a century and a half later it was reinterpreted as a mixed Middle Triassic forest and a new fossil monotypic palaeocommunity of horsetails was discovered. This palaeovegetation is included in the Paramillo Formation (i.e., lower section the Potrerillos Formation of northwestern Cuyo Basin, Mendoza province (69°12' W and 32°30' S. The sediments were deposited in a sinuous fluvial system, in which channel-filling sand bodies were associated with mud-dominated floodplain deposits. The palaeoforest grew on an andisol soil that developed on volcaniclastic floodplain deposits. It had a density of 427 -759 trees per hectare, and was constituted by conifers and corystosperms distributed in two arboreal strata. The highest reached 20-26 m tall, and was dominated by corystosperms, but it also included the tallest conifers. The second stratum, mainly composed of conifers, ranged between 16-20 m tall. The forest has also emergent corystosperms, which reached 30 m tall. The understorey was composed of ferns. Growth ring anatomy suggests that conifers could have had an evergreen habit. Structure of vegetation, growth ring analyses and sedimentation suggest that the forest developed under dry, subtropical, and strongly seasonal conditions.El área de Agua de la Zorra (cerca de Uspallata, Mendoza, Argentina es uno de los sitios fósiles más espectaculares y renombrados del país porque aflora un bosque in situ. Este bosque descripto como monotípico y asignado al Terciario fue descubierto por Charles Darwin en 1835. Un siglo y medio más tarde, se reinterpretó como un bosque mixto del Tri

  7. Charles Bonnet, his life, and his syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Thomas R

    2007-01-01

    Charles Bonnet (1720-1792) was an eminent naturalist and philosopher whose contributions to botany and philosophy were highly regarded and honored by his contemporaries in the scientific community of his era in France and England. In1760 he first described and analyzed formed visual hallucinations experienced by his grandfather. The syndrome was named after Bonnet in 1937 by George de Mosier, another native of Geneva, Switzerland.

  8. Charles Tilly as a Theorist of Nationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Rogers

    2010-12-01

    This paper considers Charles Tilly as an important but underappreciated theorist of nationalism. Tilly's theory of nationalism emerged from the "bellicist" strand of his earlier work on state-formation and later incorporated a concern with performance, stories, and cultural modeling. Yet despite the turn to culture in Tilly's later work, his theory of nationalism remained state-centered, materialist, and instrumentalist-a source of both its power and its limitations.

  9. Charles Ferguson and the "Broadband Problem"

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Charles Ferguson has published a book that advocates a major increase in government intervention in the U.S. market for high-speed, "broadband" Internet services. His proposals are based on a faulty understanding of the effects of current telecommunications regulation and unsubstantiated claims that current participants in the broadband marketplace are exercising monopoly power. His policy recommendations would not only fail to accelerate the pace of broadband diffusion in the United States, ...

  10. [Charles Bonnet syndrome: a case presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumurcu, Tongabay; Elbozan Cumurcu, Birgül; Cam Celikel, Feryal

    2005-01-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome comprises the triad of visual hallucinations, visual sensory deprivation, and preserved cognitive status. This paper discusses a case diagnosed as Charles Bonnet syndrome, involving visual hallucinations secondary to bilateral primary optic atrophy. An 80-year-old female with normal cognitive functions in the presence of primary optic atrophy and visual hallucinations was diagnosed with Charles Bonnet syndrome. The patient, having had poor vision since childhood, had lost it totally in the last year. Her vision had not improved following cataract operations in both eyes 6 months previously. Her vision was at the level of hand movements. In biomicroscopic examination, bilateral pseudoaphakia was found. Since fundus examination showed bilateral primary optic atrophy in the presence of visual hallucinations, a psychiatric consultation was requested. In her psychiatric examination, she had had hallucinations for the last two years, first elementary and then complex in character. Her cognitive functions were normal with no pathology in her neurologic examination. Routine investigations and neuroradiologic examinations were normal. She had no past history of any personal or familial psychiatric or systemic physical disorder. She was given olanzapine 5 mg daily and was followed up. This syndrome, defined as visual hallucinations in the presence of preserved cognitive functions and deprived vision, requires further research.

