Massive Vector Particles Tunneling From Noncommutative Charged Black Holes
Övgün, Ali
2015-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the tunneling process of charged massive bosons $W^{\\pm}$ (spin-1 particles) from noncommutative charged black holes such as charged RN black holes and charged BTZ black holes. By applying the WKB approximation and by using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation we derive the tunneling rate and the corresponding Hawking temperature for those black holes configuration. The tunneling rate shows that the radiation deviates from pure thermality and is consistent with an underlying unitary theory.
Limits on the production of massive stable charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present improved limits on the production of massive stable charged particles in bar pp collisions using the Collider Detector at Fermilab based on an integrated luminosity of 3.54 pb-1. Both unit and fractionally charged particles are considered. Cross-section upper limits are determined for masses from 50 to 500 GeV/c2. Theoretical cross sections are used to set bounds on the mass of fermionic color triplets, sextets, octets, and decuplets as well as scalar triplets
Measuring massive metastable charged particles with ATLAS RPC timing information.
Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Oye, Ola Kristoffer
2006-01-01
We investigate the measurement of massive metastable charged particles in ATLAS, using timing information from the resistive plate chambers (RPCs). As representative particle candidates we use staus, the partners of $ au$ leptons in supersymmetric models with gravitino dark matter (GDM), which may well be stable on the scale of the detector. The generic signatures of massive metastable charged particles are a long Time-of-Flight (ToF) and high energy-loss ($dE/dx$). The RPC timing information allows us to measure the ToF of a particle which, taken in conjunction with the measurement of the particle's momentum from its track, allows one to determine its mass. We pioneer the study of the RPCs' potential for this measurement. We also consider triggering effects on the event selection, and discuss quantitatively the ATLAS potential for measuring the stau mass in three specific GDM benchmark scenarios.
Charged Massive Particle's Tunneling From Charged Non-Rotating Micro Black Hole
Soleimani, M J; Radiman, Shahidan; Abdullah, W A T Wan
2015-01-01
In the tunneling framework of Hawking radiation, charged massive particle's tunneling in charged non-rotating TeV-Scale black hole is investigated. To this end, we consider natural cutoffs as a minimal length, a minimal momentum, and a maximal momentum through a generalized uncertainty principle. We focus on the role played by these natural cutoffs on the luminosity of charged non-rotating micro black hole by taking into account the full implications of energy and charge conservation as well as the back- scattered radiation.
Tunneling of Massive Vector Particles From Rotating Charged Black Strings
Jusufi, Kimet; Övgün, Ali
2016-01-01
We study the quantum tunneling of charged massive vector bosons from a charged static and a rotating black string. We apply the standard methods, first we use the WKB approximation and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and then we end up with a set of four linear equations. Finally, solving for the radial part by using the determinant of the metric equals zero, the corresponding tunneling rate and the Hawking temperature is recovered in both cases. The tunneling rate deviates from pure thermality...
The Search for Fractional Charge Elementary Particles and Very Massive Particles in Bulk Matter
Perl, Martin Lewis; Kim, P C; Lee, E R; Lee, I T; Loomba, D; Perl, Martin L.; Halyo, Valerie; Kim, Peter C.; Lee, Eric R.; Lee, Irwin T.; Loomba, Dinesh
2000-01-01
We describe our ongoing work on, and future plans for, searches in bulk matter for fractional charge elementary particles and very massive elementary particles. Our primary interest is in searching for such particles that may have been produced in the early universe and may be found in the more primeval matter available in the solar system: meteorites, material from the moon's surface, and certain types of ancient terrestrial rocks. In the future we are interested in examining material brought back by sample return probes from asteroids. We will describe our experimental methods that are based on new modifications of the Millikan liquid drop technique and modern technology: micromachining, CCD cameras, and desktop computers. Extensions of our experimental methods and technology allow searches for very massive charged particles in primeval matter; particles with masses greater than 10**13 GeV. In the first such searches carried out on earth there will be uncertainties in the mass search range. Therefore we wil...
Tunneling of Massive Vector Particles From Rotating Charged Black Strings
Jusufi, Kimet
2015-01-01
We study the quantum tunneling of charged massive vector bosons from a charged static and a rotating black string. We apply the standard methods, first we use the WKB approximation and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and then we end up with a set of four linear equations. Finally, solving for the radial part by using the determinant of the metric equals zero, the corresponding tunneling rate and the Hawking temperature is recovered in both cases. The tunneling rate deviates from pure thermality and is consistent with an underlying unitary theory.
Tunneling of massive vector particles from rotating charged black strings
Jusufi, Kimet; Övgün, Ali
2016-07-01
We study the quantum tunneling of charged massive vector bosons from a charged static and a rotating black string. We apply the standard methods, first we use the WKB approximation and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and then we end up with a set of four linear equations. Finally, solving for the radial part by using the determinant of the metric equals zero, the corresponding tunneling rate and the Hawking temperature is recovered in both cases. The tunneling rate deviates from pure thermality and is consistent with an underlying unitary theory.
Tunneling of massive and charged particles from noncommutative Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole
Nozari, Kourosh; Islamzadeh, Sara
2012-01-01
Massive charged and uncharged particles tunneling from commutative Reissner-Nordstrom black hole horizon has been studied with details in literature. Here, by adopting the coherent state picture of spacetime noncommutativity, we study tunneling of massive and charged particles from a noncommutative inspired Reissner-Nordstrom black hole horizon. We show that Hawking radiation in this case is not purely thermal and there are correlations between emitted modes. These correlations may provide a ...
Tunneling of massive and charged particles from noncommutative Reissner-Nordström black hole
Nozari, Kourosh; Islamzadeh, Sara
2013-10-01
Massive charged and uncharged particles tunneling from commutative Reissner-Nordström black hole horizon has been studied with details in literature. Here, by adopting the coherent state picture of spacetime noncommutativity, we study tunneling of massive and charged particles from a noncommutative inspired Reissner-Nordström black hole horizon. We show that Hawking radiation in this case is not purely thermal and there are correlations between emitted modes. These correlations may provide a solution to the information loss problem. We also study thermodynamics of noncommutative horizon in this setup.
Tunneling of massive and charged particles from noncommutative Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole
Nozari, Kourosh
2012-01-01
Massive charged and uncharged particles tunneling from commutative Reissner-Nordstrom black hole horizon has been studied with details in literature. Here, by adopting the coherent state picture of spacetime noncommutativity, we study tunneling of massive and charged particles from a noncommutative inspired Reissner-Nordstrom black hole horizon. We show that Hawking radiation in this case is not purely thermal and there are correlations between emitted modes. These correlations may provide a solution to the information loss problem. We also study thermodynamics of noncommutative horizon in this setup.
A search for charged massive long-lived particles
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B.S.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš
2012-01-01
Roč. 108, č. 12 (2012), "121802-1"-"121802-7". ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ionization energy loss * new particle * supersymmetry * anti-p p * Batavia TEVATRON Coll * D0 Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 7.943, year: 2012 http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v108/i12/e121802
Övgün, Ali; Jusufi, Kimet
2016-05-01
In this paper, we investigate the tunneling process of charged massive bosons W^{±} (spin-1 particles) from noncommutative charged black holes such as charged RN black holes and charged BTZ black holes. By applying the WKB approximation and by using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation we derive the tunneling rate and the corresponding Hawking temperature for those black holes configuration. Furthermore, we show the quantum gravity effects using the GUP on the Hawking temperature for the noncommutative RN black holes. The tunneling rate shows that the radiation deviates from pure thermality and is consistent with an underlying unitary theory.
Tunnelling Radiation of Charged and Magnetized Massive Particles from BTZ Black Holes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Tang-Mei; ZHANG Jing-Yi
2007-01-01
We investigate the tunnelling radiation of charged and magnetized massive particles from a Ba(n)ados-TeitelboimZanelli (BTZ) black hole by extending the Parikh-Wilczek tunnelling framework. In order to calculate the emission rate,we reconstruct the electromagnetic field tensor and the Lagrangian of the field corresponding to the source with electric and magnetic charges,and treat the charges as an equivalent electric charge for simplicity in the later calculation.The result supports Parikh-Wilczek's conclusion,that is,the Hawking thermal radiation actually deviates from perfect thermality and agrees with an underlying unitary theory.
Charged massive particle at rest in the field of a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The interaction of a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole and a charged massive particle is studied in the framework of perturbation theory. The particle backreaction is taken into account, studying the effect of general static perturbations of the hole following the approach of Zerilli. The solutions of the combined Einstein-Maxwell equations for both perturbed gravitational and electromagnetic fields to first order of the perturbation are exactly reconstructed by summing all multipoles, and are given explicit closed form expressions. The existence of a singularity-free solution of the Einstein-Maxwell system requires that the charge-to-mass ratios of the black hole and of the particle satisfy an equilibrium condition which is in general dependent on the separation between the two bodies. If the black hole is undercritically charged (i.e. its charge-to-mass ratio is less than one), the particle must be overcritically charged, in the sense that the particle must have a charge-to-mass ratio greater than one. If the charge-to-mass ratios of the black hole and of the particle are both equal to one (so that they are both critically charged, or 'extreme'), the equilibrium can exist for any separation distance, and the solution we find coincides with the linearization in the present context of the well-known Majumdar-Papapetrou solution for two extreme Reissner-Nordstroem black holes. In addition to these singularity-free solutions, we also analyze the corresponding solution for the problem of a massive particle at rest near a Schwarzschild black hole, exhibiting a strut singularity on the axis between the two bodies. The relations between our perturbative solutions and the corresponding exact two-body solutions belonging to the Weyl class are also discussed
Sakalli, I.
2016-01-01
Hawking radiation of charged massive spin-0 particles are studied in the gravitational, electromagnetic, dilaton, and axion fields of rotating linear dilaton black holes. In this geometry, we separate the covariant Klein--Gordon equation into radial and angular parts and obtain the exact solutions of both the equations in terms of the confluent Heun functions. Using the radial solution, we analyze the behavior of the wave solutions near the event horizon of the rotating linear dilaton black h...
Search for Charged Massive Long-Lived Particles Using the D0 Detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xie, Yunhe; /Brown U.
2009-05-01
A search for charged massive stable particles has been performed with the D0 detector using 1.1 fb{sup -1} of data. The speed of the particle has been calculated based on the time-of-flight and position information in the muon system. The present research is limited to direct pair-production of the charged massive long-lived particles. We do not consider CMSPs that result from the cascade decays of heavier particles. In this analysis, the exact values of the model parameters of the entire supersymmetric particle mass spectrum, relevant for cascade decays, are not important. We found no evidence of the signal. 95% CL cross-section upper limits have been set on the pair-productions of the stable scaler tau lepton, the gaugino-like charginos, and the higgsino-like charginos. The upper cross section limits vary from 0.31 pb to 0.04 pb, for stau masses in the range between 60 GeV and 300 GeV. We use the nominal value of the theoretical cross section to set limits on the mass of the pair produced charginos. We exclude the pair-produced stable gaugino-like charginos with mass below 206 GeV, and higgsino-like charginos below 171 GeV, respectively. Although the present sensitivity is insufficient to test the model of the pair produced stable staus, we do set cross section limits which can be applied to the pair production of any charged massive stable particle candidates with similar kinematics. These are the most restrictive limits to the present on the cross sections for CMSPs and the first published from the Tevatron Collider Run II. The manuscript has been published by Physical Review Letters in April 2009 and is available at arXiv as.
Sakalli, I
2016-01-01
Hawking radiation of charged massive spin-0 particles are studied in the gravitational, electromagnetic, dilaton, and axion fields of rotating linear dilaton black holes. In this geometry, we separate the covariant Klein--Gordon equation into radial and angular parts and obtain the exact solutions of both the equations in terms of the confluent Heun functions. Using the radial solution, we analyze the behavior of the wave solutions near the event horizon of the rotating linear dilaton black hole and derive its Hawking radiation spectrum via the Damour--Ruffini--Sannan method.
Search for long lived charged and massive particles at LHCb detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: We present the method used and results obtained in a search for long-lived charged and massive particle, the stau, produced in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 and 8 TeV with the LHCb spectrometer. The data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1 fb-1 at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV and of 2 fb-1 at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV was analysed. We used a Neural Network to distinguish staus from muons by their signals in various detectors. No excess of the signal is observed. The upper limits on the cross section for stau pair production are computed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It has been proposed that the apparent discrepancies between the inferred primordial abundances of 6Li and 7Li and the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) can be resolved by the existence of a negatively charged massive unstable supersymmetric particle (X-) during the BBN epoch. Here, we present new BBN calculations with an X- particle utilizing an improved nuclear reaction network including captures of nuclei by the particle, nuclear reactions and β decays of normal nuclei and nuclei bound to the X- particles (X nuclei), and new reaction rates derived from recent rigorous quantum many-body dynamical calculations. We find that this is still a viable model to explain the observed 6Li and 7Li abundances. We also show that with the new rates the production of heavier nuclei is suppressed and there is no signature on abundances of nuclei heavier than Be in the X--particle catalyzed BBN model as has been previously proposed. We also consider the version of this model whereby the X- particle decays into the present cold dark matter. We analyze this paradigm in light of the recent constraints on the dark-matter mass deduced from the possible detected events in the CDMS-II experiment. We conclude that based upon the inferred range for the dark-matter mass, only X- decay via the weak interaction can achieve the desired 7Li destruction while also reproducing the observed 6Li abundance.
Self-interacting charged massive spin two particles in Minkowski spacetime
Ohara, Yuichi
2016-01-01
A model of the self-interacting charged massive spin-two field is constructed. We investigate several properties of the model and find that the the trivial vacuum is only allowed due to the internal symmetry. This suggests that the Higgs mechanism might not be induced by the model of the massive spin-two field with the ghost-free potential.
A search for charged massive long-lived particles at D0
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sudeshna Banerjee; for the D0 Collaboration
2012-10-01
Results are presented on a search for charged massive long-lived particles (CMLLPs), based on 5.2 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron $p\\bar{p}$ collider. This search selects events in which one or more particles are reconstructed as muons but their speed and ionization energy loss (d/d) are different from muons produced in beam–beam collisions. CMLLPs have been predicted by several theories of physics beyond the Standard Model. In this search we exclude pair-produced long-lived gaugino-like charginos with masses below 251 GeV and higgsino-like charginos with masses below 230 GeV at 95% CL, as well as long-lived stop quarks with masses below 265 GeV. We place cross-section limits on long-lived staus as 0.04 to 0.006 pb for stau masses in the range 100 to 300 GeV.
Search for long-lived massive charged particles in 1.96 TeV pp collisions.
Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burke, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Chwalek, T; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; Di Canto, P; di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lucchesi, D; Luci, C; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Neubauer, S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A
2009-07-10
We performed a signature-based search for long-lived charged massive particles produced in 1.0 fb-1 of pp[over ] collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV, collected with the CDF II detector using a high transverse-momentum (pT) muon trigger. The search used time of flight to isolate slowly moving, high-pT particles. One event passed our selection cuts with an expected background of 1.9+/-0.2 events. We set an upper bound on the production cross section and, interpreting this result within the context of a stable scalar top-quark model, set a lower limit on the particle mass of 249 GeV/c2 at 95% C.L. PMID:19659197
Supertwistors and massive particles
Mezincescu, Luca; Townsend, Paul K
2013-01-01
In the (super)twistor formulation of massless particle mechanics, the mass-shell constraint is replaced by a "spin-shell" constraint from which the spin content can be read off. We extend this formalism to {\\it massive} particles in three and four space-time dimensions, explaining how the spin-shell constraints are related to Poincar\\'e Casimirs. We further extend the formalism (in these spacetime dimensions) to a supertwistor form of the generic N-extended superparticle action, which we use to prove equivalence of the massive N=1 and BPS-saturated N=2 superparticle actions. We also find (again in three and four spacetime dimensions) the supertwistor form of the action for massless and massive "spinning particles" with N-extended worldline supersymmetry, and we show how it simplifies special features of the N=2 case.
Supertwistors and massive particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mezincescu, Luca, E-mail: mezincescu@server.physics.miami.edu [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States); Routh, Alasdair J., E-mail: a.j.routh@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, CMS, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Townsend, Paul K., E-mail: p.k.townsend@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, CMS, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2014-07-15
In the (super)twistor formulation of massless (super)particle mechanics, the mass-shell constraint is replaced by a “spin-shell” constraint from which the spin content can be read off. We extend this formalism to massive (super)particles (with N-extended space–time supersymmetry) in three and four space–time dimensions, explaining how the spin-shell constraints are related to spin, and we use it to prove equivalence of the massive N=1 and BPS-saturated N=2 superparticle actions. We also find the supertwistor form of the action for “spinning particles” with N-extended worldline supersymmetry, massless in four dimensions and massive in three dimensions, and we show how this simplifies special features of the N=2 case. -- Highlights: •Spin-shell constraints are related to Poincaré Casimirs. •Twistor form of 4D spinning particle for spin N/2. •Twistor proof of scalar/antisymmetric tensor equivalence for 4D spin 0. •Twistor form of 3D particle with arbitrary spin. •Proof of equivalence of N=1 and N=2 BPS massive 4D superparticles.
Thermodynamics inducing massive particles' tunneling and cosmic censorship
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By calculating the change of entropy, we prove that the first law of black hole thermodynamics leads to the tunneling probability of massive particles through the horizon, including the tunneling probability of massive charged particles from the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole and the Kerr-Newman black hole. Novelly, we find the trajectories of massive particles are close to that of massless particles near the horizon, although the trajectories of massive charged particles may be affected by electromagnetic forces. We show that Hawking radiation as massive particles tunneling does not lead to violation of the weak cosmic-censorship conjecture. (orig.)
Thermodynamics inducing massive particles' tunneling and cosmic censorship
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Baocheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonances and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Wuhan (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Cai, Qing-yu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonances and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Wuhan (China); Zhan, Ming-sheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonances and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Wuhan (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Center for Cold Atom Physics, Wuhan (China)
2010-08-15
By calculating the change of entropy, we prove that the first law of black hole thermodynamics leads to the tunneling probability of massive particles through the horizon, including the tunneling probability of massive charged particles from the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole and the Kerr-Newman black hole. Novelly, we find the trajectories of massive particles are close to that of massless particles near the horizon, although the trajectories of massive charged particles may be affected by electromagnetic forces. We show that Hawking radiation as massive particles tunneling does not lead to violation of the weak cosmic-censorship conjecture. (orig.)
Stable massive particles at colliders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fairbairn, M.; /Stockholm U.; Kraan, A.C.; /Pennsylvania U.; Milstead, D.A.; /Stockholm U.; Sjostrand, T.; /Lund U.; Skands, P.; /Fermilab; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.
2006-11-01
We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.
Abbiendi, G; Alexander, G; Allison, J; Amaral, P; Anagnostou, G; Anderson, K J; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Bailey, I; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Bechtle, P; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bell, P J; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Benelli, G; Bethke, Siegfried; Biebel, O; Bock, P; Boeriu, O; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, H J; Büsser, K; Campana, S; Carnegie, R K; Caron, B; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Csilling, Akos; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; De Wolf, E A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Donkers, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Feld, L; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Fürtjes, A; Frey, A; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giunta, M; Goldberg, J; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Günther, P O; Hajdu, C; Hamann, M; Hanson, G G; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harin-Dirac, M; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Hensel, C; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J C; Hoffman, K; Horváth, D; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ishii, K; Jeremie, H; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanaya, N; Kanzaki, J; Karapetian, G V; Karlen, Dean A; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kim, D H; Klein, K; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Komamiya, S; Kormos, L L; Krämer, T; Krieger, P; Krüger, K; Kupper, M; Kühl, T; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Layter, J G; Leins, A; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lillich, J; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Lü, J; Ludwig, J; MacPherson, A; Mader, W; Marcellini, S; Martin, A J; Masetti, G; Mashimo, T; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menges, W; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Moed, S; Mohr, W; Mori, T; Mutter, A; Mättig, P; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Nanjo, H; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oh, A; Okpara, A N; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pahl, C; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poli, B; Polok, J; Pooth, O; Przybycien, M B; Pásztor, G; Quadt, A; Rabbertz, K; Rembser, C; Renkel, P; Roney, J M; Rosati, S; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Schöder, M; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Scott, W G; Sen-Gupta, A; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Sobie, Randall J; Span, F; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Söldner-Rembold, S; Tarem, S; Tasevsky, M; Taylor, R J; Teuscher, R; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Toya, D; Trócsányi, Z L; Tran, P; Trigger, I; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Ujvári, B; Vannerem, P; Vertesi, R; Verzocchi, M; Vollmer, C F; Von Krogh, J; Voss, H; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Waller, D; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wetterling, D; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zer-Zion, D; Zivkovic, L; de Roeck, A; Åkesson, P F
2003-01-01
A search for stable and long-lived massive particles of electric charge |Q/e|=1 or fractional charges of 2/3, 4/3, and 5/3 is reported using data collected by the OPAL detector at LEP, at centre-of-mass energies from 130 to 209 GeV. These particles are assumed to be pair-produced in e+e- collisions and not to interact strongly. No evidence for the production of these particles was observed. Model-independent upper limits on the production cross-section between 0.005 and 0.028 pb have been derived for scalar and spin-1/2 particles with charge +-1. Within the framework of the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (CMSSM), this implies a lower limit of 98.0 (98.5) GeV on the mass of long-lived right (left)- handed scalar muons and scalar taus. Long-lived charged heavy leptons and charginos are excluded for masses below 102.0 GeV. For particles with fractional charge +-2/3, +-4/3, and +-5/3, the upper limit on the production cross-section varies between 0.005 and 0.020 pb. All mass and cross-section l...
Ackerstaff, K; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Clarke, P E L; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallapiccola, C; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Doucet, M; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Evans, H G; Evans, M; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanfani, A; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Feld, L; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fischer, H M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fong, D G; Foucher, M; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Geddes, N I; Geich-Gimbel, C; Geralis, T; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giacomelli, R; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Goodrick, M J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Hargrove, C K; Hart, P A; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Höcker, Andreas; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Hutchcroft, D E; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jawahery, A; Jeffreys, P W; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Joly, A; Jones, C R; Jones, M; Jost, U; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanzaki, J I; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kirk, J; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lahmann, R; Lai, W P; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lefebvre, E; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; List, B; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Liu, D; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markopoulos, C; Markus, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mincer, A; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oh, A; Oldershaw, N J; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Posthaus, A; Rembser, C; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rooke, A M; Rossi, A M; Routenburg, P; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Ruppel, U; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schleper, P; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skillman, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Springer, R W; Sproston, M; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stockhausen, B; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Szymanski, P; Tafirout, R; Talbot, S D; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Utzat, P; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Vikas, P; Vokurka, E H; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D
1998-01-01
A search for stable and long-lived massive particles of electric charge |Q/e| = 1 or 2/3, pair-produced in e+e- collisions at centre-of-mass energies from 130 to 183 GeV, is reported by the OPAL collaboration at LEP. No evidence for production of these particles was observed in a mass range between 45 and 89.5 GeV. Model-independent upper limits on the production cross-section between 0.05 and 0.19 pb have been derived for scalar and spin-1/2 particles with charge +/-1. Within the framework of the minimal supersymmetric model (MSSM), this implies a lower limit of 82.5 (83.5) GeV on the mass of long-lived right- (left-)handed scalar muons and scalar taus. Long-lived charged leptons and charginos are excluded for masses below 89.5 GeV. For particles with charge +/-2/3 the upper limits on the production cross-section vary between 0.05 and 0.2 pb. All limits, on masses and on cross-sections, are valid at the 95% confidence level for particles with lifetimes longer than 10^{-6} s.
Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kim, K. S.; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Kino, Yasushi; Mathews, Grant. J.
2014-09-01
We extensively reanalyze the effects of a long-lived, negatively charged massive particle, X -, on big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The BBN model with an X - particle was originally motivated by the discrepancy between the 6, 7Li abundances predicted in the standard BBN model and those inferred from observations of metal-poor stars. In this model, 7Be is destroyed via the recombination with an X - particle followed by radiative proton capture. We calculate precise rates for the radiative recombinations of 7Be, 7Li, 9Be, and 4He with X -. In nonresonant rates, we take into account respective partial waves of scattering states and respective bound states. The finite sizes of nuclear charge distributions cause deviations in wave functions from those of point-charge nuclei. For a heavy X - mass, mX >~ 100 GeV, the d-wave → 2P transition is most important for 7Li and 7, 9Be, unlike recombination with electrons. Our new nonresonant rate of the 7Be recombination for mX = 1000 GeV is more than six times larger than the existing rate. Moreover, we suggest a new important reaction for 9Be production: the recombination of 7Li and X - followed by deuteron capture. We derive binding energies of X nuclei along with reaction rates and Q values. We then calculate BBN and find that the amount of 7Be destruction depends significantly on the charge distribution of 7Be. Finally, updated constraints on the initial abundance and the lifetime of the X - are derived in the context of revised upper limits to the primordial 6Li abundance. Parameter regions for the solution to the 7Li problem and the primordial 9Be abundances are revised.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We extensively reanalyze the effects of a long-lived, negatively charged massive particle, X –, on big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The BBN model with an X – particle was originally motivated by the discrepancy between the 6, 7Li abundances predicted in the standard BBN model and those inferred from observations of metal-poor stars. In this model, 7Be is destroyed via the recombination with an X – particle followed by radiative proton capture. We calculate precise rates for the radiative recombinations of 7Be, 7Li, 9Be, and 4He with X –. In nonresonant rates, we take into account respective partial waves of scattering states and respective bound states. The finite sizes of nuclear charge distributions cause deviations in wave functions from those of point-charge nuclei. For a heavy X – mass, mX ≳ 100 GeV, the d-wave → 2P transition is most important for 7Li and 7, 9Be, unlike recombination with electrons. Our new nonresonant rate of the 7Be recombination for mX = 1000 GeV is more than six times larger than the existing rate. Moreover, we suggest a new important reaction for 9Be production: the recombination of 7Li and X – followed by deuteron capture. We derive binding energies of X nuclei along with reaction rates and Q values. We then calculate BBN and find that the amount of 7Be destruction depends significantly on the charge distribution of 7Be. Finally, updated constraints on the initial abundance and the lifetime of the X – are derived in the context of revised upper limits to the primordial 6Li abundance. Parameter regions for the solution to the 7Li problem and the primordial 9Be abundances are revised
Search for stable massive SUSY particles with the ATLAS detector
Heinrich, Jochen Jens; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
Several supersymmetric models predict the production of massive long-lived supersymmetric particles. Such particles, if charged, may be detected through abnormal specific energy loss or long time-of-flight to the calorimeters. The talk presents recent results from searches of long-lived supersymmetric charged particles using proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector.
Spin Operators for Massive Particles
Choi, Taeseung
2014-01-01
How to define a proper relativistic spin operator, as a long-standing problem, has by now become a central task for providing proper concepts and applications of spin in relativistic and non-relativistic quantum mechanics as well as solving emergent inconsistencies in rapidly developing research areas. We rigorously {\\it derive} a relativistic spin operator for an arbitrary spin massive particle on the two requirements that a proper spin operator should satisfy (i) the $\\mathfrak{su}(2)$ algebra and (ii) the Lorentz-transformation properties as a second-rank spin tensor. These requirements lead to two spin operators, properly giving the second Casimir invariant operator in the Poincar\\'e (inhomogeneous Lorentz) group, that provide the two inequivalent representations of Poincar\\'e group. We find that the two inequivalent representations are the left-handed and the right-handed representations. Each of the two spin operators generates a Wigner little group whose representation space is composed of spin-$s$ spi...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This document is a basic course on charged particle sources for post-graduate students and thematic schools on large facilities and accelerator physics. A simple but precise description of the creation and the emission of charged particles is presented. This course relies on every year upgraded reference documents. Following relevant topics are considered: electronic emission processes, technological and practical considerations on electron guns, positron sources, production of neutral atoms, ionization, plasma and discharge, different types of positive and negative ion sources, polarized particle sources, materials for the construction of ion sources, low energy beam production and transport. (N.T.)
Zimmermann, Simone
This dissertation presents a search for long-lived, multi-charged particles using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Motivation for this search arose from an unexploited search regime at ATLAS of stable massive particles with electric charges of |q| = 2e to |q| = 5e. Additional motivation can be found in several beyond the Standard Model physics theories. Proton-proton collisions recorded during the 2011 LHC running at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.4 $fb^{-1}$, are examined in a signature-based analysis. The search seeks out charged particle tracks exhibiting anomalously high ionization consistent with stable massive particles with electric charges in the range from |q| = 2e to |q| = 6e. For this search, new variables of speciﬁc energy loss per path length dE/dx are used in the candidate selection. One of these variables, the TRT dE/dx, is developed in the course of this thesis and is described in detail. No excess is observed with respect to the prediction of Standard Model...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zimmermann, Simone
2013-08-15
This dissertation presents a search for long-lived, multi-charged particles using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Motivation for this search arose from an unexploited search regime at ATLAS of stable massive particles with electric charges of vertical stroke q vertical stroke = 2e to vertical stroke q vertical stroke = 5e. Additional motivation can be found in several beyond the Standard Model physics theories. Proton-proton collisions recorded during the 2011 LHC running at {radical}(s)=7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.4 fb{sup -1}, are examined in a signature-based analysis. The search seeks out charged particle tracks exhibiting anomalously high ionization consistent with stable massive particles with electric charges in the range from vertical stroke q vertical stroke =2e to vertical stroke q vertical stroke =6e. For this search, new variables of specific energy loss per path length dE/dx are used in the candidate selection. One of these variables, the TRT dE/dx, is developed in the course of this thesis and is described in detail. No excess is observed with respect to the prediction of Standard Model processes. The 95% C.L. upper cross section limits are also interpreted as mass exclusion limits for a simplified Drell-Yan production model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This dissertation presents a search for long-lived, multi-charged particles using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Motivation for this search arose from an unexploited search regime at ATLAS of stable massive particles with electric charges of vertical stroke q vertical stroke = 2e to vertical stroke q vertical stroke = 5e. Additional motivation can be found in several beyond the Standard Model physics theories. Proton-proton collisions recorded during the 2011 LHC running at √(s)=7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.4 fb-1, are examined in a signature-based analysis. The search seeks out charged particle tracks exhibiting anomalously high ionization consistent with stable massive particles with electric charges in the range from vertical stroke q vertical stroke =2e to vertical stroke q vertical stroke =6e. For this search, new variables of specific energy loss per path length dE/dx are used in the candidate selection. One of these variables, the TRT dE/dx, is developed in the course of this thesis and is described in detail. No excess is observed with respect to the prediction of Standard Model processes. The 95% C.L. upper cross section limits are also interpreted as mass exclusion limits for a simplified Drell-Yan production model.
Humphries, Stanley
2013-01-01
Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.
Charged Particle Optics Theory
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hawkes, P. W.; Lencová, Bohumila
-, č. 6 (2006), s. 6-8 Grant ostatní: EC 5RP(XE) G5RD-CT-2000-00344 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : optics of charged particles * design of ion lithography system * spot profile * the finite element method Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering www.phantomsnet.net
Massive neutral particles on heterotic string theory
Olivares, Marco
2013-01-01
The motion of massive particles in the background of a charged black hole in heterotic string theory, which is characterized by a parameter $\\alpha$, is studied in detail across this paper. Since it is possible to write this space-time in the Einstein frame, we perform a quantitative analysis of the time-like geodesics by means of the standard Lagrange procedure. Thus, we obtain and solve a set of differential equations and then we describe the orbits in terms of elliptic $\\wp$-Weierstra{\\ss} function. Also, by making an elementary derivation developed by Cornbleet (Am. J. Phys. \\textbf{61} 7, (1993) 650 - 651) we obtain the correction to the angle of advance of perihelion to first order in $\\alpha$, and thus, by comparing with Mercury's data we give an estimation for the value of this parameter, which yields to an {\\it heterotic solar charge} $Q_{\\odot}\\simeq 0.728\\,[\\textrm{Km}]= 0.493\\, M_{\\odot}$. Therefore, in addition with the study on null geodesics performed by Fernando (Phys. Rev. D {\\bf 85}, (2012) ...
Massive neutral particles on heterotic string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The motion of massive particles in the background of a charged black hole in heterotic string theory, which is characterized by a parameter α, is studied in detail in this paper. Since it is possible to write this space-time in the Einstein frame, we perform a quantitative analysis of the time-like geodesics by means of the standard Lagrange procedure. Thus, we obtain and solve a set of differential equations and then we describe the orbits in terms of the elliptic p-Weierstrass function. Also, by making an elementary derivation developed by Cornbleet (Am. J. Phys. 61(7):650-651, 1993) we obtain the correction to the angle of advance of perihelion to first order in α, and thus, by comparing with Mercury's data we give an estimation for the value of this parameter, which yields an heterotic solar charge Qsun ≅ 0.728 [Km]=0.493 Msun. Therefore, in addition to the study on null geodesics performed by Fernando (Phys. Rev. D 85:024033, 2012), this work completes the geodesic structure for this class of space-time. (orig.)
Destruction of false vacuum by massive particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The rate of false vacuum decay in (1 + 1) dimensions induced by a massive boson or fermion particle which serves as a center of nucleation of critical bubble of the lower vacuum is calculated. The pesence of a particle gives an exponential enhancement of the decay rate and sufficiently heavy particles practically immediately blow up the false vacuum. The particle itself is carried away to infinity in a form of zero mode bound on soliton
Spacetime structure of massive Majorana particles and massive gravitino
Ahluwalia, D V
2003-01-01
The profound difference between Dirac and Majorana particles is traced back to the possibility of having physically different constructs in the (1/2, 0) 0 (0,1/2) representation space. Contrary to Dirac particles, Majorana-particle propagators are shown to differ from the simple linear gamma mu p submu, structure. Furthermore, neither Majorana particles, nor their antiparticles can be associated with a well defined arrow of time. The inevitable consequence of this peculiarity is the particle-antiparticle metamorphosis giving rise to neutrinoless double beta decay, on the one side, and enabling spin-1/2 fields to act as gauge fields, gauginos, on the other side. The second part of the lecture notes is devoted to massive gravitino. We argue that a spin measurement in the rest frame for an unpolarized ensemble of massive gravitino, associated with the spinor-vector [(1/2, 0) 0 (0,1/2)] 0 (1/2,1/2) representation space, would yield the results 3/2 with probability one half, and 1/2 with probability one half. The ...
Massive particle accelerator revving up
Kestenbaum, David S
2007-01-01
"This summer, physicists plan to throww the switch on what is arguably the largest and most complex science experiment ever conducted. An underground ring of superconducting magnets, reaching from Switzerland into France, will smash together subatomic particles at incredible force." (3 pages)
Irruption of massive particle species during inflation
Fedderke, Michael A; Wyman, Mark
2014-01-01
All species of (non-conformally-coupled) particles are produced during inflation so long as their mass $M$ is not too much larger than $H$, the expansion rate during inflation. It has been shown that if a particle species that is normally massive ($M\\gg H$) couples to the inflaton field in such a way that its mass vanishes, or at least becomes small ($M < H$), for a particular value of the inflaton field, then not only are such particles produced, but an irruption of that particle species can occur during inflation. In this paper we analyze creation of a massive particle species during inflation in a variety of settings, paying particular attention to models which realize such an irruptive production mechanism.
Spin and helicity of massive particles
Lee, Cheng-Yang
2016-01-01
It is a well-known fact that helicity is a Lorentz-invariant for massless but not for massive particles. Nevertheless, a satisfactory proof of this fact and a detailed analysis on the relative orientation between the spin and the momentum are not readily available. One such analysis was presented by Wigner where a formula for the angle between the spin and the momentum is derived for massive particle states undergoing two successive boosts in orthogonal directions. However, as we will show, this result is incorrect. Following a similar line of reasoning as presented by Wigner, a new formula is derived.
Weakly interacting massive particles and stellar structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The existence of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) may solve both the dark matter problem and the solar neutrino problem. Such particles affect the energy transport in the stellar cores and change the stellar structure. We present the results of an analytic approximation to compute these effects in a self-consistent way. These results can be applied to many different stars, but we focus on the decrease of the 8B neutrino flux in the case of the Sun
Charged Particles' Tunneling from Noncommutative Charged Black Hole
Mehdipour, S Hamid
2010-01-01
We apply the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon of a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole in a new noncommutative gravity scenario. In this model, the tunneling amplitude on account of noncommutativity influences in the context of coordinate coherent states is modified. Our calculation points out that the emission rate satisfies the first law of black hole thermodynamics and is consistent with an underlying unitary theory.
Charged particles' tunneling from a noncommutative charged black hole
Mehdipour, S. Hamid
2010-01-01
We apply the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon of a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole in a new noncommutative gravity scenario. In this model, the tunneling amplitude on account of noncommutativity influences in the context of coordinate coherent states is modified. Our calculation points out that the emission rate satisfies the first law of black hole thermodynamics and is consistent with an underlying unitary theory.
Nanodosimetry of charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In last year's annual report, the authors described the development of an ultra-miniature counter (UMC), described some of its physical characteristics, and presented some first measurements with this counter of microdosimetric spectra for neutrons (15 MeV) and photons (137Cs). It remains to investigate in more detail the operational characteristics of the UMC and if possible, to make a comparison of relevant physical parameters such as gain and multiplication radius with the Segur theory. In order to accomplish these objectives, it is necessary to build a wall-less version of the UMC, which will be amenable to calibration and investigation with collimated beams of charged particles. The design of such a counter has been worked out in principle. Investigations into the optimal design of electrode structures and dimensions are being carried out at present. The main problem occurs with the design of the grid structure which is required to define the outer boundary of the collecting volume. Our initial attempts would make it appear at present that a counter of 1 to 1.5 mm diameter is feasible. This should be more than adequate to provide an appropriately wall-less counter within a reasonable size cavity. It will probably be about a year before a working counter can be produced. In the interim, it is possible to make some initial efforts into the investigation of operational characteristics of a wall-less UMC by making use of similar design, but at a somewhat larger size. These first attempts at measurement of charged particle microdosimetric spectra at nanometer site provide added evidence that these counters can yield useful microdosimetric data at far smaller site sizes than heretofore attempted. They also provide added incentive and encouragement for development of wall-less UMC
Sudden singularities survive massive quantum particle production
Barrow, J. D.; Batista, A. B.; Dito, G.; Fabris, J. C.; Houndjo, M. J. S.
2011-01-01
We solve the Klein-Gordon equation for a massive, non-minimally coupled scalar field, with a conformal coupling, undergoing cosmological evolution from a radiation-dominated phase to a future sudden singularity. We show that, after regularisation, the energy of the created particles is zero and the back-reaction from quantum effects does not change the evolution of the universe near the future singularity and cannot prevent the finite-time sudden singularity.
Sudden singularities survive massive quantum particle production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We solve the Klein-Gordon equation for a massive, nonminimally coupled scalar field, with a conformal coupling, undergoing cosmological evolution from a radiation-dominated phase to a future sudden singularity. We show that, after regularization, the energy of the created particles is zero and the backreaction from quantum effects does not change the evolution of the Universe near the future singularity and cannot prevent the finite-time sudden singularity.
Antenna Splitting Functions for Massive Particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC
2011-06-22
An antenna shower is a parton shower in which the basic move is a color-coherent 2 {yields} 3 parton splitting process. In this paper, we give compact forms for the spin-dependent antenna splitting functions involving massive partons of spin 0 and spin 1/2. We hope that this formalism we have presented will be useful in describing the QCD dynamics of the top quark and other heavy particles at LHC.
Radiation reaction for a massless charged particle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kazinski, P O; Sharapov, A A [Physics Faculty, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)
2003-07-07
We derive effective equations of motion for a massless charged particle coupled to the dynamical electromagnetic field with regard to the radiation back reaction. It is shown that unlike the massive case, not all the divergences resulting from the self-action of the particle are Lagrangian, i.e., can be cancelled out by adding appropriate counterterms to the original action. Besides, the order of renormalized differential equations governing the effective dynamics turns out to be greater than the order of the corresponding Lorentz-Dirac equation for a massive particle. For the case of a homogeneous external field, the first radiative correction to the Lorentz equation is explicitly derived via the reduction of order procedure.
Radiation reaction for a massless charged particle
Kazinski, P O
2003-01-01
We derive effective equations of motion for a massless charged particle coupled to the dynamical electromagnetic field having regard to the radiation back reaction. It is shown that unlike the massive case not all the divergences resulting from the self-action of the particle are Lagrangian, i.e. can be canceled out by adding appropriate counterterms to the original action. Besides, the order of renormalized differential equations governing the effective dynamics turns out to be greater than the order of the corresponding Lorentz-Dirac equation for a massive particle. For the case of homogeneous external field the first radiative correction to the Lorentz equation is explicitly derived via the reduction of order procedure.
Radiation reaction for a massless charged particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We derive effective equations of motion for a massless charged particle coupled to the dynamical electromagnetic field with regard to the radiation back reaction. It is shown that unlike the massive case, not all the divergences resulting from the self-action of the particle are Lagrangian, i.e., can be cancelled out by adding appropriate counterterms to the original action. Besides, the order of renormalized differential equations governing the effective dynamics turns out to be greater than the order of the corresponding Lorentz-Dirac equation for a massive particle. For the case of a homogeneous external field, the first radiative correction to the Lorentz equation is explicitly derived via the reduction of order procedure
Radiation reaction for a massless charged particle
Kazinski, P. O.; Sharapov, A. A.
2003-07-01
We derive effective equations of motion for a massless charged particle coupled to the dynamical electromagnetic field with regard to the radiation back reaction. It is shown that unlike the massive case, not all the divergences resulting from the self-action of the particle are Lagrangian, i.e., can be cancelled out by adding appropriate counterterms to the original action. Besides, the order of renormalized differential equations governing the effective dynamics turns out to be greater than the order of the corresponding Lorentz-Dirac equation for a massive particle. For the case of a homogeneous external field, the first radiative correction to the Lorentz equation is explicitly derived via the reduction of order procedure.
Heavy charged particle therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A pilot study of heavy charged particles with heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) for advanced H and N cancer has been carried out from June 1994 at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). As of the beginning of August 1994, three patients were treated by 290 MeV carbon ions. The patients had adenocarcinoma of the cheek mucosa, squamous cell carcinoma of the ethmoid sinus and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the sublingual gland. Patients were immobilized by individual head coach and thermosplint facial shell. Individual collimators and bolus were also prepared for each ports. Dose fractionation for the initial pilot study group was 16.2 GyE/18 fractions/6 weeks, which would be equivalent to standard fractionation of 60.0 Gy/30 fractions/6 weeks with photons. This dose fractionation was considered to be 20% lesser than 75 GyE/37.5 fractions/7.5 weeks, which is estimated to be maximum tolerance dose for advanced H and N cancers. HIMAC worked well and there was no major trouble causing any treatment delay. Acute skin reactions of 3 patients were 2 cases of bright erythema with patchy moist desquamation and one of dull erythema, which were evaluated as equivalent reaction with irradiated dose. Acute mucosa reactions appeared to have lesser reaction than predicted mucositis. Tumor reactions of three patients were partial reaction (PR) at the end of treatment and nearly complete remission (CR) after 6 months of treatment. From October 1994, we started to treat patients with advanced H and N cancer with 10% high dose than previous dose. And new candidates of pilot study with non small cell lung cancer, brain tumor and carcinoma of the tongue were entered into pilot study. At the end of February 1995, a total of 21 patients were treated by carbon ions. (J.P.N.)
Particles and scalar waves in noncommutative charged black hole spacetime
Bhar, Piyali; Rahaman, Farook; Biswas, Ritabrata(Indian Institute of Engineering Sceince and Technology Shibpur (Formerly, Bengal Engineering and Science University Shibpur), 711 013, Howrah, West Bengal, India); Mondal, U. F.
2015-01-01
In this paper we have discussed geodesics and the motion of test particle in the gravitational field of noncommutative charged black hole spacetime. The motion of massive and massless particle have been discussed seperately. A comparative study of noncommutative charged black hole and usual Reissner-Nordstrom black hole has been done. The study of effective potential has also been included. Finally, we have examined the scattering of scalar waves in noncommutative charged black hole spacetime.
Particles and Scalar Waves in Noncommutative Charged Black Hole Spacetime
Piyali, Bhar; Farook, Rahaman; Ritabrata, Biswas; U. F., Mondal
2015-07-01
In this paper we have discussed geodesics and the motion of test particle in the gravitational field of non-commutative charged black hole spacetime. The motion of massive and massless particle have been discussed seperately. A comparative study of noncommutative charged black hole and usual Reissner-Nordström black hole has been done. The study of effective potential has also been included. Finally, we have examined the scattering of scalar waves in noncommutative charged black hole spacetime.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suitable for both the specialist and non-specialist, this book develops all statements from first principles. Key chapters of the book focus upon how to design particle-optical systems, the systematics of image abberations, the effects of fringing fields, systematics of beams, and solutions for particle-optical systems. An undergraduate background in physics and mathematics is required for this work
Search for GUT monopoles and massive exotic particles with MACRO
De Mitri, I
2001-01-01
Massive rare particles have been searched for in the penetrating cosmic radiation using the MACRO apparatus at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories. Liquid scintillators, streamer tubes and nuclear track detectors have been used to search for GUT magnetic monopoles (MMs). Based on no observation of such signals, stringent flux limits are established for MMs as slow as a few 10/sup -5/ c. The methods based on the scintillator and on the nuclear track subdetectors were also applied to search for nuclearites and charged Q-balls. (15 refs).
Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography
Morris, Christopher; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Schultz, Larry Joe; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Sossong, Michael James; Blanpied, Gary
2010-11-23
Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.
Planckian Interacting Massive Particles as Dark Matter
Garny, Mathias; Sandora, McCullen; Sloth, Martin S.
2016-03-01
The standard model could be self-consistent up to the Planck scale according to the present measurements of the Higgs boson mass and top quark Yukawa coupling. It is therefore possible that new physics is only coupled to the standard model through Planck suppressed higher dimensional operators. In this case the weakly interacting massive particle miracle is a mirage, and instead minimality as dictated by Occam's razor would indicate that dark matter is related to the Planck scale, where quantum gravity is anyway expected to manifest itself. Assuming within this framework that dark matter is a Planckian interacting massive particle, we show that the most natural mass larger than 0.01 Mp is already ruled out by the absence of tensor modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This also indicates that we expect tensor modes in the CMB to be observed soon for this type of minimal dark matter model. Finally, we touch upon the Kaluza-Klein graviton mode as a possible realization of this scenario within UV complete models, as well as further potential signatures and peculiar properties of this type of dark matter candidate. This paradigm therefore leads to a subtle connection between quantum gravity, the physics of primordial inflation, and the nature of dark matter.
Planckian Interacting Massive Particles as Dark Matter.
