WorldWideScience

Sample records for charge states

  1. Low-charge-state linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    A design is being developed for a low-charge-state linac suitable for injecting ATLAS with a low-charge-state, radioactive beam. Initial work indicates that the existing ATLAS interdigital superconducting accelerating structures, together with the superconducting quadrupole transverse focussing element discussed above, provides a basis for a high-performance low-charge-state linac. The initial 2 or 3 MV of such a linac could be based on a normally-conducting, low-frequency RFQ, possibly combined with 24-MHz superconducting interdigital structures. Beam dynamics studies of the whole low-charge-state post-accelerator section were carried out in early FY 1995.

  2. Charge states of ions, and mechanisms of charge ordering transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Warren E.; Quan, Yundi; Pardo, Victor

    2014-07-01

    To gain insight into the mechanism of charge ordering transitions, which conventionally are pictured as a disproportionation of an ion M as 2Mn+→M(n+1)+ + M(n-1)+, we (1) review and reconsider the charge state (or oxidation number) picture itself, (2) introduce new results for the putative charge ordering compound AgNiO2 and the dual charge state insulator AgO, and (3) analyze the cationic occupations of the actual (not formal) charge, and work to reconcile the conundrums that arise. We establish that several of the clearest cases of charge ordering transitions involve no disproportion (no charge transfer between the cations, and hence no charge ordering), and that the experimental data used to support charge ordering can be accounted for within density functional-based calculations that contain no charge transfer between cations. We propose that the charge state picture retains meaning and importance, at least in many cases, if one focuses on Wannier functions rather than atomic orbitals. The challenge of modeling charge ordering transitions with model Hamiltonians isdiscussed.

  3. q-deformed charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged, Hyper-charged fermion coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Sanru; Li Guanghua; Long Junyan

    1994-01-01

    By virtue of the algebra of the q-deformed fermion oscillators, the q-deformed charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged, hyper-charged fermion coherent states are discussed. The explicit forms of the two kinds of coherent states mentioned above are obtained by making use of the completeness of base vectors in the q-fermion Fock space. By comparing the q-deformed results with the ordinary results, it is found that the q-deformed charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged, hyper-charged fermion coherent states are automatically reduced to the ordinary charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged hyper-charged fermion coherent states if the deformed parameter q→1

  4. Low-charge-state RFQ injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Preliminary design work was done for a short, normally-conducting RFQ entrance section for a low-charge-state linac. Early results indicate that a low- frequency (12 MHz) RFQ, operated on a high-voltage platform, and injected with a pre-bunched beam, can provide ATLAS quality beams of ions of charge-to-mass ratio less than 1/132.

  5. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig

  6. Numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crume, E.C.; Arnurius, D.E.

    1977-09-01

    The numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions using the computer program IMPDYN is discussed. The time-dependent corona atomic physics model used in the calculations is reviewed, and general and specific treatments of electron impact ionization and recombination are referenced. The complete program and two examples relating to tokamak plasmas are given on a microfiche so that a user may verify that his version of the program is working properly. In the discussion of the examples, the corona steady-state approximation is shown to have significant defects when the plasma environment, particularly the electron temperature, is changing rapidly

  7. AARHUS: Exotic charge states in ASTRID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moller, Soren Pape

    1995-01-01

    Ions are atoms from which one or more orbital electrons have been detached. This removal can be done, for example, by impact of other electrons. Today beams of bare ions - nuclei without any electrons - are available, for example at the GSI heavy ion Laboratory, Darmstadt, even for the heaviest elements. Molecules too can be ionized by removal of one electron and these molecules can be accelerated to form high energy beams. Molecules are, however, generally not expected to be stable when more than one electron is missing, since there is too little negative charge to bind the positive nuclei. It was therefore a surprise when a stable doubly-charged molecular ion was found at experiments at the ASTRID storage ring, Aarhus, Denmark. The aim of the experiment was to measure lifetimes of expected metastable states of doubly-charged carbon monoxide, CO ++ . The CO ++ ions were produced in an ion source and the accelerated beam injected into the storage ring. The circulating intensity was then monitored by detecting neutral species produced in restgas collisions at the end of a straight section. For CO ++ , a fraction of the beam survived for tens of seconds, with a lifetime around 4 seconds. This lifetime was dominated by restgas collisions. The base pressure was around 2 x 10 -11 mbar. In order to avoid contamination from molecules with the same mass/charge ratio, e.g. singly-charged nitrogen-14, the carbon monoxide used was based on the naturally rare isotope carbon-13 rather than the abundant carbon-12. Many atoms can also bind an additional electron and form negative ions. Several negative ions are metastable, and lifetime measurements performed at ASTRID and elsewhere produce accurate results important for comparisons with theory. Double-charged negative ions could in principle exist, and indications of metastable states of H - and O - were seen some years ago as resonances in the electron bombardment of negative hydrogen ions. This process was recently studied at

  8. AARHUS: Exotic charge states in ASTRID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moller, Soren Pape

    1995-04-15

    Ions are atoms from which one or more orbital electrons have been detached. This removal can be done, for example, by impact of other electrons. Today beams of bare ions - nuclei without any electrons - are available, for example at the GSI heavy ion Laboratory, Darmstadt, even for the heaviest elements. Molecules too can be ionized by removal of one electron and these molecules can be accelerated to form high energy beams. Molecules are, however, generally not expected to be stable when more than one electron is missing, since there is too little negative charge to bind the positive nuclei. It was therefore a surprise when a stable doubly-charged molecular ion was found at experiments at the ASTRID storage ring, Aarhus, Denmark. The aim of the experiment was to measure lifetimes of expected metastable states of doubly-charged carbon monoxide, CO{sup ++}. The CO{sup ++} ions were produced in an ion source and the accelerated beam injected into the storage ring. The circulating intensity was then monitored by detecting neutral species produced in restgas collisions at the end of a straight section. For CO{sup ++}, a fraction of the beam survived for tens of seconds, with a lifetime around 4 seconds. This lifetime was dominated by restgas collisions. The base pressure was around 2 x 10{sup -11} mbar. In order to avoid contamination from molecules with the same mass/charge ratio, e.g. singly-charged nitrogen-14, the carbon monoxide used was based on the naturally rare isotope carbon-13 rather than the abundant carbon-12. Many atoms can also bind an additional electron and form negative ions. Several negative ions are metastable, and lifetime measurements performed at ASTRID and elsewhere produce accurate results important for comparisons with theory. Double-charged negative ions could in principle exist, and indications of metastable states of H{sup -} and O{sup -} were seen some years ago as resonances in the electron bombardment of negative hydrogen ions. This

  9. Gap states of charged soliton in polyacetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Dingwei; Liu Jie; Fu Rouli

    1988-10-01

    By considering the electron interaction in polyacetylene, it is found that two gap states in charged solitons of trans-polyacetylene exist: one is deep level, another is shallow level. The deep one shifts 0.23 ev down (for positive soliton) or up (for negative soliton) from the center of the gap; while the shallow one is 0.06 ev under the bottom of conduction band (positive soliton) or above the top of valence band (negative soliton). These results agree with the absorption spectra of trans-polyacetylene. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  10. Vacuum arc ion charge state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Godechot, X.

    1990-06-01

    We have measured vacuum arc ion charge state spectra for a wide range of metallic cathode materials. The charge state distributions were measured using a time-of-flight diagnostic to monitor the energetic ion beam produced by a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. We have obtained data for 48 metallic cathode elements: Li, C, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Pt, Au, Pb, Bi, Th and U. The arc was operated in a pulsed mode with pulse length 0.25 msec; arc current was 100 A throughout. This array of elements extends and completes previous work by us. In this paper the measured distributions are cataloged and compared with our earlier results and with those of other workers. We also make some observations about the performance of the various elements as suitable vacuum arc cathode materials

  11. Vacuum arc ion charge-state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Godechot, X.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have measured vacuum arc ion charge-state spectra for a wide range of metallic cathode materials. The charge-state distributions were measured using a time-of-flight diagnostic to monitor the energetic ion beam produced by a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. They have obtained data for 48 metallic cathode elements: Li, C, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Pt, Au, Pb, Bi, Th, and U. The arc was operated in a pulsed mode with pulse length 0.25 ms; arc current was 100 A throughout. This array of elements extends and completes previous work by the authors. In this paper the measured distributions are cataloged and compared with their earlier results and those of other workers. They also make some observations about the performance of the various elements as suitable vacuum arc cathode materials

  12. Nickel-hydrogen battery state of charge during low rate trickle charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, C.; Foroozan, S.; Brewer, J.; Jackson, L.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA AXAF-I program requires high battery state of charge at launch. Traditional approaches to providing high state of charge, during prelaunch operations, require significant battery cooling. The use of active cooling, in the AXAF-I prelaunch environment, was considered and proved to be difficult to implement and very expensive. Accordingly alternate approaches were considered. An approach utilizing adiabatic charging and low rate trickle charge, was investigated and proved successful.

  13. Nickel-hydrogen battery state of charge during low rate trickle charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lurie, C.; Foroozan, S.; Brewer, J.; Jackson, L. [TRW Space and Electronics Group, Redondo Beach, CA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The NASA AXAF-I program requires high battery state of charge at launch. Traditional approaches to providing high state of charge, during prelaunch operations, require significant battery cooling. The use of active cooling, in the AXAF-I prelaunch environment, was considered and proved to be difficult to implement and very expensive. Accordingly alternate approaches were considered. An approach utilizing adiabatic charging and low rate trickle charge, was investigated and proved successful.

  14. An EBIS for charge state breeding in the SPES project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 'charge state breeder', BRIC (breeding ion charge) is in construction at the INFN section of Bari (Italy). It is based on EBIS scheme and it is designed to accept radioactive ion beam (RIB) with charge state +1 in a slow injection mode. This experiment can be considered as a first step towards the design and construction ...

  15. High charge state heavy ion production from a PIG source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bex, L.; Clark, D.J.; Ellsworth, C.E.; Flood, W.S.; Gough, R.A.; Holley, W.R.; Meriwether, J.R.; Morris, D.

    1975-03-01

    The comparison of pulsed vs. dc arc operation for nitrogen and argon shows a shift in charge distribution toward the higher charge states for the pulsed case. Tests with various magnetic field shapes along the arc column show a significant increase in high charge state output for a uniform field compared to the case with a field low at the cathodes. (U.S.)

  16. An EBIS for charge state breeding in the SPES project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    development and testing of a charge state breeder device based on an EBIS source ... the number of particles that can be accumulated in a Penning source is limited. ... accounting for the magnetic field and the electron beam space charge.

  17. Metastable states of plasma particles close to a charged surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavlov, A. V., E-mail: shavlov@ikz.ru [The Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian branch, 625000, P.O. 1230, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, 38, Volodarskogo St., 625000, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Dzhumandzhi, V. A. [The Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian branch, 625000, P.O. 1230, Tyumen (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    The free energy of the plasma particles and the charged surface that form an electroneutral system is calculated on the basis of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. It is shown that, owing to correlation of light plasma particles near the charged surface and close to heavy particles of high charge, there can be metastable states in plasma. The corresponding phase charts of metastable states of the separate components of plasma, and plasma as a whole, are constructed. These charts depend on temperature, the charge magnitude, the size of the particles, and the share of the charge of the light carriers out of the total charge of the plasma particles.

  18. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  19. Charge state of ions scattered by metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishinevsky, L.M.; Parilis, E.S.; Verleger, V.K.

    1976-01-01

    A model for description of charge distributions for scattering of heavy ions in the keV region, on metal surfaces developing and improving the method of Van der Weg and Bierman, and taking into account the connection between the ion charge state and scattering kinematics, is proposed. It is shown that multiple charged particles come from ions with a vacancy in the inner shell while the outer shell vacancies give only single charged ions and neutrals. The approximately linear increase of degree of ionization with normal velocity, and the non-monotonic charge dependence of the energy spectrum established by Chicherov and Buck et al is explained by considering irreversible neutralization in the depth of the metal, taking into account the connection of the charge state with the shape of trajectory and its location relative to the metal surface. The dependence of charge state on surface structure is discussed. Some new experiments are proposed. (author)

  20. Concept for high-charge-state ion induction accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, B.G.; Perry, M.D.; Caporaso, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    This work describes a particular concept for ion induction linac accelerators using high-charge-state ions produced by an intense, short pulse laser, and compares the costs of a modular driver system producing 6.5 MJ for a variety of ion masses and charge states using a simple but consistent cost model

  1. Charge sensitive amplifies. The state of arts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kunishiro [Clear Pulse Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    In the radiation detectors, signals are essentially brought with charges produced by radiation, then it is naturally the best way to use a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) system to extract those signals. The CSA is thought to be the best amplifier suitable to almost all the radiation detectors, if neglecting economical points of view. The CSA has been only applied to special fields like radiation detection because the concept of `charges` is not so universal against the concepts of `voltage` and `current`. The CSA, however, is low in noise and a high speed amplifier and may be applicable not only to radiation measurement but also piezoelectric devices and also bolometers. In this article, noise in the CSA, basic circuit on the CSA, concepts of `equivalent noise charge` (ENC), a method for the ENC, and importance of the `open-loop gain` in the CSA to achieve better performance of it and how to realize in a practical CSA were described. And, characteristics on a counting rate of the CSA, various circuit used in the CSA, and CSAs which are commercially available at present and special purpose CSAs were also introduced. (G.K.)

  2. A high charge state heavy ion beam source for HIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.

    1995-04-01

    A high current low emittance high charge state heavy ion beam source is being developed. This is designed to deliver HIF (heavy ion fusion) driver accelerator scale beam. Using high-charge-state beam in a driver accelerator for HIF may increase the acceleration efficiency, leading to a reduction in the driver accelerator size and cost. The proposed source system which consists of the gas beam electron stripper followed by a high charge state beam separator, can be added to existing single charge state, low emittance, high brightness ion sources and injectors. We shall report on the source physics design using 2D beam envelope simulations and experimental feasibility studies' results using a neutral gas stripper and a beam separator at the exit of the LBL 2 MV injector

  3. Charge state of oxide layer of SIMOX-structures

    CERN Document Server

    Askinazi, A Y; Dmitriev, V A; Miloglyadova, L V

    2001-01-01

    The charge state of the oxide layer of the SIMOX-structures, obtained in the course of forming the oxide layers, bricked up in the silicon volume, through the oxygen ions implantation into the Si, is studied. The charge state of the given structures is studied through the method of the layer-by-layer profiling, which makes it possible to obtain the dependence of the plane zones potential on the oxide layer thickness. It is established, that during the process of the SIMOX-structures formation in the oxide layer near the boundary with the Si there appear defects, responsible for the charge. The radiation from the near-the-ultraviolet (NUV) area without the applied electric field neutralizes the given charge. The simultaneous impact of the NUV-radiation and electric field leads to the formation of significantly positive charge

  4. Equilibrium charge state distributions of high energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.; Grant, I.S.; King, R.; Eastham, D.A.; Joy, T.

    1976-01-01

    Equilibrium charge state fractions have been measured for N, O, Ne, S, Ar and Kr ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon after passing through various stripping materials. Further data were obtained at higher energy for S ions (4.12 MeV/nucleon) and Ar ions (4.12 and 9.6 MeV/nucleon). The mean charge fractions can be fitted to universal curves for both solid and gaseous strippers. Measurements of the equilibrium fraction of krypton ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon passing through heavy vapours have shown that a higher average charge state is obtained than for lighter gaseous strippers. (Auth.)

  5. [Probabilistic calculations of biomolecule charge states that generate mass spectra of multiply charged ions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raznikova, M O; Raznikov, V V

    2015-01-01

    In this work, information relating to charge states of biomolecule ions in solution obtained using the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of different biopolymers is analyzed. The data analyses have mainly been carried out by solving an inverse problem of calculating the probabilities of retention of protons and other charge carriers by ionogenic groups of biomolecules with known primary structures. The approach is a new one and has no known to us analogues. A program titled "Decomposition" was developed and used to analyze the charge distribution of ions of native and denatured cytochrome c mass spectra. The possibility of splitting of the charge-state distribution of albumin into normal components, which likely corresponds to various conformational states of the biomolecule, has been demonstrated. The applicability criterion for using previously described method of decomposition of multidimensional charge-state distributions with two charge carriers, e.g., a proton and a sodium ion, to characterize the spatial structure of biopolymers in solution has been formulated. In contrast to known mass-spectrometric approaches, this method does not require the use of enzymatic hydrolysis or collision-induced dissociation of the biopolymers.

  6. Increasing Protein Charge State When Using Laser Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Santosh; Flanigan, Paul M.; Perez, Johnny J.; Archer, Jieutonne J.; Levis, Robert J.

    2015-05-01

    Femtosecond (fs) laser vaporization is used to transfer cytochrome c, myoglobin, lysozyme, and ubiquitin from the condensed phase into an electrospray (ES) plume consisting of a mixture of a supercharging reagent, m-nitrobenzyl alcohol ( m-NBA), and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), acetic acid (AA), or formic acid (FA). Interaction of acid-sensitive proteins like cytochrome c and myoglobin with the highly charged ES droplets resulted in a shift to higher charge states in comparison with acid-stable proteins like lysozyme and ubiquitin. Laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) measurements showed an increase in both the average charge states (Zavg) and the charge state with maximum intensity (Zmode) for acid-sensitive proteins compared with conventional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) under equivalent solvent conditions. A marked increase in ion abundance of higher charge states was observed for LEMS in comparison with conventional electrospray for cytochrome c (ranging from 19+ to 21+ versus 13+ to 16+) and myoglobin (ranging from 19+ to 26+ versus 18+ to 21+) using an ES solution containing m-NBA and TFA. LEMS measurements as a function of electrospray flow rate yielded increasing charge states with decreasing flow rates for cytochrome c and myoglobin.

  7. Charge independence and charge symmetry breaking interactions and the Coulomb energy anomaly in isobaric analog states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Sagawa, H.; Giai, N. van.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of CIB (charge independence breaking) and CSB (charge symmetry breaking) interactions on the Coulomb displacement energies of isobaric analog states are investigated for 48 Ca, 90 Zr and 208 Pb. Mass number dependence of the Coulomb energy anomalies is well explained when CIB and CSB interactions are used which reproduce the differences of the scattering lengths as well as those of the effective ranges of low energy nucleon-nucleon scattering. (author) 17 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Equation of state of charged latex suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reus, Valerie

    1995-01-01

    We measured the osmotic pressure of charged bromo-polystyrene particles suspensions in the dilute System (0,01-10% in volume fraction). The typical range of differences in water heights varies from one millimeter to a few centimeters. When particles are polydisperse, samples remain always sols but if particles are monodisperse, they can form supramolecular crystals stabilized by electrostatic repulsions. These crystals exist only when the ionic force is very low, about one μmole/l. We determined the structure of these assemblies by light and X-ray scattering as function of the volume fraction. At low volume fractions, crystals adopt a body centered cubic structure; when the concentration increases, they become more compact and we observe face centered cubic structures. After shearing, defects may appear and two dimensional hexagonal structures can be found. This type of study of the osmotic pressure versus distance (in the range 300 nm) is equivalent to a highly precise atomic force measurement, since it allows detection of forces as small as 10 -11 -10 -12 N. (author) [fr

  9. Charge state of finely divided conducting systems in dielectric matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Yu.V.; Grishin, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The calculation of the high statistic sum Z of the charged metal granules in the dielectric matrix is carried out with an account of the excess number of the Fermi-particles fluctuations on the granules. Application of a microscopic Hamiltonian for the energy of electrostatic interaction between the charge densities in the system makes it possible to accomplish these calculations in the average field approximation. The effect of the number of the Fermi-particles fluctuations on the charge state of the finely divided granules in the dielectric matrix is studied. It is supposed that the charge exchange between the composite metal elements occurs on the account of the electron overbarrier heat transfer. It is followed from the system high statistic sum calculation results that the i-granule medium charge is connected by the nonlinear ratio with the conductors V i potentials [ru

  10. Electron beam charge state amplifier (EBQA)--a conceptual evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooling, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    A concept is presented for stripping low-energy, radioactive ions from 1+ to higher charge states. Referred to as an Electron Beam Charge State Amplifier (EBQA), this device accepts a continuous beam of singly-charged, radioactive ions and passes them through a high-density electron beam confined by a solenoidal magnetic field. Singly-charged ions may be extracted from standard Isotope-Separator-Online (ISOL) sources. An EBQA is potentially useful for increasing the charge state of ions prior to injection into post-acceleration stages at ISOL radioactive beam facilities. The stripping efficiency from q=1+ to 2+ (η 12 ) is evaluated as a function of electron beam radius at constant current with solenoid field, injected ion energy, and ion beam emittance used as parameters. Assuming a 5 keV, 1 A electron beam, η 12 = 0.38 for 0.1 keV, 132 Xe ions passing through an 8 Tesla solenoid, 1 m in length. Multi-pass configurations to achieve 3+ or 4+ charge states are also conceivable. The calculated efficiencies depend inversely on the initial ion beam emittances. The use of a helium-buffer-gas, ion-guide stage to improve the brightness of the 1+ beams [1] may enhance the performance of an EBQA

  11. An EBIS for charge state breeding in the SPES project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variale, V.; Lamanna, G.; Valentino, V.; Brautti, G.; Clauser, T.; Raino, A.; Stagno, V.; Boggia, A.; Boimelshtein, Y.; Logatchov, P.; Skarbo, B.; Tiunov, M.

    2002-01-01

    The charge state breeder BRIC (Breeding Ion Charge) is in construction at the INFN section of Bari (Italy). It is based on EBIS scheme and it is designed to accept radioactive ion beam (RIB) with charge state +1 in a slow injection mode. This experiment can be considered as a first step towards the design and construction of a charge breeder for the SPES project. The new feature of BRIC, with respect to the classical EBIS is given by the insertion, in the ion chamber, of a rf-quadrupole aiming at filtering the unwanted masses and then making a more efficient containment of the wanted ions. In this paper, the breeder design, the simulation results of the electron and ion beam propagation and the construction problems of the device will be reported. (author)

  12. Interfacial Charge Transfer States in Condensed Phase Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewal, Koen

    2016-05-01

    Intermolecular charge transfer (CT) states at the interface between electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials in organic thin films are characterized by absorption and emission bands within the optical gap of the interfacing materials. CT states efficiently generate charge carriers for some D-A combinations, and others show high fluorescence quantum efficiencies. These properties are exploited in organic solar cells, photodetectors, and light-emitting diodes. This review summarizes experimental and theoretical work on the electronic structure and interfacial energy landscape at condensed matter D-A interfaces. Recent findings on photogeneration and recombination of free charge carriers via CT states are discussed, and relations between CT state properties and optoelectronic device parameters are clarified.

  13. Charge state distributions from highly charged ions channeled at a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkerts, L.; Meyer, F.W.; Schippers, S.

    1994-01-01

    The vast majority of the experimental work in the field of multicharged ion-surface interactions, to date, has focused on x-ray and particularly on electron emission. These experiments include measurements of the total electron yield, the emission statistics of the electrons, and, most of all, the electron energy distributions. So far, little attention has been paid to the fate of the multicharged projectile ions after the scattering. To our knowledge, the only measurement of the charge state distribution of the scattered ions is the pioneering experiment of de Zwart et al., who measured the total yield of scattered 1+, 2+, and 3+ ions as a function of the primary charge state q (q = 1--11) for 20 key Ne, Ar, and Kr ions after reflection from a polycrystalline tungsten target. Their main finding is the sudden onset of scattered 3+ ions when inner-shell vacancies are present in the primary particles. This suggests that a certain fraction of the inner-shell vacancies survives the entire collision event, and decays via autoionization on the outgoing path. Since the projectiles scattered in the neutral charge state could not be detected in the experiment of de Zwart et al., they were not able to provide absolute charge state fractions. In our present experiment, we focus on the scattered projectiles, measuring both the final charge state and the total scattering angle with a single 2D position sensitive detector (PSD). This method gives us the number of positive, as well as neutral and negative, scattered ions, thus allowing us to extract absolute charge state fractions. Using a well-prepared single Au(110) crystal and a grazing incidence geometry, we were able to observe surface channeling along the [001] channels

  14. Evaluation of several state-of-charge algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, J. M.; Martin, M. E.; Burke, A. F.

    1988-09-01

    One of the important needs in marketing an electric vehicle is a device which reliably indicates battery state-of-charge for all types of driving. The purpose of the state-of-charge indicator is analogous to a gas gauge in an internal combustion engine powered vehicle. Many different approaches have been tried to accurately predict battery state-of-charge. This report evaluates several of these approaches. Four different algorithms were implemented into software on an IBM PC and tested using a battery test database for ALCO 2200 lead-acid batteries generated at the INEL. The database was obtained under controlled conditions which compare with the battery response in real EV use. Each algorithm is described in detail as to theory and operational functionality. Also discussed is the hardware and data requirements particular to implementing the individual algorithms. The algorithms were evaluated for accuracy using constant power, stepped power, and simulated vehicle (SFUDS79) discharge profiles. Attempts were made to explain the cause of differences between the predicted and actual state-of-charge and to provide possible remedies to correct them. Recommendations for future work on battery state-of-charge indicators are presented that utilize the hardware and software now in place in the INEL Battery Laboratory.

  15. Efficient charge generation by relaxed charge-transfer states at organic interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vandewal, Koen

    2013-11-17

    Interfaces between organic electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials have the ability to generate charge carriers on illumination. Efficient organic solar cells require a high yield for this process, combined with a minimum of energy losses. Here, we investigate the role of the lowest energy emissive interfacial charge-transfer state (CT1) in the charge generation process. We measure the quantum yield and the electric field dependence of charge generation on excitation of the charge-transfer (CT) state manifold via weakly allowed, low-energy optical transitions. For a wide range of photovoltaic devices based on polymer:fullerene, small-molecule:C60 and polymer:polymer blends, our study reveals that the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is essentially independent of whether or not D, A or CT states with an energy higher than that of CT1 are excited. The best materials systems show an IQE higher than 90% without the need for excess electronic or vibrational energy. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  16. Efficient charge generation by relaxed charge-transfer states at organic interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vandewal, Koen; Albrecht, Steve N.; Hoke, Eric T.; Graham, Kenneth; Widmer, Johannes; Douglas, Jessica D.; Schubert, Marcel; Mateker, William R.; Bloking, Jason T.; Burkhard, George F.; Sellinger, Alan; Frechet, Jean; Amassian, Aram; Riede, Moritz Kilian; McGehee, Michael D.; Neher, Dieter; Salleo, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Interfaces between organic electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials have the ability to generate charge carriers on illumination. Efficient organic solar cells require a high yield for this process, combined with a minimum of energy losses. Here, we investigate the role of the lowest energy emissive interfacial charge-transfer state (CT1) in the charge generation process. We measure the quantum yield and the electric field dependence of charge generation on excitation of the charge-transfer (CT) state manifold via weakly allowed, low-energy optical transitions. For a wide range of photovoltaic devices based on polymer:fullerene, small-molecule:C60 and polymer:polymer blends, our study reveals that the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is essentially independent of whether or not D, A or CT states with an energy higher than that of CT1 are excited. The best materials systems show an IQE higher than 90% without the need for excess electronic or vibrational energy. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  17. Charge state distributions for heavy ions in carbon stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, M.A.; Lebed, R.F.; Feinberg, B.

    1989-03-01

    We have extended the database of measured charge state distributions available in the literature through measurements at the SuperHILAC using carbon stripper foils in the energy range 1.2--8.5 MeV/u. Modifying a semi-empirical model to include the effect of electronic shells, we are able to correctly predict the mean charge state to within 1/2 a charge state for 6≤Z≤92 and energies from 30 keV/u to 16 MeV/u. We have determined parameters for the widths of the distributions for each electronic shell. For distributions lying across a shell boundary, we join the two Gaussians of different widths to get an asymmetric distribution. 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Generation of cluster states with Josephson charge qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xiao-Hu; Dong, Ping; Xue, Zheng-Yuan; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2007-01-01

    A scheme for the generation of the cluster states based on the Josephson charge qubits is proposed. The two-qubit generation case is introduced first, and then generalized to multi-qubit case. The successful probability and fidelity of current multi-qubit cluster state are both 1.0. The scheme is simple and can be easily manipulated, because any two charge qubits can be selectively and effectively coupled by a common inductance. More manipulations can be realized before decoherence sets in. All the devices in the scheme are well within the current technology

  19. Charged boson bound states in the kerr-newman metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuanjie; Zhang Duanming

    1986-01-01

    Charged boson bound states in Kerr-Newman metric are discussed. It is found that massless boson cannot be attracted by Kerr-Newman black hole to form bound states. For the massive boson, the condition of the nonbound states when 0 2 - Q 2 and both the condition and wave functions of the bound states when a = √M 2 - Q 2 are obtained. The energy mode of the bound states is single, E = (m√M 2 - Q 2 + eQM)/(2M 2 - Q 2 ). When Q = 0 or e = 0, the conclusion is in agreement with that of Zhang Shiwei and Su Rukeng

  20. Effect of dielectronic recombination on the charge-state distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effect of dielectronic recombination in determining charge-state distribu- tion and radiative emission from a laser-produced carbon plasma has been investigated in the collisional radiative ionization equilibrium. It is observed that the relative abundances of different ions in the plasma, and soft X-ray emission ...

  1. Protecting a Diamond Quantum Memory by Charge State Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfender, Matthias; Aslam, Nabeel; Simon, Patrick; Antonov, Denis; Thiering, Gergő; Burk, Sina; Fávaro de Oliveira, Felipe; Denisenko, Andrej; Fedder, Helmut; Meijer, Jan; Garrido, Jose A; Gali, Adam; Teraji, Tokuyuki; Isoya, Junichi; Doherty, Marcus William; Alkauskas, Audrius; Gallo, Alejandro; Grüneis, Andreas; Neumann, Philipp; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2017-10-11

    In recent years, solid-state spin systems have emerged as promising candidates for quantum information processing. Prominent examples are the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond, phosphorus dopants in silicon (Si:P), rare-earth ions in solids, and V Si -centers in silicon-carbide. The Si:P system has demonstrated that its nuclear spins can yield exceedingly long spin coherence times by eliminating the electron spin of the dopant. For NV centers, however, a proper charge state for storage of nuclear spin qubit coherence has not been identified yet. Here, we identify and characterize the positively charged NV center as an electron-spin-less and optically inactive state by utilizing the nuclear spin qubit as a probe. We control the electronic charge and spin utilizing nanometer scale gate electrodes. We achieve a lengthening of the nuclear spin coherence times by a factor of 4. Surprisingly, the new charge state allows switching of the optical response of single nodes facilitating full individual addressability.

  2. State-of-charge indication in portable applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The known methods of state-of-charge (SoC) indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. The method presented in this paper aims at designing and testing an SoC indication system capable of predicting the remaining capacity of the battery and the

  3. Universal state-of-charge indication for portable applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.

    2007-01-01

    Many leading semiconductors companies (e.g. Philips, Texas Instruments, Microchip, Maxim, etc.) are paying even more attention to accurate State-of-Charge (SoC) indication. Following the technological revolution and the appearance of more power consuming devices on the automotive electronics and

  4. State-of-Charge Indication in Portable Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The known methods of state-of-charge (SoC) indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. The method presented in this paper aims at designing and testing an SoC indication system capable of predicting the remaining capacity of the battery and the

  5. State-of-charge indication for portable applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The known methods of state-of-charge (SoC) indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. The method presented in this paper aims at designing and testing an SoC indication system capable of predicting the remaining capacity of the battery and the

  6. Charge loss experiments in surface channel CCD's explained by the McWhorter interface states model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning De Vries, R.G.M.; Wallinga, Hans

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of the McWhorter interface states model the CCD charge loss is derived as a function of bias charge, signal charge and channel width. As opposed to existing models, the charge loss is now attributed to interface states in the entire gate area, even for high bias charge levels.

  7. Charge state distribution of ionic kryptons after photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xiaohong

    1992-01-01

    Monochromatic X-rays from the 2.3 GeV synchrotron at University Bonn (Germany) are employed for inner shell excitation of krypton. Various ionic kryptons and a number of electrons are produced due to photoionization. In order to study the equilibrium charge state distribution of ionic kryptons, a time of flight mass spectrometer is set up and used to measure the resulting ionic charge spectra with photo energies near the L 1 - , L 2 - and L 3 - absorption edges of krypton. The energy dependence of relative probabilities is presented

  8. Cracking of charged polytropes with generalized polytropic equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, M. [University of Education, Division of Science and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Mardan, S.A. [University of the Management and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-02-15

    We discuss the occurrence of cracking in charged anisotropic polytropes with generalized polytropic equation of state through two different assumptions; (i) by carrying out local density perturbations under a conformally flat condition (ii) by perturbing anisotropy, polytropic index and charge parameters. For this purpose, we consider two different definitions of polytropes that exist in literature. We conclude that under local density perturbations scheme cracking does not appear in both types of polytropes and stable configuration is observed, while with the second type of perturbation cracking appears in both types of polytropes under certain conditions. (orig.)

  9. Vacuum improvements for ultra high charge state ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.; Guy, A.; Lundgren, S.A

    1998-06-01

    The installation of a second cryo panel has significantly improved the vacuum in the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutral pressure in the extraction region decreased from 1.2 x 10 -6 down to about 7 x 10 -7 Torr. The vacuum improvement reduces beam loss from charge changing collisions and enhances the cyclotron beam transmission, especially for the high charge state heavy ions. Tests with improved vacuum show the cyclotron transmission increased more than 50% (from 5.7% to 9.0%) for a Xe 27+ at 603 MeV, more than doubled for a Bi 41+ beam (from 1.9% to 4.6%) at 904 MeV and tripled for a U 47+ beam (from 1.2% to 3.6%) at 1,115 MeV. At about 5 NeV/nucleon 92 enA (2.2 pnA) for Bi 41+ and 14 enA (0.3 pnA) for U 47+ were extracted ut of the 88-Inch Cyclotron Ion beams with charge states as high as U 64+ have been produced by the LBNL AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the cyclotron for the first time. The beam losses for a variety of ultra high charge state ions were measured as a function of cyclotron pressure and compared with the calculations from the existing models

  10. Vacuum improvements for ultra high charge state ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.; Guy, A.; Lundgren, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The installation of a second cryo panel has significantly improved the vacuum in the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutral pressure in the extraction region decreased from 1.2 x 10 -6 down to about 7 x 10 -7 Torr. The vacuum improvement reduces beam loss from charge changing collisions and enhances the cyclotron beam transmission, especially for the high charge state heavy ions. Tests with improved vacuum show the cyclotron transmission increased more than 50% (from 5.7% to 9.0%) for a Xe 27+ at 603 MeV, more than doubled for a Bi 41+ beam (from 1.9% % to 4.6%) at 904 MeV and tripled for a U 47+ beam (from 1.2% to 3.6%) at 1115 MeV. At about 5 MeV/nucleon 92 enA (2.2 pnA) for Bi 41+ and 14 enA (0.3 pnA) for U 47+ were extracted out of the 88-Inch Cyclotron Ion beams with charge states as high as U 64+ have been produced by the LBNL AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the cyclotron for the first time. The beam losses for a variety of ultra high charge state ions were measured as a function of cyclotron pressure and compared with the calculations from the existing models. (authors)

  11. Charge transport through image charged stabilized states in a single molecule single electron transistor device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedegard, Per; Bjornholm, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The present paper gives an elaborate theoretical description of a new molecular charge transport mechanism applying to a single molecule trapped between two macroscopic electrodes in a solid state device. It is shown by a Hubbard type model of the electronic and electrostatic interactions, that the close proximity of metal electrodes may allow electrons to tunnel from the electrode directly into very localized image charge stabilized states on the molecule. Due to this mechanism, an exceptionally large number of redox states may be visited within an energy scale which would normally not allow the molecular HOMO-LUMO gap to be transversed. With a reasonable set of parameters, a good fit to recent experimental values may be obtained. The theoretical model is furthermore used to search for the physical boundaries of this effect, and it is found that a rather narrow geometrical space is available for the new mechanism to work: in the specific case of oligophenylenevinylene molecules recently explored in such devices several atoms in the terminal benzene rings need to be at van der Waal's distance to the electrode in order for the mechanism to work. The model predicts, that chemisorption of the terminal benzene rings too gold electrodes will impede the image charge effect very significantly because the molecule is pushed away from the electrode by the covalent thiol-gold bond

  12. Anisotropic charged physical models with generalized polytropic equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasim, A.; Azam, M. [University of Education, Division of Science and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2018-01-15

    In this paper, we found the exact solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations with generalized polytropic equation of state (GPEoS). For this, we consider spherically symmetric object with charged anisotropic matter distribution. We rewrite the field equations into simple form through transformation introduced by Durgapal (Phys Rev D 27:328, 1983) and solve these equations analytically. For the physically acceptability of these solutions, we plot physical quantities like energy density, anisotropy, speed of sound, tangential and radial pressure. We found that all solutions fulfill the required physical conditions. It is concluded that all our results are reduced to the case of anisotropic charged matter distribution with linear, quadratic as well as polytropic equation of state. (orig.)

  13. Charge state and slowing of fast ions in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, E.; Zinamon, Z.

    1982-01-01

    The charge state of a projectile ion traveling through a plasma target under conditions relevant to ion-beam fusion is calculated. It is found that, at the projectile energies and target parameters considered, the projectile ionization is significantly higher than that of the same projectile species in a cold target. The resulting strong effects on the range and on the shape of the energy deposition profile are shown in several examples of full dynamic calculations

  14. Electron capture into excited states of multi-charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkkamp, D.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis deals with charge exchange reactions in slow collisions of multi-charged ions with neutral atoms or molecules. These reactions proceed very efficiently via a curve crossing mechanism, which leads to preferential population of excited states of the ion. The subsequent decay of these states leads to the emission of characteristic radiation. From wavelength resolved measurements of the absolute intensity of this radiation, cross sections for selective population of the excited (n,l-) states of the ion were determined. In addition, for some systems the total capture cross section was measured directly by means of charge state analysis of the secondary projectile ions. The role of charge exchange processes in fusion plasmas and in astrophysical plasmas is indicated. An experimental set-up is described with emphasis on the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source that was used in the experiments. Results for collisions of C 6+ , N 6+ , O 6+ and Ne 6+ with He, H 2 and Ar are presented as well as for electron capture from Li atoms by C 4+ and He 2+ . The interaction of the iso-electronic sequence C 4+ , N 5+ , O 6+ with atomic hydrogen, molecular hydrogen and helium is studied. First results for partial and total cross sections in collisions of fully stripped carbon, nitrogen and oxygen ions with atomic hydrogen are presented. These data are of particular importance for applications in fusion diagnostics. The data indicate that calculations of both molecular and atomic orbital type yield correct results, if an extended basis set is used. (Auth.)

  15. CT-state dissociation and charge recombination in OPVs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeusermann, Roger; Reinke, Nils; Huber, Evelyne; Ruhstaller, Beat [ZHAW, Inst. of Computational Physics, Winterthur (Switzerland); Flatz, Thomas; Moos, Michael [Fluxim AG (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The dissociation of the charge-transfer-state (CT) into free charge carriers is a very important process in the modeling of OPVs. A theoretical description of this mechanism has been developed by Onsager and Braun. The implications of this theory in real OPVs is not completely clear. Recently there was the proposition to reduce the whole device physics to the mechanisms at the donor-acceptor interface. This has been verified for a wide range of OPV materials, but it also raises questions about the universality of this simplification. In this study we developed a comprehensive device simulator. Our simulations have shown that a good agreement with measured J-V curves can be found by omitting any dissociation mechanism but at the same time increasing the influence of the Langevin recombination. This shows that distinct features of J-V curves are multi-causal and therefore a simplification by leaving out some of the mechanisms leads to an overestimation of the influence of other processes. We present the influence of the input parameters (CT-state dissociation, recombination and mobility) on the J-V curves and discuss in detail where and if each parameter can be seen separately in the shape of the J-V curve. The contributions of the different loss mechanisms, namely decay of excitons and CT-states as well as charge recombination will be addressed as function of material properties.

  16. Quantum computing based on space states without charge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyurkov, V.; Filippov, S.; Gorelik, L.

    2010-01-01

    An implementation of a quantum computer based on space states in double quantum dots is discussed. There is no charge transfer in qubits during a calculation, therefore, uncontrolled entanglement between qubits due to long-range Coulomb interaction is suppressed. Encoding and processing of quantum information is merely performed on symmetric and antisymmetric states of the electron in double quantum dots. Other plausible sources of decoherence caused by interaction with phonons and gates could be substantially suppressed in the structure as well. We also demonstrate how all necessary quantum logic operations, initialization, writing, and read-out could be carried out in the computer.

  17. Effect of Molecular Packing and Charge Delocalization on the Nonradiative Recombination of Charge-Transfer States in Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Xiankai

    2016-09-05

    In organic solar cells, a major source of energy loss is attributed to nonradiative recombination from the interfacial charge transfer states to the ground state. By taking pentacene–C60 complexes as model donor–acceptor systems, a comprehensive theoretical understanding of how molecular packing and charge delocalization impact these nonradiative recombination rates at donor–acceptor interfaces is provided.

  18. Excited State Structural Dynamics of Carotenoids and Charge Transfer Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tassle, Aaron Justin

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation describes the development and implementation of a visible/near infrared pump/mid-infrared probe apparatus. Chapter 1 describes the background and motivation of investigating optically induced structural dynamics, paying specific attention to solvation and the excitation selection rules of highly symmetric molecules such as carotenoids. Chapter 2 describes the development and construction of the experimental apparatus used throughout the remainder of this dissertation. Chapter 3 will discuss the investigation of DCM, a laser dye with a fluorescence signal resulting from a charge transfer state. By studying the dynamics of DCM and of its methyl deuterated isotopomer (an otherwise identical molecule), we are able to investigate the origins of the charge transfer state and provide evidence that it is of the controversial twisted intramolecular (TICT) type. Chapter 4 introduces the use of two-photon excitation to the S1 state, combined with one-photon excitation to the S2 state of the carotenoid beta-apo-8'-carotenal. These 2 investigations show evidence for the formation of solitons, previously unobserved in molecular systems and found only in conducting polymers Chapter 5 presents an investigation of the excited state dynamics of peridinin, the carotenoid responsible for the light harvesting of dinoflagellates. This investigation allows for a more detailed understanding of the importance of structural dynamics of carotenoids in light harvesting

  19. Classical/quantum correspondence in state selective charge transfer and excitation reactions involving highly charged ions and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purkait, M

    2009-01-01

    State selective charge transfer and excitation cross sections for collisions of Ne q+ (q = 1-10) with atomic hydrogen are calculated within the framework of Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and Boundary Corrected Continuum Intermediate State (BCCIS) approximation.

  20. Plasma effect on tunnelling, charge transfer and transient quasimolecular states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D V

    2003-01-01

    The influence of a dense plasma environment on electron tunnelling between two ion potential wells in collectivized states and in charge-transfer collisions is studied. We show that the tunnelling probabilities in dilute plasma (in a close ion-ion collision) and in dense plasma differ strongly. The difference is due to the mixing between Stark components of donor-ion energy levels, caused by the field of spectator ions in a dense plasma. The mixing is determined by an angle α between the nearest-neighbour ion field and the total electric field acting on the donor ion. In close ion-ion binary collisions the mixing may be considered weak. However, for most plasma ions charge transfer, electron state collectivization and transient quasimolecule formation are strongly affected by the field of spectator ions. We derive approximate analytical expressions for the distribution function of α in an ideal plasma and perform molecular dynamics simulations to find the distribution function of α in both ideal and nonideal plasmas. Both α-dependent and average mixing coefficients are determined. We have found that the mixing is strong, even in ideal plasmas, and increases further with an increase in plasma nonideality. It is shown that there is no resonant charge transfer in dense plasmas. The applicability of a transient 'dicenter' quasimolecule model for dense plasmas is discussed

  1. A Battery Charger and State of Charge Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latos, T. S.

    1984-01-01

    A battery charger which has a full wave rectifier in series with a transformer isolated 20 kHz dc-dc converter with high frequency switches, which are programmed to actively shape the input dc line current to be a mirror image of the ac line voltage is discussed. The power circuit operates at 2 kW peak and 1 kW average power. The BC/SCI has two major subsystems: (1) the battery charger power electronics with its controls; and (2) a microcomputer subsystem which is used to acquire battery terminal data and exercise the state of charge software programs. The state of charge definition employed is the energy remaining in the battery when extracted at a 10 kW rate divided by the energy capacity of a fully charged new battery. The battery charger circuit is an isolated boost converter operating at an internal frequency of 20 kHz. The switches selected for the battery charger are the single most important item in determining its efficiency. The combination of voltage and current requirements dictate the use of high power NPN Darlington switching transistors. The power circuit topology is a three switch design which utilizes a power FET on the center tap of the isolation transformer and the power Darlingtons on each of the two ends. An analog control system is employed to accomplish active input current waveshaping as well as the necessary regulation.

  2. Ground state of charged Base and Fermi fluids in strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazighi, R.

    1982-03-01

    The ground state and excited states of the charged Bose gas were studied (wave function, equation of state, thermodynamics, application of Feynman theory). The ground state of the charged Fermi gas was also investigated together with the miscibility of charged Bose and Fermi gases at 0 deg K (bosons-bosons, fermions-bosons and fermions-fermions) [fr

  3. A charged 3P superfluid in the ABM states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmi, Tetsuo; Nakahara, Mikio; Tsuneto, Toshihiko

    1980-01-01

    Magnetic properties of a charged 3 P superfluid in the ABM states are studied in the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau theory. A non-singular vortex in a cylindrical sample, similar to the Mermin-Ho structure in the superfluid 3 He-A, is considered. In particular, the analytic solutions for the order parameter and the magnetic field are obtained in the limit lambda sub(L)/R → 0, where lambda sub(L) is the penetration depth and R the radius of the cylinder. The possibility of a non-singular vortex lattice is also discussed. (author)

  4. Charge States of Krypton and Xenon in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochsler, Peter; Fludra, Andrzej; Giunta, Alessandra

    2017-09-01

    We calculate charge state distributions of Kr and Xe in a model for two different types of solar wind using the effective ionization and recombination rates provided from the OPEN_ADAS data base. The charge states of heavy elements in the solar wind are essential for estimating the efficiency of Coulomb drag in the inner corona. We find that xenon ions experience particularly low Coulomb drag from protons in the inner corona, comparable to the notoriously weak drag of protons on helium ions. It has been found long ago that helium in the solar wind can be strongly depleted near interplanetary current sheets, whereas coronal mass ejecta are sometimes strongly enriched in helium. We argue that if the extraordinary variability of the helium abundance in the solar wind is due to inefficient Coulomb drag, the xenon abundance must vary strongly. In fact, a secular decrease of the solar wind xenon abundance relative to the other heavier noble gases (Ne, Ar, Kr) has been postulated based on a comparison of noble gases in recently irradiated and ancient samples of ilmenite in the lunar regolith. We conclude that decreasing solar activity and decreasing frequency of coronal mass ejections over the solar lifetime might be responsible for a secularly decreasing abundance of xenon in the solar wind.

  5. Charge structure of the hadronic final state in deep-inelastic muon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arneodo, M.; Ferrero, M.I.; Peroni, C.; Beaufays, J.; Jacholkowska, A.; Kellner, G.; Osborne, A.M.; Bee, C.P.; Bird, I.; Coughlan, J.; Sloan, T.; Braun, H.; Brueck, H.; Drees, J.; Edwards, A.; Krueger, J.; Montgomery, H.E.; Peschel, H.; Pietrzyk, U.; Poetsch, M.; Schneider, A.; Combley, F.; Foster, J.; Whalley, M.; Wheeler, S.; Dreyer, T.; Ernst, T.; Haas, J.; Kabuss, E.M.; Landgraf, U.; Mohr, W.; Rith, K.; Schlagboehmer, A.; Schroeder, T.; Stier, H.E.; Wallucks, W.; Figiel, J.; Gajewski, J.; Janata, F.; Poensgen, B.; Schiemann, H.; Studt, M.; Torre, A. de la; Geddes, N.; Johnson, A.S.; Loken, J.; Long, K.; Renton, P.; Taylor, G.N.; Williams, W.S.C.; Grard, F.; Windmolders, R.

    1988-01-01

    The general charge properties of the hadronic final state produced in μ + p and μ + d interactions at 280 GeV are investigated. Quark charge retention and local charge compensation is observed. The ratio F 2 n /F 2 p of the neutron to proton structure function is derived from the measurement of the average hadronic charge in μd interactions. (orig.)

  6. THE CHARGE STATE OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ACROSS REFLECTION NEBULAE: PAH CHARGE BALANCE AND CALIBRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Low-resolution Spitzer spectral map data (>1700 spectra) of ten reflection nebulae (RNe) fields are analyzed using the data and tools available through the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The PAH emission is broken down into PAH charge state using a database fitting approach. Here, the physics of the PAH emission process is taken into account and uses target appropriate parameters, e.g., a stellar radiation model for the exciting star. The breakdown results are combined with results derived using the traditional PAH band strength approach, which interprets particular PAH band strength ratios as proxies for the PAH charge state, e.g., the 6.2/11.2 μ m PAH band strength ratio. These are successfully calibrated against their database equivalent; the PAH ionized fraction ( f i ). The PAH ionized fraction is converted into the PAH ionization parameter, which relates the PAH ionized fraction to the strength of the radiation field, gas temperature and electron density. The behavior of the 12.7 μ m PAH band is evaluated as a tracer for PAH ionization and erosion. The plot of the 8.6 versus 11.2 μ m PAH band strength for the northwest photo-dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is shown to be a robust diagnostic template for the PAH ionized fraction. Remarkably, most of the other RNe fall within the limits set by NGC 7023. Finally, PAH spectroscopic templates are constructed and verified as principal components. Template spectra derived from NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 compare extremely well with each other, with those derived for NGC 7023 successfully reproducing the PAH emission observed from NGC 2023.

  7. THE CHARGE STATE OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ACROSS REFLECTION NEBULAE: PAH CHARGE BALANCE AND CALIBRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J., E-mail: Christiaan.Boersma@nasa.gov [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Low-resolution Spitzer spectral map data (>1700 spectra) of ten reflection nebulae (RNe) fields are analyzed using the data and tools available through the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The PAH emission is broken down into PAH charge state using a database fitting approach. Here, the physics of the PAH emission process is taken into account and uses target appropriate parameters, e.g., a stellar radiation model for the exciting star. The breakdown results are combined with results derived using the traditional PAH band strength approach, which interprets particular PAH band strength ratios as proxies for the PAH charge state, e.g., the 6.2/11.2 μ m PAH band strength ratio. These are successfully calibrated against their database equivalent; the PAH ionized fraction ( f {sub i} ). The PAH ionized fraction is converted into the PAH ionization parameter, which relates the PAH ionized fraction to the strength of the radiation field, gas temperature and electron density. The behavior of the 12.7 μ m PAH band is evaluated as a tracer for PAH ionization and erosion. The plot of the 8.6 versus 11.2 μ m PAH band strength for the northwest photo-dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is shown to be a robust diagnostic template for the PAH ionized fraction. Remarkably, most of the other RNe fall within the limits set by NGC 7023. Finally, PAH spectroscopic templates are constructed and verified as principal components. Template spectra derived from NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 compare extremely well with each other, with those derived for NGC 7023 successfully reproducing the PAH emission observed from NGC 2023.

  8. High Intensity High Charge State ECR Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The next-generation heavy ion beam accelerators such as the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory at RIKEN, the GSI upgrade project, the LHC-upgrade, and IMP in Lanzhou require a great variety of high charge state ion beams with a magnitude higher beam intensity than currently achievable. High performance Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources can provide the flexibility since they can routinely produce beams from hydrogen to uranium. Over the last three decades, ECR ion sources have continued improving the available ion beam intensities by increasing the magnetic fields and ECR heating frequencies to enhance the confinement and the plasma density. With advances in superconducting magnet technology, a new generation of high field superconducting sources is now emerging, designed to meet the requirements of these next generation accelerator projects. The talk will briefly review the field of high performance ECR ion sources and the latest developments for high intens...

  9. Low charge state heavy ion production with sub-nanosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, T; Kumaki, M; Ikeda, S; Okamura, M

    2016-02-01

    We have investigated laser ablation plasma of various species using nanosecond and sub-nanosecond lasers for both high and low charge state ion productions. We found that with sub-nanosecond laser, the generated plasma has a long tail which has low charge state ions determined by an electrostatic ion analyzer even under the laser irradiation condition for highly charged ion production. This can be caused by insufficient laser absorption in plasma plume. This property might be suitable for low charge state ion production. We used a nanosecond laser and a sub-nanosecond laser for low charge state ion production to investigate the difference of generated plasma using the Zirconium target.

  10. Low charge state heavy ion production with sub-nanosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanesue, T., E-mail: tkanesue@bnl.gov; Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kumaki, M. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ikeda, S. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    We have investigated laser ablation plasma of various species using nanosecond and sub-nanosecond lasers for both high and low charge state ion productions. We found that with sub-nanosecond laser, the generated plasma has a long tail which has low charge state ions determined by an electrostatic ion analyzer even under the laser irradiation condition for highly charged ion production. This can be caused by insufficient laser absorption in plasma plume. This property might be suitable for low charge state ion production. We used a nanosecond laser and a sub-nanosecond laser for low charge state ion production to investigate the difference of generated plasma using the Zirconium target.

  11. Dynamics of the excited state intramolecular charge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, T.; Kim, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The 6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylaminonaphtalene (laurdan), a derivative of 6-propanoyl- 2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (prodan), has been used as a fluorescent probe in cell imaging, especially in visualizing the lipid rafts by the generalized polarization (GP) images, where GP=(I 440 -I 490 )/(I 440 +I 490 ) with I being the fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence spectrum of laurdan is sensitive to its dipolar environment due to the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process in S 1 state, which results in a dual emission from the locally excited (LE) and the ICT states. The ICT process and the solvation of the ICT state are very sensitive to the dipolar nature of the environment. In this work, the ICT of laurdan in ethanol has been studied by femtosecond time resolved fluorescence (TRF), especially TRF spectra measurement without the conventional spectral reconstruction method. TRF probes the excited states exclusively, a unique advantage over the pump/probe transient absorption technique, although time resolution of the TRF is generally lower than transient absorption and the TRF spectra measurement was possible only though the spectral reconstruction. Over the years, critical advances in TRF technique have been made in our group to achieve <50 fs time resolution with direct full spectra measurement capability. Detailed ICT and the subsequent solvation processes can be visualized unambiguously from the TRF spectra. Fig. 1 shows the TRF spectra of laurdan in ethanol at several time delays. Surprisingly, two bands at 433 and 476 nm are clearly visible in the TRF spectra of laurdan even at T = 0 fs. As time increases, the band at 476 nm shifts to the red while its intensity increases. The band at 433 nm also shifts slightly to the red, but loses intensity as time increases. The intensity of the 476 nm band reaches maximum at around 5 ps, where it is roughly twice as intense as that at 0 fs, and stays constant until lifetime decay is noticeable. The spectra were fit by

  12. Electron capture to autoionizing states of multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    The present thesis investigates electron capture reactions resulting from slow collisions (V q+ ) and neutral gas targets (B). The energy spectra of the emitted electrons are measured; detection angle is 50 0 . Mainly, autoionizing double capture resulting from collisions with two-electron targets (He, H 2 ) is studied; then, the emitted electrons stem from doubly excited projectile states. The projectiles used are bare C 6+ , the H-like and He-like ions of C, N and O, He-like Ne 8+ and Ne-like Ar 8+ . Excited metastable projectiles used are C 5+ (2s), He-like projectiles A q+ (1s2s 3 S) and Ar 8+ (...2p 5 3s). Comparison is made with the predictions of a recently proposed extended classical barrier model, that was developed in connection with the work. This model assumes sequential capture of the electrons ('two-step' process); it predicts the realized binding enegies of the captured electrons - which may be directly determined from the autoionization spectra using only the projectile charge, the ionization potentials of the target and the collision velocity as parameters. No adjustable parameter enters into the calculations. The term energies and decay modes of the highly excited product ions themselves are studied. Generally, the autoionizing decay of these states is found to proceed preferentially to the directly adjacent lower singly excited state. Experimental evidence is presented, that triply excited states decay by successive emission of two electrons, whenever this is energetically possible. Finally, the L-MM decay in few-electron systems is considered. 314 refs.; 96 figs.; 29 tabs

  13. How to construct self/anti-self charge conjugate states?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvoeglazov, V V

    2014-01-01

    We construct self/anti–self charge conjugate (Majorana–like) states for the (1/2, 0)⊕(0, 1/2) representation of the Lorentz group, and their analogs for higher spins within the quantum field theory. The problem of the basis rotations and that of the selection of phases in the Dirac–like and Majorana–like field operators are considered. The discrete symmetries properties (P, C, T) are studied. The corresponding dynamical equations are presented. In the (1/2, 0) ⊕ (0, 1/2) representation they obey the Dirac–like equation with eight components, which has been first introduced by Markov. Thus, the Fock space for corresponding quantum fields is doubled (as shown by Ziino). The particular attention has been paid to the questions of chirality and helicity (two concepts which are frequently confused in the literature) for Dirac and Majorana states. We further review several experimental consequences which follow from the previous works of M. Kirchbach et al. on neutrinoless double beta decay, and G. J. Ni et al. on meson lifetimes

  14. Battery state-of-charge estimation using approximate least squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterrieder, C.; Zhang, C.; Lunglmayr, M.; Priewasser, R.; Marsili, S.; Huemer, M.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, much effort has been spent to extend the runtime of battery-powered electronic applications. In order to improve the utilization of the available cell capacity, high precision estimation approaches for battery-specific parameters are needed. In this work, an approximate least squares estimation scheme is proposed for the estimation of the battery state-of-charge (SoC). The SoC is determined based on the prediction of the battery's electromotive force. The proposed approach allows for an improved re-initialization of the Coulomb counting (CC) based SoC estimation method. Experimental results for an implementation of the estimation scheme on a fuel gauge system on chip are illustrated. Implementation details and design guidelines are presented. The performance of the presented concept is evaluated for realistic operating conditions (temperature effects, aging, standby current, etc.). For the considered test case of a GSM/UMTS load current pattern of a mobile phone, the proposed method is able to re-initialize the CC-method with a high accuracy, while state-of-the-art methods fail to perform a re-initialization.