  11. The science of language and the evolution of mind: Max Müller's quarrel with Darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, E

    1986-01-01

    For Darwinism to succeed as a general theory of the development of life, it had to account for at least the rudiments of all human characteristics. Thus Darwin and his colleague G. J. Romanes had to make "mental evolution" the basis for scientific psychology. F. Max Müller, Oxford's professor of comparative philology, drew on Kant's work, Romantic Naturphilosophie, and his views on the history of language and the relation of language to thought to maintain that language showed a difference not in degree but in kind between man and the lower primates. In his debate with Romanes, he argued that the study of language, not Darwinist natural history, should be the basis for a science of human psychology. However, the two authors had such different definitions of the key terms in their discussion that their differences were not only unresolved but irresolvable.

  12. Non-Markovianity hinders Quantum Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galve, Fernando; Zambrini, Roberta; Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    We investigate Quantum Darwinism and the emergence of a classical world from the quantum one in connection with the spectral properties of the environment. We use a microscopic model of quantum environment in which, by changing a simple system parameter, we can modify the information back flow from environment into the system, and therefore its non-Markovian character. We show that the presence of memory effects hinders the emergence of classical objective reality, linking these two apparently unrelated concepts via a unique dynamical feature related to decoherence factors.

  13. Boltzmann, Darwin and Directionality theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demetrius, Lloyd A., E-mail: ldemetr@oeb.harvard.edu

    2013-09-01

    Boltzmann’s statistical thermodynamics is a mathematical theory which relates the macroscopic properties of aggregates of interacting molecules with the laws of their interaction. The theory is based on the concept thermodynamic entropy, a statistical measure of the extent to which energy is spread throughout macroscopic matter. Macroscopic evolution of material aggregates is quantitatively explained in terms of the principle: Thermodynamic entropy increases as the composition of the aggregate changes under molecular collision. Darwin’s theory of evolution is a qualitative theory of the origin of species and the adaptation of populations to their environment. A central concept in the theory is fitness, a qualitative measure of the capacity of an organism to contribute to the ancestry of future generations. Macroscopic evolution of populations of living organisms can be qualitatively explained in terms of a neo-Darwinian principle: Fitness increases as the composition of the population changes under variation and natural selection. Directionality theory is a quantitative model of the Darwinian argument of evolution by variation and selection. This mathematical theory is based on the concept evolutionary entropy, a statistical measure which describes the rate at which an organism appropriates energy from the environment and reinvests this energy into survivorship and reproduction. According to directionality theory, microevolutionary dynamics, that is evolution by mutation and natural selection, can be quantitatively explained in terms of a directionality principle: Evolutionary entropy increases when the resources are diverse and of constant abundance; but decreases when the resource is singular and of variable abundance. This report reviews the analytical and empirical support for directionality theory, and invokes the microevolutionary dynamics of variation and selection to delineate the principles which govern macroevolutionary dynamics of speciation and

  14. Boltzmann, Darwin and Directionality theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrius, Lloyd A.

    2013-09-01

    Boltzmann’s statistical thermodynamics is a mathematical theory which relates the macroscopic properties of aggregates of interacting molecules with the laws of their interaction. The theory is based on the concept thermodynamic entropy, a statistical measure of the extent to which energy is spread throughout macroscopic matter. Macroscopic evolution of material aggregates is quantitatively explained in terms of the principle: Thermodynamic entropy increases as the composition of the aggregate changes under molecular collision. Darwin’s theory of evolution is a qualitative theory of the origin of species and the adaptation of populations to their environment. A central concept in the theory is fitness, a qualitative measure of the capacity of an organism to contribute to the ancestry of future generations. Macroscopic evolution of populations of living organisms can be qualitatively explained in terms of a neo-Darwinian principle: Fitness increases as the composition of the population changes under variation and natural selection. Directionality theory is a quantitative model of the Darwinian argument of evolution by variation and selection. This mathematical theory is based on the concept evolutionary entropy, a statistical measure which describes the rate at which an organism appropriates energy from the environment and reinvests this energy into survivorship and reproduction. According to directionality theory, microevolutionary dynamics, that is evolution by mutation and natural selection, can be quantitatively explained in terms of a directionality principle: Evolutionary entropy increases when the resources are diverse and of constant abundance; but decreases when the resource is singular and of variable abundance. This report reviews the analytical and empirical support for directionality theory, and invokes the microevolutionary dynamics of variation and selection to delineate the principles which govern macroevolutionary dynamics of speciation and