Garny, Mathias; Sandora, McCullen; Sloth, Martin S
2016-03-11
The standard model could be self-consistent up to the Planck scale according to the present measurements of the Higgs boson mass and top quark Yukawa coupling. It is therefore possible that new physics is only coupled to the standard model through Planck suppressed higher dimensional operators. In this case the weakly interacting massive particle miracle is a mirage, and instead minimality as dictated by Occam's razor would indicate that dark matter is related to the Planck scale, where quantum gravity is anyway expected to manifest itself. Assuming within this framework that dark matter is a Planckian interacting massive particle, we show that the most natural mass larger than 0.01M_{p} is already ruled out by the absence of tensor modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This also indicates that we expect tensor modes in the CMB to be observed soon for this type of minimal dark matter model. Finally, we touch upon the Kaluza-Klein graviton mode as a possible realization of this scenario within UV complete models, as well as further potential signatures and peculiar properties of this type of dark matter candidate. This paradigm therefore leads to a subtle connection between quantum gravity, the physics of primordial inflation, and the nature of dark matter. PMID:27015472
One-loop calculations with massive particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this thesis some techniques for performing one-loop calculations with massive particles are presented. Numerical techniques are presented necessary for evaluating one-loop integrals which occur in one-loop calculations of photon-photon scattering. The algorithms have been coded in FORTRAN (to evaluate the scalar integrals) and the algebraic language FORM (to reduce the tensor integrals to scalar integrals). Applications are made in the theory of the strong interaction, QCD, i.e. in handling one-loop integrals with massive particles, in order to regulate the infinities by mass parameters encountered in this theory. However this simplifies the computation considerably, the description of the proton structure functions have to be renormalized in order to obtain physical results. This renormalization is different from the published results for the gluon and thus has to be redone. The first physics results that have been obtained with these new methods are presented. These concern heavy quark production in semi-leptonic interactions, for instance neutrino charm production and top production at the electron-proton (ep) collider HERA and the proposed LEP/LHC combination. Total and differential cross-sections for one-loop corrections to top production at the HERA and proposed LEP/HLC ep colliders are given and structure functions for charmed quark production are compared with previously published results. (author). 58 refs.; 18 figs.; 5 tabs
Non-collider searches for stable massive particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burdin, S. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Fairbairn, M. [Department of Physics, King’s College London, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Mermod, P., E-mail: philippe.mermod@cern.ch [Particle Physics Department, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Milstead, D., E-mail: milstead@physto.se [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Pinfold, J. [Physics Department, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 0V1 (Canada); Sloan, T. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Taylor, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada M3J 1P3 (Canada)
2015-06-26
The theoretical motivation for exotic stable massive particles (SMPs) and the results of SMP searches at non-collider facilities are reviewed. SMPs are defined such that they would be sufficiently long-lived so as to still exist in the cosmos either as Big Bang relics or secondary collision products, and sufficiently massive such that they are typically beyond the reach of any conceivable accelerator-based experiment. The discovery of SMPs would address a number of important questions in modern physics, such as the origin and composition of dark matter and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review outlines the scenarios predicting SMPs and the techniques used at non-collider experiments to look for SMPs in cosmic rays and bound in matter. The limits so far obtained on the fluxes and matter densities of SMPs which possess various detection-relevant properties such as electric and magnetic charge are given.
Non-collider searches for stable massive particles
Burdin, Sergey; Mermod, Philippe; Milstead, David; Pinfold, James; Sloan, Terry; Taylor, Wendy
2014-01-01
The theoretical motivation for exotic stable massive particles (SMPs) and the results of SMP searches at non-collider facilities are reviewed. SMPs are defined such that they would be sufficiently long-lived so as to still exist in the cosmos either as Big Bang relics or secondary collision products, and sufficiently massive to be beyond the reach of any conceivable accelerator-based experiment. The discovery of SMPs would address a number of important questions in modern physics, such as the origin and composition of dark matter in the Universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review outlines the scenarios predicting SMPs and the techniques used at non-collider experiments to look for SMPs, eg in cosmic rays and bound in matter. The limits so far obtained on the fluxes and matter densities of SMPs which possess various detection-relevant properties such as electric and magnetic charge are given.
Charged Black Holes in Massive Gravity's Rainbow
Hendi, S H; Panahiyan, S
2016-01-01
Violation of Lorentz invariancy in the high energy quantum gravity, motivates one to consider an energy dependent spacetime with massive deformation of standard general relativity. In this paper, we take into account an energy dependent metric in the context of a massive gravity model to obtain exact solutions. We investigate the geometry of the solutions and show that that there is a curvature singularity at the origin ($r=0$) which can be covered with an event horizon. We also calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, which are fully reproduced by the analysis performed with the standard techniques. Finally, we examine the validity of the first law of thermodynamics. Next, we conduct a study regarding the positivity and negativity of total mass in de Sitter and anti de Sitter spacetime.
Dust particle charging in sheath
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The charging and the screening of spherical dust particles in sheaths near the wall were studied using computer simulation. The three-dimensional PIC/MCC method and molecular dynamics method were applied to describe plasma particles motion and interaction with macroscopic dust grain. Calculations were carried out at different neutral gas pressures and wall potentials. Values of the charge of the dust particles and spatial distributions of plasma parameters are obtained by modelling. The results have shown that the charge of the dust particles in the sheath, as well as the spatial distribution of the ions and electrons near the dust particles, depend strongly on the wall potential. It is shown that for large negative values of the wall potential the negative charge of a dust particle decreases due to the decline of the electron density in its vicinity. In addition, the flow of energy of the ions on the surface of dust particles is increased due to better focusing effect of the dust particle field on ions.
The massive analytic invariant charge in QCD
Nesterenko, A. V.; Papavassiliou, Joannis
2004-01-01
The low energy behavior of a recently proposed model for the massive analytic running coupling of QCD is studied. This running coupling has no unphysical singularities, and in the absence of masses displays infrared enhancement. The inclusion of the effects due to the mass of the lightest hadron is accomplished by employing the dispersion relation for the Adler D function. The presence of the nonvanishing pion mass tames the aforementioned enhancement, giving rise to a finite value for the ru...
Four-dimensional unsubtraction with massive particles
Sborlini, German F R; Rodrigo, German
2016-01-01
We extend the four-dimensional unsubtraction method, which is based on the loop-tree duality (LTD), to deal with processes involving heavy particles. The method allows to perform the summation over degenerate IR configurations directly at integrand level in such a way that NLO corrections can be implemented directly in four space-time dimensions. We define a general momentum mapping between the real and virtual kinematics that accounts properly for the quasi-collinear configurations, and leads to an smooth massless limit. We illustrate the method first with an scalar toy example, and then analyse the case of the decay of a scalar or vector boson into a pair of massive quarks. The results presented in this paper are suitable for the application of the method to any multipartonic process.
Planckian Interacting Massive Particles as Dark Matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garny, Mathias; Sandora, McCullen; Sloth, Martin S.
2016-01-01
. In this case the WIMP miracle is a mirage, and instead minimality as dictated by Occam's razor would indicate that dark matter is related to the Planck scale, where quantum gravity is anyway expected to manifest itself. Assuming within this framework that dark matter is a Planckian Interacting Massive Particle......, we show that the most natural mass larger than $0.01\\,\\textrm{M}_p$ is already ruled out by the absence of tensor modes in the CMB. This also indicates that we expect tensor modes in the CMB to be observed soon for this type of minimal dark matter model. Finally, we touch upon the KK graviton mode...... as a possible realization of this scenario within UV complete models, as well as further potential signatures and peculiar properties of this type of dark matter candidate. This paradigm therefore leads to a subtle connection between quantum gravity, the physics of primordial inflation, and the nature of dark...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, W.L.; Crane, J.K.; Hendricks, C.D.
1980-08-29
Advanced target designs require thicker (approx. 300 ..mu..m) coatings and better surface finishes that can be produced with current coating techniques. An advanced coating technique is proposed to provide maximum control of the coating flux and optimum manipulation of the shell during processing. In this scheme a small beam of ions or particles of known incident energy are collided with a levitated spherical mandrel. Precise control of the incident energy and angle of the deposition flux optimizes the control of the coating morphology while controlled rotation and noncontact support of the shell minimizes the possibility of particulate or damage generated defects. Almost infinite variability of the incident energy and material in this process provides increased flexibility of the target designs which can be physically realized.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Advanced target designs require thicker (approx. 300 μm) coatings and better surface finishes that can be produced with current coating techniques. An advanced coating technique is proposed to provide maximum control of the coating flux and optimum manipulation of the shell during processing. In this scheme a small beam of ions or particles of known incident energy are collided with a levitated spherical mandrel. Precise control of the incident energy and angle of the deposition flux optimizes the control of the coating morphology while controlled rotation and noncontact support of the shell minimizes the possibility of particulate or damage generated defects. Almost infinite variability of the incident energy and material in this process provides increased flexibility of the target designs which can be physically realized
Charged particle acceleration with plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Under certain conditions it is possible to create spatial charge waves (OCE) in a plasma (ionized gas) through some disturbance mechanism, the phenomenon produces electric fields of high intensity that are propagated at velocities near to a c. When charged particles are connected to such OCE they may be accelerated to very high energies in short distances. At present electric fields of approximately 107 V/cm have been observed. (Author). 4 refs
Self-force of a point charge in the space-time of a massive wormhole
Khusnutdinov, Nail R.; Popov, Arkadii A.; Lipatova, Lilia N.
2010-01-01
We consider the self-potential and the self-force for an electrically charged particle at rest in the massive wormhole space-time. We develop general approach for the renormalization of electromagnetic field of such particle in the static space-times and apply it to the space-time of the wormhole with parameter of the mass, $m$. The self-force is found in manifest form; it is an attractive force. We discus the peculiarities due to massive parameter of the wormhole.
Central charges in 2d reduced cosmological massive gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the dimensionally reduced model of the (2+1)-dimensional cosmological massive gravity, we obtain the central charges of the two types of the black hole based on the entropy function method. One is for the BTZ black hole and the other one is actually for the warped AdS3 black hole.
Remark on massive particle's de Sitter tunneling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the work [J. Y. Zhang and Z. Zhao, Massive particles's black hole tunneling and de Sitter tunneling, Nucl. Phys. B 725 (2005) 173.], the Hawking radiation of the massive particle via tunneling from the de Sitter cosmological horizon has been first described in the tunneling framework. However, the geodesic equation of the massive particle was unnaturally and awkwardly defined there by investigating the relation between the group and phase velocity. In this paper, we start from the Lagrangian analysis on the action to naturally produce the geodesic equation of the tunneling massive particle. Then, based on the new definition for the geodesic equation, we revisit the Hawking radiation of the massive particle via tunneling from the de Sitter cosmological horizon. It is noteworthy that, the highlight of our work is a new and important development of the Parikh-Wilczek's tunneling method, which can make it more physical
Planckian Interacting Massive Particles as Dark Matter
Garny, Mathias; Sloth, Martin S
2015-01-01
The Standard Model could be self-consistent up to the Planck scale according to the present measurements of the Higgs mass and top quark Yukawa coupling. It is therefore possible that new physics is only coupled to the Standard Model through Planck suppressed higher dimensional operators. In this case the WIMP miracle is a mirage, and instead minimality as dictated by Occam's razor would indicate that dark matter is related to the Planck scale, where quantum gravity is anyway expected to manifest itself. Assuming within this framework that dark matter is a Planckian Interacting Massive Particle, we show that the most natural mass larger than $0.01\\,\\textrm{M}_p$ is already ruled out by the absence of tensor modes in the CMB. This also indicates that we expect tensor modes in the CMB to be observed soon for this type of minimal dark matter model. Finally, we touch upon the KK graviton mode as a possible realization of this scenario within UV complete models, as well as further potential signatures and peculiar...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Becar, Ramon [Universidad Catolica de Temuco, Departamento de Ciencias Matematicas y Fisicas, Temuco (Chile); Gonzalez, P.A. [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Saavedra, Joel [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Vasquez, Yerko [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, La Serena (Chile)
2015-02-01
We study massive charged fermionic perturbations in the background of a charged two-dimensional dilatonic black hole, and we solve the Dirac equation analytically. Then we compute the reflection and transmission coefficients and the absorption cross section for massive charged fermionic fields, and we show that the absorption cross section vanishes at the low- and high-frequency limits. However, there is a range of frequencies where the absorption cross section is not null. Furthermore, we study the effect of the mass and electric charge of the fermionic field over the absorption cross section. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study massive charged fermionic perturbations in the background of a charged two-dimensional dilatonic black hole, and we solve the Dirac equation analytically. Then we compute the reflection and transmission coefficients and the absorption cross section for massive charged fermionic fields, and we show that the absorption cross section vanishes at the low- and high-frequency limits. However, there is a range of frequencies where the absorption cross section is not null. Furthermore, we study the effect of the mass and electric charge of the fermionic field over the absorption cross section. (orig.)
Magnetic guidance of charged particles
Dubbers, Dirk
2015-01-01
Many experiments and devices in physics use static magnetic fields to guide charged particles from a source onto a detector, and we ask the innocent question: What is the distribution of particle intensity over the detector surface? One should think that the solution to this seemingly simple problem is well known. We show that, even for uniform guide fields, this is not the case and present analytical point spread functions (PSF) for magnetic transport that deviate strongly from previous results. The "magnetic" PSF shows unexpected singularities, which were recently also observed experimentally, and which make detector response very sensitive to minute changes of position, field amplitude, or particle energy. In the field of low-energy particle physics, these singularities may become a source of error in modern high precision experiments, or may be used for instrument tests, for instance in neutrino mass retardation spectrometers.
Magnetic guidance of charged particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dirk Dubbers
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Many experiments and devices in physics use static magnetic fields to guide charged particles from a source onto a detector, and we ask the innocent question: What is the distribution of particle intensity over the detector surface? One should think that the solution to this seemingly simple problem is well known. We show that, even for uniform guide fields, this is not the case, and we present analytical point spread functions (PSF for magnetic transport that deviate strongly from previous results. The “magnetic” PSF shows unexpected singularities, which were recently also observed experimentally, and which make detector response very sensitive to minute changes of position, field amplitude, or particle energy. In the field of low-energy particle physics, these singularities may become a source of error in modern high precision experiments, or may be used for instrument tests.
Black hole conserved charges in Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.R. Setare
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper we construct mass, angular momentum and entropy of black hole solution of Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity (GMMG in asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS spacetimes. The Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity theory is realized by adding the CS deformation term, the higher derivative deformation term, and an extra term to pure Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant. We apply our result for conserved charge Qμ(ξ¯ to the rotating BTZ black hole solution of GMMG, and find energy, angular momentum and entropy. Then we show that our results for these quantities are consistent with the first law of black hole thermodynamics.
Massive Particle's Tunnelling from Black Hole with Topological Defect
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HAN Yi-Wen
2007-01-01
We extend Zhang and Zhao's recent work to black hole with topological defect whose Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass is no longer identical to its mass parameter. The behaviour of the tunnelling massive particles is investigated,and the emission rate at which massive particles tunnel across the event horizon of the black hole is calculated.The result is consistent with an underlying unitary theory, and takes the same functional form as that of mass-less particles.
Geometrical charged-particle optics
Rose, Harald
2012-01-01
This second edition is an extended version of the first edition of Geometrical Charged-Particle Optics. The updated reference monograph is intended as a guide for researchers and graduate students who are seeking a comprehensive treatment of the design of instruments and beam-guiding systems of charged particles and their propagation in electromagnetic fields. Wave aspects are included in this edition for explaining electron holography, the Aharanov-Bohm effect and the resolution of electron microscopes limited by diffraction. Several methods for calculating the electromagnetic field are presented and procedures are outlined for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axis. Detailed methods are presented for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. In particular, the optics of rotationally symmetric lenses, quadrupoles, and systems composed of these elements are...
Medium energy charged particle spectrometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The charged particle spectrometer E8 on HELIOS A and B will be described in some detail. It covers proton energies from 80 keV to 6 MeV, electrons from 20 keV to 2 MeV, and positrons from 150 to 550 keV. Its flight performance will be discussed. From examples of measurements the capability of the instrument will be demonstrated. (orig.)
Computations in Charged Particle Optics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Oral, Martin; Radlička, Tomáš
Brno: Institute of Scientific Instruments AS CR, v. v. i, 2014, s. 23-24. ISBN 978-80-87441-12-1. [Workshop of Interesting Topics of SEM and ESEM. Mikulov (CZ), 26.08.2014-31.08.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0103 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : charged Particle Optics * computations Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering
Heavy charged particle radiotherapy trial
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Through mid-1985, a total of 49 patients received heavy-charged-particle irradiation for chordoma, chondrosarcoma, meningioma, or neurilemmoma of the base of skull or juxtaspinal area. The mean tumor dose was 68 Gray-equivalent, ranging from 26 to 80. Control within the irradiated area was obtained in 35 of 49. The median follow up in all 49 patients is 21 months, with a range from 3-90 months. Serious complications were seen in a small number of patients, with cranial nerve injury in two, transverse myelitis in one, and brain necrosis in three patients. In 42 patients with tumors of other histologies and/or sites, including tumors of paranasal sinuses, retroperitoneum, soft tissue and miscellaneous other sites, heavy charged particles were also used to deliver a higher tumor dose than possible with standard irradiation techniques. In the group, 21/42 (50%) have had local tumor control, also a good result considering the extent and the range of tumor types treated. The authors believe that there are a number of sites in addition to the juxtaspinal/base of skull tumors that will show long term benefit from treatment with heavy charged particles
Direct charged particle imaging sensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
CMOS image sensors optimized for charged particle imaging applications, such as electron microscopy and particle physics, have been designed and characterized. These directly image charged particles without reliance on performance-degrading hybrid technologies such as the use of scintillating materials. Based on standard CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) technology, the sensor arrays uses an 8-20 μm epitaxial layer that acts as a thicker sensitive region for the generation and collection of ionization electrons resulting from impinging high-energy particles. This results in a 100% fill factor and a far larger signal per incident electron than a standard CMOS photodiode could provide. A 512x550 pixels prototype has been fabricated and used extensively in an electron microscope, including having been used to take sample images. Temporal noise was measured to be 0.9 mV RMS, and the dynamic range was 60 dB. Power consumption at 70 frames/s is 20 mW. The full-width half-maximum of the collected ionization electron distribution was found to be 5.5 μm, yielding a spatial resolution of approximately 2.3 μm for individual incident electrons, and the modulation transfer function of the sensor at the Nyquist limit is to be 32%
The dynamics of a charged particle
Rohrlich, Fritz
2008-01-01
Using physical arguments, I derive the physically correct equations of motion for a classical charged particle from the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equations (LAD) which are well known to be physically incorrect. Since a charged particle can classically not be a point particle because of the Coulomb field divergence, my derivation accounts for that by imposing a basic condition on the external force. That condition ensures that the particle's finite size charge distribution looks like a point charg...
Background-independent charges in Topologically Massive Gravity
Miskovic, O.; Olea, R.
2009-01-01
We construct background-independent Noether charges in Topologically Massive Gravity with negative cosmological constant using its first-order formulation. The procedure is carried out by keeping track of the surface terms in the variation of the action, regardless the value of the gravitational Chern-Simons coupling $\\mu$. In particular, this method provides a definition of conserved quantities for solutions at the chiral point $\\mu l = 1$ ($l$ is the AdS radius) that contain logarithmic ter...
Thermodynamics and Geometrothermodynamics of Charged black holes in Massive Gravity
Suresh, Jishnu; Prabhakar, Geethu; Kuriakose, V C
2016-01-01
The objective of this paper is to study the thermodynamics and thermodynamic geometry of charged de-Sitter and charged anti de-Sitter black hole solutions in massive gravity. In this study, the presence of a negative cosmological constant is identified as a thermodynamic variable, the pressure. By incorporating this idea, we study the effect of curvature parameter as well as the mass of graviton in the thermodynamics of the black hole system. We further extend our studies to different topology of the space time and its effects on phase transition and thermodynamics. In addition, the phase transition structure of the black hole and its interactions are reproduced using geometrothermodynamics.
Electrically charged: An effective mechanism for soft EOS supporting massive neutron star
Jing, ZhenZhen; Wen, DeHua; Zhang, XiangDong
2015-10-01
The massive neutron star discoverer announced that strange particles, such as hyperons should be ruled out in the neutron star core as the soft Equation of State (EOS) can-not support a massive neutron star. However, many of the nuclear theories and laboratory experiments support that at high density the strange particles will appear and the corresponding EOS of super-dense matters will become soft. This situation promotes a challenge between the astro-observation and nuclear physics. In this work, we introduce an effective mechanism to answer this challenge, that is, if a neutron star is electrically charged, a soft EOS will be equivalently stiffened and thus can support a massive neutron star. By employing a representative soft EOS, it is found that in order to obtain an evident effect on the EOS and thus increasing the maximum stellar mass by the electrostatic field, the total net charge should be in an order of 1020 C. Moreover, by comparing the results of two kind of charge distributions, it is found that even for different distributions, a similar total charge: ~ 2.3 × 1020 C is needed to support a ~ 2.0 M ⊙ neutron star.
Interactions of charged dust particles in clouds of charges
Gundienkov, Vladimir; Yakovlenko, Sergey
2004-03-01
Two charged dust particles inside a cloud of charges are considered as Debye atoms forming a Debye molecule. Cassini coordinates are used for the numerical solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation for the charged cloud. The electric force acting on a dust particle by the other dust particle was determined by integrating the electrostatic pressure on the surface of the dust particle. It is shown that attractive forces appear when the following two conditions are satisfied. First, the average distance between dust particles should be approximately equal to two Debye radii. Second, attraction takes place when similar charges are concentrated predominantly on the dust particles. If the particles carry a small fraction of total charge of the same polarity, repulsion between the particles takes place at all distances. We apply our results to the experiments with thermoemission plasma and to the experiments with nuclear-pumped plasma.
Tunneling of massive particles from noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole
Miao, Yan-Gang; Zhang, Shao-Jun
2010-01-01
We apply the generalization of the Parikh-Wilczek method to the tunneling of massive particles from noncommutative Schwarzschild black holes. By deriving the equation of radial motion of the tunneling particle directly, we calculate the emission rate which is shown to be dependent on the noncommutative parameter besides the energy and mass of the tunneling particle. After equating the emission rate to the Boltzmann factor, we obtain the modified Hawking temperature which relates to the noncommutativity and recovers the standard Hawking temperature in the commutative limit. We also discuss the entropy of the noncommutative Schwarzchild black hole and its difference after and before a massive particle's emission.
Tunneling of massive particles from noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild black hole
Miao, Yan-Gang; Xue, Zhao; Zhang, Shao-Jun
2012-02-01
We apply the generalization of the Parikh-Wilczek method to the tunneling of massive particles from noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild black holes. By deriving the equation of radial motion of the tunneling particle directly, we calculate the emission rate which is shown to be dependent on the noncommutative parameter besides the energy and mass of the tunneling particle. After equating the emission rate to the Boltzmann factor, we obtain the modified Hawking temperature which relates to the noncommutativity and recovers the standard Hawking temperature in the commutative limit. We also discuss the entropy of the noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild black hole and its difference after and before a massive particle's emission.
The Relic Abundance of Massive Colored Particles after a Late Hadronic Annihilation Stage
Jacoby, Chen
2007-01-01
We discuss the relic abundance of massive long lived colored particles with mass of the order of 1 TeV. We first examine the case where the massive colored particles have the standard color only. Next we consider the "Quirk Model" suggested by M. Luty, in which the colored particles transform under an additional non-abelian gauge group with a scale much smaller than the particles' mass. In both cases, the relic abundance is reduced via a "late" hadronic annihilation stage. In the second case the relic Quirks bind to ordinary quarks forming fractional charged objects and also anomalous heavy isotopes, and the bounds on the relic abundance become extremely severe. The force between Quirks, however, has a new confining part that manifests via macroscopic strings and the resulting efficient "very late" annihilations reduce the relic abundance to acceptable levels. The prospects of creating and detecting such particles at LHC and the fate of the particles created are discussed.
Charged Massive Particle’s Tunneling from Charged Nonrotating Microblack Hole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. J. Soleimani
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the tunneling framework of Hawking radiation, charged massive particle’s tunneling in charged nonrotating TeV-scale black hole is investigated. To this end, we consider natural cutoffs as a minimal length, a minimal momentum, and a maximal momentum through a generalized uncertainty principle. We focus on the role played by these natural cutoffs on the luminosity of charged nonrotating microblack hole by taking into account the full implications of energy and charge conservation as well as the backscattered radiation.
Supplementary kinetic constants of charged particles
Ribaric, Marijan; Sustersic, Luka
2006-01-01
We put forward: (A) An improved description of classical, kinetic properties of a charged pointlike physical particle that consists, in addition to its mass and charge, also of the Eliezer and Bhabha kinetic constants; and (B) a proposal to evaluate these kinetic constants by considering the trajectories of charged particles in an acccelerator.
Numerical modelling of charged black holes with massive dilaton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The static and spherically symmetric electrically charged black hole solutions in Einstein-Born-Infeld gravity with massive dilaton are investigated numerically. The Continuous Analog of Newton Method is used to solve originated nonlinear boundary-value problems. The corresponding linearized BVPs are solved numerically by means of the spline-collocation scheme of the fourth order. An important class of solutions are the extremal ones. We show that the extremal horizons satisfy some nonlinear system of an algebraic equation. Depending on the charge q and dilaton mass γ the black holes can have either one, two, or three horizons. This allows one to construct a Hermite polynomial of the third order, which real roots describe the number, the kind and the values of the horizons. (author)
Second order contributions to the absorption of massive particles
Sancho, Pedro
2008-01-01
Recently, in analogy with multiphoton ionization, it has been suggested that multiparticle ionization can also be induced by massive systems. We explore in this paper the possibility that multiparticle absorption processes can also take place for massive particles. To study it we consider, in a perturbative way, a model of absorption which illustrates the analogies with Glauber's scheme for photons and previous analysis on matter-waves coherence. A major advantage of this approach is that the...
Spinning charged test particles and Cosmic Censorship
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors consider spinning charged test particles in the gravitational field of a rotating charged black hole, and it is shown that the hole cannot be destroyed, according to the Cosmic Censorship hypothesis. (Auth.)
Charge of dust particles in a particle chain
Yousefi, Razieh; Matthews, Lorin Swint; Hyde, Truell W
2016-01-01
Charged dust particles form structures which are extended in the vertical direction in the electrode sheath of a rf discharge when confined within a glass box. The charge on each particle as a function of height varies due to the changing plasma conditions and the wakefield of upstream particles. Here an analysis of the equilibrium state of chains of varying number of particles is analyzed to determine the charge on each particle within a vertically extended chain as well as the magnitude of the positive wakefield charge.
Tunneling of massive particles from noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild black hole
Miao, Yan-Gang; Xue, Zhao; Zhang, Shao-Jun
2010-01-01
We apply the generalization of the Parikh-Wilczek method to the tunneling of massive particles from noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild black holes. By deriving the equation of radial motion of the tunneling particle directly, we calculate the emission rate which is shown to be dependent on the noncommutative parameter besides the energy and mass of the tunneling particle. After equating the emission rate to the Boltzmann factor, we obtain the modified Hawking temperature which relates to t...
Worldline deviations of charged spinning particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heydari-Fard, M. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohseni, M. [Physics Department, Payame Noor University, 19395-4697 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: m-mohseni@pnu.ac.ir; Sepangi, H.R. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2005-10-20
The geodesic deviation equation is generalized to worldline deviation equations describing the relative accelerations of charged spinning particles in the framework of Dixon-Souriau equations of motion.
Worldline deviations of charged spinning particles
Heydari-Fard, M; Sepangi, H R
2005-01-01
The geodesic deviation equation is generalized to worldline deviation equations describing the relative accelerations of charged spinning particles in the framework of Dixon-Souriau equations of motion.
Delay Equation for Charged Brown Particle
Vlasov, Alexander A.
2001-01-01
In previous work (physics/0004026) was shown, with the help of numerical calculations, that the effective Brown temperature for charged particle is lower than that for particle without charge. Here we derive this result without numerical calculations, integrating the delay equation analytically, as for zero, so for nonzero viscosity.
Massive particle radiation from Gibbons-Maeda black hole
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fang Heng-Zhong
2010-01-01
This paper investigated the massive particle radiation from Gibbous-Maeda black hole by using a semi-classical method. The calculations showed that, if the self-gravitation of the radiated particle is taken into account, the radiation spectrum deviates from exact black body spectrum and the rate of tunneling equals precisely the exponent of the difference of the black hole entropies before and after emission. The conclusion supports the viewpoint of information conservation.
Satisfying the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen criterion with massive particles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peise, Jan; Kruse, I.; Lange, K.;
2016-01-01
In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) questioned the completeness of quantum mechanics by devising a quantum state of two massive particles with maximally correlated space and momentum coordinates. The EPR criterion qualifies such continuous-variable entangled states, as shown successfully ...
Conserved Charges of Minimal Massive Gravity Coupled to Scalar Field
Setare, M R
2016-01-01
Recently, the theory of Topologically massive gravity non-minimally coupled to a scalar field has been proposed which comes from Lorentz-Chern-Simons theory \\cite{1}. That theory is a torsion free one. We extend that theory by adding an extra term which makes torsion to be non-zero. The extended theory can be regarded as an extension of Minimal massive gravity such that it is non-minimally coupled to a scalar field. We obtain equations of motion of extended theory such that they are expressed in terms of usual torsion free spin-connection. We show that BTZ spacetime is a solution of this theory when scalar field is constant. We define quasi-local conserved charge by the concept of generalized off-shell ADT current which both are conserved for any asymptotically Killing vector field as well as a Killing vector field which is admitted by spacetime everywhere. Also we find general formula for entropy of stationary black hole solution in the context of considered theory. We apply the obtained formulas on BTZ blac...
Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons
Lecoq, P
2011-01-01
Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons 3.1.1.1 Basic detector principles and scintillator requirements 3.1.1.1.1 Interaction of ionizing radiation with scintillator material 3.1.1.1.2 Important scint...
Charged-particle activation analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper discusses the methodology and application of nuclear activation with ion beams (19 via 16O(3He,p)18F, 12C(3He,α)11C and 14N(p,α)11C respectively. Recently, triton activation has been shown to be inherently still superior to 3He activation for the determination of oxygen [16O(3H,n)18F]. Lithium, boron, carbon and sulphur can be detected rapidly, nondestructively and with high sensitivity (approximately 0.25ppm for Li and B) via ''quasi-prompt'' activation based on the detection of short-lived, high-energy beta emitters (10ms1H(7Li,n)7Be for example. Nondestructive multielement analysis: Proton activation has the inherent potential for meeting requirements of broad elemental coverage, sensitivity (ppm and sub-ppm range) and selectivity. Up to 30 elements have been determined in Al, Co, Ag, Nb, Rh, Ta and biological samples, using 12-MeV proton activation followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. These capabilities are further enhanced with the counting of X-ray emitters, 28 elements (269) and accuracy using proton activation. 204Pb/206Pb ratios can also be determined with a relative precision of a few per cent. Although charged-particle activation analysis is a well-established trace analysis technique, broad potential capabilities remain to be explored, e.g. those arising from ultrashort-lived nuclides, heavy ion interactions and the combination of delayed and prompt methods. (author)
Detection of massive multi-particle beams by two-particle ionization
Sancho, Pedro
2007-01-01
Multi-photon absorption is a well-known phenomenon. With atom lasers a similar process could take place for massive particles, the ionization of an atom or molecule by the successive interaction with various particles. This process would lead to multi-particle detection events for incident multi-particle beams. We show that two-particle detections would introduce a correction (proportional to the fourth power of the wavefunction modulus) to the usual one-particle detection probability (only p...
Coagulation of charged particles in dust plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One studied peculiarities of behaviour of small particles in dust plasma resulted on the one hand, from suppression of coagulation due to monopolar charging within the range of particle dimensions under the Debye radius of shielding and, on the other hand, from leveling of this case for particles of large dimensions. On the basis of similarity ratios one determined the range of parameters making linear approximation of particle charge dependence on their dimension true. In terms of the modified classical theory of coagulation in diffusion approximation one studied certain anomalies of behavior of dimension distribution of particles. It is determined that in contrast to the ordinary aerosol in dust plasma as time passes one may reduce dispersion of distribution and average dimensions of particles. For the first time one demonstrates the possibility to realize long-lived quasiliquid state of dust plasma associated with the anomalous behaviour of distribution function of coagulating charged particles according to dimensions
Weak charges of charmed particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The matrix elements between the lowest states of the ΔC=1 weak charges are evaluated including the effect of SU4 breaking. The charges are obtained from the corresponding generators of the classification group by a unitary transformation U, which is factorized as the product of operators acting on a single quark: the breaking is naturally introduced by having different mixing parameters for the different quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An understanding of particle transport is necessary to reduce contamination of semiconductor wafers during low-pressure processing. The trajectories of particles in these reactors are determined by external forces (the most important being neutral fluid drag, thermophoresis, electrostatic, viscous ion drag, and gravitational), by Brownian motion (due to neutral and charged gas molecule collisions), and by particle inertia. Gas velocity and temperature fields are also needed for particle transport calculations, but conventional continuum fluid approximations break down at low pressures when the gas mean free path becomes comparable to chamber dimensions. Thus, in this work we use a massively parallel direct simulation Monte Carlo method to calculate low-pressure internal gas flow fields which show temperature jump and velocity slip at the reactor boundaries. Because particle residence times can be short compared to particle response times in these low-pressure systems (for which continuum diffusion theory fails), we solve the Langevin equation using a numerical Lagrangian particle tracking model which includes a fluctuating Brownian force. Because of the need for large numbers of particle trajectories to ensure statistical accuracy, the particle tracking model is also implemented on a massively parallel computer. The particle transport model is validated by comparison to the Ornstein endash Furth theoretical result for the mean square displacement of a cloud of particles. For long times, the particles tend toward a Maxwellian spatial distribution, while at short times, particle spread is controlled by their initial (Maxwellian) velocity distribution. Several simulations using these techniques are presented for particle transport and deposition in a low pressure, parallel-plate reactor geometry. The corresponding particle collection efficiencies on a wafer for different particle sizes, gas temperature gradients, and gas pressures are evaluated
Robust statistical reconstruction for charged particle tomography
Schultz, Larry Joe; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Morris, Christopher; Orum, John Christopher; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Sossong, Michael James; Hengartner, Nicolas W
2013-10-08
Systems and methods for charged particle detection including statistical reconstruction of object volume scattering density profiles from charged particle tomographic data to determine the probability distribution of charged particle scattering using a statistical multiple scattering model and determine a substantially maximum likelihood estimate of object volume scattering density using expectation maximization (ML/EM) algorithm to reconstruct the object volume scattering density. The presence of and/or type of object occupying the volume of interest can be identified from the reconstructed volume scattering density profile. The charged particle tomographic data can be cosmic ray muon tomographic data from a muon tracker for scanning packages, containers, vehicles or cargo. The method can be implemented using a computer program which is executable on a computer.
Search for massive long-lived highly ionising particles with the ATLAS detector at the LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A search is made for massive highly ionising particles with lifetimes in excess of 100 ns, with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider, using 3.1 pb-1 of pp collision data taken at √(s)=7 TeV. The signature of energy loss in the ATLAS inner detector and electromagnetic calorimeter is used. No such particles are found and limits on the production cross section for electric charges 6e≤|q|≤17e and masses 200 GeV≤m≤1000 GeV are set in the range 1-12 pb for different hypotheses on the production mechanism.
Search for Massive Long-lived Highly Ionizing Particles with the ATLAS detector at the LHC
Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Aleppo, Mario; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonelli, Stefano; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armstrong, Stephen Randolph; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Atoian, Grigor; Aubert, Bernard; Auerbach, Benjamin; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Austin, Nicholas; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Detlef; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Giovanni; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benedict, Brian Hugues; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernardet, Karim; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Rudolf; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Booth, Peter; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Brambilla, Elena; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Brett, Nicolas; Bright-Thomas, Paul; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brubaker, Erik; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Buira-Clark, Daniel; Buis, Ernst-Jan; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Byatt, Tom; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caccia, Massimo; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camard, Arnaud; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Cammin, Jochen; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carpentieri, Carmen; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carron Montero, Sebastian; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavallari, Alvise; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Cazzato, Antonio; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Li; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chevallier, Florent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collard, Caroline; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Coluccia, Rita; Comune, Gianluca; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cuneo, Stefano; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Rocha Gesualdi Mello, Aline; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dahlhoff, Andrea; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dallison, Steve; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dankers, Reinier; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Dauvergne, Jean-Pierre; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De Lotto, Barbara; De Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Oliveira Branco, Miguel; De Pedis, Daniele; de Saintignon, Paul; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dedes, George; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Deile, Mario; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delpierre, Pierre; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Dennis, Chris; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietl, Hans; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djilkibaev, Rashid; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dobson, Marc; Dodd, Jeremy; Dogan, Ozgen Berkol; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Drohan, Janice; Dubbert, Jörg; Dubbs, Tim; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Dzahini, Daniel; Düren, Michael; Ebke, Johannes; Eckert, Simon; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Ely, Robert; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Facius, Katrine; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falou, Alain; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fasching, Damon; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Ivan; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Felzmann, Ulrich; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernandes, Bruno; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Fisher, Steve; Flammer, Joachim; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Föhlisch, Florian; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallas, Manuel; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galyaev, Eugene; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; Georgatos, Fotios; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghez, Philippe; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gieraltowski, Gerry; Gilbert, Laura; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Goldin, Daniel; Golling, Tobias; Gollub, Nils Peter; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouanère, Michel; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grabski, Varlen; Grafström, Per; Grah, Christian; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenfield, Debbie; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griesmayer, Erich; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grognuz, Joel; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Gruwe, Magali; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hackenburg, Robert; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Christian Johan; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heldmann, Michael; Heller, Mathieu; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Hidvegi, Attila; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmes, Alan; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homer, Jim; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Horton, Katherine; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hott, Thomas; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Idzik, Marek; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Imbault, Didier; Imhaeuser, Martin; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ionescu, Gelu; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Ishii, Koji; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Isobe, Tadaaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Itoh, Yuki; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Ju, Xiangyang; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasmi, Azzedine; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Kazi, Sandor Istvan; Keates, James Robert; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kelly, Marc; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Ketterer, Christian; Khakzad, Mohsen; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kilvington, Graham; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Guillaume; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kiyamura, Hironori; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Koblitz, Birger; Kocian, Martin; Kocnar, Antonin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; König, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Kopikov, Sergey; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Serguei; Kotov, Vladislav; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasel, Olaf; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuykendall, William; Kuze, Masahiro; Kuzhir, Polina; Kvasnicka, Ondrej; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Rémi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lapin, Vladimir; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Wing; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorato, Antonia; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Lazzaro, Alfio; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Leahu, Marius; Lebedev, Alexander; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lehto, Mark; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lellouch, Jeremie; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewandowska, Marta; Lewis, George; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhihua; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lilley, Joseph; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Lockwitz, Sarah; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lu, Jiansen; Lu, Liang; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lupi, Anna; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magalhaes Martins, Paulo Jorge; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Magrath, Caroline; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchesotti, Marco; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Maß, Martin; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maxfield, Stephen; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McMahon, Tom; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meinhardt, Jens; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Merkl, Doris; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meuser, Stefan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Miele, Paola; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikulec, Bettina; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitra, Ankush; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohn, Bjarte; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Moneta, Lorenzo; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morais, Antonio; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morita, Youhei; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morone, Maria-Christina; Morris, John; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muijs, Sandra; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murakami, Koichi; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Nesterov, Stanislav; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nožička, Miroslav; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Odino, Gian Andrea; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohska, Tokio Kenneth; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Ordonez, Gustavo; Oreglia, Mark; Orellana, Frederik; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Ortega, Eduardo; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Oyarzun, Alejandro; Øye, Ola; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pajchel, Katarina; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Paoloni, Alessandro; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Peric, Ivan; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Onne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Alan; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickford, Andrew; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Placakyte, Ringaile; Plamondon, Mathieu; Plano, Will; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Porter, Robert; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prichard, Paul; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rajek, Silke; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Ramstedt, Magnus; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rauter, Emanuel; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rensch, Bertram; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieke, Stefan; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodier, Stephane; Rodriguez, Diego; Rodriguez Garcia, Yohany; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Maltrana, Diego; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rossi, Lucio; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rottländer, Iris; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rulikowska-Zarebska, Elzbieta; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Runolfsson, Ogmundur; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandhu, Pawan; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Takashi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Savva, Panagiota; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmidt, Michael; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Christian; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siebel, Anca-Mirela; Siegert, Frank; Siegrist, James; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloan, Terrence; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Sondericker, John; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sorbi, Massimo; Sosebee, Mark; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockmanns, Tobias; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Siva; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taga, Adrian; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Gary; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Tennenbaum-Katan, Yaniv-David; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terwort, Mark; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Tevlin, Christopher; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tic, Tomas; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timmermans, Charles; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Tobias, Jürgen; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonazzo, Alessandra; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Traynor, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Treis, Johannes; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Typaldos, Dimitrios; Tyrvainen, Harri; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urkovsky, Evgeny; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; Van Eijk, Bob; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Viret, Sébastien; Virzi, Joseph; Vitale, Antonio; Vitells, Ofer; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vovenko, Anatoly; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Jens; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xaplanteris, Leonidas; Xella, Stefania; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yamada, Miho; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Weiming; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zalite, Youris; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zema, Pasquale Federico; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Anton; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zenonos, Zenonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zilka, Branislav; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz
2011-01-01
A search is made for massive long-lived highly ionising particles with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider, using 3.1 pb-1 of pp collision data taken at sqrt(s)=7 TeV. The signature of energy loss in the ATLAS inner detector and electromagnetic calorimeter is used. No such particles are found and limits on the production cross section for electric charges 6e <= |q| <= 17e and masses 200 GeV <= m <= 1000 GeV are set in the range 1-12 pb for different hypotheses on the production mechanism.
New Charged Particles from Higgs Couplings
Cohen, Andrew G
2012-01-01
The recently reported observation of a new particle with mass about 125 GeV and couplings generally resembling those of the Standard Model Higgs boson provides a potential probe of the physics of electroweak symmetry breaking. Although the current data only provides hints, we suggest a particular combination of Higgs couplings as an assay for new charged particles connected with electroweak symmetry breaking, and construct a simple model with charge 5/3 quarks as a demonstration of its use.
Inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis with late-decaying massive particles
Lopez-Suarez, J.; Canal, R.
1998-01-01
We investigate the possibility of accounting for the currently inferred primordial abundances of D, 3He, 4He, and 7Li by big bang nucleosynthesis in the presence of baryon density inhomogeneities plus the effects of late-decaying massive particles (X), and we explore the allowed range of baryonic fraction of the closure density Omega_b in such context. We find that, depending on the parameters of this composite model (characteristic size and density contrast of the inhomogeneities; mass-densi...
Remarks about massive and massless particles in supersymmetry
Ketov, S. V.; Kim, Y.-S.
1993-01-01
The internal space-time symmetry and simple supersymmetry of relativistic particles are briefly discussed in terms of the little group of the Poincare group. The little group generators in a finite-dimensional matrix representation of the N = 1 super-Poincare algebra are explicitly constructed. The supergeometry of a massive case continuously becomes that of a massless case in the infinite-momentum limit. The origin of the gage transformations associated with the massless supermultiplets becomes transparent in that limit.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. V. Rodrigues
2006-03-01
Full Text Available This work gives sequence to the study on the measurement of the electrostatic charges in aerosols. The particle charge classifier developed for this purpose and presented in the previous paper (Marra and Coury, 2000 has been used here to measure the particle charge distribution of a number of different aerosols. The charges acquired by the particles were naturally derived from the aerosol generation procedure itself. Two types of aerosol generators were used: the vibrating orifice generator and turntable Venturi plate generator. In the vibrating orifice generator, mono-dispersed particles were generated by a solution of water/ethanol/methylene blue, while in the rotating plate generator, six different materials were utilized. The results showed no clear dependence between electric charge and particle diameter for the mono-dispersed aerosol. However, for the poly-dispersed aerosols, a linear dependence between particle size and charge could be noticed.
Charged Q-balls and boson stars and dynamics of charged test particles
Brihaye, Yves; Hartmann, Betti
2014-01-01
We construct electrically charged Q-balls and boson stars in a model with a scalar self-interaction potential resulting from gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. We discuss the properties of these solutions in detail and emphasize the differences to the uncharged case. We observe that $Q$-balls can only be constructed up to a maximal value of the charge of the scalar field, while for boson stars the interplay between the attractive gravitational force and the repulsive electromagnetic force determines their behaviour. We also study the motion of charged, massive test particles in the space-time of boson stars. We find that in contrast to charged black holes the motion of charged test particles in charged boson star space-times is planar, but that the presence of the scalar field plays a crucial r\\^ole for the qualitative features of the trajectories. Applications of this test particle motion can be made in the study of extreme-mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) as well as astrophysical plasmas relevant e.g. in th...
Collisions of spinning massive particles in a Schwarzschild background
Armaza, Cristóbal; Banados, Máximo; Koch, Benjamin
2016-05-01
It is known that the center-of-mass energy of the collision of two massive particles following geodesics around a black hole presents a maximum. The maximum energy increases when the black hole is endowed with spin, and for a maximally rotating hole this energy blows up, offering, in principle, a unique probe of fundamental physics. This work extends the latter studies by considering that the colliding particles possess intrinsic angular momentum (spin), described by the Hanson-Regge-Hojman theory of spinning particles. By analyzing planar trajectories of spinning particles around non-rotating black holes, a significant increase of the invariant collision energy is found. Radial turning points, causality constraints, and limitations of the theory are discussed.
Massive particle production from accelerated sources in high magnetic fields
Fregolente, Douglas
2011-01-01
Non-electromagnetic emissions from high energy particles in extreme environments has been studied in the literature by using several variations of the semi-classical formalism. The detailed mechanisms behind such emissions are of great astrophysical interest since they can alter appreciably the associated energy loss rates. Here, we review the role played by the source proper acceleration $a$ in the particle production process. The acceleration $a$ determines the typical scale characterizing the particle production and, moreover, if the massive particle production is inertially forbidden, it will be strongly suppressed for $a$ below a certain threshold. In particular, we show that, for the case of accelerated protons in typical pulsar magnetospheres, the corresponding accelerations $a$ are far below the pion production threshold.
Particles with non abelian charges
Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Corradini, Olindo; Latini, Emanuele
2013-01-01
Efficient methods for describing non abelian charges in worldline approaches to QFT are useful to simplify calculations and address structural properties, as for example color/kinematics relations. Here we analyze in detail a method for treating arbitrary non abelian charges. We use Grassmann variables to take into account color degrees of freedom, which however are known to produce reducible representations of the color group. Then we couple them to a U(1) gauge field defined on the worldline, together with a Chern-Simons term, to achieve projection on an irreducible representation. Upon gauge fixing there remains a modulus, an angle parametrizing the U(1) Wilson loop, whose dependence is taken into account exactly in the propagator of the Grassmann variables. We test the method in simple examples, the scalar and spin 1/2 contribution to the gluon self energy, and suggest that it might simplify the analysis of more involved amplitudes.
Discrete Element Modeling of Triboelectrically Charged Particles
Hogue, Michael D.; Calle, Carlos I.; Weitzman, Peter S.; Curry, David R.
2008-01-01
Tribocharging of particles is common in many processes including fine powder handling and mixing, printer toner transport and dust extraction. In a lunar environment with its high vacuum and lack of water, electrostatic forces are an important factor to consider when designing and operating equipment. Dust mitigation and management is critical to safe and predictable performance of people and equipment. The extreme nature of lunar conditions makes it difficult and costly to carry out experiments on earth which are necessary to better understand how particles gather and transfer charge between each other and with equipment surfaces. DEM (Discrete Element Modeling) provides an excellent virtual laboratory for studying tribocharging of particles as well as for design of devices for dust mitigation and for other purposes related to handling and processing of lunar regolith. Theoretical and experimental work has been performed pursuant to incorporating screened Coulombic electrostatic forces into EDEM, a commercial DEM software package. The DEM software is used to model the trajectories of large numbers of particles for industrial particulate handling and processing applications and can be coupled with other solvers and numerical models to calculate particle interaction with surrounding media and force fields. While simple Coulombic force between two particles is well understood, its operation in an ensemble of particles is more complex. When the tribocharging of particles and surfaces due to frictional contact is also considered, it is necessary to consider longer range of interaction of particles in response to electrostatic charging. The standard DEM algorithm accounts for particle mechanical properties and inertia as a function of particle shape and mass. If fluid drag is neglected, then particle dynamics are governed by contact between particles, between particles and equipment surfaces and gravity forces. Consideration of particle charge and any tribocharging and
Charged particle concepts for fog dispersion
Frost, W.; Collins, F. G.; Koepf, D.
