WorldWideScience

Sample records for charge state distributions

  1. Numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crume, E. C.; Arnurius, D. E.

    1977-09-01

    The numerical calculation of impurity charge state distributions using the computer program IMPDYN is discussed. The time-dependent corona atomic physics model used in the calculations is reviewed, and general and specific treatments of electron impact ionization and recombination are referenced. The complete program and two examples relating to tokamak plasmas are given on a microfiche so that a user may verify that his version of the program is working properly. In the discussion of the examples, the corona steady-state approximation is shown to have significant defects when the plasma environment, particularly the electron temperature, is changing rapidly.

  2. Environment-protected solid-state-based distributed charge qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi, Amin; Hoatson, Tanya Nicole; Wang, Joie; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    A solid-state-based charge qubit is presented. The system consists of a one-dimensional wire with a pair of qubits embedded at its center. It is shown that the system supports collective states localized in the left and right sides of the wire and therefore, as a whole, performs as a single qubit. The couplings between the ground and excited states of the two central qubits are inversely proportional making them fully asynchronized and allowing for coherent manipulation and gate operations. Initialization and measurement devices, such as leads and charge detectors, connected to the edges of the wire are modeled by a continuum of energy states. The coupling to the continuum is discussed using the effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. At weak continuum coupling, all internal states uniformly acquire small decay widths. This changes dramatically as the coupling strength increases: the width distribution undergoes a sharp restructuring and is no longer uniformly divided among the eigenstates. Two broad resonances localized at the ends of the wire are formed. These superradiant states (analogous to Dicke states in quantum optics) effectively protect the remaining internal states from decaying into the continuum and hence increase the lifetime of the qubit. Environmental noise is introduced by considering random Gaussian fluctuations of electronic energies. The interplay between decoherence and superradiance is studied by solving the stochastic Liouville equation. In addition to increasing the lifetime, the emergence of the superradiant states increases the qubit coherence.

  3. A novel approach to kinetic energy release distribution and charge state distribution measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kaidee [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30077, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: lee@nsrrc.org.tw

    2005-06-15

    When a swarm of ions are accelerated by a pulsed electric field for a common duration before entering an electrostatically dispersive energy analyzer, they will be sorted according to their charge-to-mass ratio q/m. In other words, the apparent kinetic energy upon which an ion will be registered in an apparent 'energy' spectrum thus obtained is proportional to its q/m ratio. For ions of a fixed mass m, the apparent energy spectrum becomes a charge state distribution spectrum. For ions of a fixed charge q, the apparent energy spectrum becomes a mass spectrum. In essence, an energy analyzer becomes both a charge sorter and a mass spectrometer when operated in this mode. In addition, when applied to the detection of photofragment ions, this technique will be able to yield information on the kinetic energy release distribution of the underlying dissociation events.

  4. Molecular effect on equilibrium charge-state distributions. [of nitrogen ions injected through carbon foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickholm, D.; Bickel, W. S.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes an experiment consisting of the acceleration of N(+) and N2(+) ions to energies between 0.25 and 1.75 MeV and their injection through a thin carbon foil, whereupon they were charge-state analyzed with an electrostatic analyzer. A foil-covered electrically suppressed Faraday cup, connected to a stepping motor, moved in the plane of the dispersed beams. The Faraday cup current, which was proportional to the number of incident ions, was sent to a current digitizer and computer programmed as a multiscaler. The energy-dependent charge-state fractions, the mean charge and the distribution width were calculated. It was shown that for incident atoms, the charge state distribution appeared to be spread over more charge states, while for the incident molecules, there was a greater fraction of charge states near the mean charge.

  5. Recoil ion charge state distributions in low energy Ar{sup q+} {minus} Ar collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vancura, J.; Marchetti, V.; Kostroun, V.O.

    1992-12-31

    We have measured the recoil ion charge state distributions in Ar{sup q+} -- Ar (8{le}q{le}16) collisions at 2.3 qkeV and 0.18qkeV by time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy. For Ar{sup 8-16+}, recoil ion charge states up to 6+ are clearly present, indicating that the 3p subshell in the target atom is being depleted, while for Ar{sup 10-16+}, there is evidence that target 3s electrons are also being removed. Comparison of the recoil ion charge state spectra at 2.3 and 0.18 qkeV shows that for a given projectile charge, there is very little dependence of the observed recoil target charge state distribution on projectile energy.

  6. Recoil ion charge state distribution following the beta(sup +) decay of {sup 21}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scielzo, Nicholas D.; Freedman, Stuart J.; Fujikawa, Brian K.; Vetter, Paul A.

    2003-01-03

    The charge state distribution following the positron decay of 21Na has been measured, with a larger than expected fraction of the daughter 21Ne in positive charge states. No dependence on either the positron or recoil nucleus energy is observed. The data is compared to a simple model based on the sudden approximation. Calculations suggest a small but important contribution from recoil ionization has important consequences for precision beta decay correlation experiments detecting recoil ions.

  7. Charge-state distribution and Doppler effect in an expanding photoionized plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foord, M E; Heeter, R F; van Hoof, P A M; Thoe, R S; Bailey, J E; Cuneo, M E; Chung, H-K; Liedahl, D A; Fournier, K B; Chandler, G A; Jonauskas, V; Kisielius, R; Mix, L P; Ramsbottom, C; Springer, P T; Keenan, F P; Rose, S J; Goldstein, W H

    2004-07-30

    The charge state distributions of Fe, Na, and F are determined in a photoionized laboratory plasma using high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. Independent measurements of the density and radiation flux indicate unprecedented values for the ionization parameter xi=20-25 erg cm s(-1) under near steady-state conditions. Line opacities are well fitted by a curve-of-growth analysis which includes the effects of velocity gradients in a one-dimensional expanding plasma. First comparisons of the measured charge state distributions with x-ray photoionization models show reasonable agreement.

  8. Consecutive reversible ionization-recombination reactions and ionic charge state distribution of Au plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhiyan; ZHU Zhenghe; TANG Changhuan; TANG Yongjian; GAO Tao

    2005-01-01

    The present work proposes kinetics of ionization-recombination to study the charge state distribution of Au plasma. The first step is to calculate the average lifetime, energy level structure, degeneracy and partition function of Au48+―Au52+ by relativistic quantum mechanics, and next to compute the equilibrium constant and the second-order recombination rate constant by statistical thermodynamics. Based on these data, the differential equations of consecutive reversible ionization-recombination reactions are solved from which the charge state distribution and its average charge are derived. Finally, the influence of electron temperature and density on average charge is given in this paper. It is called the first-principle theory, for no experimental data are needed.