  15. The importance of metagenomic surveys to microbial ecology: or why Darwin would have been a metagenomic scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jack A; O'Dor, Ronald; King, Nicholas; Vogel, Timothy M

    2011-01-01

    Scientific discovery is incremental. The Merriam-Webster definition of 'Scientific Method' is "principles and procedures for the systematic pursuit of knowledge involving the recognition and formulation of a problem, the collection of data through observation and experiment, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses". Scientists are taught to be excellent observers, as observations create questions, which in turn generate hypotheses. After centuries of science we tend to assume that we have enough observations to drive science, and enable the small steps and giant leaps which lead to theories and subsequent testable hypotheses. One excellent example of this is Charles Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle, which was essentially an opportunistic survey of biodiversity. Today, obtaining funding for even small-scale surveys of life on Earth is difficult; but few argue the importance of the theory that was generated by Darwin from his observations made during this epic journey. However, these observations, even combined with the parallel work of Alfred Russell Wallace at around the same time have still not generated an indisputable 'law of biology'. The fact that evolution remains a 'theory', at least to the general public, suggests that surveys for new data need to be taken to a new level.

  16. On the humanism in Charles Dickens' David Copperfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董莉

    2008-01-01

    Charles Dickens was the main representative of English realist in nineteenth century.He was one of the vast host of Victorian novelists.He saw astonishing changes:during his lifetime Britain was transformed from a predominantly rural economy to a major industrial power.Transport,mass communications,education,legal and parliamentary structures.He created fourteen novels in his life.Dickens's activities and creation in his lifetime always kept step with trend of the times.In his works he devoted himself to disclose bourgeoisie's greed and cruelty,and at the same he expressed the deep sympathy with workers and farmers,especially women and children.Dickens considered humanism as the main idea throughout all his works,he eulogized genuineness,goodness,and happiness of human nature.He also hankered a more rationalization society and a more wonderful life.

  17. DARWIN: towards the ultimate dark matter detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbers, J.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Amaro, F. D.; Amsler, C.; Aprile, E.; Arazi, L.; Arneodo, F.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berger, T.; Beskers, B.; Breskin, A.; Breur, P. A.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Bütikofer, L.; Calvén, J.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Cichon, D.; Coderre, D.; Colijn, A. P.; Conrad, J.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; Diglio, S.; Drexlin, G.; Duchovni, E.; Erdal, E.; Eurin, G.; Ferella, A.; Fieguth, A.; Fulgione, W.; Gallo Rosso, A.; Di Gangi, P.; Di Giovanni, A.; Galloway, M.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Glueck, F.; Grandi, L.; Greene, Z.; Grignon, C.; Hasterok, C.; Hannen, V.; Hogenbirk, E.; Howlett, J.; Hilk, D.; Hils, C.; James, A.; Kaminsky, B.; Kazama, S.; Kilminster, B.; Kish, A.; Krauss, L. M.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Lin, Q.; Linde, F. L.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Mayani, D.; Messina, M.; Micheneau, K.; Molinario, A.; Morå, K. D.; Morteau, E.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Newstead, J. L.; Ni, K.; Oberlack, U.; Pakarha, P.; Pelssers, B.; de Perio, P.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Piro, M. C.; Plante, G.; Rauch, L.; Reichard, S.; Rizzo, A.; Rupp, N.; Dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S.; Schumann, M.; Schreiner, J.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Silva, M. C.; Simgen, H.; Sissol, P.; von Sivers, M.; Thers, D.; Thurn, J.; Tiseni, A.; Trotta, R.; Tunnell, C. D.; Valerius, K.; Vargas, M. A.; Wang, H.; Wei, Y.; Weinheimer, C.; Wester, T.; Wulf, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, T.; Zuber, K.