1981-01-01
Charged particle techniques hold promise for dispersing warm fog in the terminal area of commercial airports. This report focuses on features of the charged particle technique which require further study. The basic physical principles of the technique and the major verification experiments carried out in the past are described. The fundamentals of the nozzle operation are given. The nozzle characteristics and the theory of particle charging in the nozzle are discussed, including information from extensive literature on electrostatic precipitation relative to environmental pollution control and a description of some preliminary reported analyses on the jet characteristics and interaction with neighboring jets. The equation governing the transfer of water substances and of electrical charge is given together with a brief description of several semi-empirical, mathematical expressions necessary for the governing equations. The necessary ingredients of a field experiment to verify the system once a prototype is built are described.
Towards a microscopic theory of particle charging
Bronold, Franz X; Kersten, H; Deutsch, H
2009-01-01
We recently questioned the treatment of a dust particle as a perfect absorber for electrons and ions and proposed a surface model for the charge of a dust particle in a quiescent plasma which combines the microscopic physics at the grain boundary (sticking into and desorption from external surface states) with the macrophysics of the discharge (plasma collection fluxes). Within this model the charge and partial screening of the particle can be calculated without relying on the condition that the total electron collection flux balances on the grain surface the total ion collection flux. Grain charges obtained from our approach compared favorably with experimental data. The purpose of this paper is to describe our model in more detail, in particular, the hypotheses on which it is built, contrast it with the standard charging models based on flux balancing on the grain surface, and to analyze additional experimental data.
Fractionally charged particles in cosmic rays
Bashindzhagyan, George
2016-01-01
The results of many experiments on a search of fractionally charged particles in cosmic rays have been reviewed. The registered by ATIC and PAMELA experiments change of the proton energy spectrum at about 250 GeV can be explained if fractionally charged particles with another energy spectrum slope actually mixed with protons but cannot be separated because of a strong dE/dx fluctuations. The performed simulations show that multilayer detectors can seriously help in such separation. In the Aragats experiment performed using multilayer proportional counter combined with hadron calorimeter a group of 4e/3 like events with unexpectedly high average energy has been registered. It could be explained by their different from regular hadrons energy spectrum. The ATIC experiment ionization spectrum in single charged particle area has been examined. An interesting bump in 2e/3 charge region was observed. The events in the bump have very different from regular protons angular distribution.
Electro-optical detection of charged particles
Semertzidis, Y K; Kowalski, L A; Kraus, D E; Larsen, R; Lazarus, D M; Magurno, B; Nikas, D; Ozben, C; Srinivasan-Rao, T; Tsang, Thomas
2000-01-01
We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the polarization of laser light in a LiNbO sub 3 crystal. The modulation of the laser light during the passage of a pulsed electron beam was observed using a fast photodiode and a digital oscilloscope. The fastest rise time measured, 120 ps, was obtained in the single shot mode and was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. This technology holds good for detectors of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution for single relativistic charged particles as well as particle beams.
Massive and massless higher spinning particles in odd dimensions
Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Corradini, Olindo; Latini, Emanuele
2014-01-01
We study actions for massive bosonic particles of higher spins by dimensionally reducing an action for massless particles. For the latter we take a model with a SO(N) extended local supersymmetry on the worldline, that is known to describe massless (conformal) particles of higher spins in flat spacetimes of even dimensions. Dimensional reduction produces an action for massive spinning particles in odd dimensions. The field equations that emerge in a quantization a la Dirac are shown to be equivalent to the Fierz-Pauli ones. The massless limit generates a multiplet of massless states with higher spins, whose first quantized field equations have a geometric form with fields belonging to various types of Young tableaux. These geometric equations can be partially integrated to show their equivalence with the standard Fronsdal-Labastida equations. We covariantize our model to check whether an extension to curved spacetimes can be achieved. Restricting to (A)dS spaces, we find that the worldline gauge algebra becom...
Why do particle clouds generate electric charges?
Pähtz, T.; Herrmann, H. J.; Shinbrot, T.
2010-05-01
Grains in desert sandstorms spontaneously generate strong electrical charges; likewise volcanic dust plumes produce spectacular lightning displays. Charged particle clouds also cause devastating explosions in food, drug and coal processing industries. Despite the wide-ranging importance of granular charging in both nature and industry, even the simplest aspects of its causes remain elusive, because it is difficult to understand how inert grains in contact with little more than other inert grains can generate the large charges observed. Here, we present a simple yet predictive explanation for the charging of granular materials in collisional flows. We argue from very basic considerations that charge transfer can be expected in collisions of identical dielectric grains in the presence of an electric field, and we confirm the model's predictions using discrete-element simulations and a tabletop granular experiment.
Search milli-charged particles at SLAC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Langeveld, W.G.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
1997-01-01
Particles with electric charge q {triple_bond} Qe {le} 10{sup -3} e and masses in the range 1-1000 MeV/c{sup 2} are not excluded by present experiments or by astrophysical or cosmological arguments. A beam dump experiment uniquely suited to the detection of such {open_quotes}milli-charged{close_quotes} particles has been carried out at SLAC, utilizing the short-duration pulses of the SLC electron beam to establish a tight coincidence window for the signal. The detector, a large scintillation counter sensitive to very small energy depositions, provided much greater sensitivity than previous searches. Analysis of the data leads to the exclusion of a substantial portion of the charge-mass plane. In this report, a preliminary mass-dependent upper limit is presented for the charge of milli-charged particles, ranging from Q = 1.7 x 10{sup -5} at milli-charged particle mass 0.1 MeV/c{sup 2} to Q = 9.5 x 10{sup -4} at 100 MeV/c{sup 2}.
Gravitational field of massive point particle in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using various gauges of the radial coordinate we give a description of the static spherically symmetric space-times with point singularity at the center and vacuum outside the singularity. We show that in general relativity (GR) there exist infinitely many such solutions to the Einstein equations which are physically different and only some of them describe the gravitational field of a single massive point particle. In particular, we show that the widespread Hilbert's form of Schwarzschild solution does not solve the Einstein equations with a massive point particle's stress-energy tensor. Novel normal coordinates for the field and a new physical class of gauges are proposed, in this way achieving a correct description of a point mass source in GR. We also introduce a gravitational mass defect of a point particle and determine the dependence of the solutions on this mass defect. In addition we give invariant characteristics of the physically and geometrically different classes of spherically symmetric static space-times created by one point mass. (author)
Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This publication is the second supplement to the archival edition of the National Nuclear Data Center's charged-particle bibliography. This supplement contains citations to all references scanned since March 15, 1981, and all corrections and additions to previous citations, and indexes all data received in the international exchanged format (EXFOR). The primary goal of the bibliography has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of data exchanged among the members. In 1980, coverage was expanded to include differential data relevant to charged-particle-induced neutron-source reactions
Integral charged particle nuclear data bibliography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holden, N.E.; Ramavataram, S.
1989-12-01
This publication is the annual supplement to the first edition published in 1984. The primary goal of this publication has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged--particle cross section data. Included in this paper is a partial list of other bibliographies relevant to charged-particle-induced reaction data and a source list of nuclear data bibliographies, complications, and cumulative, earlier versions are also shown in the tables. This publication makes use of a modification to the database of the Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file. This modification allows the retrieval of integral charged particle nuclear data entries from the NSR file. In recent years, the presentation of various sections was changed, as a result of users' suggestions. The authors continue to welcome users' comments.
Integral charged particle nuclear data bibliography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This publication is the annual supplement to the first edition published in 1984. The primary goal of this publication has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged--particle cross section data. Included in this paper is a partial list of other bibliographies relevant to charged-particle-induced reaction data and a source list of nuclear data bibliographies, complications, and cumulative, earlier versions are also shown in the tables. This publication makes use of a modification to the database of the Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file. This modification allows the retrieval of integral charged particle nuclear data entries from the NSR file. In recent years, the presentation of various sections was changed, as a result of users' suggestions. The authors continue to welcome users' comments
Position sensitive detector of magnetically charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two variants of coordinate detectors of magnetically charged paticles based on the utilization of transducers with Josephson transitions are proposed. The system of data acquisition and processing is built up in the CAMAC standard. The helium cryostat diagram is presented. The detector resolution time and dead time constitute 1 μs. Methods of detection of magnetically charged particles used in the above detectors are expected to be more effective, as compared to ionization method and other indirect methods
Fog camera to visualize ionizing charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The human being can not perceive the different types of ionizing radiation, natural or artificial, present in the nature, for what appropriate detection systems have been developed according to the sensibility to certain radiation type and certain energy type. The objective of this work was to build a fog camera to visualize the traces, and to identify the trajectories, produced by charged particles with high energy, coming mainly of the cosmic rays. The origin of the cosmic rays comes from the solar radiation generated by solar eruptions where the protons compose most of this radiation. It also comes, of the galactic radiation which is composed mainly of charged particles and gamma rays that comes from outside of the solar system. These radiation types have energy time millions higher that those detected in the earth surface, being more important as the height on the sea level increases. These particles in their interaction produce secondary particles that are detectable by means of this cameras type. The camera operates by means of a saturated atmosphere of alcohol vapor. In the moment in that a charged particle crosses the cold area of the atmosphere, the medium is ionized and the particle acts like a condensation nucleus of the alcohol vapor, leaving a visible trace of its trajectory. The built camera was very stable, allowing the detection in continuous form and the observation of diverse events. (Author)
Search for fractionally charged particles in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV
Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; ErÃ¶, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; HÃ¶rmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; KnÃ¼nz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; KrÃ¤tschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; SchÃ¶fbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; LÃ©onard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, JÃ©rÃ©mie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; AldÃ¡ JÃºnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; CustÃ³dio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; MÃ¼ntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; HÃ¤rkÃ¶nen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; KarimÃ¤ki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; LampÃ©n, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; LindÃ©n, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; MÃ¤enpÃ¤Ã¤, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, AndrÃ©; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; MinÃ©, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, FrÃ©dÃ©ric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; GelÃ©, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, SÃ©bastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Anagnostou, Georgios; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; GÃ¼th, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; FlÃ¼gge, GÃ¼nter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; KrÃ¤mer, Mira; KrÃ¼cker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; GÃ¶rner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; HÃ¶ing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, JÃ¶rn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; SchrÃ¶der, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; SteinbrÃ¼ck, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; BÃ¶ser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; MÃ¼ller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; NÃ¼rnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; RÃ¶cker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-JÃ¼rgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, PÃ l; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, JÃ¡nos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; FanÃ², Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; FoÃ , Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Heo, Seong Gu; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; MagaÃ±a Villalba, Ricardo; MartÃnez-Ortega, Jorge; SÃ¡nchez-HernÃ¡ndez, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Hamid; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; GÃ³rski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; DomÃnguez VÃ¡zquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; FernÃ¡ndez Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, AdriÃ¡n; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de TrocÃ³niz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; RodrÃguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; PimiÃ¤, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; SchÃ¤fer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; WÃ¶hri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; KÃ¶nig, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; BÃ¤ni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, GÃ¼nther; Dittmar, Michael; DonegÃ , Mauro; DÃ¼nser, Marc; Eugster, JÃ¼rg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; NÃ¤geli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; GÃ¼lmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Mall, Orpheus; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Yohay, Rachel; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Traczyk, Piotr; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, AndrÃ©; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; WÃ¼rthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Park, Myeonghun; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Peterman, Alison; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; StÃ¶ckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; PirouÃ©, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Safdi, Ben; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, AndrÃ©s G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; HervÃ©, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua
2013-01-01
A search is presented for free heavy long-lived fractionally charged particles produced in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The data sample was recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns. Candidate fractionally charged particles are identified by selecting tracks with associated low charge measurements in the silicon tracking detector. Observations are found to be consistent with expectations for background processes. The results of the search are used to set upper limits on the cross section for pair production of fractionally charged, massive spin-1/2 particles that are neutral under SU(3)$_C$ and SU(2)$_L$. We exclude at 95% confidence level such particles with electric charge ±2e/3 with masses below 310 GeV, and those with charge ±e/3 with masses below 140 GeV.
Minimal Massive Gravity: Conserved Charges, Excitations and the Chiral Gravity Limit
Tekin, Bayram(Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey)
2014-01-01
We find the excitations and construct the conserved charges ( mass and angular momentum) of the recently found Minimal Massive Gravity (MMG) in 2+1 dimensions in asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes. The field equation of the theory does not come from an action and hence lacks the required Bianchi Identity needed to define conserved charges. But the theory, which also provides a healthy extension of the Topologically Massive Gravity in the bulk and boundary of spacetime, does admit ...
Bounds on Photon Charge from Evaporation of Massive Black Holes
Sivaram, C; Arun, Kenath
2010-01-01
Photon charge has been of interest as a phenomenological testing ground for basic assumptions in fundamental physics. There have been several constraints on the photon charge based on very different considerations. In this paper we put further limits based on the well known properties of charged black holes and their subsequent evaporation by Hawking radiation and the assumption of charge conservation over this long physical process.
Control microprocessor system for charge particle channeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Control microprocessor systems are widely applied not only in designing industrial robots but in providing functioning of different experimental plants. The experiment control system for charge particle channeling has been considered in the paper. Flexibility, relatively low cost and high reliability are advantages of these systems
Studying Charged Particle Optics: An Undergraduate Course
Ovalle, V.; Otomar, D. R.; Pereira, J. M.; Ferreira, N.; Pinho, R. R.; Santos A. C. F.
2008-01-01
This paper describes some computer-based activities to bring the study of charged particle optics to undergraduate students, to be performed as a part of a one-semester accelerator-based experimental course. The computational simulations were carried out using the commercially available SIMION program. The performance parameters, such as the focal…
Treatment of cancer with heavy charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The goals of the clinical helium and heavy charged particle radiotherapy trial are: (1) to evaluate the potential of improved dose localization as exemplified by helium-ion irradiation where little, if any, biological advantage is expected; and (2) to evaluate the combined potential of improved dose localization and increased biological effect available with heavier ions such as carbon, neon, silicon, and argon ions
Bmad: A relativistic charged particle simulation library
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bmad is a subroutine library for simulating relativistic charged particle beams in high-energy accelerators and storage rings. Bmad can be used to study both single and multi-particle beam dynamics using routines to track both particles and macroparticles. Bmad has various tracking algorithms including Runge-Kutta and symplectic (Lie algebraic) integration. Various effects such as wakefields, and radiation excitation and damping can be simulated. Bmad has been developed in a modular, object-oriented fashion to maximize flexibility. Interface routines allow Bmad to be called from C/C++ as well as Fortran programs. Bmad is well documented. Every routine is individually annotated, and there is an extensive manual
Tumor therapy with heavy charged particles
Blattmann, Hans
1999-11-01
Nuclear science has contributed significantly to the development of tumor therapy with heavy charged particles. Interest evolved for neutron therapies in the forties because of the increased radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) compared to photon irradiation. The development of more powerful proton and heavy ion accelerators with higher energies or higher intensities, made new particles for radiation therapy available. Pions, protons, light ions, from helium up to silicon were studied in view of precision dose delivery and increased RBE. Without the parallel development of new diagnostic techniques such as computer tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) the rapid development would not have been possible. Heavy-charged particle therapy has now come into a consolidation phase. Hospital-based facilities are built by industry, and research institutes focus on refinements in dose delivery and treatment planning, as well as systems for monitoring dose delivery and for dose distribution verification.
High-frequency charged particle accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The device is refered to technical physics and may be used as a source of accelerated particles for irradiation of different objects in industry and agriculture. The device is aimed at increase of the power and enhancement of stability of the accelerator operation and decrease of its dimensions. High-frequency accelerator is composed of an accelerating cavity resonator a charged particle source and HF power supply. The aim is attained by the fact, that HF power source anode is made as one of coupling capasitor plates, the second plate of which is the nearest to anode HF power supply grid. The coupling capacitor plalte functional union with the HF power supply electrodes (anode and grid) reduces to spirious inductances of HF power supply circuit to minimum. Besides, the accelerator structure is simplified, as additional cooling system for the charged particle source is not necessary
Charged particle reaction cross sections and nucleosynthesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The role of proton and α-particle induced reactions in carbon, neon, oxygen and silicon burning in massive stars is surveyed. The problems associated with determining thermonuclear reaction rates for reactions with widely spaced resonances and with closely spaced or overlapping resonances are discussed and the associated experimental approaches are reviewed. Experimental techniques which have been used in the measurement of reaction cross sections are discussed and their strengths and weaknesses are identified. Recent developments in attempts to establish reliable statistical-model codes for calculation of reaction cross sections are presented and discussed. The results of experimental tests of statistical model codes are summarised and evaluated
Acceleration of charged particles in laser beam
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.J. Małachowski
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper was to find parameters of the laser and maser beams in numerical ways with additionally applied external static axial magnetic field which satisfies the proper conditions for charged particle acceleration.Design/methodology/approach: The set acceleration was designed in order to obtain the possible high kinetic energy of the charged particles in the controllable manner. This was achieved applying a circularly polarized high intensity laser beam and a static axial magnetic field, both acting on the particle during the proper period.Findings: The quantitative illustrations of the calculation results, in a graphical form enabled to discuss the impact of many parameters on the acceleration process of the electrons and protons. We have found the impact of the Doppler Effect on the acceleration process to be significant. Increase in laser or maser beam intensity results in particle’s energy increase and its trajectory dimension. However, increase in external magnetic field results in shrinking of the helical trajectories. It enables to keep the particle inside the laser beam.Research limitations/implications: Limits in the energy of accelerated particles arise from the limitsin up-to-date available laser beam energy and the beam diameters.Originality/value: The authors show the parameters of the circularly polarized laser beam which should be satisfied in order to obtain the desired energy of the accelerated particles. The influence of the magnetic field strength is also shown.
The formation of negatively charged particles in thermoemission plasmas
Vishnyakov, V. I.; Dragan, G. S.; Florko, A. V.
2008-01-01
The results of measuring the charges of the magnesium oxide particles formed near a block of metallic magnesium burning in air are presented. It has been found that, apart from positively charged magnesium oxide particles, there are negatively charged particles in the thermoemission plasma of the burning products. It has been shown that within the framework of the model of neutralizing charges, the oxide particles can acquire unlike charges in the thermoemission plasma. The calculations agree with the experimental data.
The formation of negatively charged particles in thermoemission plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vishnyakov, V. I., E-mail: pipeaes@te.net.ua; Dragan, G. S.; Florko, A. V. [Mechnikov Odessa National University (Ukraine)
2008-01-15
The results of measuring the charges of the magnesium oxide particles formed near a block of metallic magnesium burning in air are presented. It has been found that, apart from positively charged magnesium oxide particles, there are negatively charged particles in the thermoemission plasma of the burning products. It has been shown that within the framework of the model of neutralizing charges, the oxide particles can acquire unlike charges in the thermoemission plasma. The calculations agree with the experimental data.
The formation of negatively charged particles in thermoemission plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The results of measuring the charges of the magnesium oxide particles formed near a block of metallic magnesium burning in air are presented. It has been found that, apart from positively charged magnesium oxide particles, there are negatively charged particles in the thermoemission plasma of the burning products. It has been shown that within the framework of the model of neutralizing charges, the oxide particles can acquire unlike charges in the thermoemission plasma. The calculations agree with the experimental data
Born expansions for charged particle scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
High-order terms in Born expansions of scattering amplitudes in powers of charge are frequently divergent when long-range Coulomb interactions are present asymptotically. Expansions which are free from these logarithmic divergences have been constructed recently. This paper illustrates these expansions with the simplest example, namely the non-relativistic Rutherford scattering of two charged particles. This approach represents an adequate framework for the calculation of transition amplitudes and a comprehensive starting point for the development of consistent perturbation approximations in multi-channel descriptions of strongly interacting atomic systems
Black Holes and Massive Elementary Particles in Resummed Quantum Gravity
Ward, B F L
2005-01-01
Einstein's general theory of relativity poses many problems to the quantum theory of point particle fields. Among them is the fate of a massive point particle. Since its rest mass exists entirely within its Schwarzschild radius, in the classical solutions of Einstein's theory, the respective system should be a black hole. We address this issue using exact results in a new approach to quantum gravity based upon well-tested resummation methods in point particle quantum field theory. We show that the classical conclusion is obviated by quantum loop effects. We show that our new approach already passes two theoretical checks with the published literature; for, it reproduces known results on the one-loop correction to the graviton self-energy in scaler matter coupled to Einstein's gravity as analyzed by 't Hooft and Veltman and it is consistent with the asymptotic safety results of Bonnanno and Reuter on the behavior of Newton's constant in the deep Euclidean regime. Indeed, our approach is consistent with the bla...
Beam dynamics calculations and particle tracking using massively parallel processors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
During the past decade massively parallel processors (MPPs) have slowly gained acceptance within the scientific community. At present these machines typically contain a few hundred to one thousand off-the-shelf microprocessors and a total memory of up to 32 GBytes. The potential performance of these machines is illustrated by the fact that a month long job on a high end workstation might require only a few hours on an MPP. The acceptance of MPPs has been slow for a variety of reasons. For example, some algorithms are not easily parallelizable. Also, in the past these machines were difficult to program. But in recent years the development of Fortran-like languages such as CM Fortran and High Performance Fortran have made MPPs much easier to use. In the following we will describe how MPPs can be used for beam dynamics calculations and long term particle tracking
Heavy charged particle dosimetry, theory and application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experiments were made to verify the theory of the transport of heavy particles through a medium using L-α-alaline for the detection of radiation. The dose response of L-α-alaline was measured for X-ray radiation of an energy of 4 to 16 MeV, electron radiation of an energy of 6, 10 and 20 MeV, low-LET radiation, 16 MeV and 6 MeV protons, 20 MeV particles and other charged particles. Of the measured dose responses RE values were experimentally obtained and compared with calculated results. Free and very stable radicals were obtained by radiation. Fading of low-LET and high-LET radiation was determined as induced by the said radicals. Using ESR spectra it was found that diverse chemical reactions take place in the track of high-LET particles. However, chemical reactions in the track of a heavy charged particle will be the same if the medium is homogeneously irradiated with low-LET radiation. (E.S.). 7 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs
Method for charged particle beam acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The method of charged particle beam acceleration based on its resonance interaction with electromagnetic field of travelling wave is suggested. The electron beam is injected into waveguide in which longitudinal magnetic field and electromagnetic wave are excited. With the purpose of reducing HF-power losses in the waveguide walls, the azimuthal particle motion is synchronized with azimuthal change of longitudinal component of electric field of the accelerating electromagnetic wave. The suggested method permits to increase the efficiency and shunting resistance of the accelerating waveguide by reducing its boundary surface
Collective aspects of charged particle track structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A plasmon generated by a swift charged particle constitutes a coherent excitation about the particle track. We discuss the representation of collective modes in impact parameter space when created by a swift ion or a fast electron, and the decay of these modes into localized excitations. Several alternative spatial representations are considered. We show that the high spatial resolution found in secondary electron emission measurements with scanning electron microscopy is consistent with the existence of the plasmon as an intermediary between the fast incident electron and the measured secondary electrons. 24 refs., 6 figs
Charge State Model of Solar Energetic Particles
Del Peral, L.; Pérez-Peraza, J. A.; Rodríguez Frías, M. D.
2013-05-01
Charge states of heavy ions in Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events observed at the Earth's neighborhood with experiments on board satellites give us information about physical properties of plasma where acceleration occurs. SEP detection is performed near the Earth, therefore not only physical condition of the plasma source of accelerated particles have to be taken into account. We have developed a charge state model in order to explain the evolution of particle charge states under solar acceleration. Charge-interchange processes between the accelerated ions and the plasma matter in the acceleration region are considered on basis of electron loss and capture cross sections at high energies. We have applied the model to observational data from satellites measuring charge states of SEPs. In contrast with other models that use ionization and recombination cross-sections that require application of thermal equilibrium, our model assumes that the acceleration is so fast that thermal equilibrium can not be applied to the change interchange processes. Therefore we employ in our model high energy cross-sections for electron capture and loss, since the population which is being accelerated acquires a non-thermal spectrum. We have developed temperature dependent cross-sections. Acceleration begins from a thermal distribution. As soon as the particles increase their energy by the acceleration process, they acquire an energy spectrum which differs from the Maxwellian thermal one while interacting with the background thermal matter. Figure 1 presents the results of our model that fit experimental charge states of Fe ions from two impulsive SEP events detected by the SEPICA satellite in July 1999. We obtain good fitting for source temperature of 1.8 \\cdot 106 K and density of 5\\cdot108 cm-3 and acceleration efficiency of 1.8\\cdot 10-2 s-1 for the July 20th 1999 event and 3.3\\cdot 10-2 s-1 for the July 3rd 1999. Good concordance between experimental data and our model have
High-LET charged particle radiotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Department of Radiation Oncology at UCSF Medical Center and the Radiation Oncology Department at UC Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have been evaluating the use of high LET charged particle radiotherapy in a Phase 1--2 research trial ongoing since 1979. In this clinical trail, 239 patients have received at least 10 Gy (physical) minimum tumor dose with neon ions, meaning that at least one-half of their total treatment was given with high-LET charged particle therapy. Ninety-one patients received all of their therapy with neon ions. Of the 239 patients irradiated, target sites included lesions in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, head and neck such as paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx and salivary glands (major and minor), skull base and juxtaspinal area, GI tract including esophagus, pancreas and biliary tract, prostate, lung, soft tissue and bone. Analysis of these patients has been carried out with a minimum followup period of 2 years
Geometrical charged-particle optics. 2. ed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rose, Harald [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik
2013-03-01
Provides a unique theoretical treatment of charged-particle optics. Displays novel unpublished results on several topics. Provides insight into the properties of charged-particle devices. Treats wave optical properties of the electron. Presents the resolution limit of electron microscopes and novel theoretical treatment of the Stern-Gerlach effect. This second edition is an extended version of the first edition of Geometrical Charged-Particle Optics. The updated reference monograph is intended as a guide for researchers and graduate students who are seeking a comprehensive treatment of the design of instruments and beam-guiding systems of charged particles and their propagation in electromagnetic fields. Wave aspects are included in this edition for explaining electron holography, the Aharanov-Bohm effect and the resolution of electron microscopes limited by diffraction. Several methods for calculating the electromagnetic field are presented and procedures are outlined for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axis. Detailed methods are presented for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. In particular, the optics of rotationally symmetric lenses, quadrupoles, and systems composed of these elements are discussed extensively. Beam properties such as emittance, brightness, transmissivity and the formation of caustics are outlined. Relativistic motion and spin precession of the electron are treated in a covariant way by introducing the Lorentz-invariant universal time and by extending Hamilton's principle from three to four spatial dimensions where the laboratory time is considered as the fourth pseudo-spatial coordinate. Using this procedure and introducing the self action of the electron, its accompanying electromagnetic field and its radiation field are calculated for arbitrary motion. In addition, the Stern
Automated control system in charged particle accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A general approach to the design of automated radiation safety systems at charged particle accelerators is described. Parameters of high-energy electron accelerators of the Kharkov Physics and Engineering Institute are presented. Characteristics of the surrounding radiation fields are given. Ionizing radiation transducers which can be used in automated systems are considered. Local radiation monitoring station based on the LUE-2000 accelerator of the institute is described. 9 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab
Controlling Charged Particles with Inhomogeneous Electrostatic Fields
Herrero, Federico A. (Inventor)
2016-01-01
An energy analyzer for a charged-particle spectrometer may include a top deflection plate and a bottom deflection plate. The top and bottom deflection plates may be non-symmetric and configured to generate an inhomogeneous electrostatic field when a voltage is applied to one of the top or bottom deflection plates. In some instances, the top and bottom deflection plates may be L-shaped deflection plates.
Signal processing applications of massively parallel charge domain computing devices
Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Barhen, Jacob (Inventor); Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor)
1999-01-01
The present invention is embodied in a charge coupled device (CCD)/charge injection device (CID) architecture capable of performing a Fourier transform by simultaneous matrix vector multiplication (MVM) operations in respective plural CCD/CID arrays in parallel in O(1) steps. For example, in one embodiment, a first CCD/CID array stores charge packets representing a first matrix operator based upon permutations of a Hartley transform and computes the Fourier transform of an incoming vector. A second CCD/CID array stores charge packets representing a second matrix operator based upon different permutations of a Hartley transform and computes the Fourier transform of an incoming vector. The incoming vector is applied to the inputs of the two CCD/CID arrays simultaneously, and the real and imaginary parts of the Fourier transform are produced simultaneously in the time required to perform a single MVM operation in a CCD/CID array.
Charged particle layers in the Debye limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We develop an equivalent of the Debye-Hueckel weakly coupled equilibrium theory for layered classical charged particle systems composed of one single charged species. We consider the two most important configurations, the charged particle bilayer and the infinite superlattice. The approach is based on the link provided by the classical fluctuation-dissipation theorem between the random-phase approximation response functions and the Debye equilibrium pair correlation function. Layer-layer pair correlation functions, screened and polarization potentials, static structure functions, and static response functions are calculated. The importance of the perfect screening and compressibility sum rules in determining the overall behavior of the system, especially in the r→∞ limit, is emphasized. The similarities and differences between the quasi-two-dimensional bilayer and the quasi-three-dimensional superlattice are highlighted. An unexpected behavior that emerges from the analysis is that the screened potential, the correlations, and the screening charges carried by the individual layers exhibit a marked nonmonotonic dependence on the layer separation
Light Charged Particles as Gateway to Hyperdeformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Euroball-IV γ -detector array, equipped with the ancillary charged particle detector array DIAMANT was used to study the residues of the fusion reaction 64Ni + 64Ni → 128Ba at Ebeam = 255 and 261 MeV, in an attempt to reach the highest angular momentum and verify the existence of predicted hyperdeformed rotational bands. No discrete hyperdeformed bands were identified, but nevertheless a breakthrough was obtained through a systematic search for rotational ridge structures with very large moments of inertia J(2) ≥ 100 ℎ2 MeV(-1), in agreement with theoretical predictions for hyperdeformed shapes. Evidence for hyperdeformation was obtained by charged particle + γ -ray gating, selecting triple correlated ridge structures in the continuum of each of the nuclei, 118Te, 124Xe and 124,125Cs. In 7 additional nuclei, rotational ridges were also identified with J(2) = 71-77 ℎ2 MeV(-1), which most probably correspond to superdeformed shape. The angular distributions of the emitted charged particles show an excess in forward direction over expectations from pure compound evaporation, which may indicate that in-complete fusion plays an important role in the population of very elongated shapes. (author)
Motion of charged particles in the magnetosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The adiabatic motion of charged particles in the magnetosphere has been investigated using Mead-Fairfield magnetospheric field model (Mead and Fairfield, 1975). Since the motion of charged particles in a dipolar field geometry is well understood, we bring out in this paper some important features in characteristic motion due to non-dipolar distortions in the field geometry. We look at the tilt averaged picture of the field configuration and estimate theoretically the parameters like bounce period, longitudinal invariant and the bounce averaged drift velocities of the charged particle in the Mead-Fairfield field geometry. These parameters are evaluated as a function of pitch angle and azimuthal position in the region of ring current (5 to 7 Earth radii from the centre of the Earth) for four ranges of magnetic activity. At different longitudes the non-dipolar contribution as a percentage of dipole value in bounce period and longitudinal invariant shows maximum variation for particles close to 900 pitch angles. For any low pitch angle, these effects maximize at the midnight meridian. The radial component of the bounce averaged drift velocity is found to be greatest at the dawn-dusk meridians and the contribution vanishes at the day and midnight meridians for all pitch angles. In the absence of tilt-dependent terms in the model, the latitudinal component of the drift velocity vanishes. On the other hand, the relative non-dipolar contribution to bounce averaged azimuthal drift velocity is very high as compared to similar contribution in other characteristic parameters of particle motion. It is also shown that non-dipolar contribution in bounce period, longitudinal invariant and bounce averaged drift velocities increases in magnitude with increase in distance and magnetic activity. (orig.)
From super-charged nuclei to massive nuclear density cores
Popov, Vladimir
2010-01-01
Due to $e^+e^-$-pair production in the field of supercritical $(Z \\gg Z_{cr}\\approx 170 $) nucleus an electron shell, created out of the vacuum, is formed. The distribution of the vacuum charge in this shell has been determined for super-charged nuclei $Ze^3 \\ga 1$ within the framework of the Thomas-Fermi equation generalized to the relativistic case. For $Ze^3 \\gg 1$ the electron shell penetrates inside the nucleus and almost completely screens its charge. Inside such nucleus the potential takes a constant value equal to $V_0=-(3\\pi^2 n_p)^{1/3} \\sim -2m_{\\pi}c^2$, and super-charged nucleus represents an electrically neutral plasma consisting of $e,p$ and $n$. Near the edge of the nucleus a transition layer exists with a width $\\lambda \\approx \\alpha^{-1/2} \\hbar/m_{\\pi} c\\sim 15$ fm, which is independent of $Z~~ (\\hbar/m_{\\pi} c \\ll \\lambda \\ll \\hbar/m_e c)$. The electric field and surface charge are concentrated in this layer. These results, obtained earlier for hypothetical superheavy nuclei with $Z \\sim ...
Experimental research of thermoemission charging of metal particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Original experimental methods of thermoemission charge determination of a spherical metallic particle surrounded by the condensed disperse phase are proposed. The analytical dependence of the particle charge on time is found, and its relaxation time is determined
Metastable states of plasma particles close to a charged surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The free energy of the plasma particles and the charged surface that form an electroneutral system is calculated on the basis of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. It is shown that, owing to correlation of light plasma particles near the charged surface and close to heavy particles of high charge, there can be metastable states in plasma. The corresponding phase charts of metastable states of the separate components of plasma, and plasma as a whole, are constructed. These charts depend on temperature, the charge magnitude, the size of the particles, and the share of the charge of the light carriers out of the total charge of the plasma particles
The Hawking radiation of the charged particle via tunnelling from the axisymmetric Sen black hole
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jiang Qing-Quan; Yang Shu-Zheng; Chen De-You
2006-01-01
Extending Parikh's semi-classical quantum tunnelling model, this paper has studied the Hawking radiation of the charged particle via tunnelling from the horizon of the axisymmetric Sen black hole. Different from the uncharged massless particle, the geodesies of the charged massive particle tunnelling from the horizon is not light-like. The derived result supports Parikh's opinion and provides a correct modification to Hawking strictly thermal spectrum developed by the fixed background space-time and not considering the energy conservation and the self-gravitation interaction.
Gravitino Dark Matter Scenarios with Massive Metastable Charged Sparticles at the LHC
Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Øye, K
2006-01-01
We investigate the measurement of supersymmetric particle masses at the LHC in gravitino dark matter (GDM) scenarios where the next-to-lightest supersymmetric partner (NLSP) is the lighter scalar tau, or stau, and is stable on the scale of a detector. Such a massive metastable charged sparticle would have distinctive Time-of-Flight (ToF) and energy-loss ($dE/dx$) signatures. We summarise the documented accuracies expected to be achievable with the ATLAS detector in measurements of the stau mass and its momentum at the LHC. We then use a fast simulation of an LHC detector to demonstrate techniques for reconstructing the cascade decays of supersymmetric particles in GDM scenarios, using a parameterisation of the detector response to staus, taus and jets based on full simulation results. Supersymmetric pair-production events are selected with high redundancy and efficiency, and many valuable measurements can be made starting from stau tracks in the detector. We recalibrate the momenta of taus using transverse-mo...
A chemical analyzer for charged ultrafine particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. G. Gonser
2013-04-01
Full Text Available New particle formation is a frequent phenomenon in the atmosphere and of major significance for the earth's climate and human health. To date the mechanisms leading to the nucleation of particles as well as to aerosol growth are not completely understood. A lack of appropriate measurement equipment for online analysis of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles is one major limitation. We have developed a Chemical Analyzer for Charged Ultrafine Particles (CAChUP capable of analyzing particles with diameters below 30 nm. A bulk of size separated particles is collected electrostatically on a metal filament, resistively desorbed and consequently analyzed for its molecular composition in a time of flight mass spectrometer. We report of technical details as well as characterization experiments performed with the CAChUP. Our instrument was tested in the laboratory for its detection performance as well as for its collection and desorption capabilities. The manual application of known masses of camphene (C10H16 to the desorption filament resulted in a detection limit between 0.5 and 5 ng, and showed a linear response of the mass spectrometer. Flow tube experiments of 25 nm diameter secondary organic aerosol from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene also showed a linear relation between collection time and the mass spectrometer's signal intensity. The resulting mass spectra from the collection experiments are in good agreement with published work on particles generated by the ozonolysis of alpha-pinene. A sensitivity study shows that the current setup of CAChUP is ready for laboratory measurements and for the observation of new particle formation events in the field.
Charged Black Hole Solutions in Gauss-Bonnet-Massive Gravity
Hendi, S H; Panah, B Eslam
2015-01-01
Motivated by high interest in the close relation between string theory and black hole solutions, in this paper, we take into account the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Lagrangian in the context of massive gravity. We examine the possibility of black hole in this regard, and discuss the types of horizons. Next, we calculate conserved and thermodynamic quantities and check the validity of the first law of thermodynamics. In addition, we investigate the stability of these black holes in context of canonical ensemble. We show that number, type and place of phase transitions points may be significantly affected by the different parameters. Next, by considering cosmological constant as thermodynamical pressure, we will extend phase space and calculate critical values. Then, we construct thermodynamical spacetime by considering mass as thermodynamical potential. We study geometrical thermodynamics of these black holes in context of heat capacity and extended phase space. We show that studying heat capacity, geometrical therm...
Quantum tunneling of massive spin-1 particles from non-stationary metrics
Sakalli, I.; Övgün, A.
2016-01-01
We focus on the HR of massive vector (spin-1) particles tunneling from Schwarzschild BH expressed in the Kruskal-Szekeres and dynamic Lemaitre coordinates. Using the Proca equation together with the Hamilton-Jacobi and the WKB methods, we show that the tunneling rate, and its consequence Hawking temperature are well recovered by the quantum tunneling of the massive vector particles.
Sound from charged particles in liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two directions of sound application appearing during the charged particles passing through liquid - in biology and for charged particles registration are considered. Application of this sound in radiology is determined by a contribution of its hypersound component (approximately 109 Hz) to radiology effect of ionizing radiation on micro-organisms and cells. Large amplitudes and pressure gradients in a hypersound wave have a pronounced destructive breaking effect on various microobjects (cells, bacteria, viruses). An essential peculiarity of these processes is the possibility of control by choosing conditions changing hypersound generation, propagation and effect. This fact may lead not only to the control by radiaiton effects but also may explain and complete the analogy of ionizing radiation and ultrasound effect on bioobjects. The second direction is acoustic registration of passing ionizing particles. It is based on the possibility of guaranteed signal reception from a shower with 1015-1016 eV energy in water at distances of hundreds of meters. Usage of acoustic technique for neutrino registration in the DUMAND project permits to use a detecting volume of water with a mass of 109 t and higher
Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clauser, C. F., E-mail: cesar.clauser@ib.edu.ar; Farengo, R. [Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)
2015-12-15
Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes in a magnetized plasma is studied. Analytical calculations and numerical simulations are employed to show that this process can be very important in the pedestal-edge-SOL regions. This is the first study that presents clear evidence of the importance of atomic processes on the diffusion of alpha particles. A simple 1D model that includes inelastic collisions with plasma species, “cold” neutrals, and partially ionized species was employed. The code, which follows the exact particle orbits and includes the effect of inelastic collisions via a Monte Carlo type random process, runs on a graphic processor unit (GPU). The analytical and numerical results show excellent agreement when a uniform background (plasma and cold species) is assumed. The simulations also show that the gradients in the density of the plasma and cold species, which are large and opposite in the edge region, produce an inward flux of alpha particles. Calculations of the alpha particles flux reaching the walls or divertor plates should include these processes.
Particle beams carrying orbital angular momentum, charge, mass and spin
Tijssen, Teuntje; Hayrapetyan, Armen; Goette, Joerg; Dennis, Mark
Electron beams carrying vortices and angular momentum have been of much experimental and theoretical interest in recent years. In addition, optical vortex beams are a well-established field in optics and photonics. In both cases, the orbital angular momentum associated with the beam's axial vortex has effects on the overall spin of the beam, due to spin-orbit interactions. A simple model of these systems are Bessel beam solutions (of either the Dirac equation or Maxwell equations) with a nonzero azimuthal quantum number, which are found by separation in cylindrical coordinates. Here, we generalize this approach, considering the classical field theory of Bessel beams for particles which are either massive or massless, uncharged or charged and of a variety of different spins (0, 1/2, 1, ⋯). We regard the spin and helicity states and different forms of spin-orbit terms that arise. Moreover, we analyse the induced electromagnetic field when the particles carry charge. Most importantly, this unified field theory approach leads to the prediction of effects for vortex beams of neutrons, mesons and neutrinos.
Calculating the Annihilation Rate of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles
Baumgart, Matthew; Rothstein, Ira Z.; Vaidya, Varun
2015-05-01
We develop a formalism that allows one to systematically calculate the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) annihilation rate into gamma rays whose energy far exceeds the weak scale. A factorization theorem is presented which separates the radiative corrections stemming from initial-state potential interactions from loops involving the final state. This separation allows us to go beyond the fixed order calculation, which is polluted by large infrared logarithms. For the case of Majorana WIMPs transforming in the adjoint representation of SU(2), we present the result for the resummed rate at leading double-log accuracy in terms of two initial-state partial-wave matrix elements and one hard matching coefficient. For a given model, one may calculate the cross section by finding the tree level matching coefficient and determining the value of a local four-fermion operator. The effects of resummation can be as large as 100% for a 20 TeV WIMP. However, for lighter WIMP masses relevant for the thermal relic scenario, leading-log resummation modifies the Sudakov factors only at the 10% level. Furthermore, given comparably sized Sommerfeld factors, the total effect of radiative corrections on the semi-inclusive photon annihilation rate is found to be percent level. The generalization of the formalism to other types of WIMPs is discussed.
Theory and design of charged particle beams
Reiser, Martin
1994-01-01
Although particle accelerators are the book's main thrust, it offers a broad synoptic description of beams which applies to a wide range of other devices such as low-energy focusing and transport systems and high-power microwave sources. Develops material from first principles, basic equations and theorems in a systematic way. Assumptions and approximations are clearly indicated. Discusses underlying physics and validity of theoretical relationships, design formulas and scaling laws. Features a significant amount of recent work including image effects and the Boltzmann line charge density prof
Charged particle beam current monitoring tutorial
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A tutorial presentation is made on topics related to the measurement of charged particle beam currents. The fundamental physics of electricity and magnetism pertinent to the problem is reviewed. The physics is presented with a stress on its interpretation from an electrical circuit theory point of view. The operation of devices including video pulse current transformers, direct current transformers, and gigahertz bandwidth wall current style transformers is described. Design examples are given for each of these types of devices. Sensitivity, frequency response, and physical environment are typical parameters which influence the design of these instruments in any particular application. Practical engineering considerations, potential pitfalls, and performance limitations are discussed
CVD diamond sensors for charged particle detection
Krammer, Manfred; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Dencuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M
2001-01-01
CVD diamond material was used to build position-sensitive detectors for single-charged particles to be employed in high-intensity physics experiments. To obtain position information, metal contacts shaped as strips or pixels are applied to the detector surface for one- or two- dimensional coordinate measurement. Strip detectors 2*4 cm/sup 2/ in size with a strip distance of 50 mu m were tested. Pixel detectors of various pixel sizes were bump bonded to electronics chips and investigated. A key issue for the use of these sensors in high intensity experiments is the radiation hardness. Several irradiation experiments were carried out with pions, protons and neutrons exceeding a fluence of 10/sup 15/ particles/cm/sup 2/. The paper presents an overview of the results obtained with strip and pixel detectors in high-energy test beams and summarises the irradiation studies. (8 refs).
Charged black hole solutions in Gauss-Bonnet-massive gravity
Hendi, S. H.; Panahiyan, S.; Panah, B. Eslam
2016-01-01
Motivated by high interest in the close relation between string theory and black hole solutions, in this paper, we take into account the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Lagrangian in the context of massive gravity. We examine the possibility of black hole in this regard, and discuss the types of horizons. Next, we calculate conserved and thermodynamic quantities and check the validity of the first law of thermodynamics. In addition, we investigate the stability of these black holes in context of canonical ensemble. We show that number, type and place of phase transition points may be significantly affected by different parameters. Next, by considering cosmological constant as thermodynamical pressure, we will extend phase space and calculate critical values. Then, we construct thermodynamical spacetime by considering mass as thermodynamical potential. We study geometrical thermodynamics of these black holes in context of heat capacity and extended phase space. We show that studying heat capacity, geometrical thermodynamics and critical behavior in extended phase space lead to consistent results. Finally, we will employ a new method for obtaining critical values and show that the results of this method are consistent with those of other methods.
Device for measuring charge density distribution in charged particle beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A device to measure charge density distribution in charged particle beams has been described. The device contains a set of hollow interinsulated current-receiving electrodes, recording system, and cooling system. The invention is aimed at the increase of admissible capacity of the beams measured at the expense of cooling efficiency increase. The aim is achieved by the fact, that in the device a dynamic evaporating-condensational cooling of electrodes is realized by means of cooling agent supply in perpendicular to their planes through the tubes introduced inside special cups. Spreading in radial direction over electrode surface the cooling agent gradually and intensively washes the side surface of the cup, after that, it enters the cooling cavity in the form of vapour-liquid mixture. In the cavity the cooling agent, supplied using dispensina and receiving collectors in which vapoUr is condensed, circulates. In the device suggested the surface of electrode cooling is decreased significantly at the expense of side surface of the cups which receives the electrode heat
Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. However, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. A charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify the particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. The study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes. - Highlights: • Radioactivity-induced charge enhances electrostatic particle interactions. • Radioactivity-induced particle charging is important in radioactivity transport. • Ionization rate coefficients of beta-emitting radionuclides are reported
Dynamics of test particles in the five-dimensional, charged, rotating EMCS spacetime
Reimers, Stephan
2016-01-01
We derive the complete set of geodesic equations for massive and massless test particles of a five-dimensional, charged, rotating black hole solution of the Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons field equations in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity and present their analytical solutions in terms of Weierstra{\\ss}' elliptic functions. We study the polar and radial motion, depending on the black hole and test particle parameters, and characterize the test particle motion qualitatively by the means of effective potentials. We use the analytical solutions in order to visualize the test particle motion by two- and three-dimensional plots.
Search for multiply charged Heavy Stable Charged Particles in data collected with the CMS detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)
2013-10-30
Several models of new physics yield particles that are massive, long-lived, and have an electric charge, Q, greater than that of the electron, e. A search for evidence of such particles was performed using 5.0 fb^{-1} and 18.8 fb^{-1} of proton-proton collision data collected at √s = 7 TeV and √s = 8 TeV, respectively, with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The distinctive detector signatures of these particles are that they are slow-moving and highly ionizing. Ionization energy loss and time-of- flight measurements were made using the inner tracker and the muon system, respectively. The search is sensitive to 1e ≤ |Q| ≤ 8e. Data were found to be consistent with standard model expectations and upper limits on the production cross section of these particles were computed using a Drell-Yan-like production model. Masses below 517, 687, 752, 791, 798, 778, 753, and 724 GeV are excluded for |Q| = 1e, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e, 6e, 7e, and 8e, respectively.