  9. X-Ray Spectroscopy: An Experimental Technique to Measure Charge State Distribution Right at the Ion-Solid Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Charge state distributions of $^{56}$Fe and $^{58}$Ni projectile ions passing through thin carbon foils have been studied in the energy range of 1.44 - 2.69 MeV/u using a novel method from the x-ray spectroscopy technique. Interestingly the charge state distribution in the bulk show Lorentzian behavior instead of usual Gaussian distribution. Further, different parameters of charge state distribution like mean charge state, distribution width and asymmetric parameter are determined and compared with the empirical calculations and ETACHA predictions. It is found that the x-ray measurement technique is appropriate to determine the mean charge state right at the interaction zone or in the bulk. Interestingly, empirical formalism predicts much lower projectile mean charge states compare to x-ray measurements which clearly indicate multi-electron capture from the target surface. The ETACHA predictions and experimental results are found to be comparable for energies $\\geq$ 2 MeV/u.

  10. Charge state distribution analysis of Al and Pb ions from the laser ion source at IMP

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Sha; Zhang-Min, Li; Xiao-Hong, Guo; Lun-Cai, Zhou; Guo-Zhu, Cai; Liang-ting, Sun; Xue-Zhen, Zhang; Huan-Yu, Zhao; Xi-Meng, Chen; Hong-Wei, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    A prototype laser ion source that could demonstrate the possibility of producing intense pulsed high charge state ion beams has been established with a commercial Nd:YAG laser (E max = 3 J, 1064 nm, 8-10 ns) to produce laser plasma for the research of Laser Ion Source (LIS). At the laser ion source test bench, high purity (99.998 %) aluminum and lead targets have been tested for laser plasma experiment. An Electrostatic Ion Analyzer (EIA) and Electron Multiply Tube (EMT) detector were used to analyze the charge state and energy distribution of the ions produced by the laser ion source. The maximum charge states of Al12+ and Pb7+ were achieved. The results will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  11. Charge states distribution of 3350 keV He ions channeled in silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Bentini, G G; Bianconi, M; Lotti, R; Lulli, G

    2002-01-01

    When an ion beam is aligned along a major crystalline axis the dominant interaction is with valence electrons. In this condition the charge exchange processes mostly concern the interaction between the incident ion and a quasi-free electron gas and a strong reduction of the charge-changing probabilities is expected. In this work, 3350 keV He sup + and He sup 2 sup + ions were aligned at small tilt angles about the axis of a 4650 A silicon crystalline membrane. The charge state distribution (CSD) of the transmitted ions was detected by an electro-magnetic analyzer having a very small acceptance angle. In these conditions the equilibration of the CSD was not yet reached and this allowed, making use of simple approximations, for the measurement of the valence electron loss cross-section.

  12. A Numerical Model for Ion Charge Distribution of Plasmas in Collisional Radiative Steady State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yaoyong; GUO Yonghui; QIU Aici; KUAI Bin

    2009-01-01

    A numerical model for the charge state distribution of plasmas in a collisional ra-diative steady state (CRSS) is established by averaging over the atomic process rate coefficients in universal kinetic equations.It is used to calculate the mean ion charge and ion population for a given temperature and density of the plasmas,ranging from low Z to high Z elements.The comparisons of the calculated results with those of other non-local thermodynamic equilibrium kinetics codes show that this model possesses acceptable precision.Furthermore,the NLTE effects are investigated by virtue of the model,and the differences between CRSS and LTE models for low density plasmas are quite evident.

  13. Charge state distributions and charge exchange cross sections of carbon in helium at 30-258 keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxeiner, Sascha; Seiler, Martin; Suter, Martin; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2015-10-01

    With the introduction of helium stripping in radiocarbon (14C) accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), higher +1 charge state yields in the 200 keV region and fewer beam losses are observed compared to nitrogen or argon stripping. To investigate the feasibility of even lower beam energies for 14C analyses the stripping characteristics of carbon in helium need to be further studied. Using two different AMS systems at ETH Zurich (myCADAS and MICADAS), ion beam transmissions of carbon ions for the charge states -1, +1, +2 and +3 were measured in the range of 258 keV down to 30 keV. The correction for beam losses and the extraction of charge state yields and charge exchange cross sections will be presented. An increase in population of the +1 charge state towards the lowest measured energies up to 75% was found as well as agreement with previous data from literature. The findings suggest that more compact radiocarbon AMS systems are possible and could provide even higher efficiency than current systems operating in the 200 keV range.

  14. Determination of Fe charge-state distributions in PLT by Bragg crystal x-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, K.W.; von Goeler, S.; Bitter, M.

    1978-08-01

    A curved-crystal Bragg x-ray spectrometer has been used to measure K..cap alpha.. or 1s-2p radiation from highly stripped Fe XVIII to Fe XXV impurity ions in the PLT tokamak. The spectrometer has sufficient energy resolution (approximately < 4 eV at 6400 eV) to distinguish between the different ionization states of iron by measuring the energy shift of the K..cap alpha.. x rays. The measured wavelengths agree well with theory and with spectra from solar flares and from laser-produced plasmas. The distribution of Fe charge states in the center of the discharge has been inferred from a comparison of the measured x-ray spectrum with theory. The shape of the spectrum depends strongly on electron temperature (T/sub e/) in the range T/sub e/ = 800 to 1500 eV. Within the factor of two uncertainty in L-shell ionization cross sections, measured intensities agree with theory, which is based on coronal equilibrium, indicating that the ion life-time in the center of the plasma is approximately equal to or greater than the equilibration time.

  15. Voltage Scheduling Droop Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy Storage in DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz;

    2014-01-01

    the State-of-Charge balance. In this paper, a new droop method based on voltage scheduling for State-of-Charge balance is proposed to keep the SoC balance for the energy storage units. The proposed method has the advantage of avoiding the stability problem existed in traditional methods based on droop gain...... scheduling. Simulation experiment is taken in Matlab on a DC microgrid with two distributed energy storage units. The simulation results show that the proposed method has successfully achieved SoC balance during the load changes while maintaining the DC bus voltage within the allowable range....

  16. Contribution of material’s surface layer on charge state distribution in laser ablation plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaki, Masafumi, E-mail: rogus@asagi.waseda.jp [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Steski, Dannie; Kanesue, Takeshi [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Ikeda, Shunsuke [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Okamura, Masahiro [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Washio, Masakazu [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    To generate laser ablation plasma, a pulse laser is focused onto a solid target making a crater on the surface. However, not all the evaporated material is efficiently converted to hot plasma. Some portion of the evaporated material could be turned to low temperature plasma or just vapor. To investigate the mechanism, we prepared an aluminum target coated by thin carbon layers. Then, we measured the ablation plasma properties with different carbon thicknesses on the aluminum plate. The results showed that C{sup 6+} ions were generated only from the surface layer. The deep layers (over 250 nm from the surface) did not provide high charge state ions. On the other hand, low charge state ions were mainly produced by the deeper layers of the target. Atoms deeper than 1000 nm did not contribute to the ablation plasma formation.