  15. Charge state analysis of heavy ions after penetration of uncleaned and sputter cleaned conducting surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, M.; Schosnig, M.; Kroneberger, K.; Tobisch, M.; Maier, R.; Kuzel, M.; Fiedler, C.; Hofmann, D.; Groeneveld, K.O.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of the charge state distribution of fast ions inside a solid is of basic interest in various research fields as stopping power measurements etc. The existing models for the charge state evolution differ in the treatment of the projectile-exit-surface interaction, which has a strong influence on the final charge state distributions. We measured the charge state distributions for C + , N + , and O + (30≤E/M≤130 keV/u) impact on thin C, Cu, and Au foils, where the surface properties were modified by sputter cleaning. The mesurements show a pronounced change of the mean projectile charge state to lower values in the case of sputter cleaned surfaces. This result underlines the importance of the projectile-surface interaction for the generation of the outcoming charge state distribution. (orig.)

  16. Resonance charge exchange between excited states in slow proton-hydrogen collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstikhina, Inga Yu.; Kato, Daiji

    2010-01-01

    The theory of resonance charge exchange in slow collisions of a proton with a hydrogen atom in the excited state is developed. It extends the Firsov-Demkov theory of resonance charge exchange to the case of degenerate initial and final states. The theory is illustrated by semiclassical and quantum calculations of charge exchange cross sections between states with n=2 in parabolic and spherical coordinates. The results are compared with existing close-coupling calculations.

  17. Thermal State-of-Charge in Solar Heat Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Carsie, A., III; Glakpe, Emmanuel K.; Cannon, Joseph N.; Kerslake, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    A theoretical framework is developed to determine the so-called thermal state-of-charge (SOC) in solar heat receivers employing encapsulated phase change materials (PCMS) that undergo cyclic melting and freezing. The present problem is relevant to space solar dynamic power systems that would typically operate in low-Earth-orbit (LEO). The solar heat receiver is integrated into a closed-cycle Brayton engine that produces electric power during sunlight and eclipse periods of the orbit cycle. The concepts of available power and virtual source temperature, both on a finite-time basis, are used as the basis for determining the SOC. Analytic expressions for the available power crossing the aperture plane of the receiver, available power stored in the receiver, and available power delivered to the working fluid are derived, all of which are related to the SOC through measurable parameters. Lower and upper bounds on the SOC are proposed in order to delineate absolute limiting cases for a range of input parameters (orbital, geometric, etc.). SOC characterization is also performed in the subcooled, two-phase, and superheat regimes. Finally, a previously-developed physical and numerical model of the solar heat receiver component of NASA Lewis Research Center's Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) system is used in order to predict the SOC as a function of measurable parameters.

  18. An EBIS for charge state breeding in the SPES project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    increases the total efficiency of the beam transmission and lowers the cost of the .... accounting for the magnetic field and the electron beam space charge. .... the TOF system that will be placed at the end of the BRIC to analyze the ion charge ...

  19. Deterministic Electrical Charge-State Initialization of Single Nitrogen-Vacancy Center in Diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Doi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apart from applications in classical information-processing devices, the electrical control of atomic defects in solids at room temperature will have a tremendous impact on quantum devices that are based on such defects. In this study, we demonstrate the electrical manipulation of individual prominent representatives of such atomic solid-state defects, namely, the negative charge state of single nitrogen-vacancy defect centers (NV^{−} in diamond. We experimentally demonstrate, deterministic, purely electrical charge-state initialization of individual NV centers. The NV centers are placed in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n diode structure that facilitates the delivery of charge carriers to the defect for charge-state switching. The charge-state dynamics of a single NV center were investigated by time-resolved measurements and a nondestructive single-shot readout of the charge state. Fast charge-state switching rates (from negative to neutrally charged defects, which are greater than 0.72 ± 0.10  μs^{−1}, were realized. Furthermore, in no-operation mode, the realized charge states were stable for presumably much more than 0.45 s. We believe that the results obtained are useful not only for ultrafast electrical control of qubits, long T_{2} quantum memory, and quantum sensors associated with single NV centers but also for classical memory devices based on single atomic storage bits working under ambient conditions.

  20. Experimental evidence of state-selective charge transfer in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, George C.-Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2004-01-01

    State-selective charge-transfer behavior was observed for Fe, Cr, Mn and Cu in inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-atomic emission spectrometry. Charge transfer from Ar + to Fe, Cr and Mn is state-selective because of inefficient collisional mixing of the quasiresonant charge-transfer energy levels with nearby levels. This low efficiency is the consequence of differences in electronic configuration of the core electrons. The reason for state-selective charge-transfer behavior to Cu is not clear, although a tentative explanation based on efficiency of intramultiplet and intermultiplet mixing for this special case is offered

  1. Charge-state distribution of MeV He ions scattered from the surface atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kenji; Ohtsuka, Hisashi; Mannami, Michihiko

    1993-01-01

    The charge-state distribution of 500-keV He ions scattered from a SnTe (001) surface has been investigated using a new technique of high-resolution high-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The observed charge-state distribution of ions scattered from the topmost atomic layer coincides with that of ions scattered from the subsurface region and does not depend on the incident charge state but depends on the exit angle. The observed exit-angle dependence is explained by a model which includes the charge-exchange process with the valence electrons in the tail of the electron distribution at the surface. (author)

  2. Strong charge state dependence of H+ and H2+ sputtering induced by slow highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakutani, N.; Azuma, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Komaki, K.; Kuroki, K.

    1995-01-01

    Secondary ion emission has been studied for very slow ( similar 0.01ν B ) highly charged Ar and N ions bombarding C 60 containing hydrogen as an impurity. It is found that the fragmentations of C 60 are very rare even for Ar 16+ bombardments. On the other hand, the sputtering of H + and H 2 + has been observed to increase drastically as a function of incident charge q like q γ (e.g., γ similar 4.6 for H + sputtering by 500 eV Ar q+ ). (orig.)

  3. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Fault Clearing at Low State of Charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, C.

    1997-01-01

    Fault clearing currents were achieved and maintained at discharge rates from C/2 to C/3 at high and low states of charge. The fault clearing plateau voltage is strong function of: discharge current, and voltage-prior-to-the-fault-clearing-event and a weak function of state of charge. Voltage performance, for the range of conditions reported, is summarized.

  4. Controlled phase gate for solid-state charge-qubit architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, S.G.; Oi, D.K.L.; Greentree, Andrew D.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a mechanism for realizing a controlled phase gate for solid-state charge qubits. By augmenting the positionally defined qubit with an auxiliary state, and changing the charge distribution in the three-dot system, we are able to effectively switch the Coulombic interaction, effecting an entangling gate. We consider two architectures, and numerically investigate their robustness to gate noise

  5. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the

  6. Excited state populations and charge-exchange of fast ions in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.D.; Sofield, C.J.; Woods, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Excited state populations and charge state fractions of 445 MeV Cl ions have been measured for a range of thicknesses of solid C targets. Cross sections for electron capture, loss, excitation and excited state quenching have been determined and these data are found to predict a quantitative difference between equilibrium charge state distributions from gases and solids for a special case of the Bohr-Lindhard density effect model. 8 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  7. Enhanced coulomb counting method for estimating state-of-charge and state-of-health of lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Kong Soon; Moo, Chin-Sien; Chen, Yi-Ping; Hsieh, Yao-Ching

    2009-01-01

    The coulomb counting method is expedient for state-of-charge (SOC) estimation of lithium-ion batteries with high charging and discharging efficiencies. The charging and discharging characteristics are investigated and reveal that the coulomb counting method is convenient and accurate for estimating the SOC of lithium-ion batteries. A smart estimation method based on coulomb counting is proposed to improve the estimation accuracy. The corrections are made by considering the charging and operating efficiencies. Furthermore, the state-of-health (SOH) is evaluated by the maximum releasable capacity. Through the experiments that emulate practical operations, the SOC estimation method is verified to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy.

  8. Survey of ionic charge states of solar energetic particle events during the first year of ACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moebius, E.; Popecki, M.A.; Morris, D.; Galvin, A.B.; Heirtzler, D.; Kistler, L.M.; Siren, C.; Klecker, B.; Bogdanov, A.T.; Hovestadt, D.; Mason, G.M.; Dwyer, J.R.; Stone, E.C.

    2000-01-01

    The ionic charge state distributions of solar energetic particle events are determined with ACE SEPICA on an event by event basis, over the time period from launch through the end of 1998. Because of the large geometric factor of SEPICA the observations can be extended to events with very low fluxes. The study is confined to the most abundant species O, Ne, Mg, and Fe. Mean charge states for Fe are observed to vary between ≅11 for CME related events and ≅20 for small events that carry signatures of impulsive events. For these events all elements up to Mg, appear almost fully ionized. The charge states of all species follow the same trend as that of Fe in their variation from event to event. A comparison of observed mean charge states with a model assuming thermal equilibrium shows a general agreement with temperatures ranging from 1.2-10·10 6 K. However, noticeable deviations from charge states at a unique temperature for all species are seen for O at high and for Mg at both high and low charge states, which may suggest the presence of other processes. A distinct correlation is observed between the charge states and the overabundance of heavy ions in comparison with O. It remains puzzling that events with substantial deviations from coronal abundance accelerate almost fully stripped ions, which do not lend themselves easily to fractionation processes based on mass and charge

  9. Nickel-hydrogen battery state of charge management in the absence of active cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lurie, C.; Foroozan, S. [TRW, Redondo Beach, CA (United States); Brewer, J.; Jackson, L.G. [NASA, Huntsville, AL (United States). Marshall Space Flight Center

    1995-12-31

    Battery management during prelaunch activities has always required special attention and careful planning. `ne transition from nickel-cadmium to nickel-hydrogen batteries, with their higher self discharge rate and lower charge efficiency, as well as longer prelaunch scenarios, have made this aspect of spacecraft management even more challenging. The NASA AXAF-I Program requires high battery state of charge at launch. The use of active cooling, to ensure adequate state of charge during prelaunch charge, trickle charge, and stand was considered and proved to be expensive and difficult to implement. Alternate approaches were considered. A procedure including optimized charging and low rate (charging, in the absence of active cooling, appeared promising and was investigated. The investigation includes three phases: (1) demonstration of the feasibility of the proposed procedure (2) development of a parametric data base (3) validation in an AXAF-I mission simulation test. Charging, trickle charging, and open circuit stand are considered in each phase. The major conclusion of this work is that nickel-hydrogen batteries can achieve and maintain high states of charge, in the absence of active cooling, using the approach described in this paper.

  10. Abnormal Multiple Charge Memory States in Exfoliated Few-Layer WSe2 Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mikai; Wang, Yifan; Shepherd, Nathan; Huard, Chad; Zhou, Jiantao; Guo, L J; Lu, Wei; Liang, Xiaogan

    2017-01-24

    To construct reliable nanoelectronic devices based on emerging 2D layered semiconductors, we need to understand the charge-trapping processes in such devices. Additionally, the identified charge-trapping schemes in such layered materials could be further exploited to make multibit (or highly desirable analog-tunable) memory devices. Here, we present a study on the abnormal charge-trapping or memory characteristics of few-layer WSe 2 transistors. This work shows that multiple charge-trapping states with large extrema spacing, long retention time, and analog tunability can be excited in the transistors made from mechanically exfoliated few-layer WSe 2 flakes, whereas they cannot be generated in widely studied few-layer MoS 2 transistors. Such charge-trapping characteristics of WSe 2 transistors are attributed to the exfoliation-induced interlayer deformation on the cleaved surfaces of few-layer WSe 2 flakes, which can spontaneously form ambipolar charge-trapping sites. Our additional results from surface characterization, charge-retention characterization at different temperatures, and density functional theory computation strongly support this explanation. Furthermore, our research also demonstrates that the charge-trapping states excited in multiple transistors can be calibrated into consistent multibit data storage levels. This work advances the understanding of the charge memory mechanisms in layered semiconductors, and the observed charge-trapping states could be further studied for enabling ultralow-cost multibit analog memory devices.

  11. Recoil ion charge state distributions in low energy Arq+ - Ar collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vancura, J.; Marchetti, V.; Kostroun, V.O.

    1992-01-01

    We have measured the recoil ion charge state distributions in Ar q+ -- Ar (8≤q≤16) collisions at 2.3 qkeV and 0.18qkeV by time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy. For Ar 8-16+ , recoil ion charge states up to 6+ are clearly present, indicating that the 3p subshell in the target atom is being depleted, while for Ar 10-16+ , there is evidence that target 3s electrons are also being removed. Comparison of the recoil ion charge state spectra at 2.3 and 0.18 qkeV shows that for a given projectile charge, there is very little dependence of the observed recoil target charge state distribution on projectile energy

  12. Stark tuning and electrical charge state control of single divacancies in silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    de las Casas, Charles F.; Christle, David J.; Ul Hassan, Jawad; Ohshima, Takeshi; Son, Nguyen T.; Awschalom, David D.

    2017-12-01

    Neutrally charged divacancies in silicon carbide (SiC) are paramagnetic color centers whose long coherence times and near-telecom operating wavelengths make them promising for scalable quantum communication technologies compatible with existing fiber optic networks. However, local strain inhomogeneity can randomly perturb their optical transition frequencies, which degrades the indistinguishability of photons emitted from separate defects and hinders their coupling to optical cavities. Here, we show that electric fields can be used to tune the optical transition frequencies of single neutral divacancy defects in 4H-SiC over a range of several GHz via the DC Stark effect. The same technique can also control the charge state of the defect on microsecond timescales, which we use to stabilize unstable or non-neutral divacancies into their neutral charge state. Using fluorescence-based charge state detection, we show that both 975 nm and 1130 nm excitation can prepare their neutral charge state with near unity efficiency.

  13. Evaluation of intramolecular charge transfer state of 4-N, N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Intramolecular charge transfer of 4-N,N-dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde (DMACA) in vacuum and in five different aprotic solvents has been studied by using time-dependent density functional theory. (TDDFT). Polarizable continuum model (PCM) was employed to consider solvent–solute interactions. The potential ...

  14. The influence of the beam charge state on the analytical calculation of RBS and ERDA spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barradas, Nuno P., E-mail: nunoni@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Kosmata, Marcel [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Globalfoundries, Wilschdorfer Landstraße 101, 01109 Dresden (Germany); Hanf, Daniel; Munnik, Frans [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Analytical codes dedicated to the analysis of Ion Beam Analysis data rely on the accuracy of both the calculations and of basic data such as scattering cross sections and stopping powers. So far, the effect of the beam charge state of the incoming beam has been disregard by general purpose analytical codes such as NDF. In fact, the codes implicitly assume that the beam always has the equilibrium charge state distribution, by using tabulated stopping power values e.g. from SRIM, which are in principle valid for the effective charge state. The dependence of the stopping power with the changing charge state distribution is ignored. This assumption is reasonable in most cases, but for high resolution studies the actual change of the charge state distribution from the initial beam charge state towards equilibrium as it enters and traverses the sample must be taken into account, as it influences the shape of the observed data. In this work, we present an analytical calculation, implemented in NDF, that takes this effect into account. For elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), the changing charge state distribution of the recoils can also be taken into account. We apply the calculation to the analysis of experimental high depth resolution ERDA data for various oxide layers collected using a magnetic spectrometer.

  15. Multiple charge states of titanium ions in laser produced plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An Nd:glass laser (KAMETRON) delivering 50 J energy (λ = 0.53 μm) in ... voltage on the deflection plates decides the energy (E/Z) of the charged particles to be ... of two ion groups viz fast ions (+22 to +12) and thermal ions (+11 to +1) as shown in ... ions survive the recombination losses in the early phase of expansion.

  16. "Inverted" Solvent Effect on Charge Transfer in the Excited State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau; Pischel

    1999-10-04

    Faster in cyclohexane than in acetonitrile is the fluorescence quenching of the azoalkane 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) by amines and sulfides. Although this photoreaction is induced by charge transfer (CT; see picture) and exciplexes are formed, the increase in the dipole moment of the exciplex is not large enough to offset the solvent stabilization of the excited reactants, and an "inverted" solvent effect results.

  17. Growth and decay of surface charges in grafts of Teflon in electrets states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinelli, I.M.M.

    1971-01-01

    The greatest problem founded in a cardiovascular implant is the thrombus formation. Teflon grafts were used in electret state for prothesis in vena cava of dogs. To put these grafts in an electret state a corona discharge in air was used and homocharge was formed predominantly. To measure the formed surface charge the oscillating capacitor technique was used. In the electret state the grafts have showed an initial density of charge of 10- 8 C/cm 2 and the charge decay and time decay of the samples were measured under many conditions. We found two activation energies, E 2 =0.17 e V and E 3 =1.12 e V, due to rapid and slow decay, respectively. The charged grafts were sterilized with ethilene gas oxide and this process apparently did not influence the charges

  18. Theoretical Study of the Charge-Transfer State Separation within Marcus Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volpi, Riccardo; Nassau, Racine; Nørby, Morten Steen

    2016-01-01

    We study, within Marcus theory, the possibility of the charge-transfer (CT) state splitting at organic interfaces and a subsequent transport of the free charge carriers to the electrodes. As a case study we analyze model anthracene-C60 interfaces. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations on the cold...... CT state were performed at a range of applied electric fields, and with the fields applied at a range of angles to the interface to simulate the action of the electric field in a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) interface. The results show that the inclusion of polarization in our model increases CT state...... dissociation and charge collection. The effect of the electric field on CT state splitting and free charge carrier conduction is analyzed in detail with and without polarization. Also, depending on the relative orientation of the anthracene and C60 molecules at the interface, CT state splitting shows different...

  19. Charge-transfer cross sections in collisions of ground-state Ca and H+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, C. M.; Oubre, C.; Nordlander, P.; Kimura, M.; Dalgarno, A.

    2006-03-01

    We have investigated collisions of Ca(4s2) with H+ in the energy range of 200eV/u-10keV/u using the semiclassical molecular-orbital close-coupling (MOCC) method with 18 coupled molecular states ( 11Σ+1 and seven Π+1 states) to determine charge-transfer cross sections. Except for the incoming channel 6Σ+1 , the molecular states all correspond to charge-transfer channels. Inclusion of Ca2+-H- is crucial in the configuration-interaction calculation for generating the molecular wave functions and potentials. Because of the Coulomb attraction, the state separating to Ca2+-H- creates many avoided crossings, even though at infinite separation it lies energetically above all other states that we included. Because of the avoided crossings between the incoming channel 6Σ+1 and the energetically close charge-transfer channel 7Σ+1 the charge-transfer interaction occurs at long range. This makes calculations of charge-transfer cross sections by the MOCC method very challenging. The total charge-transfer cross sections increase monotonically from 3.4×10-15cm2 at 200eV/u to 4.5×10-15cm2 at 10keV/u . Charge transfer occurs mostly to the excited Ca+(5p) state in the entire energy range, which is the sum of the charge transfer to 7Σ+1 and 4Π+1 . It accounts for ˜47% of the total charge transfer cross sections at 200eV/u . However, as the energy increases, transfer to Ca+(4d) increases, and at 10keV/u the charge-transfer cross sections for Ca+(5p) and Ca+(4d) become comparable, each giving ˜38% of the total cross section.

  20. Charge-transfer cross sections in collisions of ground-state Ca and H+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, C. M.; Oubre, C.; Nordlander, P.; Kimura, M.; Dalgarno, A.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated collisions of Ca(4s 2 ) with H + in the energy range of 200 eV/u-10 keV/u using the semiclassical molecular-orbital close-coupling (MOCC) method with 18 coupled molecular states (11 1 Σ + and seven 1 Π + states) to determine charge-transfer cross sections. Except for the incoming channel 6 1 Σ + , the molecular states all correspond to charge-transfer channels. Inclusion of Ca 2+ -H - is crucial in the configuration-interaction calculation for generating the molecular wave functions and potentials. Because of the Coulomb attraction, the state separating to Ca 2+ -H - creates many avoided crossings, even though at infinite separation it lies energetically above all other states that we included. Because of the avoided crossings between the incoming channel 6 1 Σ + and the energetically close charge-transfer channel 7 1 Σ + the charge-transfer interaction occurs at long range. This makes calculations of charge-transfer cross sections by the MOCC method very challenging. The total charge-transfer cross sections increase monotonically from 3.4x10 -15 cm 2 at 200 eV/u to 4.5x10 -15 cm 2 at 10 keV/u. Charge transfer occurs mostly to the excited Ca + (5p) state in the entire energy range, which is the sum of the charge transfer to 7 1 Σ + and 4 1 Π + . It accounts for ∼47% of the total charge transfer cross sections at 200 eV/u. However, as the energy increases, transfer to Ca + (4d) increases, and at 10 keV/u the charge-transfer cross sections for Ca + (5p) and Ca + (4d) become comparable, each giving ∼38% of the total cross section

  1. 42 CFR 489.34 - Allowable charges: Hospitals participating in State reimbursement control systems or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. 489.34 Section 489.34 Public Health CENTERS FOR... CERTIFICATION PROVIDER AGREEMENTS AND SUPPLIER APPROVAL Allowable Charges § 489.34 Allowable charges: Hospitals participating in State reimbursement control systems or demonstration projects. A hospital receiving payment for...

  2. Rendering high charge density of states in ionic liquid-gated MoS 2 transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Y.; Lee, J.; Kim, S.; Park, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated high charge density of states (DOS) in the bandgap of MoS2 nanosheets with variable temperature measurements on ionic liquid-gated MoS2 transistors. The thermally activated charge transport indicates that the electrical current in the two-dimensional MoS 2 nanosheets under high

  3. Charged particle spectroscopy with solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunyadi, I.; Somogyi, G.

    1984-01-01

    Some of earlier and recent methods for differentiation of charged particles according to their energy, based on the use of polymeric etch-track detectors (CN, CA, PC and CR-39) are outlined. The principle of three track methods suitable for nuclear spectroscopy is discussed. These are based on the analysis of the diameter, surface size and shape of etch-track 'cones' produced by charged particles in polymers, after using shorter or longer chemical etching processes. Examples are presented from the results of the last decade in ATOMKI, Debrecen, Hungary, concerning the application of nuclear track spectroscopy to different low-energy nuclear reaction studies, angular distribution and excitation function measurements. These involve the study of (d,α) reaction on sup(14)N, sup(19)F and sup(27)Al nuclei, (sup(3)He,α) reactions on sup(15)N, (p,α) reaction on sup(27)Al and the process sup(12)C(sup(12)C, sup(8)Be)sup(16)O. (author)

  4. Electroluminescence from charge transfer states in Donor/Acceptor solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherafatipour, Golenaz; Madsen, Morten

    Charge photocurrent generation is a key process in solar energy conversion systems. Effective dissociation of the photo-generated electron-hole pairs (excitons) has a strong influence on the efficiency of the organic solar cells. Charge dissociation takes place at the donor/acceptor interface via...... which the maximum open-circuit voltage can be estimated, and further can be used in the modeling and optimization of the OPV devices. [1] C. Deibe, T. Strobe, and V. Dyakonov, “Role of the charge transfer state in organic donor-acceptor solar cells,” Adv. Mater., vol. 22, pp. 4097–4111, 2010. [2] K...... charge transfer (CT) excitons, which is Coulombically bound interfacial electron- hole pairs residing at the donor/acceptor heterojunctions. The CT state represents an intermediate state between the exciton dissociation and recombination back to the ground state. Since the recombination of photo...

  5. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum ARC ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M.

    1996-01-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1-4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several μs) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution

  6. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum arc ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M.

    1995-09-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1--4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several micros) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution

  7. A high charge state heavy ion beam source for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.

    1996-01-01

    A high current, low emittance, high charge state heavy ion beam source is being developed. This is designed to deliver a heavy ion fusion (HIF) driver accelerator scale beam. Using a high charge state beam in a driver accelerator for HIF may increase the acceleration efficiency, leading to a reduction in the driver accelerator size and cost. The proposed source system, which consists of a gas beam electron stripper followed by a high charge state beam separator, can be added to existing single charge state, low emittance, high brightness ion sources and injectors. We shall report on the source physics design using 3D beam simulations and experimental feasibility study results using a neutral gas stripper and a beam separator at the exit of the LBL 2 MV injector. (orig.)

  8. ARCHITECTURE OF A CHARGE-TRANSFER STATE REGULATING LIGHT HARVESTING IN A PLANT ANTENNA PROTEIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Graham; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Avenson, Thomas J.; Ballottari, Matteo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2008-04-02

    Energy-dependent quenching of excess absorbed light energy (qE) is a vital mechanism for regulating photosynthetic light harvesting in higher plants. All of the physiological characteristics of qE have been positively correlated with charge-transfer between coupled chlorophyll and zeaxanthin molecules in the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II (PSII). In this work, we present evidence for charge-transfer quenching in all three of the individual minor antenna complexes of PSII (CP29, CP26, and CP24), and we conclude that charge-transfer quenching in CP29 involves a de-localized state of an excitonically coupled chlorophyll dimer. We propose that reversible conformational changes in CP29 can `tune? the electronic coupling between the chlorophylls in this dimer, thereby modulating the energy of the chlorophylls-zeaxanthin charge-transfer state and switching on and off the charge-transfer quenching during qE.

  9. Charge state distribution of ^{86}Kr in hydrogen and helium gas charge strippers at 2.7  MeV/nucleon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kuboki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The charge state distributions of krypton (^{86}Kr with an energy of 2.7  MeV/nucleon were measured using hydrogen (H_{2} and helium (He gas charge strippers. A differential pumping system was constructed to confine H_{2} and He gases to a thickness sufficient for the charge state distributions to attain equilibrium. The mean charge states of ^{86}Kr in H_{2} and He gases attained equilibrium at 25.1 and 23.2, respectively, whereas the mean charge state in N_{2} gas at equilibrium was estimated to be less than 20. The charge distributions are successfully reproduced by the cross sections of ionization and electron capture processes optimized by a fitting procedure.

  10. Ion charge-state production and photoionization near the K edge in argon and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.G.; Azuma, Y.; Cowan, P.L.; Gemmell, D.S.; LeBrun, T.; Amusia, M.Y.

    1994-01-01

    We have measured the time-of-flight charge distributions of ions of argon and potassium following x-ray absorption at energies near their respective K edges. We confirm previously observed enhancements of the higher charge states at energies up to 100 eV below the K edge in argon. The measurements confirm recent calculations suggesting excitation of a virtual 1s state in this energy range

  11. Charge transfer state in DBP:C70 organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherafatipour, Golenaz; Benduhn, Johannes; Spoltore, Donato

    -acceptor interface via delocalized charge-transfer (CT) states, which represents an intermediate state between the exciton dissociation and recombination back to the ground state. In this work we perform the electroluminescence (EL) created by bimolecular free career recombination and sensitive external quantum...

  12. A Summary of Recent Experimental Research on Ion Energy and Charge States of Pulsed Vacuum Arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

    2008-01-01

    The paper reviews the results of vacuum arc experimental investigations made collaboratively by research groups from Berkeley and Tomsk over the last two years, i.e. since the last ISDEIV in 2006. Vacuum arc plasma of various metals was produced in pulses of a few hundred microseconds duration, and the research focused on three topics: (i) the energy distribution functions for different ion charge states, (ii) the temporal development of the ion charge state distribution, and (iii) the evolution of the mean directed ion velocities during plasma expansion. A combined quadruple mass-to-charge and energy analyzer (EQP by HIDEN Ltd) and a time-of-flight spectrometer were employed. Cross-checking data by those complimentary techniques helped to avoid possible pitfalls in interpretation. It was found that the ion energy distribution functions in the plasma were independent of the ion charge state, which implies that the energy distribution on a substrate are not equal to due to acceleration in the substrate's sheath. In pulsed arc mode, the individual ion charge states fractions showed changes leading to a decrease of the mean charge state toward a steady-state value. This decrease can be reduced by lower arc current, higher pulse repetition rate and reduced length of the discharge gap. It was also found that the directed ion velocity slightly decreased as the plasma expanded into vacuum

  13. Engineering of Fermi level by nin diamond junction for control of charge states of NV centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, T.; Makino, T.; Kato, H.; Shimizu, M.; Murooka, T.; Herbschleb, E. D.; Doi, Y.; Morishita, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Hatano, M.; Yamasaki, S.; Mizuochi, N.

    2018-03-01

    The charge-state control of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond is very important toward its applications because the NV centers undergo stochastic charge-state transitions between the negative charge state (NV-) and the neutral charge state (NV0) of the NV center upon illumination. In this letter, engineering of the Fermi level by a nin diamond junction was demonstrated for the control of the charge state of the NV centers in the intrinsic (i) layer region. By changing the size (d) of the i-layer region between the phosphorus-doped n-type layer regions (nin) from 2 μm to 10 μm, we realized the gradual change in the NV- charge-state population in the i-layer region from 60% to 80% under 532 nm excitation, which can be attributed to the band bending in the i-layer region. Also, we quantitatively simulated the changes in the Fermi level in the i-layer region depending on d with various concentrations of impurities in the i-layer region.

  14. Charge-state correlated cross sections for the production of low-velocity highly charged Ne ions by heavy-ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, T.J.; Cocke, C.L.; Justiniano, E.

    1980-01-01

    We report measured cross sections for the collisional production of highly charged low-velocity Ne recoil ions resulting from the bombardment of a thin Ne gas target by highly charged 1-MeV/amu C, N, O, and F projectiles. The measurements were made using time-of-flight techniques which allowed the simultaneous identification of the final charge state of both the low-velocity recoil ion and the high-velocity projectile for each collision event. For a given incident-projectile charge state, the recoil charge-state distribution is very dependent upon the final charge state of the projectile. Single- and double-electron capture events by incident bare nuclei and projectile K-shell ionization during the collision cause large shifts in the recoil charge-state distributions toward higher charge states. A previously proposed energy-deposition model is modified to include the effects of projectile charge-changing collisions during the collision for bare and hydrogenlike projectiles and is used to discuss the present experimental results

  15. Manipulating quantum coherence of charge states in interacting double-dot Aharonov–Bohm interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jinshuang; Wang, Shikuan; Zhou, Jiahuan; Zhang, Wei-Min; Yan, YiJing

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the dynamics of charge-state coherence in a degenerate double-dot Aharonov–Bohm interferometer with finite inter-dot Coulomb interactions. The quantum coherence of the charge states is found to be sensitive to the transport setup configurations, involving both the single-electron impurity channels and the Coulomb-assisted ones. We numerically demonstrate the emergence of a complete coherence between the two charge states, with the relative phase being continuously controllable through the magnetic flux. Interestingly, a fully coherent charge qubit arises at the double-dots electron pair tunneling resonance condition, where the chemical potential of one electrode is tuned at the center between a single-electron impurity channel and the related Coulomb-assisted channel. This pure quantum state of charge qubit could be experimentally realized at the current–voltage characteristic turnover position, where differential conductance sign changes. We further elaborate the underlying mechanism for both the real-time and the stationary charge-states coherence in the double-dot systems of study.

  16. Charge-state distribution measurements of ^{238}U and ^{136}Xe at 11  MeV/nucleon using gas charge stripper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kuboki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The charge-state distributions and equilibrium charge states of uranium (^{238}U and xenon (^{136}Xe ions at 11  MeV/nucleon were determined using a gas charge stripper. A differential pumping system facilitated the increase of the nitrogen gas thickness up to 1.3  mg/cm^{2}, which is sufficient for the most probable charge state to attain equilibrium. The charge states of ^{238}U attain equilibrium at 56.0, 56.6, and 55.7 in N_{2}, Ar, and CO_{2} media with thicknesses of 125, 79, and 126  μg/cm^{2}, respectively, while those of ^{136}Xe attain equilibrium at 40.5, 40.1, and 40.3 in N_{2}, Ar, and CO_{2} media with thicknesses of 163, 95, and 139  μg/cm^{2}, respectively. The equilibrium charge states of ^{136}Xe are acceptable for acceleration by the subsequent cyclotron. The measured data of ^{238}U were used to devise an empirical formula for the prediction of the equilibrium charge state in gaseous media over the energy region of 0.01–60  MeV/nucleon. The equilibrium charge state of ^{136}Xe as predicted by the devised formula is in good agreement with the data.

  17. Inline state of health estimation of lithium-ion batteries using state of charge calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepasi, Saeed; Ghorbani, Reza; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2015-12-01

    The determination of state-of-health (SOH) and state-of-charge (SOC) is challenging and remains as an active research area in academia and industry due to its importance for Li-ion battery applications. The estimation process poses more challenges after substantial battery aging. This paper presents an inline SOH and SOC estimation method for Li-ion battery packs, specifically for those based on LiFePO4 chemistry. This new hybridized SOC and SOH estimator can be used for battery packs. Inline estimated model parameters were used in a compounded SOC + SOH estimator consisting of the SOC calculation based on coulomb counting method as an expedient approach and an SOH observer using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) technique for calibrating the estimates from the coulomb counting method. The algorithm's low SOC and SOH estimation error, fast response time, and less-demanding computational requirement make it practical for on-board estimations. The simulation and experimental results, along with the test bed structure, are presented to validate the proposed methodology on a single cell and a 3S1P LiFePO4 battery pack.

  18. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in non-aqueous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polar phase and thus leading to less swelling of reverse .... ues were restricted up to the limit at which no phase separation was ..... The lower panel of figure 1 also indicates that the slopes of ... probe in its ground and excited states.55.

  19. Characterization of Final State Interaction Strength in Plastic Scintillator by Muon-Neutrino Charged Current Charged Pion Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberly, Brandon M. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Precise knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions is increasingly important as neutrino oscillation measurements transition into the systematics-limited era. In addition to modifying the initial interaction, the nuclear medium can scatter and absorb the interaction by-products through final state interactions, changing the types and kinematic distributions of particles seen by the detector. Recent neutrino pion production data from MiniBooNE is inconsistent with the final state interaction strength predicted by models and theoretical calculations, and some models fit best to the MiniBooNE data only after removing final state interactions entirely. This thesis presents a measurement of dσ/dTπ and dσ/dθπ for muon-neutrino charged current charged pion production in the MINER A scintillator tracker. MINER A is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. The analysis is limited to neutrino energies between 1.5-10 GeV. Dependence on invariant hadronic mass W is studied through two versions of the analysis that impose the limits W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV. The lower limit on W increases compatibility with the MiniBooNE pion data. The shapes of the differential cross sections, which depend strongly on the nature of final state interactions, are compared to Monte Carlo and theoretical predictions. It is shown that the measurements presented in this thesis favor models that contain final state interactions. Additionally, a variety of neutrino-nucleus interaction models are shown to successfully reproduce the thesis measurements, while simultaneously failing to describe the shape of the MiniBooNE data.

  20. Techniques for enhancing the performance of high charge state ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1999-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (ECRIS), which produces singly to highly charged ions, is widely used in heavy ion accelerators and is finding applications in industry. It has progressed significantly in recent years thanks to a few techniques, such as multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and a better cold electron donor. These techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions. More than 1 emA of He 2+ and O 6+ , hundreds of eμA of O 7+ , Ne 8+ , Ar 12+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions with charge states up to Ne 9+ , Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ and Kr 18+ , tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states up to Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ and U 34+ were produced at cw mode operation. At an intensity of about 1 eμA, the charge states for the heavy ions increased up to Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ and U 48+ . More than an order of magnitude enhancement of fully stripped argon ions was achieved (I≥0.1 and h;eμA). Higher charge state ions up to Kr 35+ , Xe 46+ and U 64+ at low intensities were produced for the first time from an ECRIS. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  1. An intramolecular charge transfer state of carbonyl carotenoids: implications for excited state dynamics of apo-carotenals and retinal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívka, Tomáš; Kaligotla, S.; Chábera, P.; Frank, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 22 (2011), s. 1463-9076 ISSN 1463-9076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoid * retinal * excited-state dynamics * charge-transfer state Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.573, year: 2011

  2. Origin of interface states and oxide charges generated by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, C.T.

    1976-01-01

    The randomly located trivalent silicon atoms are shown to account for the thermally generated interface states at the SiO 2 -Si interface. The interface state density is greatly reduced in water containing ambients at low temperatures (450 0 C) by forming trivalent silicon hydroxide bonds. Interface states are regenerated when the /triple bond/Si-OH bonds are broken by ionizing radiation and the OH ions are drifted away. In the bulk of the oxide film, the trivalent silicon and the interstitial oxygen donor centers are shown to be responsible for the heat and radiation generated positive space charge build-up (oxide charge) in thermally grown silicon oxide

  3. Target life time of laser ion source for low charge state ion production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanesue,T.; Tamura, J.; Okamura, M.

    2008-06-23

    Laser ion source (LIS) produces ions by irradiating pulsed high power laser shots onto the solid state target. For the low charge state ion production, laser spot diameter on the target can be over several millimeters using a high power laser such as Nd:YAG laser. In this case, a damage to the target surface is small while there is a visible crater in case of the best focused laser shot for high charge state ion production (laser spot diameter can be several tens of micrometers). So the need of target displacement after each laser shot to use fresh surface to stabilize plasma is not required for low charge state ion production. We tested target lifetime using Nd:YAG laser with 5 Hz repetition rate. Also target temperature and vacuum condition were recorded during experiment. The feasibility of a long time operation was verified.

  4. Glauber amplitudes for transitions from low lying states in hydrogen atom by charged particle impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S; Srivastava, M K [Roorkee Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics

    1977-07-01

    The Glauber amplitudes for the general transition nlm ..-->.. n'1'm' in charged particle - hydrogen atom collisions have been obtained in the form of a one-dimensional integral. The final expression involves only a few hypergeometric functions if n is not too large and is particularly suited to study excitation to highly excited states from a low lying state.

  5. Charged spin textures over the Moore-Read quantum Hall state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romers, J.C.; Huijse, L.; Schoutens, K.

    2011-01-01

    We study the composite Charged Spin Texture (CST) over the Moore-Read quantum Hall state that arises when a collection of elementary CSTs are moved to the same location. Following an algebraic approach based on the characteristic pair correlations of the Moore- Read state, we and that the resulting

  6. Administrative charges in pensions in Chile, Malaysia, Zambia, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Valdes-Prieto, Salvador

    1994-01-01

    The author offers a framework for an international comparison of charges in mandatory and private pension systems, and in state-run and privately managed systems. Such comparisons make it possible to determine which combinations of quality and cost make the most sense in pension services. He finds that: 1) Charges in the private annuity industry are much higher than other components of the pension package, and much higher than publicly provided annuities in the US; 2) comparing the collection...

  7. Charge state evolution in the solar wind. III. Model comparison with observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, E.; Oran, R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A.; Van der Holst, B. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We test three theoretical models of the fast solar wind with a set of remote sensing observations and in-situ measurements taken during the minimum of solar cycle 23. First, the model electron density and temperature are compared to SOHO/SUMER spectroscopic measurements. Second, the model electron density, temperature, and wind speed are used to predict the charge state evolution of the wind plasma from the source regions to the freeze-in point. Frozen-in charge states are compared with Ulysses/SWICS measurements at 1 AU, while charge states close to the Sun are combined with the CHIANTI spectral code to calculate the intensities of selected spectral lines, to be compared with SOHO/SUMER observations in the north polar coronal hole. We find that none of the theoretical models are able to completely reproduce all observations; namely, all of them underestimate the charge state distribution of the solar wind everywhere, although the levels of disagreement vary from model to model. We discuss possible causes of the disagreement, namely, uncertainties in the calculation of the charge state evolution and of line intensities, in the atomic data, and in the assumptions on the wind plasma conditions. Last, we discuss the scenario where the wind is accelerated from a region located in the solar corona rather than in the chromosphere as assumed in the three theoretical models, and find that a wind originating from the corona is in much closer agreement with observations.

  8. Modulation of nitrogen vacancy charge state and fluorescence in nanodiamonds using electrochemical potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaveli, Sinan; Gaathon, Ophir; Wolcott, Abraham; Sakakibara, Reyu; Shemesh, Or A; Peterka, Darcy S; Boyden, Edward S; Owen, Jonathan S; Yuste, Rafael; Englund, Dirk

    2016-04-12

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV(-)) center in diamond has attracted strong interest for a wide range of sensing and quantum information processing applications. To this end, recent work has focused on controlling the NV charge state, whose stability strongly depends on its electrostatic environment. Here, we demonstrate that the charge state and fluorescence dynamics of single NV centers in nanodiamonds with different surface terminations can be controlled by an externally applied potential difference in an electrochemical cell. The voltage dependence of the NV charge state can be used to stabilize the NV(-) state for spin-based sensing protocols and provides a method of charge state-dependent fluorescence sensing of electrochemical potentials. We detect clear NV fluorescence modulation for voltage changes down to 100 mV, with a single NV and down to 20 mV with multiple NV centers in a wide-field imaging mode. These results suggest that NV centers in nanodiamonds could enable parallel optical detection of biologically relevant electrochemical potentials.

  9. Modulation of nitrogen vacancy charge state and fluorescence in nanodiamonds using electrochemical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaveli, Sinan; Gaathon, Ophir; Wolcott, Abraham; Sakakibara, Reyu; Shemesh, Or A.; Peterka, Darcy S.; Boyden, Edward S.; Owen, Jonathan S.; Yuste, Rafael; Englund, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV-) center in diamond has attracted strong interest for a wide range of sensing and quantum information processing applications. To this end, recent work has focused on controlling the NV charge state, whose stability strongly depends on its electrostatic environment. Here, we demonstrate that the charge state and fluorescence dynamics of single NV centers in nanodiamonds with different surface terminations can be controlled by an externally applied potential difference in an electrochemical cell. The voltage dependence of the NV charge state can be used to stabilize the NV- state for spin-based sensing protocols and provides a method of charge state-dependent fluorescence sensing of electrochemical potentials. We detect clear NV fluorescence modulation for voltage changes down to 100 mV, with a single NV and down to 20 mV with multiple NV centers in a wide-field imaging mode. These results suggest that NV centers in nanodiamonds could enable parallel optical detection of biologically relevant electrochemical potentials.

  10. Charge state evolution in the solar wind. III. Model comparison with observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landi, E.; Oran, R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A.; Van der Holst, B.

    2014-01-01

    We test three theoretical models of the fast solar wind with a set of remote sensing observations and in-situ measurements taken during the minimum of solar cycle 23. First, the model electron density and temperature are compared to SOHO/SUMER spectroscopic measurements. Second, the model electron density, temperature, and wind speed are used to predict the charge state evolution of the wind plasma from the source regions to the freeze-in point. Frozen-in charge states are compared with Ulysses/SWICS measurements at 1 AU, while charge states close to the Sun are combined with the CHIANTI spectral code to calculate the intensities of selected spectral lines, to be compared with SOHO/SUMER observations in the north polar coronal hole. We find that none of the theoretical models are able to completely reproduce all observations; namely, all of them underestimate the charge state distribution of the solar wind everywhere, although the levels of disagreement vary from model to model. We discuss possible causes of the disagreement, namely, uncertainties in the calculation of the charge state evolution and of line intensities, in the atomic data, and in the assumptions on the wind plasma conditions. Last, we discuss the scenario where the wind is accelerated from a region located in the solar corona rather than in the chromosphere as assumed in the three theoretical models, and find that a wind originating from the corona is in much closer agreement with observations.

  11. The average equilibrium charge-states of heavy ions with Z > 60 stripped in He and H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganessian, Yu.T.; Lobanov, Yu.V.; Popeko, A.G.; Abdullin, F.Sh.; Kharitonov, Yu.P.; Ledovskoy, A.A.; Tsyganov, Yu.S.

    1991-01-01

    The equilibrium charges of heavy ions (61 < Z < 101) with energies from 5 to 100 MeV stripped in He and H2 have been measured. New empirical formulae for the average charge state are presented. (orig.)

  12. Calculation of charge-state ratios for satellite Tor I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, D.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The diffusion of ions in a satellite plasma torus is presently modeled in terms of a one-dimensional random walk in which the particle source is at 0, the particle sink is at an N value that is an integer greater than 2, and the scale size of the diffusion cell is unity. The probability distribution function of the number of steps to exit for an ion is obtained and used in a model which incorporates ionization by electron impact to derive steady state expressions for the ratio of doubly to singly ionized ions, as well as the total number of ions in the torus. The results thus obtained are applied to the torus of the Jovian satellite Io, in order to predict mean residence times for sulfur and oxygen ions.

  13. Superposition Principle in Auger Recombination of Charged and Neutral Multicarrier States in Semiconductor Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kaifeng; Lim, Jaehoon; Klimov, Victor I

    2017-08-22

    Application of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in optical and optoelectronic devices is often complicated by unintentional generation of extra charges, which opens fast nonradiative Auger recombination pathways whereby the recombination energy of an exciton is quickly transferred to the extra carrier(s) and ultimately dissipated as heat. Previous studies of Auger recombination have primarily focused on neutral and, more recently, negatively charged multicarrier states. Auger dynamics of positively charged species remains more poorly explored due to difficulties in creating, stabilizing, and detecting excess holes in the QDs. Here we apply photochemical doping to prepare both negatively and positively charged CdSe/CdS QDs with two distinct core/shell interfacial profiles ("sharp" versus "smooth"). Using neutral and charged QD samples we evaluate Auger lifetimes of biexcitons, negative and positive trions (an exciton with an extra electron or a hole, respectively), and multiply negatively charged excitons. Using these measurements, we demonstrate that Auger decay of both neutral and charged multicarrier states can be presented as a superposition of independent elementary three-particle Auger events. As one of the manifestations of the superposition principle, we observe that the biexciton Auger decay rate can be presented as a sum of the Auger rates for independent negative and positive trion pathways. By comparing the measurements on the QDs with the "sharp" versus "smooth" interfaces, we also find that while affecting the absolute values of Auger lifetimes, manipulation of the shape of the confinement potential does not lead to violation of the superposition principle, which still allows us to accurately predict the biexciton Auger lifetimes based on the measured negative and positive trion dynamics. These findings indicate considerable robustness of the superposition principle as applied to Auger decay of charged and neutral multicarrier states

  14. Study of the cold charge transfer state separation at the TQ1/PC71 BM interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Riccardo; Linares, Mathieu

    2017-05-30

    Charge transfer (CT) state separation is one of the most critical processes in the functioning of an organic solar cell. In this article, we study a bilayer of TQ1 and PC 71 BM molecules presenting disorder at the interface, obtained by means of Molecular Dynamics. The study of the CT state splitting can be first analyzed through the CT state splitting diagram, introduced in a previous work. Through this analysis, we identify the possibility of CT state splitting within Marcus Theory in function of the electric field. Once the right range of electric fields has been identified, we perform Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to estimate percentages and times for the CT state splitting and the free charge carriers collection. Statistical information extracted from these simulations allows us to highlight the importance of polarization and to test the limits of the predictions given by the CT state splitting diagram. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Quantum State Transmission in a Superconducting Charge Qubit-Atom Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deshui; Valado, María Martínez; Hufnagel, Christoph; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Hybrids consisting of macroscopic superconducting circuits and microscopic components, such as atoms and spins, have the potential of transmitting an arbitrary state between different quantum species, leading to the prospective of high-speed operation and long-time storage of quantum information. Here we propose a novel hybrid structure, where a neutral-atom qubit directly interfaces with a superconducting charge qubit, to implement the qubit-state transmission. The highly-excited Rydberg atom located inside the gate capacitor strongly affects the behavior of Cooper pairs in the box while the atom in the ground state hardly interferes with the superconducting device. In addition, the DC Stark shift of the atomic states significantly depends on the charge-qubit states. By means of the standard spectroscopic techniques and sweeping the gate voltage bias, we show how to transfer an arbitrary quantum state from the superconducting device to the atom and vice versa. PMID:27922087

  16. Charge states of fast heavy ions in solids; target atomic number dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, Kunihiro

    1985-01-01

    Discussions were carried out on the origin of Z 2 (atomic number) dependent charge states with respect to projectile electron loss and capture process, and on relationship between the Z 2 dependence and that of mean charge states for heavy ions of 1 MeV/u energy region. Present and previously reported results were examined on the equilibrium charge distributions, 9-bar, of 120 MeV 63 Cu, 25 and 40 MeV 35 Cl, 109 MeV Si and 59 MeV F ions. It was clarified that 9-bar became generally higher for lower Z 2 depending on increasing energy, and osillatory behavior with energy-depending amplitude was seen in 9-bar vs Z 2 . Discussions were carrid out on these phenomena and related matters. Z 2 oscillations of 9-bar of fast heavy ions might be due to those of electron capture cross section into projectile K and L vacancies for high and intermediate charge states, respectively. A quantitative interpretation of the Z 2 -dependent 9-bar values is in progress based on collision process and observation of projectile x-ray. The 9-bar value dependency on Z 2 in ion passing foils and decrease of Z 2 oscillation amplitude with increasing collision energy were quite similar to the Z 2 dependence in stopping powers or in effective charge states estimated from stopping powers. But there was some discrepancies in the Z 2 oscillation of 9-bar and that of stopping powers. (Takagi, S.)

  17. Coherent and Semiclassical States of a Charged Particle in a Constant Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, T. C.; Pereira, A. S.

    2018-05-01

    The method of integrals of motion is used to construct families of generalized coherent states of a nonrelativistic spinless charged particle in a constant electric field. Families of states, differing in the values of their standard deviations at the initial time, are obtained. Depending on the initial values of the standard deviations, and also on the electric field, it turns out to be possible to identify some families with semiclassical states.

  18. State-selective charge transfer cross sections for light ion impact of atomic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, D. R. [University of North Texas; Stancil, Phillip C. [University of Georgia, Athens; Havener, C. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the utility of diagnosing plasma properties such as impurity concentration and spatial distribution, and plasma temperature and rotation, by detection of photon emission following capture of electrons from atomic hydrogen to excited states of multiply charged ions, new calculations of state-selective charge transfer involving light ions have been carried out using the atomic orbital close-coupling and the classical trajectory Monte Carlo methods. By comparing these with results of other approaches applicable in a lower impact energy regime, and by benchmarking them using key experimental data, knowledge of the cross sections can be made available across the range parameters needed by fusion plasma diagnostics.

  19. Adaptive Kalman filter based state of charge estimation algorithm for lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hong; Liu Xu; Wei Min

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of the battery state of charge (SOC) estimation, in this paper we take a lithium-ion battery as an example to study the adaptive Kalman filter based SOC estimation algorithm. Firstly, the second-order battery system model is introduced. Meanwhile, the temperature and charge rate are introduced into the model. Then, the temperature and the charge rate are adopted to estimate the battery SOC, with the help of the parameters of an adaptive Kalman filter based estimation algorithm model. Afterwards, it is verified by the numerical simulation that in the ideal case, the accuracy of SOC estimation can be enhanced by adding two elements, namely, the temperature and charge rate. Finally, the actual road conditions are simulated with ADVISOR, and the simulation results show that the proposed method improves the accuracy of battery SOC estimation under actual road conditions. Thus, its application scope in engineering is greatly expanded. (paper)

  20. State of charge estimation for lithium-ion pouch batteries based on stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Haifeng; Yu, Chenchen; Wei, Xuezhe; Sun, Zechang

    2017-01-01

    State of charge (SOC) estimation is one of the important tasks of battery management system (BMS). Being different from other researches, a novel method of SOC estimation for pouch lithium-ion battery cells based on stress measurement is proposed. With a comprehensive experimental study, we find that, the stress of the battery during charge/discharge is composed of the static stress and the dynamic stress. The static stress, which is the measured stress in equilibrium state, corresponds to SOC, this phenomenon facilitates the design of our stress-based SOC estimation. The dynamic stress, on the other hand, is influenced by multiple factors including charge accumulation or depletion, current and historical operation, thus a multiple regression model of the dynamic stress is established. Based on the relationship between static stress and SOC, as well as the dynamic stress modeling, the SOC estimation method is founded. Experimental results show that the stress-based method performs well with a good accuracy, and this method offers a novel perspective for SOC estimation. - Highlights: • A State of Charge estimator based on stress measurement is proposed. • The stress during charge and discharge is investigated with comprehensive experiments. • Effects of SOC, current, and operation history on battery stress are well studied. • A multiple regression model of the dynamic stress is established.

  1. Future prospects for ECR ion sources with improved charge state distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    Despite the steady advance in the technology of the ECR ion source, present art forms have not yet reached their full potential in terms of charge state and intensity within a particular charge state, in part, because of the narrow band width. single-frequency microwave radiation used to heat the plasma electrons. This article identifies fundamentally important methods which may enhance the performances of ECR ion sources through the use of: (1) a tailored magnetic field configuration (spatial domain) in combination with single-frequency microwave radiation to create a large uniformly distributed ECR ''volume'' or (2) the use of broadband frequency domain techniques (variable-frequency, broad-band frequency, or multiple-discrete-frequency microwave radiation), derived from standard TWT technology, to transform the resonant plasma ''surfaces'' of traditional ECR ion sources into resonant plasma ''volume''. The creation of a large ECR plasma ''volume'' permits coupling of more power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, thereby producing higher charge state ions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present forms of' the source. The ECR ion source concepts described in this article offer exciting opportunities to significantly advance the-state-of-the-art of ECR technology and as a consequence, open new opportunities in fundamental and applied research and for a variety of industrial applications

  2. Proton-coupled electron transfer versus hydrogen atom transfer: generation of charge-localized diabatic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirjoosingh, Andrew; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2011-03-24

    The distinction between proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanisms is important for the characterization of many chemical and biological processes. PCET and HAT mechanisms can be differentiated in terms of electronically nonadiabatic and adiabatic proton transfer, respectively. In this paper, quantitative diagnostics to evaluate the degree of electron-proton nonadiabaticity are presented. Moreover, the connection between the degree of electron-proton nonadiabaticity and the physical characteristics distinguishing PCET from HAT, namely, the extent of electronic charge redistribution, is clarified. In addition, a rigorous diabatization scheme for transforming the adiabatic electronic states into charge-localized diabatic states for PCET reactions is presented. These diabatic states are constructed to ensure that the first-order nonadiabatic couplings with respect to the one-dimensional transferring hydrogen coordinate vanish exactly. Application of these approaches to the phenoxyl-phenol and benzyl-toluene systems characterizes the former as PCET and the latter as HAT. The diabatic states generated for the phenoxyl-phenol system possess physically meaningful, localized electronic charge distributions that are relatively invariant along the hydrogen coordinate. These diabatic electronic states can be combined with the associated proton vibrational states to generate the reactant and product electron-proton vibronic states that form the basis of nonadiabatic PCET theories. Furthermore, these vibronic states and the corresponding vibronic couplings may be used to calculate rate constants and kinetic isotope effects of PCET reactions.

  3. High Charge State Ions Extracted from Metal Plasmas in the Transition Regime from Vacuum Spark to High Current Vacuum Arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, A.

    2008-01-01

    Metal ions were extracted from pulsed discharge plasmas operating in the transition region between vacuum spark (transient high voltage of kV) and vacuum arc (arc voltage ∼ 20 V). At a peak current of about 4 kA, and with a pulse duration of 8 (micro)s, we observed mean ion charges states of about 6 for several cathode materials. In the case of platinum, the highest average charge state was 6.74 with ions of charge states as high as 10 present. For gold we found traces of charge state 11, with the highest average charge state of 7.25. At currents higher than 5 kA, non-metallic contaminations started to dominate the ion beam, preventing further enhancement of the metal charge states

  4. Performance on the low charge state laser ion source in BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, M.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Costanzo, M.; DeSanto, L.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kanesue, T.; Lambiase, R.; Lehn, D.; Liaw, C. J.; McCafferty, D.; Morris, J.; Olsen, R.; Pikin, A.; Raparia, D.; Steszyn, A.; Ikeda, S.

    2015-09-07

    On March 2014, a Laser Ion Source (LIS) was commissioned which delivers high-brightness, low-charge-state heavy ions for the hadron accelerator complex in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Since then, the LIS has provided many heavy ion species successfully. The low-charge-state (mostly singly charged) beams are injected to the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), where ions are then highly ionized to fit to the following accelerator’s Q/M acceptance, like Au32+. Recently we upgraded the LIS to be able to provide two different beams into EBIS on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Now the LIS is simultaneously providing beams for both the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL).

  5. Localized chemical switching of the charge state of nitrogen-vacancy luminescence centers in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanley, Toby W.; Martin, Aiden A.; Aharonovich, Igor, E-mail: Igor.Aharonovich@uts.edu.au; Toth, Milos, E-mail: Milos.Toth@uts.edu.au [School of Physics and Advanced Materials, University of Technology, Sydney, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, New South Wales 2007 (Australia)

    2014-08-11

    We present a direct-write chemical technique for controlling the charge state of near-surface nitrogen vacancy centers (NVs) in diamond by surface fluorination. Fluorination of H-terminated diamond is realized by electron beam stimulated desorption of H{sub 2}O in the presence of NF{sub 3} and verified with environmental photoyield spectroscopy (EPYS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. PL spectra of shallow NVs in H- and F-terminated nanodiamonds show the expected dependence of the NV charge state on their energetic position with respect to the Fermi-level. EPYS reveals a corresponding difference between the ionization potential of H- and F-terminated diamond. The electron beam fluorination process is highly localized and can be used to fluorinate H-terminated diamond, and to increase the population of negatively charged NV centers.