    2016-11-01

    DARk matter WImp search with liquid xenoN (DARWIN) will be an experiment for the direct detection of dark matter using a multi-ton liquid xenon time projection chamber at its core. Its primary goal will be to explore the experimentally accessible parameter space for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) in a wide mass-range, until neutrino interactions with the target become an irreducible background. The prompt scintillation light and the charge signals induced by particle interactions in the xenon will be observed by VUV sensitive, ultra-low background photosensors. Besides its excellent sensitivity to WIMPs above a mass of 5 GeV/c2, such a detector with its large mass, low-energy threshold and ultra-low background level will also be sensitive to other rare interactions. It will search for solar axions, galactic axion-like particles and the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 136Xe, as well as measure the low-energy solar neutrino flux with < 1% precision, observe coherent neutrino-nucleus interactions, and detect galactic supernovae. We present the concept of the DARWIN detector and discuss its physics reach, the main sources of backgrounds and the ongoing detector design and R&D efforts.

  18. Erasmus Darwin's enlightened views on placental function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijnenborg, R; Vercruysse, L

    2007-01-01

    In his major work "Zoonomia", Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) devoted one chapter to the placenta, in which the new knowledge of the recently discovered element oxygen was applied to the functioning of this organ. He considered the "cavities" or "lacunae" in the placenta as the main areas for oxygenation of the fetal blood, as he thought them to be structurally comparable to the lungs and the gills of fish. He obviously was aware of species differences in the uterine arterial blood supply to the placenta between humans and cows, assuming a higher contractility of the vasculature in the latter species. The new evidence for a primarily respiratory role overshadowed ideas of a possible nutritive function of the placenta. Since Hunter's definitive demonstration of separate maternal and fetal blood circulations, nutritive functions of the placenta needed to be explained by transmembrane transport processes, which were unknown at that time. Instead Erasmus Darwin erroneously considered the amniotic fluid as the main source of nutrients for the fetus. His understanding of placental respiration found expression in his long poem on the history of life on earth.

  19. Tantalizing tortoises and the Darwin-Galápagos legend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulloway, Frank J

    2009-01-01

    During his historic Galápagos visit in 1835, Darwin spent nine days making scientific observations and collecting specimens on Santiago (James Island). In the course of this visit, Darwin ascended twice to the Santiago highlands. There, near springs located close to the island's summit, he conducted his most detailed observations of Galápagos tortoises. The precise location of these springs, which has not previously been established, is here identified using Darwin's own writings, satellite maps, and GPS technology. Photographic evidence from excursions to the areas where Darwin climbed, including repeat photography over a period of four decades, offers striking evidence of the deleterious impact of feral mammals introduced after Darwin's visit. Exploring the impact that Darwin's Santiago visit had on his thinking--especially focusing on his activities in the highlands--raises intriguing questions about the depth of his understanding of the evolutionary evidence he encountered while in the Galápagos. These questions and related insights provide further evidence concerning the timing of Darwin's conversion to the theory of evolution, which, despite recent claims to the contrary, occurred only after his return to England.

  20. Darwin the geologist: Between Lyell and von Buch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohau, Gabriel

    2010-02-01

    Upon returning from his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin prepared reports of his geological observations. Together, these reveal Darwin's approach to reasoning about geology. Darwin argued that successive terraces prove a very gradual elevation of the coast that lagoon islands show a reciprocal sinking of the oceanic floor. Hence, Darwin reinforced Lyell's uniformitarian, or steady state theory. Unlike lagoon islands, the movement of erratic boulders onto the plains is evidence of forces, which do not now exist. Darwin and Lyell attributed this movement to floating icebergs. However, mountain formation remained difficult for them to explain with reference to contemporary causes. Lyell discovered uplifts in Scandinavia, which resulted from epirogenesis, whereas mountain formation is an orogenesis, which involves both folding and uplift. Darwin was more impressed by uplift than by folds. However, when in Cordillera he saw strata overturned by masses of injected rock, proving successive periods of violence, Darwin took a position, which was closer to the plutonic theories of von Buch and Humboldt than it was to Lyell's uniformitarian views.