  17. Global plasma simulation of charge state distribution inside a 2.45 GHz ECR plasma with experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodendorfer, M; Wurz, P; Hohl, M, E-mail: bodendorfer@ep.isas.jaxa.j [Space Research and Planetary Sciences, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    For the first time, the charge state distribution inside the MEsskammer fuer FlugzeitInStrumente und Time-Of-Flight (MEFISTO) electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma and in the extracted ion beam was successfully simulated. A self-consistent ECR plasma ionization model (Hohl M 2002 MEFISTO II: Design, setup, characterization and operation of an improved calibration facility for solar plasma instrumentation PhD Thesis University of Bern) was further developed, recomputing the ion confinement time for every ion species and in every time step based on the actual plasma potential rather than using a prescribed constant ion confinement time. The simulation starts with a user defined set of initial conditions and develops the problem in time space by an adaptive step length fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK4) solver, considering particle densities based on ionization rates, recombination rates, ion confinement times and plasma potential. At the simulation end, a steady-state ion charge state distribution is reached, which is in excellent agreement with the measured ion beam charge state distribution of the MEFISTO ion source for Ar{sup 1+} to Ar{sup 5+} and in good agreement for Ar{sup 6+}.

  18. Global plasma simulation of charge state distribution inside a 2.45 GHz ECR plasma with experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodendorfer, M.; Wurz, P.; Hohl, M.

    2010-08-01

    For the first time, the charge state distribution inside the MEsskammer für FlugzeitInStrumente und Time-Of-Flight (MEFISTO) electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma and in the extracted ion beam was successfully simulated. A self-consistent ECR plasma ionization model (Hohl M 2002 MEFISTO II: Design, setup, characterization and operation of an improved calibration facility for solar plasma instrumentation PhD Thesis University of Bern) was further developed, recomputing the ion confinement time for every ion species and in every time step based on the actual plasma potential rather than using a prescribed constant ion confinement time. The simulation starts with a user defined set of initial conditions and develops the problem in time space by an adaptive step length fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK4) solver, considering particle densities based on ionization rates, recombination rates, ion confinement times and plasma potential. At the simulation end, a steady-state ion charge state distribution is reached, which is in excellent agreement with the measured ion beam charge state distribution of the MEFISTO ion source for Ar1+ to Ar5+ and in good agreement for Ar6+.

  19. Distributed charging of electrical assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Soumyadip; Phan, Dung; Sharma, Mayank; Wu, Chai Wah; Xiong, Jinjun

    2016-02-16

    The present disclosure relates generally to the field of distributed charging of electrical assets. In various examples, distributed charging of electrical assets may be implemented in the form of systems, methods and/or algorithms.

  20. Equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state distributions of 2.0 MeV/u carbon ions passing through carbon foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, M., E-mail: imai@nucleng.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Sataka, M.; Matsuda, M.; Okayasu, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kawatsura, K. [Kansai Gaidai University, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1001 (Japan); Takahiro, K. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Komaki, K. [Atomic Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Shibata, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Nishio, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    Both equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state distributions were studied experimentally for 2.0 MeV/u carbon ions after passing through carbon foils. Measured charge-state distribution established the equilibrium at a target thickness of 10 μg/cm{sup 2} and this remained unchanged until a maximum target thickness of 98 μg/cm{sup 2}. The equilibrium charge-state distribution, the equilibrium mean charge-state, and the width and skewness of the equilibrium distribution were compared with predictions using existing semi-empirical formulae as well as simulation results, including the ETACHA code. It was found that charge-state distributions, mean charge states, and distribution widths for C{sup 2+}, C{sup 3+}, and C{sup 4+} incident ions merged into quasi-equilibrium values at a target thickness of 5.7 μg/cm{sup 2} in the pre-equilibrium region and evolved simultaneously to the ‘real equilibrium’ values for all of the initial charge states, including C{sup 5+} and C{sup 6+} ions, as previously demonstrated for sulfur projectile ions at the same velocity (Imai et al., 2009). Two kinds of simulation, ETACHA and solution of rate equations taking only single electron transfers into account, were used, and both of them reproduced the measured charge evolution qualitatively. The quasi-equilibrium behavior could be reproduced with the ETACHA code, but not with solution of elementary rate equations.

  1. The reaction current distribution in battery electrode materials revealed by XPS-based state-of-charge mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Alexander J; Gillette, Eleanor; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W

    2016-07-28

    Morphologically complex electrochemical systems such as composite or nanostructured lithium ion battery electrodes exhibit spatially inhomogeneous internal current distributions, particularly when driven at high total currents, due to resistances in the electrodes and electrolyte, distributions of diffusion path lengths, and nonlinear current-voltage characteristics. Measuring and controlling these distributions is interesting from both an engineering standpoint, as nonhomogenous currents lead to lower utilization of electrode material, as well as from a fundamental standpoint, as comparisons between theory and experiment are relatively scarce. Here we describe a new approach using a deliberately simple model battery electrode to examine the current distribution in a electrode material limited by poor electronic conductivity. We utilize quantitative spatially resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to measure the spatial distribution of the state-of-charge of a V2O5 model electrode as a proxy measure for the current distribution on electrodes discharged at varying current densities. We show that the current at the electrode-electrolyte interface falls off with distance from the current collector, and that the current distribution is a strong function of total current. We compare the observed distributions with a simple analytical model which reproduces the dependence of the distribution on total current, but fails to predict the correct length scale. A more complete numerical simulation suggests that dynamic changes in the electronic conductivity of the V2O5 concurrent with lithium insertion may contribute to the differences between theory and experiment. Our observations should help inform design criteria for future electrode architectures.

  2. Multiagent Based Distributed Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy Storage in DC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Garcia Plaza, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    information for scheduling voltage autonomously. State-space analysis on a single energy storage unit and simulation verification shows that the proposed method has two advantages. Firstly, modifying the reference voltage given has less impact on system stability compared to gain scheduling. Secondly......In this paper, a distributed multiagent based algorithm is proposed to achieve SoC balance for DES in the DC microgrid by means of voltage scheduling. Reference voltage given is adjusted instead of droop gain. Dynamic average consensus algorithm is explored in each agent to get the required......, by adopting multiagent methodology, the proposed distributed control has less communication dependence and more reliable during communication topology changes....

  3. Ionic Charge State Distribution of Au Plasma for 7-Ion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The present work extends the previous work[2] on 5-ion system to consider 7-ion system (i.e., Au47+ ~ Au53+). It is found that more highly charged ions, e.g., Au53+, Au54+ etc., could be able to be neglected, however, less highly charged ions, e.g., Au47+, Au46+ etc., are rather important. Therefore, a new idea to consider 8-ion system, i.e., Au46+ ~ Au53+, is under way. As a supplement, we discuss the simultaneous reaction, which would be important in this sort of works.