  6. Charge-changing processes of heavy ions in matter. Non-equilibrium charge state distribution of sulfur ions after carbon foil penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Makoto; Shibata, Hiromi; Sataka, Masao; Sugai, Hiroyuki; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Sugiyama, Koji; Komaki, Ken-ichiro

    2005-01-01

    Charge state distributions of 2.0 MeV/u (64 MeV) sulfur ions of various initial charge states (6+, 10+, 11+, 13+) after passing through 0.9, 1.1, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.7, 6.9 and 10 μg/cm 2 carbon foils have been studied experimentally using the heavy ion spectrometer 'ENMA'. Measured charge state distributions do not flat off to establish equilibrium within the measured thickness, proving to be the first systematic measurement of non-equilibrium charge state distribution using solid target at this energy range. The mean charge states and their distribution widths almost saturate to 12.4 and 1.03, respectively, for all initial charge states examined. Calculation with ETACHA code, developed by Rozet et al. [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 107 (1996) 67], is employed, although the present impact energy is lower than the assumed energy region for this code. It was also confirmed that a certain portion of 16 O q+ (q=3, 4, 7) beam is included in 32 S q+ (q=6, 8, 14) beam provided from the Tandem Accelerator, which originates in the Negative Ion Source forming O 2 - . (author)

  7. Adaptive state-of-charge indication system for a Li-ion battery-powered devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Danilov, D.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate State-of-Charge (SoC) and remammg run-time indication for portable devices is important for the user convenience and to prolong the lifetime of batteries. So far, no one succeeded in coming up with a SoC system that is accurate enough under all realistic user conditions. An algorithm that

  8. Fermion bound states in the Kerr-Newman field with magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'tsov, D.V.; Ershov, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    Approximate solutions of Dirac equations for 1/2 spin charged particles in the Kerr-Newman field are constructed. An equation for quasistationary states energy, taking account of their possible decay due to tunnelling in the black hole, is obtained. A problem of existence of zero modes is discussed

  9. To the problem on a charge state of energetic ions of radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasyuk, M.I.

    1980-01-01

    Estimation of the effect of recharging processes upon formation of intensity maxima of radiation belt ions of different types is obtained as well as the ion charge states in the area of intensity maxima. Comparison of spatial position of intensity maxima of the H, He, C, O ions with the energies more than 1 MeV with the calculation results is presented. It provides the particle radial drift under the effect of sudden impulses and death at the expence of ionization losses. Application of adiabaticity criterion of the particle movement to the analysis of position of outer edge of radiation belt of heavy ions permitted to carry out estimation of the He, C, O ion charge state. He ions with the energy more than 1 MeV possess mainly the charge state of +2, C and O ions with the energy of several MeV over L=5-6 are in the ionized state almost completely, and during the drift into the depth of the belts the ion charge decreases to 3-4 over L approximately 3.5 with the energy increase. At the energies higher than several MeV the recharge processes are significant for the C and.O ions. For He ions with the energy higher 1 MeV and for H ions with more than 0.1 MeV the recharge role is not considerable

  10. A Real-Time evaluation system for a state-of-charge indication algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The known methods of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. This paper describes a real- time evaluation LabVIEW system for an SoC algorithm, that calculates the SoC in [%] and also the remaining run-time available under the

  11. A real-time evaluation system for a state-of-charge indication algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The known methods of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. This paper describes a real- time evaluation LabVIEW system for an SoC algorithm, that calculates the SoC in [%] and also the remaining run-time available under the

  12. Kalman-variant estimators for state of charge in lithium-sulfur batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Propp, Karsten; Auger, Daniel J.; Fotouhi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are now commercially available, offering high specific energy density, low production costs and high safety. However, there is no commercially-available battery management system for them, and there are no published methods for determining state of charge in situ...

  13. Smart and accurate state-of-charge indication in portable applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate state-of-charge (SoC) and remaining run-time indication for portable devices is important for the user-convenience and to prolong the lifetime of batteries. However, the known methods of SoC indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. The

  14. Smart and accurate State-of-Charge indication in Portable Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate state-of-charge (SoC) and remaining run-time indication for portable devices is important for the user-convenience and to prolong the lifetime of batteries. However, the known methods of SoC indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. The

  15. Symmetry-breaking intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state of meso-linked BODIPY dyads

    KAUST Repository

    Whited, Matthew T.; Patel, Niral M.; Roberts, Sean T.; Allen, Kathryn; Djurovich, Peter I.; Bradforth, Stephen E.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of symmetric BODIPY dyads where the chromophores are attached at the meso position, using either a phenylene bridge or direct linkage. Both molecules undergo symmetry-breaking intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state, and the directly linked dyad serves as a visible-light-absorbing analogue of 9,9′-bianthryl.

  16. Charge-Transfer States in Organic Solar Cells: Understanding the Impact of Polarization, Delocalization, and Disorder

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Zilong

    2017-05-08

    We investigate the impact of electronic polarization, charge delocalization, and energetic disorder on the charge-transfer (CT) states formed at a planar C60/pentacene interface. The ability to examine large complexes containing up to seven pentacene molecules and three C60 molecules allows us to take explicitly into account the electronic polarization effects. These complexes are extracted from a bilayer architecture modeled by molecular dynamics simulations and evaluated by means of electronic-structure calculations based on long-range-separated functionals (ωB97XD and BNL) with optimized range-separation parameters. The energies of the lowest charge-transfer states derived for the large complexes are in very good agreement with the experimentally reported values. The average singlet-triplet energy splittings of the lowest CT states are calculated not to exceed 10 meV. The rates of geminate recombination as well as of dissociation of the triplet excitons are also evaluated. In line with experiment, our results indicate that the pentacene triplet excitons generated through singlet fission can dissociate into separated charges on a picosecond time scale, despite the fact that their energy in C60/pentacene heterojunctions is slightly lower than the energies of the lowest CT triplet states.

  17. Unusual inhomogeneous microstructures in charge glass state of PbCrO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Kosuke; Tsukasaki, Hirofumi; Ogata, Takahiro; Sakai, Yuki; Azuma, Masaki; Ishii, Yui; Mori, Shigeo

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the microstructures and local structures of perovskite PbCrO3, which shows a metal-to-insulator transition and a 9.8% volume collapse, by electron diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). It is revealed that the charge glass state is characterized by the unique coexistence of the crystalline state with a cubic symmetry on average and the noncrystalline state. HAADF-STEM observation at atomic resolution revealed that Pb ions were displaced from the ideal A site position of the cubic perovskite structure, which gives rise to characteristic diffuse scatterings around the fundamental Bragg reflections. These structural inhomogeneities are crucial to the understanding of the unique physical properties in the charge glass state of PbCrO3.

  18. Hybrid fuzzy charged system search algorithm based state estimation in distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachidananda Prasad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new hybrid charged system search (CSS algorithm based state estimation in radial distribution networks in fuzzy framework. The objective of the optimization problem is to minimize the weighted square of the difference between the measured and the estimated quantity. The proposed method of state estimation considers bus voltage magnitude and phase angle as state variable along with some equality and inequality constraints for state estimation in distribution networks. A rule based fuzzy inference system has been designed to control the parameters of the CSS algorithm to achieve better balance between the exploration and exploitation capability of the algorithm. The efficiency of the proposed fuzzy adaptive charged system search (FACSS algorithm has been tested on standard IEEE 33-bus system and Indian 85-bus practical radial distribution system. The obtained results have been compared with the conventional CSS algorithm, weighted least square (WLS algorithm and particle swarm optimization (PSO for feasibility of the algorithm.

  19. Tracking excited-state charge and spin dynamics in iron coordination complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenkai; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    to spin state, can elucidate the spin crossover dynamics of [Fe(2,2'-bipyridine)(3)](2+) on photoinduced metal-to-ligand charge transfer excitation. We are able to track the charge and spin dynamics, and establish the critical role of intermediate spin states in the crossover mechanism. We anticipate......Crucial to many light-driven processes in transition metal complexes is the absorption and dissipation of energy by 3d electrons(1-4). But a detailed understanding of such non-equilibrium excited-state dynamics and their interplay with structural changes is challenging: a multitude of excited...... states and possible transitions result in phenomena too complex to unravel when faced with the indirect sensitivity of optical spectroscopy to spin dynamics(5) and the flux limitations of ultrafast X-ray sources(6,7). Such a situation exists for archetypal poly-pyridyl iron complexes, such as [Fe(2...

  20. X-ray spectroscopy: An experimental technique to measure charge state distribution during ion–solid interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Prashant, E-mail: prashant@iuac.res.in; Nandi, Tapan

    2016-01-08

    Charge state distributions of {sup 56}Fe and {sup 58}Ni projectile ions passing through thin carbon foils have been studied in the energy range of 1.65–2.69 MeV/u using a novel method involving the X-ray spectroscopy technique. Interestingly the charge state distribution in the bulk shows Lorentzian behavior instead of usual Gaussian distribution. Further, different parameters of charge state distribution like mean charge state, distribution width and asymmetric parameter are determined and compared with the empirical calculations and ETACHA predictions. It is found that the X-ray measurement technique is appropriate to determine the mean charge state during the ion–solid interaction or in the bulk. Interestingly, empirical formalism predicts much lower mean charge states of the projectile ions compared to X-ray measurements which clearly indicate multi-electron capture from the target surface. The ETACHA predictions and experimental results are found to be comparable for the present energy regime. - Highlights: • New method is proposed to determine charge state distribution using X-ray technique. • Charge state distribution parameters are calculated and compared with various theoretical predictions. • X-ray technique is found to be appropriate to segregate the charge state distribution in the bulk from the target surface. • ETACHA predictions are found satisfactory in the energy range of ≥1.65 MeV/u.

  1. Detecting charging state of ultra-fine particles: instrumental development and ambient measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Laakso

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of ion-induced nucleation in the lower atmosphere has been discussed for a long time. In this article we describe a new instrumental setup – Ion-DMPS – which can be used to detect contribution of ion-induced nucleation on atmospheric new particle formation events. The device measures positively and negatively charged particles with and without a bipolar charger. The ratio between "charger off" to "charger on" describes the charging state of aerosol particle population with respect to equilibrium. Values above one represent more charges than in an equilibrium (overcharged state, and values below unity stand for undercharged situation, when there is less charges in the particles than in the equilibrium. We performed several laboratory experiments to test the operation of the instrument. After the laboratory tests, we used the device to observe particle size distributions during atmospheric new particle formation in a boreal forest. We found that some of the events were clearly dominated by neutral nucleation but in some cases also ion-induced nucleation contributed to the new particle formation. We also found that negative and positive ions (charged particles behaved in a different manner, days with negative overcharging were more frequent than days with positive overcharging.

  2. Tuning of tunneling current noise spectra singularities by localized states charging

    OpenAIRE

    Mantsevich, V. N.; Maslova, N. S.

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of theoretical investigations of tunneling current noise spectra in a wide range of applied bias voltage. Localized states of individual impurity atoms play an important role in tunneling current noise formation. It was found that switching "on" and "off" of Coulomb interaction of conduction electrons with two charged localized states results in power law singularity of low-frequency tunneling current noise spectrum ($1/f^{\\alpha}$) and also results on high frequency com...

  3. Exploration of charge states of balanol analogues acting as ATP-competitive inhibitors in kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardianto, Ari; Yusuf, Muhammad; Liu, Fei; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2017-12-28

    (-)-Balanol is an ATP mimic that inhibits protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) with limited selectivity. While PKA is a tumour promoter, PKC isozymes act as tumour promoters or suppressors, depending on the cancer type. In particular, PKCε is frequently implicated in cancer promotion, making it a potential target for anticancer drugs. To improve isozyme selectivity of balanol, exhaustive structural and activity relationship (SAR) studies have been performed in the last two decades, but with limited success. More recently, fluorination on balanol has shown improved selectivity for PKCε, although the fluorine effect is not yet clearly understood. Understanding the origin to this fluorine-based selectivity will be valuable for designing better balanol-based ATP mimicking inhibitors. Computational approaches such as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can decipher the fluorine effect, provided that correct charges have been assigned to a ligand. Balanol analogues have multiple ionisable functional groups and the effect of fluorine substitutions on the exact charge state of each analogue bound to PKA and to PKCε needs to be thoroughly investigated in order to design highly selective inhibitors for therapeutic applications. We explored the charge states of novel fluorinated balanol analogues using MD simulations. For different potential charge states of these analogues, Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area (MMGBSA) binding energy values were computed. This study suggests that balanol and the most potent fluorinated analogue (5S fluorine substitution on the azepane ring), have charges on the azepane ring (N1), and the phenolic (C6''OH) and the carboxylate (C15''O 2 H) groups on the benzophenone moiety, when bound to PKCε as well as PKA. To the best our knowledge, this is the first study showing that the phenolate group is charged in balanol and its analogues binding to the ATP site of PKCε. Correct charge

  4. Research on State-of-Charge (SOC) estimation using current integration based on temperature compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J.; Shen, Y.; Liu, X. T.; Zeng, G. J.; Liu, D. C.

    2017-11-01

    The traditional current integral method for the state-of-charge (SOC) estimation has an unusable estimation accuracy because of the current measuring error. This paper proposed a closed-loop temperature compensation method to improve the SOC estimation accuracy of current integral method by eliminating temperature drift. Through circuit simulation result in Multisim, the stability of current measuring accuracy is improved by more than 10 times. In a designed 70 charge-discharge experimental circle, the SOC estimation error with temperature compensation had 30 times less than error in normal situation without compensation.

  5. The evolution of ion charge states in cathodic vacuum arc plasmas: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2011-12-18

    Cathodic vacuum arc plasmas are known to contain multiply charged ions. 20 years after “Pressure Ionization: its role in metal vapour vacuum arc plasmas and ion sources” appeared in vol. 1 of Plasma Sources Science and Technology, it is a great opportunity to re-visit the issue of pressure ionization, a non-ideal plasma effect, and put it in perspective to the many other factors that influence observable charge state distributions, such as the role of the cathode material, the path in the density-temperature phase diagram, the “noise” in vacuum arc plasma as described by a fractal model approach, the effects of external magnetic fields and charge exchange collisions with neutrals. A much more complex image of the vacuum arc plasma emerges putting decades of experimentation and modeling in perspective.

  6. Impact of Various Charge States of Hydrogen on Passivation of Dislocation in Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lihui; Lou, Jingjing; Fu, Jiayi; Ji, Zhenguo

    2018-03-01

    Dislocation, one of typical crystallographic defects in silicon, is detrimental to the minority carrier lifetime of silicon wafer. Hydrogen passivation is able to reduce the recombination activity of dislocation, however, the passivation efficacy is strongly dependent on the experimental conditions. In this paper, a model based on the theory of hydrogen charge state control is proposed to explain the passivation efficacy of dislocation correlated to the peak temperature of thermal annealing and illumination intensity. Experimental results support the prediction of the model that a mix of positively charged hydrogen and negatively charged hydrogen at certain ratio can maximise the passivation efficacy of dislocation, leading to a better power conversion efficiency of silicon solar cell with dislocation in it.

  7. Excited state and charge-carrier dynamics in perovskite solar cell materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseca, Carlito S., Jr.; Tian, Yuxi; Sundström, Villy; Scheblykin, Ivan G.

    2016-02-01

    Organo-metal halide perovskites (OMHPs) have attracted enormous interest in recent years as materials for application in optoelectronics and solar energy conversion. These hybrid semiconductors seem to have the potential to challenge traditional silicon technology. In this review we will give an account of the recent development in the understanding of the fundamental light-induced processes in OMHPs from charge-photo generation, migration of charge carries through the materials and finally their recombination. Our and other literature reports on time-resolved conductivity, transient absorption and photoluminescence properties are used to paint a picture of how we currently see the fundamental excited state and charge-carrier dynamics. We will also show that there is still no fully coherent picture of the processes in OMHPs and we will indicate the problems to be solved by future research.

  8. Excited state and charge-carrier dynamics in perovskite solar cell materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponseca, Carlito S Jr; Tian, Yuxi; Sundström, Villy; Scheblykin, Ivan G

    2016-01-01

    Organo-metal halide perovskites (OMHPs) have attracted enormous interest in recent years as materials for application in optoelectronics and solar energy conversion. These hybrid semiconductors seem to have the potential to challenge traditional silicon technology. In this review we will give an account of the recent development in the understanding of the fundamental light-induced processes in OMHPs from charge-photo generation, migration of charge carries through the materials and finally their recombination. Our and other literature reports on time-resolved conductivity, transient absorption and photoluminescence properties are used to paint a picture of how we currently see the fundamental excited state and charge-carrier dynamics. We will also show that there is still no fully coherent picture of the processes in OMHPs and we will indicate the problems to be solved by future research. (topical review)

  9. Cross sections for charge change in argon and equilibrium charge states of 3.5 MeV/amu uranium ions passing through argon and carbon targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perumal, A.N.; Horvat, V.; Watson, R.L.; Peng, Y.; Fruchey, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    Cross sections for single and multiple electron capture and loss were measured for 3.5 MeV/amu uranium ions, traveling in argon gas, as a function of incident charge state. Multiple electron loss in single collisions was found to contribute significantly to the total loss cross section. The measured cross sections were used to determine the average equilibrium charge in argon by three different methods. The resulting charges were in good agreement with each other and with the effective charge calculated from stopping powers. In order to investigate the gas-solid (density) effect on the average equilibrium charge, the charge distributions of 3.5 MeV/amu uranium ions emerging from carbon foils of different thicknesses were measured. It was found that the average equilibrium charge of the uranium ions emerging from the solid is 41% larger than that of the uranium ions emerging from the gas. The energy dependences of the average equilibrium charges for uranium ions exiting carbon and argon targets were examined by combining the present results with previous results of other investigators and compared with the predictions of a semiempirical formula developed recently by Schiwietz and Grande

  10. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Jin, Q Y; Sha, S; Zhang, J J; Li, Z M; Liu, W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  11. Formation of low charge state ions of synthetic polymers using quaternary ammonium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasioudis, Andreas; Joyce, William F; van Velde, Jan W; Heeren, Ron M A; van den Brink, Oscar F

    2010-07-01

    Factors such as high polymer dispersity and variation in elemental composition (of copolymers) often complicate the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis of synthetic polymers with high molar mass. In the experiments described in this study, quaternary ammonium compounds were observed to facilitate the production of low charge state pseudomolecular ions when added to the spray solution for ESI-MS. This approach was then used for the ESI time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) analysis of synthetic polymers. Hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride permitted the successful analysis of poly(ethylene glycol) of 2-40 kDa, poly(propylene glycol) and poly(tetramethylene glycol) oligomers. Increasing the quaternary ammonium compounds' concentration results in the production of low charge state pseudomolecular ions. A comparison of structurally different quaternary ammonium compounds showed that the best performance is expected from large molecules with specific charge localization, which leaves the charge available for interactions. The applicability of the method for the MS analysis of other polymeric systems was also studied. In the case of poly(tetramethylene glycol), the method not only shifted the distributions to higher m/z values but also allowed the detection of high molecular weight material that was not observed without addition of the modifier to the spray solution.

  12. Radiative charge-transfer lifetime of the excited state of (NaCa)+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, Oleg P.; Cote, R.; Michels, H.; Smith, W.W.

    2003-01-01

    New experiments were proposed recently to investigate the regime of cold atomic and molecular ion-atom collision processes in a special hybrid neutral-atom-ion trap under high-vacuum conditions. We study the collisional cooling of laser precooled Ca + ions by ultracold Na atoms. Modeling this process requires knowledge of the radiative lifetime of the excited singlet A 1 Σ + state of the (NaCa) + molecular system. We calculate the rate coefficient for radiative charge transfer using a semiclassical approach. The dipole radial matrix elements between the ground and the excited states, and the potential curves were calculated using complete active space self-consistent field and Moeller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory with an extended Gaussian basis, 6-311+G (3df). The semiclassical charge-transfer rate coefficient was averaged over a thermal Maxwellian distribution. In addition, we also present elastic collision cross sections and the spin-exchange cross section. The rate coefficient for charge transfer was found to be 2.3x10 -16 cm 3 /sec, while those for the elastic and spin-exchange cross sections were found to be several orders of magnitude higher (1.1x10 -8 cm 3 /sec and 2.3x10 -9 cm 3 /sec, respectively). This confirms our assumption that the milli-Kelvin regime of collisional cooling of calcium ions by sodium atoms is favorable with the respect to low loss of calcium ions due to the charge transfer

  13. Correlation between the Open-Circuit Voltage and Charge Transfer State Energy in Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yunlong; Holmes, Russell J

    2015-08-26

    In order to further improve the performance of organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), it is essential to better understand the factors that limit the open-circuit voltage (VOC). Previous work has sought to correlate the value of VOC in donor-acceptor (D-A) OPVs to the interface energy level offset (EDA). In this work, measurements of electroluminescence are used to extract the charge transfer (CT) state energy for multiple small molecule D-A pairings. The CT state as measured from electroluminescence is found to show better correlation to the maximum VOC than EDA. The difference between EDA and the CT state energy is attributed to the Coulombic binding energy of the CT state. This correlation is demonstrated explicitly by inserting an insulating spacer layer between the donor and acceptor materials, reducing the binding energy of the CT state and increasing the measured VOC. These results demonstrate a direct correlation between maximum VOC and CT state energy.

  14. Optimal control of photovoltaic systems by a new battery state-of-charge observer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giglioli, R; Zini, G; Conte, M; Raugi, M

    1988-06-01

    In photovoltaic power plants, the ability to accurately determine battery state-of-charge at any given time can reduce the risk of curtailed energy and allow more precise and less costly battery sizing. In this paper, a new state-of-charge observer, based on an original equivalent electric network of the lead-acid battery, is shown and used to develop an optimal control of the system. Hence, a management plan for a complete photovoltaic system is studied. Finally, a comparison between a simulation of the proposed plan and experimental data from a monitored photovoltaic plant, with very simple management requirements, is made and discussed. The present work was carried out within the framework of the Italian Finalized Energy Project-2.

  15. dc Resistivity of Quantum Critical, Charge Density Wave States from Gauge-Gravity Duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoretti, Andrea; Areán, Daniel; Goutéraux, Blaise; Musso, Daniele

    2018-04-01

    In contrast to metals with weak disorder, the resistivity of weakly pinned charge density waves (CDWs) is not controlled by irrelevant processes relaxing momentum. Instead, the leading contribution is governed by incoherent, diffusive processes which do not drag momentum and can be evaluated in the clean limit. We compute analytically the dc resistivity for a family of holographic charge density wave quantum critical phases and discuss its temperature scaling. Depending on the critical exponents, the ground state can be conducting or insulating. We connect our results to dc electrical transport in underdoped cuprate high Tc superconductors. We conclude by speculating on the possible relevance of unstable, semilocally critical CDW states to the strange metallic region.

  16. dc Resistivity of Quantum Critical, Charge Density Wave States from Gauge-Gravity Duality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoretti, Andrea; Areán, Daniel; Goutéraux, Blaise; Musso, Daniele

    2018-04-27

    In contrast to metals with weak disorder, the resistivity of weakly pinned charge density waves (CDWs) is not controlled by irrelevant processes relaxing momentum. Instead, the leading contribution is governed by incoherent, diffusive processes which do not drag momentum and can be evaluated in the clean limit. We compute analytically the dc resistivity for a family of holographic charge density wave quantum critical phases and discuss its temperature scaling. Depending on the critical exponents, the ground state can be conducting or insulating. We connect our results to dc electrical transport in underdoped cuprate high T_{c} superconductors. We conclude by speculating on the possible relevance of unstable, semilocally critical CDW states to the strange metallic region.

  17. Coherent and Semiclassical States of a Charged Particle in Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    In the present article, we extend our study (Bagrov et al., Braz. J. Phys. 45, 369, 2015) of generalized coherent states (GCS) of a one-dimensional particle considering such important physical system as a three-dimensional charged particle in electric and magnetic fields. Constructing GCS in a many-dimensional case, we meet technical complications that make the consideration nontrivial and instructive. The GCS of the system under consideration are constructed. We study the properties of this GCS such as completeness relations, minimization of uncertainty relations, and so on. We point out which family of the obtained GCS of a charged particle in a magnetic field is related to the CS constructed first by Malkin and Man'ko. We obtain conditions under which some of the GCS can be considered as semiclassical states (SS).

  18. High-Power Collective Charging of a Solid-State Quantum Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Dario; Campisi, Michele; Andolina, Gian Marcello; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Polini, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Quantum information theorems state that it is possible to exploit collective quantum resources to greatly enhance the charging power of quantum batteries (QBs) made of many identical elementary units. We here present and solve a model of a QB that can be engineered in solid-state architectures. It consists of N two-level systems coupled to a single photonic mode in a cavity. We contrast this collective model ("Dicke QB"), whereby entanglement is genuinely created by the common photonic mode, to the one in which each two-level system is coupled to its own separate cavity mode ("Rabi QB"). By employing exact diagonalization, we demonstrate the emergence of a quantum advantage in the charging power of Dicke QBs, which scales like √{N } for N ≫1 .

  19. Attosecond Charge Migration with TDDFT: Accurate Dynamics from a Well-Defined Initial State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Adam; Hernandez, Samuel; Mauger, François; Abanador, Paul M; LaMaster, Daniel J; Gaarde, Mette B; Schafer, Kenneth J; Lopata, Kenneth

    2017-09-07

    We investigate the ability of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to capture attosecond valence electron dynamics resulting from sudden X-ray ionization of a core electron. In this special case the initial state can be constructed unambiguously, allowing for a simple test of the accuracy of the dynamics. The response following nitrogen K-edge ionization in nitrosobenzene shows excellent agreement with fourth-order algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC(4)) results, suggesting that a properly chosen initial state allows TDDFT to adequately capture attosecond charge migration. Visualizing hole motion using an electron localization picture (ELF), we provide an intuitive chemical interpretation of the charge migration as a superposition of Lewis dot resonance structures.

  20. Coherent and Semiclassical States of a Charged Particle in Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A. S.

    2018-06-01

    In the present article, we extend our study (Bagrov et al., Braz. J. Phys. 45, 369, 2015) of generalized coherent states (GCS) of a one-dimensional particle considering such important physical system as a three-dimensional charged particle in electric and magnetic fields. Constructing GCS in a many-dimensional case, we meet technical complications that make the consideration nontrivial and instructive. The GCS of the system under consideration are constructed. We study the properties of this GCS such as completeness relations, minimization of uncertainty relations, and so on. We point out which family of the obtained GCS of a charged particle in a magnetic field is related to the CS constructed first by Malkin and Man'ko. We obtain conditions under which some of the GCS can be considered as semiclassical states (SS).

  1. The state of itinerant charge carriers and thermoelectric effects in correlated oxide metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzemsky, A.L.; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste

    2000-10-01

    We analyzed the physics of transport processes and, in particular, the thermoelectric power in the mercurocuprates and other cuprates to get a better insight into the state of the carriers in these compounds. The actual problems related to the complicated mechanisms of carriers scattering above Tc are discussed. The experimental studies of thermoelectric power showed that the state of carriers in cuprates can be influenced by many complicated scattering processes, however the underlying mechanism for the linear decreasing of the TEP with increasing the temperature for most hole-doped HTSC cuprates is still not yet known. The actual problems related to the complicated mechanisms of carriers scattering above Tc are discussed for a few models of charge transport. A comparison between the analytical and experimental results is also made. It is concluded that the crucial factor for the understanding of the transport properties of correlated oxide metals is the nature of itinerant charge carriers, i.e. renormalized quasiparticles. (author)

  2. An RVB state with fermionic charges and bosonic spins: Mean field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flensberg, K.; Hedegard, P.; Brix Pedersen, M.

    1989-01-01

    We consider a representation of the Hubbard model, in which the charge carriers are fermions and the spin carriers are bosons. We show that there exist a mean-field solution with a condensate of spin-singlets and we characterize the low temperature behavior of the quasiparticles. Finally we calculate the tunneling spectrum for a normal metal-RVB state tunnel junction and suggest the tunneling experiment as a probe of the statistics of the RVB quasiparticles. (orig.)

  3. High charge state metal ion production in vacuum arc ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.

    1994-01-01

    The vacuum arc is a rich source of highly ionized metal plasma that can be used to make a high current metal ion source. Vacuum arc ion sources have been developed for a range of applications including ion implantation for materials surface modification, particle accelerator injection for fundamental nuclear physics research, and other fundamental and applied purposes. Typically the source is repetitively pulsed with pulse length of order a millisecond and duty cycle or order 1% and operation of a dc embodiment has been demonstrated also. Beams have been produced from over 50 of the solid metals of the periodic table, with mean ion energy up to several hundred keV and with peak (pulsed) beam current up to several amperes. The ion charge state distribution has been extensively studied. Ion spectra have been measured for a wide range of metallic cathode materials, including Li, C, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Pt, Au, Pb, Bi, Th and U, as well as compound and alloy cathode materials such as TiC, SiC, UC, PbS, brass, and stainless steel. The ions generated are in general multiply-stripped with a mean charge state of from 1 to 3, depending on the particular metal species, and the charge state distribution can have components from Q = 1+ to 6+. Here the authors review the characteristics of vacuum arc ion sources from the perspective of their high charge state metal ion production

  4. Device and Method for Continuously Equalizing the Charge State of Lithium Ion Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Paul D. (Inventor); Martin, Mark N. (Inventor); Roufberg, Lewis M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method of equalizing charge states of individual cells in a battery includes measuring a previous cell voltage for each cell, measuring a previous shunt current for each cell, calculating, based on the previous cell voltage and the previous shunt current, an adjusted cell voltage for each cell, determining a lowest adjusted cell voltage from among the calculated adjusted cell voltages, and calculating a new shunt current for each cell.

  5. A high gradient superconducting quadrupole for a low charge state ion linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.W.; Shepard, K.W.; Nolen, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    A superconducting quadrupole magnet has been designed for use as the focusing element in a low charge state linac proposed at Argonne. The expected field gradient is 350 T/m at an operating current of 53 A, and the bore diameter is 3 cm. The use of rare earth material holmium for pole tips provides about 10% more gradient then iron pole tips. The design and the status of construction of a prototype singlet magnet is described

  6. Influence of capture to excited states of multiply charged ion beams colliding with small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, P; Monti, J M; Fojón, O A; Hanssen, J; Rivarola, R D

    2015-01-01

    Electron capture by multiply charged ions impacting on small molecules is theoretically investigated. Particular attention is paid to the case of biological targets. The interest is focused on the importance of the transition to excited final states which can play a dominant role on the total capture cross sections. Projectiles at intermediate and high collision energies are considered. Comparison with existing experimental data is shown. (paper)

  7. Positron study of negative charge states in order-disorder ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troev, T.; Berovsky, K.; Peneva, S. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy

    2001-07-01

    The positive positron charge opens the possibility for determining the changes in charge states in technologically important order-disorder ferroelectrics. Here we show that dipole polarization disordering within domains affects the positron annihilation mechanism. The positron lifetime parameters in triglycine sulphate (TGS) (NH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}COOH){sub 3}H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Rochelle salt (RS) NaKC{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 6}.4H{sub 2}O and Potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}, at different temperatures and gamma-irradiation doses depend on the charge point defects. The increase of the positron long lifetime component {tau}{sub 2} is proportional to the temperature and gamma-irradiation dose. In gamma irradiated TGS positrons are trapped in defect electron states of oxigen ions of two radicals CH{sub 2}COO{sup -} and NH{sub 3}CHCOO{sup -}. In RS positrons are trapped also in defect electron states of oxygen ions and OH groups. (orig.)

  8. Mechanisms of charge-state determination in hydrogen-based impurity complexes in crystalline germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, J.

    1984-01-01

    Recent experiments suggest that hydrogen may become bound to, and then tunnel around, substitutional carbon, silicon, or oxygen impurities in crystalline germanium. All these complexes are electrically active; [H,C] and [H,Si] are shallow acceptors, while [H,O] is a shallow donor. This paper attempts to elucidate the basic physical mechanisms controlling the charge state of such complexes as a function of the choice of the substitutional atom. A minimal-basis Bethe-cluster approach is used with the cluster comprising the ten-atom tetrahedral cage (including the substitutional atom) and enclosed H site, the latter coupled to all ten atoms of the cage. The important local correlation effect which tends to favor single occupation of the H site is modeled with a Hubbard-type term at that site. The charge state of the [H,C], [H,Si], and [H,O] complexes is associated with double occupation of the H site. Four aspects of the model are involved in favoring double occupation: (1) a low value of the H-site energy, (2) a reduced local correlation effect at the H site, (3) small hybridization between the H site and cage, and (4) a low value of the substitutional-site energy relative to that of the host. Results for the charge state for H at the cage center and for H near the substitutional atom are discussed in detail. Several useful formal results for local self-energies and local Green's functions are presented

  9. A Novel Active Online State of Charge Based Balancing Approach for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs during Fast Charging Process in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiudong Cui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Non-uniformity of Lithium-ion cells in a battery pack is inevitable and has become the bottleneck to the pack capacity, especially in the fast charging process. Therefore, a balancing approach is essentially required. This paper proposes an active online cell balancing approach in a fast charging process using the state of charge (SOC as balancing criterion. The goal of this approach is to complete pack balancing within the limited charging time. An adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF is applied to estimate the pack cell SOC during the charging process to obtain accurate results under modeling errors and measurement noises. To implement the proposed AEKF, only one additional current sensor is required to obtain the current of each cell required for the SOC estimation. An experimental platform is established to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The results show that the proposed balancing approach with the SOC as a balancing criterion can overcome the challenges of non-uniformity and flat voltage plateau and charge more capacity into a LiFePO4 battery pack than those with the terminal voltage as a balancing criterion in the fast charging process.

  10. Projectile- and charge-state-dependent electron yields from ion penetration of solids as a probe of preequilibrium stopping power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothard, H.; Schou, Jørgen; Groeneveld, K.-O.

    1992-01-01

    Kinetic electron-emission yields gamma from swift ion penetration of solids are proportional to the (electronic) stopping power gamma approximately Beta-S*, if the preequilibrium evolution of the charge and excitation states of the positively charged ions is taken into account. We show...... by investigating the "transport factor" beta, the energy spectrum of directly ejected recoil electrons and the evolution of ionic charge state inside solids. Estimates of the energy-loss fraction leading to electron emission and the effective charges of the ions near the surface allow a quantitative description...

  11. Charge collection and pore filling in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snaith, Henry J; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Chen, Peter; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Graetzel, Michael; Cesar, Ilkay

    2008-01-01

    The solar to electrical power conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) incorporating a solid-state organic hole-transporter can be over 5%. However, this is for devices significantly thinner than the optical depth of the active composites and by comparison to the liquid electrolyte based DSCs, which exhibit efficiencies in excess of 10%, more than doubling of this efficiency is clearly attainable if all the steps in the photovoltaic process can be optimized. Two issues are currently being addressed by the field. The first aims at enhancing the electron diffusion length by either reducing the charge recombination or enhancing the charge transport rates. This should enable a larger fraction of photogenerated charges to be collected. The second, though less actively investigated, aims to improve the physical composite formation, which in this instance is the infiltration of mesoporous TiO 2 with the organic hole-transporter 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxypheny-amine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD). Here, we perform a broad experimental study to elucidate the limiting factors to the solar cell performance. We first investigate the charge transport and recombination in the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell under realistic working conditions via small perturbation photovoltage and photocurrent decay measurements. From these measurements we deduce that the electron diffusion length near short-circuit is as long as 20 μm. However, at applied biases approaching open-circuit potential under realistic solar conditions, the diffusion length becomes comparable with the film thickness, ∼2 μm, illustrating that real losses to open-circuit voltage, fill factor and hence efficiency are occurring due to ineffective charge collection. The long diffusion length near short-circuit, on the other hand, illustrates that another process, separate from ineffective charge collection, is rendering the solar cell less than ideal. We investigate the process

  12. Charge collection and pore filling in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snaith, Henry J; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Chen, Peter; Cesar, Ilkay; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael

    2008-10-22

    The solar to electrical power conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) incorporating a solid-state organic hole-transporter can be over 5%. However, this is for devices significantly thinner than the optical depth of the active composites and by comparison to the liquid electrolyte based DSCs, which exhibit efficiencies in excess of 10%, more than doubling of this efficiency is clearly attainable if all the steps in the photovoltaic process can be optimized. Two issues are currently being addressed by the field. The first aims at enhancing the electron diffusion length by either reducing the charge recombination or enhancing the charge transport rates. This should enable a larger fraction of photogenerated charges to be collected. The second, though less actively investigated, aims to improve the physical composite formation, which in this instance is the infiltration of mesoporous TiO(2) with the organic hole-transporter 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxypheny-amine)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD). Here, we perform a broad experimental study to elucidate the limiting factors to the solar cell performance. We first investigate the charge transport and recombination in the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell under realistic working conditions via small perturbation photovoltage and photocurrent decay measurements. From these measurements we deduce that the electron diffusion length near short-circuit is as long as 20 µm. However, at applied biases approaching open-circuit potential under realistic solar conditions, the diffusion length becomes comparable with the film thickness, ∼2 µm, illustrating that real losses to open-circuit voltage, fill factor and hence efficiency are occurring due to ineffective charge collection. The long diffusion length near short-circuit, on the other hand, illustrates that another process, separate from ineffective charge collection, is rendering the solar cell less than ideal. We investigate the

  13. Fragile charge order in the nonsuperconducting ground state of the underdoped high-temperature superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B S; Harrison, N; Zhu, Z; Balakirev, F; Ramshaw, B J; Srivastava, A; Sabok-Sayr, S A; Sabok, S A; Dabrowski, B; Lonzarich, G G; Sebastian, Suchitra E

    2015-08-04

    The normal state in the hole underdoped copper oxide superconductors has proven to be a source of mystery for decades. The measurement of a small Fermi surface by quantum oscillations on suppression of superconductivity by high applied magnetic fields, together with complementary spectroscopic measurements in the hole underdoped copper oxide superconductors, point to a nodal electron pocket from charge order in YBa2Cu3(6+δ). Here, we report quantum oscillation measurements in the closely related stoichiometric material YBa2Cu4O8, which reveals similar Fermi surface properties to YBa2Cu3(6+δ), despite the nonobservation of charge order signatures in the same spectroscopic techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, that revealed signatures of charge order in YBa2Cu3(6+δ). Fermi surface reconstruction in YBa2Cu4O8 is suggested to occur from magnetic field enhancement of charge order that is rendered fragile in zero magnetic fields because of its potential unconventional nature and/or its occurrence as a subsidiary to more robust underlying electronic correlations.

  14. Charge transfer excitations from excited state Hartree-Fock subsequent minimization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theophilou, Iris; Tassi, M.; Thanos, S.

    2014-01-01

    Photoinduced charge-transfer processes play a key role for novel photovoltaic phenomena and devices. Thus, the development of ab initio methods that allow for an accurate and computationally inexpensive treatment of charge-transfer excitations is a topic that nowadays attracts a lot of scientific attention. In this paper we extend an approach recently introduced for the description of single and double excitations [M. Tassi, I. Theophilou, and S. Thanos, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 113, 690 (2013); M. Tassi, I. Theophilou, and S. Thanos, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 124107 (2013)] to allow for the description of intermolecular charge-transfer excitations. We describe an excitation where an electron is transferred from a donor system to an acceptor one, keeping the excited state orthogonal to the ground state and avoiding variational collapse. These conditions are achieved by decomposing the space spanned by the Hartree-Fock (HF) ground state orbitals into four subspaces: The subspace spanned by the occupied orbitals that are localized in the region of the donor molecule, the corresponding for the acceptor ones and two more subspaces containing the virtual orbitals that are localized in the neighborhood of the donor and the acceptor, respectively. Next, we create a Slater determinant with a hole in the subspace of occupied orbitals of the donor and a particle in the virtual subspace of the acceptor. Subsequently we optimize both the hole and the particle by minimizing the HF energy functional in the corresponding subspaces. Finally, we test our approach by calculating the lowest charge-transfer excitation energies for a set of tetracyanoethylene-hydrocarbon complexes that have been used earlier as a test set for such kind of excitations

  15. Calculation of Ion Charge State Distributions After Inner-Shell Ionization in Xe Atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedein, A.M.; Ghoneim, A.A.; Kandil, M.K.; Kadad, I.M.

    2009-01-01

    The vacancy cascades following initial inner-shell vacancies in single and multi-ionized atoms often lead to highly charged residual ions. The inner-shell vacancy produced by ionization processes may decay by either a radiative or non-radiative transition. In addition to the vacancy filling processes, there is an electron shake off process due to the change of core potential of the atom. In the calculation of vacancy cascades, the radiative (x-ray) and non-radiative (Auger and Coster-Kronig) branching ratios give valuable information on the de-excitation dynamics of an atom with inner-shell vacancy. The production of multi-charged ions yield by the Auger cascades following inner shell ionization of an atom has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Multi-charged Xe ions following de-excitation of K, L 1 , L 2,3 , M 1 , M 2,3 and M 4,5 subshell vacancies are calculated using Monte-Carlo algorithm to simulate the vacancy cascade development. Fluorescence yield (radiative) and Auger, Coster- Kronig yield (non- radiative) are evaluated. The decay of K hole state through radiative transitions is found to be more probable than non-radiative transitions in the first step of de-excitation. On the other hand, the decay of L, M vacancies through non-radiative transitions are more probable. The K shell ionization in Xe atom mainly yields Xe 7+ , Xe 8+ , Xe 9+ and Xe 1 0 + ions, and the charged X 8+ ions are the highest. The main product from the L 1 shell ionization is found to be Xe 8+ , Xe 9+ ions, while the charged Xe 8+ ions predominate at L 2,3 hole states. The charged Xe 6+ , Xe 7+ and Xe 8+ ions mainly yield from 3s 1/2 and 3p 1/2 , 3/2 ionization, while Xe in 3d 3/2 , 5/2 hole states mainly turns into Xe 4+ and Xe 5+ ions. The present results are found to agree well with the experimental data. (author)

  16. Excited State Structural Dynamics of Carotenoids and ChargeTransfer Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Tassle, Aaron Justin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation describes the development andimplementation of a visible/near infrared pump/mid-infrared probeapparatus. Chapter 1 describes the background and motivation ofinvestigating optically induced structural dynamics, paying specificattention to solvation and the excitation selection rules of highlysymmetric molecules such as carotenoids. Chapter 2 describes thedevelopment and construction of the experimental apparatus usedthroughout the remainder of this dissertation. Chapter 3 will discuss theinvestigation of DCM, a laser dye with a fluorescence signal resultingfrom a charge transfer state. By studying the dynamics of DCM and of itsmethyl deuterated isotopomer (an otherwise identical molecule), we areable to investigate the origins of the charge transfer state and provideevidence that it is of the controversial twisted intramolecular (TICT)type. Chapter 4 introduces the use of two-photon excitation to the S1state, combined with one-photon excitation to the S2 state of thecarotenoid beta-apo-8'-carotenal. These 2 investigations show evidencefor the formation of solitons, previously unobserved in molecular systemsand found only in conducting polymers Chapter 5 presents an investigationof the excited state dynamics of peridinin, the carotenoid responsiblefor the light harvesting of dinoflagellates. This investigation allowsfor a more detailed understanding of the importance of structuraldynamics of carotenoids in light harvesting.

  17. Absence of Intramolecular Singlet Fission in Pentacene-Perylenediimide Heterodimers: The Role of Charge Transfer State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Wu, Yishi; Chen, Jianwei; Wang, Lanfen; Liu, Yanping; Yu, Zhenyi; Yao, Jiannian; Fu, Hongbing

    2017-11-16

    A new class of donor-acceptor heterodimers based on two singlet fission (SF)-active chromophores, i.e., pentacene (Pc) and perylenediimide (PDI), was developed to investigate the role of charge transfer (CT) state on the excitonic dynamics. The CT state is efficiently generated upon photoexcitation. However, the resulting CT state decays to different energy states depending on the energy levels of the CT state. It undergoes extremely rapid deactivation to the ground state in polar CH 2 Cl 2 , whereas it undergoes transformation to a Pc triplet in nonpolar toluene. The efficient triplet generation in toluene is not due to SF but CT-mediated intersystem crossing. In light of the energy landscape, it is suggested that the deep energy level of the CT state relative to that of the triplet pair state makes the CT state actually serve as a trap state that cannot undergoes an intramolecular singlet fission process. These results provide guidance for the design of SF materials and highlight the requisite for more widely applicable design principles.

  18. Adaptive unscented Kalman filtering for state of charge estimation of a lithium-ion battery for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Fengchun; Hu, Xiaosong; Zou, Yuan; Li, Siguang

    2011-01-01

    An accurate battery State of Charge estimation is of great significance for battery electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. This paper presents an adaptive unscented Kalman filtering method to estimate State of Charge of a lithium-ion battery for battery electric vehicles. The adaptive adjustment of the noise covariances in the State of Charge estimation process is implemented by an idea of covariance matching in the unscented Kalman filter context. Experimental results indicate that the adaptive unscented Kalman filter-based algorithm has a good performance in estimating the battery State of Charge. A comparison with the adaptive extended Kalman filter, extended Kalman filter, and unscented Kalman filter-based algorithms shows that the proposed State of Charge estimation method has a better accuracy. -- Highlights: → Adaptive unscented Kalman filtering is proposed to estimate State of Charge of a lithium-ion battery for electric vehicles. → The proposed method has a good performance in estimating the battery State of Charge. → A comparison with three other Kalman filtering algorithms shows that the proposed method has a better accuracy.

  19. Charge transfer complex states in diketopyrrolopyrrole polymers and fullerene blends: Implications for organic solar cell efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghe, D.; Yu, P.; Kanimozhi, C.; Patil, S.; Guha, S.

    2011-12-01

    The spectral photocurrent characteristics of two donor-acceptor diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based copolymers (PDPP-BBT and TDPP-BBT) blended with a fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were studied using Fourier-transform photocurrent spectroscopy (FTPS) and monochromatic photocurrent (PC) method. PDPP-BBT:PCBM shows the onset of the lowest charge transfer complex (CTC) state at 1.42 eV, whereas TDPP-BBT:PCBM shows no evidence of the formation of a midgap CTC state. The FTPS and PC spectra of P3HT:PCBM are also compared. The larger singlet state energy difference of TDPP-BBT and PCBM compared to PDPP-BBT/P3HT and PCBM obliterates the formation of a midgap CTC state resulting in an enhanced photovoltaic efficiency over PDPP-BBT:PCBM.

  20. Electroweak-charged bound states as LHC probes of hidden forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingfeng; Salvioni, Ennio; Tsai, Yuhsin; Zheng, Rui

    2018-01-01

    We explore the LHC reach on beyond-the-standard model (BSM) particles X associated with a new strong force in a hidden sector. We focus on the motivated scenario where the SM and hidden sectors are connected by fermionic mediators ψ+,0 that carry SM electroweak charges. The most promising signal is the Drell-Yan production of a ψ±ψ¯ 0 pair, which forms an electrically charged vector bound state ϒ± due to the hidden force and later undergoes resonant annihilation into W±X . We analyze this final state in detail in the cases where X is a real scalar ϕ that decays to b b ¯, or a dark photon γd that decays to dileptons. For prompt X decays, we show that the corresponding signatures can be efficiently probed by extending the existing ATLAS and CMS diboson searches to include heavy resonance decays into BSM particles. For long-lived X , we propose new searches where the requirement of a prompt hard lepton originating from the W boson ensures triggering and essentially removes any SM backgrounds. To illustrate the potential of our results, we interpret them within two explicit models that contain strong hidden forces and electroweak-charged mediators, namely λ -supersymmetry (SUSY) and non-SUSY ultraviolet extensions of the twin Higgs model. The resonant nature of the signals allows for the reconstruction of the mass of both ϒ± and X , thus providing a wealth of information about the hidden sector.

  1. Calculations on charge state and energy loss of argon ions in partially and fully ionized carbon plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D; Casas, David; Morales, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    The energy loss of argon ions in a target depends on their velocity and charge density. At the energies studied in this work, it depends mostly on the free and bound electrons in the target. Here the random-phase approximation is used for analyzing free electrons at any degeneracy. For the plasma-bound electrons, an interpolation between approximations for low and high energies is applied. The Brandt-Kitagawa (BK) model is employed to depict the projectile charge space distribution, and the stripping criterion of Kreussler et al. is used to determine its equilibrium charge state Q(eq). This latter criterion implies that the equilibrium charge state depends slightly on the electron density and temperature of the plasma. On the other hand, the effective charge Q(eff) is obtained as the ratio between the energy loss of the argon ion and that of the proton for the same plasma conditions. This effective charge Q(eff) is larger than the equilibrium charge state Q(eq) due to the incorporation of the BK charge distribution. Though our charge-state estimations are not exactly the same as the experimental values, our energy loss agrees quite well with the experiments. It is noticed that the energy loss in plasmas is higher than that in the same cold target of about, ∼42-62.5% and increases with carbon plasma ionization. This confirms the well-known enhanced plasma stopping. It is also observed that only a small part of this energy loss enhancement is due to an increase of the argon charge state, namely only ∼2.2 and 5.1%, for the partially and the fully ionized plasma, respectively. The other contribution is connected with a better energy transfer to the free electrons at plasma state than to the bound electrons at solid state of about, ∼38.8-57.4%, where higher values correspond to a fully ionized carbon plasma.

  2. Wavelet Based Denoising for the Estimation of the State of Charge for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In practical electric vehicle applications, the noise of original discharging/charging voltage (DCV signals are inevitable, which comes from electromagnetic interference and the measurement noise of the sensors. To solve such problems, the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT based state of charge (SOC estimation method is proposed in this paper. Through a multi-resolution analysis, the original DCV signals with noise are decomposed into different frequency sub-bands. The desired de-noised DCV signals are then reconstructed by utilizing the inverse discrete wavelet transform, based on the sure rule. With the de-noised DCV signal, the SOC and the parameters are obtained using the adaptive extended Kalman Filter algorithm, and the adaptive forgetting factor recursive least square method. Simulation and experimental results show that the SOC estimation error is less than 1%, which indicates an effective improvement in SOC estimation accuracy.

  3. Quark charge retention in final state hadrons form deep inelastic muon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanese, J.P.; Blum, D.; Heusse, P.; Jaffre, M.; Jacholkowska, A.; Pascaud, C.; Carr, J.; Chima, J.S.; Clifft, R.; Edwards, M.; Norton, P.R.; Oakham, F.G.; Thompson, J.C.; Figiel, J.; Hoppe, C.; Janata, F.; Preissner, H.; Rondio, E.; Studt, M.; La Torre, A. de; Dengler, F.; Derado, I.; Eckardt, V.; Manz, A.; Schmitz, N.; Shiers, J.; Wolf, G.; Arneodo, M.; Arvidson, A.; Aubert, J.J.; Becks, K.H.; Bee, C.; Benchouk, C.; Bird, I.; Boehm, E.; Braun, H.; Brown, S.; Brueck, H.; Calen, H.; Callebaut, D.; Cobb, J.H.; Combley, F.; Coughlan, J.; Court, G.R.; D'Agostini, G.; Dahlgren, S.; Davies, J.K.; Dau, W.D.; Dreyer, T.; Drees, J.; Dumont, J.J.; Dueren, M.; Edwards, A.; Ernst, T.; Ferrero, M.I.; Foster, J.; Gamet, R.; Geddes, N.; Giubellino, P.; Grafstroem, P.; Grard, F.; Gustafsson, L.; Haas, J.; Hagberg, E.; Hasert, F.J.; Hayman, P.; Johnson, A.S.; Kabuss, E.M.; Krueger, J.; Kullander, S.; Landgraf, U.; Lanske, D.; Loken, J.; Long, K.; Mohr, W.; Montanet, F.; Mount, R.P.; Paul, L.; Payre, P.; Peroni, C.; Pettingale, J.; Poetsch, M.; Renton, P.; Rith, K.; Schlagboehmer, A.; Schroeder, T.; Schultze, K.; Sloan, T.; Stier, H.E.; Stockhausen, W.; Taylor, G.; Wahlen, H.; Wallucks, W.; Whalley, M.; Williams, W.S.C.; Wheeler, S.; Wimpenny, S.; Windmolders, R.

    1984-01-01

    The net charge of final state hadrons in both the current and target fragmentation regions has been measured in a 280 GeV/c muon-proton scattering experiment. A clean kinematic separation of the two regions in the centre-of-mass rapidity is demonstrated. The dependence on chisub(Bj) of the mean net charges is found to be consistent with a large contribution of sea quarks at small chisub(Bj) and with the dominance of valence quarks at large chisub(Bj) thus giving clear confirmation of the quark-parton model. It is also shown that the leading forward hadron has a high probability of containing the struck quark. (orig.)

  4. Model of charge-state distributions for electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Edgell

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer model for the ion charge-state distribution (CSD in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS plasma is presented that incorporates non-Maxwellian distribution functions, multiple atomic species, and ion confinement due to the ambipolar potential well that arises from confinement of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR heated electrons. Atomic processes incorporated into the model include multiple ionization and multiple charge exchange with rate coefficients calculated for non-Maxwellian electron distributions. The electron distribution function is calculated using a Fokker-Planck code with an ECR heating term. This eliminates the electron temperature as an arbitrary user input. The model produces results that are a good match to CSD data from the ANL-ECRII ECRIS. Extending the model to 1D axial will also allow the model to determine the plasma and electrostatic potential profiles, further eliminating arbitrary user input to the model.

  5. Frenkel-Charge-Transfer exciton intermixing theory for molecular crystals with two isolated Frenkel exciton states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarev, Igor; Popescu, Adrian

    We develop an analytical theory for the intra-intermolecular exciton intermixing in periodic 1D chains of planar organic molecules with two isolated low-lying Frenkel exciton states, typical of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and other transition metal phthalocyanine molecules. We formulate the Hamiltonian and use the exact Bogoliubov diagonalization procedure to derive the eigen energy spectrum for the two lowest intramolecular Frenkel excitons coupled to the intermolecular charge transfer (CT) exciton state. By comparing our theoretical spectrum with available experimental CuPc absorption data, we obtain the parameters of the Frenkel-CT exciton intermixing in CuPc thin films. The two Frenkel exciton states here are spaced apart by 0.26 eV, and the charge transfer exciton state is 50 meV above the lowest Frenkel exciton. Both Frenkel excitons are strongly mixed with the CT exciton, showing the coupling constant 0.17 eV in agreement with earlier electron transport experiments. Our results can be used for the proper interpretation of the physical properties of crystalline phthalocyanines. DOE-DE-SC0007117 (I.B.), UNC-GA ROI Grant (A.P.).

  6. Charge-state distribution in close collisions of 3 MeV C2+ ions with Ag and Au atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, D.O; Arnoldbik, W.M.; Kabachnik, N.M.; Khodyrev, V.A.

    The charge-state distributions of 3 MeV carbon ions scattered over angles of 40 degrees and 60 degrees from sub-monolayers of Ag and Au atoms evaporated on a substrate and from thick layers of Ag and Au have been measured. A close similarity of the charge distributions in all cases is interpreted as

  7. The electromagnetic multipole moments of the charged open-flavor {Z}_{\\bar{c}q} states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, K.; Özdem, U.

    2018-05-01

    The electromagnetic multipole moments of the open-flavor {Z}\\bar{cq} states are investigated by assuming a diquark–antidiquark picture for their internal structure and quantum numbers {J}{PC}={1}+- for their spin-parity. In particular, their magnetic and quadrupole moments are extracted in the framework of light-cone QCD sum rule by the help of the photon distribution amplitudes. The electromagnetic multipole moments of the open-flavor {Z}\\bar{cq} states are important dynamical observables, which encode valuable information on their underlying structure. The results obtained for the magnetic moments of different structures are considerably large and can be measured in future experiments. We obtain very small values for the quadrupole moments of {Z}\\bar{cq} states indicating a nonspherical charge distribution.

  8. SUPRATHERMAL ELECTRONS IN THE SOLAR CORONA: CAN NONLOCAL TRANSPORT EXPLAIN HELIOSPHERIC CHARGE STATES?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranmer, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    There have been several ideas proposed to explain how the Sun's corona is heated and how the solar wind is accelerated. Some models assume that open magnetic field lines are heated by Alfvén waves driven by photospheric motions and dissipated after undergoing a turbulent cascade. Other models posit that much of the solar wind's mass and energy is injected via magnetic reconnection from closed coronal loops. The latter idea is motivated by observations of reconnecting jets and also by similarities of ion composition between closed loops and the slow wind. Wave/turbulence models have also succeeded in reproducing observed trends in ion composition signatures versus wind speed. However, the absolute values of the charge-state ratios predicted by those models tended to be too low in comparison with observations. This Letter refines these predictions by taking better account of weak Coulomb collisions for coronal electrons, whose thermodynamic properties determine the ion charge states in the low corona. A perturbative description of nonlocal electron transport is applied to an existing set of wave/turbulence models. The resulting electron velocity distributions in the low corona exhibit mild suprathermal tails characterized by ''kappa'' exponents between 10 and 25. These suprathermal electrons are found to be sufficiently energetic to enhance the charge states of oxygen ions, while maintaining the same relative trend with wind speed that was found when the distribution was assumed to be Maxwellian. The updated wave/turbulence models are in excellent agreement with solar wind ion composition measurements

  9. Observation of excited state charge transfer with fs/ps-CARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Alex Jason [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Excited state charge transfer processes are studied using the fs/ps-CARS probe technique. This probe allows for multiplexed detection of Raman active vibrational modes. Systems studied include Michler's Ketone, Coumarin 120, 4-dimethylamino-4'-nitrostilbene, and several others. The vibrational spectrum of the para di-substituted benzophenone Michler's Ketone in the first excited singlet state is studied for the first time. It is found that there are several vibrational modes indicative of structural changes of the excited molecule. A combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to study the simplest 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin, Coumarin 120. Vibrations observed in FTIR and spontaneous Raman spectra are assigned using density functional calculations and a continuum solvation model is used to predict how observed modes are affected upon inclusion of a solvent. The low frequency modes of the excited state charge transfer species 4-dimethylamino-4{prime}-nitrostilbene are studied in acetonitrile. Results are compared to previous work on this molecule in the fingerprint region. Finally, several partially completed projects and their implications are discussed. These include the two photon absorption of Coumarin 120, nanoconfinement in cyclodextrin cavities and sensitization of titania nanoparticles.