Massive particles' tunnelling radiation from the black hole with a mass-quadruple moment
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Han Yi-Wen
2007-01-01
In this paper, we extend Zhang and Zhao's recent work to the black hole with a mass-quadruple moment. The behaviour of the tunnelling massive particles is investigated, and the emission rate at which massive particles tunnel across the event horizon of the black hole is calculated. The result is consistent with an underlying unitary theory, and takes the same functional form as that of a massless particle.
Mass-independent search for fractionally charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A proposed mass-independent search for fractionally charged particles with the all-electrostatic line of the IsoTRACE Laboratory at University of Toronto is described. Sensitive measurement of the fractional charge is accomplished by (1) a judicious choice of ion source and ion species, (2) charge changing and electrostatic analysis before injection into the tandem accelerator, (3) molecular destruction, charge changing, and acceleration by the tandem, (4) charge state selection and E/q analysis after acceleration, and (5) particle energy measurement with a Si surface barrier detector. In addition, the mass of the fractionally charged particles can be determined by a time of flight spectrometer. Specific cases involving +- (1/3)e and +- (2/3)e particles are discussed. Also included in the discussion are: integral charge background rejection, the procedure of the search, the signature of the fractionally charged particles, he resolutions of the analyzers and detectors, and the expected energy and time of flight spectra
CERN's search for God (Particles) drives massive storage needs
McLaughlin, Laurianne
2007-01-01
One of the grisliest problems is finding storage for the massive amounts of data derived from its four high-profile physics experiments making use of the institute's large hadron collider (LHC). (1,5 page)
Electrophysical Systems Based On Charged Particle Accelerators
Vorogushin, M F
2004-01-01
The advancement of the charged particle accelerator engineering affects appreciably the modern tendencies of the scientific and technological progress in the world. In a number of advanced countries, this trend is one of the most dynamically progressing in the field of applied science and high-technology production. Such internationally known firms as VARIAN, SIEMENS, PHILIPS, ELECTA, IBA, HITACHI, etc., with an annual budget of milliards of dollars and growth rate of tens of percent may serve as an example. Although nowadays the projects of new large-scale accelerators for physical research are not implemented so quickly and frequently as desired, accelerating facilities are finding ever-widening application in various fields of human activities. The contribution made by Russian scientists into high-energy beams physics is generally known. High scientific and technical potential in this field, qualified personnel with a high creative potential, modern production and test facilities and state-of-the-art techn...
Aberration compensation in charged particle projection lithography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Projection systems offer the opportunity to increase the throughput for charged particle lithography, because such systems image a large area of a mask directly on to a wafer as a single shot. Shots have to be imaged over a certain range of off-axis distances at the wafer to increase the writing speed, because shot sizes are limited to about 0.25x0.25 mm2 due to aberrations. In a projection system with only lenses, however, the aberrations for off-axis shots are still very large, and some aberration compensation elements need to be introduced. In this paper, three aberration compensation elements (deflectors, stigmators and dynamic focus lenses) are first discussed, a suite of newly developed software, called PROJECTION, based on this principle and our unified aberration theory is then described, and an illustrative example computed with the software is finally given
Precipitation particle charge distribution and evolution of East Asian rainbands
Takahashi, Tsutomu
2012-11-01
Numerous videosondes, balloon-borne surveyors of precipitation particle morphology and charge, have been launched into cloud systems in many, disparate locations in East Asia. Reported here are videosonde-based observations of early summer, Baiu rainbands at Tanegashima in southern Japan and of summer rainbands at Chiang Rai in northern Thailand. Precipitation particles are mapped by type and charge over the course of cloud development, allowing particle and charge evolution to be derived. The basic charge distribution as observed in Hokuriku winter thunderclouds at different cloud life stages was seen at different locations characterized by vertical velocity profiles in the cloud. The charge structure of the rainbands in both locations was a basic tripole. The major charge carriers were graupel and ice crystals. As graupel and ice crystal concentrations increased, not only did space charge increase, but per-particle charge also increased. Increased lightning activity was associated with higher particle space charge and lower cloud-top temperature. The particle charge evolution of these systems includes several fundamental features: a. active negative charging of graupel in an intense updraft, b. descent of negative graupel along the edge of an updraft column, c. merging of negative graupel with positively charged raindrops falling in the central cloud, and d. extended distribution of positive ice crystals in the stratiform cloud. The observations suggest that riming electrification was the main charge separation mechanism.
Searches for Fractionally Charged Particles: What Should Be Done Next?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perl, Martin L.; /SLAC
2009-01-15
Since the initial measurements of the electron charge a century ago, experimenters have faced the persistent question as to whether elementary particles exist that have charges that are fractional multiples of the electron charge. I concisely review the results of the last 50 years of searching for fractional charge particles with no confirmed positive results. I discuss the question of whether more searching is worthwhile?
A no-go theorem for the $n$-twistor description of a massive particle
Okano, Satoshi
2016-01-01
It is proved that the $n(\\ge 3)$-twistor expression of a particle's four-momentum vector enables us to describe only a massless particle. Therefore the $n$-twistor description of a massive particle is not valid for the case $n\\ge3$.
Determination of colloidal particle surface charge from dielectrophoresis
Chavez, Marko; Nuansri, Rittirong; Mazza, Jacob; Ou-Yang, H. Daniel
2015-03-01
Electrophoresis (EP) is used to determine colloidal particle surface charge. However, when the Debye length is comparable to or larger than the particle size, electrophoresis cannot be reliably used to determine the surface charge due to counter ion retardation flow. Alexander et al. developed a theory relating colloidal osmotic pressure and particle surface charge. We use dielectrophoresis (DEP) to obtain a potential landscape based on the number density distribution of the particles in a non-uniform AC electric field. We determine the osmotic pressure from the DEP force and density profiles using Einstein's osmotic equilibrium equation. Surface charge obtained by DEP (thermodynamics) will be compared to that obtained by EP (electrokinetics).
Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data. Archival edition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This is the fourth annual edition of the National Nuclear Data Center charged-particle bibliography. This edition is cumulative and supersedes the previous editions. The bibliography's primary aims are to satisfy the need for a concise and comprehensive index of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of charged-particle data compiled in the international exchange format. References in this Part are by target for the various incident charged particles (in order of increasing A). The present publication is an archival volume; future publications will be cumulative supplements to this edition
Particle-Antiparticle Metamorphosis of Massive Majorana Neutrinos and Gauginos
Ahluwalia, D V
2002-01-01
Recent results on neutrinoless double beta decay, as reported by Klapdor-Kleingrothaus et al., take us for the first time into the realm of Majorana spacetime structure. However, this structure has either been treated as an afterthought to the Dirac construct; or, when it has been attended to in its own right, its physical and mathematical content was never fully unearthed. In this Letter,we undertake to remedy the existing situation. We present a detailed formalism required for the description of the non-trivial spacetime structure underlying the "nu-nubar" metamorphosis - where "nu" generically represents a massive Majorana neutrino, or a massive gaugino.
Massive vector particles tunneling from Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes
Li, Xiang-Qian; Chen, Ge-Rui
2015-12-01
In this paper, we investigate the Hawking radiation of massive spin-1 particles from 4-dimensional Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes. By applying the Hamilton-Jacobi ansatz and the WKB approximation to the field equations of the massive bosons in Kerr and Kerr-Newman space-time, the quantum tunneling method is successfully implemented. As a result, we obtain the tunneling rate of the emitted vector particles and recover the standard Hawking temperature of both the two black holes.
Massive vector particles tunneling from Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes
Li, Xiang-Qian
2015-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the Hawking radiation of massive spin-1 particles from 4-dimensional Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes. By applying the Hamilton-Jacobi ansatz and the WKB approximation to the field equations of the massive bosons in Kerr and Kerr-Newman space-time, the quantum tunneling method is successfully implemented. As a result, we obtain the tunneling rate of the emitted vector particles and recover the standard Hawking temperature of both the two black holes.
Search for stable multi-charged particles with the ATLAS experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A search for long-lived, multi-charged particles is performed using the ATLAS detector. We examine pp collision-data taken during the 2011 LHC running, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.4 fb-1. A search is made for charged particle tracks exhibiting anomalously high ionization consistent with stable massive particles with charges from |q| = 2e to |q| = 6e. For this search new variables of specific energy loss per path length (dE/dx) are developed and used in the candidate selection. No excess is observed with respect to the prediction of Standard Model processes. The 95% CL cross-section limits are interpreted as lower mass limits of 420-490 GeV for a simplified Drell-Yan production model. (authors)
A gauge theory of massive spin one particles
Vyas, Vivek M
2015-01-01
An Abelian gauge theory describing dynamics of massive spin one bosons is constructed. This is achieved by appending to the Maxwell action, a gauge invariant mass term. The theory is quantised in temporal as well as Lorentz gauge, and the corresponding Hilbert spaces are constructed. In both the gauges, it is found that, the theory respects Lorentz invariance, locality, causality and unitarity.
VEDs for charged particle accelerators: Indian scenario
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the initial times after their invention, the charged particle accelerators have, primarily, been used for fundamental studies on nuclei and atoms. From the first modern accelerator, the cathode ray tube, used by J.J. Thomson for the discovery of electron, very recently the gigantic 27 km circumference Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is operational in the search of Higg's boson and related physics issues. Particle accelerators have emerged as powerful microscopes for investigating the finest details of cells, genes, molecules, atoms, protons, neutrons, muons, electrons, quarks and, possibly, still undiscovered even more fundamental constituents of the universe, such as dark matter and dark energy. Several noble prize winning discoveries have been made using accelerators. Accelerators are now being used in a wide area of industrial and medical applications. They are used for the production of radioisotopes for medical imaging, cancer therapy, food sterilization, treatment of waste water, sterilization of medical equipment, material modification, mass spectroscopy, cargo scanning, fabrication of semiconductors etc. Ongoing effort towards the development of accelerators with megawatt beam power is showing hope for a cleaner source of nuclear energy and treatment of nuclear waste. Several tens of thousands of accelerators are presently operational in the world for basic research and applications. Development of new accelerators has several times been driven by new technologies and materials and sometimes they have driven the technological developments towards cutting edge. Some examples are ultra-high vacuum in large volumes, superfluid helium in cryogenics, cryocoolers, superconducting magnets and RF cavities, high power vacuum electronic devices, global control systems, superfast computing and communication networks, giant data storage/processing systems etc. India has been pursuing a fairly robust programme of accelerator development at various institutions. It
The effect of single-particle charge limits on charge distributions in dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An analytical expression for the stationary particle charge distribution in dusty plasmas is derived that accounts for the existence of single-particle charge limits. This expression is validated by comparison with the results of Monte Carlo charging simulations. The relative importance of the existence of charge limits for various values of the ratio of electron-to-ion density and ion mass is examined, and the effect of charge limits on the transient behavior of the charge distribution is considered. It is found that the time required to reach a steady-state charge distribution strongly decreases as the charge limit decreases, and that the existence of charge limits causes high-frequency charge fluctuations to become relatively more important than in the case without charge limits. (paper)
Prospects of Detecting Massive Charged Higgs from Hadronic Decay $H\\pm \\to tb$ in CMS
Salmi, Petja; Stepanov, Nikita
2002-01-01
The possibility to detect the massive charged Higgs boson H using the hadronic decay channel H -> tb in the associated production pp -> tH + X in the CMS experiment at LHC is studied. There is a large background from ttbb events which makes the observation difficult. Detection of a Higgs signal in this channel requires an excellent b-tagging performance. Good calorimeter mass resolution is also necessary for the full event reconstruction.
Effects of charged particles on DNA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It can be noted that it is not simple double strand breaks (dsb) but the non-reparable breaks that are associated with high biological effectiveness in the cell killing effect for high LET radiation. Here, we have examined the effectiveness of fast neutrons and low (initial energy = 12 MeV/u) or high (135 MeV/u) energy charged particles on cell death in 19 mammalian cell lines including radiosensitive mutants. Some of the radiosensitive lines were deficient in DNA dsb repair such as LX830, M10, V3, and L5178Y-S cells and showed lower values of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for fast neutrons if compared with their parent cell lines. The other lines of human ataxia-telangiectasia fibroblasts, irs 1, irs 2, irs 3 and irs 1SF cells, which were also radiosensitive but known as proficient in dsb repair, showed moderate RBEs. Dsb repair deficient mutants showed low RBE values for heavy ions. These experimental findings suggest that the DNA repair system does not play a major role against the attack of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations. Therefore, we hypothesize that a main cause of cell death induced by high LET radiations is due to non-reparable dsb, which are produced at a higher rate compared to low LET radiations. (author)
Charged-particle beam: a safety mandate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a recent development in the field of charged particle beam research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. With this experimental apparatus, researchers will characterize intense pulses of electron beams propagated through air. Inherent with the ATA concept was the potential for exposure to hazards, such as high radiation levels and hostile breathing atmospheres. The need for a comprehensive safety program was mandated; a formal system safety program was implemented during the project's conceptual phase. A project staff position was created for a safety analyst who would act as a liaison between the project staff and the safety department. Additionally, the safety analyst would be responsible for compiling various hazards analyses reports, which formed the basis of th project's Safety Analysis Report. Recommendations for safety features from the hazards analysis reports were incorporated as necessary at appropriate phases in project development rather than adding features afterwards. The safety program established for the ATA project faciliated in controlling losses and in achieving a low-level of acceptable risk
Prasia, P
2016-01-01
In this work we study the Quasi Normal Modes(QNMs) under massless scalar perturbations and the thermodynamics of linearly charged BTZ black holes in massive gravity in the (Anti)de Sitter((A)dS) space time. It is found that the behavior of QNMs changes with the massive parameter and also with the charge of the black hole. The thermodynamics of such black holes in the (A)dS space time is also analyzed in detail. The behavior of specific heat with temperature for such black holes gives an indication of a phase transition that depends on the massive parameter and also on the charge of the black hole.
Internal Space-time Symmetries of Massive and Massless Particles and their Unification
Kim, Y. S.
2001-01-01
It is noted that the internal space-time symmetries of relativistic particles are dictated by Wigner's little groups. The symmetry of massive particles is like the three-dimensional rotation group, while the symmetry of massless particles is locally isomorphic to the two-dimensional Euclidean group. It is noted also that, while the rotational degree of freedom for a massless particle leads to its helicity, the two translational degrees of freedom correspond to its gauge degrees of freedom. It...
Dynamics of fast charged particle beam rotation in bended crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dynamics of fast charged particle beam rotation in a bended monocrystal is considered. Face and volume mechanisms of capture in channels are taken into account simultaneously in the model presented. Functions of distribution in transverse energies (φ) of channeled and dechanneled particles are obtained. Charge-energy ''scale invariance'' in ion channeling with charge Z in a bended crystal determined by scale parameter W=pv/Z (p and v are pulse and velocity local to transverse planes) follows from the model presented
Three-fluid-sourced, massive, two-charged, rotating as well as static wormholes
Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha
2016-01-01
Lack of a consistent metric for generating rotating wormholes motivates us to present a new one endowed with interesting physical and geometrical properties. When combined with the generalized method of superposition of fields, which consists in attaching a form of matter to each moving frame, it generates massive and charged (charge without charge) two-fluid-sourced, massive and two-charged three-fluid-sourced, rotating as well as new static wormholes which, otherwise, can hardly be derived by integration. If the lapse function of the static wormhole is bounded from above, no closed timelike curves occur in the rotating counterpart. For positive energy densities dying out faster than $1/r$, the angular velocity includes in its expansion a correction term, to the leading one that corresponds to ordinary stars, proportional to $\\ln r/r^4$. Such a term is not present in the corresponding expansion for the Kerr-Newman black hole. Based on this observation and our previous work, the dragging effects of falling ne...
Charged particle periodicity in the Saturnian magnetosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The low energy charged particles (LECP) experiments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft performed measurements of electrons (approx.22 keV to approx.20 MeV) and ions (approx.28 keV to approx.150 MeV) during the Saturn encounters in 1980 and 1981. Count rate ratios of two of the low energy electron (22 to 35 keV and 183 to 500 keV) and ion (43 to 80 keV and 137 to 215 keV) channels exhibit an approximation 10 hour periodicity in the outer Saturnian magnetosphere beyond the orbit of Titan. Electron ratios vary from approx.50 to approx.300; ion ratios vary from approx.3 to approx.20. Similar but less pronounced periodicities are observed for higher and lower energy electron and ion spectral indices. Three complete cycles were observed during the Voyager 2 outbound portion of the encounter from which were determined an electron ratio period of 10/sup h/21/sup m/ +- 48/sup m/ and an ion ratio period of 9/sup h/49/sup m/ +- 59/sup m/. Using Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) and Saturn Electrostatic Discharge (SED) periods, extrapolation backward from Voyager 2 to Voyager 1 suggests that the periodicities are Saturnian rather than Jovian in nature, and that they persist in phase for time intervals at least as long as 287 days. Ratio minima, or spectral hardenings, occur in the same hemisphere as do auroral brightenings, SKR activity, and spoke enhanement. We interpret the observations as prima facie evidence of an asymmetry in the Saturian magnetic field and the root cause of the observed SKR periodicity
Hawking radiation of massive vector particles from the linear dilaton black holes
Li, Ran; Zhao, Junkun
2016-07-01
By using the tunneling formalism, we calculated the massive vector particles' Hawking radiation from the non-rotating and rotating linear dilaton black holes. By applying the WKB approximation to the Proca field equation that govern the dynamics of massive vector bosons, we derive the tunneling probabilities and radiation spectrums of the emitted vector particles from the linear dilaton black holes. The Hawking temperatures of the linear dilaton black holes have been recovered, which are consistent with the previous results in the literature. This means that the vector particles' tunneling method can also be used in studying the Hawking radiation of asymptotically non-flat and non-AdS black holes.
Quantum Tunneling of Massive Spin-1 Particles From Non-stationary Metrics
Sakalli, I
2016-01-01
Hawking radiation (HR) is invariant under the coordinate transformation, and it must be independent of the particle type emitting from the considered black hole (BH). From this fact, we focus on the HR of massive vector (spin-1) particles tunneling from Schwarzschild BH expressed in the Kruskal-Szekeres (KS) and dynamic Lemaitre (DL) coordinates. Using the Proca equation (PE) together with Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) and WKB methods, we show that the tunneling rate, and its consequence Hawking temperature are well recovered by the quantum tunneling of the massive vector particles. This is the first example for the HR of the massive vector particles tunneling from a four dimensional BH expressed in non-stationary regular coordinates.
Photon production by charged particles in narrow optical fibers
Artru, X.; Ray, C.
2006-01-01
Presented at International Conference on Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena, Frascati, Italy, July 3-7, 2006. - Theorie, CAS A charged particle passing through or by an optical fiber induces emission of light guided by the fiber. The formula giving the spontaneous emission amplitude are given in the general case when the particle trajectory is not parallel to the fiber axis. At small angle, the photon yield grows like the inverse power of the angle and in the parallel limit...
Topologically Massive Spin-1 Particles and Spin-Dependent Potentials
Ferreira, F A Gomes; Ospedal, L P R; Helayël-Neto, J A
2014-01-01
We investigate the role played by particular representations of an intermediate massive spin-1 boson in the context of spin-dependent potentials between fermionic sources in the limit of low momentum transfer. A comparison between the well-known Proca case and that of a rank-2 tensor gauge potential coupled to a 4-vector gauge field is investigated in order to extract spin- as well as velocity-dependent profiles of the interparticle potentials. Bounds on some of the coupling parameters are derived and we discuss possible applications.
Quasi-Local Conserved Charges of Spin-3 Topologically Massive Gravity
Setare, M R
2016-01-01
In this paper we obtain conserved charges of spin-3 topologically massive gravity by using a quasi-local formalism. We find a general formula to calculate conserved charge of the spin-3 topologically massive gravity corresponds to a Killing vector field $\\xi$. We show that this general formula reduces to the previous one for the ordinary spin-3 gravity presented in \\cite{31} when we take into account only transformation under diffeomorphism, without considering generalized Lorentz gauge transformation (i.e. $\\lambda _{\\xi} =0$), and by taking $\\frac{1}{\\mu}\\rightarrow 0$. Then we obtain a general formula for the entropy of black hole solutions of the spin-3 topologically massive gravity. Finally we apply our formalism to calculate energy, angular momentum and entropy of a special black hole solution and we find that obtained results are consistent with previous results in the limiting cases. Moreover our result for energy, angular momentum and entropy are consistent with the first law of black hole mechanics.
Quasi-local conserved charges of spin-3 topologically massive gravity
Setare, M. R.; Adami, H.
2016-08-01
In this paper we obtain conserved charges of spin-3 topologically massive gravity by using a quasi-local formalism. We find a general formula to calculate conserved charge of the spin-3 topologically massive gravity which corresponds to a Killing vector field ξ. We show that this general formula reduces to the previous one for the ordinary spin-3 gravity presented in [18] when we take into account only transformation under diffeomorphism, without considering generalized Lorentz gauge transformation (i.e. λξ = 0), and by taking 1/μ → 0. Then we obtain a general formula for the entropy of black hole solutions of the spin-3 topologically massive gravity. Finally we apply our formalism to calculate energy, angular momentum and entropy of a special black hole solution and we find that obtained results are consistent with previous results in the limiting cases. Moreover our results for energy, angular momentum and entropy are consistent with the first law of black hole mechanics.
Massive charged BTZ black holes in asymptotically (a)dS spacetimes
Hendi, S. H.; Panah, B. Eslam; Panahiyan, S.
2016-05-01
Motivated by recent developments of BTZ black holes and interesting results of massive gravity, we investigate massive BTZ black holes in the presence of Maxwell and Born-Infeld (BI) electrodynamics. We study geometrical properties such as type of singularity and asymptotical behavior as well as thermodynamic structure of the solutions through canonical ensemble. We show that despite the existence of massive term, obtained solutions are asymptotically (a)dS and have a curvature singularity at the origin. Then, we regard varying cosmological constant and examine the Van der Waals like behavior of the solutions in extended phase space. In addition, we employ geometrical thermodynamic approaches and show that using Weinhold, Ruppeiner and Quevedo metrics leads to existence of ensemble dependency while HPEM metric yields consistent picture. For neutral solutions, it will be shown that generalization to massive gravity leads to the presence of non-zero temperature and heat capacity for vanishing horizon radius. Such behavior is not observed for linearly charged solutions while generalization to nonlinearly one recovers this property.
The 2+1 charged black hole in topologically massive Electrodynamics
Andrade, T; Benguria, R; Gomberoff, A
2005-01-01
The 2+1 black hole coupled to a Maxwell field can be charged in two different ways. On the one hand, it can support a Coulomb field whose potential grows logarithmically in the radial coordinate. On the other, due to the existence of a non-contractible cycle, it also supports a topological charge whose value is given by the corresponding Abelian holonomy. Only the Coulomb charge, however, is given by a constant flux integral with an associated continuity equation. The topological charge does not gravitate and is somehow decoupled from the black hole. This situation changes abruptly if one turns on the Chern-Simons term for the Maxwell field. First, the flux integral at infinity becomes equal to the topological charge. Second, demanding regularity of the black hole horizon, it is found that the Coulomb charge (whose associated potential now decays by a power law) must vanish identically. Hence, in 2+1 topologically massive electrodynamics coupled to gravity, the black hole can only support holonomies for the M...
Internal space-time symmetries of massive and massless particles and their unification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is noted that the internal space-time symmetries of relativistic particles are dictated by Wigner's little groups. The symmetry of massive particles is like the three-dimensional rotation group, while the symmetry of massless particles is locally isomorphic to the two-dimensional Euclidean group. It is noted also that, while the rotational degree of freedom for a massless particle leads to its helicity, the two translational degrees of freedom correspond to its gauge degrees of freedom. It is shown that the E(2)-like symmetry of of massless particles can be obtained as an infinite-momentum and/or zero-mass limit of the O(3)-like symmetry of massive particles. This mechanism is illustrated in terms of a sphere elongating into a cylinder. In this way, the helicity degree of freedom remains invariant under the Lorentz boost, but the transverse rotational degrees of freedom become contracted into the gauge degree of freedom
Response of Mica to Weakly Interacting Massive Particles
Engel, J.; Ressell, M. T.; Towner, I S; Ormand, W. E.
1995-01-01
We calculate spin-dependent cross sections for the scattering from mica of hypothetical weakly interacting dark-matter particles such as neutralinos. The most abundant odd-A isotopes in mica, Al27 and K39, require different shell-model treatments. The calculated cross sections will allow the interpretation of ongoing experiments that look for tracks due to the interaction of dark-matter particles with nuclei in ancient mica.
Response of mica to weakly interacting massive particles
Engel, J; Towner, I S; Ormand, W E; Engel, J; Ressell, M T; Towner, I S; Ormand, W E
1995-01-01
We calculate spin-dependent cross sections for the scattering from mica of hypothetical weakly interacting dark-matter particles such as neutralinos. The most abundant odd-A isotopes in mica, Al27 and K39, require different shell-model treatments. The calculated cross sections will allow the interpretation of ongoing experiments that look for tracks due to the interaction of dark-matter particles with nuclei in ancient mica.
Casting Pearls Ballistically: Efficient Massively Parallel Simulation of Particle Deposition
Lubachevsky, Boris D.; Privman, Vladimir; Roy, Subhas C.
1996-06-01
We simulate ballistic particle deposition wherein a large number of spherical particles are "cast" vertically over a planar horizontal surface. Upon first contact (with the surface or with a previously deposited particle) each particle stops. This model helps material scientists to study the adsorption and sediment formation. The model is sequential, with particles deposited one by one. We have found an equivalent formulation using a continuous time random process and we simulate the latter in parallel using a method similar to the one previously employed for simulating Ising spins. We augment the parallel algorithm for simulating Ising spins with several techniques aimed at the increase of efficiency of producing the particle configuration and statistics collection. Some of these techniques are similar to earlier ones. We implement the resulting algorithm on a 16K PE MasPar MP-1 and a 4K PE MasPar MP-2. The parallel code runs on MasPar computers nearly two orders of magnitude faster than an optimized sequential code runs on a fast workstation.
Highly charged hollow latex particles prepared via seeded emulsion polymerization.
Nuasaen, Sukanya; Tangboriboonrat, Pramuan
2013-04-15
The carboxylated hollow latex (HL) particles possessing high surface charge density were conveniently prepared by using poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (P(St/AA)) as seed particles and methyl methacrylate (MMA)/divinylbenzene (DVB)/AA as monomers. Without seed removal, the hollow structure was simply tuned by adjusting the monomer/seed ratio and the monomer content. The monodisperse, spherical, and non-collapsed HL particles with double shell having the void of 280 nm were obtained from P(St/AA) seeds of 300 nm. The conductimetric back titration, SEM, TEM, and dynamic light scattering measurement revealed that the surface charge density, surface roughness, and size of HL particles significantly increased when applying the stepwise charging monomers/initiator. The highly charged HL particles would be well dispersed in coating film providing good optical properties, for example, opacity and whiteness. PMID:23428072
Anomalous mobility of highly charged particles in pores.
Qiu, Yinghua; Yang, Crystal; Hinkle, Preston; Vlassiouk, Ivan V; Siwy, Zuzanna S
2015-08-18
Single micropores in resistive-pulse technique were used to understand a complex dependence of particle mobility on its surface charge density. We show that the mobility of highly charged carboxylated particles decreases with the increase of the solution pH due to an interplay of three effects: (i) ion condensation, (ii) formation of an asymmetric electrical double layer around the particle, and (iii) electroosmotic flow induced by the charges on the pore walls and the particle surfaces. The results are important for applying resistive-pulse technique to determine surface charge density and zeta potential of the particles. The experiments also indicate the presence of condensed ions, which contribute to the measured current if a sufficiently high electric field is applied across the pore. PMID:26177843
Dirac and scalar particles tunnelling from topological massive warped-AdS3 black hole
Gecim, G.; Sucu, Y.
2015-06-01
We investigate the Dirac and scalar particles tunnelling as a radiation of Warped AdS3 black holes in Topological Massive Gravity. Using Hamilton-Jacobi method, we discuss tunnelling probability and Hawking temperature of the spin-1/2 and spin-0 particles for the black hole. We observe the tunnelling probability and Hawking temperature to be same for the spin-1/2 and spin-0. We show that the tunnelling process may occur, for both Dirac and scalar particles.
A numerical relativistic model of a massive particle in orbit near a Schwarzschild black hole
Bishop, N.; Gomez, R.; Husa, S; Lehner, L.; Winicour, J.
2003-01-01
We present a method for computing the evolution of a spacetime containing a massive particle and a black hole. The essential idea is that the gravitational field is evolved using full numerical relativity, with the particle generating a non-zero source term in the Einstein equations. The matter fields are not evolved by hydrodynamic equations. Instead the particle is treated as a rigid body whose center follows a geodesic. The necessary theoretical framework is developed and then implemented ...
Topologically massive spin-1 particles and spin-dependent potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferreira, F.A.G.; Malta, P.C.; Ospedal, L.P.R.; Helayel-Neto, J.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
2015-05-15
We investigate the role played by particular field representations of an intermediate massive spin-1 boson in the context of spin-dependent interparticle potentials between fermionic sources in the limit of low momentum transfer. The comparison between the well-known case of the Proca field and that of an exchanged spin-1 boson (with gauge-invariant mass) described by a 2-form potential mixed with a 4-vector gauge field is established in order to pursue an analysis of spin- as well as velocity-dependent profiles of the interparticle potentials. We discuss possible applications and derive an upper bound on the product of vector and pseudo-tensor coupling constants. (orig.)
Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data. Archival edition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This is the fourth annual edition of the National Nuclear Data Center charged-particle bibliography. This edition is cumulative and supersedes the previous editions. The bibliography's primary aims are to satisfy the need for a concise and comprehensive index of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of charged-particle data compiled in the international exchange format, EXFOR. This part of the publication deals with isotope production; references are ordered by mass of the nuclide produced. The present publication is an archival volume; future publications will be cumulative supplements to this edition
Quantum interface to charged particles in a vacuum
Okamoto, Hiroshi
2015-11-01
A superconducting qubit device suitable for interacting with a flying electron has recently been proposed [Okamoto and Nagatani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 062604 (2014), 10.1063/1.4865244]. Either a clockwise or counterclockwise directed loop of half magnetic flux quantum encodes a qubit, which naturally interacts with any single charged particle with arbitrary kinetic energy. Here, the device's properties, sources of errors, and possible applications are studied in detail. In particular, applications include detection of a charged particle essentially without applying a classical force to it. Furthermore, quantum states can be transferred between an array of the proposed devices and the charged particle.
Heavy-ion radiography applied to charged particle radiotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The objectives of the heavy-ion radiography research program applied to the clinical cancer research program of charged particle radiotherapy have a twofold purpose: (1) to explore the manner in which heavy-ion radiography and CT reconstruction can provide improved tumor localization, treatment planning, and beam delivery for radiotherapy with accelerated heavy charged particles; and (2) to explore the usefulness of heavy-ion radiography in detecting, localizing, and sizing soft tissue cancers in the human body. The techniques and procedures developed for heavy-ion radiography should prove successful in support of charged particle radiotherapy
The lightest massive invisible particles at the LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The observation of new physics events with large missing transverse energy at the LHC would potentially serve as evidence for the direct production of dark matter. A crucial step toward verifying such evidence is the measurement of the would-be dark matter mass. If, for example, the invisible particles are found to have masses consistent with zero, it may prove very challenging to ascertain whether light dark matter or neutrinos are being observed. We assume that new invisible particles are pair-produced in a tt¯-like topology and use two MT2-based methods to measure the masses of the particles associated with the missing energy. Instead of simulating events and backgrounds, we estimate the uncertainty associated with measuring the mass of the invisible particle by assuming a fixed value of the uncertainty associated with the location of the MT2 endpoint. We find that if this uncertainty associated with measuring the MT2 endpoints is, quite optimistically, O(1 GeV), the invisible particles must have masses greater than O(10 GeV) so they can be distinguished from massless ones at 95% CL. If the results from the CoGeNT, DAMA/LIBRA, and CRESST experiments have indeed revealed the existence of light dark matter with mass O(10 GeV), our results suggest that it may be difficult for the LHC to distinguish dark matter from neutrinos solely via mass measurements
Mechanisms of Particle Charging by Surfactants in Nonpolar Dispersions.
Lee, Joohyung; Zhou, Zhang-Lin; Alas, Guillermo; Behrens, Sven Holger
2015-11-10
Electric charging of colloidal particles in nonpolar solvents plays a crucial role for many industrial applications and products, including rubbers, engine oils, toners, or electronic displays. Although disfavored by the low solvent permittivity, particle charging can be induced by added surfactants, even nonionic ones, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood, and neither the magnitude nor the sign of charge can generally be predicted from the particle and surfactant properties. The conclusiveness of scientific studies has been limited partly by a traditional focus on few surfactant types with many differences in their chemical structure and often poorly defined composition. Here we investigate the surface charging of poly(methyl methacrylate) particles dispersed in hexane-based solutions of three purified polyisobutylene succinimide polyamine surfactants with "subtle" structural variations. We precisely vary the surfactant chemistry by replacing only a single electronegative atom located at a fixed position within the polar headgroup. Electrophoresis reveals that these small differences between the surfactants lead to qualitatively different particle charging. In the respective particle-free surfactant solutions we also find potentially telling differences in the size of the surfactant aggregates (inverse micelles), the residual water content, and the electric solution conductivity as well as indications for a significant size difference between oppositely charged inverse micelles of the most hygroscopic surfactant. An analysis that accounts for the acid/base properties of all constituents suggests that the observed particle charging is better described by asymmetric adsorption of charged inverse micelles from the liquid bulk than by charge creation at the particle surface. Intramicellar acid-base interaction and intermicellar surfactant exchange help rationalize the formation of micellar ions pairs with size asymmetry. PMID:26484617
Tunnelling of relativistic particles from new type black hole in new massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gecim, Ganim; Sucu, Yusuf, E-mail: ganimgecim@akdeniz.edu.tr, E-mail: ysucu@akdeniz.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Akdeniz University, Antalya (Turkey)
2013-02-01
In the framework of the three dimensional New Massive Gravity theory introduced by Bergshoeff, Hohm and Townsend, we analyze the behavior of relativistic spin-1/2 and spin-0 particles in the New-type Black Hole backgroud, solution of the New Massive Gravity.We solve Dirac equation for spin-1/2 and Klein-Gordon equation for spin-0. Using Hamilton-Jacobi method, we discuss tunnelling probability and Hawking temperature of the spin-1/2 and spin-0 particles for the black hole. We observe that the tunnelling probability and Hawking temperature are same for the spin-1/2 and spin-0.
Massive vector particles tunneling from Kerr and Kerr–Newman black holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiang-Qian Li
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the Hawking radiation of massive spin-1 particles from 4-dimensional Kerr and Kerr–Newman black holes. By applying the Hamilton–Jacobi ansatz and the WKB approximation to the field equations of the massive bosons in Kerr and Kerr–Newman space-time, the quantum tunneling method is successfully implemented. As a result, we obtain the tunneling rate of the emitted vector particles and recover the standard Hawking temperature of both the two black holes.
Tunnelling of relativistic particles from new type black hole in new massive gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the framework of the three dimensional New Massive Gravity theory introduced by Bergshoeff, Hohm and Townsend, we analyze the behavior of relativistic spin-1/2 and spin-0 particles in the New-type Black Hole backgroud, solution of the New Massive Gravity.We solve Dirac equation for spin-1/2 and Klein-Gordon equation for spin-0. Using Hamilton-Jacobi method, we discuss tunnelling probability and Hawking temperature of the spin-1/2 and spin-0 particles for the black hole. We observe that the tunnelling probability and Hawking temperature are same for the spin-1/2 and spin-0
Charged particle interaction with a chirped electromagnetic pulse
Khachatryan, A. G.; Boller, K. -J.; Goor, van, Fred
2003-01-01
It is found that a charged particle can get a net energy gain from the interaction with an electromagnetic chirped pulse. Theoretically, the energy gain increases with the pulse amplitude and with the relative frequency variation in the pulse.
Charged particle beam scanning using deformed high gradient insulator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Yu -Jiuan
2015-10-06
Devices and methods are provided to allow rapid deflection of a charged particle beam. The disclosed devices can, for example, be used as part of a hadron therapy system to allow scanning of a target area within a patient's body. The disclosed charged particle beam deflectors include a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) with a hollow center and a dielectric wall that is substantially parallel to a z-axis that runs through the hollow center. The dielectric wall includes one or more deformed high gradient insulators (HGIs) that are configured to produce an electric field with an component in a direction perpendicular to the z-axis. A control component is also provided to establish the electric field component in the direction perpendicular to the z-axis and to control deflection of a charged particle beam in the direction perpendicular to the z-axis as the charged particle beam travels through the hollow center of the DWA.
Techniques used for charged particle nuclear data evaluation at CNDC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The methods and techniques used for Charged Particle Nuclear Data (CPND) evaluation at Chinese Nuclear Data Center (CNDC) are summarized, including compilation and evaluation of experimental data, nuclear reaction theory and model calculation, systematics research and comprehensive recommendation etc
Silicon pin diode array hybrids for charged particle detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper reports on the design of silicon PIN diode array hybrids for use as charged particle detectors. A brief summary of the need for vertex detectors is presented. Circuitry, block diagrams and device specifications are included
Radiobiology with heavy charged particles: a historical review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skarsgard, L.D. [Dept. of Medical Biophysics, B.C. Cancer Research Centre and TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada)
1997-09-01
The presentation will attempt to briefly review some of radiobiological data on the effects of heavy charged particles and to discuss the influence of those studies on the clinical application which followed. (orig./MG)
Deposition of Aerosol Particles in Electrically Charged Membrane Filters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A theory for the influence of electric charge on particle deposition on the surface of charged filters has been developed. It has been tested experimentally on ordinary membrane filters and Nuclepore filters of 8 μm pore size, with a bipolar monodisperse test aerosol of 1 μm particle diameter, and at a filter charge up to 20 μC/m2. Agreement with theory was obtained for the Coulomb force between filter and particle for both kinds of filters. The image force between charged filter and neutral particles did not result in the predicted deposition in the ordinary membrane filter, probably due to lacking correspondence between the filter model employed for the theory, and the real filter. For the Nuclepore filter a satisfactory agreement with theory was obtained, also at image interaction
On the charged particle shock acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The shock acceleration method employs injection of beam particles into the linear accelerator unexcited structure. Upon injecting a wave of accelerating electromagnetic field is excited in the structure it catches up with the particles and accelerates them. Dynamics of particle acceleration using the abovesaid method is under consideration. A d gree of particle beam compression in the process of beam acceleration is found out. New technique is suggested of shock acceleration with particle outlet to the potential barrier plateau that enables to attain compression not only of relativistic beams but also of non relativistic ones. It is shown that the method in question enables to get compression of electron and ion beams while increasing essentially their current and reducing the density modulation period. Shock acceleration in high current accelerators enables to obtain high-energy current beams (above 104A), which ght be used in studies on ionic thermonuclear fusion in powerful free electron lasers
Nuclear data needs in nuclear astrophysics: Charged-particle reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Progress in understanding a diverse range of astrophysical phenomena - such as the Big Bang, the Sun, the evolution of stars, and stellar explosions - can be significantly aided by improved compilation, evaluation, and dissemination of charged-particle nuclear reaction data. A summary of the charged-particle reaction data needs in these and other astrophysical scenarios is presented, along with recommended future nuclear data projects. (author)
Analogies between light optics and charged-particle optics
Khan, Sameen Ahmed
2002-01-01
The close analogy between geometrical optics and the classical theories of charged-particle beam optics have been known for a very long time. In recent years, quantum theories of charged-particle beam optics have been presented with the very expected feature of wavelength-dependent effects. With the current development of non-traditional prescriptions of Helmholtz and Maxwell optics respectively, accompanied with the wavelength-dependent effects, it is seen that the analogy between the two sy...
Proposal to Search for Magnetically Charged Particles with Magnetic Charge 1e
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sullivan, Michael K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fryberger, David [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
2015-11-02
A model for composite elementary Standard Model (SM) particles based upon magnetically bound vorton pairs, we briefly introduce here, predicts the existence of a complete family of magnetically charged particles, as well as their neutral isotopic partners (all counterparts to the SM elementary particles), in which the lowest mass (charged) particle would be an electrically neutral stable lepton, but which carries a magnetic charge equivalent to 1e. This new particle, which we call a magneticon (a counterpart to the electron) would be pair produced at all e^{+}e^{-} colliders at an E_{cm} above twice its mass. In addition, PP and PPbar colliders should also be able to produce these new particles through the Drell-Yan process. To our knowledge, no monopole search experiment has been sensitive to such a low-charged magnetic monopole above a particle mass of about 5 GeV/c^{2}. Hence, we propose that a search for such a stable particle of magnetic charge 1e should be undertaken. We have taken the ATLAS detector at the LHC as an example in which this search might be done. To this end, we modeled the magnetic fields and muon trigger chambers of this detector. We show results from a simple Monte Carlo simulation program to indicate how these particles might look in the detector and describe how one might search for these new particles in the ATLAS data stream.
Asymptotic algebra for charged particles and radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A C*-algebra of asymptotic fields which properly describes the infrared structure in quantum electrodynamics is proposed. The algebra is generated by the null asymptotic of electromagnetic field and the time asymptotic of charged matter fields which incorporate the corresponding Coulomb fields. As a consequence Gauss' law is satisfied in the algebraic setting. Within this algebra the observables can be identified by the principle of gauge invariance. A class of representations of the asymptotic algebra is constructed which resembles the Kulish-Faddeev treatment of electrically charged asymptotic fields. (orig.)
Indirect Charged Particle Detection: Concepts and a Classroom Demonstration
Childs, Nicholas B.; Horányi, Mihály; Collette, Andrew
2013-01-01
We describe the principles of macroscopic charged particle detection in the laboratory and their connections to concepts taught in the physics classroom. Electrostatic dust accelerator systems, capable of launching charged dust grains at hypervelocities (1-100 km/s), are a critical tool for space exploration. Dust grains in space typically have…
An improved search for elementary particles with fractional electric charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The SLAC Quark Search Group has demonstrated successful operation of a low cost, high mass throughput Millikan apparatus designed to search for fractionally charged particles. About six million silicone oil drops were measured with no evidence of fractional charges. A second experiment is under construction with 100 times greater throughput which will utilize optimized search fluids
Charged particle separation by an electrically tunable nanoporous membrane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the applicability of an electrically tunable nanoporous semiconductor membrane for the separation of nanoparticles by charge. We show that this type of membrane can overcome one of the major shortcomings of nanoporous membrane applications for particle separation: the compromise between membrane selectivity and permeability. The computational model that we have developed describes the electrostatic potential distribution within the system and tracks the movement of the filtered particle using Brownian dynamics while taking into consideration effects from dielectrophoresis, fluid flow, and electric potentials. We found that for our specific pore geometry, the dielectrophoresis plays a negligible role in the particle dynamics. By comparing the results for charged and uncharged particles, we show that for the optimal combination of applied electrolyte and membrane biases the same membrane can effectively separate same-sized particles based on charge with a difference of up to 3 times in membrane permeability. (paper)
Charged Particle Diffusion in Isotropic Random Static Magnetic Fields
Subedi, P.; Sonsrettee, W.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Wan, M.; Montgomery, D.
2013-12-01
Study of the transport and diffusion of charged particles in a turbulent magnetic field remains a subject of considerable interest. Research has most frequently concentrated on determining the diffusion coefficient in the presence of a mean magnetic field. Here we consider Diffusion of charged particles in fully three dimensional statistically isotropic magnetic field turbulence with no mean field which is pertinent to many astrophysical situations. We classify different regions of particle energy depending upon the ratio of Larmor radius of the charged particle to the characteristic outer length scale of turbulence. We propose three different theoretical models to calculate the diffusion coefficient each applicable to a distinct range of particle energies. The theoretical results are compared with those from computer simulations, showing very good agreement.
Simulation of non-charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents the method used to simulate the transport of neutral particles by using a Monte Carlo method with accelerating techniques of convergence based on the importance function by the method of first collision probabilities
A high sensitivity selector for charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The electrostatic size selector for aerosol particles, is composed of two coaxial parallel conductive disks between which an electric field is established; an annular slot in the first disk allows for the atmosphere air intake. Suction and injection systems, and a third intermediate disk are used to carry out a dynamic confinement that allows for the separation of the particles having the required electric mobility and therefore the required size
Gerts, David W; Bean, Robert S; Metcalf, Richard R
2013-02-19
A radiation detector is disclosed. The radiation detector comprises an active detector surface configured to generate charge carriers in response to charged particles associated with incident radiation. The active detector surface is further configured with a sufficient thickness for a partial energy deposition of the charged particles to occur and permit the charged particles to pass through the active detector surface. The radiation detector further comprises a plurality of voltage leads coupled to the active detector surface. The plurality of voltage leads is configured to couple to a voltage source to generate a voltage drop across the active detector surface and to separate the charge carriers into a plurality of electrons and holes for detection. The active detector surface may comprise one or more graphene layers. Timing data between active detector surfaces may be used to determine energy of the incident radiation. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed herein.
Acceleration of low energy charged particles by gravitational waves
Voyatzis, G.; Vlahos, L.; Ichtiaroglou, S.; Papadopoulos, D.
2005-01-01
The acceleration of charged particles in the presence of a magnetic field and gravitational waves is under consideration. It is shown that the weak gravitational waves can cause the acceleration of low energy particles under appropriate conditions. Such conditions may be satisfied close to the source of the gravitational waves if the magnetized plasma is in a turbulent state.
Search for long-lived massive particles in extensive air showers
Kawamoto, M.; Inoue, N.; Misaki, Y.; Manabe, O.; Takeuchi, T.; Toyoda, Y.
1985-01-01
Air showers containing delayed sub-showers which may be produced by a long-lived massive particle have been investigated by using twelve detectors. Ten events have been selected out as the candidates. However, a definite conclusion cannot be reached at the present time.
Quantum Tunneling of Massive Particles from a Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger Dilatonic Black Hole
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO Li; LIU Wen-Biao
2006-01-01
Hawking radiation is viewed as a process of quantum tunneling. The massive particles' tunneling from Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger black hole is investigated. Using Jingyi Zhang's de Broglie wave method, we get the unthermal spectrum, and the result is consistent with the underlying unitary theory.
Ionic charge state measurements in solar energetic particle events
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
With the launch of the Advanced Composition Explorer, it has become possible through the SEPICA instrument to make direct ionic charge state measurements for individual Solar Energetic Particle events. In large events, the charge state may even be measured as a function of time, revealing changes that may be created by phenomena such as injections from different acceleration mechanisms, or confinement by magnetic field structures. The charge state can be a sensitive indicator of separate SEP populations. Several examples of SEP events will be presented. One of these, the November, 1997 event, displayed a trend in which the mean charge state for several ions increased with energy. These measurements may be the result of several processes, including a mixture of plasma with different source and acceleration histories, and abundance formation and possibly additional charge state modification by collisional or other means in the corona. A wide range of iron charge states have been measured for a variety of SEP events, ranging from =10+ to 20+. The mean charge states of C, O, Ne, Mg and Si all increased as the iron charge state increased. In events with the highest iron charge states, there were abundance enhancements in Ne with respect to oxygen in those cases, even though the mass/charge of the O and Ne were similar. In events with the lowest iron charge states, all these ions except Mg showed mean charge states generally consistent with coronal material of an equilibrium temperature of 1.3-1.6 million degrees K
Generalized charge symmetry and charmed particle decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The charge symmetry operations are introduced within the c, s and p, n quark doublets and its consequences for weak decays proceeding via the GIM current, are studied. Numerous relations between various decays are obtained. Combined with CP an interesting pattern of allowed and suppressed amplitudes for charmed meson and baryon processes is found. The results are compatible with the present meagre experimental information. (Auth.)