  4. State-of-Charge Balance Using Adaptive Droop Control for Distributed Energy Storage Systems in DC MicroGrid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the coordinated control of distributed energy storage systems (DESSs) in DC micro-grids. In order to balance the state-of-charge (SoC) of each energy storage unit (ESU), an SoC-based adaptive droop control method is proposed. In this decentralized control method, the droop...... coefficient is inversely proportional to the nth order of SoC. By using SoC-based droop method, the ESUs with higher SoC deliver more power, while the ones with lower SoC deliver less power. Therefore, the energy stored in the ESU with higher SoC decreases faster than that with lower SoC. The SoC difference...... and the system stability is thereby analyzed by using this model. Simulation and experimental results from a 2×2.2 kW parallel converter system are presented in order to validate the proposed approach....

  5. On equilibrium charge distribution above dielectric surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Slyusarenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the equilibrium state of the charged many-particle system above dielectric surface is formulated. We consider the case of the presence of the external attractive pressing field and the case of its absence. The equilibrium distributions of charges and the electric field, which is generated by these charges in the system in the case of ideally plane dielectric surface, are obtained. The solution of electrostatic equations of the system under consideration in case of small spatial heterogeneities caused by the dielectric surface, is also obtained. These spatial inhomogeneities can be caused both by the inhomogeneities of the surface and by the inhomogeneous charge distribution upon it. In particular, the case of the "wavy" spatially periodic surface is considered taking into account the possible presence of the surface charges.

  6. Are Charge-State Distributions a Reliable Tool Describing Molecular Ensembles of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins by Native MS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalello, Antonino; Santambrogio, Carlo; Grandori, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Native mass spectrometry (MS) has become a central tool of structural proteomics, but its applicability to the peculiar class of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is still object of debate. IDPs lack an ordered tridimensional structure and are characterized by high conformational plasticity. Since they represent valuable targets for cancer and neurodegeneration research, there is an urgent need of methodological advances for description of the conformational ensembles populated by these proteins in solution. However, structural rearrangements during electrospray-ionization (ESI) or after the transfer to the gas phase could affect data obtained by native ESI-MS. In particular, charge-state distributions (CSDs) are affected by protein conformation inside ESI droplets, while ion mobility (IM) reflects protein conformation in the gas phase. This review focuses on the available evidence relating IDP solution ensembles with CSDs, trying to summarize cases of apparent consistency or discrepancy. The protein-specificity of ionization patterns and their responses to ligands and buffer conditions suggests that CSDs are imprinted to protein structural features also in the case of IDPs. Nevertheless, it seems that these proteins are more easily affected by electrospray conditions, leading in some cases to rearrangements of the conformational ensembles.

  7. Are Charge-State Distributions a Reliable Tool Describing Molecular Ensembles of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins by Native MS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalello, Antonino; Santambrogio, Carlo; Grandori, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Native mass spectrometry (MS) has become a central tool of structural proteomics, but its applicability to the peculiar class of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is still object of debate. IDPs lack an ordered tridimensional structure and are characterized by high conformational plasticity. Since they represent valuable targets for cancer and neurodegeneration research, there is an urgent need of methodological advances for description of the conformational ensembles populated by these proteins in solution. However, structural rearrangements during electrospray-ionization (ESI) or after the transfer to the gas phase could affect data obtained by native ESI-MS. In particular, charge-state distributions (CSDs) are affected by protein conformation inside ESI droplets, while ion mobility (IM) reflects protein conformation in the gas phase. This review focuses on the available evidence relating IDP solution ensembles with CSDs, trying to summarize cases of apparent consistency or discrepancy. The protein-specificity of ionization patterns and their responses to ligands and buffer conditions suggests that CSDs are imprinted to protein structural features also in the case of IDPs. Nevertheless, it seems that these proteins are more easily affected by electrospray conditions, leading in some cases to rearrangements of the conformational ensembles.

  8. Low-charge-state linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    A design is being developed for a low-charge-state linac suitable for injecting ATLAS with a low-charge-state, radioactive beam. Initial work indicates that the existing ATLAS interdigital superconducting accelerating structures, together with the superconducting quadrupole transverse focussing element discussed above, provides a basis for a high-performance low-charge-state linac. The initial 2 or 3 MV of such a linac could be based on a normally-conducting, low-frequency RFQ, possibly combined with 24-MHz superconducting interdigital structures. Beam dynamics studies of the whole low-charge-state post-accelerator section were carried out in early FY 1995.

  9. Influence of the density of states on the odd-even staggering in the charge distribution of the emitted fragments in nuclear heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleya, N. L.; Souza, S. R.; Carlson, B. V.; Donangelo, R.; Lynch, W. G.; Tsang, M. B.; Winkelbauer, J. R.

    2014-11-01

    The fragmentation of thermalized sources is studied using a version of the Statistical Multifragmentation Model which employs state densities that take the pairing gap in the nuclear levels into account. Attention is focused on the properties of the charge distributions observed in the breakup of the source. Since the microcanonical version of the model used in this study provides the primary fragment excitation energy distribution, one may correlate the reduction of the odd-even staggering in the charge distribution with the increasing occupation of high-energy states. Thus, in the framework of this model, such staggering tends to disappear as a function of the total excitation energy of the source, although the energy per particle may be small for large systems. We also find that, although the deexcitation of the primary fragments should, in principle, blur these odd-even effects as the fragments follow their decay chains, the consistent treatment of pairing may significantly enhance these staggering effects on the final yields. In the framework of this model, we find that odd-even effects in the charge distributions should be observed in the fragmentation of relatively light systems at very low excitation energies. Our results also suggest that the odd-even staggering may provide useful information on the nuclear state density.

  10. Energy loss and charge state distribution of calcium ions in dense moderately coupled carbon plasma; Energieverlust und Ladungsverteilung von Calciumionen in dichtem, schwach gekoppeltem Kohlenstoffplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortner, Alex

    2015-07-15

    In this thesis the interaction of swift calcium ions (Energy: 3.5 MeV/u) with a dense and moderately coupled carbon plasma (Coupling parameter: Γ=0.1-0.5) is investigated. The plasma state is generated by heating a thin carbon foil volumetrically by thermal X-ray radiation. The thermal X-ray radiation itself is generated by the conversion of a high energy laser beam in a hohlraum cavity. Compared to earlier ion stopping experiments the electron density and the plasma coupling parameter could be increased by an order of magnitude. This work provides the first time experimental energy loss and charge state distribution data in this moderately coupled interaction regime. The thesis consists of a theoretical part where the ion beam plasma interaction is studied for a broad range of plasma parameters and an experimental part where the ion beam interaction with the hohlraum plasma target is measured. All the described experiments were carried out at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. This facility offers the unique possibility to combine a heavy ion beam from an accelerator with a high energy laser beam in one interaction chamber. An intense laser pulse (150 J of laser energy in 1 ns at λ{sub L}=527 nm) is focused inside a 600 μm diameter spherical cavity and generates a hot gold plasma that emits X-rays. The absorbed and reemitted radiation establishes a spatially uniform temperature distribution in the cavity and serves as an intense, isotropic X-ray source with a quasi-thermal spectral distribution. These thermal X-rays with a radiation temperature of T{sub r}=98±6 eV then propagate into a secondary cylindrical hohlraum (diameter: 1000 μm, length: 950 μm) where they volumetrically heat two thin carbon foils to the plasma state. The radiation temperature in the secondary hohlraum is T{sub r}=33±5 eV. This indirect laser heating scheme has the advantage that the whole sample volume is instantaneously heated and that the plasma is