  10. Observation of excited state charge transfer with fs/ps-CARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, Alex Jason

    2009-01-01

    Excited state charge transfer processes are studied using the fs/ps-CARS probe technique. This probe allows for multiplexed detection of Raman active vibrational modes. Systems studied include Michler's Ketone, Coumarin 120, 4-dimethylamino-4(prime)-nitrostilbene, and several others. The vibrational spectrum of the para di-substituted benzophenone Michler's Ketone in the first excited singlet state is studied for the first time. It is found that there are several vibrational modes indicative of structural changes of the excited molecule. A combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to study the simplest 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin, Coumarin 120. Vibrations observed in FTIR and spontaneous Raman spectra are assigned using density functional calculations and a continuum solvation model is used to predict how observed modes are affected upon inclusion of a solvent. The low frequency modes of the excited state charge transfer species 4-dimethylamino-4(prime)-nitrostilbene are studied in acetonitrile. Results are compared to previous work on this molecule in the fingerprint region. Finally, several partially completed projects and their implications are discussed. These include the two photon absorption of Coumarin 120, nanoconfinement in cyclodextrin cavities and sensitization of titania nanoparticles

  11. Analytical bounds on SET charge sensitivity for qubit readout in a solid-state quantum computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, F.; Buehler, T.M.; Brenner, R.; Hamilton, A.R.; Dzurak, A.S.; Clark, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Quantum Computing promises processing powers orders of magnitude beyond what is possible in conventional silicon-based computers. It harnesses the laws of quantum mechanics directly, exploiting the in built potential of a wave function for massively parallel information processing. Highly ordered and scaleable arrays of single donor atoms (quantum bits, or qubits), embedded in Si, are especially promising; they are a very natural fit to the existing, highly sophisticated, Si industry. The success of Si-based quantum computing depends on precisely initializing the quantum state of each qubit, and on precise reading out its final form. In the Kane architecture the qubit states are read out by detecting the spatial distribution of the donor's electron cloud using a sensitive electrometer. The single-electron transistor (SET) is an attractive candidate readout device for this, since the capacitive, or charging, energy of a SET's metallic central island is exquisitely sensitive to its electronic environment. Use of SETs as high-performance electrometers is therefore a key technology for data transfer in a solid-state quantum computer. We present an efficient analytical method to obtain bounds on the charge sensitivity of a single electron transistor (SET). Our classic Green-function analysis provides reliable estimates of SET sensitivity optimizing the design of the readout hardware. Typical calculations, and their physical meaning, are discussed. We compare them with the measured SET-response data

  12. Pressure dependence of excited-state charge-carrier dynamics in organolead tribromide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. C.; Han, J. H.; Zhao, H. F.; Yan, H. C.; Shi, Y.; Jin, M. X.; Liu, C. L.; Ding, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    Excited-state charge-carrier dynamics governs the performance of organometal trihalide perovskites (OTPs) and is strongly influenced by the crystal structure. Characterizing the excited-state charge-carrier dynamics in OTPs under high pressure is imperative for providing crucial insights into structure-property relations. Here, we conduct in situ high-pressure femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy experiments to study the excited-state carrier dynamics of CH3NH3PbBr3 (MAPbBr3) under hydrostatic pressure. The results indicate that compression is an effective approach to modulate the carrier dynamics of MAPbBr3. Across each pressure-induced phase, carrier relaxation, phonon scattering, and Auger recombination present different pressure-dependent properties under compression. Responsiveness is attributed to the pressure-induced variation in the lattice structure, which also changes the electronic band structure. Specifically, simultaneous prolongation of carrier relaxation and Auger recombination is achieved in the ambient phase, which is very valuable for excess energy harvesting. Our discussion provides clues for optimizing the photovoltaic performance of OTPs.

  13. Moving Towards a State of the Art Charge-Exchange Reaction Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poxon-Pearson, Terri; Nunes, Filomena; Potel, Gregory

    2017-09-01

    Charge-exchange reactions have a wide range of applications, including late stellar evolution, constraining the matrix elements for neutrinoless double β-decay, and exploring symmetry energy and other aspects of exotic nuclear matter. Still, much of the reaction theory needed to describe these transitions is underdeveloped and relies on assumptions and simplifications that are often extended outside of their region of validity. In this work, we have begun to move towards a state of the art charge-exchange reaction code. As a first step, we focus on Fermi transitions using a Lane potential in a few body, Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA) framework. We have focused on maintaining a modular structure for the code so we can later incorporate complications such as nonlocality, breakup, and microscopic inputs. Results using this new charge-exchange code will be shown compared to the analysis in for the case of 48Ca(p,n)48Sc. This work was supported in part by the National Nuclear Security Administration under the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program through the U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE- FG52-08NA2855.

  14. Emittance measurements of high charge state argon beams from a PIG source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bex, L.; Clark, D.J.; Ellsworth, C.E.; Estrella, R.M.; Gough, R.A.; Holley, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    The emittances of beams of Ar 4+ to Ar 8+ were measured in the axial and radial planes. The extraction voltage was 10 kV and the magnetic field was varied from about 0.5 to 0.6 Tesla. The anode slit was varied in its distance from the arc which was run both dc and pulsed. The emittance was found to be nearly independent of charge state but to increase with total beam current. A small bowing of the arc column was discovered, which made evaluation of mirror field effects difficult

  15. Emittance measurements of high charge state argon beams from a pig source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bex, L.; Clark, D.J.; Ellsworth, C.E.; Estrella, R.M.; Gough, R.A.; Holley, W.R.

    1975-10-01

    The emittances of beams of Ar 4+ to Ar 8+ were measured in the axial and radial planes. The extraction voltage was 10 kV and the magnetic field was varied from about 0.5 to 0.6 Tesla. The anode slit was varied in distance from the arc, which was run both dc and pulsed. The emittance was nearly independent of charge state, but increased with total beam current. A small bowing of the arc column, which made evaluation of mirror field effects difficult, was discovered

  16. MOS Capacitance—Voltage Characteristics III. Trapping Capacitance from 2-Charge-State Impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jie Binbin; Sah Chihtang

    2011-01-01

    Low-frequency and high-frequency capacitance—voltage curves of Metal—Oxide—Semiconductor Capacitors are presented to illustrate giant electron and hole trapping capacitances at many simultaneously present two-charge-state and one-trapped-carrier, or one-energy-level impurity species. Models described include a donor electron trap and an acceptor hole trap, both donors, both acceptors, both shallow energy levels, both deep, one shallow and one deep, and the identical donor and acceptor. Device and material parameters are selected to simulate chemically and physically realizable capacitors for fundamental trapping parameter characterizations and for electrical and optical signal processing applications. (invited papers)

  17. Incident ion charge state dependence of electron emission during slow multicharged ion-surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, I.G.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.; Havener, C.C.; Overbury, S.H.; Robinson, M.T.; Zehner, D.M.; Meyer, F.W.

    1992-01-01

    Characteristic variations in the total electron yield γ as a function of crystal azimuthal orientation are reported for slow N 2+ , N 5+ and N 6+ ions incident on a Au(011) single crystal, together with measurements of γ as a function of incident ion velocity. Kinetic electron emission is shown to arise predominantly in close collisions between incident ions and target atoms, and potential electron emission is found to be essentially constant within our present velocity range. The incident ion charge state is shown to play no role in kinetic electron emission. Extremely fast neutralization times of the order of 10 - 15 secs are needed to explain the observations

  18. Charge-state related effects in sputtering of LiF by swift heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmann, W. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ban-d' Etat, B. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Bender, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Boduch, P. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Grande, P.L. [Univ. Fed. Rio Grande do Sul, BR-91501970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lebius, H.; Lelièvre, D. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Marmitt, G.G. [Univ. Fed. Rio Grande do Sul, BR-91501970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rothard, H. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Seidl, T.; Severin, D.; Voss, K.-O. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Toulemonde, M., E-mail: toulemonde@ganil.fr [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la photonique, CIMAP-GANIL, CEA–CNRS–ENSICAEN–Univ. Caen, 14070 Caen (France); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    Sputtering experiments with swift heavy ions in the electronic energy loss regime were performed by using the catcher technique in combination with elastic recoil detection analysis. The angular distribution of particles sputtered from the surface of LiF single crystals is composed of a jet-like peak superimposed on a broad isotropic distribution. By using incident ions of fixed energy but different charges states, the influence of the electronic energy loss on both components is probed. We find indications that isotropic sputtering originates from near-surface layers, whereas the jet component may be affected by contributions from depth up to about 150 nm.

  19. Solvent control of charge transfer excited state relaxation pathways in [Fe(2,2 '-bipyridine)(CN)4]2-

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kasper Skov; Kunnus, Kristjan; Harlang, Tobias C. B.

    2018-01-01

    The excited state dynamics of solvated [Fe(bpy)(CN)4]2-, where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, show significant sensitivity to the solvent Lewis acidity. Using a combination of optical absorption and X-ray emission transient spectroscopies, we have previously shown that the metal to ligand charge transfer...... the MLCT excited state relaxation dynamics of [Fe(bpy)(CN)4]2- in water, a strong Lewis acid solvent. The charge-transfer excited state is now found to decay in less than 100 femtoseconds, forming a quasi-stable metal centered excited state with a 13 picosecond lifetime. We find that this MC excited state...... developed for solar applications....

  20. State-selective charge transfer and excitation in ion-ion interactions at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, R; Purkait, M

    2012-01-01

    Boundary Corrected Continuum Intermediate State (BCCIS) approximation and Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) methods are applied to calculate the charge transfer and excitation cross sections for ion-ion collisions.

  1. Trajectory effects in the negative charge-state fraction of 3He and 4He reflected from a sodium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.J.; Eckstein, W.; Verbeek, H.

    1984-01-01

    Measurement of the positive and negative charge-state fractions of He reflected from a sodium target with incident energies in the range of 1.75 keV/nucleon to 5 keV/nucleon are presented. The exit angle of the particles was held constant at 75 0 from the surface normal, while the incident angle was varied from 0 0 (normal incidence) to 75 0 . The positive charge-state fractions exhibited no incident-angle or incident-energy dependence and dependend only upon the exit energy. For normal incidence, the negative charge-state fractions were also only dependent upon the exit energy. However, for glancing incidence, the negative charge-state fractions were incident- and exit-energy dependent. These results are compared to previous results for D [1] and are discussed in terms of the trajectory-dependent formation probability of the negative ions. (orig.)

  2. Variation in Emergency Department vs Internal Medicine Excess Charges in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tim; Park, Angela; Bai, Ge; Joo, Sarah; Hutfless, Susan M; Mehta, Ambar; Anderson, Gerard F; Makary, Martin A

    2017-08-01

    Uninsured and insured but out-of-network emergency department (ED) patients are often billed hospital chargemaster prices, which exceed amounts typically paid by insurers. To examine the variation in excess charges for services provided by emergency medicine and internal medicine physicians. Retrospective analysis was conducted of professional fee payment claims made by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services for all services provided to Medicare Part B fee-for-service beneficiaries in calendar year 2013. Data analysis was conducted from January 1 to July 31, 2016. Markup ratios for ED and internal medicine professional services, defined as the charges submitted by the hospital divided by the Medicare allowable amount. Our analysis included 12 337 emergency medicine physicians from 2707 hospitals and 57 607 internal medicine physicians from 3669 hospitals in all 50 states. Services provided by emergency medicine physicians had an overall markup ratio of 4.4 (340% excess charges), which was greater than the markup ratio of 2.1 (110% excess charges) for all services performed by internal medicine physicians. Markup ratios for all ED services ranged by hospital from 1.0 to 12.6 (median, 4.2; interquartile range [IQR], 3.3-5.8); markup ratios for all internal medicine services ranged by hospital from 1.0 to 14.1 (median, 2.0; IQR, 1.7-2.5). The median markup ratio by hospital for ED evaluation and management procedure codes varied between 4.0 and 5.0. Among the most common ED services, laceration repair had the highest median markup ratio (7.0); emergency medicine physician review of a head computed tomographic scan had the greatest interhospital variation (range, 1.6-27.7). Across hospitals, markups in the ED were often substantially higher than those in the internal medicine department for the same services. Higher ED markup ratios were associated with hospital for-profit ownership (median, 5.7; IQR, 4.0-7.1), a greater percentage of uninsured patients seen

  3. Evidence for excited state intramolecular charge transfer in benzazole-based pseudo-stilbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fabiano da Silveira; Descalzo, Rodrigo Roceti; Gonçalves, Paulo Fernando Bruno; Benvenutti, Edilson Valmir; Rodembusch, Fabiano Severo

    2012-08-21

    Two azo compounds were obtained through the diazotization reaction of aminobenzazole derivatives and N,N-dimethylaniline using clay montmorillonite KSF as catalyst. The synthesized dyes were characterized using elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and (13)C and (1)H NMR spectroscopy in solution. Their photophysical behavior was studied using UV-vis and steady-state fluorescence in solution. These dyes present intense absorption in the blue region. The spectral features of the azo compounds can be related to the pseudo-stilbene type as well as the E isomer of the dyes. Excitation at the absorption maxima does not produce emissive species in the excited state. However, excitation around 350 nm allowed dual emission of fluorescence, from both a locally excited (LE, short wavelength) and an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT, long wavelength) state, which was corroborated by a linear relation of the fluorescence maximum (ν(max)) versus the solvent polarity function (Δf) from the Lippert-Mataga correlation. Evidence of TICT in these dyes was discussed from the viscosity dependence of the fluorescence intensity in the ICT emission band. Theoretical calculations were also performed in order to study the geometry and charge distribution of the dyes in their ground and excited electronic states. Using DFT methods at the theoretical levels BLYP/Aug-cc-pVDZ, for geometry optimizations and frequency calculations, and B3LYP/6-311+G(2d), for single-point energy evaluations, the calculations revealed that the least energetic and most intense photon absorption leads to a very polar excited state that relaxes non-radioactively, which can be associated with photochemical isomerization.

  4. Fractional charge and inter-Landau-level states at points of singular curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rudro R; Son, Dam Thanh

    2016-08-02

    The quest for universal properties of topological phases is fundamentally important because these signatures are robust to variations in system-specific details. Aspects of the response of quantum Hall states to smooth spatial curvature are well-studied, but challenging to observe experimentally. Here we go beyond this prevailing paradigm and obtain general results for the response of quantum Hall states to points of singular curvature in real space; such points may be readily experimentally actualized. We find, using continuum analytical methods, that the point of curvature binds an excess fractional charge and sequences of quantum states split away, energetically, from the degenerate bulk Landau levels. Importantly, these inter-Landau-level states are bound to the topological singularity and have energies that are universal functions of bulk parameters and the curvature. Our exact diagonalization of lattice tight-binding models on closed manifolds demonstrates that these results continue to hold even when lattice effects are significant. An important technological implication of these results is that these inter-Landau-level states, being both energetically and spatially isolated quantum states, are promising candidates for constructing qubits for quantum computation.

  5. Hybrid unscented particle filter based state-of-charge determination for lead-acid batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yanqing

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of cell SOC (state of charge) is important for the safety and functional capabilities of the battery energy storage application system. This paper presents a hybrid UPF (unscented particle filter) based SOC determination combined model for batteries. To simulate the entire dynamic electrical characteristics of batteries, a novel combined state space model, which takes current as a control input and let SOC and two constructed parameters as state variables, is advanced to represent cell behavior. Besides that, an improved UPF method is used to evaluate cell SOC. Taking lead-acid batteries for example, we apply the established model for test. Results show that the evolved combined state space cell model simulates battery dynamics robustly with high accuracy and the prediction value based on the improved UPF method converges to the real SOC very quickly within the error of±2%. - Highlights: • This paper introduces a hybrid UPF based SOC determination model for batteries. • The evolved model takes SOC and two constructed parameters as state variables. • The combined state space cell model simulates battery dynamics robustly. • NLMS based method is employed to lessen search space and fasten convergence process. • Novel model converges to the real SOC robustly and quickly with fewer particles

  6. A contact-less method to evaluate the state of charge of nickel batteries using Foucault's eddy currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancier, V.; Metrot, A.; Willmann, P.

    A nickel hydroxide electrode and a commercial battery have been studied by a new and contact-less impedance method, based on Foucault's eddy currents, with the aim of determining their state of charge. Four different current line distributions have been employed and the impedance versus time graphs obtained show a linear variation of this impedance during charge and discharge for all configurations. This new method allows the determination of the state of charge and, furthermore some "artifacts" obvious on these graphs may be useful to detect a deterioration of the studied material.

  7. Intercalation pathway in many-particle LiFePO4 electrode revealed by nanoscale state-of-charge mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, William C; El Gabaly, Farid; Sugar, Joshua D; Bartelt, Norman C; McDaniel, Anthony H; Fenton, Kyle R; Zavadil, Kevin R; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Lai, Wei; McCarty, Kevin F

    2013-03-13

    The intercalation pathway of lithium iron phosphate (LFP) in the positive electrode of a lithium-ion battery was probed at the ∼40 nm length scale using oxidation-state-sensitive X-ray microscopy. Combined with morphological observations of the same exact locations using transmission electron microscopy, we quantified the local state-of-charge of approximately 450 individual LFP particles over nearly the entire thickness of the porous electrode. With the electrode charged to 50% state-of-charge in 0.5 h, we observed that the overwhelming majority of particles were either almost completely delithiated or lithiated. Specifically, only ∼2% of individual particles were at an intermediate state-of-charge. From this small fraction of particles that were actively undergoing delithiation, we conclude that the time needed to charge a particle is ∼1/50 the time needed to charge the entire particle ensemble. Surprisingly, we observed a very weak correlation between the sequence of delithiation and the particle size, contrary to the common expectation that smaller particles delithiate before larger ones. Our quantitative results unambiguously confirm the mosaic (particle-by-particle) pathway of intercalation and suggest that the rate-limiting process of charging is initiating the phase transformation by, for example, a nucleation-like event. Therefore, strategies for further enhancing the performance of LFP electrodes should not focus on increasing the phase-boundary velocity but on the rate of phase-transformation initiation.

  8. Characterization of size, surface charge, and agglomeration state of nanoparticle dispersions for toxicological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jingkun; Oberdoerster, Guenter; Biswas, Pratim

    2009-01-01

    Characterizing the state of nanoparticles (such as size, surface charge, and degree of agglomeration) in aqueous suspensions and understanding the parameters that affect this state are imperative for toxicity investigations. In this study, the role of important factors such as solution ionic strength, pH, and particle surface chemistry that control nanoparticle dispersion was examined. The size and zeta potential of four TiO 2 and three quantum dot samples dispersed in different solutions (including one physiological medium) were characterized. For 15 nm TiO 2 dispersions, the increase of ionic strength from 0.001 M to 0.1 M led to a 50-fold increase in the hydrodynamic diameter, and the variation of pH resulted in significant change of particle surface charge and the hydrodynamic size. It was shown that both adsorbing multiply charged ions (e.g., pyrophosphate ions) onto the TiO 2 nanoparticle surface and coating quantum dot nanocrystals with polymers (e.g., polyethylene glycol) suppressed agglomeration and stabilized the dispersions. DLVO theory was used to qualitatively understand nanoparticle dispersion stability. A methodology using different ultrasonication techniques (bath and probe) was developed to distinguish agglomerates from aggregates (strong bonds), and to estimate the extent of particle agglomeration. Probe ultrasonication performed better than bath ultrasonication in dispersing TiO 2 agglomerates when the stabilizing agent sodium pyrophosphate was used. Commercially available Degussa P25 and in-house synthesized TiO 2 nanoparticles were used to demonstrate identification of aggregated and agglomerated samples.

  9. A Lossy Counting-Based State of Charge Estimation Method and Its Application to Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the residual capacity or state-of-charge (SoC of commercial batteries on-line without destroying them or interrupting the power supply, is quite a challenging task for electric vehicle (EV designers. Many Coulomb counting-based methods have been used to calculate the remaining capacity in EV batteries or other portable devices. The main disadvantages of these methods are the cumulative error and the time-varying Coulombic efficiency, which are greatly influenced by the operating state (SoC, temperature and current. To deal with this problem, we propose a lossy counting-based Coulomb counting method for estimating the available capacity or SoC. The initial capacity of the tested battery is obtained from the open circuit voltage (OCV. The charging/discharging efficiencies, used for compensating the Coulombic losses, are calculated by the lossy counting-based method. The measurement drift, resulting from the current sensor, is amended with the distorted Coulombic efficiency matrix. Simulations and experimental results show that the proposed method is both effective and convenient.

  10. LEDs for the Implementation of Advanced Hydrogenation Using Hydrogen Charge-State Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Mun Chong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Light-induced degradation (LID of p-type Cz solar cells has plagued the industry for many decades. However, in recent years, new techniques for solving this LID have been developed, with hydrogen passivation of the boron-oxygen defects appearing to be an important contributor to the solution. Advanced hydrogenation approaches involving the control of the charge state for the hydrogen atoms in silicon to enhance their diffusivity and reactivity are developed and evaluated in this work for commercial application using a prototype industrial tool in conjunction with solar cells manufactured on commercial production lines. This prototype tool, unlike the previous successful laser-based laboratory approaches, is based on the use of LEDs for controlling the charge state of the hydrogen atoms. The illumination from the LEDs is also used in this work to passivate process-induced defects and contamination from the respective production lines with significant improvements in both efficiency and stability. The results indicate that the low-cost LED-based industrial tool performs as well as the laser-based laboratory tool for implementing these advanced hydrogen passivation approaches.

  11. Self/anti-self charge conjugate states in the helicity basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvoeglazov, Valeriy V.

    2013-01-01

    We construct self/anti-self charge conjugate (Majorana-like) states for the (1/2,0)⊕(0,1/2) representation of the Lorentz group, and their analogs for higher spins within the quantum field theory. The problem of the basis rotations and that of the selection of phases in the Dirac-like and Majorana-like field operators are considered. The discrete symmetries properties (P, C, T) are studied. Particular attention has been paid to the question of (anti)commutation of the Charge conjugation operator and the Parity in the helicity basis. Dynamical equations have also been presented. In the (1/2,0)⊕(0,1/2) representation they obey the Dirac-like equation with eight components, which has been first introduced by Markov. Thus, the Fock space for corresponding quantum fields is doubled (as shown by Ziino). The chirality and the helicity (two concepts which are frequently confused in the literature) for Dirac and Majorana states have been discussed

  12. Triphenylene columnar liquid crystals: spectroscopic study of triplets states and charge carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondkowski, Jens

    2000-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of three oxygenated derivatives of triphenylene (two monomers, a symmetric one and an asymmetric one, and a tetramer) by using different experimental techniques: absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy in stationary regime, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (also said single photon counting). Moreover, the author adapted an existing experiment of transient absorption spectroscopy time-resolved at the microsecond level to obtain spectra of thin layers under electric field. A cyclic voltammetry experiment and a spectro-electrochemistry experiment have also been performed. The report first presents the studied materials, the characterisation of singlet states, and the study of the effect molecular symmetry decreasing have on molecular transitions. Then, the author reports the study of cationic species of the triphenylene derivatives. The next chapters address the characterisation of derivative triplet states, and the study of energy transfer within the meso phase of one of these derivatives. The last chapters address charge carriers of columnar liquid crystals, and the molecular nature of these charge carriers

  13. 'Memory' and sustention of microdischarges in a steady-state DBD: volume plasma or surface charge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akishev, Yuri; Aponin, Gregory; Balakirev, Anton; Grushin, Mikhail; Karalnik, Vladimir; Petryakov, Alexander; Trushkin, Nikolay

    2011-01-01

    The results of a numerical study on the spatio-temporal behavior of transient microdischarges (MDs) in a steady-state dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) excited by a sinusoidal voltage are presented. MDs have a spatial 'memory'-every subsequent MD appears at exactly the same location occupied by the MD at the preceding half-period (HP). In the majority of cases each MD appears at its location only once during every HP. For such a case, the memory effect is not attributed to the residual surface charge deposited by the preceding MD but determined by the residual MD plasma column shunting the gap right up to the beginning of the next HP. In contrast to good memory in space, each individual MD has a large scatter with time in its appearance within every HP, i.e. there is no 'memory' concerning the phase of an applied voltage. This MD jittering within the period is attributed to the stochastic nature of partial surface breakdowns around the bases of the MD plasma column. Numerical calculations show that surface breakdown provides an MD current splash at every HP. Hence, in the steady-state DBD, the volume plasma is responsible for the existence of MD spatial 'memory' (i.e. where the MD appears), and the deposited surface charge is responsible for MD jittering in time (i.e. when the MD appears).

  14. Ni-MH batteries state-of-charge prediction based on immune evolutionary network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Bo; Zhou Yanlu; Zhang Jiexin; Wang Junping; Cao Binggang

    2009-01-01

    Based on clonal selection theory, an improved immune evolutionary strategy is presented. Compared with conventional evolutionary strategy algorithm (CESA) and immune monoclonal strategy algorithm (IMSA), experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is of high efficiency and can effectively prevent premature convergence. A three-layer feed-forward neural network is presented to predict state-of-charge (SOC) of Ni-MH batteries. Initially, partial least square regression (PLSR) is used to select input variables. Then, five variables, battery terminal voltage, voltage derivative, voltage second derivative, discharge current and battery temperature, are selected as the inputs of NN. In order to overcome the weakness of BP algorithm, the new algorithm is adopted to train weights. Finally, under the state of dynamic power cycle, the predicted SOC and the actual SOC are compared to verify the proposed neural network with acceptable accuracy (5%).

  15. Long-lived charge-separated states in ligand-stabilized silver clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Pelton, Matthew; Tang, Yun; Bakr, Osman; Stellacci, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Recently developed synthesis methods allow for the production of atomically monodisperse clusters of silver atoms stabilized in solution by aromatic thiol ligands, which exhibit intense absorption peaks throughout the visible and near-IR spectral regions. Here we investigated the time-dependent optical properties of these clusters. We observed two kinetic processes following ultrafast laser excitation of any of the absorption peaks: a rapid decay, with a time constant of 1 ps or less, and a slow decay, with a time constant that can be longer than 300 ns. Both time constants decrease as the polarity of the solvent increases, indicating that the two processes correspond to the formation and recombination, respectively, of a charge-separated state. The long lifetime of this state and the broad optical absorption spectrum mean that the ligand-stabilized silver clusters are promising materials for solar energy harvesting. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Long-lived charge-separated states in ligand-stabilized silver clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Pelton, Matthew

    2012-07-25

    Recently developed synthesis methods allow for the production of atomically monodisperse clusters of silver atoms stabilized in solution by aromatic thiol ligands, which exhibit intense absorption peaks throughout the visible and near-IR spectral regions. Here we investigated the time-dependent optical properties of these clusters. We observed two kinetic processes following ultrafast laser excitation of any of the absorption peaks: a rapid decay, with a time constant of 1 ps or less, and a slow decay, with a time constant that can be longer than 300 ns. Both time constants decrease as the polarity of the solvent increases, indicating that the two processes correspond to the formation and recombination, respectively, of a charge-separated state. The long lifetime of this state and the broad optical absorption spectrum mean that the ligand-stabilized silver clusters are promising materials for solar energy harvesting. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  17. State of charge monitoring of vanadium redox flow batteries using half cell potentials and electrolyte density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressel, Simon; Bill, Florian; Holtz, Lucas; Janshen, Niklas; Chica, Antonio; Flower, Thomas; Weidlich, Claudia; Struckmann, Thorsten

    2018-02-01

    The operation of vanadium redox flow batteries requires reliable in situ state of charge (SOC) monitoring. In this study, two SOC estimation approaches for the negative half cell are investigated. First, in situ open circuit potential measurements are combined with Coulomb counting in a one-step calibration of SOC and Nernst potential which doesn't need additional reference SOCs. In-sample and out-of-sample SOCs are estimated and analyzed, estimation errors ≤ 0.04 are obtained. In the second approach, temperature corrected in situ electrolyte density measurements are used for the first time in vanadium redox flow batteries for SOC estimation. In-sample and out-of-sample SOC estimation errors ≤ 0.04 demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Both methods allow recalibration during battery operation. The actual capacity obtained from SOC calibration can be used in a state of health model.

  18. Supervised chaos genetic algorithm based state of charge determination for LiFePO4 batteries in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanqing

    2018-04-01

    LiFePO4 battery is developed rapidly in electric vehicle, whose safety and functional capabilities are influenced greatly by the evaluation of available cell capacity. Added with adaptive switch mechanism, this paper advances a supervised chaos genetic algorithm based state of charge determination method, where a combined state space model is employed to simulate battery dynamics. The method is validated by the experiment data collected from battery test system. Results indicate that the supervised chaos genetic algorithm based state of charge determination method shows great performance with less computation complexity and is little influenced by the unknown initial cell state.

  19. Rydberg-state reionization of multiply charged ions escaping from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedeljkovic, Lj.D.; Nedeljkovic, N.N.

    2003-01-01

    Reionization rates of Rydberg states (n>>1 and l=0, 1, and 2) of multiply charged ionic projectiles escaping solid surfaces are calculated. These rates are obtained in an analytic form as a function of the ion-surface distance R. A phenomenological model of the reionization process, based on two-state quantum dynamics, is adopted for the vicinity of the potential barrier top. The results of calculations show that ionization rates for different Rydberg states are strictly localized and relatively separated. Universality of the reionization rate as a function of the scaling parameter α, describing the turning point configurations, is demonstrated. The reionization is discussed within the framework of a nonresonant population-reionization process at intermediate ionic velocities (v∼1 a.u.). The influence of reionization on the population of ionic Rydberg states is expressed in terms of a renormalized neutralization rate. It is demonstrated that the reionization effect significantly changes the population curves for all Rydberg states. The population curves obtained correlate with beam-foil experimental data concerning the S VI, Cl VII, and Ar VIII ions

  20. InN/GaN quantum dot superlattices: Charge-carrier states and surface electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanouni, F.; Brezini, A.; Djenane, M.; Zou, Q.

    2018-03-01

    We have theoretically investigated the electron energy spectra and surface states energy in the three dimensionally ordered quantum dot superlattices (QDSLs) made of InN and GaN semiconductors. The QDSL is assumed in this model to be a matrix of GaN containing cubic dots of InN of the same size and uniformly distributed. For the miniband’s structure calculation, the resolution of the effective mass Schrödinger equation is done by decoupling it in the three directions within the framework of Kronig-Penney model. We found that the electrons minibands in infinite ODSLs are clearly different from those in the conventional quantum-well superlattices. The electrons localization and charge-carrier states are very dependent on the quasicrystallographic directions, the size and the shape of the dots which play a role of the artificial atoms in such QD supracrystal. The energy spectrum of the electron states localized at the surface of InN/GaN QDSL is represented by Kronig-Penney like-model, calculated via direct matching procedure. The calculation results show that the substrate breaks symmetrical shape of QDSL on which some localized electronic surface states can be produced in minigap regions. Furthermore, we have noticed that the surface states degeneracy is achieved in like very thin bands located in the minigaps, identified by different quantum numbers nx, ny, nz. Moreover, the surface energy bands split due to the reduction of the symmetry of the QDSL in z-direction.

  1. Droop-Control-Based State-of-Charge Balancing Method for Charging and Discharging Process in Autonomous DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    in the discharging process. Meanwhile, the ESU with lower SoC absorbs more power in the charging process and delivers less power in the discharging process. Eventually, the SoC and injected/output power in each ESU are equalized. The exponent n for SoC is employed to regulate the balancing speed of the So......C and injected/output power. It is demonstrated that with higher exponent n, the balancing speed is higher. Simulation model comprised of three ESUs is implemented by using MATLAB/Simulink. The proposed method is verified by the simulation results....

  2. Search for light charged Higgs bosons in hadronic {tau} final states with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrich, Thies

    2010-07-07

    Charged Higgs bosons are predicted in theories with a non-minimal Higgs sector like the Minimal Supersymmetric Extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). At the LHC, light charged Higgs Bosons might be produced in on-shell top quark decays t{yields} H{sup +}b, if m{sub H{sup {+-}}}states to suppress the backgrounds. The subject of this study is the estimation of the sensitivity of the ATLAS detector for charged Higgs boson searches in t anti t events. Leptons from the decay chain of the second top quark allow for efficient triggering. A search strategy is developed and estimates of signal significances and exclusion limits in the MSSM m{sub h}-max scenario are presented based on Monte Carlo simulations. For an integrated luminosity of 10 fb{sup -1}, the discovery of charged Higgs bosons is possible for tan{beta}>32. Exclusion limits are given for values of tan{beta}>17, significantly improving the current best limits from the Tevatron. The most important systematic uncertainties were found to be the errors on the jet energy scale and the missing transverse energy, resulting in a total systematic uncertainty of 40% on the signal. To reduce the systematic uncertainty for the most important Standard Model background, t anti t production, emphasis is put on estimating this background using data instead of Monte Carlo simulations. The t anti t background consists of two contributions, one with a correctly identified {tau}-jet in the final state, which is irreducible, and one where the hadronic {tau} decay is faked by a light parton jet. For each background a method has been developed to estimate its contribution with minimal use of Monte Carlo simulations. In this way, the systematic uncertainty on the background can be significantly reduced. (orig.)

  3. Interfacial electronic charge transfer and density of states in short period Cu/Cr multilayers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbee, T W; Bello, A F; Klepeis, J E; Van Buuren, T

    1999-01-01

    Nanometer period metallic multilayers are ideal structures to investigate electronic phenomena at interfaces between metal films since interfacial atoms comprise a large atomic fraction of the samples. The Cu/Cr binary pair is especially suited to study the interfaces in metals since these elements are mutually insoluble, thus eliminating mixing effects and compound formation and the lattice mismatch is very small. This allows the fabrication of high structural quality Cu/Cr multilayers that have a structure which can be approximated in calculations based on idealized atomic arrangements. The electronic structure of the Cu and the Cr layers in several samples of thin Cu/Cr multilayers were studied using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Total electron yield was measured and used to study the white lines at the Cu L(sub 2) and L(sub 3) absorption edges. The white lines at the Cu absorption edges are strongly related to the unoccupied d-orbitals and are used to calculate the amount of charge transfer between the Cr and Cu atoms in interfaces. Analysis of the Cu white lines show a charge transfer of 0.026 electrons/interfacial Cu atom to the interfacial Cr atoms. In the Cu XAS spectra we also observe a van Hove singularity between the L(sub 2) and L(sub 3) absorption edges as expected from the structural analysis. The absorption spectra are compared to partial density of states obtained from a full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital calculation. The calculations support the presence of charge transfer and indicate that it is localized to the first two interfacial layers in both Cu and Cr

  4. A novel ultrasonic velocity sensing approach to monitoring state of charge of vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Yi-Sin; Hsu, Ning-Yih; Jeng, King-Tsai; Chen, Kuan-Hsiang; Yen, Shi-Chern

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This is the first to apply ultrasonic sensing technique to monitor SOC of VRB. • Ultrasound velocity is affected by concentration and temperature of a solution. • The ultrasonic sensing is applicable to both positive and negative sides of VRB. • An empirical model equation fits the results of this two-component system well. • The SOC of a VRB can be properly measured using ultrasonic sensing. - Abstract: A novel ultrasonic velocity sensing approach is proposed and investigated to monitor the state of charge (SOC) of a vanadium redox flow battery (VRB, or VRFB). The positive electrode is designated as the energy storage capacity-limiting one so that the molar ratio of the V"5"+ ion in the positive electrolyte solution determines the SOC of a VRB. The tested single-cell VRB is connected to an ultrasonic sensor and charged/discharged almost to its two extremes at a constant current of 2 A under various operating temperatures. It is found that the ultrasound velocity exhibits distinct variations in accordance with changes of vanadium ion compositions in the positive electrolyte solution as the SOC of the VRB varies. The SOC obtained can be depicted in a 3D plot in terms of ultrasound velocity and operating temperature. An empirical model equation is proposed and found to fit the experimental results of both charging and discharging stages quite well. The advantages of this SOC sensing approach are that it is totally independent of VRB operations and can be readily applied to both sides of the electrodes. It is expected to develop into a dependable method for accurate and real-time monitoring of SOC for VRB.

  5. Effect of trap states and microstructure on charge carrier conduction mechanism through semicrystalline poly(vinyl alcohol) granular film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A. K.; Bhowmik, R. N.; Meikap, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    We report a comprehensive study on hysteresis behaviour of current-voltage characteristic and impedance spectroscopy of granular semicrystalline poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film. The charge carrier conduction mechanism and charge traps of granular PVA film by measuring and analyzing the temperature dependent current-voltage characteristic indicate a bi-stable electronic state in the film. A sharp transformation of charge carrier conduction mechanism from Poole-Frenkel emission to space charge limited current mechanism has been observed. An anomalous oscillatory behaviour of current has been observed due to electric pulse effect on the molecular chain of the polymer. Effect of microstructure on charge transport mechanism has been investigated from impedance spectroscopy analysis. An equivalent circuit model has been proposed to explain the result.

  6. State-of-charge estimation in lithium-ion batteries: A particle filter approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsyan, Aditya; Tsai, Yiting; Gopaluni, R. Bhushan; Braatz, Richard D.

    2016-11-01

    The dynamics of lithium-ion batteries are complex and are often approximated by models consisting of partial differential equations (PDEs) relating the internal ionic concentrations and potentials. The Pseudo two-dimensional model (P2D) is one model that performs sufficiently accurately under various operating conditions and battery chemistries. Despite its widespread use for prediction, this model is too complex for standard estimation and control applications. This article presents an original algorithm for state-of-charge estimation using the P2D model. Partial differential equations are discretized using implicit stable algorithms and reformulated into a nonlinear state-space model. This discrete, high-dimensional model (consisting of tens to hundreds of states) contains implicit, nonlinear algebraic equations. The uncertainty in the model is characterized by additive Gaussian noise. By exploiting the special structure of the pseudo two-dimensional model, a novel particle filter algorithm that sweeps in time and spatial coordinates independently is developed. This algorithm circumvents the degeneracy problems associated with high-dimensional state estimation and avoids the repetitive solution of implicit equations by defining a 'tether' particle. The approach is illustrated through extensive simulations.

  7. Spin Solid versus Magnetic Charge Ordered State in Artificial Honeycomb Lattice of Connected Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavic, Artur; Summers, Brock; Dahal, Ashutosh; Kline, Joseph; Van Herck, Walter; Sukhov, Alexander; Ernst, Arthur

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The nature of magnetic correlation at low temperature in two‐dimensional artificial magnetic honeycomb lattice is a strongly debated issue. While theoretical researches suggest that the system will develop a novel zero entropy spin solid state as T → 0 K, a confirmation to this effect in artificial honeycomb lattice of connected elements is lacking. This study reports on the investigation of magnetic correlation in newly designed artificial permalloy honeycomb lattice of ultrasmall elements, with a typical length of ≈12 nm, using neutron scattering measurements and temperature‐dependent micromagnetic simulations. Numerical modeling of the polarized neutron reflectometry data elucidates the temperature‐dependent evolution of spin correlation in this system. As temperature reduces to ≈7 K, the system tends to develop novel spin solid state, manifested by the alternating distribution of magnetic vortex loops of opposite chiralities. Experimental results are complemented by temperature‐dependent micromagnetic simulations that confirm the dominance of spin solid state over local magnetic charge ordered state in the artificial honeycomb lattice with connected elements. These results enable a direct investigation of novel spin solid correlation in the connected honeycomb geometry of 2D artificial structure. PMID:29721429

  8. Charged hadron composition of the final state in e+e annihilation at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Althoff, M.; Brandelik, R.; Braunschweig, W.; Gather, K.; Kirschfink, F.J.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Martyn, H.U.; Peise, G.; Rimkus, J.; Sander, H.G.; Schmitz, D.; Siebke, H.; Trines, D.; Wallraff, W.; Duchovni, E.; Eisenberg, Y.; Karshon, U.; Mikenberg, G.; Revel, D.; Ronat, E.; Shapira, A.; Barklow, T.; Freeman, J.; Lecomte, P.; Meyer, T.; Rudolph, G.; Venkataramania, H.; Wicklund, E.; Sau Lan Wu; Zobernig, G.; Burkhardt, H.; Cooper, S.; Franzke, J.; Hultschig, H.; Joos, P.; Koch, W.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Ladage, A.; Loehr, B.; Lueke, D.; Maettig, P.; Mess, K.H.; Notz, D.; Pyrlik, J.; Quarrie, D.R.; Riethmueller, R.; Schuette, W.; Soeding, P.; Wolf, G.; Yekutieli, G.

    1982-10-01

    The inclusive production of πsup(+-) and Ksup(+-) mesons and of protons and antiprotons in e + e - annihilation has been measured at c.m. energies of W = 14, 22 and 34 GeV. Using time of flight measurements and Cerenkov counters the full momentum range has been covered. Differential cross sections and total particle yields are given. At particle momenta of 0.4 GeV/c more than 90% of the charged hadrons are pions. With increasing momentum the fraction of pions among the charged hadrons decreases. At W = 34 GeV and a momentum of 5 GeV/c the particle fractions are approximately πsup(+-) : Ksup(+-) : p,anti p = 0.55 : 0.3 : 0.15. On average an event at W = 34 GeV contains 10.3 +- 0.4 πsup(+-), 2.0 +- 0.2 Ksup(+-) and 0.8 +- 0.1 p,anti p. In addition, we present results on baryon correlations using a sample of events where two or more protons and/or antiprotons are observed in the final state. (orig.)

  9. State of Charge Estimation Based on Microscopic Driving Parameters for Electric Vehicle's Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjian Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, battery-powered electric vehicle (EV has received wide attention due to less pollution during use, low noise, and high energy efficiency and is highly expected to improve urban air quality and then mitigate energy and environmental pressure. However, the widespread use of EV is still hindered by limited battery capacity and relatively short cruising range. This paper aims to propose a state of charge (SOC estimation method for EV’s battery necessary for route planning and dynamic route guidance, which can help EV drivers to search for the optimal energy-efficient routes and to reduce the risk of running out of electricity before arriving at the destination or charging station. Firstly, by analyzing the variation characteristics of power consumption rate with initial SOC and microscopic driving parameters (instantaneous speed and acceleration, a set of energy consumption rate models are established according to different operation modes. Then, the SOC estimation model is proposed based on the presented EV power consumption model. Finally, by comparing the estimated SOC with the measured SOC, the proposed SOC estimation method is proved to be highly accurate and effective, which can be well used in EV route planning and navigation systems.

  10. State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using an Adaptive Cubature Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhong Xia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SOC estimation is of great significance for a lithium-ion battery to ensure its safe operation and to prevent it from over-charging or over-discharging. However, it is difficult to get an accurate value of SOC since it is an inner sate of a battery cell, which cannot be directly measured. This paper presents an Adaptive Cubature Kalman filter (ACKF-based SOC estimation algorithm for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Firstly, the lithium-ion battery is modeled using the second-order resistor-capacitor (RC equivalent circuit and parameters of the battery model are determined by the forgetting factor least-squares method. Then, the Adaptive Cubature Kalman filter for battery SOC estimation is introduced and the estimated process is presented. Finally, two typical driving cycles, including the Dynamic Stress Test (DST and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC are applied to evaluate the performance of the proposed method by comparing with the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF and cubature Kalman filter (CKF algorithms. Experimental results show that the ACKF algorithm has better performance in terms of SOC estimation accuracy, convergence to different initial SOC errors and robustness against voltage measurement noise as compared with the traditional EKF and CKF algorithms.

  11. Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory Outperforms Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory and Multireference Perturbation Theory for Ground-State and Excited-State Charge Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Sonnenberger, Andrew L; Hoyer, Chad E; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura

    2015-08-11

    The correct description of charge transfer in ground and excited states is very important for molecular interactions, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and charge transport, but it is very challenging for Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT). KS-DFT exchange-correlation functionals without nonlocal exchange fail to describe both ground- and excited-state charge transfer properly. We have recently proposed a theory called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), which is based on a combination of multiconfiguration wave function theory with a new type of density functional called an on-top density functional. Here we have used MC-PDFT to study challenging ground- and excited-state charge-transfer processes by using on-top density functionals obtained by translating KS exchange-correlation functionals. For ground-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT performs better than either the PBE exchange-correlation functional or CASPT2 wave function theory. For excited-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT (unlike KS-DFT) shows qualitatively correct behavior at long-range with great improvement in predicted excitation energies.

  12. Prediction Model of Battery State of Charge and Control Parameter Optimization for Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wahono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the construction of a battery state of charge (SOC prediction model and the optimization method of the said model to appropriately control the number of parameters in compliance with the SOC as the battery output objectives. Research Centre for Electrical Power and Mechatronics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences has tested its electric vehicle research prototype on the road, monitoring its voltage, current, temperature, time, vehicle velocity, motor speed, and SOC during the operation. Using this experimental data, the prediction model of battery SOC was built. Stepwise method considering multicollinearity was able to efficiently develops the battery prediction model that describes the multiple control parameters in relation to the characteristic values such as SOC. It was demonstrated that particle swarm optimization (PSO succesfully and efficiently calculated optimal control parameters to optimize evaluation item such as SOC based on the model.

  13. Adaptive online state-of-charge determination based on neuro-controller and neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Yanqing, E-mail: network_hawk@126.co [Department of Automation, Chongqing Industry Polytechnic College, Jiulongpo District, Chongqing 400050 (China)

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents a novel approach using adaptive artificial neural network based model and neuro-controller for online cell State of Charge (SOC) determination. Taking cell SOC as model's predictive control input unit, radial basis function neural network, which can adjust its structure to prediction error with recursive least square algorithm, is used to simulate battery system. Besides that, neuro-controller based on Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and modified PID controller is used to decide the control input of battery system, i.e., cell SOC. Finally this algorithm is applied for the SOC determination of lead-acid batteries, and results of lab tests on physical cells, compared with model prediction, are presented. Results show that the ANN based battery system model adaptively simulates battery system with great accuracy, and the predicted SOC simultaneously converges to the real value quickly within the error of +-1 as time goes on.

  14. Battery pack state of charge balancing algorithm for cascaded H-Bridge multilevel converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Máthé, Lászlo; Burlacu, Paul Dan; Schaltz, Erik

    2016-01-01

    For most of the Multilevel Converter (MC) applications a commonly discussed issue is the maintenance of balance between the energy storage elements from the SubModules (SM). In applications where a battery pack is also part of the SM storage, such as STATCOMs or motor drives, the SM voltage...... is not in linear relation with the State Of Charge (SOC) of the entire battery; thus, the balancing becomes more cumbersome. A method to balance the SOC of the battery packs in a system using cascaded H-Bridge is proposed in this paper. The method uses nearest level control followed by sorting and selection based...... on the SOC of the battery packs. Based on the simulation results the number of switching is reduced considerably compared to the method where the phase shifted PWM is used. In addition, the time needed to achieve the balanced SOC is also reduced. The proposed method has been verified through experiments...

  15. Modulation of Amyloid-β Conformation by Charge State of N-Terminal Disordered Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Wen-Hui; Li Wen-Fei; Wang Wei

    2012-01-01

    Based on molecular dynamics simulations, we show that variations of the charge states of the histidines, which are the main effects of pH-value change and metal binding, can lead to a drastic change of the intra-peptide interactions of the segment 17–42 and the conformational distribution of the monomeric amyloid-β (Aβ). Since we already knew that the conformational distribution of monomeric Aβ can largely affect Aβ fibrillar aggregation, our results suggest that the pH value change and metal binding can affect the Aβ aggregation by much more complex mechanism than just affecting the inter-peptide interactions. To fully understand the mechanism of metal binding and pH-value induced Aβ aggregation, we also need to consider their effects on the conformational distribution of monomeric Aβ. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  16. Ionization and bound-state relativistic quantum dynamics in laser-driven multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzheim, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The interaction of ultra-strong laser fields with multiply charged hydrogen-like ions can be distinguished in an ionization and a bound dynamics regime. Both are investigated by means of numerically solving the Dirac equation in two dimensions and by a classical relativistic Monte-Carlo simulation. For a better understanding of highly nonlinear physical processes the development of a well characterized ultra-intense relativistic laser field strength has been driven forward, capable of studying e.g. the magnetic field effects of the laser resulting in an additional electron motion in the laser propagation direction. A novel method to sensitively measure these ultra-strong laser intensities is developed and employed from the optical via the UV towards the XUV frequency regime. In the bound dynamics field, the determination of multiphoton transition matrixelements has been investigated between different bound states via Rabi oscillations. (orig.)

  17. Ionization and bound-state relativistic quantum dynamics in laser-driven multiply charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzheim, Henrik

    2009-01-14

    The interaction of ultra-strong laser fields with multiply charged hydrogen-like ions can be distinguished in an ionization and a bound dynamics regime. Both are investigated by means of numerically solving the Dirac equation in two dimensions and by a classical relativistic Monte-Carlo simulation. For a better understanding of highly nonlinear physical processes the development of a well characterized ultra-intense relativistic laser field strength has been driven forward, capable of studying e.g. the magnetic field effects of the laser resulting in an additional electron motion in the laser propagation direction. A novel method to sensitively measure these ultra-strong laser intensities is developed and employed from the optical via the UV towards the XUV frequency regime. In the bound dynamics field, the determination of multiphoton transition matrixelements has been investigated between different bound states via Rabi oscillations. (orig.)

  18. Direct observations of the charge states of low energy solar particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckler, G.; Fan, C. Y.; Hovestadt, D.

    1974-01-01

    The charge states of carbon and oxygen of solar origin have been measured directly in interplanetary space. At 100 keV per nucleon the C(+5)/C(+6) and O(+7)/O(+8) ratios are 1.8 and 1.6, respectively. Abundance ratios of low energy heavy nuclei to He are found which are significantly larger than the corresponding photospheric values. The enhancement of O/He is 35, and both Si/He and Fe/He are overabundant by a factor of 100. To explain these observations a mechanism is proposed which first preferentially accelerates heavy ions and is followed by either storage of these ions in the coronal regions or strong adiabatic deceleration.

  19. Mechanism of track formation by charged particles in inorganic and organic solid-state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.; Pretzsch, G.; Streubel, G.

    1979-01-01

    Knowledge of the individual phases of track formation mechanism is necessary in some applications of solid-state track detectors. The generation of latent tracks is described by energy transfer processes of the charged particles along their paths using several different models. Etchability of the latent tracks is discussed on the basis of some distinct criteria taking into account different fractions of energy release by the primary and secondary particles during track generation. If these etchability criteria for latent tracks are fulfilled, visual particle tracks can be produced by a chemical etching process. Etch pit formation depends on the etching conditions. The geometrical parameters of the etching pits are given on the basis of known etching rates. Evaluation of individual particle tracks or determination of track density yields results depending on both the properties of the particles and the etching conditions. Determination of particle energy and particle fluence is discussed as an example. (author)

  20. Recent developments in high charge state heavy ion beams at the LBL 88-inch Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, R.A.; Clark, D.J.; Glasgow, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    Recent advances in design and operation of the internal PIG sources at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron have led to the development of high charge state (0.4 16 O 8+ . Total external intensities of these beams range from 10 12 particles/s for 6 Li 3+ to 0.1 particles/s for 16 O 8+ . Techniques have been developed for routine tune-out of the low intensity beams. These include use of model beams and reliance on the large systematic data base of cyclotron parameters which has been developed over many years of operation. Techniques for delivery of these weak beams to the experimental target areas are presented. Source design and operation, including special problems associated with Li, Be, and B beams are discussed

  1. Nonvolatile Solid-State Charged-Polymer Gating of Topological Insulators into the Topological Insulating Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, R. M.; Wu, Liang; Salehi, M.; Oh, S.; Armitage, N. P.; Katz, H. E.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate the ability to reduce the carrier concentration of thin films of the topological insulator (TI) Bi2 Se3 by utilizing a nonvolatile electrostatic gating via corona charging of electret polymers. Sufficient electric field can be imparted to a polymer-TI bilayer to result in significant electron density depletion, even without the continuous connection of a gate electrode or the chemical modification of the TI. We show that the Fermi level of Bi2 Se3 is shifted toward the Dirac point with this method. Using terahertz spectroscopy, we find that the surface chemical potential is lowered into the bulk band gap (approximately 50 meV above the Dirac point and 170 meV below the conduction-band minimum), and it is stabilized in the intrinsic regime while enhancing electron mobility. The mobility of surface state electrons is enhanced to a value as high as approximately 1600 cm2/V s at 5 K.

  2. BRIC: An EBIS design for charge state breeding in RIB applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brautti, G.; Clauser, T.; Raino, A.; Stagno, V.; Variale, V.; Logatchov, P.

    2001-01-01

    This work deals with the 'charge state breeder' that will be tested at INFN Laboratory of Bari (Italy). The breeder, based on the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) scheme, is designed for applications in Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) production facilities based on the Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) method in the framework of the SPES project of the INFN LNL laboratory (Legnaro). Some modifications with respect to the classical EBIS have been proposed to increase the containment efficiency. The insertion in the ion chamber of a RF-Quadrupole, aiming to filtering the unwanted masses, is the most relevant change with respect to the classical EBIS. The breeder design and numerical simulation results of the electron and ion beam propagation are reported

  3. Charge-state dependence of binary-encounter-electron cross sections and peak energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidmi, H.I.; Richard, P.; Sanders, J.M.; Schoene, H.; Giese, J.P.; Lee, D.H.; Zouros, T.J.M.; Varghese, S.L.

    1993-01-01

    The charge-state dependence of the binary-encounter-electron (BEE) double-differential cross section (DDCS) at 0 degree with respect to the beam direction resulting from collisions of 1 MeV/amu H + , C q+ , N q+ , O q+ , F q+ , Si q+ , and Cl q+ , and 0.5 MeV/amu Cu q+ with H 2 is reported. The data show an enhancement in the BEE DDCS as the charge state of the projectile is decreased, in agreement with the data reported by Richard et al. [J. Phys. B 23, L213 (1990)]. The DDCS enhancement ratios observed for the three-electron isoelectronic sequence C 3+ :C 6+ , N 4+ :N 7+ , O 5+ :O 8+ , and F 6+ :F 9+ are about 1.35, whereas a DDCS enhancement of 3.5 was observed for Cu 4+ . The BEE enhancement with increasing electrons on the projectile has been shown by several authors to be due to the non-Coulomb static potential of the projectile and additionally to the e-e exchange interaction. An impulse-approximation (IA) model fits the shape of the BEE DDCS and predicts a Z p 2 dependence for the bare-ion cross sections. The IA also predicts a binary peak energy that is independent of q and Z p and below the classical value of 4t, where t is the energy of electrons traveling with the projectile velocity. We observed a BEE energy shift ΔE (ΔE=4t-E peak , where E peak is the measured energy at the peak of the binary encounter electrons) that is approximately independent of q for the low-Z p ions, whereas the measured ΔE values for Si, Cl, and Cu were found to be q dependent

  4. Theoretical Study of the Charge-Transfer State Separation within Marcus Theory: The C60-Anthracene Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Riccardo; Nassau, Racine; Nørby, Morten Steen; Linares, Mathieu

    2016-09-21

    We study, within Marcus theory, the possibility of the charge-transfer (CT) state splitting at organic interfaces and a subsequent transport of the free charge carriers to the electrodes. As a case study we analyze model anthracene-C60 interfaces. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations on the cold CT state were performed at a range of applied electric fields, and with the fields applied at a range of angles to the interface to simulate the action of the electric field in a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) interface. The results show that the inclusion of polarization in our model increases CT state dissociation and charge collection. The effect of the electric field on CT state splitting and free charge carrier conduction is analyzed in detail with and without polarization. Also, depending on the relative orientation of the anthracene and C60 molecules at the interface, CT state splitting shows different behavior with respect to both applied field strength and applied field angle. The importance of the hot CT in helping the charge carrier dissociation is also analyzed in our scheme.

  5. Magnetic properties of the charged Anderson-Brinkman-Morel state: Absence of Hc1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, T.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic properties of the charged Anderson-Brinkman-Morel state are investigated theoretically as a special case of time-reversal-symmetry-breaking superconductivity. The magnetic field is expressed as a superposition of the one from the supercurrent j s (r) and that from the magnetic moment l(r) due to the internal motion of each Cooper pair. This procedure enables us to get rid of the paradox in zero external field that the moments are ordered (l=const) with no magnetic field nor supercurrent, leading to a natural conclusion that there is indeed a field due to l(r) which is screened almost completely by j s (r). If the system size is large enough compared with the penetration depth, the direction l(r) changes gradually toward the surface and the current j s (r) flows over the bulk. This means that the system is essentially nonuniform and forms a coreless vortex in zero external field. As for the magnetization process, the lattice of coreless vortices grows from the infinitesimal external field without H c1 (i.e., no Meissner state), which is subsequently followed by the first-order transition to the lattice with cores. Finally, the transition to the normal state occurs at H c2 enhanced over that of the conventional type-II superconductor due to the field l. An example of the magnetization curve is also given

  6. Magnetic properties of the charged Anderson-Brinkman-Morel state: Absence of Hc1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, T.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic properties of the charged Anderson-Brinkman-Morel (ABM) state are investigated theoretically as a special case of time-reversal-symmetry-breaking (T-symmetry breaking) superconductivity, the possibility of which is discussed in heavy-fermion and high T c superconductors. In the ABM state there are two sources of current: The one from the supercurrent j s (r) and that from the moment l(r) due to the internal motion of Cooper pairs. In zero external field, the field h m (r) from l(r) is screened almost completely by j s (r), as expected, with l(r) changing gradually towards the surface and j s (r) flowing over the bulk. This means changing gradually towards the surface and j s (r) flowing over the bulk. This means that the system as a whole is a nonsingular vortex. As for the magnetization process, the lattice of nonsingular vortices grows from the infinitesimal external field without H c1 , subsequently followed by the first-order transition to the lattice with singular cores. Finally, the transition to the normal state occurs at H c2 which is enhanced over that of the conventional type-II superconductor due to the field l. (orig.)

  7. Average equilibrium charge state of 278113 ions moving in a helium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, D.; Morita, K.; Morimoto, K.