Massive quiver matrix models for massive charged particles in AdS
Asplund, Curtis T; Dzienkowski, Eric
2016-01-01
We present a new class of ${\\cal N}=4$ supersymmetric quiver matrix models and argue that it describes the stringy low-energy dynamics of internally wrapped D-branes in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) flux compactifications. The Lagrangians of these models differ from previously studied quiver matrix models by the presence of mass terms, associated with the AdS gravitational potential, as well as additional terms dictated by supersymmetry. These give rise to dynamical phenomena typically associated with the presence of fluxes, such as fuzzy membranes, internal cyclotron motion and the appearance of confining strings. We also show how these models can be obtained by dimensional reduction of four-dimensional supersymmetric quiver gauge theories on a three-sphere.
CMOS sensor as charged particles and ionizing radiation detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper reports results of CMOS sensor suitable for use as charged particles and ionizing radiation detector. The CMOS sensor with 640 × 480 pixels area has been integrated into an electronic circuit for detection of ionizing radiation and it was exposed to alpha particle (Am-241, Unat), beta (Sr-90), and gamma photons (Cs-137). Results show after long period of time (168 h) irradiation the sensor had not loss of functionality and also the energy of the charge particles and photons were very well obtained
Charged particle acceleration by electron beam in corrugated plasma waveguide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A two-beam charged particle acceleration scheme in a plasma waveguide with corrugated conducting walls is considered. The guiding heavy-current relativistic electron beam is in synchronism with the first plasma wave space harmonics and the accelerated beam is synchronism with a quicker plasma wave. In this case under weak corrugation of the wall the accelerating resonance field effecting the accelerated particles notably increases the field braking the guiding beam. The process of plasma wave excitation with regard to the guiding beam space charge and the relativistic particle acceleration dynamics are investigated by numeric methods. Optimal acceleration modes are found. 19 refs.; 12 figs
Charged particles detection: the draft-and-dye method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charged particles travelling through an organic medium leave a trail of highly concentrated active, stable chemical radicals. These functions are able to initiate copolymerization reactions of unsaturated molecules. Such a reagent is made to reach the trail; polymerization occurs. If the new polymer formed either absorbs or emits light the track of the charged particle is made visible. This technique and results are discussed: the efficiency of those detectors has been increased, they do not exhibit any critical dip angle for the registration of particle tracks, they may offer a way to reveal tracks originating in the detector itself. (orig.)
Charged particles detection: the graft-and-dye method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charged particles travelling through an organic medium leave a trail of highly concentrated active, stable chemical radicals. These functions are able to initiate copolymerization reactions of unsaturated molecules. Such a reagent is made to reach the trail; polymerization occurs. If the new polymer formed either absorbs or emits light the track of the charged particle is made visible. This technique and results are discussed: the efficiency of those detectors has been increased, they do not exhibit any critical dip angle for the registration of particle tracks, they may offer a way to reveal tracks originating in the detector itself. (author)
Sources for charged particles; Les sources de particules chargees
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arianer, J.
1997-09-01
This document is a basic course on charged particle sources for post-graduate students and thematic schools on large facilities and accelerator physics. A simple but precise description of the creation and the emission of charged particles is presented. This course relies on every year upgraded reference documents. Following relevant topics are considered: electronic emission processes, technological and practical considerations on electron guns, positron sources, production of neutral atoms, ionization, plasma and discharge, different types of positive and negative ion sources, polarized particle sources, materials for the construction of ion sources, low energy beam production and transport. (N.T.).
An update on (n,charged particle) research at WNR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haight, R.C.; Bateman, F.B.; Sterbenz, S.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Grimes, S.M. [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States); Wasson, O.A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Maier-Komor, P. [T.U. Munich (Germany); Vonach, H. [Inst. fuer Radiumforschung und Kernphysik, Vienna (Austria)
1995-12-31
Neutron-induced reactions producing light charged particles continue to be investigated at the spallation fast-neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). New data on the cross sections for alpha-particle production for neutrons on {sup 58}Ni and {sup 60}Ni are presented from threshold to 50 MeV. Recent changes in the experiment now allow protons, deuterons, tritons, {sup 3}He and alpha particles to be identified.
An update on (n,charged particle) research at WNR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neutron-induced reactions producing light charged particles continue to be investigated at the spallation fast-neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). New data on the cross sections for alpha-particle production for neutrons on 58Ni and 60Ni are presented from threshold to 50 MeV. Recent changes in the experiment now allow protons, deuterons, tritons, 3He and alpha particles to be identified
Motions of charged particles in Goedel-type spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goedel-type spacetimes in Hehl's non propagating torsion theory are reconsidered by supposing that the curvature source is a Weyssenhoff-Raab fluid and an electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field implies space time homogeneity and admits a dual interpretation. From the trajectories of the test particles, it is shown that there is a class of such spacetimes for which charged particles can reach regions inaccessible to neutral particles or even photons. (author). 21 refs., 1 fig
Motions of charged particles in Goedel-type spacetimes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Figueiredo, Bartolomeu D.B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
1996-10-01
Goedel-type spacetimes in Hehl`s non propagating torsion theory are reconsidered by supposing that the curvature source is a Weyssenhoff-Raab fluid and an electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field implies space time homogeneity and admits a dual interpretation. From the trajectories of the test particles, it is shown that there is a class of such spacetimes for which charged particles can reach regions inaccessible to neutral particles or even photons. (author). 21 refs., 1 fig.
Atmosphere turbulence effect on the hot particle charge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The charging of hot beta-active aerosol articles of the micron size range in the turbulent current has been studied experimentally . For this purpose hot particles, obtained by the neutron activation of gold placed on the surface of glass microspheres by the cathode spraying method, were introduced into the turbulent current with the Reynolds number of 104 - 105. Results of the determination of particle charges within the current velocity range from 0.5 to 3 m/s confirm the reliability of the previously obtained model of the charging of hot particles in the turbulent current of the near - ground atmospere layer which is described by the function directly proportional to the radius of particles and the half-cube of the wind velocity, and inversely proportional to the square root of the height. The scheme is suggested and specific features are described of experimental installations used in the process of studies
Doubly-charged particles at the Large Hadron Collider
Alloul, Adam; Fuks, Benjamin; de Traubenberg, Michel Rausch
2013-01-01
In this work we investigate the production and signatures of doubly-charged particles at the Large Hadron Collider. We start with the Standard Model particle content and representations and add generic doubly-charged exotic particles. We classify these doubly-charged states according to their spin, considering scalar, fermionic and vectorial fields, and according to their SU(2)L representation, being chosen to be either trivial, fundamental, or adjoint. We write the most general interactions between them and the Standard Model sector and study their production modes and possible decay channels. We then probe how they can most likely be observed and how particles with different spin and SU(2)L representations could be possibly distinguished.
Quantum theory of relativistic charged particles in external fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A study was made on external field theories in which the quantized field corresponds to relativistic elementary particles with non-zero rest mass. These particles are assumed to be charged, thus they have distinct antiparticles. The thesis consists of two parts. The first tries to accommodate the general features of theories of relativistic charged particles in external fields. Spin and dynamics in particular are not specified. In the second part, the results are applied to charged spin-1/2 and spin-0 particles, the dynamics of which are given by the Dirac resp. Klein-Gordon equation. The greater emphasis is on external fields which are rapidly decreasing, infinitely differentiable functions of space-time, but also considers time-independent fields. External fields, other than electromagnetic fields are also considered, e.g. scalar fields
Search for massive long-lived highly ionising particles with the ATLAS detector at the LHC
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Chudoba, Jiří; Gallus, Petr; Gunther, Jaroslav; Havránek, Miroslav; Hruška, I.; Juránek, Vojtěch; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Kvasnička, Jiří; Lipinský, L.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Myška, Miroslav; Němeček, Stanislav; Panušková, M.; Růžička, Pavel; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Taševský, Marek; Tic, Tomáš; Valenta, J.; Vrba, Václav
2011-01-01
Roč. 698, č. 5 (2011), s. 353-370. ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : charged particle: long-lived * charge: electric * ionization: energy loss * calorimeter: electromagnetic * ATLAS * CERN LHC * p p: interaction Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.955, year: 2011
Relativistic mixtures of charged and uncharged particles
Kremer, Gilberto M.
2014-01-01
Mixtures of relativistic gases within the framework of Boltzmann equation are analyzed. Three systems are considered. The first one refers to a mixture of uncharged particles by using Grad's moment method, where the relativistic mixture is characterized by the moments of the distribution functions: particle four-flows, energy-momentum tensors, and third-order moment tensors. In the second Fick's law for a mixture of relativistic gases of non-disparate rest masses in a Schwarzschild metric are derived from an extension of Marle and McCormack model equations applied to a relativistic truncated Grad's distribution function, where it is shown the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the gravitational potential. The third one consists in the derivation of the relativistic laws of Ohm and Fourier for a binary mixtures of electrons with protons and electrons with photons subjected to external electromagnetic fields and in presence of gravitational fields by using the Anderson and Witting model of the Boltzmann equation.
Chiral Interactions of Massive Particles in the (1/2,0)+(0,1/2) Representation
Dvoeglazov, V V
1998-01-01
On the basis of the first principles we argue that self/anti-self charge conjugate states of the (1/2,0)+(0,1/2) representation can possess the axial charge. Finally, we briefly discuss recent claims of the \\sim \\vec \\sigma \\cdot [ \\vec A \\times \\vec A^\\ast ] interaction term for the particles of this representation.
Effect of vacuum polarization of charged massive fermions in an Aharonov-Bohm field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khalilov, V.R. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2014-09-15
The effect of vacuum polarization of charged massive fermions in an Aharonov-Bohm (AB) potential in 2 + 1 dimensions is investigated. The causal Green function of the Dirac equation with the AB potential is represented via the regular and irregular solutions of the two-dimensional radial Dirac equation. It is shown that the vacuum current density contains the contribution from free filled states of the negative energy continuum as well as that from a bound unfilled state, which can emerge in the above background due to the interaction of the fermion's spin magnetic moment with the AB magnetic field, while the induced charge density contains only the contribution from the bound state. The expressions for the vacuum charge and induced current densities are obtained (recovered for massless fermions) for the graphene in the field of infinitesimally thin solenoid perpendicular to the plane of a sample. We also find the bound state energy as a function of magnetic flux, fermion spin, and the radius of solenoid, and we discuss the role of the so-called self-adjoint extension parameter and determine it in terms of the physics of the problem. (orig.)
Effect of vacuum polarization of charged massive fermions in an Aharonov-Bohm field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effect of vacuum polarization of charged massive fermions in an Aharonov-Bohm (AB) potential in 2 + 1 dimensions is investigated. The causal Green function of the Dirac equation with the AB potential is represented via the regular and irregular solutions of the two-dimensional radial Dirac equation. It is shown that the vacuum current density contains the contribution from free filled states of the negative energy continuum as well as that from a bound unfilled state, which can emerge in the above background due to the interaction of the fermion's spin magnetic moment with the AB magnetic field, while the induced charge density contains only the contribution from the bound state. The expressions for the vacuum charge and induced current densities are obtained (recovered for massless fermions) for the graphene in the field of infinitesimally thin solenoid perpendicular to the plane of a sample. We also find the bound state energy as a function of magnetic flux, fermion spin, and the radius of solenoid, and we discuss the role of the so-called self-adjoint extension parameter and determine it in terms of the physics of the problem. (orig.)
Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This bibliography is divided into three main sections covering experimental, theoretical, and review references. The review section also includes compilation and evaluation references. Each section contains two subsections. The main subsection contains all references satisfying the criteria noted above and the second subsection is devoted to isotope production. The main subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the incident particle, then by increasing Z and A of the target nucleus. Within this order, the entries are ordered by residual nucleus and quantity (e.g., sigma(E)). Finally, the entries are ordered by outgoing particles or processes. All entries which have the same target, reaction, and quantity are grouped under a common heading with the most recent reference first. As noted above the second subsection is devoted to isotope production and is limited in the information it carries. Only those references which contain data on a definite residual nucleus or group of nuclei (e.g., fission fragments) are included in these subsections. Entries within these second subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the isotope produced and then by quantity. All references containing data on the same isotope production and quantity are grouped together. All lines within a group are ordered by increasing Z and A of the target and then of the incident particle. The final ordering is by increasing minimum energy
Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burrows, T.W.; Burt, J.S.
1977-03-01
This bibliography is divided into three main sections covering experimental, theoretical, and review references. The review section also includes compilation and evaluation references. Each section contains two subsections. The main subsection contains all references satisfying the criteria noted above and the second subsection is devoted to isotope production. The main subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the incident particle, then by increasing Z and A of the target nucleus. Within this order, the entries are ordered by residual nucleus and quantity (e.g., sigma(E)). Finally, the entries are ordered by outgoing particles or processes. All entries which have the same target, reaction, and quantity are grouped under a common heading with the most recent reference first. As noted above the second subsection is devoted to isotope production and is limited in the information it carries. Only those references which contain data on a definite residual nucleus or group of nuclei (e.g., fission fragments) are included in these subsections. Entries within these second subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the isotope produced and then by quantity. All references containing data on the same isotope production and quantity are grouped together. All lines within a group are ordered by increasing Z and A of the target and then of the incident particle. The final ordering is by increasing minimum energy.
Parikh-Wilczek Tunneling as Massive Particles from Noncommutative Schwarzschild Black Hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, we apply the tunneling of massive particle through the quantum horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole in noncommutative spacetime. The tunneling effects lead to modified Hawking radiation due to inclusion of back-reaction effects. Our calculations show also that noncommutativity effects cause the further modifications to the thermodynamical relations in black hole. We calculate the emission rate of the massive particles' tunneling from a Schwarzschild black hole which is modified on account of noncommutativity influences. The issues of information loss and possible correlations between emitted particles are discussed. Unfortunately even by considering noncommutativity view point, there is no correlation between different modes of evaporation at least at late-time. Nevertheless, as a result of spacetime noncommutativity, information may be conserved by a stable black hole remnant. (general)
Charged-particle spectroscopy in organic semiconducting single crystals
Ciavatti, A.; Sellin, P. J.; Basiricò, L.; Fraleoni-Morgera, A.; Fraboni, B.
2016-04-01
The use of organic materials as radiation detectors has grown, due to the easy processability in liquid phase at room temperature and the possibility to cover large areas by means of low cost deposition techniques. Direct charged-particle detectors based on solution-grown Organic Semiconducting Single Crystals (OSSCs) are shown to be capable to detect charged particles in pulse mode, with very good peak discrimination. The direct charged-particle detection in OSSCs has been assessed both in the planar and in the vertical axes, and a digital pulse processing algorithm has been used to perform pulse height spectroscopy and to study the charge collection efficiency as a function of the applied bias voltage. Taking advantage of the charge spectroscopy and the good peak discrimination of pulse height spectra, an Hecht-like behavior of OSSCs radiation detectors is demonstrated. It has been possible to estimate the mobility-lifetime value in organic materials, a fundamental parameter for the characterization of radiation detectors, whose results are equal to μτcoplanar = (5 .5 ± 0.6 ) × 10-6 cm2/V and μτsandwich = (1 .9 ± 0.2 ) × 10-6 cm2/V, values comparable to those of polycrystalline inorganic detectors. Moreover, alpha particles Time-of-Flight experiments have been carried out to estimate the drift mobility value. The results reported here indicate how charged-particle detectors based on OSSCs possess a great potential as low-cost, large area, solid-state direct detectors operating at room temperature. More interestingly, the good detection efficiency and peak discrimination observed for charged-particle detection in organic materials (hydrogen-rich molecules) are encouraging for their further exploitation in the detection of thermal and high-energy neutrons.
Borkovec, Michal; Szilagyi, Istvan; Popa, Ionel; Finessi, Marco; Sinha, Prashant; Maroni, Plinio; Papastavrou, Georg
2012-11-01
Direct force measurements are used to obtain a comprehensive picture of interaction forces acting between charged colloidal particles in the presence of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. These measurements are achieved by the multi-particle colloidal probe technique based on the atomic force microscope (AFM). This novel extension of the classical colloidal probe technique offers three main advantages. First, the technique works in a colloidal suspension with a huge internal surface area of several square meters, which simplifies the precise dosing of the small amounts of the polyelectrolytes needed and makes this approach less sensitive to impurities. Second, the particles are attached in-situ within the fluid cell, which avoids the formation of nanobubbles on the latex particles used. Third, forces between two similar particles from the same batch are being measured, which allows an unambiguous determination of the surface potential due to the symmetry of the system. Based on such direct force measurements involving positively and negatively charged latex particles and different polyelectrolytes, we find the following forces to be relevant. Repulsive electrostatic double-layer forces and attractive van der Waals forces as described by the theory of Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) are both important in these systems, whereby the electrostatic forces dominate away from the isoelectric point (IEP), while at this point they vanish. Additional non-DLVO attractive forces are operational, and they have been identified to originate from the electrostatic interactions between the patch-charge heterogeneities of the adsorbed polyelectrolyte films. Highly charged polyelectrolytes induce strong patch-charge attractions, which become especially important at low ionic strengths and high molecular mass. More weakly charged polyelectrolytes seem to form more homogeneous films, whereby patch-charge attractions may become negligible. Individual bridging events
Trapped charged particles a graduate textbook with problems and solutions
Madsen, Niels; Thompson, Richard C
2016-01-01
At Les Houches in January 2015, experts in the field of particle trapping came together to discuss the fundamental physics of traps and the different types of applications. This textbook collates the lectures delivered there; the Second Winter School on Physics with Trapped Charged Particles. Taken as a whole, the book gives an overview of why traps for charged particles are important, how they work, their special features and limitations, and their application in areas such as precision measurements, mass spectrometry, optical clocks, plasma physics, antihydrogen creation, quantum simulation and quantum information processing. Chapters from various world experts include those on the basic properties of Penning traps, RF traps and particle accelerators, as well as those covering important practical aspects such as vacuum systems, detection techniques, and different types of particle cooling including laser cooling. Finally, individual chapters deal with the different areas of application listed above. Each ...
Charged particle creation in the steady state universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The birth of a particle of charge q(0), initial mass m(0), and radius a in the steady state universe is studied. With the particle's birth, in accord with causality, gravity, and Coulomb fields propagate away from it with the speed of light. Field energies are supplied by the particle's mass which subsequently decays in time. Asymptotic solution to a nonlinear equation for the remaining mass gives the criterion m(0) is greater that q(0)2/2ac2 as a necessary condition for the initial mass to survive the field expansion. The resulting radius of a classical charged particle is found to be greater than the standard value obtained by equating self- and rest-mass energies of the initial particle. 12 refs
Behaviour of scintillometers with charge particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The behaviour of a scintillation plastic and an anthracene crystal for protons and deuterons with energies within 0,2 and 1,7 MeV. has been studied. The beam of monoenergetic particles falls directly on the detector in study in optic contact with a photomultiplicator. The impulse get in an amplifier which sends then to a scale a sting as a monitor and to an analyzer of 100 canals. The spectrum for each energy of incidental beam is obtained taking the maximum of the spectrum as the most probable value of amplitude of the detector reply, and this is represented apposite to the energy. (Author) 6 refs
Complex Kepler Orbits and Particle Aggregation in Charged Microscopic Grains
Lee, Victor; Waitukaitis, Scott; Miskin, Marc; Jaeger, Heinrich
2015-03-01
Kepler orbits are usually associated with the motion of astronomical objects such as planets or comets. Here we observe such orbits at the microscale in a system of charged, insulating grains. By letting the grains fall freely under vacuum, we eliminate the effects of air drag and gravity, and by imaging them with a co-falling high-speed camera we track the relative positions of individual particles with high spatial and temporal precision. This makes it possible to investigate the behaviors caused by the combination of long-range electrostatic interactions and short-range, dissipative, contact interactions in unprecedented detail. We make the first direct observations of microscopic elliptical and hyperbolic Kepler orbits, collide-and-capture events between pairs of charged grains, and particle-by-particle aggregation into larger clusters. Our findings provide experimental evidence for electrostatic mechanisms that have been suspected, but not previously observed at the single-event level, as driving the early stages of particle aggregation in systems ranging from fluidized particle bed reactors to interstellar protoplanetary disks. Furthermore, since particles of different net charge and size are seen to aggregate into characteristic spatial configurations, our results suggest new possibilities for the formation of charge-stabilized ``granular molecules''. We can reproduce the observed molecule configurations by taking many-body, dielectric polarization effects into account.
Electric birefringence anomaly of solutions of ionically charged anisometric particles.
Hoffmann, H; Gräbner, Dieter
2015-02-01
The term "electric birefringence anomaly" is known as the electric birefringence (EB) signal that occurs in solutions of ionically charged anisometric particles in a narrow concentration region. The signal is of opposite sign to the normal birefringence that occurs below and above this narrow concentration region. The normal electric birefringence signals in the dilute and more concentrated regions are due to the orientation of the particles in the direction of the applied electric field. The origin for the anomalous signal was not completely understood until now. The article summarises previous results in which the anomalous results had been observed but not well understood. It shows that the birefringence anomaly occurs in systems as diverse as micellar solutions, polyelectrolytes, solutions of clays, viruses and fibres. In all these systems the anomaly signals are present at the concentration when the length of the colloidal particles including the thickness of the electric double layer are about the same as the mean distance between the colloidal particles. Under these conditions the electric double layers of the particles overlap along the main axis of the particles but not in the direction across the particles. As a consequence of this situation a dipole is built up across the particles by the migration of the counter-ions of the particles in the electric field and this dipole leads to an orientation of the particles perpendicular to the electric field. The anomalous signal can usually be observed simultaneously with the normal signal. The amplitude of the anomalous signal can be larger than the amplitude of the normal signal. As a consequence the total birefringence changes its sign in the anomalous concentration region. The anomaly signal of the clays can also be explained by a fluctuating dipole around the particles, which is due to the fact that the centre of the ionic charges of the particles does not fall on the centre of the ionic charge of the counter
Relativistic mixtures of charged and uncharged particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kremer, Gilberto M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba (Brazil)
2014-01-14
Mixtures of relativistic gases within the framework of Boltzmann equation are analyzed. Three systems are considered. The first one refers to a mixture of uncharged particles by using Grad’s moment method, where the relativistic mixture is characterized by the moments of the distribution functions: particle four-flows, energy-momentum tensors, and third-order moment tensors. In the second Fick’s law for a mixture of relativistic gases of non-disparate rest masses in a Schwarzschild metric are derived from an extension of Marle and McCormack model equations applied to a relativistic truncated Grad’s distribution function, where it is shown the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the gravitational potential. The third one consists in the derivation of the relativistic laws of Ohm and Fourier for a binary mixtures of electrons with protons and electrons with photons subjected to external electromagnetic fields and in presence of gravitational fields by using the Anderson and Witting model of the Boltzmann equation.
Optimal performance of charged particle telescopes in space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A Bayesian probabilistic data analysis method for energetic proton and ion data from charged particle telescopes in space is described. The telescope is assumed to consist of only a series of planar silicon detectors with graduated thicknesses. The method is based on a range-straggling function and makes optimal use of energy loss measurements in each detector. It provides accurate incidence angle estimates for particles stopping in the telescope, allowing accurate element identification and possible isotope identification. It also provides energy estimates for high-energy particles going through the telescope without stopping. Examples are shown for simulated telescope design performance tests and application to real space-particle data
Medical radiation dosimetry theory of charged particle collision energy loss
McParland, Brian J
2014-01-01
Accurate radiation dosimetry is a requirement of radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. It is necessary so as to satisfy the needs of patient safety, therapeutic and diagnostic optimisation, and retrospective epidemiological studies of the biological effects resulting from low absorbed doses of ionising radiation. The radiation absorbed dose received by the patient is the ultimate consequence of the transfer of kinetic energy through collisions between energetic charged particles and atoms of the tissue being traversed. Thus, the ability of the medical physicist to both measure and calculate accurately patient dosimetry demands a deep understanding of the physics of charged particle interactions with matter. Interestingly, the physics of charged particle energy loss has an almost exclusively theoretical basis, thus necessitating an advanced theoretical understanding of the subject in order to apply it appropriately to the clinical regime. Each year, about one-third of the worl...
Charged-Particle Multiplicity in Proton-Proton Collisions
Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete
2010-01-01
This article summarizes and critically reviews measurements of charged-particle multiplicity distributions and pseudorapidity densities in p+p(pbar) collisions between sqrt(s) = 23.6 GeV and sqrt(s) = 1.8 TeV. Related theoretical concepts are briefly introduced. Moments of multiplicity distributions are presented as a function of sqrt(s). Feynman scaling, KNO scaling, as well as the description of multiplicity distributions with a single negative binomial distribution and with combinations of two or more negative binomial distributions are discussed. Moreover, similarities between the energy dependence of charged-particle multiplicities in p+p(pbar) and e+e- collisions are studied. Finally, various predictions for pseudorapidity densities, average multiplicities in full phase space, and multiplicity distributions of charged particles in p+p(pbar) collisions at the LHC energies of sqrt(s) = 7 TeV, 10 TeV, and 14 TeV are summarized and compared.
Electromagnetic radiation of charged particles in stochastic motion
Harko, Tiberiu
2016-01-01
The study of the Brownian motion of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields fields has many important applications in plasma and heavy ions physics, as well as in astrophysics. In the present paper we consider the electromagnetic radiation properties of a charged non-relativistic particle in the presence of electric and magnetic fields, of an exterior non-electromagnetic potential, and of a friction and stochastic force, respectively. We describe the motion of the charged particle by a Langevin and generalized Langevin type stochastic differential equation. We investigate in detail the cases of the Brownian motion with or without memory in a constant electric field, in the presence of an external harmonic potential, and of a constant magnetic field. In all cases the corresponding Langevin equations are solved numerically, and a full description of the spectrum of the emitted radiation and of the physical properties of the motion is obtained. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the emitted power is ...
Clustering of settling charged particles in turbulence: theory and experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu Jiang; Nordsiek, Hansen; Shaw, Raymond A, E-mail: rashaw@mtu.edu [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)
2010-12-15
Atmospheric clouds, electrosprays and protoplanetary nebula (dusty plasma) contain electrically charged particles embedded in turbulent flows, often under the influence of an externally imposed, approximately uniform gravitational or electric force. We have developed a theoretical description of the dynamics of such systems of charged, sedimenting particles in turbulence, allowing radial distribution functions (RDFs) to be predicted for both monodisperse and bidisperse particle size distributions. The governing parameters are the particle Stokes number (particle inertial time scale relative to turbulence dissipation time scale), the Coulomb-turbulence parameter (ratio of Coulomb 'terminal' speed to the turbulence dissipation velocity scale) and the settling parameter (the ratio of the gravitational terminal speed to the turbulence dissipation velocity scale). The theory is compared to measured RDFs for water particles in homogeneous, isotropic air turbulence. The RDFs are obtained from particle positions measured in three dimensions using digital holography. The measurements verify the general theoretical expression, consisting of a power law increase in particle clustering due to particle response to dissipative turbulent eddies, modulated by an exponential electrostatic interaction term. Both terms are modified as a result of the gravitational diffusion-like term, and the role of 'gravity' is explored by imposing a macroscopic uniform electric field to create an enhanced, effective gravity.
Clustering of settling charged particles in turbulence: theory and experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atmospheric clouds, electrosprays and protoplanetary nebula (dusty plasma) contain electrically charged particles embedded in turbulent flows, often under the influence of an externally imposed, approximately uniform gravitational or electric force. We have developed a theoretical description of the dynamics of such systems of charged, sedimenting particles in turbulence, allowing radial distribution functions (RDFs) to be predicted for both monodisperse and bidisperse particle size distributions. The governing parameters are the particle Stokes number (particle inertial time scale relative to turbulence dissipation time scale), the Coulomb-turbulence parameter (ratio of Coulomb 'terminal' speed to the turbulence dissipation velocity scale) and the settling parameter (the ratio of the gravitational terminal speed to the turbulence dissipation velocity scale). The theory is compared to measured RDFs for water particles in homogeneous, isotropic air turbulence. The RDFs are obtained from particle positions measured in three dimensions using digital holography. The measurements verify the general theoretical expression, consisting of a power law increase in particle clustering due to particle response to dissipative turbulent eddies, modulated by an exponential electrostatic interaction term. Both terms are modified as a result of the gravitational diffusion-like term, and the role of 'gravity' is explored by imposing a macroscopic uniform electric field to create an enhanced, effective gravity.
Galilean electrodynamics. Part 2. Charged particle force and conservation laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
From the general formulae for the transformation of fields in Galilean electrodynamics there are derived the expression for the force acting on a charged particle and the equation of motion of a charged particle. Without any additional assumptions these equations are performed into the relativistic form, that is with the relativistic momentum and energy. Hence, in an elementary way, Einstein's formula of the equivalence of energy and mass results. Then the conservation laws of energy and momentum for the fields are derived. 3 refs. (author)
A New Mechanism of Higgs Bosons in Producing Charge Particles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid
2006-01-01
A new production method of elementary particles by Higgs Bosons will be shown. But before that the structure of photon will be considered deeply, while a new definition of Higgs Boson about color-charges and color-magnet will be given for the first time.......A new production method of elementary particles by Higgs Bosons will be shown. But before that the structure of photon will be considered deeply, while a new definition of Higgs Boson about color-charges and color-magnet will be given for the first time....
Charged-particle inclusive distributions from hadronic Z0 decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have measured inclusive distributions for charged particles in hadronic decays of the Z boson. The variables chosen for study were the mean charged-particle multiplicity (left-angle nch right-angle), scaled momentum (x), and momenta transverse to the sphericity axes (p perpendicular in and p perpendicular out). The distributions have been corrected for detector effects and are compared with data from e+e- annihilation at lower energies and with the predictions of several QCD-based models. The data are in reasonable agreement with expectations. 12 refs., 2 figs
The telegraph equation in charged particle transport
Gombosi, T. I.; Jokipii, J. R.; Kota, J.; Lorencz, K.; Williams, L. L.
1993-01-01
We present a new derivation of the telegraph equation which modifies its coefficients. First, an infinite order partial differential equation is obtained for the velocity space solid angle-averaged phase-space distribution of particles which underwent at least a few collisions. It is shown that, in the lowest order asymptotic expansion, this equation simplifies to the well-known diffusion equation. The second-order asymptotic expansion for isotropic small-angle scattering results in a modified telegraph equation with a signal propagation speed of v(5/11) exp 1/2 instead of the usual v/3 exp 1/2. Our derivation of a modified telegraph equation follows from an expansion of the Boltzmann equation in the relevant smallness parameters and not from a truncation of an eigenfunction expansion. This equation is consistent with causality. It is shown that, under steady state conditions in a convecting plasma, the telegraph equation may be regarded as a diffusion equation with a modified transport coefficient, which describes a combination of diffusion and cosmic-ray inertia.
Charged Particle Monitor on the AstroSat mission
Rao, A R; Bhargava, Yash; Khanna, Rakesh; Hingar, M K; Kutty, A P K; Malkar, J P; Basak, Rupal; Sreekumar, S; Samuel, Essy; Priya, P; Vinod, P; Bhattacharya, D; Bhalerao, V; Vadawale, S V; Mithun, N P S; Pandiyan, R; Subbarao, K; Seetha, S; Sarma, K Suryanarayana
2016-01-01
Charged Particle Monitor (CPM) on-board the AstroSat satellite is an instrument designed to detect the flux of charged particles at the satellite location. A Cesium Iodide Thallium (CsI(Tl)) crystal is used with a Kapton window to detect protons with energies greater than 1 MeV. The ground calibration of CPM was done using gamma-rays from radioactive sources and protons from particle accelerators. Based on the ground calibration results, energy deposition above 1 MeV are accepted and particle counts are recorded. It is found that CPM counts are steady and the signal for the onset and exit of South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region are generated in a very reliable and stable manner.
Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions
Phobos Collaboration; Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.
2003-03-01
The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/pbar-p and e+e- data. N_tot/(N_part/2) in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with sqrt(s) in a similar way as N_tot in e+e- collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We wish to report here a special class of neutrino induced events recorded in the cosmic ray experiments at the depths of 3375 hg/cm2 and 7000 hg/cm2 in the Kolar Gold Mines in India. Among a total of 20 neutrino-induced events, we find 5 events involving multiple charged particles whose vertex is either in air between the detector and rock wall of the tunnel or in the thin material supporting the detector elements. A characteristic feature of these events is the large opening angle of the secondary particles. These events cannot be understood in terms of known processes of neutrino-interactions. The most plausible interpretation is that these events are due to decay of new, massive (>= a few GeV) and long-lived(approximately 10-9 Sec.) particles produced in neutrino collisions inside the rock. The cross section for this process is estimated to be of the same order of magnitude as for the normal inelastic neutrino interactions. A detailed analysis and interpretation of the events in terms of new particle production will be presented. (orig.)
Sausage mode of a pinched charged particle beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The axisymmetric oscillations of a self-pinched charged particle beam are analyzed using a dispersion relation derived from a 3/2 dimensional model. This calculation includes the effects of rounded profiles, finite conductivity, a steady return current, and phase mix damping among particle orbits. However, only the lowest order radial mode of distortion is treated, and this is done in an approximate fashion
Construction of asymptotic fields for a charged particle
Greenberg, O. W.; Cowen, Steve
2012-01-01
Asymptotic fields do not exist in theories with massless particles and fields, because the vacuum matrix elements of products of the interacting fields in such theories do not have delta function or principal value singularities in momentum space. We remedy this problem by constructing a field for the charged particle that does have the required singularities in momentum space. We illustrate this construction in quantum electrodynamics (QED).
A composite bolometer as a charged-particle spectrometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An improved version of a He-cooled composite diamond bolometer with a monolithic germanium thermistor, for use as a charged-particle spectrometer, is described. The performance of the bolometer was tested using 5-6 MeV α particles, and a full-width-at-half-maximum of 36 keV was obtained at 1.3 K. (U.K.)
Li, Xiang-Qian
2016-01-01
Considering the generalized uncertainty principle which incorporates the central idea of Large eXtra Dimensions, the processes of massive spin-1 particles tunneling from Reissner-Nordstrom and Kerr black holes are investigated. For the black hole, the quantum gravity correction decelerates the increase of the temperature. When the mass of the black hole approaches the order of the higher dimensional Planck mass $M_f$, it stops radiating and leads to a black hole remnant. To $\\mathcal{O}(\\frac...
Quantum dynamic of massive particle On 1+3 De Sitter space-time
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A Rabeie
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The phase space which is related to the motion of massive particle on 1+3- De sitter space is a 3-dimensional complex sphere. Our main aim in this study is discribing this movement in the frame quantum mechanics. Transfering from classical mechanic to quantum mechanics is possible by means of coherent states. Thus, after determination of this state, we quantize some of the classical observables.
Hawking Radiation of Massive Vector Particles From Warped AdS$_{\\text{3}}$ Black Hole
Gursel, H
2015-01-01
Hawking radiation (HR) of massive vector particles from a rotating Warped Anti-de Sitter black hole in 2+1 dimensions (WAdS$_{\\text{3}}$BH) is studied in detail. The quantum tunneling approach with the Hamilton-Jacobi method (HJM) is applied in the Proca equation (PE), and we show that the radial function yields the tunneling rate of the outgoing particles. Comparing the result obtained with the Boltzmann factor, we satisfactorly reproduce the Hawking temperature (HT) of the WAdS$_{\\text{3}}$BH.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The model of a massive relativistic particle are proposed in which the world trajectory of the particle is supplied with a system of normals. In addition to the term, proportional to the length of the world trajectory, the action of these models includes some additional term, ΔA, depending in d=4 on higher curvatures of the trajectory. On the quantum level, the models describe states of an arbitrary fixed integer, or half-integer spin, according to the values of the quantized parameters in ΔA. 4 refs
Charged particles identification with a CsI(Tl) scintillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A CsI(Tl) scintillator with two light decay components is used to detect and identify p,d,t, 3He, α particles with a low energy threshold, Besides the addition of a thin plastic scintillator in front of the CsI(Tl) crystal allows charge identification for ions with Z up to 19
Some peculiarity of element analysis using charged particle beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Multilayer structures, SiC -layers at Si substrate, have been analyzed by RBS, NR, ERD and PIXE methods using the charged particle beams from EG-5 Van de Graaff accelerator of JINR. The depth profiles of the based deposited layers were obtained for the multilayer structures
Nondestructive diagnostics of charged particle beams in accelerators
Logachev, P. V.; Meshkov, O. I.; Starostenko, A. A.; Nikiforov, D. A.; Andrianov, A. V.; Maltseva, Yu. I.; Levichev, A. E.; Emanov, F. A.
2016-03-01
The basic techniques for nondestructive diagnostics and detection of losses of charged particle beams used in accelerator engineering are reviewed. The data provided may help choose the systems for diagnostics and detection of losses of beams and give a qualitative picture of the operation principles of such devices. Quantitative characteristics that define the limits of applicability of each diagnostic technique are outlined.
Periodic interactions of charged particles with spatially localized fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We derive and analyze a generic mapping for the spatially periodic interaction of charged particles with localized, coherent electric fields. For such interactions stochastic motion exists in a bounded region of phase-space. Conditions are determined for which diffusion can describe the dynamics in such a bounded, stochastic phase-space. (orig.)
Challenging the weak cosmic censorship conjecture with charged quantum particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motivated by the recent attempts to violate the weak cosmic censorship conjecture for near-extreme black holes, we consider the possibility of overcharging a near-extreme Reissner-Nordstroem black hole by the quantum tunneling of charged particles. We consider the scattering of spin-0 and spin-(1/2) particles by the black hole in a unified framework and obtain analytically, for the first time, the pertinent reflection and transmission coefficients without any small charge approximation. Based on these results, we propose some gedanken experiments that could lead to the violation of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture due to the (classically forbidden) absorption of small energy charged particles by the black hole. As for the case of scattering in Kerr spacetimes, our results demonstrate explicitly that scalar fields are subject to (electrical) superradiance phenomenon, while spin-(1/2) fields are not. Superradiance impose some limitations on the gedanken experiments involving spin-0 fields, favoring, in this way, the mechanisms for creation of a naked singularity by the quantum tunneling of spin-(1/2) charged fermions. We also discuss the implications that vacuum polarization effects and quantum statistics might have on these gedanken experiments. In particular, we show that they are not enough to prevent the absorption of incident small energy particles and, consequently, the formation of a naked singularity.
Some developments in neutron and charged particle dosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
There is an increasing need for dosimetry of neutrons and charged particles. Increasing exposure levels are reported in the nuclear industry, deriving from more frequent in-service entries at commercial nuclear power plants, and from increased plant decommissioning and refurbishment activities. Another need stems from the compliance with requirements of the regulations and standards. The European Council directive 96/29 requires dosimetric precautions if the effective dose exceeds 1 mSv a-1. On average, aircrew members exceed this value. Further, there is a trend of increasing use of charged particles in radiotherapy. The present situation is that we have reasonably good photon dosemeters, but neutron and charged particle dosemeters are still in need of improvements. This work highlights some of the developments in this field. It is mainly concentrated on some developments in passive dosimetry, in particular thermally and optically stimulated luminescent detectors, indicating the direction of ongoing research. It shows that passive dosemeters are still a very active field. Active dosemeters will not be discussed with the exception of new developments in Micro-dosimetric measurements [new types of tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs)]. The TEPC is unique in its ability to provide a simultaneous determination of neutron/charged particle/ gamma ray doses, or dose equivalents using a single detector. (authors)
The Mathematics of Charged Particles interacting with Electromagnetic Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Kim
In this thesis, we study the mathematics used to describe systems of charged quantum mechanical particles coupled with their classical self-generated electromagnetic field. We prove the existence of a unique local in time solution to the many-body Maxwell-Schrödinger initial value problem expressed...
Bibliography of integral charged-particle nuclear data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This publication is the first supplement to the archival edition of the National Nuclear Data Center's charged-particle bibliography. This supplement contains citations to all references scanned since March 15, 1980, and all corrections and additions to previous citations, and indexes all data received in the international exchanged format (EXFOR). The primary goal of the bibliography has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of data exchanged among the members. As a result of a recommendation by the recent Workshop on Intense High Energy Neutron Source and Their Characteristics, we have also undertaken to expand the coverage of charged-particle-induced neutron-source reactions to include differential data. This supplement is divided into two sections, References and Isotope Production. The References section contains all references satisfying the criteria noted. The Isotope Production section contains an abbreviated reference line for all entries which contain information on a definite residual nucleus, on particle production, or on mass, charge, or isotopic distributions. Entries in the References section are sequentially numbered. These sequence numbers serve as a link between the two sections
Thermodynamic model for bouncing charged particles inside a capacitor
Rezaeizadeh, Amin; Mameghani, Pooya
2013-08-01
We introduce an equation of state for a conducting particle inside a charged parallel-plate capacitor and show that it is similar to the equation of state for an ideal gas undergoing an adiabatic process. We describe a simple experiment that shows reasonable agreement with the theoretical model.
Fusion reactivity graphs and tables for charged particle reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graphs and tables are presented on 31 light isotope fusion reaction parameters [, n, Q/sub +/, nQ/sub +/ (for n = 1020 fuel ion species/m3 and Q/sub +/ = energy release in charged particles)] in the kinetic temperature range 1 to 1000 keV
Study of the liquid water luminescence induced by charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Many observations suggested that liquid water (with impurities) could give a luminescence output when irradiated with charged particles. We investigate theoretical and practical possibility of detecting such luminescence. Preliminary results on this possibility are presented, and a layout of the device proposed for measuring luminescence is given. (authors)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foged, Camilla; Brodin, Birger; Frøkjær, Sven; Sundblad, Anne
2005-01-01
polystyrene particles was covalently modified with different polyaminoacids/proteins, yielding particles with varying surface charge. Uptake of 1 microm particles was greatly enhanced when particles displayed a positive surface charge. In general, the present findings establish that particle diameters of 0...
Continuum of the spectra of emitted charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The continuous part of nuclear particle spectra situated between direct reactions and compound nuclear reactions is of importance due to its great yield. Because most reactions studied so far have only nucleons in the entrance or exit channel, respectively, the authors have measured charged particle spectra from complex particle induced reactions: deuterons, helions and alphas with bombarding energies up to 40 MeV/nucleon. From spectra measured at both forward and backward angles angle integrated spectra have been deduced which can be compared with the predictions of reaction models. (orig./AH)
Guiding of charged particles through capillaries in insulating materials
Stolterfoht, Nikolaus; Yamazaki, Yasunori
2016-04-01
Studies of charged particle guiding through capillaries in insulating materials, performed during the last decade, are reviewed in a comprehensive manner. First, the principles of capillary guiding of slow highly charged ions are introduced describing the self-organized formation of charge patches. Basic quantities are defined, such as the guiding power characterizing a capillary. Challenges of the guiding experiments are pointed out. Then, experiments are described with emphasis on the guiding of highly charged ions in the keV energy range. Samples with an array of nanocapillaries as well as single macrocapillaries are treated. Emission profiles of transmitted ions are analyzed to establish scaling laws for the guiding angle, which quantifies the guiding power. Oscillations of the mean ion emission angle reveal the temporal dynamics of the charge patch formation. Next, experiments with ions of high (MeV) energies are focused on single tapered capillaries allowing for the production of a microbeam for various applications. Experiments concerning electrons are presented showing that apart from being elastically scattered these negative particles may enter into the capillary surface where they suffer energy losses. Finally, theoretical concepts of the capillary guiding are discussed. Simulations based on different charge transport methods clearly support the understanding of the guiding mechanisms. Altogether, capillary guiding involves several novel phenomena for which understanding have progressed far beyond their infancy.
Charged-particle LET-spectra measurements aboard LDEF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of charged particles was measured in the 5 to 250 keV/micron (water) interval with CR-39 and in the 500 to 1500 keV/micron (water) interval with polycarbonate plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) under different shielding depths in the P0006 experiment. The optimal processing conditions were determined for both PNTDs in relation to the relatively high track densities due to the long term exposure in space. The total track density was measured over the selected samples, and tracks in coincidence on the facing surfaces of two detector sheets were selected for measuring at the same position on each sheet. The short range (SR) and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) components were measured separately with CR-39 PNTDs and the integral dose and dose rate spectra of charged particles were also determined. The high LET portion of the LET spectra was measured with polycarbonate PNTDs with high statistical accuracy. This is a unique result of this exposure due to the low flux of these types of particles for typical spaceflight durations. The directional dependence of the charged particles at the position of the P0006 experiment was also studied by four small side stacks which surrounded the main stack and by analyzing the dip angle and polar angle distributions of the measured SR and GCR particle tracks in the main stack
Cosmic-Ray Generated Charged Particles for Nuclear Inspection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charged particles continuously rain down on the surface of the Earth. These charged particles primarily consist of muons and electrons. Muons are subatomic particles with the same charge as the electron, but with 200 times the mass. These particles are generated from interactions of primary cosmic-rays, primarily protons, with the upper atmosphere. Decision Sciences has implemented a tracking detector to measure the interactions of these particles with materials through which they pass: multiple Coulomb scattering and ionization energy loss and from these measurements is able to reconstruct a three-dimensional map of the density and atomic number of the materials in a scan volume. This map, combined with sensitive gamma detection capability of the tracking detector, enables the detection of nuclear and radiological materials that may be concealed in shielding, as well as discrimination of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from point sources that would be more associated with threats. Times to clear most non-threat cargo range from 30-60 seconds, with suspicious (heavy shielding or gamma emitting) scenes being held longer to confirm the presence of and identify nuclear or radiological materials. Extended scanning in this circumstance would typically take two to ten minutes. (author)
Monitoring of Hadrontherapy Treatments by Means of Charged Particle Detection.