  11. Charge state distribution and emission characteristics in a table top reflex discharge—Effect of ion confinement and electrons accelerated across the sheath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Deepak, E-mail: deepak.kumar@eli-beams.eu; Englesbe, Alexander; Parman, Matthew; Stutman, Dan; Finkenthal, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Tabletop reflex discharges in a Penning geometry have many applications including ion sources and eXtreme Ultra-Violet (XUV) sources. The presence of primary electrons accelerated across the cathode sheaths is responsible for the distribution of ion charge states and of the unusually high XUV brightness of these plasmas. Absolutely calibrated space resolved XUV spectra from a table top reflex discharge operating with Al cathodes and Ne gas are presented. The spectra are analyzed with a new and complete model for ion charge distribution in similar reflex discharges. The plasma in the discharge was found to have a density of ∼10{sup 18 }m{sup −3} with a significant fraction >0.01 of fast primary electrons. The implications of the new model on the ion states achievable in a tabletop reflex plasma discharge are also discussed.

  12. Extremely supercharged proteins in mass spectrometry: profiling the pH of electrospray generated droplets, narrowing charge state distributions, and increasing ion fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenaidee, Muhammad A; Donald, William A

    2015-03-21

    The effects of 12 acids, 4 solvents, and 8 low-volatility additives that increase analyte charging (i.e., superchargers) on the charge state distributions (CSDs) of protein ions in ESI-MS were investigated. We discovered that (i) relatively low concentrations [5% (v/v)] of 1,2-butylene carbonate (and 4-vinyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-one) can be added to ESI solutions to form higher charge states of cytochrome c and myoglobin ions than by using more traditional additives (e.g., propylene carbonate, sulfolane, or m-nitrobenzyl alcohol) under these conditions and (ii) the width of CSDs narrow as the effectiveness of superchargers increase, which concentrates protein ions into fewer detection channels. The use of strong acids (pKa values 0) results in significantly higher protein ion charging, less acid adduction, and narrower CSDs, indicating that protein ion supercharging in ESI can be significantly limited by the binding of conjugate base anions of acids that neutralize charge sites and broaden CSDs. The extent of protein charging as a function of acid identity (HA) does not strongly correlate with gas-phase proton transfer data (i.e., gas-phase basicity and proton affinity values for HA and A(-)), solution-phase protein secondary structures (as determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy), and/or acid molecule volatility data. For protein-denaturing solutions, these data were used to infer that the "effective" pH of ESI generated droplets near the moment of ion formation can be ∼0, which is ca. 1 to 3 pH units lower than the pH of the solutions prior to ESI. Electron capture dissociation (ECD) of [ubiquitin, 17H](17+) resulted in the identification of 223 cleavages, 74 of 75 inter-residue sites, and 92% ECD fragmentation efficiency, which correspond to highest of these values that have been obtained by ECD of a single isolated charge state of ubiquitin.

  13. Investigation of the influence of surface composition on the charge state distribution of ∼keV hydrogen exiting thin carbon foils for space plasma instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Frédéric; Coulter, Kent; Ebert, Robert W.; Nicolaou, Georgios; Poenitzsch, Vasiliki Zorbas

    2016-06-01

    Energetic neutral atom (ENA) imaging techniques have become a powerful tool for remotely probing plasma environments in space. ENA imagers cover energies from 0.01 keV up to a few MeV, and they use different techniques to cover such a broad energy range. Most of them convert the ENA into a charged particle to remove the converted ENA from the initial neutral direction. In the >∼0.2 keV/nuc to 10's of keV/nuc range, the conversion subsystem is usually an ultra-thin carbon foil. The sensitivity of ENA imagers based on charge conversion by carbon foils is driven by the ability of these foils to convert a neutral atom into an ion. The charge state distribution after the carbon foils is a strong function of the chemical and physical properties of the exit surface. In this study, we analyze the composition and structure of the surface using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface is roughly 88% carbon and 12% oxygen, forming strong Csbnd O bonds. Annealing the foil lowers the oxygen content to about 9%. We coat the surface of the foils with Au, Al2O3, or MgO. We compare the exit charge state distributions of hydrogen prior to and post coatings. While no significant difference is observed in the exit charge state for the Au and Al2O3 coatings, there is a slight decrease of the positive fraction after MgO. The annealing of the foil has the benefit of reducing the angular scattering of hydrogen by a factor of ∼1.2. This is a significant improvement that has the potential to increase sensitivity of ENA imagers.

  14. Charged residues distribution modulates selectivity of the open state of human isoforms of the voltage dependent anion-selective channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Giuseppe Federico; Scorciapino, Mariano Andrea; Messina, Angela; De Pinto, Vito; Ceccarelli, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Voltage Dependent Anion-selective Channels (VDACs) are pore-forming proteins located in the outer mitochondrial membrane. They are responsible for the access of ions and energetic metabolites into the inner membrane transport systems. Three VDAC isoforms exist in mammalian, but their specific role is unknown. In this work we have performed extensive (overall ∼5 µs) Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of the human VDAC isoforms to detect structural and conformational variations among them, possibly related to specific functional roles of these proteins. Secondary structure analysis of the N-terminal domain shows a high similarity among the three human isoforms of VDAC but with a different plasticity. In particular, the N-terminal domain of the hVDAC1 is characterized by a higher plasticity, with a ∼20% occurrence for the 'unstructured' conformation throughout the folded segment, while hVDAC2, containing a peculiar extension of 11 amino acids at the N-terminal end, presents an additional 310-helical folded portion comprising residues 10' to 3, adhering to the barrel wall. The N-terminal sequences of hVDAC isoforms are predicted to have a low flexibility, with possible consequences in the dynamics of the human VDACs. Clear differences were found between hVDAC1 and hVDAC3 against hVDAC2: a significantly modified dynamics with possible important consequence on the voltage-gating mechanism. Charge distribution inside and at the mouth of the pore is responsible for a different preferential localization of ions with opposite charge and provide a valuable rationale for hVDAC1 and hVDAC3 having a Cl-/K+ selectivity ratio of 1.8, whereas hVDAC2 of 1.4. Our conclusion is that hVDAC isoforms, despite sharing a similar scaffold, have modified working features and a biological work is now requested to give evidence to the described dissimilarities.