    2005-01-01

    Difficulty to identify a new heavy element comes from the small production cross section. For example, the production cross section was about 0.5 pb in the case of searching for the 112th element produced by the cold fusion reaction of 208 Pb( 70 Zn,n) 277 ll2. In order to identify heavier elements than element 112, the experimental apparatus with a sensitivity of sub-pico barn level is essentially needed. A gas-filled recoil separator, in general, has a large collection efficiency compared with other recoil separators as seen from the operation principle of a gas-filled recoil separator. One of the most important parameters for a gas-filled recoil separator is the average equilibrium charge state q ave of ions moving in a used gas. This is because the recoil ion can not be properly transported to the focal plane of the separator, if the q ave of an element of interest in a gas is unknown. We have systematically measured equilibrium charge state distributions of heavy ions ( 169 Tm, 208 Pb, 193,209 Bi, 196 Po, 200 At, 203,204 Fr, 212 Ac, 234 Bk, 245 Fm, 254 No, 255 Lr, and 265 Hs) moving in a helium gas by using the gas-filled recoil separator GARIS at RIKEN. Ana then, the empirical formula on q ave of heavy ions in a helium gas was derived as a function of the velocity and the atomic number of an ion on the basis of the Tomas-Fermi model of the atom. The formula was found to be applicable to search for transactinide nuclides of 271 Ds, 272 Rg, and 277 112 produced by cold fusion reactions. Using the formula on q ave , we searched for a new isotope of element 113 produced by the cold fusion reaction of 209 Bi( 70 Zn,n) 278 113. As a result, a decay chain due to an evaporation residue of 278 113 was observed. Recently, we have successfully observed the 2nd decay chain due to an evaporation residue of 278 113. In this report, we will present experimental results in detail, and will also discuss the average equilibrium charge sate of 278 113 in a helium gas by

  8. Energy of charged states in the acetanilide crystal: Trapping of charge-transfer states at vacancies as a possible mechanism for optical damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiaousis, D.; Munn, R. W.

    2004-04-01

    Calculations for the acetanilide crystal yield the effective polarizability (16.6 Å3), local electric field tensor, effective dipole moment (5.41 D), and dipole-dipole energy (-12.8 kJ/mol). Fourier-transform techniques are used to calculate the polarization energy P for a single charge in the perfect crystal (-1.16 eV); the charge-dipole energy WD is zero if the crystal carries no bulk dipole moment. Polarization energies for charge-transfer (CT) pairs combine with the Coulomb energy EC to give the screened Coulomb energy Escr; screening is nearly isotropic, with Escr≈EC/2.7. For CT pairs WD reduces to a term δWD arising from the interaction of the charge on each ion with the change in dipole moment on the other ion relative to the neutral molecule. The dipole moments calculated by density-functional theory methods with the B3LYP functional at the 6-311++G** level are 3.62 D for the neutral molecule, changing to 7.13 D and 4.38 D for the anion and cation, relative to the center of mass. Because of the large change in the anion, δWD reaches -0.9 eV and modifies the sequence of CT energies markedly from that of Escr, giving the lowest two CT pairs at -1.98 eV and -1.41 eV. The changes in P and WD near a vacancy are calculated; WD changes for the individual charges because the vacancy removes a dipole moment and modifies the crystal dielectric response, but δWD and EC do not change. A vacancy yields a positive change ΔP that scatters a charge or CT pair, but the change ΔWD can be negative and large enough to outweigh ΔP, yielding traps with depths that can exceed 150 meV for single charges and for CT pairs. Divacancies yield traps with depths nearly equal to the sum of those produced by the separate vacancies and so they can exceed 300 meV. These results are consistent with a mechanism of optical damage in which vacancies trap optically generated CT pairs that recombine and release energy; this can disrupt the lattice around the vacancy, thereby favoring

  9. Effect of charged and excited states on the decomposition of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, Anna V.; Sushko, Peter V.; Shluger, Alexander L.; Kuklja, Maija M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors have calculated the electronic structure of individual 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene molecules (FOX-7) in the gas phase by means of density functional theory with the hybrid B3LYP functional and 6-31+G(d,p) basis set and considered their dissociation pathways. Positively and negatively charged states as well as the lowest excited states of the molecule were simulated. They found that charging and excitation can not only reduce the activation barriers for decomposition reactions but also change the dominating chemistry from endo- to exothermic type. In particular, they found that there are two competing primary initiation mechanisms of FOX-7 decomposition: C-NO 2 bond fission and C-NO 2 to CONO isomerization. Electronic excitation or charging of FOX-7 disfavors CONO formation and, thus, terminates this channel of decomposition. However, if CONO is formed from the neutral FOX-7 molecule, charge trapping and/or excitation results in spontaneous splitting of an NO group accompanied by the energy release. Intramolecular hydrogen transfer is found to be a rare event in FOX-7 unless free electrons are available in the vicinity of the molecule, in which case HONO formation is a feasible exothermic reaction with a relatively low energy barrier. The effect of charged and excited states on other possible reactions is also studied. Implications of the obtained results to FOX-7 decomposition in condensed state are discussed

  10. Static states and dynamic behaviour of charges: observation and control by scanning probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews charges that locally functionalize materials. Microscopic analyses and operation of charges using various scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques have revealed static, quasi-static/quasi-dynamic and dynamic charge behaviours. Charge-sensitive SPM has allowed for the visualization of the distribution of functionalized charges in electronic devices. When used as bit data in a memory system, the charges can be operated by SPM. The behaviour of quasi-static/quasi-dynamic charges is discussed here. In the data-writing process, spatially dispersive charges rather than a fast injection rate are introduced, but the technical problems can be solved by using nanostructures. Careful charge operations using SPM should realize a memory with a larger density than Tbit/inch 2 . Dynamic charges have been introduced in physical analyses and chemical processes. Although the observable timescale is limited by the SPM system response time of the order of several seconds, dynamics such as photon-induced charge redistributions and probe-assisted chemical reactions are observed. (topical review)

  11. Static states and dynamic behaviour of charges: observation and control by scanning probe microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Masashi, E-mail: ISHII.Masashi@nims.go.j [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2010-05-05

    This paper reviews charges that locally functionalize materials. Microscopic analyses and operation of charges using various scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques have revealed static, quasi-static/quasi-dynamic and dynamic charge behaviours. Charge-sensitive SPM has allowed for the visualization of the distribution of functionalized charges in electronic devices. When used as bit data in a memory system, the charges can be operated by SPM. The behaviour of quasi-static/quasi-dynamic charges is discussed here. In the data-writing process, spatially dispersive charges rather than a fast injection rate are introduced, but the technical problems can be solved by using nanostructures. Careful charge operations using SPM should realize a memory with a larger density than Tbit/inch{sup 2}. Dynamic charges have been introduced in physical analyses and chemical processes. Although the observable timescale is limited by the SPM system response time of the order of several seconds, dynamics such as photon-induced charge redistributions and probe-assisted chemical reactions are observed. (topical review)

  12. Ultrafast Charge and Triplet State Formation in Diketopyrrolopyrrole Low Band Gap Polymer/Fullerene Blends: Influence of Nanoscale Morphology of Organic Photovoltaic Materials on Charge Recombination to the Triplet State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René M. Williams

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy of thin films of two types of morphologies of diketopyrrolopyrrole low band gap polymer/fullerene-adduct blends is presented and indicates triplet state formation by charge recombination, an important loss channel in organic photovoltaic materials. At low laser fluence (approaching solar intensity charge formation characterized by a 1350 nm band (in ~250 fs dominates in the two PDPP-PCBM blends with different nanoscale morphologies and these charges recombine to form a local polymer-based triplet state on the sub-ns timescale (in ~300 and ~900 ps indicated by an 1100 nm absorption band. The rate of triplet state formation is influenced by the morphology. The slower rate of charge recombination to the triplet state (in ~900 ps belongs to a morphology that results in a higher power conversion efficiency in the corresponding device. Nanoscale morphology not only influences interfacial area and conduction of holes and electrons but also influences the mechanism of intersystem crossing (ISC. We present a model that correlates morphology to the exchange integral and fast and slow mechanisms for ISC (SOCT-ISC and H-HFI-ISC. For the pristine polymer, a flat and unstructured singlet-singlet absorption spectrum (between 900 and 1400 nm and a very minor triplet state formation (5% are observed at low laser fluence.

  13. Charge Energy Transport in Hopping Systems with Rapidly Decreasing Density of States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendels, Dan; Organic Electronics Group Technion Team

    2014-03-01

    An accurate description of the carrier hopping topology in the energy domain of hopping systems incorporating a rapidly decreasing density of states and the subsequent energetic position of these systems' so called effective conduction band is crucial for rationalizing and quantifying these systems' thermo-electric properties, doping related phenomena and carrier gradient effects such as the emergence of the General Einstein Relation under degenerate conditions. Additionally, as will be shown, the 'mobile' carriers propagating through the system can have excess energies reaching 0.3eV above the system quasi-Fermi energy. Hence, since these mobile carriers are most prone to reach systems interfaces and interact with oppositely charged carriers, their excess energy should be considered in determining the efficiencies of energy dependent processes such as carrier recombination and exciton dissociation. In light of the stated motivations, a comprehensive numerical and analytical study of the topology of hopping in the energetic density of such systems (i.e. the statistics regarding which energy values carriers visit most and in what manner) was implemented and the main statistical features of the hopping process that determine the position in energy of the system's effective conduction band were distilled. The obtained results also help shed light on yet to be elucidated discrepancies between predictions given by the widely employed transport energy concept and Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. Determination of Fe charge-state distributions in PLT by Bragg crystal x-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, K.W.; von Goeler, S.; Bitter, M.

    1978-08-01

    A curved-crystal Bragg x-ray spectrometer has been used to measure Kα or 1s-2p radiation from highly stripped Fe XVIII to Fe XXV impurity ions in the PLT tokamak. The spectrometer has sufficient energy resolution (approximately < 4 eV at 6400 eV) to distinguish between the different ionization states of iron by measuring the energy shift of the Kα x rays. The measured wavelengths agree well with theory and with spectra from solar flares and from laser-produced plasmas. The distribution of Fe charge states in the center of the discharge has been inferred from a comparison of the measured x-ray spectrum with theory. The shape of the spectrum depends strongly on electron temperature (T/sub e/) in the range T/sub e/ = 800 to 1500 eV. Within the factor of two uncertainty in L-shell ionization cross sections, measured intensities agree with theory, which is based on coronal equilibrium, indicating that the ion life-time in the center of the plasma is approximately equal to or greater than the equilibration time

  15. State of charge classification for lithium-ion batteries using impedance based features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Felder

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the electrification of the drive train of passenger cars takes place, and the task of obtaining precise knowledge about the condition of the on board batteries gains importance. Due to a flat open circuit voltage (OCV to state of charge (SoC characteristic of lithium ion batteries, methods employed in applications with other cell chemistries cannot be adapted. Exploiting the higher significance of the impedance for state estimation for that chemistry, new impedance based features are proposed by this work. To evaluate the suitability of these features, simulations have been conducted using a simplified on-board power supply net as excitation source. The simulation outcome has been investigated regarding the cross correlation factor rxy and in a polynomial regression scenario. The results of the simulations show a best case error below 1 % SoC, which is 3 percentage points lower than using terminal voltage and impedance. When increasing the measurement uncertainty, the difference remains around 2 percent points.

  16. Evaluation of Model Based State of Charge Estimation Methods for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyue Zou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Four model-based State of Charge (SOC estimation methods for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries are studied and evaluated in this paper. Different from existing literatures, this work evaluates different aspects of the SOC estimation, such as the estimation error distribution, the estimation rise time, the estimation time consumption, etc. The equivalent model of the battery is introduced and the state function of the model is deduced. The four model-based SOC estimation methods are analyzed first. Simulations and experiments are then established to evaluate the four methods. The urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS current profiles are applied to simulate the drive situations of an electrified vehicle, and a genetic algorithm is utilized to identify the model parameters to find the optimal parameters of the model of the Li-ion battery. The simulations with and without disturbance are carried out and the results are analyzed. A battery test workbench is established and a Li-ion battery is applied to test the hardware in a loop experiment. Experimental results are plotted and analyzed according to the four aspects to evaluate the four model-based SOC estimation methods.

  17. Design and Experiment of Nonlinear Observer with Adaptive Gains for Battery State of Charge Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC is an important evaluation index for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs in electric vehicles (EVs. This paper proposes a nonlinear observer with a new adaptive gain structure for SOC estimation based on a second-order RC model. It is able to dynamically adjust the gains and obtain a better balance between convergence speed and estimation accuracy with less computational time. A sufficient condition is derived to guarantee the uniform asymptotic stability of the observer, and its robustness with respect to disturbances and uncertainties is analyzed with the help of input-to-state stability (ISS theory. A selection guide of the observer gains in practical application is presented. The estimation accuracy and convergence rate of the observer are evaluated and compared with those of extended Kalman filter (EKF based on multi-temperature datasets from two different types of LIB cells. The robustness against different disturbances and uncertainties that may appear in a real vehicle is validated and discussed in detail. The experimental results show that the proposed observer is capable of achieving better performance with less computational time in comparison to EKF for different types of LIB cells under various working conditions. The observer is also capable of estimating SOC accurately for real life conditions according to the validation results of datasets from a battery management system (BMS in an EV battery pack. Furthermore, the observer is simple enough, and is suitable for implementation on embedded hardware for LIB cells of EVs.

  18. Three years of lightning impulse charge moment change measurements in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummer, Steven A.; Lyons, Walter A.; Stanley, Mark A.

    2013-06-01

    We report and analyze 3 years of lightning impulse charge moment change (iCMC) measurements obtained from an automated, real time lightning charge moment change network (CMCN). The CMCN combines U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) lightning event geolocations with extremely low frequency (≲1 kHz) data from two stations to provide iCMC measurements across the entire United States. Almost 14 million lightning events were measured in the 3 year period. We present the statistical distributions of iCMC versus polarity and NLDN-measured peak current, including corrections for the detection efficiency of the CMCN versus peak current. We find a broad distribution of iCMC for a given peak current, implying that these parameters are at best only weakly correlated. Curiously, the mean iCMC does not monotonically increase with peak current, and in fact, drops for positive CG strokes above +150 kA. For all positive strokes, there is a boundary near 20 C km that separates seemingly distinct populations of high and low iCMC strokes. We also explore the geographic distribution of high iCMC lightning strokes. High iCMC positive strokes occur predominantly in the northern midwest portion of the U.S., with a secondary peak over the gulf stream region just off the U.S. east coast. High iCMC negative strokes are also clustered in the midwest, although somewhat south of most of the high iCMC positive strokes. This is a region far from the locations of maximum occurrence of high peak current negative strokes. Based on assumed iCMC thresholds for sprite production, we estimate that approximately 35,000 positive polarity and 350 negative polarity sprites occur per year over the U.S. land and near-coastal areas. Among other applications, this network is useful for the nowcasting of sprite-producing storms and storm regions.

  19. Magnetism tuned by the charge states of defects in bulk C-doped SnO2 materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying-Bo; Ling, Z C; Cong, Wei-Yan; Zhang, Peng

    2015-10-21

    To analyze the controversial conclusions on the magnetism of C-doped SnO2 (SnO2:C) bulk materials between theoretical calculations and experimental observations, we propose the critical role of the charge states of defects in the geometric structures and magnetism, and carry out a series of first principle calculations. By changing the charge states, we can influence Bader charge distributions and atomic orbital occupancies in bulk SnO2:C systems, which consequently conduct magnetism. In all charged SnO2:C supercells, C-2px/py/pz electron occupancies are significantly changed by the charge self-regulation, and thus they make the C-2p orbitals spin polarized, which contribute to the dominant magnetic moment of the system. When the concentration of C dopant in the SnO2 supercell increases, the charge redistribution assigns extra electrons averagely to each dopant, and thus effectively modulates the magnetism. These findings provide an experimentally viable way for controlling the magnetism in these systems.

  20. Infinite number of solvable generalizations of XY-chain, with cluster state, and with central charge c = m/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Kazuhiko

    2017-12-01

    An infinite number of spin chains are solved and it is derived that the ground-state phase transitions belong to the universality classes with central charge c = m / 2, where m is an integer. The models are diagonalized by automatically obtained transformations, many of which are different from the Jordan-Wigner transformation. The free energies, correlation functions, string order parameters, exponents, central charges, and the phase diagram are obtained. Most of the examples consist of the stabilizers of the cluster state. A unified structure of the one-dimensional XY and cluster-type spin chains is revealed, and other series of solvable models can be obtained through this formula.

  1. Materials Characterization at Utah State University: Facilities and Knowledge-base of Electronic Properties of Materials Applicable to Spacecraft Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, J. R.; Thomson, C. D.; Kite, J.; Zavyalov, V.; Corbridge, Jodie

    2004-01-01

    In an effort to improve the reliability and versatility of spacecraft charging models designed to assist spacecraft designers in accommodating and mitigating the harmful effects of charging on spacecraft, the NASA Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program has funded development of facilities at Utah State University for the measurement of the electronic properties of both conducting and insulating spacecraft materials. We present here an overview of our instrumentation and capabilities, which are particularly well suited to study electron emission as related to spacecraft charging. These measurements include electron-induced secondary and backscattered yields, spectra, and angular resolved measurements as a function of incident energy, species and angle, plus investigations of ion-induced electron yields, photoelectron yields, sample charging and dielectric breakdown. Extensive surface science characterization capabilities are also available to fully characterize the samples in situ. Our measurements for a wide array of conducting and insulating spacecraft materials have been incorporated into the SEE Charge Collector Knowledge-base as a Database of Electronic Properties of Materials Applicable to Spacecraft Charging. This Database provides an extensive compilation of electronic properties, together with parameterization of these properties in a format that can be easily used with existing spacecraft charging engineering tools and with next generation plasma, charging, and radiation models. Tabulated properties in the Database include: electron-induced secondary electron yield, backscattered yield and emitted electron spectra; He, Ar and Xe ion-induced electron yields and emitted electron spectra; photoyield and solar emittance spectra; and materials characterization including reflectivity, dielectric constant, resistivity, arcing, optical microscopy images, scanning electron micrographs, scanning tunneling microscopy images, and Auger electron spectra. Further

  2. The calculation of electron chemical potential and ion charge state and their influence on plasma conductivity in electrical explosion of metal wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Zongqian; Wang, Kun; Li, Yao; Shi, Yuanjie; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli

    2014-01-01

    The electron chemical potential and ion charge state (average ion charge and ion distribution) are important parameters in calculating plasma conductivity in electrical explosion of metal wire. In this paper, the calculating method of electron chemical potential and ion charge state is discussed at first. For the calculation of electron chemical potential, the ideal free electron gas model and Thomas-Fermi model are compared and analyzed in terms of the coupling constant of plasma. The Thomas-Fermi ionization model, which is used to calculate ion charge state, is compared with the method based on Saha equation. Furthermore, the influence of electron degenerated energy levels and ion excited states in Saha equation on the ion charge state is also analyzed. Then the influence of different calculating methods of electron chemical potential and ion charge state on plasma conductivity is discussed by applying them in the Lee-More conductivity model

  3. Correlation of Mn charge state with the electrical resistivity of Mn doped indium tin oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. R. Sarath; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Kasiviswanathan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Correlation of charge state of Mn with the increase in resistivity with Mn concentration is demonstrated in Mn-doped indium tin oxide films. Bonding analysis shows that Mn 2p3/2 core level can be deconvoluted into three components corresponding to Mn2+ and Mn4+ with binding energies 640.8 eV and 642.7 eV, respectively, and a Mn2+ satellite at ∼5.4 eV away from the Mn2+ peak. The presence of the satellite peak unambiguously proves that Mn exists in the +2 charge state. The ratio of concentration of Mn2+ to Mn4+ of ∼4:1 suggests that charge compensation occurs in the n-type films causing the resistivity increase.

  4. Charge-state distributions of 100, 175, 275, and 352 MeV gold ions emerging from thin carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.A.; Auble, R.L.; Erb, K.A.; Jones, C.M.; Olsen, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    These measurements were undertaken as a consequence of our failure early this year to accelerate Au +46 ions in the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron using an injected beam of 352 MeV 197 Au +17 from the 25 MV tandem accelerator. Following that unsuccessful test, we made a preliminary measurement of the charge-state distribution of 352 MeV 197 Au ions emerging from a carbon foil using the bending magnet that is a part of the cyclotron beam injection system. The measured mean charge was approx.38.5, about 4.5 charge-states lower than predicted by the Sayer semi-empirical formula. The measurements reported here were done more precisely and systematically confirm that preliminary result. 12 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Charge-state distributions of 100, 175, 275, and 352 MeV gold ions emerging from thin carbon foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.A.; Auble, R.L.; Erb, K.A.; Jones, C.M.; Olsen, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    These measurements were undertaken as a consequence of our failure early this year to accelerate Au/sup +46/ ions in the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron using an injected beam of 352 MeV /sup 197/Au/sup +17/ from the 25 MV tandem accelerator. Following that unsuccessful test, we made a preliminary measurement of the charge-state distribution of 352 MeV /sup 197/Au ions emerging from a carbon foil using the bending magnet that is a part of the cyclotron beam injection system. The measured mean charge was approx.38.5, about 4.5 charge-states lower than predicted by the Sayer semi-empirical formula. The measurements reported here were done more precisely and systematically confirm that preliminary result. 12 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Correlation of Mn charge state with the electrical resistivity of Mn doped indium tin oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. R. Sarath

    2010-09-15

    Correlation of charge state of Mn with the increase in resistivity with Mn concentration is demonstrated in Mn-doped indium tin oxide films. Bonding analysis shows that Mn 2p3/2 core level can be deconvoluted into three components corresponding to Mn2+ and Mn4+ with binding energies 640.8 eV and 642.7 eV, respectively, and a Mn2+ satellite at ∼5.4 eV away from the Mn2+ peak. The presence of the satellite peak unambiguously proves that Mn exists in the +2 charge state. The ratio of concentration of Mn2+ to Mn4+ of ∼4:1 suggests that charge compensation occurs in the n-type films causing the resistivity increase.

  7. State of charge estimation of lithium-ion batteries based on an improved parameter identification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Bizhong; Chen, Chaoren; Tian, Yong; Wang, Mingwang; Sun, Wei; Xu, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    The SOC (state of charge) is the most important index of the battery management systems. However, it cannot be measured directly with sensors and must be estimated with mathematical techniques. An accurate battery model is crucial to exactly estimate the SOC. In order to improve the model accuracy, this paper presents an improved parameter identification method. Firstly, the concept of polarization depth is proposed based on the analysis of polarization characteristics of the lithium-ion batteries. Then, the nonlinear least square technique is applied to determine the model parameters according to data collected from pulsed discharge experiments. The results show that the proposed method can reduce the model error as compared with the conventional approach. Furthermore, a nonlinear observer presented in the previous work is utilized to verify the validity of the proposed parameter identification method in SOC estimation. Finally, experiments with different levels of discharge current are carried out to investigate the influence of polarization depth on SOC estimation. Experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the SOC estimation accuracy as compared with the conventional approach, especially under the conditions of large discharge current. - Highlights: • The polarization characteristics of lithium-ion batteries are analyzed. • The concept of polarization depth is proposed to improve model accuracy. • A nonlinear least square technique is applied to determine the model parameters. • A nonlinear observer is used as the SOC estimation algorithm. • The validity of the proposed method is verified by experimental results.

  8. Energy awareness for supercapacitors using Kalman filter state-of-charge tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Andrew; Hassanalieragh, Moeen; Sharma, Gaurav; Soyata, Tolga

    2015-11-01

    Among energy buffering alternatives, supercapacitors can provide unmatched efficiency and durability. Additionally, the direct relation between a supercapacitor's terminal voltage and stored energy can improve energy awareness. However, a simple capacitive approximation cannot adequately represent the stored energy in a supercapacitor. It is shown that the three branch equivalent circuit model provides more accurate energy awareness. This equivalent circuit uses three capacitances and associated resistances to represent the supercapacitor's internal SOC (state-of-charge). However, the SOC cannot be determined from one observation of the terminal voltage, and must be tracked over time using inexact measurements. We present: 1) a Kalman filtering solution for tracking the SOC; 2) an on-line system identification procedure to efficiently estimate the equivalent circuit's parameters; and 3) experimental validation of both parameter estimation and SOC tracking for 5 F, 10 F, 50 F, and 350 F supercapacitors. Validation is done within the operating range of a solar powered application and the associated power variability due to energy harvesting. The proposed techniques are benchmarked against the simple capacitive model and prior parameter estimation techniques, and provide a 67% reduction in root-mean-square error for predicting usable buffered energy.

  9. Charge State Coalescence During Electrospray Ionization Improves Peptide Identification by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jesse G.; A. Komives, Elizabeth

    2012-08-01

    We report the effects of supercharging reagents dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and m-nitrobenzyl alcohol ( m-NBA) applied to untargeted peptide identification, with special emphasis on non-tryptic peptides. Peptides generated from a mixture of five standard proteins digested with trypsin, elastase, or pepsin were separated with nanoflow liquid chromatography using mobile phases modified with either 5 % DMSO or 0.1 % m-NBA. Eluting peptides were ionized by online electrospray and sequenced by both CID and ETD using data-dependent MS/MS. Statistically significant improvements in peptide identifications were observed with DMSO co-solvent. In order to understand this observation, we assessed the effects of supercharging reagents on the chromatographic separation and the electrospray quality. The increase in identifications was not due to supercharging, which was greater for the 0.1 % m-NBA co-solvent and not observed for the 5.0 % DMSO co-solvent. The improved MS/MS efficiency using the DMSO modified mobile phase appeared to result from charge state coalescence.

  10. Design of a 4D emittance measurement device for high charge state ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yangyang; Yang Yao; Zhao Hongwei; Sun Liangting; Cao Yun; Wang Yun

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of on-line beam quality diagnostics and transverse emittance coupling investigation of the ion beams delivered by an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source, a real-time 4D Pepper Pot type emittance scanner is under development at IMP (Institute of Moden Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences). The high charge state ECR ion source at IMP could produce CW or pulsed heavy ion beam intensities in the range of 1 eμA∼1 emA with the kinetic energy of 10∼35 keV/q, which needs the design of the Pepper Pot scanner to be optimized accordingly. The Pepper Pot scanner has many features, such as very short response time and wide dynamic working range that the device could be applied. Since intense heavy ion beam bombardment is expected for this device, the structure and the material selection for the device is specially considered during the design, and a feasible solution to analyze the pictures acquired after the data acquisition is also made. (authors)

  11. An adaptive state of charge estimation approach for lithium-ion series-connected battery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Simin; Zhu, Xuelai; Xing, Yinjiao; Shi, Hongbing; Cai, Xu; Pecht, Michael

    2018-07-01

    Due to the incorrect or unknown noise statistics of a battery system and its cell-to-cell variations, state of charge (SOC) estimation of a lithium-ion series-connected battery system is usually inaccurate or even divergent using model-based methods, such as extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF). To resolve this problem, an adaptive unscented Kalman filter (AUKF) based on a noise statistics estimator and a model parameter regulator is developed to accurately estimate the SOC of a series-connected battery system. An equivalent circuit model is first built based on the model parameter regulator that illustrates the influence of cell-to-cell variation on the battery system. A noise statistics estimator is then used to attain adaptively the estimated noise statistics for the AUKF when its prior noise statistics are not accurate or exactly Gaussian. The accuracy and effectiveness of the SOC estimation method is validated by comparing the developed AUKF and UKF when model and measurement statistics noises are inaccurate, respectively. Compared with the UKF and EKF, the developed method shows the highest SOC estimation accuracy.

  12. State of Charge Estimation for Lithium-Ion Battery with a Temperature-Compensated Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichun Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of the state of charge (SOC of batteries is crucial in a battery management system. Many studies on battery SOC estimation have been investigated recently. Temperature is an important factor that affects the SOC estimation accuracy while it is still not adequately addressed at present. This paper proposes a SOC estimator based on a new temperature-compensated model with extended Kalman Filter (EKF. The open circuit voltage (OCV, capacity, and resistance and capacitance (RC parameters in the estimator are temperature dependent so that the estimator can maintain high accuracy at various temperatures. The estimation accuracy decreases when applied in high current continuous discharge, because the equivalent polarization resistance decreases as the discharge current increases. Therefore, a polarization resistance correction coefficient is proposed to tackle this problem. The estimator also demonstrates a good performance in dynamic operating conditions. However, the equivalent circuit model shows huge uncertainty in the low SOC region, so measurement noise variation is proposed to improve the estimation accuracy there.

  13. Aerosol charging state at an urban site: new analytical approach and implications for ion-induced nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gagné

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The charging state of aerosol populations was determined using an Ion-DMPS in Helsinki, Finland between December 2008 and February 2010. We extrapolated the charging state and calculated the ion-induced nucleation fraction to be around 1.3 % ± 0.4 % at 2 nm and 1.3 % ± 0.5 % at 1.5 nm, on average. We present a new method to retrieve the average charging state for a new particle formation event, at a given size and polarity. We improve the uncertainty assessment and fitting technique used previously with an Ion-DMPS. We also use a new theoretical framework that allows for different concentrations of small ions for different polarities (polarity asymmetry. We extrapolate the ion-induced fraction using polarity symmetry and asymmetry. Finally, a method to calculate the growth rates from the behaviour of the charging state as a function of the particle diameter using polarity symmetry and asymmetry is presented and used on a selection of new particle formation events.

  14. Accuracy analysis of the State-of-Charge and remaining run-time determination for lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the various error sources in a real-time State-of-Charge (SoC) evaluation system and their effects on the overall accuracy in the calculation of the remaining run-time of a battery-operated system. The SoC algorithm for Li-ion batteries studied in this paper combines direct

  15. Accuracy analysis of the state-of-charge and remaining run-time determination for lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the various error sources in a real-time State-of-Charge (SoC) evaluation system and their effects on the overall accuracy in the calculation of the remaining run-time of a battery-operated system. The SoC algorithm for Li-ion batteries studied in this paper combines direct

  16. State-of-Charge Balance Using Adaptive Droop Control for Distributed Energy Storage Systems in DC MicroGrid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the coordinated control of distributed energy storage systems (DESSs) in DC micro-grids. In order to balance the state-of-charge (SoC) of each energy storage unit (ESU), an SoC-based adaptive droop control method is proposed. In this decentralized control method, the droop...

  17. EVOLUTION OF THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HELIUM ABUNDANCE, MINOR ION CHARGE STATE, AND SOLAR WIND SPEED OVER THE SOLAR CYCLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, J. C.; Stevens, M. L.; Korreck, K. E.; Maruca, B. A.; Kiefer, K. K.; Schwadron, N. A.; Lepri, S. T.

    2012-01-01

    The changing relationships between solar wind speed, helium abundance, and minor ion charge state are examined over solar cycle 23. Observations of the abundance of helium relative to hydrogen (A He ≡ 100 × n He /n H ) by the Wind spacecraft are used to examine the dependence of A He on solar wind speed and solar activity between 1994 and 2010. This work updates an earlier study of A He from 1994 to 2004 to include the recent extreme solar minimum and broadly confirms our previous result that A He in slow wind is strongly correlated with sunspot number, reaching its lowest values in each solar minima. During the last minimum, as sunspot numbers reached their lowest levels in recent history, A He continued to decrease, falling to half the levels observed in slow wind during the previous minimum and, for the first time observed, decreasing even in the fastest solar wind. We have also extended our previous analysis by adding measurements of the mean carbon and oxygen charge states observed with the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft since 1998. We find that as solar activity decreased, the mean charge states of oxygen and carbon for solar wind of a given speed also fell, implying that the wind was formed in cooler regions in the corona during the recent solar minimum. The physical processes in the coronal responsible for establishing the mean charge state and speed of the solar wind have evolved with solar activity and time.

  18. Uncertainty analysis in a real-time state-of-charge evaluation system for lithium-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Regtien, P.P.L.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Op het Veld, B.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) is the most commonly used battery chemistry in portable applications nowadays. Accurate State-of-Charge (SoC) and remaining run-time (t,) calculation for portable devices is important for the user convenience and to prolong the lifetime of batteries. A new SoC algorithm for

  19. Coherence, energy and charge transfers in de-excitation pathways of electronic excited state of biomolecules in photosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Malik, F. Bary

    2013-01-01

    The observed multiple de-excitation pathways of photo-absorbed electronic excited state in the peridinin–chlorophyll complex, involving both energy and charge transfers among its constituents, are analyzed using the bio-Auger (B-A) theory. It is also shown that the usually used F¨orster–Dexter...

  20. Multiagent-Based Distributed State of Charge Balancing Control for Distributed Energy Storage Units in AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Coelho, Ernane Antônio Alves; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a multiagent-based distributed control algorithm has been proposed to achieve state of charge (SoC) balance of distributed energy storage (DES) units in an ac microgrid. The proposal uses frequency scheduling instead of adaptive droop gain to regulate the active power. Each DES unit...

  1. Cation-mediated conversion of the state of charge in uranium arene inverted-sandwich complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, Clement; Mougel, Victor; Pecaut, Jacques; Mazzanti, Marinella [Laboratoire de Reconnaissance Ionique et Chimie de Coordination, SCIB, UMR-E3 CEA-UJF, INAC, CEA-Grenoble (France); Maron, Laurent [LCPNO, CNRS and INSA, UPS, Universite de Toulouse (France)

    2013-12-16

    Two new arene inverted-sandwich complexes of uranium supported by siloxide ancillary ligands [K{U(OSi(OtBu)_3)_3}{sub 2}(μ-η{sup 6}:η{sup 6}-C{sub 7}H{sub 8})] (3) and [K{sub 2}{U(OSi(OtBu)_3)_3}{sub 2}(μ-η{sup 6}:η{sup 6}-C{sub 7}H{sub 8})] (4) were synthesized by the reduction of the parent arene-bridged complex [{U(OSi(OtBu)_3)_3}{sub 2}(μ-η{sup 6}:η{sup 6}-C{sub 7}H{sub 8})] (2) with stoichiometric amounts of KC{sub 8} yielding a rare family of inverted-sandwich complexes in three states of charge. The structural data and computational studies of the electronic structure are in agreement with the presence of high-valent uranium centers bridged by a reduced tetra-anionic toluene with the best formulation being U{sup V}-(arene{sup 4-})-U{sup V}, KU{sup IV}-(arene{sup 4-})-U{sup V}, and K{sub 2}U{sup IV}-(arene{sup 4-})-U{sup IV} for complexes 2, 3, and 4 respectively. The potassium cations in complexes 3 and 4 are coordinated to the siloxide ligands both in the solid state and in solution. The addition of KOTf (OTf=triflate) to the neutral compound 2 promotes its disproportionation to yield complexes 3 and 4 (depending on the stoichiometry) and the U{sup IV} mononuclear complex [U(OSi(OtBu){sub 3}){sub 3}(OTf)(thf){sub 2}] (5). This unprecedented reactivity demonstrates the key role of potassium for the stability of these complexes. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Ion sources development at GANIL for radioactive beams and high charge state ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, R.; Barue, C.; Canet, C.; Dupuis, M.; Flambard, J.L.; Gaubert, G.; Gibouin, S.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Lecesne, N.; Leherissier, P.; Lemagnen, F.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Pellemoine-Landre, F.; Rataud, J.P.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Villari, A.C.C.; Maunoury, L.

    2001-01-01

    The GANIL laboratory has in charge the production of ion beams for nuclear and non nuclear physics. This article reviews the last developments that are underway in the fields of radioactive ion beam production, increase of the metallic ion intensities and production of highly charges ion beams. (authors)

  3. Preparation of Schrödinger cat states of a cavity field via coupling to a superconducting charge qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Dagoberto S.; Nemes, M. C.

    2014-05-01

    We extend the approach in Ref. 5 [Y.-X. Liu, L. F. Wei and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. A 71 (2005) 063820] for preparing superposition states of a cavity field interacting with a superconducting charge qubit. We study effects of the nonlinearity on the creation of such states. We show that the main contribution of nonlinear effects is to shorten the time necessary to build the superposition.

  4. High rate partial-state-of-charge operation of VRLA batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    The world market for 12 V SLI batteries currently stands at around US$ 12 billion. The lack of a serious challenge from other battery types has allowed lead-acid products to serve this market exclusively, with minimal demand for product improvement through research and development, and a sharp competition has, over time, cut sales prices to commodity levels. The electrochemical storage of energy in automobiles now faces the possibility of a major change, in the form of the proposed 36/42 V electrical systems for vehicles that remain primarily powered by internal combustion engines, and of the hybrid electric vehicle. The duty cycle for these two applications sees the battery held at a partial-state-of-charge (PSoC) for most of its life and required to supply, and to accept, charge at unprecedented rates. The remarkable advances achieved with VRLA battery technology for electric vehicles during the past 8-10 years will be of only passing value in overcoming the challenges posed by high rate PSoC service in 36/42 V and HEV duty. This is because the failure modes seen in PSoC are quite different from those faced in EV (deep cycle) use. The replacement of the 12 V SLI will not take place rapidly. However, if the applications which take its place are to be satisfied by a lead-acid product (probably VRLA), rather than by a battery of a different chemistry, a program of development as successful as that mounted for deep cycle duty will be required. The present phase of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC) R&D program has begun to shed light on those aspects of the function of a VRLA battery which currently limit its life in high rate PSoC duty. The program is also pursuing the several technologies which show promise of overcoming those limits, including multiple tab plate design, mass transport facilitation and minor component (both beneficial and detrimental impurity) management. This paper presents a brief review of the changes which are taking place in

  5. Charge-Transfer Dynamics in the Lowest Excited State of a Pentacene–Fullerene Complex: Implications for Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Joseph, Saju

    2017-10-02

    We characterize the dynamic nature of the lowest excited state in a pentacene/C60 complex on the femtosecond time scale, via a combination of ab initio molecular dynamics and time-dependent density functional theory. We analyze the correlations between the molecular vibrations of the complex and the oscillations in the electron-transfer character of its lowest excited state, which point to vibration-induced coherences between the (pentacene-based) local-excitation (LE) state and the complex charge-transfer (CT) state. We discuss the implications of our results on this model system for the exciton-dissociation process in organic solar cells.

  6. Course Notes: United States Particle Accelerator School Beam Physics with Intense Space-Charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.; Lund, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this course is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the physics of beams with intense space charge. This course is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in accelerator systems that require sufficient high intensity where mutual particle interactions in the beam can no longer be neglected. This course is intended to give the student a broad overview of the dynamics of beams with strong space charge. The emphasis is on theoretical and analytical methods of describing the acceleration and transport of beams. Some aspects of numerical and experimental methods will also be covered. Students will become familiar with standard methods employed to understand the transverse and longitudinal evolution of beams with strong space charge. The material covered will provide a foundation to design practical architectures. In this course, we will introduce you to the physics of intense charged particle beams, focusing on the role of space charge. The topics include: particle equations of motion, the paraxial ray equation, and the Vlasov equation; 4-D and 2-D equilibrium distribution functions (such as the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij, thermal equilibrium, and Neuffer distributions), reduced moment and envelope equation formulations of beam evolution; transport limits and focusing methods; the concept of emittance and the calculation of its growth from mismatches in beam envelope and from space-charge non-uniformities using system conservation constraints; the role of space-charge in producing beam halos; longitudinal space-charge effects including small amplitude and rarefaction waves; stable and unstable oscillation modes of beams (including envelope and kinetic modes); the role of space charge in the injector; and algorithms to calculate space-charge effects in particle codes. Examples of intense beams will be given primarily from the ion and proton accelerator communities with applications from, for example, heavy-ion fusion, spallation

  7. The low-lying πσ* state and its role in the intramolecular charge transfer of aminobenzonitriles and aminobenzethyne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Kwang; Fujiwara, Takashige; Kofron, William G.; Zgierski, Marek Z.; Lim, Edward C.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic absorption spectra of the low-lying ππ* and πσ* states of several aminobenzonitriles and 4-dimethylaminobenzethyne have been studied by time-resolved transient absorption and time-dependent density functional theory calculation. In acetonitrile, the lifetime of the πσ*-state absorption is very short (picoseconds or subpicosecond) for molecules that exhibit intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), and very long (nanoseconds) for those that do not. Where direct comparison of the temporal characteristics of the πσ*-state and the ICT-state transients could be made, the formation rate of the ICT state is identical to the decay rate of the πσ* state within the experimental uncertainty. These results are consistent with the πσ*-mediated ICT mechanism, L a (ππ*)→πσ*→ICT, in which the decay rate of the πσ* state is determined by the rate of the solvent-controlled πσ*→ICT charge-shift reaction. The ππ*→πσ* state crossing does not occur in 3-dimethylaminobenzonitrile or 2-dimethylaminobenzonitrile, as predicted by the calculation, and 4-aminobenzonitrile and 4-dimethylaminobenzethyne does not exhibit the ICT reaction, consistent with the higher energy of the ICT state relative to the πσ* state

  8. Observation of the Hadronic Final State Charge Asymmetry in High Q^2 Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Alimujiang, K.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Asmone, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; Zus, R.

    2009-01-01

    A first measurement is presented of the charge asymmetry in the hadronic final state from the hard interaction in deep-inelastic ep neutral current scattering at HERA. The measurement is performed in the range of negative squared four momentum transfer 100charged particles, measured in the current region of the Breit frame, is studied together with its evolution as a function of Q. The results are compared to Monte Carlo models at the hadron and parton level.

  9. Observation of the hadronic final state charge asymmetry in high Q2 deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.

    2009-06-01

    A first measurement is presented of the charge asymmetry in the hadronic final state from the hard interaction in deep-inelastic ep neutral current scattering at HERA. The measurement is performed in the range of negative squared four momentum transfer 100 2 2 . The difference between the event normalised distributions of the scaled momentum, x p , for positively and negatively charged particles, measured in the current region of the Breit frame, is studied together with its evolution as a function of Q. The results are compared to Monte Carlo models at the hadron and parton level. (orig.)

  10. Mean charge states of MeV/u Fe, Co, Ni and Cu ions in Au and Bi solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciortea, C.; Dumitriu, D.E.; Enescu, S.E.; Enulescu, A.; Fluerasu, D.; Piticu, I.; Szilagyi, Z.S.

    2001-01-01

    The average charge states of 0.1 - 1.5 MeV/u Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu ions in solid Au and Bi targets have been determined by estimating the mean numbers of outer-shell spectator vacancies during the K-vacancy decay. The latter quantities were obtained from the yield and energy shifts of the K α , β X-rays, by comparing with calculations in the independent electron approximation. The reported equilibrium charges, mostly characteristic for the inside of the target, are in fairly agreement with Nikolaev and Dmitriev semi-empirical formula. (authors)

  11. Development of the balance equations model for calculation of ion charge-state distribution in ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, A.V.; Shirkov, G.D.; Consoli, F.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Barbarino, S.

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of the widespread model for the calculation of ion charge-state distributions (CSD) in electron cyclotron-resonance ion source based on the set of balance equations is given. The modification of this model that allows one to describe the confinement and accumulation processes of highly charged ions in ECR plasma for gas mixing case more precisely is discussed. The new approach for the time confinement calculation (ions and electrons) based on the theory of Pastukhov is offered, viz. - calculation of confinement times during two step minimization of special type functionals. The results obtained by this approach have been compared with available experimental data

  12. Defect states and charge trapping characteristics of HfO2 films for high performance nonvolatile memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Shao, Y. Y.; Lu, X. B.; Zeng, M.; Zhang, Z.; Gao, X. S.; Zhang, X. J.; Liu, J.-M.; Dai, J. Y.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present significant charge trapping memory effects of the metal-hafnium oxide-SiO 2 -Si (MHOS) structure. The devices based on 800 °C annealed HfO 2 film exhibit a large memory window of ∼5.1 V under ±10 V sweeping voltages and excellent charge retention properties with only small charge loss of ∼2.6% after more than 10 4  s retention. The outstanding memory characteristics are attributed to the high density of deep defect states in HfO 2 films. We investigated the defect states in the HfO 2 films by photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation measurements and found that the defect states distributed in deep energy levels ranging from 1.1 eV to 2.9 eV below the conduction band. Our work provides further insights for the charge trapping mechanisms of the HfO 2 based MHOS devices.

  13. Multi-charge-state molecular dynamics and self-diffusion coefficient in the warm dense matter regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongsheng; Hou, Yong; Kang, Dongdong; Gao, Cheng; Jin, Fengtao; Yuan, Jianmin

    2018-01-01

    We present a multi-ion molecular dynamics (MIMD) simulation and apply it to calculating the self-diffusion coefficients of ions with different charge-states in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime. First, the method is used for the self-consistent calculation of electron structures of different charge-state ions in the ion sphere, with the ion-sphere radii being determined by the plasma density and the ion charges. The ionic fraction is then obtained by solving the Saha equation, taking account of interactions among different charge-state ions in the system, and ion-ion pair potentials are computed using the modified Gordon-Kim method in the framework of temperature-dependent density functional theory on the basis of the electron structures. Finally, MIMD is used to calculate ionic self-diffusion coefficients from the velocity correlation function according to the Green-Kubo relation. A comparison with the results of the average-atom model shows that different statistical processes will influence the ionic diffusion coefficient in the WDM regime.

  14. First-Principles Study of Charge Diffusion between Proximate Solid-State Qubits and Its Implications on Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jyh-Pin; Bodrog, Zoltán; Gali, Adam

    2018-03-01

    Solid-state qubits from paramagnetic point defects in solids are promising platforms to realize quantum networks and novel nanoscale sensors. Recent advances in materials engineering make it possible to create proximate qubits in solids that might interact with each other, leading to electron spin or charge fluctuation. Here we develop a method to calculate the tunneling-mediated charge diffusion between point defects from first principles and apply it to nitrogen-vacancy (NV) qubits in diamond. The calculated tunneling rates are in quantitative agreement with previous experimental data. Our results suggest that proximate neutral and negatively charged NV defect pairs can form a NV-NV molecule. A tunneling-mediated model for the source of decoherence of the near-surface NV qubits is developed based on our findings on the interacting qubits in diamond.

  15. Ionization, evaporation and fragmentation of C{sub 60} in collisions with highly charged C, O and F ions-effect of projectile charge state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, A H; Misra, D; Tribedi, L C [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai -5 (India)

    2007-09-15

    We study the various inelastic processes such ionization, fragmentation and evaporation of C{sub 60} molecule in collisions with fast heavy ions. We have used 2.33 MeV/u C, O and F projectile ion beams. Various ionization and fragmentation products were detected using time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The multiply charged C{sub 60}{sup r+} ions were detected for maximum r = 4. The projectile charge state (q{sub p}) dependence of the single and double ionization cross sections is well reproduced by a model based on the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR). The q{sub p}-dependence of the fragmentation yields, was found to be linear. Variation of relative yields of the evaporation products of C{sub 60}{sup 2+} (i.e. C{sub 58}{sup 2+}, C{sub 56}{sup 2+} etc) and C{sub 60}{sup 3+} (i.e. C{sub 58}{sup 3+}, C{sub 56}{sup 3+} etc) with q{sub p} has also been investigated for various projectiles.

  16. Discrimination of Li-ion batteries based on Hamming network using discharging-charging voltage pattern recognition for improved state-of-charge estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jonghoon; Lee, Seongjun; Cho, B.H. [Power Electronics System Laboratory, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Differences in electrochemical characteristics among Li-ion batteries and factors such as temperature and ageing result in erroneous state-of-charge (SoC) estimation when using the existing extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm. This study presents an application of the Hamming neural network to the identification of suitable battery model parameters for improved SoC estimation. The discharging-charging voltage (DCV) patterns of ten fresh Li-ion batteries are measured, together with the battery parameters, as representative patterns. Through statistical analysis, the Hamming network is applied for identification of the representative DCV pattern that matches most closely of the pattern of the arbitrary battery to be measured. Model parameters of the representative battery are then applied to estimate the SoC of the arbitrary battery using the EKF. This avoids the need for repeated parameter measurement. Using model parameters selected by the proposed method, all SoC estimates (off-line and on-line) based on the EKF are within {+-}5% of the values estimated by ampere-hour counting. (author)

  17. Modeling and state-of-charge prediction of lithium-ion battery and ultracapacitor hybrids with a co-estimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yujie; Liu, Chang; Pan, Rui; Chen, Zonghai

    2017-01-01

    The modeling and state-of-charge estimation of the batteries and ultracapacitors are crucial to the battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage system. In recent years, the model based state estimators are welcomed widely, since they can adjust the gain according to the error between the model predictions and measurements timely. In most of the existing algorithms, the model parameters are either configured by theoretical values or identified off-line without adaption. But in fact, the model parameters always change continuously with loading wave or self-aging, and the lack of adaption will reduce the estimation accuracy significantly. To overcome this drawback, a novel co-estimator is proposed to estimate the model parameters and state-of-charge simultaneously. The extended Kalman filter is employed for parameter updating. To reduce the convergence time, the recursive least square algorithm and the off-line identification method are used to provide initial values with small deviation. The unscented Kalman filter is employed for the state-of-charge estimation. Because the unscented Kalman filter takes not only the measurement uncertainties but also the process uncertainties into account, it is robust to the noise. Experiments are executed to explore the robustness, stability and precision of the proposed method. - Highlights: • A co-estimator is proposed to estimate the model parameters and state-of-charge. • The extended Kalman filter is used for model parameter adaption. • The unscented Kalman filter is designed for state estimation with strong robust. • The dynamic profiles are employed to verify the proposed co-estimator.

  18. Decay characteristics of electronic charged states of Si quantum dots as evaluated by an AFM/Kelvin probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishitani, Junichiro; Makihara, Katsunori; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Murakami, Hideki; Higashi, Seiichiro; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    Si quantum dots (Si-QDs) with an areal dot density of 8 x 10 11 cm -2 on SiO 2 have been prepared by the thermal decomposition of monosilane to characterize charged states of Si-QDs using AFM/Kelvin probe force microscopy (KFM). The temporal changes in the surface potential induced by electron charging and discharging at Si-QDs covered with a ∼ 2-nm-thick oxide layer have been measured. In electron charging and discharging at Si-QDs, a Rh-coated AFM tip was electrically biased in the range of - 5 to 5 V and scanned on the sample surface in a tapping mode. The surface potential changes on Si-QDs by electron injection and extraction were observable, while no potential change was detected elsewhere. The surface potential of charged Si-QDs decays with time at rates depending on charge injection conditions. The observed decay characteristics can be interpreted in terms of discharging of stored electrons in Si-QDs due to electron tunneling through the bottom oxide to the substrate and neutralization of stored holes due to recombination with electrons tunneling from the substrates. The defect generation in oxide is likely to be responsible for a fairly slow decay as observed in the case of electron extraction by the tip bias as high as + 4.8 V with respect to p-Si(100)

  19. Investigation of the energy loss and the charge state of high energy heavy ions in a hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, K.G.

    1991-07-01

    For heavy ions with energy of 1.4 to 5.9 MeV/u the energy loss and charge state after transmission through a totally ionized hydrogen plasma are investigated. Plasma target was a Z-pinch device incorporated in the beam optics of the accelerator by a pumping system. In the 20 cm long pinch hydrogen plasmas with densities up to 1.5x10 19 cm -3 and temperatures above 5 eV are produced, with ionization efficiency higher than 99%. The ions pass the plasma on the symmetry axis of the plasma column through small apertures in the electrodes. The energy loss was measured by time-of-flight method, the plasma density by interferometry along the pinch axis. For the first time the ion charge after transmission through the plasma has been determined by a charge spectrometer being a combination of a dipole magnet and a position sensitive detector with high time resolution. A growth of the average charge of heavy ions in plasma higher than the equilibrium charge in cold gas was discovered, caused by a reduction of electron capture by fast heavy ions in ionized matter. The electron loss rates in plasma and cold gas are equal. (orig./AH) [de

  20. Direct measurement of the concurrence for two-qubit electron spin entangled pure state based on charge detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiong; Zhou Lan; Sheng Yu-Bo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a protocol for directly measuring the concurrence of a two-qubit electronic pure entangled state. To complete this task, we first design a parity-check measurement (PCM) which is constructed by two polarization beam splitters (PBSs) and a charge detector. By using the PCM for three rounds, we can achieve the concurrence by calculating the total probability of picking up the odd parity states from the initial states. Since the conduction electron may be a good candidate for the realization of quantum computation, this protocol may be useful in future solid quantum computation. (paper)

  1. In situ X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy investigation of the state of charge of all-vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chuankun; Liu, Qi; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Yang, Fan; Ren, Yang; Heald, Steve M; Liu, Yadong; Li, Zhe-Fei; Lu, Wenquan; Xie, Jian

    2014-10-22

    Synchrotron-based in situ X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy (XANES) has been used to study the valence state evolution of the vanadium ion for both the catholyte and anolyte in all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRB) under realistic cycling conditions. The results indicate that, when using the widely used charge-discharge profile during the first charge process (charging the VRB cell to 1.65 V under a constant current mode), the vanadium ion valence did not reach V(V) in the catholyte and did not reach V(II) in the anolyte. Consequently, the state of charge (SOC) for the VRB cell was only 82%, far below the desired 100% SOC. Thus, such incompletely charged mix electrolytes results in not only wasting the electrolytes but also decreasing the cell performance in the following cycles. On the basis of our study, we proposed a new charge-discharge profile (first charged at a constant current mode up to 1.65 V and then continuously charged at a constant voltage mode until the capacity was close to the theoretical value) for the first charge process that achieved 100% SOC after the initial charge process. Utilizing this new charge-discharge profile, the theoretical charge capacity and the full utilization of electrolytes has been achieved, thus having a significant impact on the cost reduction of the electrolytes in VRB.

  2. Method of estimating the State-of-Charge and of the use time left of a rechageable battery, and apparatus for executing such a method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Hendrik Johannes; Pop, V.; Notten, Petrus Henricus Laurentius

    2006-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of estimating the state-of-charge of a rechargeable battery, taking into account the factors battery spread and ageing. The method comprises the steps of: determining the starting state-of-charge of the battery by measuring the voltage across the battery and converting this

  3. Long-lived, charge-shift states in heterometallic, porphyrin-based dendrimers formed via click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pleux, Loïc; Pellegrin, Yann; Blart, Errol; Odobel, Fabrice; Harriman, Anthony

    2011-05-26

    A series of multiporphyrin clusters has been synthesized and characterized in which there exists a logical gradient for either energy or electron transfer between the porphyrins. A central free-base porphyrin (FbP), for example, is equipped with peripheral zinc(II) porphyrins (ZnP) which act as ancillary light harvesters and transfer excitation energy to the FbP under visible light illumination. Additional energy-transfer steps occur at the triplet level, and the series is expanded by including magnesium(II) porphyrins and/or tin(IV) porphyrins as chromophores. Light-induced electron transfer is made possible by incorporating a gold(III) porphyrin (AuP(+)) into the array. Although interesting by themselves, these clusters serve as control compounds by which to understand the photophysical processes occurring within a three-stage dendrimer comprising an AuP(+) core, a second layer formed from four FbP units, and an outer layer containing 12 ZnP residues. Here, illumination into a peripheral ZnP leads to highly efficient electronic energy transfer to FbP, followed by charge transfer to the central AuP(+). Charge recombination within the resultant charge-shift state is intercepted by secondary hole transfer to the ZnP, which occurs with a quantum yield of around 20%. The final charge-shift state survives for some microseconds in fluid solution at room temperature.

  4. Rapid Estimation Method for State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Fractional Continual Variable Order Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the fractional order model has been employed to state of charge (SOC estimation. The non integer differentiation order being expressed as a function of recursive factors defining the fractality of charge distribution on porous electrodes. The battery SOC affects the fractal dimension of charge distribution, therefore the order of the fractional order model varies with the SOC at the same condition. This paper proposes a new method to estimate the SOC. A fractional continuous variable order model is used to characterize the fractal morphology of charge distribution. The order identification results showed that there is a stable monotonic relationship between the fractional order and the SOC after the battery inner electrochemical reaction reaches balanced. This feature makes the proposed model particularly suitable for SOC estimation when the battery is in the resting state. Moreover, a fast iterative method based on the proposed model is introduced for SOC estimation. The experimental results showed that the proposed iterative method can quickly estimate the SOC by several iterations while maintaining high estimation accuracy.

  5. Charge transfer in low-energy collisions of H with He+ and H+ with He in excited states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreau, J.; Ryabchenko, S.; Muñoz Burgos, J. M.; Vaeck, N.

    2018-04-01

    The charge transfer process in collisions of excited (n = 2, 3) hydrogen atoms with He+ and in collisions of excited helium atoms with H+ is studied theoretically. A combination of a fully quantum-mechanical method and a semi-classical approach is employed to calculate the charge-exchange cross sections at collision energies from 0.1 eV u‑1 up to 1 keV u‑1. These methods are based on accurate ab initio potential energy curves and non-adiabatic couplings for the molecular ion HeH+. Charge transfer can occur either in singlet or in triplet states, and the differences between the singlet and triplet spin manifolds are discussed. The dependence of the cross section on the quantum numbers n and l of the initial state is demonstrated. The isotope effect on the charge transfer cross sections, arising at low collision energy when H is substituted by D or T, is investigated. Rate coefficients are calculated for all isotopes up to 106 K. Finally, the impact of the present calculations on models of laboratory plasmas is discussed.

  6. Molecular approaches to solar energy conversion: the energetic cost of charge separation from molecular-excited states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, James R

    2013-08-13

    This review starts with a brief overview of the technological potential of molecular-based solar cell technologies. It then goes on to focus on the core scientific challenge associated with using molecular light-absorbing materials for solar energy conversion, namely the separation of short-lived, molecular-excited states into sufficiently long-lived, energetic, separated charges capable of generating an external photocurrent. Comparisons are made between different molecular-based solar cell technologies, with particular focus on the function of dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical solar cells as well as parallels with the function of photosynthetic reaction centres. The core theme of this review is that generating charge carriers with sufficient lifetime and a high quantum yield from molecular-excited states comes at a significant energetic cost-such that the energy stored in these charge-separated states is typically substantially less than the energy of the initially generated excited state. The role of this energetic loss in limiting the efficiency of solar energy conversion by such devices is emphasized, and strategies to minimize this energy loss are compared and contrasted.