Muraro, Silvia; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Ferroni, Fernando; Fiore, Salvatore; Frallicciardi, Paola; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Morganti, Silvio; Paramatti, Riccardo; Piersanti, Luca; Pinci, Davide; Rucinski, Antoni; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Solfaroli-Camillocci, Elena; Toppi, Marco; Traini, Giacomo; Voena, Cecilia; Patera, Vincenzo
2016-01-01
The interaction of the incoming beam radiation with the patient body in hadrontherapy treatments produces secondary charged and neutral particles, whose detection can be used for monitoring purposes and to perform an on-line check of beam particle range. In the context of ion-therapy with active scanning, charged particles are potentially attractive since they can be easily tracked with a high efficiency, in presence of a relatively low background contamination. In order to verify the possibility of exploiting this approach for in-beam monitoring in ion-therapy, and to guide the design of specific detectors, both simulations and experimental tests are being performed with ion beams impinging on simple homogeneous tissue-like targets (PMMA). From these studies, a resolution of the order of few millimeters on the single track has been proven to be sufficient to exploit charged particle tracking for monitoring purposes, preserving the precision achievable on longitudinal shape. The results obtained so far show that the measurement of charged particles can be successfully implemented in a technology capable of monitoring both the dose profile and the position of the Bragg peak inside the target and finally lead to the design of a novel profile detector. Crucial aspects to be considered are the detector positioning, to be optimized in order to maximize the available statistics, and the capability of accounting for the multiple scattering interactions undergone by the charged fragments along their exit path from the patient body. The experimental results collected up to now are also valuable for the validation of Monte Carlo simulation software tools and their implementation in Treatment Planning Software packages. PMID:27536555
Monitoring of Hadrontherapy Treatments by Means of Charged Particle Detection
Muraro, Silvia; Battistoni, Giuseppe; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Ferroni, Fernando; Fiore, Salvatore; Frallicciardi, Paola; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Morganti, Silvio; Paramatti, Riccardo; Piersanti, Luca; Pinci, Davide; Rucinski, Antoni; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Solfaroli-Camillocci, Elena; Toppi, Marco; Traini, Giacomo; Voena, Cecilia; Patera, Vincenzo
2016-01-01
The interaction of the incoming beam radiation with the patient body in hadrontherapy treatments produces secondary charged and neutral particles, whose detection can be used for monitoring purposes and to perform an on-line check of beam particle range. In the context of ion-therapy with active scanning, charged particles are potentially attractive since they can be easily tracked with a high efficiency, in presence of a relatively low background contamination. In order to verify the possibility of exploiting this approach for in-beam monitoring in ion-therapy, and to guide the design of specific detectors, both simulations and experimental tests are being performed with ion beams impinging on simple homogeneous tissue-like targets (PMMA). From these studies, a resolution of the order of few millimeters on the single track has been proven to be sufficient to exploit charged particle tracking for monitoring purposes, preserving the precision achievable on longitudinal shape. The results obtained so far show that the measurement of charged particles can be successfully implemented in a technology capable of monitoring both the dose profile and the position of the Bragg peak inside the target and finally lead to the design of a novel profile detector. Crucial aspects to be considered are the detector positioning, to be optimized in order to maximize the available statistics, and the capability of accounting for the multiple scattering interactions undergone by the charged fragments along their exit path from the patient body. The experimental results collected up to now are also valuable for the validation of Monte Carlo simulation software tools and their implementation in Treatment Planning Software packages. PMID:27536555
Space charge distribution measurement methods and particle loaded insulating materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hole, S [Laboratoire des Instruments et Systemes d' Ile de France, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France); Sylvestre, A [Laboratoire d' Electrostatique et des Materiaux Dielectriques, CNRS UMR5517, 25 avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Lavallee, O Gallot [Laboratoire d' Etude Aerodynamiques, CNRS UMR6609, boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie, Teleport 2, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope, Chasseneuil (France); Guillermin, C [Schneider Electric Industries SAS, 22 rue Henry Tarze, 38000 Grenoble (France); Rain, P [Laboratoire d' Electrostatique et des Materiaux Dielectriques, CNRS UMR5517, 25 avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Rowe, S [Schneider Electric Industries SAS, 22 rue Henry Tarze, 38000 Grenoble (France)
2006-03-07
In this paper the authors discuss the effects of particles (fillers) mixed in a composite polymer on the space charge measurement techniques. The origin of particle-induced spurious signals is determined and silica filled epoxy resin is analysed using the laser-induced-pressure-pulse (LIPP) method, the pulsed-electro-acoustic (PEA) method and the laser-induced-thermal-pulse (LITP) method. A spurious signal identified as the consequence of a piezoelectric effect of some silica particles is visible for all the method. Moreover, space charges are clearly detected at the epoxy/silica interface after a 10 kV mm{sup -1} poling at room temperature for 2 h.
Brownian Dynamics of charged particles in a constant magnetic field
Hou, L J; Piel, A; Shukla, P K
2009-01-01
Numerical algorithms are proposed for simulating the Brownian dynamics of charged particles in an external magnetic field, taking into account the Brownian motion of charged particles, damping effect and the effect of magnetic field self-consistently. Performance of these algorithms is tested in terms of their accuracy and long-time stability by using a three-dimensional Brownian oscillator model with constant magnetic field. Step-by-step recipes for implementing these algorithms are given in detail. It is expected that these algorithms can be directly used to study particle dynamics in various dispersed systems in the presence of a magnetic field, including polymer solutions, colloidal suspensions and, particularly complex (dusty) plasmas. The proposed algorithms can also be used as thermostat in the usual molecular dynamics simulation in the presence of magnetic field.
Effects of dispersive wave modes on charged particles transport
Schreiner, Cedric
2015-01-01
The transport of charged particles in the heliosphere and the interstellar medium is governed by the interaction of particles and magnetic irregularities. For the transport of protons a rather simple model using a linear Alfv\\'en wave spectrum which follows the Kolmogorov distribution usually yields good results. Even magnetostatic spectra may be used. For the case of electron transport, particles will resonate with the high-k end of the spectrum. Here the magnetic fluctuations do not follow the linear dispersion relation, but the kinetic regime kicks in. We will discuss the interaction of fluctuations of dispersive waves in the kinetic regime using a particle-in-cell code. Especially the scattering of particles following the idea of Lange et al. (2013) and its application to PiC codes will be discussed. The effect of the dispersive regime on the electron transport will be discussed in detail.
Effect of Charge, Size and Temperature on Stability of Charged Colloidal Nano Particles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
A. Golchoobi; A. Khosravi; H. Modarress; A Ahmadzadeh
2012-01-01
Molecular simulation of charged colloidal suspension is performed in NVT canonical ensemble using Monte Carlo method and primitive model.The well-known Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory is applied to account for effective interactions between particles.Effect of temperature,valance of micro-ions and the size of colloidal particles on the phase stability of the solution is investigated.The results indicate that the suspension is more stable at higher temperatures.On the other hand,for a more stable suspension to exist,lower microion valance is favorable.For micro-ions of higher charge the number of aggregates and the number of particle in each of aggregate on average is higher.However for the best of our results larger colloidal particle are less stable.Comparing the results with theoretical formula considering the influence of surface curvature shows qualitative consistency.
Isospin Effect of Charged Particle Multiplicity in Intermediate Energy Heavy Ion Collisions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HuRongjiang; WuHeyu; JinGenming; ZhuYongtai; DuanLimin; XiaoZhigang; WangHongwei
2003-01-01
The dependences of He and intermediate mass fragments (IMF) production rates in the reactions 55 MeV/u 40Ar+58,64 Ni on the isospin, impact parameter and primary excitation energy of the reaction nuclear system were studied by using the 4π charged particle multi-detector array system (MUDAL). For the mentioned two reaction systems, the measured He particle contribution in the total charged particle multiplicity increases with increasing the total charged particle multiplicity but for the contribution of IMFs in the total charged particle multiplicity increases with increasing the total charged particle multiplicity at lower total charged particle multiplicities, and latter on it drops down with further increasing of the total charged particle multiplicities (see Fig.l). The experimental results of these two reaction systems with the same nuclear charge indicate that the contribution of He and IMFs in the total charged particle multiplicities are obviously isospin dependent.
Strange particle production in neutrino-neon charged current interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neutral strange particle production in charged-current muon-neutrino interactions have been studied in the Fermilab 15-foot neon bubble chamber. Associated production is expected to be the major source of strange particles in charged-current neutrino interactions. σ-neutral and ξ-minus production by neutrinos was observed. The dependence on various leptonic and hadronic variables is investigated. A fit to single and associated production of s, s/anti-s, and c quarks is described based on the number of single and double strange particle production events. Inclusive neutral strange particle decays (V0) production rates as a fraction of all charged-current events are measured and are tabulated. The λ/K ratio is found to be 0.39 +- 0.04 and the fraction of λ coming from σ-neutral is (16 +- 5)%. The single- and double V0 production was used to determine the associated s anti-s production rate and single s-quark production rate. 13 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs
Charged Particle Therapy Steps Into the Clinical Environment
Haberer, Th.
Beams of heavy charged particles like protons or carbon ions represent the ideal tool for the treatment of deep-seated, inoperable and radioresistant tumors. For more than 4 decades research with beams of charged particles has been performed. In total more than 40000 patients have been treated, mostly using protons being delivered by accelerators that were designed for basic research centers. In Berkeley, USA heavier particles like helium or neon ions were used to conduct clinical trials until 1992. Based on that somewhat limited technological standard and triggered by the promising results from Berkeley the first dedicated charged particle facilities were constructed. In order to maximally exploit the advantageous physical and radiobiological characteristics of these beams enormous effort was put into developing dynamic beam delivery techniques and tailoring the capabilities of the accelerators, the planning systems and the quality assurance procedures and equipment to the requirements resulting from these new treatment modalities. Active beam delivery systems integrated in rotating gantries, if necessary, will allow the production of superior dose distributions that precisely follow the medical prescription. The technological progress being made during the last 10 years defines the state of the art of the upcoming next-generation facilities for the clinical environment in Europe and Japan.
DART: a simulation code for charged particle beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
White, R.C.; Barr, W.L.; Moir, R.W.
1988-05-16
This paper presents a recently modified verion of the 2-D DART code designed to simulate the behavior of a beam of charged particles whose paths are affected by electric and magnetic fields. This code was originally used to design laboratory-scale and full-scale beam direct converters. Since then, its utility has been expanded to allow more general applications. The simulation technique includes space charge, secondary electron effects, and neutral gas ionization. Calculations of electrode placement and energy conversion efficiency are described. Basic operation procedures are given including sample input files and output. 7 refs., 18 figs.
DART: a simulation code for charged particle beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents a recently modified verion of the 2-D DART code designed to simulate the behavior of a beam of charged particles whose paths are affected by electric and magnetic fields. This code was originally used to design laboratory-scale and full-scale beam direct converters. Since then, its utility has been expanded to allow more general applications. The simulation technique includes space charge, secondary electron effects, and neutral gas ionization. Calculations of electrode placement and energy conversion efficiency are described. Basic operation procedures are given including sample input files and output. 7 refs., 18 figs
Massively parallel Monte Carlo for many-particle simulations on GPUs
Anderson, Joshua A; Grubb, Thomas L; Engel, Michael; Glotzer, Sharon C
2013-01-01
Current trends in parallel processors call for the design of efficient massively parallel algorithms for scientific computing. Parallel algorithms for Monte Carlo simulations of thermodynamic ensembles of particles have received little attention because of the inherent serial nature of the statistical sampling. In this paper, we present a massively parallel method that obeys detailed balance and implement it for a system of hard disks on the GPU. We reproduce results of serial high-precision Monte Carlo runs to verify the method. This is a good test case because the hard disk equation of state over the range where the liquid transforms into the solid is particularly sensitive to small deviations away from the balance conditions. On a GeForce GTX 680, our GPU implementation executes 95 times faster than on a single Intel Xeon E5540 CPU core, enabling 17 times better performance per dollar and cutting energy usage by a factor of 10.
Massive spin-2 particles via embedment of the Fierz-Pauli equations of motion
Dalmazi, D; Mendonça, E L
2014-01-01
Here we obtain alternative descriptions of massive spin-2 particles by an embedding procedure of the Fierz-Pauli equations of motion. All models are free of ghosts at quadratic level although most of them are of higher order in derivatives. The models that we obtain can be nonlinearly completed in terms of a dynamic and a fixed metric. They include some $f(R)$ massive gravities recently considered in the literature. In some cases there is an infrared (no derivative) modification of the Fierz-Pauli mass term altogether with higher order terms in derivatives. The analytic structure of the propagator of the corresponding free theories is not affected by the extra terms in the action as compared to the usual second order Fierz-Pauli theory.
Massive spin-2 particles via embedment of the Fierz-Pauli equations of motion
Dalmazi, D.; dos Santos, A. L. R.; Mendonça, E. L.
2015-01-01
Here we obtain alternative descriptions of massive spin-2 particles by an embedding procedure of the Fierz-Pauli equations of motion. All models are free of ghosts at the quadratic level, although most of them are of a higher order in derivatives. The models that we obtain can be nonlinearly completed in terms of a dynamic and a fixed metric. They include some f(R) massive gravities recently considered in the literature. In some cases there is an infrared (no derivative) modification of the Fierz-Pauli mass term altogether, with higher order terms in derivatives. The analytic structure of the propagator of the corresponding free theories is not affected by the extra terms in the action, as compared to the usual second order Fierz-Pauli theory.
Massive spin-2 particles via embedment of the Fierz–Pauli equations of motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Here we obtain alternative descriptions of massive spin-2 particles by an embedding procedure of the Fierz–Pauli equations of motion. All models are free of ghosts at the quadratic level, although most of them are of a higher order in derivatives. The models that we obtain can be nonlinearly completed in terms of a dynamic and a fixed metric. They include some f(R) massive gravities recently considered in the literature. In some cases there is an infrared (no derivative) modification of the Fierz–Pauli mass term altogether, with higher order terms in derivatives. The analytic structure of the propagator of the corresponding free theories is not affected by the extra terms in the action, as compared to the usual second order Fierz–Pauli theory. (paper)
Hawking Radiation of Topological Massive Warped-AdS3 Black Holes via Particles Tunnelling
Gecim, Ganim
2014-01-01
We investigate the Dirac and scalar particles tunnelling as a radiation of Warped AdS3 black holes in Topological Massive Gravity. Using Hamilton-Jacobi method, we discuss tunnelling probability and Hawking temperature of the spin-1/2 and spin-0 particles for the black hole. We observe the tunnelling probability and Hawking temperature to be same for the spin-1/2 and spin-0. We also examined the same procedure for the extremal case of the Warped AdS3 black holes, and thus, we show that the tunnelling process may occur, for both Dirac and scalar particles. Furthermore, in the extremal case, we find that the extremal case of the black hole has the Hawking Temperature in the Planck scale and thus it has a surface gravity although it has no surface gravity according to the classical method.
Detection of charged particles through a photodiode: design and analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This project develops and construct an charge particle detector mean a pin photodiode array, design and analysis using a silicon pin Fotodiodo that generally is used to detect visible light, its good efficiency, size compact and reduced cost specifically allows to its use in the radiation monitoring and alpha particle detection. Here, so much, appears the design of the system of detection like its characterization for alpha particles where one is reported as alpha energy resolution and detection efficiency. The equipment used in the development of work consists of alpha particle a triple source composed of Am-241, Pu-239 and Cm-244 with 5,55 KBq as total activity, Maestro 32 software made by ORTEC, a multi-channel card Triumph from ORTEC and one low activity electroplated uranium sample. (Author)
Charge collection studies in irradiated HV-CMOS particle detectors
Affolder, A.; Andelković, M.; Arndt, K.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Buttar, C.; Caragiulo, P.; Cindro, V.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Dragone, A.; Ehrler, F.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Gorišek, A.; Grabas, H.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grillo, A.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; Kanisauskas, K.; Kenney, C.; Kramberger, G.; Liang, Z.; Mandić, I.; Maneuski, D.; McMahon, S.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Nickerson, R.; Perić, I.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Seiden, A.; Shipsey, I.; Song, W.; Stanitzki, M.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Turchetta, R.; Vigani, L.; Volk, J.; Wang, R.; Warren, M.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Xiu, Q.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, H.
2016-04-01
Charge collection properties of particle detectors made in HV-CMOS technology were investigated before and after irradiation with reactor neutrons. Two different sensor types were designed and processed in 180 and 350 nm technology by AMS. Edge-TCT and charge collection measurements with electrons from 90Sr source were employed. Diffusion of generated carriers from undepleted substrate contributes significantly to the charge collection before irradiation, while after irradiation the drift contribution prevails as shown by charge measurements at different shaping times. The depleted region at a given bias voltage was found to grow with irradiation in the fluence range of interest for strip detectors at the HL-LHC. This leads to large gains in the measured charge with respect to the one before irradiation. The increase of the depleted region was attributed to removal of effective acceptors. The evolution of depleted region with fluence was investigated and modeled. Initial studies show a small effect of short term annealing on charge collection.
Modelling die filling with charged particles using DEM/CFD
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Emmanuel Nkem Nwose; Chunlei Pei; Chuan-Yu Wu
2012-01-01
The effects of electrostatic charge on powder flow behaviour during die filling in a vacuum and in air were analysed using a coupled discrete element method and computational fluid dynamics (DEM/CFD) code,in which long range electrostatic interactions were implemented.The present 2D simulations revealed that both electrostatic charge and the presence of air can affect the powder flow behaviour during die filling.It was found that the electrostatic charge inhibited the flow of powders into the die and induced a loose packing structure.At the same filling speed,increasing the electrostatic charge led to a decrease in the fill ratio which quantifies the volumetric occupancy of powder in the die.In addition,increasing the shoe speed caused a further decrease in the fill ratio,which was characterised using the concept of critical filling speed.When the electrostatic charge was low,the air/particle interaction was strong so that a lower critical filling speed was obtained for die filling in air than in a vacuum.With high electrostatic charge,the electrostatic interactions became dominant.Consequently,similar fill ratio and critical filling speed were obtained for die filling in air and in a vacuum.
Charge particle accelerator - a brief review, future challenges and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charged particle accelerators are important tools to investigate hitherto inaccessible problems in various fields of science. The interaction of charged particles with materials reveals structural information at very small scale (-16 cm). Accelerator based equipments viz. scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) machines are extensively being used to explore new possibilities in nanotechnology. Many experiments in nuclear and particle physics examine the fundamental laws of physics by colliding a high-energy beam of particles, such as electrons or protons, with a fixed target or with another beam of particles. Modern light sources, which are capable of producing high-energy photons such as X-rays, operate by 'bending' the path of electrons in an accelerator with magnets to generate radiation. State-of-the-art cancer treatment facilities utilize high-energy proton and heavier ion beams to treat inoperable tumors. The man made sun, International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will utilize 1 MeV, 40 A neutral proton beams for additional heating of the plasma. A roadmap for developing accelerator driven systems (ADS) in India was prepared in 2001 and involves development of a 1 GeV, 30 mA proton linear accelerator. Due to potential applications, developing high energy accelerators worldwide is a challenge for the community. New acceleration schemes to make accelerator size compact have been realized. In the present talk, various types of accelerators, accelerator based programs worldwide and new acceleration scheme of charge particles will be discussed. The low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) at IUAC and a few experimental results arising from this facility will be presented. Finally, I will touch some applications, particularly in nanotechnology, where accelerators are making a big impact. (author)
RESONANCE BROADENING AND HEATING OF CHARGED PARTICLES IN MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The heating, acceleration, and pitch-angle scattering of charged particles by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence are important in a wide range of astrophysical environments, including the solar wind, accreting black holes, and galaxy clusters. We simulate the interaction of high-gyrofrequency test particles with fully dynamical simulations of subsonic MHD turbulence, focusing on the parameter regime with β ∼ 1, where β is the ratio of gas to magnetic pressure. We use the simulation results to calibrate analytical expressions for test particle velocity-space diffusion coefficients and provide simple fits that can be used in other work. The test particle velocity diffusion in our simulations is due to a combination of two processes: interactions between particles and magnetic compressions in the turbulence (as in linear transit-time damping; TTD) and what we refer to as Fermi Type-B (FTB) interactions, in which charged particles moving on field lines may be thought of as beads sliding along moving wires. We show that test particle heating rates are consistent with a TTD resonance that is broadened according to a decorrelation prescription that is Gaussian in time (but inconsistent with Lorentzian broadening due to an exponential decorrelation function, a prescription widely used in the literature). TTD dominates the heating for vs >> vA (e.g., electrons), where vs is the thermal speed of species s and vA is the Alfvén speed, while FTB dominates for vs A (e.g., minor ions). Proton heating rates for β ∼ 1 are comparable to the turbulent cascade rate. Finally, we show that velocity diffusion of collisionless, large gyrofrequency particles due to large-scale MHD turbulence does not produce a power-law distribution function.
Cataract production in mice by heavy charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The cataractogenic effects of heavy charged particles have been evaluated in mice in relation to dose and ionization density (LET/sub infinity/). The study was undertaken due to the high potential for eye exposures to HZE particles among SPS personnel working in outer space. This has made it imperative that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in relation to LET/sub infinity/ for various particles be defined so that appropriate quality factors (Q) could be assigned for estimation of risk. Although mice and men differ in susceptibility to radiation-induced cataracts, the results from this project should assist in defining appropriate quality factors in relation to LET/sub infinity/, particle mass, charge, or velocity. Evaluation of results indicated that : (1) low single doses (5 to 20 rad) of iron (56Fe) or argon (40Ar) particles are cataractogenic at 11 to 18 months after irradiation; (2) onset and density of the opacification are dose related; (3) cataract density (grade) at 9, 11, 13, and 16 months after irradiation shows partial LET/sub infinity/-dependence; and (4) the severity of cataracts is reduced significantly when 417 rad of 60Co gamma radiation is given in 24 weekly 17 rad fractions compared to giving this radiation as a single dose, but cataract severity is not reduced by fractionation of 12C doses over 24 weeks
Emission of ions and charged soot particles by aircraft engines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Sorokin
2003-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, a model which examines the formation and evolution of chemiions in an aircraft engine is proposed. This model which includes chemiionisation, electron thermo-emission, electron attachment to soot particles and to neutral molecules, electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, ion-soot interaction, allows the determination of the ion concentration at the exit of the combustor and at the nozzle exit of the engine. It also allows the determination of the charge of the soot particles. For the engine considered, the upper limit for the ion emission index EIi is of the order of (2-5 x1016 ions/kg-fuel if ion-soot interactions are ignored and the introduction of ion-soot interactions lead about to a 50% reduction. The results also show that most of the soot particles are either positively or negatively charged, the remaining neutral particles representing approximately 20% of the total particles. A comparison of the model results with the available ground-based experimental data obtained on the ATTAS research aircraft engines during the SULFUR experiments (Schumann, 2002 shows an excellent agreement.
The Motion of a Pair of Charged Particles
Franklin, J
2013-01-01
We re-visit the problem of two (oppositely) charged particles interacting electromagnetically in one dimension with retarded potentials and no radiation reaction. The specific quantitative result of interest is the time it takes for the particles to fall in towards one another. Starting with the non-relativistic form, we answer this question while adding layers of complexity until we arrive at the full relativistic delay differential equation that governs this problem. That case can be solved using the Synge method, which we describe and discuss.
Charged point particles with magnetic moment in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halbwachs Lagrangean formalism for the theory of charged point particles with spin (g = 2) is generalized and formulated in General Relativity for particles of arbitrary charge and magnetic moment. Equations are obtained, both corresponding to Frenkel's condition Ssub(μν)Xsup(ν) = 0 and to Nakano's condition Ssub(μν)Psup(ν) = 0. With the later condition the exact equations are highly coupled and non linear. When linearized in the electromagnetic and gravitational fields they coincide with de Groot-Suttorp equations for vanishing gravitational fields and with Dixon-Wald equations in the absence of electromagnetic field. The equations corresponding to Frenkel's condition, when linearized in Ssub(μν), coincide with Papapetrou's and Frenkel's equations in the corresponding limits
Electro-Optical Detection of Charged Particle Beams
Semertzidis, Y K; Kowalski, L A; Kraus, D E; Larsen, R C; Lazarus, D M; Magurno, B; Srinivasan-Rao, T; Tsang, Thomas; Usack, V
1999-01-01
We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the propagation of laser light in a birefringent crystal at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility. Polarized infrared light was coupled to a LiNbO3 crystal through a polarization maintaining fiber of 4 micron diameter. An electron beam in 10ps bunches of 1mm diameter was scanned across the crystal. The modulation of the laser light during passage of the electron beam was observed using a photodiode with 45GHz bandwidth. The fastest rise time measured, 120ps, was made in the single shot mode and was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. Both polarization dependent and polarization independent effects were observed. This technology holds promise of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution of charged particle beams.
3D Simulations of Space Charge Effects in Particle Beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For the first time, it is possible to calculate the complicated three-dimensional proton accelerator structures at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). Under consideration are external and self effects, arising from guiding and space-charge forces. This thesis has as its theme the design, implementation and validation of a tracking program for charged particles in accelerator structures. This work form part of the discipline of Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), more specifically in computational accelerator modelling. The physical model is based on the collisionless Vlasov-Maxwell theory, justified by the low density (∼ 109 protons/cm3) of the beam and of the residual gas. The probability of large angle scattering between the protons and the residual gas is then sufficiently low, as can be estimated by considering the mean free path and the total distance a particle travels in the accelerator structure. (author)
3D Simulations of Space Charge Effects in Particle Beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adelmann, A
2002-10-01
For the first time, it is possible to calculate the complicated three-dimensional proton accelerator structures at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). Under consideration are external and self effects, arising from guiding and space-charge forces. This thesis has as its theme the design, implementation and validation of a tracking program for charged particles in accelerator structures. This work form part of the discipline of Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), more specifically in computational accelerator modelling. The physical model is based on the collisionless Vlasov-Maxwell theory, justified by the low density ({approx} 10{sup 9} protons/cm{sup 3}) of the beam and of the residual gas. The probability of large angle scattering between the protons and the residual gas is then sufficiently low, as can be estimated by considering the mean free path and the total distance a particle travels in the accelerator structure. (author)
Charged particle induced prompt nuclear reaction and its applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charged particle induced prompt nuclear reaction analysis (PNR) not only can analyze the content and concentration of elements in sample sensitively and accurately, but also can measure the distributions of elements with depth in surface and near surface layer. And the method is very simple, rapid and nondestructive, and has good depth resolution. So the PNR is very widely used in many modern science and technique field such as solid state physics, surface physics, electrochemistry, metallurgy and material science and so on. This paper deals with the principle, method and the features of the nuclear reaction analysis induced by charged particle. Especially, the distribution analysis of impurities in sample with depth and the improvement of the depth resolution are discussed in detail. Some actual examples of its application are given
Production of carbon monoxide by charged particle deposition.
Green, A. E. S.; Sawada, T.; Edgar, B. C.; Uman, M. A.
1973-01-01
Recent studies of electron energy deposition in CO2 and CO based upon a large set of electron impact cross sections are utilized to estimate the telluric CO directly produced by various charged-particle deposition mechanisms. The mechanisms considered are (1) lightning, (2) cloud coronal discharges, (3) background radioactivity, (4) natural electrostatic discharges, (5) photoelectrons in the ionosphere, (6) auroral electrons, (7) auroral protons, (8) cosmic rays, and (9) solar wind. 'Ball park' estimates of the global CO production by each of these mechanisms are given. Apart from mechanisms 1, 2, and 5, all CO production mechanisms are estimated to be small compared to artificial sources. If, as appears to be the case, the hot oxygen atoms and ions and other atomic species immediately produced by these three charged-particle deposition mechanisms react rapidly with CO2 to produce CO, these mechanisms can readily lead to CO production levels in the multimegaton-per-year range.
Effect of collisions on dust particle charging via particle-in-cell Monte-Carlo collision
Rovagnati, B.; Davoudabadi, M.; Lapenta, G.; Mashayek, F.
2007-10-01
In this paper, the effect of collisions on the charging and shielding of a single dust particle immersed in an infinite plasma is studied. A Monte-Carlo collision (MCC) algorithm is implemented in the particle-in-cell DEMOCRITUS code to account for the collisional phenomena which are typical of dusty plasmas in plasma processing, namely, electron-neutral elastic scattering, ion-neutral elastic scattering, and ion-neutral charge exchange. Both small and large dust particle radii, as compared to the characteristic Debye lengths, are considered. The trends of the steady-state dust particle potential at increasing collisionality are presented and discussed. The ions and electron energy distributions at various locations and at increasing collisionality in the case of large particle radius are shown and compared to their local Maxwellians. The ion-neutral charge-exchange collision is found to be by far the most important collisional phenomenon. For small particle radius, collisional effects are found to be important also at low level of collisionality, as more ions are collected by the dust particle due to the destruction of trapped ion orbits. For large particle radius, the major collisional effect is observed to take place in proximity of the presheath. Finally, the species energy distribution functions are found to approach their local Maxwellians at increasing collisionality.
Transport of Charged Particles: Entropy Production and Maximum Dissipation Principle
Hsieh, Chia-Yu; Hyon, YunKyong; Lee, Hijin; Lin, Tai-Chia; Liu, Chun
2014-01-01
In order to describe the dynamics of crowded ions (charged particles), we use an energetic variation approach to derive a modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) system which includes an extra dissipation due to the effective velocity differences between ion species. Such a system is more complicated than the original PNP system but with the same equilibrium states. Using Schauder's fixed-point theorem, we develop a local existence theorem of classical solutions for the modified PNP system. Diff...
Charged particle detectors made from thin layers of amorphous silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A series of experiments was conducted to determine the feasibility of using hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) as solid state thin film charged particle detectors. 241Am alphas were successfully detected with α-Si:H devices. The measurements and results of these experiments are presented. The problems encountered and changes in the fabrication of the detectors that may improve the performance are discussed
Laser focusing of high-energy charged-particle beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown that laser focusing of high-energy charged-particle beams using the inverse Cherenkov effect is well suited for applications with large linear colliders. Very high gradient (>0.5 MG/cm) lenses result that can be added sequentially without AG cancellation. These lenses are swell understood, have small geometric aberrations, and offer the possibility of correlating phase and energy aberrations to produce an achromatic final focus
Electrostatic energy analyzers for high energy charged particle beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The electrostatic energy analyzers for high energy charged particle beams emitted from extended large-size objects as well as from remote point sources are proposed. Results of the analytical trajectory solutions in ideal cylindrical field provide focusing characteristics for both configurations. The instruments possess of simple compact design, based on an ideal cylindrical field with entrance window arranged in the end-boundary between electrodes and can be used for measurements in space technologies, plasma and nuclear physics
Multidimensional analysis of charged particles from neutron-induced reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A survey is given of the most recent experimental results obtained using twin gridded ionization chamber constructed at Obninsk, Russia. Peculiarities of (n,α) and (n,f) reactions investigated are discussed. The detailed description ol the method of charge particles spectrometry is presented. Selected results on fission fragment characteristics are discussed more in detail. Present experiments and instrumental developments are focussed on correlations between fragment masses, energies and emission angles and on fine structures in fragment parameter distributions. (author)
Dynamical structure functions for charged particle bilayers and superlattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A modified Feynman construction with a zero-frequency central peak is used to model the dynamical structure functions for layered charged particle systems. This construction recognizes the affinity between layered and multicomponent systems. It also guarantees the simultaneous satisfaction of all three frequency-moment sum rules. The frequencies and spectral weights of the long-wavelength collective excitations and the strength of the diffusive central peak are calculated for arbitrary degeneracy
Measurement of Forward-Backward Charged Particle Correlations with ALICE
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søgaard, Carsten
(NBI). In order for this calibration system to work, a special trigger interface was implemented. The developed and tested firmware for the FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) will be presented. Part II is the presentation of the analysis - a study of, so-called, forward-backward correlations....... The correlations between charged particles, produced in proton-proton collisions at vs=900 GeV and vs=7 TeV over a wide range in pseudoradidity (-3.5
Charged-Particle Multiplicity in Proton-Proton Collisions
Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Reygers, Klaus
2009-01-01
This article summarizes and critically reviews measurements of charged-particle multiplicity distributions and pseudorapidity densities in p+p(pbar) collisions between sqrt(s) = 23.6 GeV and sqrt(s) = 1.8 TeV. Related theoretical concepts are briefly introduced. Moments of multiplicity distributions are presented as a function of sqrt(s). Feynman scaling, KNO scaling, as well as the description of multiplicity distributions with a single negative binomial distribution and with combinations of...
Optimizing interactive program for charged particle transport system design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A computer program for charged particle transport system design is described. The program is written in the BASIC language and allows one to make calculations in dialogue with the computer. The BASTRA program permits to get output information both in digital and in graphical forms. The method for optimization is described, that allows one to put 10 limitation on beam parameters in arbitrary places of the transport system. The program can be adapted on every computer having the BASIC language in its software
Neutron-Induced Charged Particle Studies at LANSCE
Lee, Hye Young; Haight, Robert C.
2014-09-01
Direct measurements on neutron-induced charged particle reactions are of interest for nuclear astrophysics and applied nuclear energy. LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) produces neutrons in energy of thermal to several hundreds MeV. There has been an effort at LANSCE to upgrade neutron-induced charged particle detection technique, which follows on (n,z) measurements made previously here and will have improved capabilities including larger solid angles, higher efficiency, and better signal to background ratios. For studying cross sections of low-energy neutron induced alpha reactions, Frisch-gridded ionization chamber is designed with segmented anodes for improving signal-to-noise ratio near reaction thresholds. Since double-differential cross sections on (n,p) and (n,a) reactions up to tens of MeV provide important information on deducing nuclear level density, the ionization chamber will be coupled with silicon strip detectors (DSSD) in order to stop energetic charged particles. In this paper, we will present the status of this development including the progress on detector design, calibrations and Monte Carlo simulations. This work is funded by the US Department of Energy - Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.
Electromagnetic radiation of charged particles in stochastic motion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harko, Tiberiu [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Mocanu, Gabriela [Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)
2016-03-15
The study of the Brownian motion of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields has many important applications in plasma and heavy ions physics, as well as in astrophysics. In the present paper we consider the electromagnetic radiation properties of a charged non-relativistic particle in the presence of electric and magnetic fields, of an exterior non-electromagnetic potential, and of a friction and stochastic force, respectively. We describe the motion of the charged particle by a Langevin and generalized Langevin type stochastic differential equation. We investigate in detail the cases of the Brownian motion with or without memory in a constant electric field, in the presence of an external harmonic potential, and of a constant magnetic field. In all cases the corresponding Langevin equations are solved numerically, and a full description of the spectrum of the emitted radiation and of the physical properties of the motion is obtained. The power spectral density of the emitted power is also obtained for each case, and, for all considered oscillating systems, it shows the presence of peaks, corresponding to certain intervals of the frequency. (orig.)
Microsparks Generated by Charged Particles in Dielectric Liquids
Geiger, Robert
2012-10-01
The electrodynamics of charged particles in dielectric liquids have been described by several authors [1,2]. As a charged particle approaches an electrode of opposite charge the local electric field eventually exceeds the dielectric strength of the liquid and a microspark is generated. These plasmas can be very small, about type of discharge can provide a simple means of generating non-thermal plasmas in dielectric liquids, such as oils or other hydrocarbons, which can be used to chemically process the liquids. Such a technology may lead to a highly efficient method of heavy oil upgrading which can be easily scaled. In order to understand the plasma properties optical emission spectroscopy is carried out for various hydrocarbons and voltage-current characteristics are used to determine the energy cost for this process. [4pt] [1] Melcher, James R. Continuum Electromechanics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981.[0pt] [2] Jones, Thomas B. Electromechanics of Particles. Cambridge University Press 1995.[0pt] [3] Staack, D., Fridman, A., Gutsol, A., Gogotsi, Y. and Friedman, G. 2008, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 47, 8020.
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Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; 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Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kentaro, Kawade; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Ravinovich, Ilia; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; 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Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; 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Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz
2016-01-01
This paper presents a search for massive charged long-lived particles produced in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 13 TeV at the LHC using the ATLAS experiment. The dataset used corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb$^{-1}$. Many extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of massive charged long-lived particles, such as $R$-hadrons. These massive particles are expected to be produced with a velocity significantly below the speed of light, and therefore to have a specific ionization higher than any Standard Model particle of unit charge at high momenta. The Pixel subsystem of the ATLAS detector is used to measure the ionization energy loss of reconstructed charged particles and to search for such highly ionizing particles. The search presented here has much greater sensitivity than a similar search performed using the ATLAS detector in the $\\sqrt{s}=$ 8 TeV dataset, thanks to the increase in expected signal cross-section due to the higher center-of-mass energy of collisions, to an upgraded d...
The 2nd Symposium on the Frontiers of Massively Parallel Computations
Mills, Ronnie (Editor)
1988-01-01
Programming languages, computer graphics, neural networks, massively parallel computers, SIMD architecture, algorithms, digital terrain models, sort computation, simulation of charged particle transport on the massively parallel processor and image processing are among the topics discussed.
The dynamics of charged particles in turbulent astrophysical plasmas
Dung, Rudiger; Petrosian, Vahe
1994-01-01
We consider the resonant interaction of energetic charged particles and transverse plasma wave propagating parallel and/or antiparallel to the uniform magnetic field B(sub 0) in an underlying background plasma of density n. The coupling of the plasma waves and the energetic particles will be controlled by the ratio n/(the absolute value of B(sub 0)(exp 2). A variation of this ratio leads to a strong variation of the dynamics of the energetic particles. By taking into account the whole transverse plasma branch for the resonant interaction we discuss the influence of the background plasma density, the background magnetic field, the cross helicity, and the magnetic helicities on the dynamics of charged particles in astrophysical plasmas. It is shown that low-energy electrons can be accelerated efficiently by the higher electromagnetic waves and short-wavelength whistlers for low values of the ratio n/(the absolute value of B(sub 0)(exp 2), which means for low values of the ratio of plasma frequency to gyrofrequency.
Scanning system for charged and neutral particle beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present invention aims at providing a simple and reliable method and a reliable device for irradiating a confined volume of matter, preferably at great depth, with a beam of high energy charged or neutral particles. The basic feature of the invention is that the particle beam coming from a radiation source of charged particles is scanned electrically in two orthogonal directions, and that the beam scanned in one plane is deflected in space. For most practical purposes it is important that the radiation source is of small extension. Such a radiation source is realized by means of a beam optical system that includes two scanning magnets each of which admits scanning of the particle beam in one of two orthogonal planes. The beam scanned in one of the planes leaves the associated scanning magnet from an effective scanning centre. The optical system also includes a deflection magnet disposed between the scanning magnets for deflecting the path of the beam in space. By utilizing the optical properties of the deflection magnet in such a way that the deflection magnet produces an image of the effective scanning centre of the first scanning magnet which coincides with the effective scanning centre of the second scanning magnet, the beam scanned in two orthogonal planes will radiate isotropically from the scanning centre of the second scanning magnet. By using the deflection magnet a compact scanning system with a small distance between the scanning centres of the scanning magnets is obtained
Predicted angular distribution of fast charged particles with ionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moliere theory of angular distribution for fast charged particles is improved to take into account ionization loss, by using Kamata-Nishimura formulation of the theory. Decrease of the particle energy along the passage hence increase of the screening angle brings a slight different results from those derived by Moliere-Bethe formulation for fixed energies. The present results are reduced to the same Moliere distribution with modified values of the expansion parameter and the unit of Moliere angle. Properties of the new distribution and differences from the traditional one are discussed. Angular distributions of particles penetrating through the mixed or compound substances are also investigated both under the relativistic and the nonrelativistic conditions, together with the Kamata-Nishimura constants characterizing their formulation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A search for heavy long-lived multi-charged particles is performed using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Data collected in 2012 at √s=8 TeV from pp collisions corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb-1are examined. Particles producing anomalously high ionisation, consistent with long-lived massive particles with electric charges from |q|=2e to |q|=6e are searched for. No signal candidate events are observed, and 95 % confidence level cross-section upper limits are interpreted as lower mass limits for a Drell–Yan production model. The mass limits range between 660 and 785 GeV
Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; 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Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Childers, John Taylor; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saimpert, Matthias; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simoniello, Rosa; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz
2015-01-01
A search for heavy long-lived multi-charged particles is performed using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Data collected in 2012 at $\\sqrt{s}$=8 TeV from $pp$ collisions corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $20.3$ fb$^{-1}$ are examined. Particles producing anomalously high ionisation, consistent with long-lived massive particles with electric charges from $|q|=2e$ to $|q|=6e$ are searched for. No signal candidate events are observed, and 95% confidence level cross-section upper limits are interpreted as lower mass limits for a Drell--Yan production model. The mass limits range between 660 and 785 GeV.
Diffusion of a massive particle in a periodic potential: Application to adiabatic ratchets
Rozenbaum, Viktor M.; Makhnovskii, Yurii A.; Shapochkina, Irina V.; Sheu, Sheh-Yi; Yang, Dah-Yen; Lin, Sheng Hsien
2015-12-01
We generalize a theory of diffusion of a massive particle by the way in which transport characteristics are described by analytical expressions that formally coincide with those for the overdamped massless case but contain a factor comprising the particle mass which can be calculated in terms of Risken's matrix continued fraction method (MCFM). Using this generalization, we aim to elucidate how large gradients of a periodic potential affect the current in a tilted periodic potential and the average current of adiabatically driven on-off flashing ratchets. For this reason, we perform calculations for a sawtooth potential of the period L with an arbitrary sawtooth length (l developed for this region, that the temperature-dependent contribution to the mobility at zero force and to the related effective diffusion coefficient are proportional to T-3 /2 and T-1 /2, respectively, and have a logarithmic singularity at l →0 .
Gauged twistor formulation of a massive spinning particle in four dimensions
Deguchi, Shinichi
2015-01-01
We present a gauged twistor model of a free massive spinning particle in four-dimensional Minkowski space. This model is governed by an action, referred to here as the gauged generalized Shirafuji (GGS) action, that consists of twistor variables, auxiliary variables, and $U(1)$ and $SU(2)$ gauge fields on the one-dimensional parameter space of a particle's world-line. The GGS action remains invariant under reparametrization and the local $U(1)$ and $SU(2)$ transformations of the relevant variables, although the $SU(2)$ symmetry is nonlinearly realized. We consider the canonical Hamiltonian formalism based on the GGS action in the unitary gauge by following Dirac's recipe for constrained Hamiltonian systems. It is shown that just sufficient constraints for the twistor variables are consistently derived by virtue of the gauge symmetries of the GGS action. In the subsequent quantization procedure, these constraints turn into simultaneous differential equations for a twistor function. We perform the Penrose trans...
Theory of intense beams of charged particles optics of charged particle analyzers
Hawkes, Peter W
2011-01-01
Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. This series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. * Contributions from leading international scholars and industry experts * Discusses hot topic areas and pr
Gravitational deflection of light and massive particles by a moving Kerr-Newman black hole
He, Guansheng; Lin, Wenbin
2016-05-01
The gravitational deflection of test particles including light, due to a radially moving Kerr-Newman (KN) black hole with an arbitrary constant velocity that is perpendicular to its angular momentum, is investigated. In harmonic coordinates, we derive the second post-Minkowskian (2PM) equations of motion for test particles, and solve them by high-accuracy numerical calculations. We then concentrate on discussing the kinematical corrections caused by the motion of the gravitational source to second-order deflection. The analytical formula of the light-deflection angle up to the second order by a moving lens is obtained. For a massive particle moving with a relativistic velocity, there are two different analytical results for the Schwarzschild deflection angle up to the second order reported in the previous works, i.e. α (w)=2≤ft(1+\\tfrac{1}{{w}2}\\right)\\tfrac{M}{b}+3π ≤ft(\\tfrac{1}{4}+\\tfrac{1}{{w}2}\\right)\\tfrac{{M}2}{{b}2} and α (w)=2≤ft(1+\\tfrac{1}{{w}2}\\right)\\tfrac{M}{b}+≤ft[3π ≤ft(\\tfrac{1}{4}+\\tfrac{1}{{w}2}\\right)+2≤ft(1-\\tfrac{1}{{w}4}\\right)\\right]\\tfrac{{M}2}{{b}2}, where M, b, and w are the mass of the lens, the impact parameter, and the particle’s initial velocity, respectively. Our numerical result is in perfect agreement with the former result. Furthermore, the analytical formula for massive particle deflection up to the second order in the Kerr geometry is achieved. Finally, the possibilities of detecting the motion effects on the second-order deflection are also analyzed.
Gauged twistor formulation of a massive spinning particle in four dimensions
Deguchi, Shinichi; Okano, Satoshi
2016-02-01
We present a gauged twistor model of a free massive spinning particle in four-dimensional Minkowski space. This model is governed by an action, referred to here as the gauged generalized Shirafuji (GGS) action, that consists of twistor variables, auxiliary variables, and U (1 ) and S U (2 ) gauge fields on the one-dimensional parameter space of a particle's worldline. The GGS action remains invariant under reparametrization and the local U (1 ) and S U (2 ) transformations of the relevant variables, although the S U (2 ) symmetry is nonlinearly realized. We consider the canonical Hamiltonian formalism based on the GGS action in the unitary gauge by following Dirac's recipe for constrained Hamiltonian systems. It is shown that just sufficient constraints for the twistor variables are consistently derived by virtue of the gauge symmetries of the GGS action. In the subsequent quantization procedure, these constraints turn into simultaneous differential equations for a twistor function. We perform the Penrose transform of this twistor function to define a massive spinor field of arbitrary rank, demonstrating that the spinor field satisfies generalized Dirac-Fierz-Pauli equations with S U (2 ) indices. We also investigate the rank-one spinor fields in detail to clarify the physical meanings of the U (1 ) and S U (2 ) symmetries.
Anomalous Fano resonance of massive Dirac particle through a time-dependent barrier
Zhang, Cunxi; Liu, Jie; Fu, Libin
2015-06-01
As is well known Fano resonance arises from the interference between a localized state and a continuum state. Using the standard Floquet theory and the scattering matrix method, we study theoretically the massive Dirac particle transmission over a quantum barrier with an oscillating field. It is found that the massive relativistic particles can generate not only normal Fano resonance in the transmission due to the interference between a localized state (bound state) and the continuum state, but also anomalous Fano resonance due to the interference between a delocalized state (extended state) and the continuum state. The dependence of line shapes on driving parameters for these two kinds of Fano resonances is quite different. For normal Fano resonance the asymmetry parameter is approximately proportional to a power law of the amplitude of the oscillating field, while for the anomalous Fano resonance the asymmetry parameters change slightly with different oscillation amplitudes. In practice, the anomalous Fano resonance can be identified by observing asymmetry parameters in experiment.
The present status of the LLNL Evaluated Charged Particle Library (ECPL)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present report is written with two purposes in mind: to summarize the charged-particle reactions that presently exist in Evaluated Charge Particle Library; and to list all of the low-Z charged-particle reactions for which data exist in the Livermore experimental data compilation. 2 tabs
Test results of satellite-borne charged particle measuring instrument
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A charged particle-measuring instrument to measure on the geostationary orbit the spectra of protons, α-particles and electrons emitted from the sun was manufactured, and its performance was assured by the test on the earth. The Geostationary Meteorological Satellite, on which the instrument will be mounted, will be launched into the geostationary orbit over the pacific ocean in the summer, 1977. The instrument has five systems of detectors to cover the measuring energy range and the kinds of particles, and data are collected every several channels separately. The tests on the earth were carried out by using a cyclotron and setting the energy ranges from 1 to 15 MeV (for protons) and 6 to 30 MeV (for α-particles) through the adjustment of the accelerating conditions and absorbers of the cyclotron. The performance of the instrument was confirmed by comparing the energy and number of the irradiated charged particles measured with the instrument and the reference detector under the same conditions. The results showed that the energy-detecting characteristic was within the error range of a few percent in most cases, and the counts were within the error of 30% against the expected values. The ditinguishing characteristic of the level discriminator was also nearly equal to the estimated result, through it degrades in the vicinity of the border of channels. However, the correction of data may be required when the instrument will be really used in space, because the conditions may be somewhat different from that on the earth. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Microscopic visualization of a biological response to charged particle traversal
Taucher-Scholz, G.; Jakob, B.; Becker, G.; Scholz, M.
2003-08-01
Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying biological effects of charged particle radiation has become increasingly important in view of the use of ion beams in tumor therapy. Elucidating how the enhanced efficiency of densely ionizing radiation in cell killing is related to the initial causative lesions, namely DNA double-strand breaks, constitutes a major task in radiobiology. The inhomogeneous spatial distribution of energy deposition leading to the induction of more complex and less reparable DNA lesions is the basis for high-LET effects. But the cellular response to radiation damage also involves the interplay between repair and signal transduction proteins with the aim of coordinating the processing of DNA damage and cell cycle progression to allow time for repair. Charged particles are used as a probe for the production of localized subcellular damage to study these aspects of the biological response to ionizing radiation. Immunocytochemical techniques applied in combination with confocal laser microscopy allow to monitor the relocalization of DNA damage response proteins within individual nuclei following irradiation. In particular, the rapid accumulation of the signalling protein p21 at sites of heavy ion-induced DNA damage reflects the microscopic distribution of dose deposited within nuclei of irradiated human fibroblasts. The biological response pattern for p21 is presented for high and low energy ion beams, involving different particle species and representing a wide range of radiation qualities.