  15. The small impact of various partial charge distributions in ground and excited state on the computational Stokes shift of 1-methyl-6-oxyquinolinium betaine in diverse water models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heid, Esther; Harringer, Sophia; Schröder, Christian

    2016-10-01

    The influence of the partial charge distribution obtained from quantum mechanics of the solute 1-methyl-6-oxyquinolinium betaine in the ground- and first excited state on the time-dependent Stokes shift is studied via molecular dynamics computer simulation. Furthermore, the effect of the employed solvent model — here the non-polarizable SPC, TIP4P and TIP4P/2005 and the polarizable SWM4 water model — on the solvation dynamics of the system is investigated. The use of different functionals and calculation methods influences the partial charge distribution and the magnitude of the dipole moment of the solute, but not the orientation of the dipole moment. Simulations based on the calculated charge distributions show nearly the same relaxation behavior. Approximating the whole solute molecule by a dipole results in the same relaxation behavior, but lower solvation energies, indicating that the time scale of the Stokes shift does not depend on peculiarities of the solute. However, the SPC and TIP4P water models show too fast dynamics which can be ascribed to a too large diffusion coefficient and too low viscosity. The calculated diffusion coefficient and viscosity for the SWM4 and TIP4P/2005 models coincide well with experimental values and the corresponding relaxation behavior is comparable to experimental values. Furthermore we found that for a quantitative description of the Stokes shift of the applied system at least two solvation shells around the solute have to be taken into account.

  16. Effect of dielectronic recombination on the charge-state distribution and soft X-ray line intensity of laser-produced carbon plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Chowdhury; G P Gupta; P A Naik; P D Gupta

    2005-01-01

    The effect of dielectronic recombination in determining charge-state distribution and radiative emission from a laser-produced carbon plasma has been investigated in the collisional radiative ionization equilibrium. It is observed that the relative abundances of different ions in the plasma, and soft X-ray emission intensity get significantly altered when dielectronic recombination is included. Theoretical estimates of the relative population of CVI to CV ions and ratio of line intensity emitted from them for two representative formulations of dielectronic recombination are presented.

  17. Charge state distribution of {sup 16}O from the {sup 4}He({sup 12}C,{sup 16}O)γ reaction of astrophysical interest studied both experimentally and theoretically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shengjin, E-mail: liusj@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, China Academy of Science, 19B YuquanLu, Shijingshan, Beijing 100049 (China); Department of Physics, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Sakurai, Makoto [Department of Physics, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Sagara, Kenshi; Teranishi, Takashi; Fujita, Kunihiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Sayaka; Mitsuzumi, Tatsuki; Iwazaki, Makoto; Rosary, Mariya T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kato, Daiji [Fusion Systems Research Division, National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Tolstikhina, I.Yu. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii pr. 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2014-06-01

    In astrophysics, {sup 4}He({sup 12}C,{sup 16}O)γ reaction places an important role. At Kyushu University Tandem accelerator Laboratory (KUTL), the measurement of {sup 4}He({sup 12}C,{sup 16}O)γ cross section is in progress in the energy range of astrophysical nuclear reaction. Since the charge state of product {sup 16}O ions after passing through the gas target is spread and only one charge state can be measured at terminal detector, it is necessary to know the charge state distribution of {sup 16}O ions passing through the He gas target precisely. Here, we report the charge state distribution of the {sup 16}O recoils both experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, we measured the equilibrium charge state distribution of {sup 16}O ions in the windowless helium gas target with the beam energy of primary {sup 16}O ions at 7.2, 4.5, and 3.45 MeV at KUTL. The measured results showed a Gaussian distribution for the charge state fraction. Theoretically, we proposed a framework for the charge state distribution study. Charge state distribution was computed by solving a set of differential equations including a series of charge exchange cross sections. For the ionization cross section, plane-wave Born approximation was applied and modified by taking target atomic screening as a function of momentum transfer into account. For the capture cross section, continuum distorted wave approximation was applied and the influence of the gas target density was taken into account in the process of electron capture. Using above charge exchange cross sections, the charge state evolution was simulated. According to the equilibrium distribution, we compared the theoretical calculation to the experimental data. After taking into account the density effects in the charge exchange process, the theoretical charge state distributions shows a good agreement with the experimental data. Both experimental and theoretical results are useful to understand the charge fraction of recoil oxygen

  18. Energy loss and charge state distribution of calcium ions in dense moderately coupled carbon plasma; Energieverlust und Ladungsverteilung von Calciumionen in dichtem, schwach gekoppeltem Kohlenstoffplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortner, Alex

    2015-07-15

    In this thesis the interaction of swift calcium ions (Energy: 3.5 MeV/u) with a dense and moderately coupled carbon plasma (Coupling parameter: Γ=0.1-0.5) is investigated. The plasma state is generated by heating a thin carbon foil volumetrically by thermal X-ray radiation. The thermal X-ray radiation itself is generated by the conversion of a high energy laser beam in a hohlraum cavity. Compared to earlier ion stopping experiments the electron density and the plasma coupling parameter could be increased by an order of magnitude. This work provides the first time experimental energy loss and charge state distribution data in this moderately coupled interaction regime. The thesis consists of a theoretical part where the ion beam plasma interaction is studied for a broad range of plasma parameters and an experimental part where the ion beam interaction with the hohlraum plasma target is measured. All the described experiments were carried out at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. This facility offers the unique possibility to combine a heavy ion beam from an accelerator with a high energy laser beam in one interaction chamber. An intense laser pulse (150 J of laser energy in 1 ns at λ{sub L}=527 nm) is focused inside a 600 μm diameter spherical cavity and generates a hot gold plasma that emits X-rays. The absorbed and reemitted radiation establishes a spatially uniform temperature distribution in the cavity and serves as an intense, isotropic X-ray source with a quasi-thermal spectral distribution. These thermal X-rays with a radiation temperature of T{sub r}=98±6 eV then propagate into a secondary cylindrical hohlraum (diameter: 1000 μm, length: 950 μm) where they volumetrically heat two thin carbon foils to the plasma state. The radiation temperature in the secondary hohlraum is T{sub r}=33±5 eV. This indirect laser heating scheme has the advantage that the whole sample volume is instantaneously heated and that the plasma is

  19. Distance distributions of photogenerated charge pairs in organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Alex J; Chen, Kai; Hodgkiss, Justin M

    2014-08-27

    Strong Coulomb interactions in organic photovoltaic cells dictate that charges must separate over relatively long distances in order to circumvent geminate recombination and produce photocurrent. In this article, we measure the distance distributions of thermalized charge pairs by accessing a regime at low temperature where charge pairs are frozen out following the primary charge separation step and recombine monomolecularly via tunneling. The exponential attenuation of tunneling rate with distance provides a sensitive probe of the distance distribution of primary charge pairs, reminiscent of electron transfer studies in proteins. By fitting recombination dynamics to distributions of recombination rates, we identified populations of charge-transfer states and well-separated charge pairs. For the wide range of materials we studied, the yield of separated charges in the tunneling regime is strongly correlated with the yield of free charges measured via their intensity-dependent bimolecular recombination dynamics at room temperature. We therefore conclude that populations of free charges are established via long-range charge separation within the thermalization time scale, thus invoking early branching between free and bound charges across an energetic barrier. Subject to assumed values of the electron tunneling attenuation constant, we estimate critical charge separation distances of ∼3-4 nm in all materials. In some blends, large fullerene crystals can enhance charge separation yields; however, the important role of the polymers is also highlighted in blends that achieved significant charge separation with minimal fullerene concentration. We expect that our approach of isolating the intrinsic properties of primary charge pairs will be of considerable value in guiding new material development and testing the validity of proposed mechanisms for long-range charge separation.