  7. Unraveling the Solution-State Supramolecular Structures of Donor-Acceptor Polymers and their Influence on Solid-State Morphology and Charge-Transport Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Qing; Yao, Ze-Fan; Lei, Ting; Dou, Jin-Hu; Yang, Chi-Yuan; Zou, Lin; Meng, Xiangyi; Ma, Wei; Wang, Jie-Yu; Pei, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Polymer self-assembly in solution prior to film fabrication makes solution-state structures critical for their solid-state packing and optoelectronic properties. However, unraveling the solution-state supramolecular structures is challenging, not to mention establishing a clear relationship between the solution-state structure and the charge-transport properties in field-effect transistors. Here, for the first time, it is revealed that the thin-film morphology of a conjugated polymer inherits the features of its solution-state supramolecular structures. A "solution-state supramolecular structure control" strategy is proposed to increase the electron mobility of a benzodifurandione-based oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) (BDOPV)-based polymer. It is shown that the solution-state structures of the BDOPV-based conjugated polymer can be tuned such that it forms a 1D rod-like structure in good solvent and a 2D lamellar structure in poor solvent. By tuning the solution-state structure, films with high crystallinity and good interdomain connectivity are obtained. The electron mobility significantly increases from the original value of 1.8 to 3.2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . This work demonstrates that "solution-state supramolecular structure" control is critical for understanding and optimization of the thin-film morphology and charge-transport properties of conjugated polymers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Fusion-Related Ionization and Recombination Data for Tungsten Ions in Low to Moderately High Charge States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Müller

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Collisional processes and details of atomic structure of heavy many-electron atoms and ions are not yet understood in a fully satisfying manner. Experimental studies are required for guiding new theoretical approaches. In response to fusion-related needs for collisional and spectroscopic data on tungsten atoms in all charge states, a project has been initiated in which electron-impact and photon-induced ionization as well as photorecombination of Wq+ ions are studied. Cross sections and rate coefficients were determined for charge states q ranging from q = 1 to q = 5 for photoionization, for q = 1 up to q = 19 for electron-impact ionization and for q = 18 to q = 21 for electron-ion recombination. An overview, together with a critical assessment of the methods and results is provided.

  9. Infinite number of solvable generalizations of XY-chain, with cluster state, and with central charge c=m/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Minami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An infinite number of spin chains are solved and it is derived that the ground-state phase transitions belong to the universality classes with central charge c=m/2, where m is an integer. The models are diagonalized by automatically obtained transformations, many of which are different from the Jordan–Wigner transformation. The free energies, correlation functions, string order parameters, exponents, central charges, and the phase diagram are obtained. Most of the examples consist of the stabilizers of the cluster state. A unified structure of the one-dimensional XY and cluster-type spin chains is revealed, and other series of solvable models can be obtained through this formula.

  10. Voltage Scheduling Droop Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy Storage in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Due to higher power quality, lower conversion loss, and more DC loads, there has been an increasing awareness on DC microgrid. Previous emphasis has been on equal power sharing among different units in the DC microgrid, while overlooking the coordination of the energy storage units to maintain...... the State-of-Charge balance. In this paper, a new droop method based on voltage scheduling for State-of-Charge balance is proposed to keep the SoC balance for the energy storage units. The proposed method has the advantage of avoiding the stability problem existed in traditional methods based on droop gain...... scheduling. Simulation experiment is taken in Matlab on a DC microgrid with two distributed energy storage units. The simulation results show that the proposed method has successfully achieved SoC balance during the load changes while maintaining the DC bus voltage within the allowable range....

  11. Low to High Spin-State Transition Induced by Charge Ordering in Antiferromagnetic YBaCo2O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, T.; Woodward, P. M.; Karen, P.; Hunter, B. A.; Henning, P.; Moodenbaugh, A. R.

    2000-01-01

    The oxygen-deficient double perovskite YBaCo 2 O 5 , containing corner-linked CoO 5 square pyramids as principal building units, undergoes a paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic spin ordering at 330 K. This is accompanied by a tetragonal to orthorhombic distortion. Below 220 K orbital ordering and long-range Co 2+ /Co 3+ charge ordering occur as well as a change in the Co 2+ spin state from low to high spin. This transition is shown to be very sensitive to the oxygen content of the sample. To our knowledge this is the first observation of a spin-state transition induced by long-range orbital and charge ordering. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  12. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state distributions of 2.0 MeV/u carbon ions passing through carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, M.; Sataka, M.; Matsuda, M.; Okayasu, S.; Kawatsura, K.; Takahiro, K.; Komaki, K.; Shibata, H.; Nishio, K.

    2015-01-01

    Both equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state distributions were studied experimentally for 2.0 MeV/u carbon ions after passing through carbon foils. Measured charge-state distribution established the equilibrium at a target thickness of 10 μg/cm 2 and this remained unchanged until a maximum target thickness of 98 μg/cm 2 . The equilibrium charge-state distribution, the equilibrium mean charge-state, and the width and skewness of the equilibrium distribution were compared with predictions using existing semi-empirical formulae as well as simulation results, including the ETACHA code. It was found that charge-state distributions, mean charge states, and distribution widths for C 2+ , C 3+ , and C 4+ incident ions merged into quasi-equilibrium values at a target thickness of 5.7 μg/cm 2 in the pre-equilibrium region and evolved simultaneously to the ‘real equilibrium’ values for all of the initial charge states, including C 5+ and C 6+ ions, as previously demonstrated for sulfur projectile ions at the same velocity (Imai et al., 2009). Two kinds of simulation, ETACHA and solution of rate equations taking only single electron transfers into account, were used, and both of them reproduced the measured charge evolution qualitatively. The quasi-equilibrium behavior could be reproduced with the ETACHA code, but not with solution of elementary rate equations

  13. Thermal and electrodynamical formation mechanisms of overloaded AC states and charging rate influence on their stable dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovskii, V.; Watanabe, K.; Awaji, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Overloaded AC states are investigated to understand the mechanisms of there formation. •There exist characteristic time windows defining the existence of stable overloaded AC states. •Limiting values of the electric field, current and temperature are higher than the quench ones. -- Abstract: The macroscopic thermal and electrodynamical phenomena occurring in high-T c superconductors during overloaded AC states are theoretically investigated to understand the basic physical mechanisms, which are characteristic for the stable formation of the operating modes when the peak current exceeds the critical current of a superconductor during AC modes. It is shown that there exist characteristic time windows defining the existence of stable overloaded AC states. They identify the stability boundary of the overloaded AC states. Therefore, there is the maximum allowable value of a peak current of stable overloaded AC regimes at the given charging rate, cooling conditions and properties of a superconductor and a matrix. The results obtained prove that the limiting peak current is higher than the corresponding quench current defining the stability margin of DC states. It monotonically increases with the charging rate. Besides, in the stable overloaded AC states, the peak values of the electric field and temperature may be also noticeably higher than the corresponding quench values. They depend on the peak current and charging rate at the given cooling conditions. As a result, high-T c superconducting tapes can stably work under intensive AC modes without instability onset when the peak of applied currents may significantly exceed not only the critical current but also the corresponding values of DC-quench currents

  14. Space charge and steady state current in LDPE samples containing a permittivity/conductivity gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Bambery, K. R.; Fleming, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Electromagnetic theory predicts that a dielectric sample in which a steady DC current of density ε is flowing, and in which the ratio of permittivity ε to conductivity σ varies with position, will acquire a space charge density j·grad(ε/σ). A simple and convenient way to generate an ε/σ gradient...... in a homogeneous sample is to establish a temperature gradient across it. The resulting spatial variation in ε is usually small in polymeric insulators, but the variation in σ can be appreciable. Laser induced pressure pulse (LIPP) measurements were made on 1.5 mm thick plaques of ultra pure LDPE equipped...... with vacuum-evaporated aluminium electrodes. Temperature differences up to 27°C were maintained across the samples, which were subjected to DC fields up to 20 kV/mm. Current density was measured as a function of temperature and field. Negligible thermally generated space charge was observed. The charge...

  15. Hierarchical Control with Virtual Resistance Optimization for Efficiency Enhancement and State-of-Charge Balancing in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a hierarchical control scheme which applies optimization method into DC microgrids in order to improve the system overall efficiency while considering the State-of-Charge (SoC) balancing at the same time. Primary droop controller, secondary voltage restoration controller...... and tertiary optimization tool formulate the complete hierarchical control system. Virtual resistances are taken as the decision variables for achieving the objective. simulation results are presented to verify the proposed approach....

  16. State-of-Charge Estimation and Active Cell Pack Balancing Design of Lithium Battery Power System for Smart Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Z. C.; Chin, C. S.; Toh, W. D.; Chiew, J.; Jia, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated state-of-charge (SOC) estimation model and active cell balancing of a 12-cell lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery power system. The strong tracking cubature extended Kalman filter (STCEKF) gave an accurate SOC prediction compared to other Kalman-based filter algorithms. The proposed groupwise balancing of the multiple SOC exhibited a higher balancing speed and lower balancing loss than other cell balancing designs. The experimental results demonstrated t...

  17. Modeling of charge-transfer transitions and excited states in d6 transition metal complexes by DFT techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Antonín; Záliš, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 251, 3-4 (2007), s. 258-287 ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC068; GA MŠk OC 139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : charge-transfer transition * DFT technique * excited states * spectroscopy Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 8.568, year: 2007

  18. Charge state distribution studies of pure and oxygen mixed krypton ECR plasma - signature of isotope anomaly and gas mixing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pravin; Mal, Kedar; Rodrigues, G

    2016-11-01

    We report the charge state distributions of the pure, 25% and 50% oxygen mixed krypton plasma to shed more light on the understanding of the gas mixing and the isotope anomaly [A. G. Drentje, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63 (1992) 2875 and Y Kawai, D Meyer, A Nadzeyka, U Wolters and K Wiesemann, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 10 (2001) 451] in the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas. The krypton plasma was produced using a 10 GHz all-permanent-magnet ECR ion source. The intensities of the highly abundant four isotopes, viz. 82 Kr (~11.58%), 83 Kr (~11.49%), 84 Kr (~57%) and 86 Kr (17.3%) up to ~ +14 charge state have been measured by extracting the ions from the plasma and analysing them in the mass and the energy using a large acceptance analyzer-cum-switching dipole magnet. The influence of the oxygen gas mixing on the isotopic krypton ion intensities is clearly evidenced beyond +9 charge state. With and without oxygen mixing, the charge state distribution of the krypton ECR plasma shows the isotope anomaly with unusual trends. The anomaly in the intensities of the isotopes having quite closer natural abundance, viz. 82 Kr, 86 Kr and 83 Kr, 86 Kr is prominent, whereas the intensity ratio of 86 Kr to 84 Kr shows a weak signature of it. The isotope anomaly tends to disappear with increasing oxygen mixing in the plasma. The observed trends in the intensities of the krypton isotopes do not follow the prediction of linear Landau wave damping in the plasma. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A comparative study of kalman filtering based observer and sliding mode observer for state of charge estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sassi, Hicham; Errahimi, Fatima; Es-Sbai, Najia; Alaoui, Chakib

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, electric mobility is starting to define society and is becoming more and more irreplaceable and essential to daily activities. Safe and durable battery is of a great significance for this type of mobility, hence the increasing interest of research activity oriented to battery studies, in order to assure safe operating mode and to control the battery in case of any abnormal functioning conditions that could damage the battery if not properly managed. Lithium-ion technology is considered the most suitable existing technology for electrical storage, because of their interesting features such as their relatively long cycle life, lighter weight, their high energy density, However, there is a lot of work that is still needed to be done in order to assure safe operating lithium-ion batteries, starting with their internal status monitoring, cell balancing within a battery pack, and thermal management. Tasks that are accomplished by the battery management system (BMS) which uses the state of charge (SOC) as an indicator of the internal charge level of the battery, in order to avoid unpredicted system interruption. Since the state of charge is an inner state of a the battery which cannot be directly measured, a powerful estimation technique is inevitable, in this paper we investigate the performances of tow estimation strategies; kalman filtering based observers and sliding mode observers, both strategies are compared in terms of accuracy, design requirement, and overall performances.

  20. A combination Kalman filter approach for State of Charge estimation of lithium-ion battery considering model uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanwen; Wang, Chao; Gong, Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    An accurate battery State of Charge estimation plays an important role in battery electric vehicles. This paper makes two contributions to the existing literature. (1) A recursive least squares method with fuzzy adaptive forgetting factor has been presented to update the model parameters close to the real value more quickly. (2) The statistical information of the innovation sequence obeying chi-square distribution has been introduced to identify model uncertainty, and a novel combination algorithm of strong tracking unscented Kalman filter and adaptive unscented Kalman filter has been developed to estimate SOC (State of Charge). Experimental results indicate that the novel algorithm has a good performance in estimating the battery SOC against initial SOC errors and voltage sensor drift. A comparison with the unscented Kalman filter-based algorithms and adaptive unscented Kalman filter-based algorithms shows that the proposed SOC estimation method has better accuracy, robustness and convergence behavior. - Highlights: • Recursive least squares method with fuzzy adaptive forgetting factor is presented. • The innovation obeying chi-square distribution is used to identify uncertainty. • A combination Karman filter approach for State of Charge estimation is presented. • The performance of the proposed method is verified by comparison results.

  1. A multi-passage spectrometer for charge-state separation at MLLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Christine; Gartzke, Eva; Habs, Dietrich; Krug, Kevin; Szerypo, Jerzy; Thirolf, Peter [Fakultaet fuer Physik, LMU - Muenchen (Germany); Kolhinen, Veli [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2010-07-01

    MLLTRAP is a Penning trap mass spectrometer facility which is currently being commissioned at the Maier-Leibnitz Tandem Accelerator Laboratory in Garching. Here, atomic mass values are determined by comparison of cyclotron frequencies, {omega}{sub c}=qB/m, of stored ions with mass m and charge q in a strong magnetic field B, relative to those of well-known ion species. One of the future goals of MLLTRAP is to utilize highly-charged ions for an improvement in the achievable mass accuracy {delta}m/m. For this purpose, singly-charged ions will have to be injected into a charge-breeding device, such as an EBIT, and transferred back towards the Penning traps, while being q/A selected. A multi-passage-spectrometer (MPS) is being built to fulfill these tasks. It consists of a fast-ramping, round-pole dipole magnet with a four-way electrostatic mirror system. In this presentation, the planned MLLTRAP setup focussing on the q/A-selection with the MPS system is presented.

  2. Enhanced intersystem crossing via a high energy charge transfer state in a perylenediimide-perylenemonoimide dyad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, D.; Chopin-Cado, S.M.A; Meskers, S.C.J.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The electronic relaxation processes of a photoexcited linear perylenediimide-perylenemonoimide (PDI-PMI) acceptor-donor dyad were studied. PDI-PMI serves as a model compound for donor-acceptor systems in photovoltaic devices and has been designed to have a high-energy PDI--PMI + charge transfer (CT)

  3. Optoelectronic processes at polymer-fullerene heterojunctions : charge transfer states in organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nuzzo, D.

    2012-01-01

    Polymer photovoltaic cells currently achieve power conversion efficiencies (PCE) above 10% on lab scale. To compete with the efficiencies above 20% of inorganic solar cells, understanding and elimination of all the loss channels is necessary. This thesis investigates charge generation and

  4. Charge transport of graphene ferromagnetic-insulator-superconductor junction with pairing state of broken time reversal symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Hajati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the charge transport through a graphene-based ferromagnetic-insulator-superconductor junction with a broken time reversal symmetry (BTRS of dx2−y2 + is and dx2−y2 + idxy superconductor using the extended Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk formalism. Our analysis have shown several charateristics in this junction, providing a useful probe to understand the role of the order parameter symmetry in the superconductivity. We find that the presence of the BTRS (X state in the superconductor region has a strong effect on the tunneling conductance curves which leads to a decrease in the height of the zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP. In particular, we show that the magnitude of the superconducting proximity effect depends to a great extent on X and by increasing X, the zero-bias charge conductance oscillations with respect to the rotation angle β are suppressed. In addition, we find that at the maximum rotation angle β = π/4, introducing BTRS in the FIS junction causes oscillatory behavior of the zero-bias charge conductance with the barrier strength (χG by a period of π and by approaching the X to 1, the amplitude of charge conductance oscillations increases. This behavior is drastically different from none BTRS similar graphene junctions. At last, we suggest an experimental setup for verifying our predicted effects.

  5. Phase transitions in local equation-of-state approximation and anomalies of spatial charge profiles in non-uniform plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigvintsev, A. Yu; Zorina, I. G.; Noginova, L. Yu; Iosilevskiy, I. L.

    2018-01-01

    Impressive appearance of discontinuities in equilibrium spatial charge profiles in non-uniform Coulomb systems is under discussions in wide number of thermoelectrostatics problems. Such discontinuities are considered as peculiar micro-level manifestation of phase transitions and intrinsic macro-level non-ideality effects in local equation of state (EOS), which should be used for description of non-ideal ionic subsystem in frames of local-density (or “pseudofluid”, or “jellium” etc) approximation. Such discontinuities were discussed already by the authors for electronic subsystems. Special emphasis is made in present paper on the mentioned above non-ideality effects in non-uniform ionic subsystems, such as micro-ions profile within screening “cloud” around macro-ion in complex (dusty, colloid etc) plasmas, equilibrium charge profile in ionic traps or (and) in the neighborhood vicinity of “charged wall” etc). Multiphase EOS for simplified ionic model of classical charged hard spheres on uniformly compressible electrostatic compensating background was constructed and several illustrative examples of discussed discontinuous ionic profiles were calculated.

  6. Charge state distribution of 16O from the 4He(12C,16O)γ reaction of astrophysical interest studied both experimentally and theoretically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shengjin; Sakurai, Makoto; Sagara, Kenshi; Teranishi, Takashi; Fujita, Kunihiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Sayaka; Mitsuzumi, Tatsuki; Iwazaki, Makoto; Rosary, Mariya T.; Kato, Daiji; Tolstikhina, I.Yu.

    2014-01-01

    In astrophysics, 4 He( 12 C, 16 O)γ reaction places an important role. At Kyushu University Tandem accelerator Laboratory (KUTL), the measurement of 4 He( 12 C, 16 O)γ cross section is in progress in the energy range of astrophysical nuclear reaction. Since the charge state of product 16 O ions after passing through the gas target is spread and only one charge state can be measured at terminal detector, it is necessary to know the charge state distribution of 16 O ions passing through the He gas target precisely. Here, we report the charge state distribution of the 16 O recoils both experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, we measured the equilibrium charge state distribution of 16 O ions in the windowless helium gas target with the beam energy of primary 16 O ions at 7.2, 4.5, and 3.45 MeV at KUTL. The measured results showed a Gaussian distribution for the charge state fraction. Theoretically, we proposed a framework for the charge state distribution study. Charge state distribution was computed by solving a set of differential equations including a series of charge exchange cross sections. For the ionization cross section, plane-wave Born approximation was applied and modified by taking target atomic screening as a function of momentum transfer into account. For the capture cross section, continuum distorted wave approximation was applied and the influence of the gas target density was taken into account in the process of electron capture. Using above charge exchange cross sections, the charge state evolution was simulated. According to the equilibrium distribution, we compared the theoretical calculation to the experimental data. After taking into account the density effects in the charge exchange process, the theoretical charge state distributions shows a good agreement with the experimental data. Both experimental and theoretical results are useful to understand the charge fraction of recoil oxygen created via 4 He( 12 C, 16 O)γ reaction

  7. Merely Measuring the UV-Visible Spectrum of Gold Nanoparticles Can Change Their Charge State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Jose; Siefe, Chris; Alcantar, Samuel; Belt, Michael; Stucky, Galen D; Moskovits, Martin

    2018-02-14

    Metallic nanostructures exhibit a strong plasmon resonance at a wavelength whose value is sensitive to the charge density in the nanostructure, its size, shape, interparticle coupling, and the dielectric properties of its surrounding medium. Here we use UV-visible transmission and reflectance spectroscopy to track the shifts of the plasmon resonance in an array of gold nanoparticles buried under metal-oxide layers of varying thickness produced using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and then coated with bulk layers of one of three metals: aluminum, silver, or gold. A significant shift in the plasmon resonance was observed and a precise value of ω p , the plasmon frequency of the gold comprising the nanoparticles, was determined by modeling the composite of gold nanoparticles and metal-oxide layer as an optically homogeneous film of core-shell particles bounded by two substrates: one of quartz and the other being one of the aforementioned metals, then using a Maxwell-Garnett effective medium expression to extract ω p for the gold nanoparticles before and after coating with the bulk metals. Under illumination, the change in the charge density of the gold nanoparticles per particle determined from the change in the values of ω p is found to be some 50-fold greater than what traditional electrostatic contact electrification models compute based on the work function difference of the two conductive materials. Moreover, when using bulk gold as the capping layer, which should have resulted in a negligible charge exchange between the gold nanoparticles and the bulk gold, a significant charge transfer from the bulk gold layer to the nanoparticles was observed as with the other metals. We explain these observations in terms of the "plasmoelectric effect", recently described by Atwater and co-workers, in which the gold nanoparticles modify their charge density to allow their resonant wavelength to match that of the incident light, thereby achieving, a lower value of the

  8. A study of charge state approach to the stopping power of MeV B, N, and O ions in carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.M.; O'Connor, D.J.; Timmers, H.; Dastoor, P.C.

    1999-01-01

    The charge state approach has been applied to treat the electronic stopping powers of swift O, N and B ions in carbon foil. According to the charge state model, the contributions to the electronic stopping power of energetic projectiles passing through solid targets are due to collisional interactions and from the charge exchange process. The definition of fractional effective charge from Brandt and Kitagawa has been combined into the current charge state model. Extensive applications of this approach require data of the equilibrium charge state distributions and knowledge of charge-exchange cross sections-involving electronic capture and loss processes. Both measured data and empirical calculations of the equilibrium charge state fraction are used in the study, and the electronic capture cross sections are obtained with the eikonal Brinkman-Kramers approximation (EBK). By comparing the numerical results with the latest experimental data as well as empirical values, it is shown that the present approach slightly overestimates the energy loss at the intermediate velocity region

  9. Quasiparticle Scattering off Defects and Possible Bound States in Charge-Ordered YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{y}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, R; Hirata, M; Wu, T; Vinograd, I; Mayaffre, H; Krämer, S; Horvatić, M; Berthier, C; Reyes, A P; Kuhns, P L; Liang, R; Hardy, W N; Bonn, D A; Julien, M-H

    2017-01-06

    We report the NMR observation of a skewed distribution of ^{17}O Knight shifts when a magnetic field quenches superconductivity and induces long-range charge-density-wave (CDW) order in YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{y}. This distribution is explained by an inhomogeneous pattern of the local density of states N(E_{F}) arising from quasiparticle scattering off, yet unidentified, defects in the CDW state. We argue that the effect is most likely related to the formation of quasiparticle bound states, as is known to occur, under specific circumstances, in some metals and superconductors (but not in the CDW state, in general, except for very few cases in 1D materials). These observations should provide insight into the microscopic nature of the CDW, especially regarding the reconstructed band structure and the sensitivity to disorder.

  10. Characterization of electronic charged states of P-doped Si quantum dots using AFM/Kelvin probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makihara, Katsunori; Xu, Jun; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Murakami, Hideki; Higashi, Seiichiro; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    Phosphorous doping to Si quantum dots was performed by a pulse injection of 1% PH 3 diluted with He during the dot formation on thermally grown SiO 2 from thermal decomposition of pure SiH 4 , and electron charging to and discharging from P-doped Si dots were studied to characterize their electronic charged states using a Kelvin probe technique in atomic force microscopy (AFM). The potential change corresponding to the extraction of one electron from each of the P-doped Si dots was observed after applying a tip bias as low as + 0.2 V while for undoped Si dots, with almost the same size as P-doped Si dots, almost the same amount of the potential change was detectable only when the tip bias was increased to ∼ 1 V. It is likely that, for P-doped Si dots, the electron extraction from the conduction band occurs and results in a positively charged state with ionized P donor

  11. Electronic structure and charge transfer excited states of endohedral fullerene containing electron donoracceptor complexes utilized in organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerikheirabadi, Fatemeh

    Organic Donor-Acceptor complexes form the main component of the organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). The open circuit voltage of OPVs is directly related to the charge transfer excited state energies of these complexes. Currently a large number of different molecular complexes are being tested for their efficiency in photovoltaic devices. In this work, density functional theory as implemented in the NRLMOL code is used to investigate the electronic structure and related properties of these donor-acceptor complexes. The charge transfer excitation energies are calculated using the perturbative delta self-consistent field method recently developed in our group as the standard time dependent density functional approaches fail to accurately provide them. The model photovoltaics systems analyzed are as follows: Sc3N C 80--ZnTPP, Y3 N C80-- ZnTPP and Sc3 N C80-- ZnPc. In addition, a thorough analysis of the isolated donor and acceptor molecules is also provided. The studied acceptors are chosen from a class of fullerenes named trimetallic nitride endohedral fullerenes. These molecules have shown to possess advantages as acceptors such as long lifetimes of the charge-separated states.

  12. The development of an ECRIS charge-state breeder for generating RIB's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, T.; Geller, R.; Bouly, J.L.; Chauvin, N.; Curdy, J.C.; Lacoste, A.; Sole, P.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.; Vieux-Rochaz, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    ECRIS have proven their ability to fulfill the requirements of all types of accelerators. Initially developed for radioactive ion beam production, the ECR charge breeder shows that the beam injection of a primary beam inside an ECR ion source is a very general process for beam production and better understanding of the ECRIS physics. A new dedicated ECRIS PHOENIX has been specifically built to improve a means for the already very satisfying results obtained with the MINIMAFIOS source adapted to the so called ''1+/n+'' method. In this paper, we will review the latest results obtained on the ISN Grenoble test bench for the production of c.w. or pulsed metallic ion beams. The results are already very promising thanks to an improved and versatile magnetic field configuration. The efficiencies of specific charges have been improved and the overall breeding time has been decreased by factors of 3 to 9 (i.e.: 25 ms to obtain Ag19+)

  13. Influence of Charge State on the Reaction of FeO3^+/- with Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveles, J. U.; Khanna, S. N.; Reilly, N. M.; Johnson, G. E.; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    2007-03-01

    A synergistic study combining experiments in molecular beams and first principles electronic structure calculations within a gradient corrected density functional approach is used to investigate the reactivity of charged FeO3 clusters with CO. It is shown that highly oxidized iron clusters are able to readily effect the oxidation of CO to CO2 at ambient temperature. Calculated energy profiles of the reaction demonstrate that the oxidation efficiency is governed by the strength of oxygen binding to the iron atom. Results for FeO3^+/- are presented and reveal that cation clusters are more efficient than the corresponding anion clusters at effecting the oxidation reaction due to different bond energies resulting from charge distribution.

  14. Vacuum state structure and the screening mechanism of a charge in two-dimensional massless electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, G.S.; Dyatlov, I.T.; Petrov, V.Yu.

    1982-01-01

    In two-dimensional electrodynamics (QED 2 ) of massless fermions (quarks) the screening and confinement of a charge is due to the transition of local charges into vacuum of the system under the action of the field changing the topological number. An exact solution of the problem of the quark structure of vacuum for two variants of QED 2 shows that it is consistent with the phenomenon. The structure of vacuum is therefore related directly to the Adler anomaly and to the character of variation of the field topological numbers in dynamic processes. The solutions obtained permit one to investigate in an explicit form the properties of a chiral condensate, the existence of which is also a direct consequence of the Adler anomaly

  15. Top Quark Pair Properties - Spin Correlation, Charge Asymmetry, and Complex Final States - at ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brost Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present measurements of top quark pair properties performed with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 7 TeV. The latest measurements of spin correlation and charge asymmetry in tt¯$t\\overline t $ events, as well as measurements of the cross section for tt¯$t\\overline t $ production in association with vector bosons, are presented.

  16. Spin state of negative charge-transfer material SrCoO.sub.3./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, Jan; Křápek, Vlastimil; Parragh, N.; Sangiovanni, G.; Toschi, A.; Kozhevnikov, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 11 (2012), "117206-1"-"117206-5" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0284 Keywords : negative charge tranfer * dynamical mean-field theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.943, year: 2012 http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.117206

  17. Comparative Study of Online Open Circuit Voltage Estimation Techniques for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Chaoui

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Online estimation techniques are extensively used to determine the parameters of various uncertain dynamic systems. In this paper, online estimation of the open-circuit voltage (OCV of lithium-ion batteries is proposed by two different adaptive filtering methods (i.e., recursive least square, RLS, and least mean square, LMS, along with an adaptive observer. The proposed techniques use the battery’s terminal voltage and current to estimate the OCV, which is correlated to the state of charge (SOC. Experimental results highlight the effectiveness of the proposed methods in online estimation at different charge/discharge conditions and temperatures. The comparative study illustrates the advantages and limitations of each online estimation method.

  18. On the investigation of electronic defect states in ZnO thin films by space charge spectroscopy with optical excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Matthias; Wenckstern, Holger von; Pickenhain, Rainer; Grundmann, Marius

    2012-09-01

    Electronic defect states in a n-type conducting zinc oxide thin film sample were investigated by means of space charge spectroscopy focussing on levels in the midgap region as well as on hole traps. To overcome the experimental difficulties arising from the wide bandgap and the lack of p-type conduction, optical excitation was employed to measure the emission of trapped charge carriers from these levels. Therefore - besides deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements - photo-capacitance, optically chopped photo-current, minority carrier transient spectroscopy, and optical capacitance-voltage experiments were conducted. In doing so, a midgap level labelled T4, and hole traps labelled TH1 and TH2 were detected. In the case of T4 and TH1 the photo-ionisation cross-section spectra were determined.

  19. CrossRef Large numbers of cold positronium atoms created in laser-selected Rydberg states using resonant charge exchange

    CERN Document Server

    McConnell, R; Kolthammer, WS; Richerme, P; Müllers, A; Walz, J; Grzonka, D; Zielinski, M; Fitzakerley, D; George, MC; Hessels, EA; Storry, CH; Weel, M

    2016-01-01

    Lasers are used to control the production of highly excited positronium atoms (Ps*). The laser light excites Cs atoms to Rydberg states that have a large cross section for resonant charge-exchange collisions with cold trapped positrons. For each trial with 30 million trapped positrons, more than 700 000 of the created Ps* have trajectories near the axis of the apparatus, and are detected using Stark ionization. This number of Ps* is 500 times higher than realized in an earlier proof-of-principle demonstration (2004 Phys. Lett. B 597 257). A second charge exchange of these near-axis Ps* with trapped antiprotons could be used to produce cold antihydrogen, and this antihydrogen production is expected to be increased by a similar factor.

  20. Confinement in a cryogenic Penning trap of highest charge state ions from EBIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.

    1994-01-01

    The retrapping of highly charged Xe 44+ and Th 68+,72+ ions extracted from an open-quotes Electron Beam Ion Trapclose quotes (EBIT) is demonstrated after injection of the ions into RETRAP, a cryogenic Penning trap (up to 6 Tesla magnetic field) currently with an open cylinder design. Ion extraction in a short pulse (5-20 μsec) from EBIT, essential for efficient retrapping, is employed. The ions are slowed down upon entering a deceleration tube mounted above the trap within the magnetic field. The potential is then rapidly (100 ns) decreased, enabling low energy ions to enter the trap. Capture efficiencies up to 25% are observed via detection of the delayed ion release pulse with a detector below the trap. Signal voltages induced in a tuned circuit due to single and multiple ions have been observed by tuning the ion resonant axial oscillation frequencies for different ions. Results from transporting and retrapping of the ions, as well as their detection, are described and the trapping efficiency is discussed, The motivation for these studies is to cool the trapped very highly charged ions to low temperatures (< 4 K) in order to perform ultrahigh resolution precision spectroscopy, collision studies at ultra low energies and to observe phase transitions in Coulomb clusters of highly charged ions

  1. Influence of Structure and Charge State on the Mechanism of CO Oxidation on Gold Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Grant; Burgel, Christian; Reilly, Nelly; Mitric, Roland; Kimble, Michele; Tyo, Eric; Castleman, A. W.; Bonacic-Koutecky, Vlasta

    2008-05-01

    Gas-phase reactivity experiments and high level theoretical calculations have been employed to study the interaction of both positively and negatively charged gold oxide clusters with carbon monoxide (CO). We demonstrate that for negatively charged clusters CO is oxidized to CO2 by an Eley-Ridel-like (ER-) mechanism involving the attack of CO on oxygen rather than gold. In contrast, for positively charged clusters, the oxidation reaction may also occur by a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-like (LH-) mechanism involving the initial binding of CO to a gold atom followed by subsequent migration to an oxygen site. The LH mechanism is made possible through the large energy gain associated with the adsorption of two CO molecules onto cationic gold clusters. Structure-reactivity relationships are also established which demonstrate that terminally bound oxygen atoms are the most active sites for CO oxidation. Bridge bonded oxygen atoms and molecularly bound O2 units are shown to be inert. We also establish an inverse relationship between the binding energy of CO to gold clusters and the energy of the clusters lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO).

  2. Charge state mapping of mixed valent iron and manganese mineral particles using Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecher, K.; Nealson, K.; Kneedler, E.; Rothe, J.; Meigs, G.; Warwick, T.; Tonner, B.

    2000-01-01

    The interfaces between solid mineral particles and water play a crucial role in partitioning and chemical transformation of many inorganic as well as organic pollutants in environmental systems. Among environmentally significant minerals, mixed-valent oxides and hydroxides of iron (e.g. magnetite, green rusts) and manganese (hausmanite, birnessite) have been recognized as particularly strong sorbents for metal ions. In addition, minerals containing Fe(II) have recently been proven to be powerful reductants for a wide range of pollutants. Chemical properties of these minerals strongly depend on the distribution and availability of reactive sites and little is known quantitatively about the nature of these sites. We have investigated the bulk distribution of charge states of manganese (Mn (II, III, IV)) and iron (Fe(II, III)) in single particles of natural manganese nodules and synthetic green rusts using Scanning Transmission X-ray SpectroMicroscopy (STXM). Pixel resolved spectra (XANES) extracted from stacks of images taken at different wave lengths across the metal absorption edge were fitted to total electron yield (TEY) spectra of single valent reference compounds. Two dimensional maps of bulk charge state distributions clearly reveal domains of different oxidation states within single particles of Mn-nodules and green rust precipitates. Changes of oxidation states of iron were followed as a result of reductive transformation of an environmental contaminant (CCl 4 ) using green rust as the only reductant

  3. Long-wavelength behaviour of charge-charge structure factor in insulating and metallic ground state of condensed hydrogen under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, M.A.; March, N.H.

    1988-09-01

    Using the quantum Monte Carlo charge-charge structure factor S qq (k) it is argued that (i) in the metallic phase the small k expasion is non-analytic at order k 5 , reflecting plasmon dispersion, while in the insulating phase the non-analyticity occurs at O(k 3 ), due to van der Waals interaction between the protons. (author) [pt

  4. Battery State-of-Charge and Parameter Estimation Algorithm Based on Kalman Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Sucic, Stjepan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical battery is the most widely used energy storage technology, finding its application in various devices ranging from low power consumer electronics to utility back-up power. All types of batteries show highly non-linear behaviour in terms of dependence of internal parameters...... on operating conditions, momentary replenishment and a number of past charge/discharge cycles. A good indicator for the quality of overall customer service in any battery based application is the availability and reliability of these informations, as they point out important runtime variables...

  5. Identification of charged particles by etching the solid state nuclear track detectors in successive intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randhawa, G.S.; Virk, H.S.

    1997-01-01

    The suitability of the method of charged particle identification by etching the samples in successive intervals developed by Grabez et al. has been checked in CR-39 exposed to heavy ions 238 U, 208 Pb, 197 Au and 132 Xe in the interval 11.0 to 17.0 MeV/u. A similar study has been made on soda glass detectors irradiated by 238 U, 132 Xe, 56 Fe and 48 Ti ions having energy 4.0 to 6.0 MeV/u. It is concluded that this method of particle identification can be used successfully in CR-39 and soda glass detectors. (author)

  6. Influence of charge state on the reaction of FeO3+/- with carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Nelly M.; Ulises Reveles, J.; Johnson, Grant E.; Khanna and, Shiv N., Jr.; Castleman, A. W.

    2007-02-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study shows that highly oxidized iron clusters are able to readily effect the oxidation of CO to CO 2 at ambient temperature. Calculated energy profiles of the reaction demonstrate that the oxidation efficiency is governed by the strength of oxygen binding to the iron atom. Results for FeO3+/- are presented and reveal that cation clusters are more efficient than the corresponding anion clusters at effecting the oxidation reaction due to different oxygen bond energies resulting from charge distribution.

  7. Manipulating charge transfer excited state relaxation and spin crossover in iron coordination complexes with ligand substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenkai; Kjær, Kasper Skov; Alonso-Mori, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    iron complexes with four cyanide (CN-;) ligands and one 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy) ligand. This enables MLCT excited state and metal-centered excited state energies to be manipulated with partial independence and provides a path to suppressing spin crossover. We have combined X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL...... state lifetime of iron based complexes due to spin crossover-the extremely fast intersystem crossing and internal conversion to high spin metal-centered excited states. We revitalize a 30 year old synthetic strategy for extending the MLCT excited state lifetimes of iron complexes by making mixed ligand...

  8. ESIprot: a universal tool for charge state determination and molecular weight calculation of proteins from electrospray ionization mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap mass spectrometers with relatively low resolution are frequently used for the analysis of natural products and peptides. Although ESI spectra of multiply charged protein molecules also can be measured on this type of devices, only average spectra are produced for the majority of naturally occurring proteins. Evaluating such ESI protein spectra would provide valuable information about the native state of investigated proteins. However, no suitable and freely available software could be found which allows the charge state determination and molecular weight calculation of single proteins from average ESI-MS data. Therefore, an algorithm based on standard deviation optimization (scatter minimization) was implemented for the analysis of protein ESI-MS data. The resulting software ESIprot was tested with ESI-MS data of six intact reference proteins between 12.4 and 66.7 kDa. In all cases, the correct charge states could be determined. The obtained absolute mass errors were in a range between -0.2 and 1.2 Da, the relative errors below 30 ppm. The possible mass accuracy allows for valid conclusions about the actual condition of proteins. Moreover, the ESIprot algorithm demonstrates an extraordinary robustness and allows spectral interpretation from as little as two peaks, given sufficient quality of the provided m/z data, without the necessity for peak intensity data. ESIprot is independent from the raw data format and the computer platform, making it a versatile tool for mass spectrometrists. The program code was released under the open-source GPLv3 license to support future developments of mass spectrometry software. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Estimating Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge and Parameters Using a Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Diab

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A real-time determination of battery parameters is challenging because batteries are non-linear, time-varying systems. The transient behaviour of lithium-ion batteries is modelled by a Thevenin-equivalent circuit with two time constants characterising activation and concentration polarization. An experimental approach is proposed for directly determining battery parameters as a function of physical quantities. The model’s parameters are a function of the state of charge and of the discharge rate. These can be expressed by regression equations in the model to derive a continuous-discrete extended Kalman estimator of the state of charge and of other parameters. This technique is based on numerical integration of the ordinary differential equations to predict the state of the stochastic dynamic system and the corresponding error covariance matrix. Then a standard correction step of the extended Kalman filter (EKF is applied to increase the accuracy of estimated parameters. Simulations resulting from this proposed estimator model were compared with experimental results under a variety of operating scenarios—analysis of the results demonstrate the accuracy of the estimator for correctly identifying battery parameters.

  10. Effect of charged deep states in hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the behavior of iron oxides nanoparticles deposited on its surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmucova, Katarina; Weis, Martin; Nadazdy, Vojtech; Capek, Ignac; Satka, Alexander; Chitu, Livia; Cirak, Julius; Majkova, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett technique has been used for the deposition of ordered two-dimensional arrays of iron oxides (Fe 3 O 4 /Fe 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles onto the photovoltaic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film. Electric field at the a-Si:H/iron oxides nanoparticles interface was directly in the electrochemical cell modified by light soaking and bias voltage (negative or positive) pretreatment resulting in the change of the dominant type of charged deep states in the a-Si:H layer. Induced reversible changes in the nanoparticle redox behavior have been observed. We suggest two possible explanations of the data obtained, both of them are needed to describe measured electrochemical signals. The first one consists in the electrocatalytical effect caused by the defect states (negatively or positively charged) in the a-Si:H layer. The second one consists in the possibility to manipulate the nanoparticle cores in the prepared structure immersed in aqueous solution via the laser irradiation under specific bias voltage. In this case, the nanoparticle cores are assumed to be covered with surface clusters of heterovalent complexes created onto the surface regions with prevailing ferrous or ferric valency. Immersed in the high viscosity surrounding composed of the wet organic nanoparticle envelope these cores are able to perform a field-assisted pivotal motion. The local electric field induced by the deep states in the a-Si:H layer stabilizes their 'orientation ordering' in an energetically favourable position

  11. Estimation of State of Charge for Two Types of Lithium-Ion Batteries by Nonlinear Predictive Filter for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Hua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of state of charge (SOC is of great importance for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. This paper presents a state of charge estimation method using nonlinear predictive filter (NPF and evaluates the proposed method on the lithium-ion batteries with different chemistries. Contrary to most conventional filters which usually assume a zero mean white Gaussian process noise, the advantage of NPF is that the process noise in NPF is treated as an unknown model error and determined as a part of the solution without any prior assumption, and it can take any statistical distribution form, which improves the estimation accuracy. In consideration of the model accuracy and computational complexity, a first-order equivalent circuit model is applied to characterize the battery behavior. The experimental test is conducted on the LiCoO2 and LiFePO4 battery cells to validate the proposed method. The results show that the NPF method is able to accurately estimate the battery SOC and has good robust performance to the different initial states for both cells. Furthermore, the comparison study between NPF and well-established extended Kalman filter for battery SOC estimation indicates that the proposed NPF method has better estimation accuracy and converges faster.

  12. An All-vanadium Continuous-flow Photoelectrochemical Cell for Extending State-of-charge in Solar Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zi; Shen, Yi; Liu, Dong; Liu, Fuqiang

    2017-04-04

    Greater levels of solar energy storage provide an effective solution to the inherent nature of intermittency, and can substantially improve reliability, availability, and quality of the renewable energy source. Here we demonstrated an all-vanadium (all-V) continuous-flow photoelectrochemical storage cell (PESC) to achieve efficient and high-capacity storage of solar energy, through improving both photocurrent and photocharging depth. It was discovered that forced convective flow of electrolytes greatly enhanced the photocurrent by 5 times comparing to that with stagnant electrolytes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study revealed a great reduction of charge transfer resistance with forced convective flow of electrolytes as a result of better mass transport at U-turns of the tortuous serpentine flow channel of the cell. Taking advantage of the improved photocurrent and diminished charge transfer resistance, the all-V continuous-flow PESC was capable of producing ~20% gain in state of charge (SOC) under AM1.5 illumination for ca. 1.7 hours without any external bias. This gain of SOC was surprisingly three times more than that with stagnant electrolytes during a 25-hour period of photocharge.

  13. The use of iron charge state changes as a tracer for solar wind entry and energization within the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Fritz

    Full Text Available The variation of the charge state of iron [Fe] ions is used to trace volume elements of plasma in the solar wind into the magnetosphere and to determine the time scales associated with the entry into and the action of the magnetospheric energization process working on these plasmas. On 2–3 May 1998 the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE spacecraft located at the L1 libration point observed a series of changes to the average charge state of the element Fe in the solar wind plasma reflecting variation in the coronal temperature of their original source. Over the period of these two days the average Fe charge state was observed to vary from + 15 to + 6 both at the Polar satellite in the high latitude dayside magnetosphere and at ACE. During a period of southward IMF the observations at Polar inside the magnetosphere of the same Fe charge state were simultaneous with those at ACE delayed by the measured convection speed of the solar wind to the subsolar magnetopause. Comparing the phase space density as a function of energy at both ACE and Polar has indicated that significant energization of the plasma occurred on very rapid time scales. Energization at constant phase space density by a factor of 5 to 10 was observed over a range of energy from a few keV to about 1 MeV. For a detector with a fixed energy threshold in the range from 10 keV to a few hundred keV this observed energization will appear as a factor of ~103 increase in its counting rate. Polar observations of very energetic O+ ions at the same time indicate that this energization process must be occurring in the high latitude cusp region inside the magnetosphere and that it is capable of energizing ionospheric ions at the same time.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  14. Role of projectile charge state in convoy electron emission by fast protons colliding with LiF(0 0 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldazabal, I. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimicas UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain)]. E-mail: ialdazabal@sq.ehu.es; Gravielle, M.S. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Miraglia, J.E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Arnau, A. [Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Ponce, V.H. [Donostia International Physics Center DIPC, San Sebastian (Spain); Centro Atomico Bariloche, Bariloche (Argentina)

    2005-05-01

    Target ionization and projectile ionization differential cross sections are used to calculate the electron emission spectra by fast proton impact on ionic crystal surfaces under grazing incidence conditions. Both bare protons and neutral hydrogen species are considered. We use a planar potential approach to determine the projectile trajectory that later on allows us to calculate the charge state fractions. We show that, although the fraction of protons is significantly higher, the contribution from neutral hydrogen ionization has to be considered. The energy and angular dependence of the spectra is analyzed.

  15. Role of projectile charge state in convoy electron emission by fast protons colliding with LiF(0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldazabal, I.; Gravielle, M.S.; Miraglia, J.E.; Arnau, A.; Ponce, V.H.

    2005-01-01

    Target ionization and projectile ionization differential cross sections are used to calculate the electron emission spectra by fast proton impact on ionic crystal surfaces under grazing incidence conditions. Both bare protons and neutral hydrogen species are considered. We use a planar potential approach to determine the projectile trajectory that later on allows us to calculate the charge state fractions. We show that, although the fraction of protons is significantly higher, the contribution from neutral hydrogen ionization has to be considered. The energy and angular dependence of the spectra is analyzed

  16. State-of-Charge Estimation and Active Cell Pack Balancing Design of Lithium Battery Power System for Smart Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. C. Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated state-of-charge (SOC estimation model and active cell balancing of a 12-cell lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 battery power system. The strong tracking cubature extended Kalman filter (STCEKF gave an accurate SOC prediction compared to other Kalman-based filter algorithms. The proposed groupwise balancing of the multiple SOC exhibited a higher balancing speed and lower balancing loss than other cell balancing designs. The experimental results demonstrated the robustness and performance of the battery when subjected to current load profile of an electric vehicle under varying ambient temperature.

  17. Estimation of State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in HEV Using Robust Extended Kalman Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman M. Sharkh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A robust extended Kalman filter (EKF is proposed as a method for estimation of the state of charge (SOC of lithium-ion batteries used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. An equivalent circuit model of the battery, including its electromotive force (EMF hysteresis characteristics and polarization characteristics is used. The effect of the robust EKF gain coefficient on SOC estimation is analyzed, and an optimized gain coefficient is determined to restrain battery terminal voltage from fluctuating. Experimental and simulation results are presented. SOC estimates using the standard EKF are compared with the proposed robust EKF algorithm to demonstrate the accuracy and precision of the latter for SOC estimation.

  18. Cross-sections of charge and electronic states change of particles at ion-ion and ion-molecule collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, M.N.; Afrosimov, V.V.; Basalaev, A.A.; Guschina, N.A.; Nikulin, V.K.

    2006-01-01

    The interactions of protons and alpha-particles with hydrocarbons are investigated. A quantum-mechanical computation of the electronic structure of all hydrocarbons from methane to butane and its fragment ions was performed in the Hartree-Fock RHF/UHF approximation using a GAMESS program (General Atomic Molecular Electron Structure System). The correlation energy was taken into account within the framework of MP2 perturbation theory. The structural parameters of the hydrocarbon molecules and their charged and neutral fragments were calculated in two cases: in the geometry of the parent molecule or of the relaxation states. The difference of the full energy of the same fragments in and out of brackets gives us the vibration excitation energies of the fragments at the moment of creation. Additional Mulliken effective charges (in electron charge units) of atoms in the fragments have been calculated. The calculations show that removing one electron from the ethane molecule without electronic excitation produced a single charged molecular ion in vibration state with binding energy of hydrogen atoms, some decimal eV. As results we obtain C 2 H 6 + and C 2 H 5 + . Additional fragmentation of hydrocarbon needs electronic excitation of produced single charged ions. Cross sections for electron capture and excitation processes in collisions between the hydrogen-like He + , B 4+ and O 7+ ions have been evaluated. The purpose of the theory within this project during the period under review was to get for the first time new data on Single-Electron Capture (SEC) and Excitation Processes (EP) in collisions of He + (1s) ions with hydrogen-like impurity ions B 4+ (1s) and O 7+ (1s) in the energy range for He + ions from 0.2 MeV to 3.0 MeV. The calculations were carried out by using the method of close-coupling equations with basis sets of eleven and ten quasimolecular two-electron states for reactions (1, 2) and (3, 4), respectively (entrance channel, seven charge transfer channels

  19. Observation of enhanced zero-degree binary encounter electron production with decreasing charge-state q in 30 MeV Oq+ + O2 collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouros, T.J.M.; Wong, K.L.; Hidmi, H.I.

    1993-01-01

    We have measured binary encounter electron production in collisions of 30 MeV O q+ projectiles (q=4-8) and O 2 targets. Measured double differential BEe cross-sections are found to increase with decreasing charge-state q, in agreement with similar previously reported zero-degree investigations for H 2 and He targets. However, measurements for the same system but at 25 degrees shows the opposite trend, that BEe cross sections decrease slightly with decreasing charge state

  20. A Collimation Scheme for Ions Changing Charge State in the LEIR Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Pasternak, Jaroslaw; Carli, Christian; Chanel, Michel; Mahner, Edgar

    2005-01-01

    Avalanche-like pressure rise and an associated decrease of the beam life-time, caused by (i) beam loss due to charge exchange interactions with rest gas molecules and (ii) electron capture from the electron beam of the electron cooler and (iii) ion impact induced outgassing, is a potential limitation for heavy ion accelerators. The vacuum system of the LEIR ring as to be upgraded to reach the dynamical vacuum pressure in the low 10-12 Torr range necessary to reach design performance. A collimation system to intercept lost ions by absorber blocks made of low beam-induced outgassing material will be installed. This paper reviews the collimation scheme and simulations of beam loss patterns around the ring.

  1. Electron loss and capture from low-charge-state oxygen projectiles in methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A C F; Wolff, W; Sant’Anna, M M; Sigaud, G M; DuBois, R D

    2013-01-01

    Absolute cross sections for single- and double-electron loss and single- and multiple-electron capture of 15–1000 keV oxygen projectiles (q = −1, 0, 1, 2) colliding with the methane molecule are presented. The experimental data are used to examine cross-section scaling characteristics for the electron loss of various projectiles. In addition, a modified version of the free-collision model was employed for the calculation of the single- and total-electron-loss cross sections of oxygen projectiles presented in this work. The comparison of the calculated cross sections with the present experimental data shows very good agreement for projectile velocities above 1.0 au. The comparison of the present single-electron-capture cross sections with other projectiles having the same charge shows good agreement, and a common curve can be drawn through the different data sets. (paper)

  2. Tight-binding molecular dynamics simulation of charge state effects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Khakimov, Z M; Sulaymonov, N T; Kiv, A E; Levin, A A

    2002-01-01

    New model of Si-H bond dissociation has been proposed and tested in the cluster Si sub 1 sub 0 H sub 1 sub 6 by the simulation approach that combines classical molecular dynamics method and the self-consistent tight-binding electronic and total energy calculation one. It is shown that the monohydride Si-H bond is unstable with respect to formation of silicon dangling bond and bend bridge Si-H-Si bond when this cluster traps the single positive charge. In this case hydrogen atom migrates rather rotating around Si-Si bond than crossing the center of this bond (the bond-centered position). The model can be useful for understanding hydrogen related phenomena at surfaces, interfaces, internal voids of various hydrogenated silicon systems: electronic devices, silicon solar cells, and nanocrystalline and porous silicon. (author)

  3. Alternating space charge and ambiguity of quantum states in double-barrier structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashkovskij, A.B.

    2000-01-01

    Solution for nonstationary self-consistent Schroedinger and Poisson equations describing resonance interaction of electrons tunneled through asymmetric double-barrier structures with a high-frequency electric field was obtained by summing perturbation theory series. In case of uniform distribution of electrons by energy the solution is obtained analytically, whereas in case of monoenergy beam, it is reduced to finding the roots of power five algebraic polynomial. It is shown that in some cases the influence of spatial charge gives rise to quite a new effect for the systems: several different electron wave functions will correspond to the same amplitude of high-frequency voltage applied to the structure and, accordingly, the values of high-frequency conductivity, transmission and reflection factors may differ by several times. As a result, instability of current transmission and hysteresis of volt-ampere characteristics may be observed in the structures [ru

  4. Three-charge black holes and quarter BPS states in Little String Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giveon, Amit [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Harvey, Jeffrey; Kutasov, David; Lee, Sungjay [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, The University of Chicago,5620 S. Ellis Av., Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2015-12-22

    We show that the system of k NS5-branes wrapping T{sup 4}×S{sup 1} has non-trivial vacuum structure. Different vacua have different spectra of 1/4 BPS states that carry momentum and winding around the S{sup 1}. In one vacuum, such states are described by black holes; in another, they can be thought of as perturbative BPS states in Double Scaled Little String Theory. In general, both kinds of states are present. We compute the degeneracy of perturbative BPS states exactly, and show that it differs from that of the corresponding black holes. We comment on the implication of our results to the black hole microstate program, UV/IR mixing in Little String Theory, string thermodynamics, the string/black hole transition, and other issues.

  5. Charge-transfer state and large first hyperpolarizability constant in a highly electronically coupled zinc and gold porphyrin dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortage, Jérôme; Scarpaci, Annabelle; Viau, Lydie; Pellegrin, Yann; Blart, Errol; Falkenström, Magnus; Hammarström, Leif; Asselberghs, Inge; Kellens, Ruben; Libaers, Wim; Clays, Koen; Eng, Mattias P; Odobel, Fabrice

    2009-09-14

    We report the synthesis and the characterizations of a novel dyad composed of a zinc porphyrin (ZnP) linked to a gold porphyrin (AuP) through an ethynyl spacer. The UV/Vis absorption spectrum and the electrochemical properties clearly reveal that this dyad exhibits a strong electronic coupling in the ground state as evidenced by shifted redox potentials and the appearance of an intense charge-transfer band localized at lambda = 739 nm in dichloromethane. A spectroelectrochemical study of the dyad along with the parent homometallic system (i.e., ZnP-ZnP and AuP-AuP) was undertaken to determine the spectra of the reduced and oxidized porphyrin units. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopic analysis showed that the photoexcitation of the heterometallic dyad leads to an ultrafast formation of a charge-separated state ((+)ZnP-AuP(*)) that displays a particularly long lifetime (tau = 4 ns in toluene) for such a short separation distance. The molecular orbitals of the dyad were determined by DFT quantum-chemical calculations. This theoretical study confirms that the observed intense band at lambda = 739 nm corresponds to an interporphyrin charge-transfer transition from the HOMO orbital localized on the zinc porphyrin to LUMO orbitals localized on the gold porphyrin. Finally, a Hyper-Rayleigh scattering study shows that the dyad possesses a large first molecular hyperpolarizability coefficient (beta = 2100x10(-30) esu at lambda = 1064 nm), thus highlighting the valuable nonlinear optical properties of this new type of push-pull porphyrin system.

  6. Effect of charge state and stoichiometry on the structure and reactivity of nickel oxide clusters with CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Grant E.; Reilly, Nelly M.; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    2009-02-01

    The collision induced fragmentation and reactivity of cationic and anionic nickel oxide clusters with carbon monoxide were studied experimentally using guided-ion-beam mass spectrometry. Anionic clusters with a stoichiometry containing one more oxygen atom than nickel atom (NiO2-, Ni2O3-, Ni3O4- and Ni4O5-) were found to exhibit dominant products resulting from the transfer of a single oxygen atom to CO, suggesting the formation of CO2. Of these four species, Ni2O3- and Ni4O5- were observed to be the most reactive having oxygen transfer products accounting for approximately 5% and 10% of the total ion intensity at a maximum pressure of 15 mTorr of CO. Our findings, therefore, indicate that anionic nickel oxide clusters containing an even number of nickel atoms and an odd number of oxygen atoms are more reactive than those with an odd number of nickel atoms and an even number of oxygen atoms. The majority of cationic nickel oxides, in contrast to anionic species, reacted preferentially through the adsorption of CO onto the cluster accompanied by the loss of either molecular O2 or nickel oxide units. The adsorption of CO onto positively charged nickel oxides, therefore, is exothermic enough to break apart the gas-phase clusters. Collision induced dissociation experiments, employing inert xenon gas, were also conducted to gain insight into the structural properties of nickel oxide clusters. The fragmentation products were found to vary considerably with size and stoichiometry as well as ionic charge state. In general, cationic clusters favored the collisional loss of molecular O2 while anionic clusters fragmented through the loss of both atomic oxygen and nickel oxide units. Our results provide insight into the effect of ionic charge state on the structure of nickel oxide clusters. Furthermore, we establish how the size and stoichiometry of nickel oxide clusters influences their ability to oxidize CO, an important reaction for environmental pollution abatement.