The Stability of the Vacuum Polarization Surrounding a Charged Particle
Himpsel, F J
2015-01-01
The internal stability of the electron has been debated for a century at both the classical and the quantum level. Recently, a local force density balance was established for the 1s electron in the H atom, based on the energy-momentum tensor of the classical Dirac field. This methodology is now extended to quantum fields by considering the force densities acting on the vacuum polarization induced by a point charge. Such a model is applicable to any charged particle at large distances, since the only vestige of its internal structure is the electric Coulomb field together with the vacuum polarization induced by it. While the polarization charge density is attracted to the point charge, it is kept from collapsing by repulsive forces due to confinement and degeneracy. It is shown analytically that the corresponding force densities are balanced for every filled shell of mj states at a given angular momentum j. The force densities are then summed over all single-electron states in the Dirac sea and renormalized by...
The ATLAS discovery potential for a charged slepton as next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Supersymmetric models with conserved R-parity require the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) to be stable. This means that, if neutral, the LSP may provide a good candidate for (cold) dark matter (DM). The most popular LSP candidate is the lightest neutralino, a particle already present in minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). However, new possibilities arise if one considers particles which are not part of the MSSM such as the axino, the spin-1/2 superpartner of the axion, and the gravitino, the spin-3/2 superpartner of the graviton. Both the axino and the gravitino allow a long-lived charged slepton to be the next-to-lightest SUSY particle (NLSP): the stau τ, i.e. the superpartner of the tau lepton. Being also weakly-interacting and penetrating, the stau will escape the hadronic calorimeters of the ATLAS detector and will appear as a track in the muon system. It will therefore look like and reconstructed as a slow-moving massive muon. A direct consequence of R-parity conservation is that we expect exactly two of such tracks per event. The discovery potential of the ATLAS detector is investigated for different values of the parameters of the SUSY model
Study of a large acceptance charged particle detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigated basic characteristics of a new detector system, which has been designed to be used for nuclear data measurements. The detector has a large acceptance to cover a wide range of charged particle energies. The detector consists of crystal detectors and plastic scintillators. In this detector, energy measurements are carried out by adopting the pulse-height method for low-energy particles and for high-energy particles the time of flight (TOF) technique. The low-energy detector (crystals) plays also as a degrader for high-energy particles. One of important issues is the non-linearity of scintillation output for heavy ions of crystal detectors. The other issue is the deviation of a particle trajectory due to the multiple-scattering in the detector material. In the present study, we measured the scintillation output of detectors and the multiple-scattering effect on the TOF detection efficiency. Experiments were carried out at National Inst. of Radiological Sciences-Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (NIRS-HIMAC) for a crystal detector system by using protons and Ar ions. Finally, the scintillation nonlinearity has been determined. As for the multiple-scattering effect, we found that both of simulations, GEANT4 and PHITS tend to underestimate. (author)
Novelli, Fabio; De Filippis, Giulio; Cataudella, Vittorio; Esposito, Martina; Kausel, Ignacio Vergara; Cilento, Federico; Sindici, Enrico; Amaricci, Adriano; Giannetti, Claudio; Prabhakaran, Dharmalingam; Wall, Simon; Perucchi, Andrea; Conte, Stefano Dal; Cerullo, Giulio; Capone, Massimo
2014-01-01
The non-equilibrium semiconductors physics is based on the paradigm that different degrees of freedom interact on different timescales. In this context the photo-excitation is often treated as an impulsive injection of electronic energy that is transferred to other degrees of freedom only at later times. Here, by studying the ultrafast particles dynamics in a archetypal strongly correlated charge-transfer insulator (La2CuO4), we show that the interaction between electrons and bosons manifest ...
Moving Charged Particles in Lattice Boltzmann-Based Electrokinetics
Kuron, Michael; Schornbaum, Florian; Bauer, Martin; Godenschwager, Christian; Holm, Christian; de Graaf, Joost
2016-01-01
The motion of ionic solutes and charged particles under the influence of an electric field and the ensuing hydrodynamic flow of the underlying solvent is ubiquitous in aqueous colloidal suspensions. The physics of such systems is described by a coupled set of differential equations, along with boundary conditions, collectively referred to as the electrokinetic equations. Capuani et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 973 (2004)] introduced a lattice-based method for solving this system of equations, which builds upon the lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm for the simulation of hydrodynamic flow and exploits computational locality. However, thus far, a description of how to incorporate moving boundary conditions, which are needed to simulate moving colloids, into the Capuani scheme has been lacking. In this paper, we detail how to introduce such moving boundaries, based on an analogue to the moving boundary method for the pure LB solver. The key ingredients in our method are mass and charge conservation for the solute spec...
Charging and coagulation of radioactive and nonradioactive particles in the atmosphere
Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Nenes, Athanasios; Tsouris, Costas
2016-03-01
Charging and coagulation influence one another and impact the particle charge and size distributions in the atmosphere. However, few investigations to date have focused on the coagulation kinetics of atmospheric particles accumulating charge. This study presents three approaches to include mutual effects of charging and coagulation on the microphysical evolution of atmospheric particles such as radioactive particles. The first approach employs ion balance, charge balance, and a bivariate population balance model (PBM) to comprehensively calculate both charge accumulation and coagulation rates of particles. The second approach involves a much simpler description of charging, and uses a monovariate PBM and subsequent effects of charge on particle coagulation. The third approach is further simplified assuming that particles instantaneously reach their steady-state charge distributions. It is found that compared to the other two approaches, the first approach can accurately predict time-dependent changes in the size and charge distributions of particles over a wide size range covering from the free molecule to continuum regimes. The other two approaches can reliably predict both charge accumulation and coagulation rates for particles larger than about 0.04 micrometers and atmospherically relevant conditions. These approaches are applied to investigate coagulation kinetics of particles accumulating charge in a radioactive neutralizer, the urban atmosphere, and an atmospheric system containing radioactive particles. Limitations of the approaches are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
At the present time a Monte Carlo transport computer code is being designed and implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to include the transport of: neutrons, photons, electrons and light charged particles as well as the coupling between all species of particles, e.g., photon induced electron emission. Since this code is being designed to handle all particles this approach is called the ''All Particle Method''. The code is designed as a test bed code to include as many different methods as possible (e.g., electron single or multiple scattering) and will be data driven to minimize the number of methods and models ''hard wired'' into the code. This approach will allow changes in the Livermore nuclear and atomic data bases, used to described the interaction and production of particles, to be used to directly control the execution of the program. In addition this approach will allow the code to be used at various levels of complexity to balance computer running time against the accuracy requirements of specific applications. This paper describes the current design philosophy and status of the code. Since the treatment of neutrons and photons used by the All Particle Method code is more or less conventional, emphasis in this paper is placed on the treatment of electron, and to a lesser degree charged particle, transport. An example is presented in order to illustrate an application in which the ability to accurately transport electrons is important. 21 refs., 1 fig
Parallel Multiphysics Simulations of Charged Particles in Microfluidic Flows
Bartuschat, Dominik
2014-01-01
The article describes parallel multiphysics simulations of charged particles in microfluidic flows with the waLBerla framework. To this end, three physical effects are coupled: rigid body dynamics, fluid flow modelled by a lattice Boltzmann algorithm, and electric potentials represented by a finite volume discretisation. For solving the finite volume discretisation for the electrostatic forces, a cell-centered multigrid algorithm is developed that conforms to the lattice Boltzmann meshes and the parallel communication structure of waLBerla. The new functionality is validated with suitable benchmark scenarios. Additionally, the parallel scaling and the numerical efficiency of the algorithms are analysed on an advanced supercomputer.
Charged particle scattering on two infinite cylindrical solenoids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charged particle scattering on two infinitely parallel cylindrical solenoids with similar by value and inverse by the sign magnetic fields is considered. Scattering amplitude is calculated in the 1st Born and high energy approximations. In both cases the differential cross section is nonsingular and the integral one - finite. Specific examples demonstrating that in one and the same multi-connection space under nontrivial vector-potentials and unambigous wave functions Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect can exist but it can be absent as well. It is shown that an alternative AB effect interpretation as scattering in magnetic field leakages meets sufficient difficulties
Motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arrayas, M; Trueba, J L, E-mail: joseluis.trueba@urjc.e [Area de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Camino del Molino s/n, 28943 Fuenlabrada, Madrid (Spain)
2010-06-11
In this paper we consider the classical relativistic motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field. After reviewing how to construct electromagnetic knots from maps between the three-sphere and the two-sphere, we introduce a mean quadratic radius of the energy density distribution in order to study some properties of this field. We study the classical relativistic motion of electrons in the electromagnetic field of the Hopf map, and compute their trajectories. It is observed that these electrons initially at rest are strongly accelerated by the electromagnetic force, becoming ultrarelativistic in a period of time that depends on the knot energy and size.
The prospects for charged particle uses in oncology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prospects and problems of proton therapy by means of accelerators are considered. Approaches to the solution of the problems concerning operation modes of the accelerator are formulated. It is shown that despite vivid advantage of charged particles for their applied use in beam therapy of malignant tumour it is necessary to solve two problems: extraction of special beams meeting strict medical requirements and development of technology of irradiation of malignant tumours of different localizations and construction of special equipment for execution of this technology. Engineering-technological shortcomings of proton therapy and medical-biological problems requiring reglamentation are enumerated
A technique to improve crystal channeling efficiency of charged particles
Tikhomirov, V V
2007-01-01
It is shown that a narrow plane cut near the crystal surface considerably increases the probability of capture into the stable channeling motion of positively charged particles entering a crystal at angles smaller than a quarter of the critical channeling angle with respect to the crystal planes. At smallest incidence angles the capture probability reaches 99 percent. A pair of crystals bent in orthogonal planes and provided with the cuts allows to reach a 99.9 percent efficiency of single-pass deflection of a proton beam with an ultra small divergence. Conditions necessary for efficient single-pass deflection of protons from the LHC beam halo are also discussed.
Fabrication and testing of prototype preamplifier for charged particle detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Development of a 4π charged particle array is one of the major activities under the superconducting cyclotron utilization project. The forward part of the array will consist of 24 telescopes, each will have three elements Si (strip) ΔE, Si(strip) E and CsI(Ti) E. Each ΔE strip will have 16 channels whereas E-strip will have 16 vertical and 16 horizontal channels. The large number of Si channels mandated the development of low-cost, high-density preamplifiers. A variety of circuits have been tested and some prototype preamplifiers have been fabricated. The performance of a prototype preamplifier has been reported
Charged particle and magnetic field research in space
1972-01-01
Research completed and in progress is described, related publications and reports are listed, and abstracts of papers and talks on results of the research are given. The charged particle research centered on OGO-5 and OGO-6 electron spectrometer data, and theoretical radiation belt studies. Work on the ATS-1 magnetometer project included development of production data reduction programs, development of spectral analysis procedures, and scientific studies of ULF waves at synchronous orbit. The magnetic fields research also included work on the Mariner project and theoretical studies on the solar wind.
Charged particle induced energy dispersive X-ray analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This review article deals with the X-ray emission induced by heavy, charged particles and the use of this process as an analytical method (PIXE). The physical processes involved, X-ray emission and the various reactions contributing to the background, are described in some detail. The sensitivity is calculated theoretically and the results compared with practical experience. A discussion is given on how the sensitivity can be optimized. The experimental arrangements are described and the various technical problems discussed. The analytical procedure, especially the sample preparation, is described in considerable detail. A number of typical practical applications are discussed. (author)
Nonlinear Stability Theorem for High-Intensity Charged Particle Beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Global conservation constraints based on the nonlinear Vlasov-Maxwell equations are used to derive a three-dimensional kinetic stability theorem for an intense non-neutral ion beam (or charge bunch) propagating with average axial velocity vb=const . It is shown that a sufficient condition for linear and nonlinear stability for perturbations with arbitrary polarization is that the equilibrium distribution be a monotonically decreasing function of the single-particle energy H' in the beam frame, i.e., ∂feq(H') /∂H'≤0 . copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Cataractogenic effects of heavy charged particles in mice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effects of heavy charged particles on the crystalline lens of the eye of mice are important because this tissue has proven susceptible to other forms of high-LET radiation. This report summarizes the results currently available from a prospectively designed study to explore the LET dependence of the cataractogenic process. The present results are consistent with a high cataractogenic effect at 100 keV/μm, because plateau argon 40 ions, with an LET in this range, produce higher average cataracts scores at 9, 11 and 13 months than do carbon 12 or neon 20 ions. In the electron micrographs, significant changes were observed from the controls
Charged Particle Multiplicities in Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA
Aïd, S; Andreev, V; Andrieu, B; Appuhn, R D; Babaev, A; Ban, Y; Baranov, P S; Barrelet, E; Barschke, R; Bartel, Wulfrin; Barth, Monique; Bassler, U; Beck, H P; Behrend, H J; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Bernardi, G; Bertrand-Coremans, G H; Besançon, M; Beyer, R; Biddulph, P; Bispham, P; Bizot, J C; Blobel, Volker; Borras, K; Botterweck, F; Boudry, V; Braemer, A; Braunschweig, W; Brisson, V; Bruel, P; Bruncko, Dusan; Brune, C R; Buchholz, R; Buniatian, A Yu; Burke, S; Burton, M; Bähr, J; Büngener, L; Bürger, J; Büsser, F W; Calvet, D; Campbell, A J; Carli, T; Charlet, M; Chechelnitskii, S; Chernyshov, V; Clarke, D; Clegg, A B; Clerbaux, B; Cocks, S P; Contreras, J G; Cormack, C; Coughlan, J A; Courau, A; Cousinou, M C; Cozzika, G; Criegee, L; Cussans, D G; Cvach, J; Dagoret, S; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; David, M; Davis, C L; De Wolf, E A; Delcourt, B; Di Nezza, P; Dirkmann, M; Dixon, P; Dlugosz, W; Dollfus, C; Dowell, John D; Dreis, H B; Droutskoi, A; Duhm, H; Dünger, O; Ebert, J; Ebert, T R; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, Franz; Eisenhandler, Eric F; Ellison, R J; Elsen, E E; Erdmann, M; Erdmann, W; Evrard, E; Fahr, A B; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Feeken, D; Felst, R; Feltesse, Joel; Ferencei, J; Ferrarotto, F; Flamm, K; Fleischer, M; Flieser, M; Flügge, G; Fomenko, A; Fominykh, B A; Formánek, J; Foster, J M; Franke, G; Fretwurst, E; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gabathuler, K; Gaede, F; Garvey, J; Gayler, J; Gebauer, M; Genzel, H; Gerhards, R; Glazov, A; Goerlach, U; Gogitidze, N; Goldberg, M; Goldner, D; Golec-Biernat, Krzysztof J; González-Pineiro, B; Gorelov, I V; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T J; Griffiths, R K; Grindhammer, G; Gruber, A; Gruber, C; Grässler, Herbert; Grässler, R; Görlich, L; Haack, J; Hadig, T; Haidt, Dieter; Hajduk, L; Hampel, M; Haynes, W J; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Herynek, I; Hess, M F; Hewitt, K; Hildesheim, W; Hiller, K H; Hilton, C D; Hladky, J; Hoeger, K C; Hoffmann, D; Holtom, T; Hoppner, M; Horisberger, R P; Hudgson, V L; Hufnagel, H; Hütte, M; Ibbotson, M; Itterbeck, H; Jacholkowska, A; Jacobsson, C; Jaffré, M; Janoth, J; Jansen, T; Johnson, D P; Jung, H; Jönsson, L B; Kalmus, Peter I P; Kander, M; Kant, D; Kaschowitz, R; Kathage, U; Katzy, J M; Kaufmann, H H; Kaufmann, O; Kazarian, S; Kenyon, Ian Richard; Kermiche, S; Keuker, C; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Knies, G; Kolanski, H; Kole, F; Kolya, S D; Korbel, V; Korn, M; Kostka, P; Kotelnikov, S K; Krasny, M W; Krehbiel, H; Krämerkämper, T; Krücker, D; Kuhlen, M; Kurca, T; Kurzhofer, J; Köhler, T; Köhne, J H; Küster, H; Lacour, D; Laforge, B; Lander, R; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Langenegger, U; Laporte, J F; Lebedev, A; Lehner, F; Levonian, S; Lindström, G; Lindstrøm, M; Link, J; Linsel, F; Lipinski, J; List, B; Lobo, G; Loch, P; Lomas, J W; Lubimov, V; Lüke, D; López, G C; Magnussen, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mani, S; Maracek, R; Marage, P; Marks, J; Marshall, R; Martens, J; Martin, G; Martin, R D; Martyn, H U; Martyniak, J; Mavroidis, A; Maxfield, S J; McMahon, S J; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Meyer, P O; Migliori, A; Mikocki, S; Milstead, D; Moeck, J; Moreau, F; Morris, J V; Mroczko, E; Murín, P; Müller, G; Müller, K; Nagovitsin, V; Nahnhauer, R; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, T; Negri, I; Newman, P R; Newton, D; Neyret, D; Nguyen, H K; Nicholls, T C; Niebergall, F; Niebuhr, C B; Niedzballa, C; Niggli, H; Nisius, R; Nowak, G; Noyes, G W; Nyberg-Werther, M; Oakden, M N; Oberlack, H; Olsson, J E; Ozerov, D; Palmen, P; Panaro, E; Panitch, A; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Pawletta, H; Peppel, E; Phillips, J P; Pieuchot, A; Pitzl, D; Pope, G; Prell, S; Pérez, E; Rabbertz, K; Reimer, P; Reinshagen, S; Rick, Hartmut; Riech, V; Riedlberger, J; Riepenhausen, F; Riess, S; Rizvi, E; Robertson, S M; Robmann, P; Roloff, H E; Roosen, R; Rosenbauer, K; Rostovtsev, A A; Rouse, F; Royon, C; Rusakov, S V; Rybicki, K; Rädel, G; Rüter, K; Sankey, D P C; Schacht, P; Schiek, S; Schleif, S; Schleper, P; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, G; Schröder, V; Schuhmann, E; Schwab, B; Schöning, A; Sefkow, F; Seidel, M; Sell, R; Semenov, A A; Shekelian, V I; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Siegmon, G; Siewert, U; Sirois, Y; Skillicorn, Ian O; Smirnov, P; Smith, J R; Solochenko, V; Soloviev, Yu V; Specka, A E; Spiekermann, J; Spielman, S; Spitzer, H; Squinabol, F; Starosta, R; Steenbock, M; Steffen, P; Steinberg, R; Steiner, H; Steinhart, J; Stella, B; Stellberger, A; Stier, J; Stiewe, J; Stolze, K; Straumann, U; Struczinski, W; Stösslein, U; Sutton, J P; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tasevsky, M; Theissen, J; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, G; Truöl, P; Tsipolitis, G; Turnau, J; Tutas, J; Uelkes, P; Usik, A; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Esch, P; Van Mechelen, P; Van den Plas, D; Vazdik, Ya A; Verrecchia, P; Villet, G; Wacker, K; Wagener, A; Wagener, M; Walther, A; Waugh, B; Weber, G; Weber, M; Wegener, D; Wegner, A; Wengler, T; Werner, M; West, L R; Wiesand, S; Wilksen, T; Willard, S; Winde, M; Winter, G G; Wittek, C; Wobisch, M; Wünsch, E; Zarbock, D; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A S; Zini, P; Zomer, F; Zsembery, J; Zuber, K; Zur Nedden, M; Zácek, J; de Roeck, A; von Schlippe, W
1996-01-01
Using the H1 detector at HERA, charged particle multiplicity distributions in deep inelastic ep scattering have been measured over a large kinematical region. The evolution with $W$ and $Q^2$ of the multiplicity distribution and of the multiplicity moments in pseudorapidity domains of varying size is studied in the current fragmentation region of the hadronic centre-of-mass frame. The results are compared with data from fixed target lepton-nucleon interactions, $e^+e^-$ annihilations and hadron-hadron collisions as well as with expectations from QCD based parton models. Fits to the Negative Binomial and Lognormal distributions are presented.
'DIAMANT': A 4 π light charged particle detector array
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
4π γ-spectrometers allow precise determination of weak transitions. A 4π light charged particle detector array of 54 detectors called DIAMANT is described as applied for triggering γ-spectrometers. The multidetector system allows channel selection, increases the sensitivity of the spectrometer, and can give additional information on the exit channel and the path leading to the final nucleus studied by its γ emission. The characteristics and first measured performance of the DIAMANT multidetector array are presented. (R.P.) 2 refs
Energy loss of charged particles colliding with an oscillator
Makarov, D. N.
2015-04-01
Energy loss of fast charged particles colliding with an oscillator is considered in the dipole approximation. In this approximation, the problem is solved exactly and the energy loss of the oscillator from the initial state | m> = |0> is found in the form of the sum of single integrals. It is shown that passing to the limit, the Bethe theory for an atom with small perturbations can be obtained, and in the case of strong fields, the correction to the Bethe theory, analogous to the Bloch correction, can be calculated; in addition, a classical limit coinciding with the Bohr formula is possible.
On the energy losses of fast charged particles
Matveev, V. I.; Makarov, D. N.; Gusarevich, E. S.
2010-09-01
The energy losses of fast charged particles colliding with atoms have been considered in the eikonal approximation. It has been shown that the nonperturbative contribution to the effective stopping from the region of the intermediate impact parameters (comparable with the characteristic sizes of the electron shells of the target) not only can be significant as compared to shell corrections to the Bethe-Bloch formula (usually considered in the first order of perturbation theory), but also can provide significant (up to 50%) corrections to this formula.
Development of Si (Li) detectors for charged particles spectrometer
Onabe, H; Obinata, M; Kashiwagi, T
2002-01-01
Lithium drifted silicon (Si (Li)) detectors with high-quality large area for charged particles spectrometer abroad artificial satellite have been developed. Surface stability can be obtained by thin p-n junction fabricated with the applied photo engraving process (PEP) instead of surface barrier. The region compensated with Lithium can be improved by the adequate heat treatment, and this improvement can be monitored by means of a combination of copper plating and subsequent micro-XRF analysis. The detectors fabricated from the thermal treated wafers were found to have better energy resolution both for alpha-particles from sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am and conversion electrons from sup 2 sup 0 sup 7 Bi. (author)
Physical sputtering of metallic systems by charged-particle impact
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present paper provides a brief overview of our current understanding of physical sputtering by charged-particle impact, with the emphasis on sputtering of metals and alloys under bombardment with particles that produce knock-on collisions. Fundamental aspects of ion-solid interactions, and recent developments in the study of sputtering of elemental targets and preferential sputtering in multicomponent materials are reviewed. We concentrate only on a few specific topics of sputter emission, including the various properties of the sputtered flux and depth of origin, and on connections between sputtering and other radiation-induced and -enhanced phenomena that modify the near-surface composition of the target. The synergistic effects of these diverse processes in changing the composition of the integrated sputtered-atom flux is described in simple physical terms, using selected examples of recent important progress. 325 refs., 27 figs
Search for fractional charge and heavy stable particles at PETRA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A search has been made for new particles with charge Q = 2/3, 1, 4/3, 5/3 produced in e+e--reactions at PETRA. The energy range was Esub(cm) = 27-35 GeV. No such particles were found. Upper limits for the cross-section depending on the assumed mass and production spectrum are given. For Q = 2/3 quarks with mass less than 12 GeV/c2, upper limits sigma(q anti q)/sigma(μμ) -2 (90% C.L.) are obtained both for inclusive and exclusive production. For the lifetime of the B-meson (msub(B) = 5 GeV/c2) an upper limit tau -9 s is obtained. (orig.)
EGUN, Charged Particle Trajectories in Electromagnetic Focusing System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1 - Description of problem or function: EGUN computes trajectories of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic focusing systems including the effects of space charge and self-magnetic fields. Starting options include Child's Law conditions on cathodes of various shapes, user-specified conditions input for each ray, and a combination of Child's Law conditions and user specifications. Either rectangular or cylindrically symmetric geometry may be used. Magnetic fields may be specified using an arbitrary configuration of coils, or the output of a magnet program, such as Poisson, or by an externally calculated array of the axial fields. 2 - Method of solution: The program first solves Laplace's equation. Next, the first iteration of electron trajectories is started using one of the four starting options. On the first iteration cycle, space charge forces are calculated from the assumption of paraxial flow. As the rays are traced, space charge is computed and stored. After all the electron trajectories have been calculated, the program begins the second cycle by solving the Poisson equation with the space charge from the first iteration. Subsequent iteration cycles follow this pattern. The Poisson equation is solved by an alternate column relaxation technique known as the semi-iterative Chebyshev method. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is used to solve the relativistic differential equations of the trajectory calculations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 9001 mesh points in a square mesh, 300 mesh points in the axial direction, 100 mesh points in the radial direction, 101 potentials, 51 rays. In the cylindrical coordinates, the magnetic fields are axially symmetric. In rectangular coordinates, the external field is assumed to be normal to the plane of the problem, which is assumed to be the median plane
Charging and coagulation of radioactive and nonradioactive particles in the atmosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y.-H. Kim
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Charging and coagulation influence one another and impact the particle charge and size distributions in the atmosphere. However, few investigations to date have focused on the coagulation kinetics of atmospheric particles accumulating charge. This study presents three approaches to include mutual effects of charging and coagulation on the microphysical evolution of atmospheric particles such as radioactive particles. The first approach employs ion balance, charge balance, and a bivariate population balance model (PBM to comprehensively calculate both charge accumulation and coagulation rates of particles. The second approach involves a much simpler description of charging, and uses a monovariate PBM and subsequent effects of charge on particle coagulation. The third approach is further simplified assuming that particles instantaneously reach their steady-state charge distributions. It is found that compared to the other two approaches, the first approach can accurately predict time-dependent changes in the size and charge distributions of particles over a wide size range covering from the free molecule to continuum regimes. The other two approaches can reliably predict both charge accumulation and coagulation rates for particles larger than about 40 nm and atmospherically relevant conditions. These approaches are applied to investigate coagulation kinetics of particles accumulating charge in a radioactive neutralizer, the urban atmosphere, and a radioactive plume. Limitations of the approaches are discussed.
Massively parallel Monte Carlo for many-particle simulations on GPUs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Current trends in parallel processors call for the design of efficient massively parallel algorithms for scientific computing. Parallel algorithms for Monte Carlo simulations of thermodynamic ensembles of particles have received little attention because of the inherent serial nature of the statistical sampling. In this paper, we present a massively parallel method that obeys detailed balance and implement it for a system of hard disks on the GPU. We reproduce results of serial high-precision Monte Carlo runs to verify the method. This is a good test case because the hard disk equation of state over the range where the liquid transforms into the solid is particularly sensitive to small deviations away from the balance conditions. On a Tesla K20, our GPU implementation executes over one billion trial moves per second, which is 148 times faster than on a single Intel Xeon E5540 CPU core, enables 27 times better performance per dollar, and cuts energy usage by a factor of 13. With this improved performance we are able to calculate the equation of state for systems of up to one million hard disks. These large system sizes are required in order to probe the nature of the melting transition, which has been debated for the last forty years. In this paper we present the details of our computational method, and discuss the thermodynamics of hard disks separately in a companion paper
Hod, Shahar
2016-01-01
We determine the characteristic timescales associated with the linearized relaxation dynamics of the composed Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-black-hole-charged-massive-scalar-field system. To that end, the quasinormal resonant frequencies $\\{\\omega_n(\\mu,q,M,Q)\\}_{n=0}^{n=\\infty}$ which characterize the dynamics of a charged scalar field of mass $\\mu$ and charge coupling constant $q$ in the charged Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black-hole spacetime of mass $M$ and electric charge $Q$ are determined {\\it analytically} in the eikonal regime $1\\ll M\\mu
Anomalous Kinetics of Hard Charged Particles Dynamical Renormalization Group Resummation
Boyanovsky, D
1999-01-01
We study the kinetics of the distribution function for charged particles of hard momentum in scalar QED. The goal is to understand the effects of infrared divergences associated with the exchange of quasistatic magnetic photons in the relaxation of the distribution function. We begin by obtaining a kinetic transport equation for the distribution function for hard charged scalars in a perturbative expansion that includes hard thermal loop resummation. Solving this transport equation, the infrared divergences arising from absorption and emission of soft quasi-static magnetic photons are manifest in logarithmic secular terms. We then implement the dynamical renormalization group resummation of these secular terms in the relaxation time approximation. The distribution function (in the linearized regime) is found to approach equilibrium as $\\delta n_k(t) =\\delta n_k(t_o) e^{-2\\alpha T (t-t_o) and $\\alpha =e^2/4\\pi$. This anomalous relaxation is recognized to be the square of the relaxation of the single particle p...
Modeling of mesoscopic electrokinetic phenomena using charged dissipative particle dynamics
Deng, Mingge; Li, Zhen; Karniadakis, George
2015-11-01
In this work, we propose a charged dissipative particle dynamics (cDPD) model for investigation of mesoscopic electrokinetic phenomena. In particular, this particle-based method was designed to simulate micro- or nano- flows which governing by Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equation coupled with Navier-Stokes (NS) equation. For cDPD simulations of wall-bounded fluid systems, a methodology for imposing correct Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions for both PNP and NS equations is developed. To validate the present cDPD model and the corresponding boundary method, we perform cDPD simulations of electrostatic double layer (EDL) in the vicinity of a charged wall, and the results show good agreement with the mean-field theoretical solutions. The capacity density of a parallel plate capacitor in salt solution is also investigated with different salt concentration. Moreover, we utilize the proposed methodology to study the electroosmotic and electroosmotic/pressure-driven flow in a micro-channel. In the last, we simulate the dilute polyelectrolyte solution both in bulk and micro-channel, which show the flexibility and capability of this method in studying complex fluids. This work was sponsored by the Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials (CM4) supported by DOE.
Modular Localization of Massive Particles with "Any" Spin in d=2+1
Mund, J
2003-01-01
We discuss a concept of particle localization which is motivated from quantum field theory, and has been proposed by Brunetti, Guido and Longo and by Schroer. It endows the single particle Hilbert space with a family of real subspaces indexed by the space-time regions, with certain specific properties reflecting the principles of locality and covariance. We show by construction that such a localization structure exists also in the case of massive anyons in d=2+1, i.e. for particles with positive mass and with arbitrary spin s in the reals. The construction is completely intrinsic to the corresponding ray representation of the (proper orthochronous) Poincare group. Our result is of particular interest since there are no free fields for anyons, which would fix a localization structure in a straightforward way. We present explicit formulas for the real subspaces, expected to turn out useful for the construction of a quantum field theory for anyons. In accord with well-known results, only localization in string-l...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider information transmission through a noiseless quantum channel, where the information is encoded into massive indistinguishable particles: bosons or fermions. We study the situation in which the particles are noninteracting. The encoding input states obey a set of physically motivated constraints on the mean values of the energy and particle number. In such a case, the determination of both classical and quantum capacity reduces to a constrained maximization of entropy. In the case of noninteracting bosons, signatures of Bose-Einstein condensation can be observed in the behavior of the capacity. A major motivation for these considerations is to compare the information-carrying capacities of channels that carry bosons with those that carry fermions. We show analytically that fermions generally provide higher channel capacity, i.e., they are better suited for transferring bits as well as qubits, in comparison to bosons. This holds for a large range of power-law potentials, and for moderate to high temperatures. Numerical simulations seem to indicate that the result holds for all temperatures. Also, we consider the low-temperature behavior for the three-dimensional box and harmonic trap, and again we show that the fermionic capacity is higher than the bosonic one for sufficiently low temperatures
Li, Xiang-Qian
2016-01-01
Considering the generalized uncertainty principle which incorporates the central idea of Large eXtra Dimensions, the processes of massive spin-1 particles tunneling from Reissner-Nordstrom and Kerr black holes are investigated. For the black hole, the quantum gravity correction decelerates the increase of the temperature. When the mass of the black hole approaches the order of the higher dimensional Planck mass $M_f$, it stops radiating and leads to a black hole remnant. To $\\mathcal{O}(\\frac{1}{M_f^2})$, the corrected temperatures are affected by the mass and angular momentum of emitted vector bosons. Meanwhile, the temperature of the Kerr black hole becomes uneven due to the rotation.
Response of Charged Particles in a Storage Ring to Gravitational Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DONGDong; HUANGChao-Guang
2003-01-01
The influence of gravitational waves on the charged particles in a storage ring is studied. It shows that the gravitational waves might be directly detected by monitoring the motion of charged particles in a storage ring. The angular velocity of the charged particles is continually adjustable by changing the initial energy of particles and the strength of the magnetic field. This feature is very useful for finding the gravitational waves with different frequencies.
Response of Charged Particles in a Storage Ring to Gravitational Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DONG Dong; HUANG Chao-Guang
2003-01-01
The influence of gravitational waves on the charged particles in a storage ring is studied. It shows thatthe gravitational waves might be directly detected by monitoring the motion of charged particles in a storage ring. Theangular velocity of the charged particles is continually adjustable by changing the initial energy of particles and thestrength of the magnetic field. This feature is very useful for finding the gravitational waves with different frequencies.
Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena Channeling 2008
Dabagov, Sultan B.; Palumbo, Luigi
2010-04-01
On the discovery of coherent Bremsstrahlung in a single crystal at the Frascati National Laboratories / C. Barbiellini, G. P. Murtas and S. B. Dabagov -- Advances in coherent Bremsstrahlung and LPM-effect studies (to the lOOth anniversary from the birth of L. D. Landau) / N. F. Shul'ga -- Spectra of radiation and created particles at intermediate energy in oriented crystal taking into account energy loss / V. N. Baier and V. M. Katkov -- The coherent Bremsstrahlung beam at MAX-lab facility / K. Fissum ... [et al.] -- Radiation from thin, structured targets (CERN NA63) / A. Dizdar -- Hard incoherent radiation in thick crystals / N. F. Shul'ga, V. V. Syshchenko and A. I. Tarnovsky -- Coherent Bremsstrahlung in periodically deformed crystals with a complex base / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Induction of coherent x-ray Bremsstrahlung in crystals under the influence of acoustic waves / A. R. Mkrtchyan and V. V. Parazian -- Coherent processes in bent single crystals / V. A. Maisheev -- Experimental and theoretical investigation of complete transfer phenomenon for media with various heat exchange coefficients / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. E. Movsisyan and V. R. Kocharyan -- Coherent pair production in crystals / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Negative particle planar and axial channeling and channeling collimation / R. A. Carrigan, Jr. -- CERN crystal-based collimation in modern hadron colliders / W. Scandale -- Studies and application of bent crystals for beam steering at 70 GeV IHEP accelerator / A. G. Afonin ... [et al.] -- Crystal collimation studies at the Tevatron (T-980) / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of crystals for channeling of particles in accellerators / A. Mazzolari ... [et al.] -- New possibilities to facilitate collimation of both positively and negatively charged particle beams by crystals / V. Guidi, A. Mazzolari and V. V. Tikhomirov -- Increase of probability of particle capture into the channeling
A novel silicon array designed for intraoperative charged particle imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A novel Si-PIN imaging array is under investigation for a charged particle (beta, positron, or alpha) sensitive intraoperative camera to be used for (residual) tumor identification during surgery. This class of collimator-less nuclear imaging device has a higher signal response for direct interactions than its scintillator-optical detector-based counterparts. Monte Carlo simulations with 635 keV betas were performed, yielding maximum and projected ranges of 1.64 and 0.55 mm in Si. Up to 90% of these betas were completely absorbed in the first 0.30 mm. Based on these results, 300 μm thick prototype Si detector arrays were designed in a 16x16 crossed-grid arrangement with 0.8 mm wide orthogonal strips on 1.0 mm pitch. A NIM- and CAMAC-based high-density data acquisition and processing system was used to collect the list mode data. The system was calibrated by comparisons of measured spectra to energy deposition simulations or by direct measurement of various >100 keV conversion electron or beta emitters. Mean electronic noise per strip was 2 pixel size, and measurements of beta emitting point and line sources yielded FWHM resolutions of 1.5 (lateral) and 2.5 mm (diagonal), respectively, with the larger widths due to particle range blurring effects. Deconvolution of the finite source size yielded intrinsic resolutions that corresponded to the image pixel size. Transmission images of circle and line phantoms with various hole sizes and pitch were resolved with either pure beta or positron irradiation without a background correction. This novel semiconductor imaging device facilitates high charged particle and low gamma sensitivity, high signal/noise ratio, and allows for compact design to potentially aid surgical guidance by providing in situ images of clinical relevance
Fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields
Coronel-Escamilla, A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Guerrero-Ramírez, G. V.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.
2016-02-01
In many physical applications the electrons play a relevant role. For example, when a beam of electrons accelerated to relativistic velocities is used as an active medium to generate Free Electron Lasers (FEL), the electrons are bound to atoms, but move freely in a magnetic field. The relaxation time, longitudinal effects and transverse variations of the optical field are parameters that play an important role in the efficiency of this laser. The electron dynamics in a magnetic field is a means of radiation source for coupling to the electric field. The transverse motion of the electrons leads to either gain or loss energy from or to the field, depending on the position of the particle regarding the phase of the external radiation field. Due to the importance to know with great certainty the displacement of charged particles in a magnetic field, in this work we study the fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields. Newton’s second law is considered and the order of the fractional differential equation is (0;1]. Based on the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, the discretization of fractional differential equations is reported to get numerical simulations. Comparison between the numerical solutions obtained on Euler’s numerical method for the classical case and the GL definition in the fractional approach proves the good performance of the numerical scheme applied. Three application examples are shown: constant magnetic field, ramp magnetic field and harmonic magnetic field. In the first example the results obtained show bistability. Dissipative effects are observed in the system and the standard dynamic is recovered when the order of the fractional derivative is 1.
Integral charged particle nuclear date bibliography. Editon 1, Supplement 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This bibliography is divided into three sections, ''References'', ''Target Index'', and ''Residual Index.'' The ''References'' section contains all references satisfying the following criteria: excitation functions, thick targets, or product yield leading to the formation of a ground or metastable state; the atomic mass and charge of the incident particle must be greater than or equal to 1; the atomic mass of the target must be greater than or equal to 1; and the atomic masses of the outgoing and residual nuclei must be greater than or equal to 1 with the exception of processes which do not lead to a definite residual nucleus and of gamma-ray production cross sections. The ''Target Index'' section contains the incident particle energy and the abbreviated reference lines for all the entries, which contain information on a definite target nucleus and reaction. These reference lines contain the Journal name, followed by the volume and page number. The ''Residual Index'' section also contains the incident particle energy and the abbreviated reference lines for all the entries, which contain information on a definite residual nucleus and a definite target-reaction
Chaotic phenomena of charged particles in crystal lattices.
Desalvo, Agostino; Giannerini, Simone; Rosa, Rodolfo
2006-06-01
In this article, we have applied the methods of chaos theory to channeling phenomena of positive charged particles in crystal lattices. In particular, we studied the transition between two ordered types of motion; i.e., motion parallel to a crystal axis (axial channeling) and to a crystal plane (planar channeling), respectively. The transition between these two regimes turns out to occur through an angular range in which the particle motion is highly disordered and the region of phase space spanned by the particle is much larger than the one swept in the two ordered motions. We have evaluated the maximum Lyapunov exponent with the method put forward by Rosenstein et al. [Physica D 65, 117 (1993)] and by Kantz [Phys. Lett. A 185, 77 (1994)]. Moreover, we estimated the correlation dimension by using the Grassberger-Procaccia method. We found that at the transition the system exhibits a very complex behavior showing an exponential divergence of the trajectories corresponding to a positive Lyapunov exponent and a noninteger value of the correlation dimension. These results turn out to be linked to a physical interpretation. The Lyapunov exponents are in agreement with the model by Akhiezer et al. [Phys. Rep. 203, 289 (1991)], based on the equivalence between the ion motion along the crystal plane described as a "string of strings" and the "kicked" rotator. The nonintegral value of the correlation dimension can be explained by the nonconservation of transverse energy at the transition. PMID:16822017
Charge collection efficiency of GaAs detectors studied with low-energy heavy charged particles
Bates, R; Linhart, V; O'Shea, V; Pospísil, S; Raine, C; Smith, K; Sinor, M; Wilhelm, I
1999-01-01
Epitaxially grown GaAs layers have recently been produced with sufficient thickness and low enough free carrier concentration to permit their use as radiation detectors. Initial tests have shown that the epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor as the depletion behaviour follows the square root dependency on the applied bias. This article presents the results of measurements of the growth of the active depletion depth with increasing bias using low-energy protons and alpha particles as probes for various depths and their comparison to values extrapolated from capacitance measurements. From the proton and alpha particle spectroscopic measurements, an active depth of detector material that collects 100% of the charge generated inside it was determined. The consistency of these results with independent capacitance measurements supports the idea that the GaAs epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor. (author)
String-localized free vector and tensor potentials for massive particles with any spin: I. Bosons
Mund, Jens
2016-01-01
It is well-known that a (point-localized) free quantum field for massive particles with spin $s$ acting in a Hilbert space has at best scaling dimension $s+1$, which excludes its use in the perturbative construction of renormalizable interacting models for higher spin ($s\\geq 1$). Up to date, such models have been constructed only in the context of gauge theory, at the cost of introducing additional unphysical (ghost) fields and an unphysical (indefinite metric) state space. The unphysical degrees of freedom are divided out by requiring gauge (or BRST) invariance. We construct free quantum fields for higher spin particles which have the same good UV behaviour as the scalar field (scaling dimension one), and at the same time act on a Hilbert space without ghosts. They are localized on semi-infinite strings extending to space-like infinity, but are linearly related to their point-local counterparts. We argue that this is sufficient locality for a perturbative construction of interacting models of the gauge theo...
The mass-shell and gauge-fixing conditions for the free relativistic massive quantum particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Working in the context of the Weyl group, which describes off-mass-shell relativistic particles, we impose 'gauge-fixing' constraints involving R0, R+, and D as matrix element conditions to be satisfied by the on-mass-shell states of a massive particle. We evaluate the matrix elements in p-space using five sets of co-ordinates: (p2,p), (p2,p+,psub(T)), (p2,p-,psub(T)), (p2,π), and (p2,π+,πsub(T)) where πsup(μ)identicalpsup(μ)/(p2)sup(1/2). We find that, only in the case of R0 with (p2,p) coordinates, R+ with (p2,p+,psub(T)) coordinates, and D with (p2,π) or (p2,π+,πsub(T)) coordinates, can the condition be satisfied by arbitrary on-mass-shell states. In all other cases, the condition can be satisfied only by states belonging to a subset of subspaces of the on-mass-shell Hilbert space, i.e. it forces a violation of the superposition principle. These results constitute the p-space quantum version of Shanmugadhasan's theorem for constrained classical systems which states that there exists, at least locally in phase space, a canonical transformation to a set of variables in which the second-class constraints become canonical pairs equal to zero with the other canonical coordinates independent of the second-class constraints. (orig.)
Weakly nonlinear electrophoresis of a highly charged colloidal particle
Schnitzer, Ory; Zeyde, Roman; Yavneh, Irad; Yariv, Ehud
2013-05-01
At large zeta potentials, surface conduction becomes appreciable in thin-double-layer electrokinetic transport. In the linear weak-field regime, where this effect is quantified by the Dukhin number, it is manifested in non-Smoluchowski electrophoretic mobilities. In this paper we go beyond linear response, employing the recently derived macroscale model of Schnitzer and Yariv ["Macroscale description of electrokinetic flows at large zeta potentials: Nonlinear surface conduction," Phys. Rev. E 86, 021503 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.021503] as the infrastructure for a weakly nonlinear analysis of spherical-particle electrophoresis. A straightforward perturbation in the field strength is frustrated by the failure to satisfy the far-field conditions, representing a non-uniformity of the weak-field approximation at large distances away from the particle, where salt advection becomes comparable to diffusion. This is remedied using inner-outer asymptotic expansions in the spirit of Acrivos and Taylor ["Heat and mass transfer from single spheres in Stokes flow," Phys. Fluids 5, 387 (1962), 10.1063/1.1706630], with the inner region representing the particle neighborhood and the outer region corresponding to distances scaling inversely with the field magnitude. This singular scheme furnishes an asymptotic correction to the electrophoretic velocity, proportional to the applied field cubed, which embodies a host of nonlinear mechanisms unfamiliar from linear electrokinetic theories. These include the effect of induced zeta-potential inhomogeneity, animated by concentration polarization, on electro-osmosis and diffuso-osmosis; bulk advection of salt; nonuniform bulk conductivity; Coulomb body forces acting on bulk volumetric charge; and the nonzero electrostatic force exerted upon the otherwise screened particle-layer system. A numerical solution of the macroscale model validates our weakly nonlinear analysis.
Particle with non-Abelian charge: classical and quantum
Lahiri, Amitabha
2010-01-01
We construct an action in the worldline formalism for a non-Abelian charged particle in a non-Abelian background field, described by real bosonic variables, leading to a set of the well known classical equations given by Wong. The isospin parts in the action can be viewed as the Lagrange multiplier term corresponding to a non-holonomic constraint restricting the isospins to be parallel transported. The path integration is performed over the isospin variables and their paths turn out to be constrained by its classical solution for the isospins. We derive a wave equation from the path integral, constructed as the constrained Hamiltonian operator acts on the wave function. It reveals what operator ordering corresponds to our classical Hamiltonian. It is verified by the inverse Weyl transformation.
Japan Charged-Particle Nuclear Reaction Data Group (JCPRG)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This it the progress report of the Executive Committee of the Japan Charged-Particle Nuclear Reaction Data Group (JCPRG). Since the last NRDC meeting in June 2003, the group has carried out the following activities: Compilation of CPND for NRDF and EXFOR; Compilation of CPND bibliographies for CINDA; Improvement of Web-based data input system HENDEL; Improvement of NRDF retrieval system DARPE; Development of utilization system for EXFOR and evaluated libraries; Data services for Japanese users. The regular JCPRG budget has ended at March 2001. They are applying a competitive budget for our further activity. The Executive Committee is organized by 7 researchers and 1 secretary. 6 postdoctoral researchers in Meme Media Lab. of Hokkaido Univ., 6 graduated students in Nuclear Physics Laboratory of Hokkaido Univ. and 1 technical staff work part-time. 1.5 equivalent man year is dedicated to NRDC Network activities
A hybrid detector telescope for fission fragments and charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Measurement of light charged particle (LCP) multiplicities in coincidence with fission fragments (FFs) during the fusion-fission process is a very useful probe to understand the fission dynamics. In this type of measurement, the LCP's are indented to be measured in a wide range of relative angles (θrel) from 0° to 180° with respect to the FF direction. The conventional method of using two separate detectors one for the FF's and another for the LCPs does not allow to direct the LCPs along the direction of FF (in particular, θrel gas and Egas) and two CsI(Tl)-Si(PIN) detectors mounted at the end of the gas-section. In this paper, the results of in-beam usage of the HDT are presented
General magnetized Weyl solutions: Disks and motion of charged particles
García-Duque, Cristian H
2010-01-01
We construct three families of general magnetostatic axisymmetric exact solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations in spherical coordinates, prolate, and oblates. The solutions obtained are then presented in the system of generalized spheroidal coordinates which is a generalization of the previous systems. The method used to build such solutions is the well-known complex potential formalism proposed by Ernst, using as seed solutions vacuum solutions of the Einstein field equations. The constructed solutions are asymptotically flat and regular on the axis of symmetry. We show explicitly some particular solutions among them a Erez-Rosen type solution and a Morgan-Morgan type solution, which we interpret as the exterior gravitational field of a finite dislike source immersed in a magnetic field. From them we also construct using the well known ``displace, cut and reflect'' method exact solutions representing relativistic thin disks of infinite extension. We analyze the motion of electrically charged test particles ...