  20. A Decentralized Control Method for Distributed Generations in an Islanded DC Microgrid Considering Voltage Drop Compensation and Durable State of Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Sang Hwang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a decentralized control method for distributed generations (DGs in an islanded direct current (DC microgrid. In most typical DC microgrids, a decentralized control method is based on a voltage droop control method. However, the grid voltage differs from node to node due to line voltage drop, and hence the power sharing ratio among DGs cannot be matched with as desired value. Especially in an islanded DC microgrid including an energy storage system as a voltage source, it is difficult for DGs to maintain the charge state of the ESS in a decentralized way. To overcome this problem, state of charge (SOC-voltage droop control is applied to the ESS. By using the proposed droop method, the SOC information can be assigned to the grid voltage, and hence the other DGs are able to support the SOC in a decentralized way. For DGs to enhance the accuracy of the SOC estimation, voltage drop is compensated for based on forecasting data and line impedance data. The simulation is modeled and implemented using Power System Computer Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients for DC (PSCAD/EMTDC, version 4.2, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada and the simulation results show that the capability to maintain SOC as well as the system voltage profile are improved by using the proposed method.

  1. Probing of the charge distribution in iron pnictides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, G., E-mail: g.m.lang@ifw-dresden.d [IFW Dresden, Institute for Solid State Research, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Grafe, H.-J.; Hammerath, F.; Manthey, K. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Solid State Research, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Paar, D. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Solid State Research, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Univ. of Zagreb, P.O. Box 331, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Behr, G.; Werner, J.; Hamann-Borrero, J.; Buechner, B. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Solid State Research, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    A powerful tool to probe the electronic charge distribution in correlated oxides is nuclear magnetic/quadrupole resonance (NMR/NQR). Indeed, through sensitivity to the electric field gradient (EFG), NMR/NQR allows to probe locally the symmetry of the charge distribution, its homogeneity, as well as its sensitivity to structural and doping changes. In context of our own results, we discuss here the state of knowledge in iron pnictides. It appears that the iron pnictides feature a complex behaviour of their charge distribution, with a non-trivial link between the measured EFG and the structural and doping variations.

  2. Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes: Effect of charge distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Mingtian; Li, Baohui, E-mail: dliang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: baohui@nankai.edu.cn [School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhou, Jihan; Su, Cuicui; Niu, Lin; Liang, Dehai, E-mail: dliang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: baohui@nankai.edu.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences and the Key Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Physics of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-05-28

    Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in a solution is investigated using a combination of computer simulations and experiments, focusing on the influence of polyelectrolyte charge distributions along the chains on the structure of the polyelectrolyte complexes. The simulations are performed using Monte Carlo with the replica-exchange algorithm for three model systems where each system is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged model polyelectrolyte chains (EGEG){sub 5}/(KGKG){sub 5}, (EEGG){sub 5}/(KKGG){sub 5}, and (EEGG){sub 5}/(KGKG){sub 5}, in a solution including explicit solvent molecules. Among the three model systems, only the charge distributions along the chains are not identical. Thermodynamic quantities are calculated as a function of temperature (or ionic strength), and the microscopic structures of complexes are examined. It is found that the three systems have different transition temperatures, and form complexes with different sizes, structures, and densities at a given temperature. Complex microscopic structures with an alternating arrangement of one monolayer of E/K monomers and one monolayer of G monomers, with one bilayer of E and K monomers and one bilayer of G monomers, and with a mixture of monolayer and bilayer of E/K monomers in a box shape and a trilayer of G monomers inside the box are obtained for the three mixture systems, respectively. The experiments are carried out for three systems where each is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged peptide chains. Each peptide chain is composed of Lysine (K) and glycine (G) or glutamate (E) and G, in solution, and the chain length and amino acid sequences, and hence the charge distribution, are precisely controlled, and all of them are identical with those for the corresponding model chain. The complexation behavior and complex structures are characterized through laser light scattering and atomic force microscopy measurements. The order

  3. Charge and Size Distributions of Electrospray Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Juan L; de la Mora JF

    1997-02-15

    The distributions of charge q and diameter d of drops emitted from electrified liquid cones in the cone-jet mode are investigated with two aerosol instruments. A differential mobility analyzer (DMA, Vienna type) first samples the spray drops, selects those with electrical mobilities within a narrow band, and either measures the associated current or passes them to a second instrument. The drops may also be individually counted optically and sized by sampling them into an aerodynamic size spectrometer (API's Aerosizer). For a given cone-jet, the distribution of charge q for the main electrospray drops is some 2.5 times broader than their distribution of diameters d, with qmax/qmin approximately 4. But mobility-selected drops have relative standard deviations of only 5% for both d and q, showing that the support of the (q, d) distribution is a narrow band centered around a curve q(d). The approximate one-dimensionality of this support region is explained through the mechanism of jet breakup, which is a random process with only one degree of freedom: the wavelength of axial modulation of the jet. The observed near constancy of the charge over volume ratio (q approximately d3) shows that the charge is frozen in the liquid surface at the time scale of the breakup process. The charge over volume ratio of the primary drops varies between 98 and 55% of the ratio of spray current I over liquid flow rate Q, and decreases at increasing Q. I/Q is therefore an unreliable measure of the charge density of these drops.

  4. Heavy Coronal Ions in the Heliosphere: I. Global Distribution of Charge-states of C, N, O, Mg, Si and S

    CERN Document Server

    Grzedzielski, S; Bzowski, M; Izmodenov, V

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Investigate/Study de-charging of solar wind C, N, O, Mg, Si and S ions and assess fluxes of resulting ENA in the heliosphere. Methods: The model treats the heavy ions as test particles convected by (and in a particular case also diffusing through) a hydrodynamically calculated background plasma flow, from 1 AU to the termination shock (TS), to heliosheath (HS) and finally to heliospheric tail (HT). The ions undergo radiative and dielectronic recombinations, charge exchanges, photo- and electron impact ionizations with plasma particles, interstellar neutral atoms (calculated on a Monte-Carlo model) and solar photons. Results: Highly-charged heavy coronal ions flowing with the solar wind undergo successive de-ionizations, mainly in the heliosheath, leading to charge-states much lower than in the supersonic solar wind. If Coulomb scattering is the main ion energy loss mechanism, the end product of these deionizations are fluxes of ENA of ~1 keV/nucleon originating in the upwind heliosheath that for C, Mg, ...

  5. Low-charge-state RFQ injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Preliminary design work was done for a short, normally-conducting RFQ entrance section for a low-charge-state linac. Early results indicate that a low- frequency (12 MHz) RFQ, operated on a high-voltage platform, and injected with a pre-bunched beam, can provide ATLAS quality beams of ions of charge-to-mass ratio less than 1/132.