  7. A Novel Methodology for Estimating State-Of-Charge of Li-Ion Batteries Using Advanced Parameters Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M. Safwat

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available State-of-charge (SOC estimations of Li-ion batteries have been the focus of many research studies in previous years. Many articles discussed the dynamic model’s parameters estimation of the Li-ion battery, where the fixed forgetting factor recursive least square estimation methodology is employed. However, the change rate of each parameter to reach the true value is not taken into consideration, which may tend to poor estimation. This article discusses this issue, and proposes two solutions to solve it. The first solution is the usage of a variable forgetting factor instead of a fixed one, while the second solution is defining a vector of forgetting factors, which means one factor for each parameter. After parameters estimation, a new idea is proposed to estimate state-of-charge (SOC of the Li-ion battery based on Newton’s method. Also, the error percentage and computational cost are discussed and compared with that of nonlinear Kalman filters. This methodology is applied on a 36 V 30 A Li-ion pack to validate this idea.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation and equation of state for flexible charged hard-sphere chain fluids: Polyampholyte and polyelectrolyte solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hao; Adidharma, Hertanto

    2014-01-01

    The thermodynamic modeling of flexible charged hard-sphere chains representing polyampholyte or polyelectrolyte molecules in solution is considered. The excess Helmholtz energy and osmotic coefficients of solutions containing short polyampholyte and the osmotic coefficients of solutions containing short polyelectrolytes are determined by performing canonical and isobaric-isothermal Monte Carlo simulations. A new equation of state based on the thermodynamic perturbation theory is also proposed for flexible charged hard-sphere chains. For the modeling of such chains, the use of solely the structure information of monomer fluid for calculating the chain contribution is found to be insufficient and more detailed structure information must therefore be considered. Two approaches, i.e., the dimer and dimer-monomer approaches, are explored to obtain the contribution of the chain formation to the Helmholtz energy. By comparing with the simulation results, the equation of state with either the dimer or dimer-monomer approach accurately predicts the excess Helmholtz energy and osmotic coefficients of polyampholyte and polyelectrolyte solutions except at very low density. It also well captures the effect of temperature on the thermodynamic properties of these solutions

  9. A New State of Charge Estimation Method for LiFePO4 Battery Packs Used in Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Pang Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The accurate state of charge (SOC estimation of the LiFePO4 battery packs used in robot applications is required for better battery life cycle, performance, reliability, and economic issues. In this paper, a new SOC estimation method, “Modified ECE + EKF”, is proposed. The method is the combination of the modified Equivalent Coulombic Efficiency (ECE method and the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF method. It is based on the zero-state hysteresis battery model, and adopts the EKF method to correct the initial value used in the Ah counting method. Experimental results show that the proposed technique is superior to the traditional techniques, such as ECE + EKF and ECE + Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF, and the accuracy of estimation is within 1%.

  10. A New State of Charge Estimation Method for LiFePO4 Battery Packs Used in Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The accurate state of charge (SOC) estimation of the LiFePO4 battery packs used in robot applications is required for better battery life cycle, performance, reliability, and economic issues. In this paper, a new SOC estimation method, ''Modified ECE + EKF'', is proposed. The method is the combination of the modified Equivalent Coulombic Efficiency (ECE) method and the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) method. It is based on the zero-state hysteresis battery model, and adopts the EKF method to correct the initial value used in the Ah counting method. Experimental results show that the proposed technique is superior to the traditional techniques, such as ECE + EKF and ECE + Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF), and the accuracy of estimation is within 1%.

  11. BREIT code: Analytical solution of the balance rate equations for charge-state evolutions of heavy-ion beams in matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winckler, N., E-mail: n.winckler@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Rybalchenko, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Shevelko, V.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Al-Turany, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Kollegger, T. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Stöhlker, Th. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz-Institute Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    A detailed description of a recently developed BREIT computer code (Balance Rate Equations of Ion Transportation) for calculating charge-state fractions of ion beams passing through matter is presented. The code is based on the analytical solutions of the differential balance equations for the charge-state fractions as a function of the target thickness and can be used for calculating the ion evolutions in gaseous, solid and plasma targets. The BREIT code is available on-line and requires the charge-changing cross sections and initial conditions in the input file. The eigenvalue decomposition method, applied to obtain the analytical solutions of the rate equations, is described in the paper. Calculations of non-equilibrium and equilibrium charge-state fractions, performed by the BREIT code, are compared with experimental data and results of other codes for ion beams in gaseous and solid targets. Ability and limitations of the BREIT code are discussed in detail.

  12. submitter BREIT code: Analytical solution of the balance rate equations for charge-state evolutions of heavy-ion beams in matter

    CERN Document Server

    Winckler, N; Shevelko, V P; Al-Turany, M; Kollegger, T; Stöhlker, Th

    2017-01-01

    A detailed description of a recently developed BREIT computer code (Balance Rate Equations of Ion Transportation) for calculating charge-state fractions of ion beams passing through matter is presented. The code is based on the analytical solutions of the differential balance equations for the charge-state fractions as a function of the target thickness and can be used for calculating the ion evolutions in gaseous, solid and plasma targets. The BREIT code is available on-line and requires the charge-changing cross sections and initial conditions in the input file. The eigenvalue decomposition method, applied to obtain the analytical solutions of the rate equations, is described in the paper. Calculations of non-equilibrium and equilibrium charge-state fractions, performed by the BREIT code, are compared with experimental data and results of other codes for ion beams in gaseous and solid targets. Ability and limitations of the BREIT code are discussed in detail.

  13. An on-line estimation of battery pack parameters and state-of-charge using dual filters based on pack model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yujie; Yang, Duo; Chen, Zonghai

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of battery pack state-of-charge plays a very important role for electric vehicles, which directly reflects the behavior of battery pack usage. However, the inconsistency of battery makes the estimation of battery pack state-of-charge different from single cell. In this paper, to estimate the battery pack state-of-charge on-line, the definition of battery pack is proposed, and the relationship between the total available capacity of battery pack and single cell is put forward to analyze the energy efficiency influenced by battery inconsistency, then a lumped parameter battery model is built up to describe the dynamic behavior of battery pack. Furthermore, the extend Kalman filter-unscented Kalman filter algorithm is developed to identify the parameters of battery pack and forecast state-of-charge concurrently. The extend Kalman filter is applied to update the battery pack parameters by real-time measured data, while the unscented Kalman filter is employed to estimate the battery pack state-of-charge. Finally, the proposed approach is verified by experiments operated on the lithium-ion battery under constant current condition and the dynamic stress test profiles. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can estimate the battery pack state-of-charge with high accuracy. - Highlights: • A novel space state equation is built to describe the pack dynamic behavior. • The dual filters method is used to estimate the pack state-of-charge. • Battery inconsistency is considered to analyze the pack usage efficiency. • The accuracy of the proposed method is verified under different conditions.

  14. Charge transfer of edge states in zigzag silicene nanoribbons with Stone–Wales defects from first-principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Xie [College of Mathematics and Statistics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); School of Mathematics and Statistic, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Rui, Wang, E-mail: rcwang@cqu.edu.cn [Institute for Structure and Function and Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Shaofeng, Wang [Institute for Structure and Function and Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Xiaozhi, Wu, E-mail: xiaozhiwu@cqu.edu.cn [Institute for Structure and Function and Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The properties of SW defects in silicene and ZSNRs are obtained. • The SW defects at the edge of ZSNRs induce a sizable gap. • The charge transfer of edge states is resulted from SW defects in ZSNRS. - Abstract: Stone–Wales (SW) defects are favorably existed in graphene-like materials with honeycomb lattice structure and potentially employed to change the electronic properties in band engineering. In this paper, we investigate structural and electronic properties of SW defects in silicene sheet and its nanoribbons as a function of their concentration using the methods of periodic boundary conditions with first-principles calculations. We first calculate the formation energy, structural properties, and electronic band structures of SW defects in silicene sheet, with dependence on the concentration of SW defects. Our results show a good agreement with available values from the previous first-principles calculations. The energetics, structural aspects, and electronic properties of SW defects with dependence on defect concentration and location in edge-hydrogenated zigzag silicene nanoribbons are obtained. For all calculated concentrations, the SW defects prefer to locate at the edge due to the lower formation energy. The SW defects at the center of silicene nanoribbons slightly influence on the electronic properties, whereas the SW defects at the edge of silicene nanoribbons split the degenerate edge states and induce a sizable gap, which depends on the concentration of defects. It is worth to find that the SW defects produce a perturbation repulsive potential, which leads the decomposed charge of edge states at the side with defect to transfer to the other side without defect.

  15. Analysis of Ion Charge States in Solar Wind and CMEs Arati ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    states of various elements observed in situ in the solar wind and CMEs. The competing processes of ionization and recombination lead to depar- tures from collision ionization equilibrium. The use of this as a diagnostic of acceleration and heating processes of the solar wind and CMEs is sensi- tive to the accuracy of the ...

  16. On-line parameter, state-of-charge and aging estimation of Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosca, B.; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Bergveld, H.J.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an on-line model identification method for Li-ion battery parameters that combines high accuracy and low computational complexity. Experimental results show that modeling errors are smaller than 1% throughout the feasible operating range. The identified model is used in a state

  17. Adaptive estimation of state of charge and capacity with online identified battery model for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Tseng, King Jet; Wai, Nyunt; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria

    2016-11-01

    Reliable state estimate depends largely on an accurate battery model. However, the parameters of battery model are time varying with operating condition variation and battery aging. The existing co-estimation methods address the model uncertainty by integrating the online model identification with state estimate and have shown improved accuracy. However, the cross interference may arise from the integrated framework to compromise numerical stability and accuracy. Thus this paper proposes the decoupling of model identification and state estimate to eliminate the possibility of cross interference. The model parameters are online adapted with the recursive least squares (RLS) method, based on which a novel joint estimator based on extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is formulated to estimate the state of charge (SOC) and capacity concurrently. The proposed joint estimator effectively compresses the filter order which leads to substantial improvement in the computational efficiency and numerical stability. Lab scale experiment on vanadium redox flow battery shows that the proposed method is highly authentic with good robustness to varying operating conditions and battery aging. The proposed method is further compared with some existing methods and shown to be superior in terms of accuracy, convergence speed, and computational cost.

  18. Analysis of the charge collection process in solid state X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmel, Nils

    2009-02-12

    Physics with X-rays spans from observing large scales in X-ray astronomy down to small scales in material structure analyses with synchrotron radiation. Both fields of research require imaging detectors featuring spectroscopic resolution for X-rays in an energy range of 0.1 keV to 20.0 keV. Originally driven by the need for an imaging spectrometer on ESA's X-ray astronomy satellite mission XMM-Newton, X-ray pnCCDs were developed at the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institute. The pnCCD is a pixel array detector made of silicon. It is sensitive over a wide band from near infrared- over optical- and UV-radiation up to X-rays. This thesis describes the dynamics of signal electrons from the moment after their generation until their collection in the potential minima of the pixel structure. Experimentally, a pinhole array was used to scan the pnCCD surface with high spatial resolution. Numerical simulations were used as a tool for the modeling of the electrical conditions inside the pnCCD. The results predicted by the simulations were compared with the measurements. Both, experiment and simulation, helped to establish a model for the signal charge dynamics in the energy range from 0.7 keV to 5.5 keV. More generally, the presented work has enhanced the understanding of the detector system on the basis of a physical model. The developed experimental and theoretical methods can be applied to any type of array detector which is based on the full depletion of a semiconductor substrate material. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of the charge collection process in solid state X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, Nils

    2009-01-01

    Physics with X-rays spans from observing large scales in X-ray astronomy down to small scales in material structure analyses with synchrotron radiation. Both fields of research require imaging detectors featuring spectroscopic resolution for X-rays in an energy range of 0.1 keV to 20.0 keV. Originally driven by the need for an imaging spectrometer on ESA's X-ray astronomy satellite mission XMM-Newton, X-ray pnCCDs were developed at the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institute. The pnCCD is a pixel array detector made of silicon. It is sensitive over a wide band from near infrared- over optical- and UV-radiation up to X-rays. This thesis describes the dynamics of signal electrons from the moment after their generation until their collection in the potential minima of the pixel structure. Experimentally, a pinhole array was used to scan the pnCCD surface with high spatial resolution. Numerical simulations were used as a tool for the modeling of the electrical conditions inside the pnCCD. The results predicted by the simulations were compared with the measurements. Both, experiment and simulation, helped to establish a model for the signal charge dynamics in the energy range from 0.7 keV to 5.5 keV. More generally, the presented work has enhanced the understanding of the detector system on the basis of a physical model. The developed experimental and theoretical methods can be applied to any type of array detector which is based on the full depletion of a semiconductor substrate material. (orig.)

  20. Equivalent circuit model parameters of a high-power Li-ion battery: Thermal and state of charge effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jamie; Nelson, Ruben; Kalu, Egwu E.; Weatherspoon, Mark H.; Zheng, Jim P.

    2011-05-01

    Equivalent circuit model (EMC) of a high-power Li-ion battery that accounts for both temperature and state of charge (SOC) effects known to influence battery performance is presented. Electrochemical impedance measurements of a commercial high power Li-ion battery obtained in the temperature range 20 to 50 °C at various SOC values was used to develop a simple EMC which was used in combination with a non-linear least squares fitting procedure that used thirteen parameters for the analysis of the Li-ion cell. The experimental results show that the solution and charge transfer resistances decreased with increase in cell operating temperature and decreasing SOC. On the other hand, the Warburg admittance increased with increasing temperature and decreasing SOC. The developed model correlations that are capable of being used in process control algorithms are presented for the observed impedance behavior with respect to temperature and SOC effects. The predicted model parameters for the impedance elements Rs, Rct and Y013 show low variance of 5% when compared to the experimental data and therefore indicates a good statistical agreement of correlation model to the actual experimental values.

  1. Photo-induced charge-transfer phase transition of rubidium manganese hexacyanoferrate in ferromagnetic and paramagnetic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokoro, Hiroko; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi

    2007-01-01

    A charge transfer phase transition with thermal hysteresis loop is observed in a series of rubidium manganese hexacyanoferrates, RbMn[Fe(China) 6 ] (1), Rb 0.88 Mn[Fe(China) 6 ] 0.96 .0.6H 2 O (2), and Rb 0.97 Mn[Fe(China) 6 ] 0.99 .0.2H 2 O (3). This phase transition is accompanied by a structural change from cubic (F4-bar 3m) to tetragonal (I4-bar m2). Its high-temperature (HT) and low-temperature (LT) phases are composed of Mn II (S=2/5)NC-Fe III (S=1/2) and Mn III (S=2)-NC-Fe II (S=0), respectively. The phase transition is caused by a metal-to-metal charge transfer from Mn II to Fe III and a Jahn-Teller distortion of the produced Mn III ion. At the ferromagnetic state in LT phase of 2, the photo-induced phase transition is observed, i.e., magnetization is quenched by the irradiation with only one shot of laser pulse. This phenomenon is caused by a photo-induced phase transition from the LT phase to the HT phase. In 3, optical switching between LT and HT phases at room temperature in paramagnetic region is observed

  2. A novel Gaussian process regression model for state-of-health estimation of lithium-ion battery using charging curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Duo; Zhang, Xu; Pan, Rui; Wang, Yujie; Chen, Zonghai

    2018-04-01

    The state-of-health (SOH) estimation is always a crucial issue for lithium-ion batteries. In order to provide an accurate and reliable SOH estimation, a novel Gaussian process regression (GPR) model based on charging curve is proposed in this paper. Different from other researches where SOH is commonly estimated by cycle life, in this work four specific parameters extracted from charging curves are used as inputs of the GPR model instead of cycle numbers. These parameters can reflect the battery aging phenomenon from different angles. The grey relational analysis method is applied to analyze the relational grade between selected features and SOH. On the other hand, some adjustments are made in the proposed GPR model. Covariance function design and the similarity measurement of input variables are modified so as to improve the SOH estimate accuracy and adapt to the case of multidimensional input. Several aging data from NASA data repository are used for demonstrating the estimation effect by the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method has high SOH estimation accuracy. Besides, a battery with dynamic discharging profile is used to verify the robustness and reliability of this method.

  3. State-of-Charge Balancing Control of a Modular Multilevel Converter with an Integrated Battery Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the fast development of the electric vehicle industry, the reuse of second-life batteries in vehicles are becoming more attractive, however, both the state-of-charge (SOC inconsistency and the capacity inconsistency of second-life batteries have limits in their utilization. This paper focuses on the second-life batteries applied battery energy storage system (BESS based on modular multilevel converter (MMC. By analyzing the power flow characteristics among all sources within the MMC-BESS, a three-level SOC equilibrium control strategy aiming to battery capacity inconsistency is proposed to balance the energy of batteries, which includes SOC balance among three-phase legs, SOC balance between the upper and lower arms of each phase, and SOC balance of submodules within each arm. In battery charging and discharging control, by introducing power regulations based on battery capacity proportion of three-phase legs, capacity deviation between the upper and lower’s arm, and the capacity coefficient of the submodule into the SOC feedback control loop, SOC balance of all battery modules is accomplished, thus effectively improving the energy utilization of second-life battery energy storage system. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods are verified by results obtained from simulations and the experimental platform.

  4. Structural origin of gap states in semicrystalline polymers and the implications for charge transport

    KAUST Repository

    Rivnay, Jonathan

    2011-03-16

    We quantify the degree of paracrystalline disorder in the π-π stacking direction of crystallites of a high performing semicrystalline semiconducting polymer with advanced x-ray line-shape analysis. Using density functional theory calculations to provide input to a simple tight-binding model, we obtain the density of states of a system of π-π stacked polymer chains with increasing amounts of paracrystalline disorder. We find that, for an aligned film of PBTTT, the paracrystalline disorder is 7.3%. This type of disorder induces a tail of trap states with a breadth of ∼100 meV as determined through calculation. This finding agrees with previous device modeling and provides physical justification for the mobility edge model. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  5. Structural origin of gap states in semicrystalline polymers and the implications for charge transport

    KAUST Repository

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Noriega, Rodrigo; Northrup, John E.; Kline, R. Joseph; Toney, Michael F.; Salleo, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    We quantify the degree of paracrystalline disorder in the π-π stacking direction of crystallites of a high performing semicrystalline semiconducting polymer with advanced x-ray line-shape analysis. Using density functional theory calculations to provide input to a simple tight-binding model, we obtain the density of states of a system of π-π stacked polymer chains with increasing amounts of paracrystalline disorder. We find that, for an aligned film of PBTTT, the paracrystalline disorder is 7.3%. This type of disorder induces a tail of trap states with a breadth of ∼100 meV as determined through calculation. This finding agrees with previous device modeling and provides physical justification for the mobility edge model. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  6. Hadronic final states in neutrino and antineutrino charged-current events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallini, B.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the analyses concerning the hadronic systems produced in ν/antiν nucleon interactions are reviewed. Particular attention is devoted to the questions of factorization, scaling deviations of fragmentation functions, and the behavior of 2 (T)> of individual hadrons as a function of Q 2 . Tests of QCD ideas concerning these effects are discussed. Also the present status of the production of charmed states in ν/antiν interactions in bubble chambers is summarized

  7. Searches for squarks and gluinos in final states with one or more charged leptons with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Tova Ray; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk summarises recent ATLAS results on inclusive searches for supersymmetric squarks of the first two generations, and gluinos. The searches involve final states containing jets, missing transverse momentum, and light leptons, and were performed using 36 fb-1 of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV.

  8. Hadronic final states in neutrino and antineutrino charged-current events

    CERN Document Server

    Tallini, B

    1979-01-01

    The results of the analyses concerning the hadronic systems produced in nu / nu nucleon interactions are reviewed. Particular attention is devoted to the questions of factorization, scaling deviations of fragmentation functions, and the behaviour of (p/sub T//sup 2/) of individual hadrons as a function of Q/sup 2/. Tests of QCD ideas concerning these effects are discussed. Also the present status of the production of charmed states in nu / nu interactions in bubble chambers is summarized. (19 refs).

  9. Ab initio investigation of sulfur monofluoride and its singly charged cation and anion in their ground electronic state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Song; Chen Shan-Jun; Chen Yan; Chen Peng

    2016-01-01

    The SF radical and its singly charged cation and anion, SF + and SF − , have been investigated on the MRCI/aug-cc-pVXZ (X = Q, 5, 6) levels of theory with Davidson correction. Both the core–valence correlation and the relativistic effect are considered. The extrapolating to the complete basis set (CBS) limit is adopted to remove the basis set truncation error. Geometrical parameters, potential energy curves (PECs), vibrational energy levels, spectroscopic constants, ionization potentials, and electron affinities of the ground electronic state for all these species are obtained. The information with respect to molecular characteristics of the SF n (n = −1, 0, +1) systems derived in this work will help to extend our knowledge and to guide further experimental or theoretical researches. (paper)

  10. Optimising charged Higgs boson searches at the Large Hadron Collider across bb¯W± final states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Moretti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the most recent data from Higgs boson searches and analyses, we re-assess the scope of the Large Hadron Collider in accessing heavy charged Higgs boson signals in bb¯W± final states, wherein the contributing channels can be H+→tb¯, hW±, HW± and AW±. We consider a 2-Higgs Doublet Model Type-II and we assume as production mode bg→tH−+c.c., the dominant one over the range MH±≥480 GeV, as dictated by b→sγ constraints. Prospects of detection are found to be significant for various Run 2 energy and luminosity options.

  11. Understanding and removing surface states limiting charge transport in TiO2 nanowire arrays for enhanced optoelectronic device performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xia; Chen, Liping; Xu, Tao; Zhu, Kai; Feng, Xinjian

    2016-03-01

    Charge transport within electrode materials plays a key role in determining the optoelectronic device performance. Aligned single-crystal TiO 2 nanowire arrays offer an ideal electron transport path and are expected to have higher electron mobility. Unfortunately, their transport is found not to be superior to that in nanoparticle films. Here we show that the low electron transport in rutile TiO 2 nanowires is mainly caused by surface traps in relatively deep energy levels, which cannot be removed by conventional approaches, such as oxygen annealing treatment. Moreover, we demonstrate an effective wet-chemistry approach to minimize these trap states, leading to over 20-fold enhancement in electron diffusion coefficient and 62% improvement in solar cell performance. On the basis of our results, the potential of TiO 2 NWs can be developed and well-utilized, which is significantly important for their practical applications.

  12. Dynamics of electron solvation in methanol: Excited state relaxation and generation by charge-transfer-to-solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkins, Madeline H.; Williams, Holly L.; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    The charge-transfer-to-solvent dynamics (CTTS) and excited state relaxation mechanism of the solvated electron in methanol are studied by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy on a liquid methanol microjet by means of two-pulse and three-pulse experiments. In the two-pulse experiment, CTTS excitation is followed by a probe photoejection pulse. The resulting time-evolving photoelectron spectrum reveals multiple time scales characteristic of relaxation and geminate recombination of the initially generated electron which are consistent with prior results from transient absorption. In the three-pulse experiment, the relaxation dynamics of the solvated electron following electronic excitation are measured. The internal conversion lifetime of the excited electron is found to be 130 ± 40 fs, in agreement with extrapolated results from clusters and the non-adiabatic relaxation mechanism

  13. Dynamics of electron solvation in methanol: Excited state relaxation and generation by charge-transfer-to-solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Madeline H.; Williams, Holly L.; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2015-06-01

    The charge-transfer-to-solvent dynamics (CTTS) and excited state relaxation mechanism of the solvated electron in methanol are studied by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy on a liquid methanol microjet by means of two-pulse and three-pulse experiments. In the two-pulse experiment, CTTS excitation is followed by a probe photoejection pulse. The resulting time-evolving photoelectron spectrum reveals multiple time scales characteristic of relaxation and geminate recombination of the initially generated electron which are consistent with prior results from transient absorption. In the three-pulse experiment, the relaxation dynamics of the solvated electron following electronic excitation are measured. The internal conversion lifetime of the excited electron is found to be 130 ± 40 fs, in agreement with extrapolated results from clusters and the non-adiabatic relaxation mechanism.

  14. Dynamics of electron solvation in methanol: Excited state relaxation and generation by charge-transfer-to-solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkins, Madeline H.; Williams, Holly L. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Neumark, Daniel M. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-06-21

    The charge-transfer-to-solvent dynamics (CTTS) and excited state relaxation mechanism of the solvated electron in methanol are studied by time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy on a liquid methanol microjet by means of two-pulse and three-pulse experiments. In the two-pulse experiment, CTTS excitation is followed by a probe photoejection pulse. The resulting time-evolving photoelectron spectrum reveals multiple time scales characteristic of relaxation and geminate recombination of the initially generated electron which are consistent with prior results from transient absorption. In the three-pulse experiment, the relaxation dynamics of the solvated electron following electronic excitation are measured. The internal conversion lifetime of the excited electron is found to be 130 ± 40 fs, in agreement with extrapolated results from clusters and the non-adiabatic relaxation mechanism.

  15. Charge-transfer state excitation as the main mechanism of the photodarkening process in ytterbium-doped aluminosilicate fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobkov, K K; Rybaltovsky, A A; Vel' miskin, V V; Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Dianov, E M [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Umnikov, A A; Gur' yanov, A N; Vechkanov, N N [G.G.Devyatykh Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation); Shestakova, I A [Open Joint-Stock Company M.F. Stel' makh Polyus Research Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-31

    We have studied photodarkening in ytterbium-doped fibre preforms with an aluminosilicate glass core. Analysis of their absorption and luminescence spectra indicates the formation of stable Yb{sup 2+} ions in the glass network under IR laser pumping at a wavelength λ = 915 nm and under UV irradiation with an excimer laser (λ = 193 nm). We have performed comparative studies of the luminescence spectra of the preforms and crystals under excitation at a wavelength of 193 nm. The mechanism behind the formation of Yb{sup 2+} ions and aluminium – oxygen hole centres (Al-OHCs), common to ytterbium-doped YAG crystals and aluminosilicate glass, has been identified: photoinduced Yb{sup 3+} charge-transfer state excitation. (optical fibres)

  16. Influence of Battery Parametric Uncertainties on the State-of-Charge Estimation of Lithium Titanate Oxide-Based Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Meng, Jinhao; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan

    2018-01-01

    to describe the battery dynamics. The SOC estimation method proposed in this paper is based on an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and nonlinear battery model which was parameterized using extended laboratory tests performed on several 13 Ah lithium titanate oxide (LTO)-based lithium-ion batteries. The developed......State of charge (SOC) is one of the most important parameters in battery management systems, as it indicates the available battery capacity at every moment. There are numerous battery model-based methods used for SOC estimation, the accuracy of which depends on the accuracy of the model considered...... a sensitivity analysis it was showed that the SOC and voltage estimation error are only slightly dependent on the variation of the battery model parameters with the SOC....

  17. Overview of Lithium-Ion Battery Modeling Methods for State-of-Charge Estimation in Electrical Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinhao, Meng; Guangzhao, Luo; Ricco, Mattia

    2018-01-01

    As a critical indictor in the Battery Management System (BMS), State of Charge (SOC) is closely related to the reliable and safe operation of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. Model-based methods are an effective solution for accurate and robust SOC estimation, the performance of which heavily relies...... on the battery model. This paper mainly focuses on battery modeling methods, which have the potential to be used in a model-based SOC estimation structure. Battery modeling methods are classified into four categories on the basis of their theoretical foundations, and their expressions and features are detailed....... Furthermore, the four battery modeling methods are compared in terms of their pros and cons. Future research directions are also presented. In addition, after optimizing the parameters of the battery models by a Genetic Algorithm (GA), four typical battery models including a combined model, two RC Equivalent...

  18. Charge-resonance excitations in symmetric molecules - Comparison of linear response DFT with CC3 for the excited states of a model dimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlman, Thomas Scheby; Mikkelsen, Kurt V.; Møller, Klaus Braagaard

    2009-01-01

    to a reference CC3 calculation revealing a better description of the excited states by CAM-B3LYP than that of B3LYP. The Λ parameter introduced by Peach et al. [M.J.G. Peach, P. Benfield, T. Helgaker, D.J. Tozer, J. Chem. Phys. 128 (2008) 044118] does not always reveal the problematic charge-resonance states...

  19. Ligand manipulation of charge transfer excited state relaxation and spin crossover in [Fe(2,2′-bipyridine)2(CN)2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kasper Skov; Zhang, Wenkai; Alonso-Mori, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    We have used femtosecond resolution UV-visible and Kβ x-ray emission spectroscopy to characterize the electronic excited state dynamics of [Fe(bpy)2(CN)2], where bpy=2,2′-bipyridine, initiated by metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excitation. The excited-state absorption in the transient UV-visible...

  20. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in binary mixtures of water and tertiary butanol (TBA): alcohol mole fraction dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Tuhin; Ghoshal, Piue; Biswas, Ranjit

    2008-02-07

    The excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4-(1-azetidinyl)benzonitrile (P4C) has been studied in water-tertiary butanol (TBA) mixtures at different alcohol mole fractions by using steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The ratio between the areas under the locally excited (LE) and charge transferred (CT) emission bands is found to exhibit a sharp rise at alcohol mole fraction approximately 0.04, a value at which several thermodynamic properties of this mixture is known to show anomalous change due to the enhancement of H-bonding network. The radiative rate associated with the LE emission also shows a maximum at this TBA mole fraction. Although the structural transition from the water-like tetrahedral network to the alcohol-like chain is reflected in the red shift of the absorption spectrum up to TBA mole fraction approximately 0.10, the emission bands (both LE and CT) show the typical nonideal alcohol mole fraction dependence at all TBA mole fractions. Quantum yield, CT radiative rate as well as transition moments also exhibit a nonideal alcohol mole fraction dependence. The time-resolved emission decay of P4C has been found to be biexponential at all TBA mole fractions, regardless of emission collection around either the LE or the CT bands. The time constant associated with the slow component (tau(slow)) shows a minimum at TBA mole fraction approximately 0.04, whereas such a minimum for the fast time constant, tau(fast) (representing the rate of LE --> CT conversion reaction) is not observed. The nonobservation of the minimum in tau(fast) might be due to the limited time resolution employed in our experiments.

  1. Study of the average charge states of 188Pb and 252,254No ions at the gas-filled separator TASCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuyagbaatar, J.; Ackermann, D.; Andersson, L.-L.; Ballof, J.; Brüchle, W.; Düllmann, Ch.E.; Dvorak, J.; Eberhardt, K.; Even, J.; Gorshkov, A.; Graeger, R.; Heßberger, F.-P.; Hild, D.; Hoischen, R.; Jäger, E.; Kindler, B.

    2012-01-01

    The average charge states of 188 Pb and 252,254 No ions in dilute helium gas were measured at the gas-filled recoil separator TASCA. Hydrogen gas was also used as a filling gas for measurements of the average charge state of 254 No. Helium and hydrogen gases at pressures from 0.2 mbar to 2.0 mbar were used. A strong dependence of the average charge state on the pressure of the filling gases was observed for both, helium and hydrogen. The influence of this dependence, classically attributed to the so-called “density effect”, on the performance of TASCA was investigated. The average charge states of 254 No ions were also measured in mixtures of helium and hydrogen gases at low gas pressures around 1.0 mbar. From the experimental results simple expressions for the prediction of average charge states of heavy ions moving in rarefied helium gas, hydrogen gas, and in their mixture were derived.

  2. A novel method for state of charge estimation of lithium-ion batteries using a nonlinear observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bizhong; Chen, Chaoren; Tian, Yong; Sun, Wei; Xu, Zhihui; Zheng, Weiwei

    2014-12-01

    The state of charge (SOC) is important for the safety and reliability of battery operation since it indicates the remaining capacity of a battery. However, as the internal state of each cell cannot be directly measured, the value of the SOC has to be estimated. In this paper, a novel method for SOC estimation in electric vehicles (EVs) using a nonlinear observer (NLO) is presented. One advantage of this method is that it does not need complicated matrix operations, so the computation cost can be reduced. As a key step in design of the nonlinear observer, the state-space equations based on the equivalent circuit model are derived. The Lyapunov stability theory is employed to prove the convergence of the nonlinear observer. Four experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the presented method. The results show that the SOC estimation error converges to 3% within 130 s while the initial SOC error reaches 20%, and does not exceed 4.5% while the measurement suffers both 2.5% voltage noise and 5% current noise. Besides, the presented method has advantages over the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and sliding mode observer (SMO) algorithms in terms of computation cost, estimation accuracy and convergence rate.

  3. A New Method for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Strong Tracking Cubature Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhong Xia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of state of charge (SOC is a crucial evaluation index in a battery management system (BMS. The value of SOC indicates the remaining capacity of a battery, which provides a good guarantee of safety and reliability of battery operation. It is difficult to get an accurate value of the SOC, being one of the inner states. In this paper, a strong tracking cubature Kalman filter (STCKF based on the cubature Kalman filter is presented to perform accurate and reliable SOC estimation. The STCKF algorithm can adjust gain matrix online by introducing fading factor to the state estimation covariance matrix. The typical second-order resistor-capacitor model is used as the battery’s equivalent circuit model to dynamically simulate characteristics of the battery. The exponential-function fitting method accomplishes the task of relevant parameters identification. Then, the developed STCKF algorithm has been introduced in detail and verified under different operation current profiles such as Dynamic Stress Test (DST and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. Making a comparison with extended Kalman filter (EKF and CKF algorithm, the experimental results show the merits of the STCKF algorithm in SOC estimation accuracy and robustness.

  4. Predicting state of charge of lead-acid batteries for hybrid electric vehicles by extended Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasebi, A.; Bathaee, S.M.T.; Partovibakhsh, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes and introduces a new nonlinear predictor and a novel battery model for estimating the state of charge (SoC) of lead-acid batteries for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Many problems occur for a traditional SoC indicator, such as offset, drift and long term state divergence, therefore this paper proposes a technique based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) in order to overcome these problems. The underlying dynamic behavior of each cell is modeled using two capacitors (bulk and surface) and three resistors (terminal, surface and end). The SoC is determined from the voltage present on the bulk capacitor. In this new model, the value of the surface capacitor is constant, whereas the value of the bulk capacitor is not. Although the structure of the model, with two constant capacitors, has been previously reported for lithium-ion cells, this model can also be valid and reliable for lead-acid cells when used in conjunction with an EKF to estimate SoC (with a little variation). Measurements using real-time road data are used to compare the performance of conventional internal resistance (R int ) based methods for estimating SoC with those predicted from the proposed state estimation schemes. The results show that the proposed method is superior to the more traditional techniques, with accuracy in estimating the SoC within 3%

  5. A strong steric hindrance effect on ground state, excited state, and charge separated state properties of a CuI-diimine complex captured by X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, J.; Mara, M.W.; Stickrath, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    of phenanthroline. The structural dynamics of the photoinduced charge transfer process in the [CuI(dppS)2]+/TiO2 hybrid is also investigated, which suggests a more restricted environment for the complex upon binding to TiO2 NPs. Moreover, the Cu-N bond length of the oxidized state of [CuI(dppS)2]+ after electron...... dynamics and structures as well as those of the charge separated state resulting from the interfacial electron injection from the MLCT state to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). The OTA results show the absence of the sub-picosecond component previously assigned as the time constant for flattening, while the two...... injection to TiO2 NPs shortens by 0.05 Å compared to that in the ground state. The interpretation of these observed structural changes associated with excited and charge separated states will be discussed. These results not only set an example for applying XTA in capturing the intermediate structure...

  6. Charged projectile spectrometry using solid-state nuclear track detector of the PM-355 type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowska Aneta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To use effectively any radiation detector in high-temperature plasma experiments, it must have a lot of benefits and fulfill a number of requirements. The most important are: a high energy resolution, linearity over a wide range of recorded particle energy, high detection efficiency for these particles, a long lifetime and resistance to harsh conditions existing in plasma experiments and so on. Solid-state nuclear track detectors have been used in our laboratory in plasma experiments for many years, but recently we have made an attempt to use these detectors in spectroscopic measurements performed on some plasma facilities. This paper presents a method that we used to elaborate etched track diameters to evaluate the incident projectile energy magnitude. The method is based on the data obtained from a semiautomatic track scanning system that selects tracks according to two parameters, track diameter and its mean gray level.

  7. Charge Carrier Generation Followed by Triplet State Formation, Annihilation, and Carrier Recreation in PBDTTT-C:PC 60 BM Photovoltaic Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Gehrig, Dominik W.

    2015-05-22

    Triplet state formation after photoexcitation of low-bandgap polymer:fullerene blends has recently been demonstrated, however, the precise mechanism and its impact on solar cell performance is still under debate. Here, we study exciton dissociation, charge carrier generation and triplet state formation in low-bandgap polymer PBDTTT-C:PC60BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic blends by a combination of fs-µs broadband Vis-NIR transient absorption (TA) pump-probe spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) data analysis. We found sub-ps exciton dissociation and charge generation followed by sub-ns triplet state creation. The carrier dynamics and triplet state dynamics exhibited a very pronounced intensity dependence indicating non-geminate recombination of free carriers is the origin of triplet formation in these blends. Triplets were found to be the dominant state present on the nanosecond timescale. Surprisingly, the carrier population increased again on the ns-µs timescale. We attribute this to triplet-triplet annihilation and the formation of higher energy excited states that subsequently underwent charge transfer. This unique dip and recovery of the charge population is a clear indication that triplets are formed by non-geminate recombination, as such a kinetic is incompatible with a monomolecular triplet state formation process.

  8. A Consistent Derivation of the Impedance of a Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode and its Dependency on the State-of-Charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schönleber, M.; Uhlmann, C.; Braun, P.; Weber, A.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A derivation of the impedance model of a Lithium-Ion battery electrode is given. •The dependency of all partial impedances on the State-of-Charge is revealed. •The lasting disagreement in how to model solid-state diffusion is settled. •A solid starting point to derive models of any complexity is provided. •The connection between differential capacity and solid-state diffusion is revealed. -- Abstract: A derivation of the fundamental impedance of a Lithium-Ion battery electrode is given, exemplarily conducted for a solid thin-film electrode. The focus of this derivation is not on developing a model which is able to reproduce the exact behaviour of a given electrode, but rather on deriving its fundamental characteristics from few and intuitive assumptions in a simple and transparent way. It is thus shown, that the fundamental impedance of a solid thin-film electrode consists of an RC-element for charge-transfer, a Finite-Length Warburg element for diffusion in the electrolyte and a Finite-Space Warburg element for diffusion in the solid-state. The use of a Finite-Length Warburg element with a serially connected capacitor for modelling diffusion in the solid-state is thus indicated to be physically questionable. In addition, the theoretically expected behaviour of charge-transfer and solid-state diffusion on the degree of lithiation (State-of-Charge) is derived and discussed.

  9. The importance of a hot-sequential mechanism in triplet-state formation by charge recombination in reaction centers of bacterial photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, K.; Mukai, K.; Sumi, H.

    2006-01-01

    In photosynthesis, pigment-excitation energies in the antenna system produced by light harvesting are transferred among antenna pigments toward the core antenna, where they are captured by the reaction center and initially fixed in the form of a charge separation. Primary charge separation between an oxidized special pair (P + ) and a reduced bacteriopheohytin (H - ) is occasionally intervened by recombination, and a spin-triplet state ( 3 P*) is formed on P in the bacterial reaction center. The 3 P* state is harmful to bio-organisms, inducing the formation of the highly damaging singlet oxygen species. Therefore, understanding the 3 P*-formation mechanism is important. The 3 P* formation is mediated by a state |m> of intermediate charge separation between P and the accessory chlorophyll, which is located between P and H. It will be shown theoretically in the present work that at room temperature, not only the mechanism of superexchange by quantum-mechanical virtual mediation at |m>, but also a hot-sequential mechanism contributes to the mediation. In the latter, although |m> is produced as a real state, the final state 3 P* is quickly formed during thermalization of phonons in the protein matrix in |m>. In the former, the final state is formed more quickly before dephasing-thermalization of phonons in |m>. 3 P* is unistep formed from the charge-separated state in the both mechanisms

  10. Charge Carrier Generation Followed by Triplet State Formation, Annihilation, and Carrier Recreation in PBDTTT-C:PC 60 BM Photovoltaic Blends

    KAUST Repository

    Gehrig, Dominik W.; Howard, Ian A.; Laquai, Fré dé ric

    2015-01-01

    Triplet state formation after photoexcitation of low-bandgap polymer:fullerene blends has recently been demonstrated, however, the precise mechanism and its impact on solar cell performance is still under debate. Here, we study exciton dissociation, charge carrier generation and triplet state formation in low-bandgap polymer PBDTTT-C:PC60BM bulk heterojunction photovoltaic blends by a combination of fs-µs broadband Vis-NIR transient absorption (TA) pump-probe spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) data analysis. We found sub-ps exciton dissociation and charge generation followed by sub-ns triplet state creation. The carrier dynamics and triplet state dynamics exhibited a very pronounced intensity dependence indicating non-geminate recombination of free carriers is the origin of triplet formation in these blends. Triplets were found to be the dominant state present on the nanosecond timescale. Surprisingly, the carrier population increased again on the ns-µs timescale. We attribute this to triplet-triplet annihilation and the formation of higher energy excited states that subsequently underwent charge transfer. This unique dip and recovery of the charge population is a clear indication that triplets are formed by non-geminate recombination, as such a kinetic is incompatible with a monomolecular triplet state formation process.

  11. Impact of electron delocalization on the nature of the charge-transfer states in model pentacene/C60 Interfaces: A density functional theory study

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Bing

    2014-12-04

    Electronic delocalization effects have been proposed to play a key role in photocurrent generation in organic photovoltaic devices. Here, we study the role of charge delocalization on the nature of the charge-transfer (CT) states in the case of model complexes consisting of several pentacene molecules and one fullerene (C60) molecule, which are representative of donor/acceptor heterojunctions. The energies of the CT states are examined by means of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) using the long-range-corrected functional, ωB97X, with an optimized range-separation parameter, ω. We provide a general description of how the nature of the CT states is impacted by molecular packing (i.e., interfacial donor/acceptor orientations), system size, and intermolecular interactions, features of importance in the understanding of the charge-separation mechanism.

  12. Charge-transfer excited state in pyrene-1-carboxylic acids adsorbed on titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, S.; Nawrocka, A.; Zdyb, A.

    2018-06-01

    The electronic structure of excited photosensitizer adsorbed at the surface of a solid is the key factor in the electron transfer processes that underlie the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells and photocatalysts. In this work, Stark effect (electroabsorption) spectroscopy has been used to measure the polarizability and dipole moment changes in electronic transitions of pyrene-1-carboxylic (PCA), -acetic (PAA) and -butyric (PBA) acids in ethanol, both free and adsorbed on colloidal TiO2, in glassy ethanol at low temperature. The lack of appreciable increase of dipole moment in the excited state of free and adsorbed PAA and PBA points that two or more single bonds completely prevent the expansion of π-electrons from the aromatic ring towards the carboxylic group, thus excluding the possibility of direct electron injection into TiO2. In free PCA, the pyrene's forbidden S0 → S1 transition has increased intensity, exhibits a long progression in 1400 cm-1 Ag mode and is associated with |Δμ| of 2 D. Adsorption of PCA on TiO2 causes a broadening and red shift of the S0 → S1 absorption band and an increase in dipole moment change on electronic excitation to |Δμ| = 6.5 D. This value increased further to about 15 D when the content of acetic acid in the colloid was changed from 0.2% to 2%, and this effect is ascribed to the surface electric field. The large increase of |Δμ| points that the electric field effect can not only change the energetics of electron transfer from the excited sensitizer into the solid, but can also shift the molecular electronic density, thus directly influencing the electronic coupling factor relevant for electron transfer at the molecule-solid interface.

  13. An Adaptive Gain Nonlinear Observer for State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The state of charge (SOC is important for the safety and reliability of battery operation since it indicates the remaining capacity of a battery. However, it is difficult to get an accurate value of SOC, because the SOC cannot be directly measured by a sensor. In this paper, an adaptive gain nonlinear observer (AGNO for SOC estimation of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs in electric vehicles (EVs is proposed. The second-order resistor–capacitor (2RC equivalent circuit model is used to simulate the dynamic behaviors of a LIB, based on which the state equations are derived to design the AGNO for SOC estimation. The model parameters are identified using the exponential-function fitting method. The sixth-order polynomial function is used to describe the highly nonlinear relationship between the open circuit voltage (OCV and the SOC. The convergence of the proposed AGNO is proved using the Lyapunov stability theory. Two typical driving cycles, including the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC and Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS are adopted to evaluate the performance of the AGNO by comparing with the unscented Kalman filter (UKF algorithm. The experimental results show that the AGNO has better performance than the UKF algorithm in terms of reducing the computation cost, improving the estimation accuracy and enhancing the convergence ability.

  14. Charge exchange (p,n) reactions to the isobaric analog states of high Z nuclei: 73< or =Z< or =92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.F.; Grimes, S.M.; Poppe, C.H.; Wong, C.

    1983-01-01

    Differential cross sections have been measured for the (p,n) reaction to the isobaric analog states of 181 Ta, 197 Au, 209 Bi, 232 Th, and 238 U at an incident energy of 27 MeV. Because of the importance of collective effects in this mass region, coupled-channel calculations have been carried out in the analysis of the data. Optical potentials obtained from the Lane model for the charge exchange reaction have been used in the simultaneous analysis of coupled proton and neutron channels. The sensitivity of the calculations to the different couplings between the levels and to the magnitude of the isovector potentials, V 1 and W 1 , is discussed. The good agreement obtained between the measured and calculated (p,n) angular distributions to the analog state confirms the validity of the Lane formalism for high-Z nuclei (Z> or =50). Elastic neutron differential cross sections inferred from the coupled-channel analysis are compared with measurements available in the literature in the energy range 7--8 MeV. The results of these calculations agree with the measured values as well as the results of calculations made using global neutron optical potential parameters optimized to fit neutron data

  15. A multi-timescale estimator for battery state of charge and capacity dual estimation based on an online identified model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Zhao, Jiyun; Ji, Dongxu; Tseng, King Jet

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •SOC and capacity are dually estimated with online adapted battery model. •Model identification and state dual estimate are fully decoupled. •Multiple timescales are used to improve estimation accuracy and stability. •The proposed method is verified with lab-scale experiments. •The proposed method is applicable to different battery chemistries. -- Abstract: Reliable online estimation of state of charge (SOC) and capacity is critically important for the battery management system (BMS). This paper presents a multi-timescale method for dual estimation of SOC and capacity with an online identified battery model. The model parameter estimator and the dual estimator are fully decoupled and executed with different timescales to improve the model accuracy and stability. Specifically, the model parameters are online adapted with the vector-type recursive least squares (VRLS) to address the different variation rates of them. Based on the online adapted battery model, the Kalman filter (KF)-based SOC estimator and RLS-based capacity estimator are formulated and integrated in the form of dual estimation. Experimental results suggest that the proposed method estimates the model parameters, SOC, and capacity in real time with fast convergence and high accuracy. Experiments on both lithium-ion battery and vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) verify the generality of the proposed method on multiple battery chemistries. The proposed method is also compared with other existing methods on the computational cost to reveal its superiority for practical application.

  16. A Combined State of Charge Estimation Method for Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in a Wide Ambient Temperature Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Feng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ambient temperature is a significant factor that influences the characteristics of lithium-ion batteries, which can produce adverse effects on state of charge (SOC estimation. In this paper, an integrated SOC algorithm that combines an advanced ampere-hour counting (Adv Ah method and multistate open-circuit voltage (multi OCV method, denoted as “Adv Ah + multi OCV”, is proposed. Ah counting is a simple and general method for estimating SOC. However, the available capacity and coulombic efficiency in this method are influenced by the operating states of batteries, such as temperature and current, thereby causing SOC estimation errors. To address this problem, an enhanced Ah counting method that can alter the available capacity and coulombic efficiency according to temperature is proposed during the SOC calculation. Moreover, the battery SOCs between different temperatures can be mutually converted in accordance with the capacity loss. To compensate for the accumulating errors in Ah counting caused by the low precision of current sensors and lack of accurate initial SOC, the OCV method is used for calibration and as a complement. Given the variation of available capacities at different temperatures, rated/non-rated OCV–SOCs are established to estimate the initial SOCs in accordance with the Ah counting SOCs. Two dynamic tests, namely, constant- and alternated-temperature tests, are employed to verify the combined method at different temperatures. The results indicate that our method can provide effective and accurate SOC estimation at different ambient temperatures.

  17. Kalman filtering state of charge estimation for battery management system based on a stochastic fuzzy neural network battery model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Long; Wang Junping; Chen Quanshi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel extended Kalman Filtering SOC estimation method based on a stochastic fuzzy neural network (SFNN) battery model is proposed. ► The SFNN which has filtering effect on noisy input can model the battery nonlinear dynamic with high accuracy. ► A robust parameter learning algorithm for SFNN is studied so that the parameters can converge to its true value with noisy data. ► The maximum SOC estimation error based on the proposed method is 0.6%. - Abstract: Extended Kalman filtering is an intelligent and optimal means for estimating the state of a dynamic system. In order to use extended Kalman filtering to estimate the state of charge (SOC), we require a mathematical model that can accurately capture the dynamics of battery pack. In this paper, we propose a stochastic fuzzy neural network (SFNN) instead of the traditional neural network that has filtering effect on noisy input to model the battery nonlinear dynamic. Then, the paper studies the extended Kalman filtering SOC estimation method based on a SFNN model. The modeling test is realized on an 80 Ah Ni/MH battery pack and the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) cycle is used to verify the SOC estimation method. The maximum SOC estimation error is 0.6% compared with the real SOC obtained from the discharging test.

  18. Motor vehicle injury, mortality, and hospital charges by strength of graduated driver licensing laws in 36 States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Joyce C; Benedicto, Camilla B; Trieu, Lisa; Kendig, Tiffany; Barlow, Barbara

    2009-07-01

    To assess the relation between strength of graduated driver licensing (GDL) laws and motor vehicle (MV) injury burden, this study examined injury mortality, hospitalizations and related charges for 15 year to 17 year olds in 36 states by strength of GDL legislation. Data sources include the CDC's Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) and the 2003 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Kids' Inpatient database (KID). Hospital admissions for injuries in 15 year to 17 year olds (n = 49,520) are unweighted. Injury severity was assessed using ICDMAP-90 and International Classification of Injury Severity Scores. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety rating system was used to categorize legislative strength: good, fair, marginal/poor, and none. Logistic regression was used to assess independent predictors of MV injury. MV injury accounted for 14.6% of all-cause injury-related hospital admissions with 47.7% classified as drivers. Total MV occupant mortality was 14.6% lower after enactment of GDL with greater improvement observed in the good law category (26.0%). In multivariate models for hospitalized injury, all GDL law categories were protective for MV driver injury in 16 year olds. Compared with whites, black and Hispanic teens were more frequently injured as passengers than drivers. The contribution of MV occupant to all-cause injury-related hospital charges was 16.0% lower in good versus no-GDL categories and 39.5% lower for MV drivers. These findings suggest that the presence of any GDL legislation is associated with a lower burden of MV-related injury and expenditures with the largest differences observed for 16-year-old drivers.

  19. Statistical Characterization of the Charge State and Residue Dependence of Low-Energy CID Peptide Dissociation Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yingying; Triscari, Joseph M.; Tseng, George C.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Wysocki, Vicki H.

    2005-01-01

    Data mining was performed on 28 330 unique peptide tandem mass spectra for which sequences were assigned with high confidence. By dividing the spectra into different sets based on structural features and charge states of the corresponding peptides, chemical interactions involved in promoting specific cleavage patterns in gas-phase peptides were characterized. Pairwise fragmentation maps describing cleavages at all Xxx-Zzz residue combinations for b and y ions reveal that the difference in basicity between Arg and Lys results in different dissociation patterns for singly charged Arg- and Lys-ending tryptic peptides. While one dominant protonation form (proton localized) exists for Arg-ending peptides, a heterogeneous population of different protonated forms or more facile interconversion of protonated forms (proton partially mobile) exists for Lys-ending peptides. Cleavage C-terminal to acidic residues dominates spectra from peptides that have a localized proton and cleavage N-terminal to Pro dominates those that have a mobile or partially mobile proton. When Pro is absent from peptides that have a mobile or partially mobile proton, cleavage at each peptide bond becomes much more prominent. Whether the above patterns can be found in b ions, y ions, or both depends on the location of the proton holder(s). Enhanced cleavages C-terminal to branched aliphatic residues (Ile, Val, Leu) are observed in both b and y ions from peptides that have a mobile proton, as well as in y ions from peptides that have a partially mobile proton; enhanced cleavages N-terminal to these residues are observed in b ions from peptides that have a partially mobile proton. Statistical tools have been designed to visualize the fragmentation maps and measure the similarity between them. The pairwise cleavage patterns observed expand our knowledge of peptide gas-phase fragmentation behaviors and should be useful in algorithm development that employs improved models to predict fragment ion

  20. Excited State Charge Transfer reaction with dual emission from 5-(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)-penta-2,4-dienenitrile: Spectral measurement and theoretical density functional theory calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Sankar; Dalapati, Sasanka; Ghosh, Shalini; Kar, Samiran; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2011-07-01

    The excited state intramolecular charge transfer process in donor-chromophore-acceptor system 5-(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)-penta-2,4-dienenitrile (DMAPPDN) has been investigated by steady state absorption and emission spectroscopy in combination with Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. This flexible donor acceptor molecule DMAPPDN shows dual fluorescence corresponding to emission from locally excited and charge transfer state in polar solvent. Large solvatochromic emission shift, effect of variation of pH and HOMO-LUMO molecular orbital pictures support excited state intramolecular charge transfer process. The experimental findings have been correlated with the calculated structure and potential energy surfaces based on the Twisted Intramolecular Charge Transfer (TICT) model obtained at DFT level using B3LYP functional and 6-31+G( d, p) basis set. The theoretical potential energy surfaces for the excited states have been generated in vacuo and acetonitrile solvent using Time Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) and Time Dependent Density Functional Theory Polarized Continuum Model (TDDFT-PCM) method, respectively. All the theoretical results show well agreement with the experimental observations.

  1. Two-terminal charge tunneling: Disentangling Majorana zero modes from partially separated Andreev bound states in semiconductor-superconductor heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher; Stanescu, Tudor D.; Tewari, Sumanta

    2018-04-01

    We show that a pair of overlapping Majorana bound states (MBSs) forming a partially separated Andreev bound state (ps-ABS) represents a generic low-energy feature in spin-orbit-coupled semiconductor-superconductor (SM-SC) hybrid nanowire in the presence of a Zeeman field. The ps-ABS interpolates continuously between the "garden variety" ABS, which consists of two MBSs sitting on top of each other, and the topologically protected Majorana zero modes (MZMs), which are separated by a distance given by the length of the wire. The really problematic ps-ABSs consist of component MBSs separated by a distance of the order of the characteristic Majorana decay length ξ , and have nearly zero energy in a significant range of control parameters, such as the Zeeman field and chemical potential, within the topologically trivial phase. Despite being topologically trivial, such ps-ABSs can generate signatures identical to MZMs in local charge tunneling experiments. In particular, the height of the zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP) generated by ps-ABSs has the quantized value 2 e2/h , and it can remain unchanged in an extended range of experimental parameters, such as Zeeman field and the tunnel barrier height. We illustrate the formation of such low-energy robust ps-ABSs in two experimentally relevant situations: a hybrid SM-SC system consisting of a proximitized nanowire coupled to a quantum dot and the SM-SC system in the presence of a spatially varying inhomogeneous potential. We then show that, unlike local measurements, a two-terminal experiment involving charge tunneling at both ends of the wire is capable of distinguishing between the generic ps-ABSs and the non-Abelian MZMs. While the MZMs localized at the opposite ends of the wire generate correlated differential conduction spectra, including correlations in energy splittings and critical Zeeman fields associated with the emergence of the ZBCPs, such correlations are absent if the ZBCPs are due to ps-ABSs emerging in the

  2. Quasi-bound state resonances of charged massive scalar fields in the near-extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black-hole spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2017-05-15

    The quasi-bound states of charged massive scalar fields in the near-extremal charged Reissner-Nordstroem black-hole spacetime are studied analytically. These discrete resonant modes of the composed black-hole-field system are characterized by the physically motivated boundary condition of ingoing waves at the black-hole horizon and exponentially decaying (bounded) radial eigenfunctions at spatial infinity. Solving the Klein-Gordon wave equation for the linearized scalar fields in the black-hole spacetime, we derive a remarkably compact analytical formula for the complex frequency spectrum which characterizes the quasi-bound state resonances of the composed Reissner-Nordstroem-black-hole-charged-massive-scalar-field system. (orig.)

  3. Quantitative analysis of charge trapping and classification of sub-gap states in MoS2 TFT by pulse I-V method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junghak; Hur, Ji-Hyun; Jeon, Sanghun

    2018-04-01

    The threshold voltage instabilities and huge hysteresis of MoS2 thin film transistors (TFTs) have raised concerns about their practical applicability in next-generation switching devices. These behaviors are associated with charge trapping, which stems from tunneling to the adjacent trap site, interfacial redox reaction and interface and/or bulk trap states. In this report, we present quantitative analysis on the electron charge trapping mechanism of MoS2 TFT by fast pulse I-V method and the space charge limited current (SCLC) measurement. By adopting the fast pulse I-V method, we were able to obtain effective mobility. In addition, the origin of the trap states was identified by disassembling the sub-gap states into interface trap and bulk trap states by simple extraction analysis. These measurement methods and analyses enable not only quantitative extraction of various traps but also an understanding of the charge transport mechanism in MoS2 TFTs. The fast I-V data and SCLC data obtained under various measurement temperatures and ambient show that electron transport to neighboring trap sites by tunneling is the main charge trapping mechanism in thin-MoS2 TFTs. This implies that interfacial traps account for most of the total sub-gap states while the bulk trap contribution is negligible, at approximately 0.40% and 0.26% in air and vacuum ambient, respectively. Thus, control of the interface trap states is crucial to further improve the performance of devices with thin channels.

  4. Robust Online State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Battery Pack Based on Error Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable state of charge (SOC estimation is a key enabling technique for large format lithium-ion battery pack due to its vital role in battery safety and effective management. This paper tries to make three contributions to existing literatures through robust algorithms. (1 Observer based SOC estimation error model is established, where the crucial parameters on SOC estimation accuracy are determined by quantitative analysis, being a basis for parameters update. (2 The estimation method for a battery pack in which the inconsistency of cells is taken into consideration is proposed, ensuring all batteries’ SOC ranging from 0 to 1, effectively avoiding the battery overcharged/overdischarged. Online estimation of the parameters is also presented in this paper. (3 The SOC estimation accuracy of the battery pack is verified using the hardware-in-loop simulation platform. The experimental results at various dynamic test conditions, temperatures, and initial SOC difference between two cells demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

  5. Transportation Safety of Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries - A Feasibility Study of Storing at Very Low States of Charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barai, Anup; Uddin, Kotub; Chevalier, Julie; Chouchelamane, Gael H; McGordon, Andrew; Low, John; Jennings, Paul

    2017-07-11

    In freight classification, lithium-ion batteries are classed as dangerous goods and are therefore subject to stringent regulations and guidelines for certification for safe transport. One such guideline is the requirement for batteries to be at a state of charge of 30%. Under such conditions, a significant amount of the battery's energy is stored; in the event of mismanagement, or indeed an airside incident, this energy can lead to ignition and a fire. In this work, we investigate the effect on the battery of removing 99.1% of the total stored energy. The performance of 8Ah C 6 /LiFePO 4 pouch cells were measured following periods of calendar ageing at low voltages, at and well below the manufacturer's recommended value. Battery degradation was monitored using impedance spectroscopy and capacity tests; the results show that the cells stored at 2.3 V exhibited no change in cell capacity after 90 days; resistance rise was negligible. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results indicate that there was no significant copper dissolution. To test the safety of the batteries at low voltages, external short-circuit tests were performed on the cells. While the cells discharged to 2.3 V only exhibited a surface temperature rise of 6 °C, cells at higher voltages exhibited sparks, fumes and fire.