Testing of high-vacuum pumps for charged particle accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
To study a possibility of employing different types of pumps in charged-particle accelerators the following pumps have been tested: electric-arc, turbomolecular and cryogenic. The research has been carried out on a test bench which made it possible to determine the pumping-out rate for different gases (constant-volume methods), measure their limiting pressure and study the spectra of different gases by using mass spectrometers. It was possible also to warm up the pumps and pumped-out volumes. From these tests it was concluded that: (1) the electric-arc pump does not meet the accelerator pumping-out requirements; (2) the turbomolecular pump with a nitrogen-sorption trap can be recommended for pumping-out accelerators but requires modification of the supply unit; (3) the cryogenic pump can be recommended for pumpimg-out of accelerators but requires modification of the automatic system for replenishment of the cryogenic fluid
A large solid angle detector for medium energy charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A charged particle detector with 0.7 sr solid angular acceptance has been built, principally to detect protons in the energy range 25-150 MeV in experiments with tagged photon beams. The detector consists of a three element ΔE1-ΔE2-E plastic scintillator telescope. Position information is obtained from the time difference between signals from the two ends of each scintillator. The design of the detector and tests of its performance are described. An energy resolution of 2.8 MeV fwhm at 60 MeV proton energy, and a two-dimensional position resolution of 24 mm x 41 mm fwhm has been obtained. Successful operation in the tagged photon environment is demonstrated. (orig.)
Proca stars: Gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates of massive spin 1 particles
Brito, Richard; Cardoso, Vitor; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.; Radu, Eugen
2016-01-01
We establish that massive complex Abelian vector fields (mass μ) can form gravitating solitons, when minimally coupled to Einstein's gravity. Such Proca stars (PSs) have a stationary, everywhere regular and asymptotically flat geometry. The Proca field, however, possesses a harmonic time dependence (frequency w), realizing Wheeler's concept of geons for an Abelian spin 1 field. We obtain PSs with both a spherically symmetric (static) and an axially symmetric (stationary) line element. The latter form a countable number of families labelled by an integer m ∈Z+. PSs, like (scalar) boson stars, carry a conserved Noether charge, and are akin to the latter in many ways. In particular, both types of stars exist for a limited range of frequencies and there is a maximal ADM mass, Mmax, attained for an intermediate frequency. For spherically symmetric PSs (rotating PSs with m = 1 , 2 , 3), Mmax ≃ 1.058 MPl2 / μ (Mmax ≃ 1.568 , 2.337 , 3.247 MPl2 / μ), slightly larger values than those for (mini-)boson stars. We establish perturbative stability for a subset of solutions in the spherical case and anticipate a similar conclusion for fundamental modes in the rotating case. The discovery of PSs opens many avenues of research, reconsidering five decades of work on (scalar) boson stars, in particular as possible dark matter candidates.
Proca stars: Gravitating Bose–Einstein condensates of massive spin 1 particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard Brito
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We establish that massive complex Abelian vector fields (mass μ can form gravitating solitons, when minimally coupled to Einstein's gravity. Such Proca stars (PSs have a stationary, everywhere regular and asymptotically flat geometry. The Proca field, however, possesses a harmonic time dependence (frequency w, realizing Wheeler's concept of geons for an Abelian spin 1 field. We obtain PSs with both a spherically symmetric (static and an axially symmetric (stationary line element. The latter form a countable number of families labelled by an integer m∈Z+. PSs, like (scalar boson stars, carry a conserved Noether charge, and are akin to the latter in many ways. In particular, both types of stars exist for a limited range of frequencies and there is a maximal ADM mass, Mmax, attained for an intermediate frequency. For spherically symmetric PSs (rotating PSs with m=1,2,3, Mmax≃1.058MPl2/μ (Mmax≃1.568,2.337,3.247MPl2/μ, slightly larger values than those for (mini-boson stars. We establish perturbative stability for a subset of solutions in the spherical case and anticipate a similar conclusion for fundamental modes in the rotating case. The discovery of PSs opens many avenues of research, reconsidering five decades of work on (scalar boson stars, in particular as possible dark matter candidates.
Kinetic phenomena in charged particle transport in gases and plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petrovic, Zoran Lj.; Dujko, Sasa; Sasic, Olivera; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Malovic, Gordana [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 68 11080 Zemun (Serbia); Faculty of Traffic Engineering, University of Belgrade Belgrade (Serbia); Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 68 11080 Zemun (Serbia)
2012-05-25
The key difference between equilibrium (thermal) and non-equilibrium (low temperature - a.k.a. cold) plasmas is in the degree in which the shape of the cross sections influences the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). In this paper we will discuss the issue of kinetic phenomena from two different angles. The first will be how to take advantage of the strong influence and use low current data to obtain the cross sections. This is also known as the swarm technique and the product of a ''swarm analysis'' is a set of cross sections giving good number, momentum and energy balances of electrons or other charged particles. At the same time understanding the EEDF is based on the cross section data. Nevertheless sometimes the knowledge of the cross sections and even the behaviour of individual particles are insufficient to explain collective behaviour of the ensemble. The resulting ''kinetic'' effects may be used to favour certain properties of non-equilibrium plasmas and even may be used as the basis of some new plasma applications.
High Energy Ionic Charge State Composition in Large Solar Energetic Particle Events
Labrador, A. W.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.
2001-01-01
Measurements of ionic charge states in solar energetic particle (SEP) events have been made at relatively high energies (> 15 MeV/nucleon) with the Mass Spectrometer Telescope (MAST) on board the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) satellite using the Earth's magnetic field as a particle rigidity filter. We have examined the largest SEP events of solar cycle 23 and determined ionic charge states of Fe and other elements in several of these events. The mean charge s...
Nonrelativistic Charged Particle-Magnetic Monopole Scattering in the Global Monopole Background
De Oliveira, A L C
2003-01-01
We analyze the nonrelativistic quantum scattering problem of a charged particle by an Abelian magnetic monopole in the background of a global monopole. In addition to the magnetic and geometric effects, we consider the influence of the electrostatic self-interaction on the charged particle. Moreover, for the specific case where the electrostatic self-interaction becomes attractive, charged particle-monopole bound system can be formed and the respective energy spectrum is hydrogen-like one.
Surface-integral formulation of scattering theory for charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Collisions in the realm of atomic and nuclear physics not only have many practical applications, but also form the testing ground for the underlying quantum collision theory. The last decade has seen extraordinary theoretical progress in the field of electron-impact atomic breakup problem [1]. This problem was challenging to solve due to formal and computational difficulties associated with the long-range Coulomb potential. Presently, however, the electron-induced breakup processes can be calculated accurately for simple targets such as atomic hydrogen and helium, in the kinematically complete form. We report on how the computational progress has resulted in a deeper understanding of the formal theory of Coulomb few-body scattering [2] and how corresponding calculations of nuclear breakup reactions can benefit from this development. In quantum collision theory it is customary to define the scattering amplitude in terms of the scattering wave function and the potential of interaction. Despite the fact that the Coulomb wave function and the Coulomb potential are both known analytically, the conventional theory is not able to provide such a standard definition for the amplitude of scattering of two charged particles, which yields the Rutherford cross section. As far as breakup of a bound state of two particles in a system of three charged particles is concerned, here again the theory fails to give a formal definition for calculating the breakup amplitude in the post form in terms of the total scattering wave function describing the process. The reason for this failure is that charged particles continue to interact with each other even at infinite separation due to the long-range nature of the Coulomb potential, something the conventional theory cannot handle. We present a new formulation of scattering theory applicable to arbitrary two and three-body systems with both short-range and Coulomb long-range potentials [2]. The formalism is based on a surface
History of activation analysis technique with charged particles in Uzbekistan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: The researches on activation analysis with charged particles (CPAA) were started immediately after beginning of constructing of 150-cm cyclotron U-150 in 60-th years of last century. CPAA laboratory organized on bases of the cyclotron and neutron generator NG-200 (in following I-150) in 1971 existed up to the end of 1985. We have used Ion beams of these devices to elaborate two types of nuclear analysis techniques: 1. Delayed Nuclear Analysis (DNA) involving Charged Particle Activation Analysis (CPAA) and Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA); 2. Prompt Nuclear Analysis (PNA) involving the spectrometry of particles induced X-Ray emission (PIXE). DNA with using accelerators has the following subdivisions: 1. Proton Activation Analysis (PAA); 2. Deuteron Activation Analysis (DAA); 3. 3He Activation Analysis (3HeAA); 4. 4He Activation Analysis (4HeAA or α-AA); 5. Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA). PAA and DAA found wide application were used to derive a good sensitivity in determination of contents of more than 20 chemical elements in some materials of high purity. For example, we have applied these techniques for the determination of Li, B, C, N, O, F at level of 10-8 - 10-10 g/g in different high purity semiconductors (Si, SiC, Ge, AsGa, InP et al.), nonferrous metals (Li, Be, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ta, W, Re, Al, Ti etc.), nonconductive materials (different glasses, optical materials, diamonds et al.) and environmental objects (soil, plants, water). The techniques provided good results on the determination of B, C and N contents and others. 3HeAA and 4HeAA were generally used to determine of O and C contents in semiconductors ands metals of high purity. We have elaborated rapid radiochemical techniques for separation of short-lived positron emitters. For example, the separation of 15O, formatting by nuclear reaction 16O(3He,α)15O, the reducing fusion technique was used. Radionuclide 11C was separated chemically by the oxidisation of samples in the
On Charge Conjugation, Chirality and Helicity of the Dirac and Majorana Equation for Massive Leptons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eckart Marsch
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We revisit the charge-conjugation operation for the Dirac equation in its chiral representation. A new decomposition of the Dirac spinor field is suggested and achieved by means of projection operators based on charge conjugation, which is discussed here in a non-standard way. Thus, two separate two-component Majorana-type field equations for the eigenfields of the charge-conjugation operator are obtained. The corresponding free fields are entirely separated without a gauge field, but remain mixed and coupled together through an electromagnetic field term. For fermions that are charged and, thus, subjected to the gauge field of electrodynamics, these two Majorana fields can be reassembled into a doublet, which is equivalent to a standard four-component Dirac spinor field. In this way, the Dirac equation is retained in a new guise, which is fully equivalent to that equation in its chiral form.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
If 15% of the Swiss cars (i.e. 720,000 units) would be replaced by electrical vehicles, yearly CO2 emissions would decrease by about 1.2 million tons. This figure must be compared with the international commitment of Switzerland concerning its reduction of the global greenhouse gas emissions by 20%, i.e. 10.5 million tons of CO2 equivalent a year. These 720,000 electrical vehicles would increase the electric demand by 1.2 to 1.7 TWh a year, i.e. only 1.8 to 2.6 % of the Swiss power generation (66 TWh a year). Simultaneously charging 50% of these electric vehicles would also demand an output power of about 1.3 GW. In a Vision 2020 study entitled 'Electric vehicle market penetration in Switzerland by 2020 (Lausanne and Olten, July 2009)' the Swiss electric utility Alpiq evaluated the impact of such a measure on production and distribution of electric power. Following assumptions were made: 4/5 of the electrical cars would be Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles and 1/5 Battery Electric Vehicles; each car would run 37 km a day on average, or 13,500 km a year; and the mean electric consumption would be 20 kWh for a guaranteed range of 120 km, with one charging at least each third day, mainly slowly in the night ('Sleep and Charge' with a domestic low input power of 3.5 kW for 8 hours), but also quickly ('Coffee and Charge' with a particularly high input power of 55 kW), and with possible intermediate accelerated charging modes ('Work/Shop and Charge' with a mean input power of 7 to 12 kW). Eventually, the number, type and location of the charging facilities needed were estimated on the basis of a characterization of electrical vehicles owners. On the basis of an electric fleet of 720,000 cars, it is concluded that about 650,000 domestic slow charging points, 80,000 private accelerated charging points at working places, 23,000 public accelerated charging points in cities, and 150 quick charging points with each 6 sockets located in ordinary petrol (gas) service stations would be
Planar charged-particle trajectories in multipole magnetic fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. M. Willis
Full Text Available This paper provides a complete generalization of the classic result that the radius of curvature (ρ of a charged-particle trajectory confined to the equatorial plane of a magnetic dipole is directly proportional to the cube of the particle's equatorial distance (ϖ from the dipole (i.e. ρ ∝ ϖ^{3}. Comparable results are derived for the radii of curvature of all possible planar charged-particle trajectories in an individual static magnetic multipole of arbitrary order m and degree n. Such trajectories arise wherever there exists a plane (or planes such that the multipole magnetic field is locally perpendicular to this plane (or planes, everywhere apart from possibly at a set of magnetic neutral lines. Therefore planar trajectories exist in the equatorial plane of an axisymmetric (m = 0, or zonal, magnetic multipole, provided n is odd: the radius of curvature varies directly as ϖ^{n}^{+2}. This result reduces to the classic one in the case of a zonal magnetic dipole (n =1. Planar trajectories exist in 2m meridional planes in the case of the general tesseral (0 < m < n magnetic multipole. These meridional planes are defined by the 2m roots of the equation cos[m(Φ – Φ_{n}^{m}] = 0, where Φ_{n}^{m} = (1/m arctan (h_{n}^{m}/g_{n}^{m}; g_{n}^{m} and h_{n}^{m} denote the spherical harmonic coefficients. Equatorial planar trajectories also exist if (n – m is odd. The polar axis (θ = 0,π of a tesseral magnetic multipole is a magnetic neutral line if m > 1. A further 2m(n – m neutral lines exist at the intersections of the 2m meridional planes with the (n – m cones defined by the (n
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Nandan Jha; Sudhir R Jain
2013-09-01
In this paper the classical evolution of a particle is studied which bounces back and forth in a 1D vibrating cavity such that the reflection from the wall does not change the speed of the particle. A peculiar behaviour of the particle motion can be seen where the time evolution of the motion shows superposition of linear and oscillatory behaviour. In particular, the parameter range is found in which the particle oscillates between the walls in steady state as if the wall was static and it is showed that for these parameter ranges the particle settles to this steady state for all initial conditions. It is proposed that this phenomenon can be used to bunch charged particles in short pulses where the synchronization proposed in our model should work against the space charge effect in the charged particle bunch.
Li, Ran; Zhao, Jun-Kun
2016-04-01
We investigate the massive vector particles' Hawking radiation from the neutral rotating Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in conformal gravity by using the tunneling method. It is well known that the dynamics of massive vector particles are governed by the Proca field equation. Applying WKB approximation to the Proca equation, the tunneling probabilities and radiation spectrums of the emitted particles are derived. Hawking temperature of the neutral rotating AdS black holes in conformal gravity is recovered, which is consistent with the previous result in the literature. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11205048, and the Foundation for Young Key Teacher of Henan Normal University
Roelof, E. C.
2015-09-01
“Reservoirs” of energetic charged particles are regions where the particle population is quasi-trapped in large-scale (relative to the gyroradii) magnetic field structures. Reservoirs are found throughout the heliosphere: the huge heliosheath (90appropriate description of this transport is “weak scattering”, in which the particle's first adiabatic invariant (magnetic moment) is approximately conserved while the particle itself moves rather freely along magnetic field lines. Considerable insight into the observed properties of energization processes can be gained from a remarkably simple equation that describes the particle's fractional time-rate-of-change of momentum (dlnp/dt) which depends only upon its pitch angle, the divergence of the plasma velocity (V⊥) transverse to the magnetic field), and the inner product of (V⊥) with the curvature vector of the field lines. The possibilities encompassed in this simple (but general) equation are quite rich, so we restrict our application of it in this paper to the compressive acceleration of SEPs within CMEs.
Square-root operator quantization of elementary particles masses and charges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantization of elementary particles masses and charges is proposed within the framework of the square-root operator formalism and the concept of extended particles associated with the structure of the torus. (author)
Akerib, D S; Araújo, H M; Bai, X; Bailey, A J; Balajthy, J; Beltrame, P; Bernard, E P; Bernstein, A; Biesiadzinski, T P; Boulton, E M; Bradley, A; Bramante, R; Cahn, S B; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Chan, C; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A A; Chiller, C; Currie, A; Cutter, J E; Davison, T J R; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dobson, J E Y; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B N; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Gehman, V M; Ghag, C; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M G D; Hall, C R; Hanhardt, M; Haselschwardt, S J; Hertel, S A; Hogan, D P; Horn, M; Huang, D Q; Ignarra, C M; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Ji, W; Kazkaz, K; Khaitan, D; Knoche, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Lenardo, B G; Lesko, K T; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Malling, D C; Manalaysay, A; Mannino, R L; Marzioni, M F; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D-M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morad, J A; Murphy, A St J; Nehrkorn, C; Nelson, H N; Neves, F; O'Sullivan, K; Oliver-Mallory, K C; Ott, R A; Palladino, K J; Pangilinan, M; Pease, E K; Phelps, P; Reichhart, L; Rhyne, C; Shaw, S; Shutt, T A; Silva, C; Solovov, V N; Sorensen, P; Stephenson, S; Sumner, T J; Szydagis, M; Taylor, D J; Taylor, W; Tennyson, B P; Terman, P A; Tiedt, D R; To, W H; Tripathi, M; Tvrznikova, L; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Webb, R C; White, J T; Whitis, T J; Witherell, M S; Wolfs, F L H; Yazdani, K; Young, S K; Zhang, C
2016-04-22
We present constraints on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP)-nucleus scattering from the 2013 data of the Large Underground Xenon dark matter experiment, including 1.4×10^{4} kg day of search exposure. This new analysis incorporates several advances: single-photon calibration at the scintillation wavelength, improved event-reconstruction algorithms, a revised background model including events originating on the detector walls in an enlarged fiducial volume, and new calibrations from decays of an injected tritium β source and from kinematically constrained nuclear recoils down to 1.1 keV. Sensitivity, especially to low-mass WIMPs, is enhanced compared to our previous results which modeled the signal only above a 3 keV minimum energy. Under standard dark matter halo assumptions and in the mass range above 4 GeV c^{-2}, these new results give the most stringent direct limits on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section. The 90% C.L. upper limit has a minimum of 0.6 zb at 33 GeV c^{-2} WIMP mass. PMID:27152785
Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bradley, A.; Bramante, R.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Malling, D. C.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Ott, R. A.; Palladino, K. J.; Pangilinan, M.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.; LUX Collaboration
2016-04-01
We present constraints on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP)-nucleus scattering from the 2013 data of the Large Underground Xenon dark matter experiment, including 1.4 ×104 kg day of search exposure. This new analysis incorporates several advances: single-photon calibration at the scintillation wavelength, improved event-reconstruction algorithms, a revised background model including events originating on the detector walls in an enlarged fiducial volume, and new calibrations from decays of an injected tritium β source and from kinematically constrained nuclear recoils down to 1.1 keV. Sensitivity, especially to low-mass WIMPs, is enhanced compared to our previous results which modeled the signal only above a 3 keV minimum energy. Under standard dark matter halo assumptions and in the mass range above 4 GeV c-2 , these new results give the most stringent direct limits on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section. The 90% C.L. upper limit has a minimum of 0.6 zb at 33 GeV c-2 WIMP mass.
Gaussian and Airy wave-packets of massive particles with orbital angular momentum
Karlovets, Dmitry V
2014-01-01
While wave-packet solutions for relativistic wave equations are oftentimes thought to be approximate (paraxial), we demonstrate that there is a family of such solutions, which are exact, by employing a null-plane (light-cone) variables formalism. A scalar Gaussian wave-packet in transverse plane is generalized so that it acquires a well-defined z-component of the orbital angular momentum (OAM), while may not acquire a typical "doughnut" spatial profile. Such quantum states and beams, in contrast to the Bessel ones, may have an azimuthal-angle-dependent probability density and finite quantum uncertainty of the OAM, which is determined by the packet's width. We construct a well-normalized Airy wave-packet, which can be interpreted as a one-particle state for relativistic massive boson, show that its center moves along the same quasi-classical straight path and, what is more important, spreads with time and distance exactly as a Gaussian wave-packet does, in accordance with the uncertainty principle. It is expla...
Intermediate regime of charged particle scattering in the field-reversal configuration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shustov, P. I., E-mail: p.shustov@gmail.com; Yushkov, E. V. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Profsouznaya st., 84/32, GSP-7, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Artemyev, A. V., E-mail: artemyev@iki.rssi.ru [Space Research Institute, RAS, Profsouznaya st., 84/32, GSP-7, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2015-12-15
In this paper, we investigate the charged particle scattering in the magnetic field configuration with stretched magnetic field lines. This scattering results from the violation of the adiabaticity of charged particle motion in the region with the strong gradient of the magnetic field. We consider the intermediate regime of charged particle dynamics, when the violation of the adiabaticity is significant enough, but particle motion is not chaotic. We demonstrate and describe the significant scattering of particles with large adiabatic invariants (magnetic moment). We discuss a possible application of obtained results for description of the peculiarities of pitch-angle diffusion of relativistic electrons in the Earth radiation belts.
Method of producing weakly acidic cation exchange resin particles charged with uranyl ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdelmonem, N.; Ringel, H.; Zimmer, E.
1981-07-21
Weakly acidic cationic ion exchange resin particles are charged with uranyl ions by contacting the particles step wise with aqueous uranyl nitrate solution at higher uranium concentrations from stage to stage. An alkaline medium is added to the uranyl nitrate solution in each stage to increase the successive pH values of the uranyl nitrate solution contacting the particles in dependence upon the uranium concentration effective for maximum charging of the particles with uranyl ions.
Double electron excitation of helium by charged particle impact
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Complete text of publication follows. A four-body classical trajectory Monte Carlo method is applied in the study of double electron excitation of helium by charged particle impact. The calculations are based on the independent particle model. As projectiles we consider protons and antiprotons with energies between 0.25 and 5 MeV. The state selective total cross sections as a function of the impact energy are calculated and compared with experimental and theoretical data. Fig. 1. shows the double excitation cross sections of helium to the (2s2)1S (Fig. 1a), (2s2p)1P (Fig. 1b) and (2p2)1D (Fig. 1c) states as a function of the impact energy. The errors of our calculated data are smaller or comparable with the size of the symbols. Our recent cross sections are compared with the experimental data of Giese et al. and Moretto-Capelle et al. and with the previous calculations of Bodea et al. Instead of the antiproton impact, the experiments in ref. were carried out with electron impact. These cross sections are shown at the energy where the electron velocity is equal that of the antiproton velocity. In all cases the cross sections for antiprotons exceeds the cross section for protons. The largest difference is obtained for the excitation of the (2s2)1S state (Fig. 1a). According to our expectation, with increasing projectile energies the cross sections for proton and antiproton impact approaching each other. This tendency is valid for the previous calculations of Bodea et al. except for the (2p2)1D (Fig. 1c). The calculated cross sections generally agree with the experimental values. (author)
Magnetoinduction converter for measuring the charged particle flux in beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The arrangement of a contactless magnetoinduction converter (MIC) designed for measuring the charged particle flux in beams is described. The converter is made of a coil placed onto a toroidal ferromagnetic core, 120x60x12 mm in size. To eliminate the effect of the external magnetic field the MIC is placed into a compound permalloy- copper labyrinth-type screen, In the aperiodic operating mode the MIC measuring channel contains a preamplifier, an amplifier, a strobing circuit, an integrator with a converter, a delay circuit, a time relay, a pulsed-to-direct voltage converter, and a digital voltmeter. For experimental measuring of sensitivity of the MIC measuring system a calibration loop, consisting of an accurate- amplitude generator, a delay circuit and a time relay, is used. The given contactless magnetoinduction converter is a part of the electron flux standard for 5-50 MeV beams. The normal conditions of reproduction of the ''electron/s'' unit are the following: the 293+-1 K temperature, 101.3+40 kPa pressure, 60+-15% relative humidity, 220B+-10% supply voltage and 50+-0.5 Hz frequency. The dynamic range of MIC application is 1012-1015 electron/s. The total systematic error of reproduction of the electron flux unit for the MIC is 1.7%
The Boltzmann equation theory of charged particle transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is shown how a formally exact Kubo-like response theory equivalent to the Boltzmann equation theory of charged particle transport can be constructed. The response theory gives the general wavevector and time-dependent velocity distribution at any time in terms of an initial distribution function, to which is added the response induced by a generalized perturbation over the intervening time. The usual Kubo linear response result for the distribution function is recovered by choosing the initial velocity distribution to be Maxwellian. For completeness the response theory introduces an exponential convergence function into the response time integral. This is equivalent to using a modified Boltzmann equation but the general form of the transport theory is not changed. The modified transport theory can be used to advantage where possible convergence difficulties occur in numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation. This paper gives a systematic development of the modified transport theory and shows how the response theory fits into the broader scheme of solving the Boltzmann equation. The discussion extends both the work of Kumar et al. (1980), where the distribution function is expanded out in terms of tensor functions, and the propagator description where the non-hydrodynamic time development of the distribution function is related to the wavevector dependent Green function of the Boltzmann equation
Local phase transformation in alloys during charged-particle irradiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.
1984-10-01
Among the various mechanisms and processes by which energetic irradiation can alter the phase stability of alloys, radiation-induced segregation is one of the most important phenomena. Radiation-induced segregation in alloys occurs as a consequence of preferential coupling between persistent fluxes of excess defects and solute atoms, leading to local enrichment or depletion of alloying elements. Thus, this phenomenon tends to drive alloy systems away from thermodynamic equilibrium, on a local scale. During charged-particle irradiations, the spatial nonuniformity in the defect production gives rise to a combination of persistent defect fluxes, near the irradiated surface and in the peak-damage region. This defect-flux combination can modify the alloy composition in a complex fashion, i.e., it can destabilize pre-existing phases, causing spatially- and temporally-dependent precipitation of new metastable phases. The effects of radiation-induced segregation on local phase transformations in Ni-based alloys during proton bombardment and high-voltage electron-microscope irradiation at elevated temperatures are discussed.
Charged particle therapy with mini-segmented beams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Avraham eDilmanian
2015-12-01
Full Text Available One of the fundamental attributes of proton therapy and carbon ion therapy is the ability of these charged particles to spare tissue distal to the targeted tumor. This significantly reduces normal tissue toxicity and has the potential to translate to a wider therapeutic index. Although, in general, particle therapy also reduces dose to the proximal tissues, particularly in the vicinity of the target, dose to the skin and to other very superficial tissues tends to be higher than that of megavoltage x-rays. The methods presented here, namely Interleaved carbon minibeams and Radiosurgery with arrays of proton and light ion minibeams, both utilize beams segmented into arrays of parallel minibeams of about 0.3 mm incident beam size. These minibeam arrays spare tissues, as demonstrated by synchrotron x-ray experiments. An additional feature of particle minibeams is their gradual broadening due to multiple Coulomb scattering as they penetrate tissues. In the case of interleaved carbon minibeams, which do not broaden much, two arrays of planar carbon minibeams that remain parallel at target depth, are aimed at the target from 90º angles and made to interleave at the target to produce a solid radiation field within the target. As a result the surrounding tissues are exposed only to individual carbon minibeam arrays and are therefore spared. The method was used in four-directional geometry at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory to ablate a 6.5-mm target in a rabbit brain at a single exposure with 40 Gy physical absorbed dose. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and histology six month later showed very focal target necrosis with nearly no damage to the surrounding brain. As for minibeams of protons and light ions, for which the minibeam broadening is substantial, measurements at MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas, and Monte Carlo simulations showed that the broadening minibeams will merge with their neighbors at a certain tissue depth
Kalinichenko, I S
2016-01-01
The explicit expressions for the high-temperature expansions of the one-loop corrections to the omega-potential coming from the charged scalar and Dirac particles and, separately, from antiparticles in a constant homogeneous magnetic field are derived. The explicit expressions for the non-perturbative corrections to the effective action at finite temperature and density are obtained. The thermodynamic properties of a gas of charged scalars in a constant homogeneous magnetic field are analyzed in the one-loop approximation. It turns out that, in this approximation, the system suffers the first order phase transition from the diamagnetic to the superconducting state at sufficiently high densities. The improvement of the one-loop result by summing the ring diagrams is investigated. This improvement leads to a drastic change of the thermodynamic properties of the system. The gas of charged scalars passes to the ferromagnetic state in place of the superconducting one at high densities and sufficiently low temperat...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bahari, A., E-mail: bahari.a@lu.ac.i [Department of Physics, Lorestan University, Lorestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohamadi, A. [Department of Physics, Shiraz Payaem Noor University, Fars (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-10-15
The interaction of charged particles with filled single-walled metallic nanotubes (SWMNT) has been investigated. Numerical results for the plasmon energy as a function of the wave vector are presented when the charged particle is outside the nanotube. Dependence of the plasmon energy on ratio of plasma frequency of the filler and SWMNT has been shown.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A summary is given of the First Research Coordination Meeting on Heavy Charged-Particle Interaction Data for Radiotherapy. A programme to compile and evaluate charged-particle nuclear data for therapeutic applications was proposed. Detailed coordinated research proposals were also agreed. Technical discussions and the resulting work plan of the Coordinated Research Project are summarized, along with actions and deadlines. (author)
Method and system for treating an interior surface of a workpiece using a charged particle beam
Swenson, David Richard
2007-05-23
A method and system of treating an interior surface on an internal cavity of a workpiece using a charged particle beam. A beam deflector surface of a beam deflector is placed within the internal cavity of the workpiece and is used to redirect the charged particle beam toward the interior surface to treat the interior surface.
Massive Scalar Field Evolution in the Dyadosphere Spacetime of Charged Black Hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scalar field quasinormal modes in the dyadosphere spacetime of charged black hole are studied by using the third-order WKB approximation. From numerical results obtained, we find that the scalar field mass u plays an important role in studying the quasinormal frequencies. With the scalar field mass increases, the real parts increase and the magnitudes of the imaginary parts decrease. Particulary, these change are almost linearly. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)
Charged NUT field : [Part] I. Motion of test particles and [Part] II. Cosmic censorship
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Some properties of the charged NUT field are studied. In the first part of the paper, some general aspects of the charged NUT field have been investigated using uncharged and charged particles. The behaviour of the particles near the singularity has also been considered. In the second part of the paper, the charged NUT sources in the context of cosmic censorship hypothesis are studied. Motion of charged particles in the equatorial plane and along the axis is considered. From this investigation the interesting result is discovered that by such a bombardment of charged test particles, the existing event horizons cannot be destroyed but, in contrast to the Reissner-Nordstrom field, naked singularities do not get enveloped by event horizons. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We obtain bounds for the minimum and maximum mass/radius ratio of a stable, charged, spherically symmetric compact object in a D-dimensional space-time in the framework of general relativity, and in the presence of dark energy. The total energy, including the gravitational component, and the stability of objects with minimum mass/radius ratio is also investigated. The minimum energy condition leads to a representation of the mass and radius of the charged objects with minimum mass/radius ratio in terms of the charge and vacuum energy only. As applied to the electron in the four-dimensional case, this procedure allows one to re-obtain the classical electron radius from purely general relativistic considerations. By combining the lower mass bound, in four space-time dimensions, with minimum length uncertainty relations (MLUR) motivated by quantum gravity, we obtain an alternative bound for the maximum charge/mass ratio of a stable, gravitating, charged quantum mechanical object, expressed in terms of fundamental constants. Evaluating this limit numerically, we obtain again the correct order of magnitude value for the charge/mass ratio of the electron, as required by the stability conditions. This suggests that, if the electron were either less massive (with the same charge) or if its charge were any higher (for fixed mass), a combination of electrostatic and dark energy repulsion would destabilize the Compton radius. In other words, the electron would blow itself apart. Our results suggest the existence of a deep connection between gravity, the presence of the cosmological constant, and the stability of fundamental particles. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burikham, Piyabut [Chulalongkorn University, High Energy Physics Theory Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Cheamsawat, Krai [Chulalongkorn University, High Energy Physics Theory Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Imperial College, Theoretical Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Harko, Tiberiu [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Lake, Matthew J. [Naresuan University, The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Phitsanulok (Thailand); Ministry of Education, Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Bangkok (Thailand)
2016-03-15
We obtain bounds for the minimum and maximum mass/radius ratio of a stable, charged, spherically symmetric compact object in a D-dimensional space-time in the framework of general relativity, and in the presence of dark energy. The total energy, including the gravitational component, and the stability of objects with minimum mass/radius ratio is also investigated. The minimum energy condition leads to a representation of the mass and radius of the charged objects with minimum mass/radius ratio in terms of the charge and vacuum energy only. As applied to the electron in the four-dimensional case, this procedure allows one to re-obtain the classical electron radius from purely general relativistic considerations. By combining the lower mass bound, in four space-time dimensions, with minimum length uncertainty relations (MLUR) motivated by quantum gravity, we obtain an alternative bound for the maximum charge/mass ratio of a stable, gravitating, charged quantum mechanical object, expressed in terms of fundamental constants. Evaluating this limit numerically, we obtain again the correct order of magnitude value for the charge/mass ratio of the electron, as required by the stability conditions. This suggests that, if the electron were either less massive (with the same charge) or if its charge were any higher (for fixed mass), a combination of electrostatic and dark energy repulsion would destabilize the Compton radius. In other words, the electron would blow itself apart. Our results suggest the existence of a deep connection between gravity, the presence of the cosmological constant, and the stability of fundamental particles. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Rapp
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Time constants for photodetachment, photoemission, and electron capture are considered for two classes of mesospheric aerosol particles, i.e., meteor smoke particles (MSPs and pure water ice particles. Assuming that MSPs consist of metal oxides like Fe_{2}O_{3} or SiO, we find that during daytime conditions photodetachment by solar photons is up to 4 orders of magnitude faster than electron attachment such that MSPs cannot be negatively charged in the presence of sunlight. Rather, even photoemission can compete with electron capture unless the electron density becomes very large (>>1000 cm^{−3} such that MSPs should either be positively charged or neutral in the case of large electron densities. For pure water ice particles, however, both photodetachment and photoemission are negligible due to the wavelength characteristics of its absorption cross section and because the flux of solar photons has already dropped significantly at such short wavelengths. This means that water ice particles should normally be negatively charged. Hence, our results can readily explain the repeated observation of the coexistence of positive and negative aerosol particles in the polar summer mesopause, i.e., small MSPs should be positively charged and ice particles should be negatively charged. These results have further important implications for our understanding of the nucleation of mesospheric ice particles as well as for the interpretation of incoherent scatter radar observations of MSPs.
The charged-particle multiplicity inside jets at 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector
Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
The number of charged particles inside jets is a widely used discriminant for identifying the quark or gluon nature of the initiating parton and is sensitive to both the perturbative and non-perturbative components of fragmentation. This paper presents a measurement of the average number of charged particles with pT>500 MeV inside high-momentum jets in dijet events using 20.3 1/fb of data recorded with the ATLAS detector in pp collisions at s = sqrt(8) TeV collisions at the LHC. The jets considered have transverse momenta from 50 GeV up to and beyond 1.5 TeV. The reconstructed charged-particle track multiplicity distribution is unfolded to remove distortions from detector effects and the resulting charged-particle multiplicity is compared to several models. Furthermore, quark and gluon jet fractions are used to extract the average charged-particle multiplicity for quark and gluon jets separately.
Threshold Laws for the Break-up of Atomic Particles into Several Charged Fragments
Kuchiev, M. Yu.; Ostrovsky, V. N.
1998-01-01
The processes with three or more charged particles in the final state exhibit particular threshold behavior, as inferred by the famous Wannier law for (2e + ion) system. We formulate a general solution which determines the threshold behavior of the cross section for multiple fragmentation. Applications to several systems of particular importance with three, four and five leptons (electrons and positrons) in the field of charged core; and two pairs of identical particles with opposite charges ...
New Electrically Charged Black Hole in Higher Derivative Gravity as Particle Colliders
Lin, Kai; Pavan, A. B.; Flores-Hidalgo, G.; Abdalla, E.
2016-01-01
In this paper, new electrically charged asymptotically flat black hole solutions are numerically derived in the context of higher derivative gravity. These solutions can be interpreted as generalizations of two different classes of non-charged asymptotically flat spacetimes: Schwarzschild and non-Schwarzschild solutions. The possibility to use these black holes as particle colliders have been analysed. Our results show that the center-of-mass energy of two accelerated charged particles could ...
Transverse momentum spectra for charged particles at the CERN proton-antiproton collider
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have measured transverse momentum spectra up to 10 GeV/c for charged particles produced centrally in proton-antiproton collisions at 540 GeV in the centre of mass at the CERN collider. Our results are compared with data at ISR energies and with the predictions of a QCD model. The charged particle spectrum shows a clear dependence on charged track multiplicity. (orig.)
Constraints on dark matter particles charged under a hidden gauge group from primordial black holes
Dai, De-Chang; Freese, Katherine; Stojkovic, Dejan
2009-01-01
In order to accommodate increasingly tighter observational constraints on dark matter, several models have been proposed recently in which dark matter particles are charged under some hidden gauge group. Hidden gauge charges are invisible for the standard model particles, hence such scenarios are very difficult to constrain directly. However black holes are sensitive to all gauge charges, whether they belong to the standard model or not. Here, we examine the constraints on the possible values...
First direct limits on Lightly Ionizing Particles with electric charge less than $e/6$
Agnese, R; Balakishiyeva, D; Thakur, R Basu; Bauer, D A; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Bowles, M A; Brandt, D; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Cerdeno, D G; Chagani, H; Chen, Y; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Crewdson, C H; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Di Stefano, P C F; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Harris, H R; Hertel, S A; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Kiveni, M; Koch, K; Leder, A; Loer, B; Asamar, E Lopez; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Martinez, C; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Moore, D C; Nelson, H; Nelson, R H; Ogburn, R W; Page, K; Page, W A; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Ricci, Y; Rogers, H E; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Upadhyayula, S; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wright, D H; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, J
2014-01-01
While the Standard Model of particle physics does not include free particles with fractional charge, experimental searches have not ruled out their existence. We report results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) experiment that give the first direct-detection limits for cosmogenically-produced relativistic particles with electric charge lower than $e$/6. A search for tracks in the six stacked detectors of each of two of the CDMS II towers found no candidates, thereby excluding new parameter space for particles with electric charges between $e$/6 and $e$/200.
Kim, S.C.; Bhang, H.; Choi, J.H.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, B. H.(Seoul National University, 151-742, Seoul, South Korea); Kim, H. J.; Kim, K. W.; Kim, S K; Kim, Y.D.(Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejon, 305-811, Korea); Lee, J.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, J K; Lee, M. J.; van der Lee, S. J.; Li, J.
2012-01-01
New limits are presented on the cross section for Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) nucleon scattering in the KIMS CsI(T) detector array at the Yangyang Underground Laboratory. The exposure used for these results is 24524.3 kg\\cdotdays. Nuclei recoiling from WIMP interactions are identified by a pulse shape discrimination method. A low energy background due to alpha emitters on the crystal surfaces is identified and taken into account in the analysis. The detected numbers of nuclear ...
Zima, V. G.; Fedoruk, S. O.
1998-01-01
The transition amplitude is obtained for a free massive particle of arbitrary spin by calculating the path integral in the index-spinor formulation within the BFV-BRST approach. None renormalizations of the path integral measure were applied. The calculation has given the Weinberg propagator written in the index-free form with the use of index spinor. The choice of boundary conditions on the index spinor determines holomorphic or antiholomorphic representation for the canonical description of...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A particle discriminator exploiting the ballistic deficit effect for pulse shape discrimination has been developed for CsI(Tl) scintillator + PIN photodiode charged-particle detectors. The method is theoretically investigated and it is shown that the figure of merit of the particle separation is mainly governed by the absolute value of the differential quotient of the rise time dependent ballistic deficit. As the actual particle discriminator contains shaping amplifiers, baseline restorer, pile-up rejector and analog-to-digital converters, it directly accepts signals from a charge-sensitive preamplifier, and its outputs deliver the type and the energy of the particles in the form of eight-bit digital codes. The performance of the particle discriminator is characterised by the figure-of-merit measured as a function of the particle energy. (orig.)
Light charged particle emission in heavy-ion reactions – What have we learnt?
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Kailas
2001-07-01
Light charged particles emitted in heavy-ion induced reactions, their spectra and angular distributions measured over a range of energies, carry the signature of the underlying reaction mechanisms. Analysis of data of light charged particles, both inclusive and exclusive measured in coincidence with gamma rays, ﬁssion products, evaporation residues have yielded interesting results which bring out the inﬂuence of nuclear structure, nuclear mean ﬁeld and dynamics on the emission of these particles.
Modelling the Role of Charge in Atmospheric Particle Formation Using Quantum Chemical Methods
Ruusuvuori, Kai
2015-01-01
New particle formation is an important process in the atmosphere. As ions are constantly produced in the atmosphere, the behaviour and role of charged particles in atmospheric processes needs to be understood. In order to gain insight on the role of charge in atmospheric new particle formation, the electron structure of the molecules taking part in this process needs to be taken into account using quantum chemical methods. Quantum chemical density functional theory was employed in an eff...
High Energy Ionic Charge State Composition In Recent Large Solar Energetic Particle Events
Labrador, A. W.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.
2003-01-01
The ionic charge states of solar energetic particles (SEPs) provide information on the temperature of source materials and on conditions during acceleration and transport. SAMPEX/MAST measures mean ionic charge states at > 15 MeV/nuc using the geomagnetic rigidity filter technique. Charge state measurements by MAST for gradual SEP events suggest a continuum of charge states correlated with abundance ratios for a variety of elements, similar to what is observed at lower energies. In case...
Gacek, Matthew M; Berg, John C
2012-12-21
The current work examines the role of acid-base properties on particle charging in apolar media. Manipulating the polarity and magnitude of charge in such systems is of growing interest to a number of applications. A major hurdle to the implementation of this technology is that the mechanism(s) of particle charging remain a subject of debate. The authors previously conducted a study of the charging of a series of mineral oxide particles dispersed in apolar systems that contained the surfactant AOT. It was observed that there was a correlation between the particle electrophoretic mobility and the acid-base nature of the particle, as characterized by aqueous point of zero charge (PZC) or the isoelectric point (IEP). The current study investigates whether or not a similar correlation is observed with other surfactants, namely, the acidic Span 80 and the basic OLOA 11000. This is accomplished by measuring the electrophoretic mobility of a series of mineral oxides that are dispersed in Isopar-L containing various concentrations of either Span 80 or OLOA 11000. The mineral oxides used have PZC values that cover a wide range of pH, providing a systematic study of how particle and surfactant acid-base properties impact particle charge. It was found that the magnitude and polarity of particle surface charge varied linearly with the particle PZC for both surfactants used. In addition, the point at which the polarity of charge reversed for the basic surfactant OLOA 11000 was shifted to a pH of approximately 8.5, compared to the previous result of about 5 for AOT. This proves that both surfactant and particle acid-base properties are important, and provides support for the theory of acid-base charging in apolar media. PMID:23157688
Ion-UHMA: a model for simulating the dynamics of neutral and charged aerosol particles.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leppae, J.; Kerminen, V.-M. (Finnish Meteorological Institute, Climate Change Research, Helsinki (Finland)); Gagne, S.; Manninen, H. E.; Nieminen, T.; Kulmala, M. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Laakso, L. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, North-West Univ. Potchefstroom (South Africa)); Korhonen, H. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Lehtinen, K. E. J. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics (Finland); Finnish Meteorological Institute, Kuopio Unit (Finland))
2009-07-01
A new aerosol dynamical box model, Ion-UHMA (University of Helsinki Multicomponent Aerosol model for neutral and charged particles), is introduced in this paper. The model includes basic dynamical processes (condensation, coagulation and deposition) as well as ion-aerosol attachment and ion-ion recombination. The formation of particles is treated as model input or, alternatively, the model can be coupled with an existing nucleation model. Ion-UHMA was found to be able to reproduce qualitatively the measured time evolution of the particle number size distribution, when the particle formation and growth rates as well as concentrations of particles > 20 nm in diameter were taken from measurements. The simulated charging state of freshly formed particles during a new particle formation event evolved towards charge equilibrium in line with previously-derived analytical formulae. We provided a few illustrative examples to demonstrate possible applications, to which the Ion-UHMA model could be used in the near future. (orig.)
A search for relativistic particles with fractional electric charge at the Cern collider
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Banner, M.; Kofoed-Hansen, O.
1983-01-01
A search for relativistic particles with fractional electric charge has been performed at the CERN collider using a telescope of scintillation counters to detect particles with abnormally low ionisation. The thickness of the detector (40 gr cm−2) limits this search to particles without strong...... absorption in matter. No evidence for such particles has been found. This negative result is used to set an upper limit for the ratio of quark yield to that of particles with unit electric charge. For quark masses below 2 GeV/c2 the 90% confidence level upper limits range from 2 × 10−4 to 2.5 × 10...
Electrophoretic mobility of a charged colloidal particle: a computer simulation study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the mobility of a charged colloidal particle in a constant homogeneous electric field by means of computer simulations. The simulation method combines a lattice Boltzmann scheme for the fluid with standard Langevin dynamics for the colloidal particle, which is built up from a net of bonded particles forming the surface of the colloid. The coupling between the two subsystems is introduced via friction forces. In addition, explicit counterions, also coupled to the fluid, are present. We observe a non-monotonic dependence of the electrophoretic mobility on the bare colloidal charge. At low surface charge density we observe a linear increase of the mobility with bare charge, whereas at higher charges, where more than half of the ions are co-moving with the colloid, the mobility decreases with increasing bare charge
Ultracold Fermi and Bose gases and Spinless Bose Charged Sound Particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Minasyan V.
2011-10-01
Full Text Available We propose a novel approach for investigation of the motion of Bose or Fermi liquid (or gas which consists of decoupled electrons and ions in the uppermost hyperfine state. Hence, we use such a concept as the fluctuation motion of “charged fluid particles” or “charged fluid points” representing a charged longitudinal elastic wave. In turn, this elastic wave is quantized by spinless longitudinal Bose charged sound particles with the rest mass m and charge e 0 . The existence of spinless Bose charged sound particles allows us to present a new model for description of Bose or Fermi liquid via a non-ideal Bose gas of charged sound particles . In this respect, we introduce a new postulation for the superfluid component of Bose or Fermi liquid determined by means of charged sound particles in the condensate, which may explain the results of experiments connected with ultra-cold Fermi gases of spin-polarized hydrogen, 6 Li and 40 K, and such a Bose gas as 87 Rb in the uppermost hyperfine state, where the Bose- Einstein condensation of charged sound particles is realized by tuning the magnetic field.
Tambade, Popat S.
2011-01-01
The objective of this article is to graphically illustrate to the students the physical phenomenon of motion of charged particle under the action of simultaneous electric and magnetic fields by simulating particle motion on a computer. Differential equations of motions are solved analytically and path of particle in three-dimensional space are…
High-energy charged particle bursts in the near-Earth space as earthquake precursors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Yu. Aleksandrin
Full Text Available The experimental data on high-energy charged particle fluxes, obtained in various near-Earth space experiments (MIR orbital station, METEOR-3, GAMMA and SAMPEX satellites were processed and analyzed with the goal to search for particle bursts. Particle bursts have been selected in every experiment considered. It was shown that the significant part of high-energy charged particle bursts correlates with seismic activity. Moreover, the particle bursts are observed several hours before strong earthquakes; L-shells of particle bursts and corresponding earthquakes are practically the same. Some features of a seismo-magnetosphere connection model, based on the interaction of electromagnetic emission of seismic origin and radiation belt particles, were considered.
Key words. Ionospheric physics (energetic particles, trapped; energetic particles, precipitating; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
All known elementary particles that can be isolated as individual particles have an electric charge