  6. Distributed Coordination Control Based on State-of-Charge for Bidirectional Power Converters in a Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyan Lv

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed coordination control for multiple bidirectional power converters (BPCs in a hybrid AC/DC microgrid with consideration of state-of-charge (SOC of storages. The researched hybrid AC/DC microgrid is composed of both AC and DC subgrids connected by multiple parallel BPCs. In the literature, the storages of a hybrid microgrid are considered to allocate in only the AC subgrid or DC subgrid, which reduces the reliability of the whole system, especially during the islanded mode. Besides, the SOC management has not been considered in BPCs’ operating strategy. This paper considers a hybrid microgrid topology which has energy storages in both AC side and DC side. This ensures the reliability while increasing the complexity of the control strategy at the same time. Further, a distributed coordination control method for multiple BPCs based on SOC was proposed to enhance the reliability of hybrid microgrid. Finally, the performance of the proposed control methods was verified by real-time hardware-in-loop (HIL tests.

  7. Search for Bound $\\overline{N}N$ States Using a Precision Gamma and Charged Pion Spectrometer at LEAR

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment uses a magnetic spectrometer to search for monoenergetic @g and @p@+ transitions between bound N&bar.N states. The spectrometer is instrumented with drift chambers (NDC, RDC and PDC), proportional wire chambers (A-E), and various thin scintillation counters (S,M,G,AH,V,Q,D,E and PH) f purposes, as shown in the accompanying drawing.\\\\ \\\\ Gamma-rays produced in the LH^2 target are materialized by a 10\\% converter located in the B chamber with an acceptance (@D@W/4@p) of @=2-6x10|-|3 (100-400 MeV) and 6x10|-|3 ($>$400 MeV). Trajectories of bent electron-positron pairs and @p@+ are measured in the A-E~chambers. Trajectories of less frequent high energy penetrating tracks, as well as the remaining associated charged annihilation products exiting the target, are measured in the drift chamber system. \\\\ \\\\ The resultant energy resolution (@DE/E) is better than 1,5\\% R.M.S. over the full range of energies studied. To illustrate the sensitivity of this experiment, a @g line at 300 MeV produced at t...

  8. Ab initio investigation of sulfur monofluoride and its singly charged cation and anion in their ground electronic state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; Shan-Jun, Chen; Yan, Chen; Peng, Chen

    2016-03-01

    The SF radical and its singly charged cation and anion, SF+ and SF-, have been investigated on the MRCI/aug-cc-pVXZ (X = Q, 5, 6) levels of theory with Davidson correction. Both the core-valence correlation and the relativistic effect are considered. The extrapolating to the complete basis set (CBS) limit is adopted to remove the basis set truncation error. Geometrical parameters, potential energy curves (PECs), vibrational energy levels, spectroscopic constants, ionization potentials, and electron affinities of the ground electronic state for all these species are obtained. The information with respect to molecular characteristics of the SFn (n = -1, 0, +1) systems derived in this work will help to extend our knowledge and to guide further experimental or theoretical researches. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304023 and 11447172), the Young and Middle-Aged Talent of Education Burea of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. Q20151307), and the Yangtze Youth Talents Fund of Yangtze University, China (Grant No. 2015cqr21).

  9. Enhanced online model identification and state of charge estimation for lithium-ion battery with a FBCRLS based observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhongbao; Meng, Shujuan; Xiong, Binyu; Ji, Dongxu; Tseng, King Jet

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated online model identification and SOC estimate is explored. • Noise variances are online estimated in a data-driven way. • Identification bias caused by noise corruption is attenuated. • SOC is online estimated with high accuracy and fast convergence. • Algorithm comparison shows the superiority of proposed method. - Abstract: State of charge (SOC) estimators with online identified battery model have proven to have high accuracy and better robustness due to the timely adaption of time varying model parameters. In this paper, we show that the common methods for model identification are intrinsically biased if both the current and voltage sensors are corrupted with noises. The uncertainties in battery model further degrade the accuracy and robustness of SOC estimate. To address this problem, this paper proposes a novel technique which integrates the Frisch scheme based bias compensating recursive least squares (FBCRLS) with a SOC observer for enhanced model identification and SOC estimate. The proposed method online estimates the noise statistics and compensates the noise effect so that the model parameters can be extracted without bias. The SOC is further estimated in real time with the online updated and unbiased battery model. Simulation and experimental studies show that the proposed FBCRLS based observer effectively attenuates the bias on model identification caused by noise contamination and as a consequence provides more reliable estimate on SOC. The proposed method is also compared with other existing methods to highlight its superiority in terms of accuracy and convergence speed.

  10. Investigating the error sources of the online state of charge estimation methods for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuejiu; Ouyang, Minggao; Han, Xuebing; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu

    2018-02-01

    Sate of charge (SOC) estimation is generally acknowledged as one of the most important functions in battery management system for lithium-ion batteries in new energy vehicles. Though every effort is made for various online SOC estimation methods to reliably increase the estimation accuracy as much as possible within the limited on-chip resources, little literature discusses the error sources for those SOC estimation methods. This paper firstly reviews the commonly studied SOC estimation methods from a conventional classification. A novel perspective focusing on the error analysis of the SOC estimation methods is proposed. SOC estimation methods are analyzed from the views of the measured values, models, algorithms and state parameters. Subsequently, the error flow charts are proposed to analyze the error sources from the signal measurement to the models and algorithms for the widely used online SOC estimation methods in new energy vehicles. Finally, with the consideration of the working conditions, choosing more reliable and applicable SOC estimation methods is discussed, and the future development of the promising online SOC estimation methods is suggested.

  11. State of Charge Estimation Using the Extended Kalman Filter for Battery Management Systems Based on the ARX Battery Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC is a critical factor to guarantee that a battery system is operating in a safe and reliable manner. Many uncertainties and noises, such as fluctuating current, sensor measurement accuracy and bias, temperature effects, calibration errors or even sensor failure, etc. pose a challenge to the accurate estimation of SOC in real applications. This paper adds two contributions to the existing literature. First, the auto regressive exogenous (ARX model is proposed here to simulate the battery nonlinear dynamics. Due to its discrete form and ease of implemention, this straightforward approach could be more suitable for real applications. Second, its order selection principle and parameter identification method is illustrated in detail in this paper. The hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC cycles are implemented on the 60AH LiFePO4 battery module for the model identification and validation. Based on the proposed ARX model, SOC estimation is pursued using the extended Kalman filter. Evaluation of the adaptability of the battery models and robustness of the SOC estimation algorithm are also verified. The results indicate that the SOC estimation method using the Kalman filter based on the ARX model shows great performance. It increases the model output voltage accuracy, thereby having the potential to be used in real applications, such as EVs and HEVs.

  12. Estimation of State of Charge of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack for Electric Vehicles Using an Adaptive Luenberger Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zou

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to safely and efficiently use the power as well as to extend the lifetime of the traction battery pack, accurate estimation of State of Charge (SoC is very important and necessary. This paper presents an adaptive observer-based technique for estimating SoC of a lithium-ion battery pack used in an electric vehicle (EV. The RC equivalent circuit model in ADVISOR is applied to simulate the lithium-ion battery pack. The parameters of the battery model as a function of SoC, are identified and optimized using the numerically nonlinear least squares algorithm, based on an experimental data set. By means of the optimized model, an adaptive Luenberger observer is built to estimate online the SoC of the lithium-ion battery pack. The observer gain is adaptively adjusted using a stochastic gradient approach so as to reduce the error between the estimated battery output voltage and the filtered battery terminal voltage measurement. Validation results show that the proposed technique can accurately estimate SoC of the lithium-ion battery pack without a heavy computational load.

  13. A method for state-of-charge estimation of Li-ion batteries based on multi-model switching strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Chenbin; Chen, Zonghai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Build a multi-model switching SOC estimate method for Li-ion batteries. • Build an improved interpretative structural modeling method for model switching. • The feedback strategy of bus delay is applied to improve the real-time performance. • The EKF method is used for SOC estimation to improve the estimated accuracy. - Abstract: The accurate state-of-charge (SOC) estimation and real-time performance are critical evaluation indexes for Li-ion battery management systems (BMS). High accuracy algorithms often take long program execution time (PET) in the resource-constrained embedded application systems, which will undoubtedly lead to the decrease of the time slots of other processes, thereby reduce the overall performance of BMS. Considering the resource optimization and the computational load balance, this paper proposes a multi-model switching SOC estimation method for Li-ion batteries. Four typical battery models are employed to build a close-loop SOC estimation system. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) method is employed to eliminate the effect of the current noise and improve the accuracy of SOC. The experiments under dynamic current conditions are conducted to verify the accuracy and real-time performance of the proposed method. The experimental results indicate that accurate estimation results and reasonable PET can be obtained by the proposed method

  14. Enhanced closed loop State of Charge estimator for lithium-ion batteries based on Extended Kalman Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, Gustavo; Garmendia, Maitane; Reynaud, Jean François; Crego, Jon; Viscarret, Unai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Based on a general model valid in full range of SOC considering varied dynamics. • Integration of an accurate OCV model in EKF taking into account hysteresis effect. • Experimental validation with different current profiles: pulses, EV and lift. • Validated with specifically designed profile demanding accurate OCV modeling. - Abstract: The accurate State of Charge (SOC) estimation in a Li-ion battery requires a suitable model of the cell behavior. In this work an enhanced closed loop estimator based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is proposed, considering a precise model of the cell dynamics valid for different current profiles and SOCs, and a complete model of the Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) which takes into account the hysteresis influence. The employed model and proposed estimator are validated with experimental results obtained from the response of a 40 Ah NMC Li-ion cell to several current profiles. These tests include current pulses, FUDS driving cycles, residential lift profiles, and specially designed profiles which demand an accurate modeling of the transitions between OCV boundaries. In each case, it is demonstrated that the enhanced model can reduce the estimation error nearly by half compared to an estimator ignoring the hysteresis effect. Furthermore, the good performance of the cell dynamics model allows an accurate and stable estimation over different conditions

  15. Measurements of $ \\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ charge asymmetry using dilepton final states in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahrous, Ayman; Radi, Amr; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Peltola, Timo; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Jain, Sandhya; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Traczyk, Piotr; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Korenkov, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Mitsyn, Valeri Valentinovitch; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Tikhonenko, Elena; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Chadeeva, Marina; Chistov, Ruslan; Danilov, Mikhail; Markin, Oleg; Tarkovskii, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korneeva, Natalia; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; Curras, Esteban; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; 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Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Derdzinski, Mark; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lewis, Jonathan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strobbe, Nadja; 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Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Bruner, Christopher; Castle, James; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Benvenuti, Alberto; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bartek, Rachel; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Low, Jia Fu; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Rupprecht, Nathaniel; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, Kurt; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Woods, Nathaniel

    2016-09-10

    The charge asymmetry in $ \\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ events is measured using dilepton final states produced in pp collisions at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s}= $ 8 TeV. The data sample, collected with the CMS detector, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb$^{-1}$. The measurements are performed using events with two oppositely charged leptons (electrons or muons) and two or more jets, where at least one of the jets is identified as originating from a bottom quark. The charge asymmetry is measured from differences in kinematic distributions, unfolded to the parton level, of positively and negatively charged top quarks and leptons. The $ \\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ and leptonic charge asymmetries are found to be 0.011 $\\pm$ 0.011(stat) $\\pm$ 0.007 (syst) and 0.003 $\\pm$ 0.006 (stat) $\\pm$ 0.003 (syst), respectively. These results, as well as charge asymmetry measurements made as a function of $ \\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ system kinematic properties, are in agreement with predictions of the standard model.

  16. State of Charge Balancing Control of a Multi-Functional Battery Energy Storage System Based on a 11-Level Cascaded Multilevel PWM Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Songcen; Teodorescu, Remus; Máthé, Lászlo

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on modeling and SOC (State of Charge) balancing control of lithium-ion battery energy storage system based on cascaded multilevel converter for both grid integration and electric vehicle propulsion applications. The equivalent electrical circuit model of lithium-ion battery...

  17. Extension of the charge separated-state lifetime by supramolecular association of a tetrathiafulvalene electron donor to a zinc/gold bisporphyrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boixel, Julien; Fortage, Jérôme; Blart, Errol; Pellegrin, Yann; Hammarström, Leif; Becker, Hans-Christian; Odobel, Fabrice

    2010-02-14

    Supramolecular triads were prepared by self-assembly of 4'-pyridyl-2-tetrathiafulvalene axially bound on ZnP-spacer-AuP(+) dyads; the lifetime of the charge separated state ((+)TTF-ZnP-Spacer-AuP ) formed upon light excitation of the triad is greatly increased with respect to that found in the parent dyad.

  18. The charge state distribution of Be, C, Cl and Al ions at the Lund Pelletron accelerator with the recently modified terminal pumping in use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiisk, Madis; Hellborg, Ragnar; Persson, Per; Faarinen, Mikko; Skog, Goeran; Stenstroem, Kristina

    2004-01-01

    Some years ago terminal pumping for the gas stripper system at the 3 MV Lund Tandem Pelletron accelerator was installed and charge state distribution measurements using the new installation were reported. Since then, new modifications of the mechanical design of the stripper system have been made. The results of pressure profile measurements as well as the results of charge state distribution measurements in a N 2 and Ar gas stripper at different, new geometrical modifications of the stripper system using C, Be, Al and Cl ion beams are reported. A comparison between pressure profiles obtained for different geometries shows a clear improvement of the vacuum conditions outside the stripper housing for the smallest conductance pipes between the stripper system and the accelerator tubes. These improvements are also well reflected in the charge state distribution measurements, as a higher mean charge state is obtained under the same vacuum conditions in the accelerator tubes for the improved stripper system in comparison with the former mechanical design

  19. Improved film morphology reduces charge carrier recombination into the triplet excited state in a small bandgap polymer-fullerene photovoltaic cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nuzzo, D.; Aguirre de Miguel, A.; Shahid, M.; Gevaerts, Veronique; Meskers, S.C.J.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of diiodooctane as processing additive for construction of PCPDTBT:PCBM solar cells results in a profound change in photophysical behavior of this blend. In the improved morphology obtained with the additive, recombination of charge carriers to the lowest triplet excited state is suppressed.

  20. The Solar Connection of Enhanced Heavy Ion Charge States in the Interplanetary Medium: Implications for the Flux-Rope Structure of CMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Akiyama, S.; Xie, H.; Yashiro, S.; Reinard, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated a set of 54 interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) events whose solar sources are very close to the disk center (within +/- 15deg from the central meridian). The ICMEs consisted of 23 magnetic-cloud (MC) events and 31 non-MC events. Our analyses suggest that the MC and non-MC ICMEs have more or less the same eruption characteristics at the Sun in terms of soft X-ray flares and CMEs. Both types have significant enhancements in ion charge states, although the non-MC structures have slightly lower levels of enhancement. The overall duration of charge-state enhancement is also considerably smaller than that in MCs as derived from solar wind plasma and magnetic signatures. We find very good correlation between the Fe and O charge-state measurements and the flare properties such as soft X-ray flare intensity and flare temperature for both MCs and non-MCs. These observations suggest that both MC and non-MC ICMEs are likely to have a flux-rope structure and the unfavorable observational geometry may be responsible for the appearance of non-MC structures at 1 AU. We do not find any evidence for an active region expansion resulting in ICMEs lacking a flux-rope structure because the mechanism of producing high charge states and the flux-rope structure at the Sun is the same for MC and non-MC events.

  1. Does the concept of Clar's aromatic sextet work for dicationic forms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons?--testing the model against charged systems in singlet and triplet states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominikowska, Justyna; Palusiak, Marcin

    2011-07-07

    The concept of Clar's π-electron aromatic sextet was tested against a set of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in neutral and doubly charged forms. Systems containing different types of rings (in the context of Clar's concept) were chosen, including benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene and triphenylene. In the case of dicationic structures both singlet and triplet states were considered. It was found that for singlet state dicationic structures the concept of aromatic sextet could be applied and the local aromaticity could be discussed in the context of that model, whereas in the case of triplet state dicationic structures Clar's model rather failed. Different aromaticity indices based on various properties of molecular systems were applied for the purpose of the studies. The discussion about the interdependence between the values of different aromaticity indices applied to neutral and charged systems in singlet and triplet states is also included. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  2. A novel multi-model probability battery state of charge estimation approach for electric vehicles using H-infinity algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Cheng; Mu, Hao; Xiong, Rui; Shen, Weixiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel multi-model probability battery SOC fusion estimation approach was proposed. • The linear matrix inequality-based H∞ technique is employed to estimate the SOC. • The Bayes theorem has been employed to realize the optimal weight for the fusion. • The robustness of the proposed approach is verified by different batteries. • The results show that the proposed method can promote global estimation accuracy. - Abstract: Due to the strong nonlinearity and complex time-variant property of batteries, the existing state of charge (SOC) estimation approaches based on a single equivalent circuit model (ECM) cannot provide the accurate SOC for the entire discharging period. This paper aims to present a novel SOC estimation approach based on a multiple ECMs fusion method for improving the practical application performance. In the proposed approach, three battery ECMs, namely the Thevenin model, the double polarization model and the 3rd order RC model, are selected to describe the dynamic voltage of lithium-ion batteries and the genetic algorithm is then used to determine the model parameters. The linear matrix inequality-based H-infinity technique is employed to estimate the SOC from the three models and the Bayes theorem-based probability method is employed to determine the optimal weights for synthesizing the SOCs estimated from the three models. Two types of lithium-ion batteries are used to verify the feasibility and robustness of the proposed approach. The results indicate that the proposed approach can improve the accuracy and reliability of the SOC estimation against uncertain battery materials and inaccurate initial states.

  3. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A.O.; Hockgeiger, E. [BMW Group, Powertrain Development, Energy Storage, Hufelandstrasse 4, 80788 Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-05-01

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 C and at 3 C battery temperature. (author)

  4. Micro-hybrid electric vehicle application of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in absorbent glass mat technology: Testing a partial-state-of-charge operation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeck, S.; Stoermer, A. O.; Hockgeiger, E.

    The BMW Group has launched two micro-hybrid functions in high volume models in order to contribute to reduction of fuel consumption in modern passenger cars. Both the brake energy regeneration (BER) and the auto-start-stop function (ASSF) are based on the conventional 14 V vehicle electrical system and current series components with only little modifications. An intelligent control algorithm of the alternator enables recuperative charging in braking and coasting phases, known as BER. By switching off the internal combustion engine at a vehicle standstill the idling fuel consumption is effectively reduced by ASSF. By reason of economy and package a lead-acid battery is used as electrochemical energy storage device. The BMW Group assembles valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries in absorbent glass mat (AGM) technology in the micro-hybrid electrical power system since special challenges arise for the batteries. By field data analysis a lower average state-of-charge (SOC) due to partial state-of-charge (PSOC) operation and a higher cycling rate due to BER and ASSF are confirmed in this article. Similar to a design of experiment (DOE) like method we present a long-term lab investigation. Two types of 90 Ah VRLA AGM batteries are operated with a test bench profile that simulates the micro-hybrid vehicle electrical system under varying conditions. The main attention of this lab testing is focused on capacity loss and charge acceptance over cycle life. These effects are put into context with periodically refresh charging the batteries in order to prevent accelerated battery aging due to hard sulfation. We demonstrate the positive effect of refresh chargings concerning preservation of battery charge acceptance. Furthermore, we observe moderate capacity loss over 90 full cycles both at 25 °C and at 3 °C battery temperature.

  5. State of Charge and State of Health Estimation of AGM VRLA Batteries by Employing a Dual Extended Kalman Filter and an ARX Model for Online Parameter Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc-Tham Tran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC and state of health (SOH are key issues for the application of batteries, especially the absorbent glass mat valve regulated lead-acid (AGM VRLA type batteries used in the idle stop start systems (ISSs that are popularly integrated into conventional engine-based vehicles. This is due to the fact that SOC and SOH estimation accuracy is crucial for optimizing battery energy utilization, ensuring safety and extending battery life cycles. The dual extended Kalman filter (DEKF, which provides an elegant and powerful solution, is widely applied in SOC and SOH estimation based on a battery parameter model. However, the battery parameters are strongly dependent on operation conditions such as the SOC, current rate and temperature. In addition, battery parameters change significantly over the life cycle of a battery. As a result, many experimental pretests investigating the effects of the internal and external conditions of a battery on its parameters are required, since the accuracy of state estimation depends on the quality of the information regarding battery parameter changes. In this paper, a novel method for SOC and SOH estimation that combines a DEKF algorithm, which considers hysteresis and diffusion effects, and an auto regressive exogenous (ARX model for online parameters estimation is proposed. The DEKF provides precise information concerning the battery open circuit voltage (OCV to the ARX model. Meanwhile, the ARX model continues monitoring parameter variations and supplies information on them to the DEKF. In this way, the estimation accuracy can be maintained despite the changing parameters of a battery. Moreover, online parameter estimation from the ARX model can save the time and effort used for parameter pretests. The validation of the proposed algorithm is given by simulation and experimental results.

  6. Amplitude Analysis of the Charmless Decays of Charged B Mesons to the Final States K+- Pi-+ Pi+- Using the BaBar Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latham, Thomas Edward; /Bristol U.

    2006-09-18

    Results of an amplitude analysis of the B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} Dalitz plot are presented. The analysis uses a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 210.6 fb{sup -1}, recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B Factory. This sample corresponds to 231.8 million B{bar B} pairs. Branching fractions and 90% confidence level upper limits are calculated, averaged over charge conjugate states (B). For those modes that have significant branching fraction measurements CP violating charge asymmetry measurements are also presented (A{sub CP}). The results from the nominal fit are summarized.

  7. Inner-shell vacancy production and mean charge states of MeV/u Fe, Co, Ni and Cu ions in Au and Bi solid targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciortea, C. E-mail: ciortea@tandem.nipne.ro; Dumitriu, Dana; Enescu, Sanda E.; Enulescu, A.; Fluerasu, Daniela; Piticu, I.; Szilagyi, Z.S

    2002-06-01

    The average charge states of 0.1-1.5 MeV/u Fe, Co, Ni and Cu ions in solid Au and Bi targets have been determined, by estimating the mean numbers of outer-shell spectator vacancies during the K-vacancy decay. The latter quantities were obtained from the yield and energy shifts of the K{alpha}, {beta} X-rays, by comparing with calculations in the independent electron approximation. The reported equilibrium charges, mostly characteristic for the inside of the target, are in fairly agreement with Nikolaev and Dmitriev semi-empirical formula [Phys. Lett. 28A (1968) 277].

  8. Probing surface states in PbS nanocrystal films using pentacene field effect transistors: controlling carrier concentration and charge transport in pentacene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoungnam; Whitham, Kevin; Bian, Kaifu; Lim, Yee-Fun; Hanrath, Tobias

    2014-12-21

    We used a bilayer field effect transistor (FET) consisting of a thin PbS nanocrystals (NCs) film interfaced with vacuum-deposited pentacene to probe trap states in NCs. We interpret the observed threshold voltage shift in context of charge carrier trapping by PbS NCs and relate the magnitude of the threshold voltage shift to the number of trapped carriers. We explored a series of NC surface ligands to modify the interface between PbS NCs and pentacene and demonstrate the impact of interface chemistry on charge carrier density and the FET mobility in a pentacene FET.

  9. Charged particle spectra in different final states at √(s)=13 TeV with the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel

    2017-12-01

    In this thesis, measurements of different charged-particle distributions performed with the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy √(s)=13 TeV are presented. In particular, the charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions, also referred to as charged-particle pseudorapidity densities, the multiplicity distributions of charged particles per event, and different transverse-momentum distributions corresponding to all charged particles, the leading charged-particle, and the integrated spectrum of the latter are presented. The charged-particles are selected with transverse momenta p T >0.5 GeV in the range vertical stroke η vertical stroke <2.4. The data are corrected for the different detector effects such as resolution and efficiency. The measured distributions are presented for four different samples corresponding to an Inclusive event sample, an Inelastic-enhanced event sample, a sample dominated by non-single diffractive dissociation events (NSD-enhanced sample), and a sample enriched by single-diffractive dissociation events (SD-enhanced sample). The measurements presented in this thesis provide extensive and unique insights into low energy exchange processes that dominate the proton-proton interactions. The rich variety of distributions presented for different event samples, especially those enhanced in diffractive processes, are valuable sources of information to understand the transition from the perturbative to the non-perturbative regions and to adjust the model parameters present in modern MC event generators.

  10. Charged particle spectra in different final states at √(s)=13 TeV with the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel

    2017-12-15

    In this thesis, measurements of different charged-particle distributions performed with the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy √(s)=13 TeV are presented. In particular, the charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions, also referred to as charged-particle pseudorapidity densities, the multiplicity distributions of charged particles per event, and different transverse-momentum distributions corresponding to all charged particles, the leading charged-particle, and the integrated spectrum of the latter are presented. The charged-particles are selected with transverse momenta p{sub T}>0.5 GeV in the range vertical stroke η vertical stroke <2.4. The data are corrected for the different detector effects such as resolution and efficiency. The measured distributions are presented for four different samples corresponding to an Inclusive event sample, an Inelastic-enhanced event sample, a sample dominated by non-single diffractive dissociation events (NSD-enhanced sample), and a sample enriched by single-diffractive dissociation events (SD-enhanced sample). The measurements presented in this thesis provide extensive and unique insights into low energy exchange processes that dominate the proton-proton interactions. The rich variety of distributions presented for different event samples, especially those enhanced in diffractive processes, are valuable sources of information to understand the transition from the perturbative to the non-perturbative regions and to adjust the model parameters present in modern MC event generators.

  11. The Roles of Structural Order and Intermolecular Interactions in Determining Ionization Energies and Charge-Transfer State Energies in Organic Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Graham, Kenneth

    2016-08-17

    The energy landscape in organic semiconducting materials greatly influences charge and exciton behavior, which are both critical to the operation of organic electronic devices. These energy landscapes can change dramatically depending on the phases of material present, including pure phases of one molecule or polymer and mixed phases exhibiting different degrees of order and composition. In this work, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements of ionization energies (IEs) and external quantum efficiency measurements of charge-transfer (CT) state energies (ECT) are applied to molecular photovoltaic material systems to characterize energy landscapes. The results show that IEs and ECT values are highly dependent on structural order and phase composition. In the sexithiophene:C60 system both the IEs of sexithiophene and C60 shift by over 0.4 eV while ECT shifts by 0.5 eV depending on molecular composition. By contrast, in the rubrene:C60 system the IE of rubrene and C60 vary by ≤0.11 eV and ECT varies by ≤0.04 eV as the material composition varies. These results suggest that energy landscapes can exist whereby the binding energies of the CT states are overcome by energy offsets between charges in CT states in mixed regions and free charges in pure phases. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Energy loss and charge state distribution of calcium ions in dense moderately coupled carbon plasma; Energieverlust und Ladungsverteilung von Calciumionen in dichtem, schwach gekoppeltem Kohlenstoffplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortner, Alex

    2015-07-15

    In this thesis the interaction of swift calcium ions (Energy: 3.5 MeV/u) with a dense and moderately coupled carbon plasma (Coupling parameter: Γ=0.1-0.5) is investigated. The plasma state is generated by heating a thin carbon foil volumetrically by thermal X-ray radiation. The thermal X-ray radiation itself is generated by the conversion of a high energy laser beam in a hohlraum cavity. Compared to earlier ion stopping experiments the electron density and the plasma coupling parameter could be increased by an order of magnitude. This work provides the first time experimental energy loss and charge state distribution data in this moderately coupled interaction regime. The thesis consists of a theoretical part where the ion beam plasma interaction is studied for a broad range of plasma parameters and an experimental part where the ion beam interaction with the hohlraum plasma target is measured. All the described experiments were carried out at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. This facility offers the unique possibility to combine a heavy ion beam from an accelerator with a high energy laser beam in one interaction chamber. An intense laser pulse (150 J of laser energy in 1 ns at λ{sub L}=527 nm) is focused inside a 600 μm diameter spherical cavity and generates a hot gold plasma that emits X-rays. The absorbed and reemitted radiation establishes a spatially uniform temperature distribution in the cavity and serves as an intense, isotropic X-ray source with a quasi-thermal spectral distribution. These thermal X-rays with a radiation temperature of T{sub r}=98±6 eV then propagate into a secondary cylindrical hohlraum (diameter: 1000 μm, length: 950 μm) where they volumetrically heat two thin carbon foils to the plasma state. The radiation temperature in the secondary hohlraum is T{sub r}=33±5 eV. This indirect laser heating scheme has the advantage that the whole sample volume is instantaneously heated and that the plasma is

  13. Theoretical study of charge trapping levels in silicon nitride using the LDA-1/2 self-energy correction scheme for excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrocinio, Weslley S.; Ribeiro, Mauro; Fonseca, Leonardo R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon nitride, with a permittivity mid-way between SiO 2 and common high-k materials such as HfO 2 , is widely used in microelectronics as an insulating layer on top of oxides where it serves as an impurity barrier with the positive side effect of increasing the dielectric constant of the insulator when it is SiO 2 . It is also employed as charge storage in nonvolatile memory devices thanks to its high concentration of charge traps. However, in the case of memories, it is still unclear which defects are responsible for charge trapping and what is the impact of defect concentration on the structural and electronic properties of SiN x . Indeed, for the amorphous phase the band gap was measured in the range 5.1–5.5 eV, with long tails in the density of states penetrating the gap region. It is still not clear which defects are responsible for the tails. On the other hand, the K-center defects have been associated with charge trapping, though its origin is assigned to one Si back bond. To investigate the contribution of defect states to the band edge tails and band gap states, we adopted the β phase of stoichiometric silicon nitride (β-Si 3 N 4 ) as our model material and calculated its electronic properties employing ab initio DFT/LDA simulations with self-energy correction to improve the location of defect states in the SiN x band gap through the correction of the band gap underestimation typical of DFT/LDA. We considered some important defects in SiN x , as the Si anti-site and the N vacancy with H saturation, in two defect concentrations. The location of our calculated defect levels in the band gap correlates well with the available experimental data, offering a structural explanation to the measured band edge tails and charge trapping characteristics.

  14. A novel chalcone-analogue as an optical sensor based on ground and excited states intramolecular charge transfer: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayed, Tarek A.

    2006-01-01

    Steady-state absorption and emission spectroscopic techniques as well as semiempirical quantum calculations at the AM1 and ZINDO/S levels have been used to investigate the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) behaviour of a novel chalcone namely; 1-(2-pyridyl)-5-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-penta-2,4-diene-1-one, DMAC. The ground state DMAC has a significant ICT character and a great sensitivity to the hydrogen bond donating ability of the medium as reflected from the change of the absorption spectra in pure and mixed organic solvents. On the other hand, its excited singlet state exhibits high ICT characters as manifested by the drastic solvatochromic effects. These results are consistent with the data of charge density calculations in both the ground and excited state, which indicates enhancement of the charge transfer from the dimethyl-amino group to the carbonyl oxygen upon excitation. Also, the dipole moment calculations indicates a highly dipolar excited singlet state (Δμ eg = 15.5 D). The solvent dependence of the fluorescence quantum yield of DMAC was interpreted on the basis of positive and negative solvatokinetic as well as the hydrogen bonding effects. Incorporation of the 2-pyridyl group in the chemical structure of the present DMAC led to design of a potential optical sensor for probing acidity of the medium and metal cations such as Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ and Hg 2+ . This was concluded from the high acidochromic and metallochromic behaviour of DMAC on adding such cations to its acetonitrile solutions

  15. Ab initio modeling of excitonic and charge-transfer states in organic semiconductors: the PTB1/PCBM low band gap system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Itamar; Aquino, Adélia J A; Köhn, Andreas; Nieman, Reed; Hase, William L; Chen, Lin X; Lischka, Hans

    2013-12-11

    A detailed quantum chemical simulation of the excitonic and charge-transfer (CT) states of a bulk heterojunction model containing poly(thieno[3,4-b]thiophene benzodithiophene) (PTB1)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) is reported. The largest molecular model contains two stacked PTB1 trimer chains interacting with C60 positioned on top of and lateral to the (PTB1)3 stack. The calculations were performed using the algebraic diagrammatic construction method to second order (ADC(2)). One main result of the calculations is that the CT states are located below the bright inter-chain excitonic state, directly accessible via internal conversion processes. The other important aspects of the calculations are the formation of discrete bands of CT states originating from the lateral C60's and the importance of inter-chain charge delocalization for the stability of the CT states. A simple model for the charge separation step is also given, revealing the energetic feasibility of the overall photovoltaic process.

  16. New improvements on the Kansas State University cryogenic electron beam ion source, a user facility for low energy, highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, M. P.; Carnes, K.; Cocke, C. L.; DePaola, B. D.; Ehrenreich, T.; Fehrenbach, C.; Fry, D.; Gibson, P. E.; Kelly, S.; Lehnert, U.

    2000-01-01

    The Kansas State University cryogenic electron beam ion source supplies low energy ion beams to users of the Department of Energy user facility for highly charged ions. The ions escape the source with an initial energy between 1.6 and 5 kV per charge and are analyzed in a 90 degree sign dipole magnet located on the high voltage platform. When leaving the platform the ions can be accelerated by up to 160 kV per charge or can be decelerated to about 20% of their initial energy, covering 2.5 orders of magnitude. We are in the process of adding another order of magnitude to the range of available ion energies as a newly installed lens allows for deceleration down to a very few percent of the initial energy. In addition we present the current microbunching and chopping system which has been substantially improved over the past 2 yr. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  17. Stability Analysis for Li-Ion Battery Model Parameters and State of Charge Estimation by Measurement Uncertainty Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifei Yuan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of model parameters and state of charge (SoC is crucial for the lithium-ion battery management system (BMS. In this paper, the stability of the model parameters and SoC estimation under measurement uncertainty is evaluated by three different factors: (i sampling periods of 1/0.5/0.1 s; (ii current sensor precisions of ±5/±50/±500 mA; and (iii voltage sensor precisions of ±1/±2.5/±5 mV. Firstly, the numerical model stability analysis and parametric sensitivity analysis for battery model parameters are conducted under sampling frequency of 1–50 Hz. The perturbation analysis is theoretically performed of current/voltage measurement uncertainty on model parameter variation. Secondly, the impact of three different factors on the model parameters and SoC estimation was evaluated with the federal urban driving sequence (FUDS profile. The bias correction recursive least square (CRLS and adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF algorithm were adopted to estimate the model parameters and SoC jointly. Finally, the simulation results were compared and some insightful findings were concluded. For the given battery model and parameter estimation algorithm, the sampling period, and current/voltage sampling accuracy presented a non-negligible effect on the estimation results of model parameters. This research revealed the influence of the measurement uncertainty on the model parameter estimation, which will provide the guidelines to select a reasonable sampling period and the current/voltage sensor sampling precisions in engineering applications.

  18. Evaluation of Lithium-Ion Battery Equivalent Circuit Models for State of Charge Estimation by an Experimental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxin Fan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve the use of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicle (EV applications, evaluations and comparisons of different equivalent circuit models are presented in this paper. Based on an analysis of the traditional lithium-ion battery equivalent circuit models such as the Rint, RC, Thevenin and PNGV models, an improved Thevenin model, named dual polarization (DP model, is put forward by adding an extra RC to simulate the electrochemical polarization and concentration polarization separately. The model parameters are identified with a genetic algorithm, which is used to find the optimal time constant of the model, and the experimental data from a Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC test on a LiMn2O4 battery module. Evaluations on the five models are carried out from the point of view of the dynamic performance and the state of charge (SoC estimation. The dynamic performances of the five models are obtained by conducting the Dynamic Stress Test (DST and the accuracy of SoC estimation with the Robust Extended Kalman Filter (REKF approach is determined by performing a Federal Urban Driving Schedules (FUDS experiment. By comparison, the DP model has the best dynamic performance and provides the most accurate SoC estimation. Finally, sensitivity of the different SoC initial values is investigated based on the accuracy of SoC estimation with the REKF approach based on the DP model. It is clear that the errors resulting from the SoC initial value are significantly reduced and the true SoC is convergent within an acceptable error.

  19. A Protocol for Electrochemical Evaluations and State of Charge Diagnostics of a Symmetric Organic Redox Flow Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wentao; Vemuri, Rama S; Hu, Dehong; Yang, Zheng; Wei, Xiaoliang

    2017-02-13

    Redox flow batteries have been considered as one of the most promising stationary energy storage solutions for improving the reliability of the power grid and deployment of renewable energy technologies. Among the many flow battery chemistries, non-aqueous flow batteries have the potential to achieve high energy density because of the broad voltage windows of non-aqueous electrolytes. However, significant technical hurdles exist currently limiting non-aqueous flow batteries to demonstrate their full potential, such as low redox concentrations, low operating currents, under-explored battery status monitoring, etc. In an attempt to address these limitations, we recently reported a non-aqueous flow battery based on a highly soluble, redox-active organic nitronyl nitroxide radical compound, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO). This redox material exhibits an ambipolar electrochemical property, and therefore can serve as both anolyte and catholyte redox materials to form a symmetric flow battery chemistry. Moreover, we demonstrated that Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy could measure the PTIO concentrations during the PTIO flow battery cycling and offer reasonably accurate detection of the battery state of charge (SOC), as cross-validated by electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. Herein we present a video protocol for the electrochemical evaluation and SOC diagnosis of the PTIO symmetric flow battery. With a detailed description, we experimentally demonstrated the route to achieve such purposes. This protocol aims to spark more interests and insights on the safety and reliability in the field of non-aqueous redox flow batteries.

  20. Influence of different open circuit voltage tests on state of charge online estimation for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Fangdan; Xing, Yinjiao; Jiang, Jiuchun; Sun, Bingxiang; Kim, Jonghoon; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two common tests for observing battery open circuit voltage performance are compared. • The temperature dependency of the OCV-SOC relationship is investigated. • Two estimators are evaluated in terms of accuracy and robustness for estimating battery SOC. • The incremental OCV test is better to predetermine the OCV-SOCs for SOC online estimation. - Abstract: Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is a crucial function of battery management systems (BMSs), since accurate estimated SOC is critical to ensure the safety and reliability of electric vehicles. A widely used technique for SOC estimation is based on online inference of battery open circuit voltage (OCV). Low-current OCV and incremental OCV tests are two common methods to observe the OCV-SOC relationship, which is an important element of the SOC estimation technique. In this paper, two OCV tests are run at three different temperatures and based on which, two SOC estimators are compared and evaluated in terms of tracking accuracy, convergence time, and robustness for online estimating battery SOC. The temperature dependency of the OCV-SOC relationship is investigated and its influence on SOC estimation results is discussed. In addition, four dynamic tests are presented, one for estimator parameter identification and the other three for estimator performance evaluation. The comparison results show that estimator 2 (based on the incremental OCV test) has higher tracking accuracy and is more robust against varied loading conditions and different initial values of SOC than estimator 1 (based on the low-current OCV test) with regard to ambient temperature. Therefore, the incremental OCV test is recommended for predetermining the OCV-SOCs for battery SOC online estimation in BMSs.

  1. A Protocol for Electrochemical Evaluations and State of Charge Diagnostics of a Symmetric Organic Redox Flow Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Wentao; Vemuri, Rama S.; Hu, Dehong; Yang, Zheng; Wei, Xiaoliang

    2017-01-01

    Redox flow batteries have been considered as one of the most promising stationary energy storage solutions for improving the reliability of the power grid and deployment of renewable energy technologies. Among the many flow battery chemistries, nonaqueous flow batteries have the potential to achieve high energy density because of the broad voltage windows of nonaqueous electrolytes. However, significant technical hurdles exist currently limiting nonaqueous flow batteries to demonstrate their full potential, such as low redox concentrations, low operating currents, under-explored battery status monitoring, etc. In an attempt to address these limitations, we report a nonaqueous flow battery based on a highly soluble, redox-active organic nitronyl nitroxide radical compound, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO). This redox materials exhibits an ambipolar electrochemical property with two reversible redox pairs that are moderately separated by a voltage gap of ~1.7 V. Therefore, PTIO can serve as both anolyte and catholyte redox materials to form a symmetric flow battery chemistry, which affords the advantages such as high effective redox concentrations and low irreversible redox material crossover. The PTIO flow battery shows decent electrochemical cyclability under cyclic voltammetry and flow cell conditions; an improved redox concentration of 0.5 M PTIO and operational current density of 20 mA cm-2 were achieved in flow cell tests. Moreover, we show that Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy could measure the PTIO concentrations during the PTIO flow battery cycling and offer reasonably accurate detection of the battery state of charge (SOC) as cross-validated by electron spin resonance measurements. This study suggests FTIR can be used as a reliable online SOC sensor to monitor flow battery status and ensure battery operations stringently in a safe SOC range.

  2. Final Research Report: Administrative and Legal Issues Associated with a Multi-State VMT-Based Charge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    In May 2009, the I-95 Coalition convened a workshop of experts to discuss how the Coalition could best contribute to the national dialogue regarding VMT-based charge systems. Following the recommendations of the National Surface Transportation Policy...

  3. The effect of structural changes on charge transfer states in a light-harvesting carotenoid-diaryl-porphyrin-C{sub 60} molecular triad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olguin, Marco [Computational Science Program, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Basurto, Luis; Zope, Rajendra R. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Baruah, Tunna, E-mail: tbaruah@utep.edu [Computational Science Program, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    We present a detailed study of charge transfer (CT) excited states for a large number of configurations in a light-harvesting Carotenoid-diaryl-Porphyrin-C{sub 60} (CPC{sub 60}) molecular triad. The chain-like molecular triad undergoes photoinduced charge transfer process exhibiting a large excited state dipole moment, making it suitable for application to molecular-scale opto-electronic devices. An important consideration is that the structural flexibility of the CPC{sub 60} triad impacts its dynamics in solvents. Since experimentally measured dipole moments for the triad of ∼110 D and ∼160 D strongly indicate a range in structural variability in the excited state, studying the effect of structural changes on the CT excited state energetics furthers the understanding of its charge transfer states. We have calculated the variation in the lowest CT excited state energies by performing a scan of possible variation in the structure of the triad. Some of these configurations were generated by incrementally scanning a 360° torsional (dihedral) twist at the C{sub 60}-porhyrin linkage and the porphyrin-carotenoid linkage. Additionally, five different CPC{sub 60} conformations were studied to determine the effect of pi-conjugation and particle-hole Coulombic attraction on the CT excitation energies. Our calculations show that configurational changes in the triad induces a variation of ∼0.6 eV in CT excited state energies in the gas-phase. The corresponding calculated excited state dipoles show a range of 47 D–188 D. The absorption spectra and density of states of these structures show little variation except for the structures where the porphyrin and aryl conjugation is changed.

  4. Online available capacity prediction and state of charge estimation based on advanced data-driven algorithms for lithium iron phosphate battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Zhongwei; Yang, Lin; Cai, Yishan; Deng, Hao; Sun, Liu

    2016-01-01

    The key technology of a battery management system is to online estimate the battery states accurately and robustly. For lithium iron phosphate battery, the relationship between state of charge and open circuit voltage has a plateau region which limits the estimation accuracy of voltage-based algorithms. The open circuit voltage hysteresis requires advanced online identification algorithms to cope with the strong nonlinear battery model. The available capacity, as a crucial parameter, contributes to the state of charge and state of health estimation of battery, but it is difficult to predict due to comprehensive influence by temperature, aging and current rates. Aim at above problems, the ampere-hour counting with current correction and the dual adaptive extended Kalman filter algorithms are combined to estimate model parameters and state of charge. This combination presents the advantages of less computation burden and more robustness. Considering the influence of temperature and degradation, the data-driven algorithm namely least squares support vector machine is implemented to predict the available capacity. The state estimation and capacity prediction methods are coupled to improve the estimation accuracy at different temperatures among the lifetime of battery. The experiment results verify the proposed methods have excellent state and available capacity estimation accuracy. - Highlights: • A dual adaptive extended Kalman filter is used to estimate parameters and states. • A correction term is introduced to consider the effect of current rates. • The least square support vector machine is used to predict the available capacity. • The experiment results verify the proposed state and capacity prediction methods.

  5. Distribution of nuclear charge and angular momentum in chains 132-137, 99, and 102 of thermal neutron fission of 235U at various kinetic energies and charge states of the fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, H.O.; Braun, H.; Wolfsberg, K.

    1979-01-01

    The fission product yields of the members of the decay chains 132 to 137, 99, and 102 in 235 U(n/sub th/,f) were measured at various kinetic energies and ionic charge states of the fragments using the mass separator for unslowed fission products LOHENGRIN. The results are discussed with respect to four aspects: A preferential formation of neutron rich chain members found at high kinetic energy of the fragments is predominantly due to decreasing prompt neutron evaporation. A particularly large effect in chain 132 is attributed to the double shell closure in Sn-132. The persistence of an even-odd pairing effect in the yields throughout the range of kinetic energies studied leads to the conclusion that the high internal excitation energy of the fragments is tied up mainly in the form of collective energy (e.g., deformation energy) rather than single particle excitation. Generally, the yield distribution at constant kinetic energy is invariant with respect to the ionic charge state of the isotopes separated. Deviations from this behavior found in chains 99, 102, 133, and 136 are interpreted as being due to Auger events following a converted transition in the decay of ns-isomers taking place in the vacuum of the separator. A pronounced variation of the independent formation ratio of single isomeric states with the kinetic energy of the fragments is providing direct information on the controversial topic of the change of angular momentum of fission fragments as a function of deformation (scission distance). 34 references

  6. Analysis of the effect of interface state charges on threshold voltage and transconductance of 6H-SiC N-channel MOSFET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaoyan; Zhang Yimen; Zhang Yuming

    2002-01-01

    The effect of interface state charges on the threshold voltage and transconductance of 6H-SiC N-channel metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is analyzed based on the non-uniformly distributed interface state density in the band gap and incomplete impurity ionization in silicon carbide. The results show that the nonuniform distribution of interface state density cause not only the increment of the threshold voltage but also the degradation of the transconductance of MOSFET so that it is one of the important factors to influence the characteristics of SiC MOSFET

  7. Possible impact of multi-electron loss events on the average beam charge state in an HIF target chamber and a neutral beam approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, L. R.

    2001-05-01

    Experiments were carried out during the early 1980s to assess the obtainable atomic neutralization of energetic beams of negative ions ranging from lithium to silicon. The experiments found (Grisham et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53 (1982) 281; Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Report PPPL-1857, 1981) that, for higher atomic number elements than lithium, it appeared that a substantial fraction of the time more than one electron was being lost in a single collision. This result was inferred from the existence of more than one ionization state in the product beam for even the thinnest line densities at which any electron removal took place. Because of accelerator limitations, these experiments were limited to maximum energies of 7 MeV. However, based upon these results, it is possible that multi-electron loss events may also play a significant role in determining the average ion charge state of the much higher Z and more energetic beams traversing the medium in an heavy ion fusion chamber. This could result in the beam charge state being considerably higher than previously anticipated, and might require designers to consider harder vacuum ballistic focusing approaches, or the development of additional space charge neutralization schemes. This paper discusses the measurements that gave rise for these concerns, as well as a description of further measurements that are proposed to be carried out for atomic numbers and energies per amu which would be closer to those required for heavy ion fusion drivers. With a very low current beam of a massive, but low charge state energetic ion, the charge state distribution emerging from a target gas cell could be measured as a function of line density and medium composition. Varying the line density would allow one to simulate the charge state evolution of the beam as a function of distance into the target chamber. This paper also briefly discusses a possible alternative driver approach using photodetachment-neutralized atomic beams

  8. Pressure-induced emission band separation of the hybridized local and charge transfer excited state in a TPE-based crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuedan; Li, Aisen; Xu, Weiqing; Ma, Zhiyong; Jia, Xinru

    2018-05-08

    We herein report a newly synthesized simple molecule, named TPE[double bond, length as m-dash]C4, with twisted D-A structure. TPE[double bond, length as m-dash]C4 showed two intrinsic emission bands ascribed to the locally excited (LE) state and the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state, respectively. In the crystal state, the LE emission band is usually observed. However, by applying hydrostatic pressure to the powder sample and the single crystal sample of TPE[double bond, length as m-dash]C4, dual-fluorescence (445 nm and 532 nm) was emerged under high pressure, owing to the pressure-induced emission band separation of the hybridized local and charge transfer excited state (HLCT). It is found that the emission of TPE[double bond, length as m-dash]C4 is generally determined by the ratio of the LE state to the ICT state. The ICT emission band is much more sensitive to the external pressure than the LE emission band. The HLCT state leads to a sample with different responsiveness to grinding and hydrostatic pressure. This study is of significance in the molecular design of such D-A type molecules and in the control of photoluminescence features by molecular structure. Such results are expected to pave a new way to further understand the relationship between the D-A molecular structure and stimuli-responsive properties.

  9. Charge transfer mechanism for the formation of metallic states at the KTaO3/SrTiO3 interface

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, Safdar

    2011-03-29

    The electronic and optical properties of the KTaO3/SrTiO3 heterointerface are analyzed by the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave approach of density functional theory. Optimization of the atomic positions points at subordinate changes in the crystal structure and chemical bonding near the interface, which is due to a minimal lattice mismatch. The creation of metallic interface states thus is not affected by structural relaxation but can be explained by charge transfer between transition metal and oxygen atoms. It is to be expected that a charge transfer is likewise important for related interfaces such as LaAlO3/SrTiO3. The KTaO3/SrTiO3 system is ideal for disentangling the complex behavior of metallic interface states, since almost no structural relaxation takes place.

  10. Interfacial charge recombination via the triplet state? Mimicry of photoprotection in the photosynthetic process with a dye-sensitized TiO 2 solar cell reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yu-Xiang; Li, Long; Liu, Yin; Wang, Li; Yang, Guo-Zhen; Sheng, Jian-Qun

    2002-04-01

    Evidence for the photoinduced charge recombination to the excited-triplet state has been observed in chemical solar cell reaction consisting of dye-sensitized TiO 2 colloidal ethanol solution, which mimicks the photoprotection function in the photosynthetic units. The dye is all -trans-retinoic acid, a structural analog of β-carotenoid. Two channels of charge recombination, i.e., through triplet and ground states were observed by nano-second flash photolysis. The possibility of applying the function of photoprotection to the synthetic solar cell is discussed, which provides a potential entry of molecular engineering of the dye to improve the long term stability of the synthetic solar cell.

  11. Projectile-charge-state dependence of 0 degree binary-encounter electron production in 30-MeV Oq++O2 collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouros, T.J.M.; Richard, P.; Wong, K.L.; Hidmi, H.I.; Sanders, J.M.; Liao, C.; Grabbe, S.; Bhalla, C.P.

    1994-01-01

    Double-differential cross sections (DDCS's) for the production of binary-encounter electrons (BEE's) are reported for 30-MeV O q+ +O 2 collisions. The BEE DDCS's were measured at θ=0 degree with respect to the beam direction for projectile charge states q=4--8. The measured BEE DDCS's were found to increase with decreasing charge state in agreement with other recent BEE results employing simpler H 2 and He targets. Impulse-approximation calculations of BEE production for θ=0 degree--45 degree are also presented, in which it is assumed that target electrons undergo elastic scattering in the screened Coulomb field of the projectile ion. These calculations are shown to be in agreement with our data at θ=0 degree where only 2s and 2p target electrons are considered

  12. State-selective charge exchange in slow collisions of Si3+ ions with H atoms: A molecular state close coupling treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Dwayne C; Saha, Bidhan C

    2012-01-01

    Charge transfer cross sections are calculated by employing both the quantal and semiclassical ε(R) molecular orbital close coupling (MOCC) approximations in the adiabatic representation and compared with other theoretical and experimental results

  13. State-selective charge exchange in slow collisions of Si3+ ions with H atoms: A molecular state close coupling treatment*)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Dwayne C.; Saha, Bidhan C.

    2012-11-01

    Charge transfer cross sections are calculated by employing both the quantal and semiclassical ɛ(R) molecular orbital close coupling (MOCC) approximations in the adiabatic representation and compared with other theoretical and experimental results

  14. Coulombic charge ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClarty, P. A.; O'Brien, A.; Pollmann, F.

    2014-05-01

    We consider a classical model of charges ±q on a pyrochlore lattice in the presence of long-range Coulomb interactions. This model first appeared in the early literature on charge order in magnetite [P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 102, 1008 (1956), 10.1103/PhysRev.102.1008]. In the limit where the interactions become short ranged, the model has a ground state with an extensive entropy and dipolar charge-charge correlations. When long-range interactions are introduced, the exact degeneracy is broken. We study the thermodynamics of the model and show the presence of a correlated charge liquid within a temperature window in which the physics is well described as a liquid of screened charged defects. The structure factor in this phase, which has smeared pinch points at the reciprocal lattice points, may be used to detect charge ice experimentally. In addition, the model exhibits fractionally charged excitations ±q/2 which are shown to interact via a 1/r potential. At lower temperatures, the model exhibits a transition to a long-range ordered phase. We are able to treat the Coulombic charge ice model and the dipolar spin ice model on an equal footing by mapping both to a constrained charge model on the diamond lattice. We find that states of the two ice models are related by a staggering field which is reflected in the energetics of these two models. From this perspective, we can understand the origin of the spin ice and charge ice ground states as coming from a dipolar model on a diamond lattice. We study the properties of charge ice in an external electric field, finding that the correlated liquid is robust to the presence of a field in contrast to the case of spin ice in a magnetic field. Finally, we comment on the transport properties of Coulombic charge ice in the correlated liquid phase.

  15. Charge imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.

    1981-01-01

    This article provides a long theoretical development of the main ideas of charge imbalance in superconductors. Concepts of charge imbalance and quasiparticle charge are introduced, especially in regards to the use of tunnel injection in producing and detecting charge imbalance. Various mechanisms of charge relaxation are discussed, including inelastic scattering processes, elastic scattering in the presence of energy-gap anisotropy, and various pair-breaking mechanisms. In each case, present theories are reviewed in comparison with experimental data

  16. Li insertion into Li4Ti5O12 spinel prepared by low temperature solid state route: Charge capability vs surface area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukalová, Markéta; Fabián, M.; Klusáčková, Monika; Klementová, Mariana; Pitňa Lásková, Barbora; Danková, Z.; Senna, M.; Kavan, Ladislav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 265 (2018), s. 480-487 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-06511S; GA MŠk LM2015087; GA MŠk 8F15003 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Li4Ti5O12 * Charge capacity * Solid state * Li insertion * Surface area Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  17. Superconductivity, charge orderings, magnetism, and their phase separations in the ground state of lattice models of superconductor with very short coherence length

    OpenAIRE

    Kapcia, Konrad Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    This is an author-created, un-copyedited version of an article accepted for publication in Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism. We present the ground state results for lattice models of superconductor (SC) with extremely short coherence length, which also involve the interplay with charge (CO) and (anti-)ferromagnetic orderings. Our preliminary results at zero-temperature (derived by means of the variational approach which treats the on-site interaction term exactly and the in...

  18. Reversed phase liquid chromatography hyphenated to continuous flow-extractive desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry for analysis and charge state manipulation of undigested proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, L.; Yang, S.; Vidová, Veronika; Rice, E. M.; Wijeratne, A.; Havlíček, Vladimír; Schug, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2015), s. 361-368 ISSN 1469-0667 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/12/1150; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14064; GA MŠk LO1509 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : protein chromatography * ambient ionization * charge-state manipulation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.011, year: 2015

  19. Electron loss from 0.74 and 1.4 MeV/u low-charge-state argon and xenon ions colliding with neon, nitrogen, and argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, R.D.; Santos, A.C.F.; Olson, R.E.

    2003-07-01

    Absolute total, single, and multiple electron loss cross sections are measured for Ar + -, Ar 2+ -, and Xe 3+ - Ne, N 2 , Ar collisions at 0.74 and 1.4 MeV/u. In addition, a many-body Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo model was used to calculate total and multiple electron loss cross sections for Ar + impact. For N 2 and Ar targets, excellent agreement between the measured and calculated cross sections is found; for the Ne target the experimental data are approximately 40% smaller than the theoretical predictions. The experimental data are also used to examine cross section scaling characteristics for electron loss from fast, low-charge-state, heavy ions. It is shown that multiple electron loss increased the mean charge states of the outgoing argon and xenon ions by two and three respectively. The cross sections decreased with increasing number of electrons lost and scaled roughly as the inverse of the sum of the ionization potentials required to sequentially remove the most weakly bound, next most weakly bound, etc., electrons. This scaling was found to be independent of projectile, incoming charge state, and target. In addition, the experimental total loss cross sections are found to be nearly constant as a function of initial projectile charge state. As a function of impact energy, the theoretical predictions yield an E -1/3 behavior between 0.5 and 30 MeV/u for the total loss cross sections. Within error bars the data are consistent with this energy dependence but are also consistent with an E -1/2 energy dependence. (orig.)

  20. High magnetic field magnetoresistance anomalies in the charge density wave state of the quasi-two dimensional bronze KMo6O{17}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, H.; Dumas, J.; Marcus, J.; Schlenker, C.; Vignolles, D.

    2005-12-01

    We report high magnetic field magnetoresistance measurements performed in pulsed fields up to 55 T on the quasi-two dimensional charge density wave conductor KMo{6}O{17}. Magnetoresistance curves show several anomalies below 28 T. First order transitions to smaller gap states take place at low temperature above 30 T. A phase diagram T(B) has been obtained. The angular dependence of the anomalies is reported.