  6. [Probabilistic calculations of biomolecule charge states that generate mass spectra of multiply charged ions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raznikova, M O; Raznikov, V V

    2015-01-01

    In this work, information relating to charge states of biomolecule ions in solution obtained using the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of different biopolymers is analyzed. The data analyses have mainly been carried out by solving an inverse problem of calculating the probabilities of retention of protons and other charge carriers by ionogenic groups of biomolecules with known primary structures. The approach is a new one and has no known to us analogues. A program titled "Decomposition" was developed and used to analyze the charge distribution of ions of native and denatured cytochrome c mass spectra. The possibility of splitting of the charge-state distribution of albumin into normal components, which likely corresponds to various conformational states of the biomolecule, has been demonstrated. The applicability criterion for using previously described method of decomposition of multidimensional charge-state distributions with two charge carriers, e.g., a proton and a sodium ion, to characterize the spatial structure of biopolymers in solution has been formulated. In contrast to known mass-spectrometric approaches, this method does not require the use of enzymatic hydrolysis or collision-induced dissociation of the biopolymers.

  7. Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Management with Dynamic Distribution System Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV users’ driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid...... used to carry out case studies to illustrate the proposed EV charging schedule algorithm....

  8. Charged Cylindrical Polytropes with Generalized Polytropic Equation of State

    CERN Document Server

    Azam, M; Noureen, I; Rehman, M A

    2016-01-01

    We study the general formalism of polytropes in relativistic regime with generalized polytropic equations of state in the vicinity of cylindrical symmetry. We take charged anisotropic fluid distribution of matter with conformally flat condition for the development of general framework of polytropes. We discussed the stability of the model by Whittaker formula and concluded that one of the developed model is physically viable.

  9. The structure of XLPE and the distribution of space charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Jixiao(李吉晓); ZHANG; Yewen(张冶文); ZHENG; Feihu(郑飞虎); WU; Changshun(吴长顺); XIA; Zhongfu(夏钟福)

    2003-01-01

    The formation and accumulation of space charge under charge treatment are investigated using PWP method. The interaction between space charge and the structure of XLPE is measured using infrared spectroscopy (IR) method. The related mechanism about space charge distribution and the structure of XLPE are discussed.

  10. Point charges optimally placed to represent the multipole expansion of charge distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramu Anandakrishnan

    Full Text Available We propose an approach for approximating electrostatic charge distributions with a small number of point charges to optimally represent the original charge distribution. By construction, the proposed optimal point charge approximation (OPCA retains many of the useful properties of point multipole expansion, including the same far-field asymptotic behavior of the approximate potential. A general framework for numerically computing OPCA, for any given number of approximating charges, is described. We then derive a 2-charge practical point charge approximation, PPCA, which approximates the 2-charge OPCA via closed form analytical expressions, and test the PPCA on a set of charge distributions relevant to biomolecular modeling. We measure the accuracy of the new approximations as the RMS error in the electrostatic potential relative to that produced by the original charge distribution, at a distance 2x the extent of the charge distribution--the mid-field. The error for the 2-charge PPCA is found to be on average 23% smaller than that of optimally placed point dipole approximation, and comparable to that of the point quadrupole approximation. The standard deviation in RMS error for the 2-charge PPCA is 53% lower than that of the optimal point dipole approximation, and comparable to that of the point quadrupole approximation. We also calculate the 3-charge OPCA for representing the gas phase quantum mechanical charge distribution of a water molecule. The electrostatic potential calculated by the 3-charge OPCA for water, in the mid-field (2.8 Å from the oxygen atom, is on average 33.3% more accurate than the potential due to the point multipole expansion up to the octupole order. Compared to a 3 point charge approximation in which the charges are placed on the atom centers, the 3-charge OPCA is seven times more accurate, by RMS error. The maximum error at the oxygen-Na distance (2.23 Å is half that of the point multipole expansion up to the octupole

  11. Charge state studies of low energy heavy ions passing through hydrogen and helium gas

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, W; Buchmann, L; Chen, A A; D'Auria, J M; D'Onofrio, A; Engel, S; Gialanella, L; Greife, U; Hunter, D; Hussein, A; Hutcheon, D A; Olin, A; Ottewell, D; Rogalla, D; Rogers, J; Romano, M; Roy, G; Terrasi, F

    2003-01-01

    Studies of the charge state distribution of low energy (<1.5 MeV/u), low Z (<13) heavy ions passing through hydrogen and helium gas of varying target pressure have been performed using separate windowless gas target systems at TRIUMF and the University of Naples. Semi-empirical relationships have been deduced to estimate the equilibrium charge state distributions as a function of beam energy. From these distributions, cross-sections for the relevant charge changing reactions have been deduced.

  12. Solute location in a nanoconfined liquid depends on charge distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Jacob A.; Thompson, Ward H., E-mail: wthompson@ku.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States)

    2015-07-28

    Nanostructured materials that can confine liquids have attracted increasing attention for their diverse properties and potential applications. Yet, significant gaps remain in our fundamental understanding of such nanoconfined liquids. Using replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of a nanoscale, hydroxyl-terminated silica pore system, we determine how the locations explored by a coumarin 153 (C153) solute in ethanol depend on its charge distribution, which can be changed through a charge transfer electronic excitation. The solute position change is driven by the internal energy, which favors C153 at the pore surface compared to the pore interior, but less so for the more polar, excited-state molecule. This is attributed to more favorable non-specific solvation of the large dipole moment excited-state C153 by ethanol at the expense of hydrogen-bonding with the pore. It is shown that a change in molecule location resulting from shifts in the charge distribution is a general result, though how the solute position changes will depend upon the specific system. This has important implications for interpreting measurements and designing applications of mesoporous materials.

  13. Charge Distribution Dependency on Gap Thickness of CMS Endcap RPC

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Sung K; Lee, Kyongsei

    2016-01-01

    We report a systematic study of charge distribution dependency of CMS Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) on gap thickness. Prototypes of double-gap RPCs with six different gap thickness ranging from from 1.0 to 2.0 mm in 0.2-mm steps have been built with 2-mm-thick phenolic high-pressure-laminated plates. The efficiencies of the six gaps are measured as a function of the effective high voltages. We report that the strength of the electric fields of the gap is decreased as the gap thickness is increased. The distributions of charges in six gaps are measured. The space charge effect is seen in the charge distribution at the higher voltages. The logistic function is used to fit the charge distribution data. Smaller charges can be produced within smaller gas gap. But the digitization threshold should be also lowered to utilize these smaller charges.

  14. Microwave measurement of intra bunch charge distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Dehler, M

    2003-01-01

    A direct way of obtaining intra bunch charge distributions is to measure the amplitude roll off as well as the phase behavior of the spectrum of the single bunch self field. To that effect, a microwave pickup together with a microwave front end has been installed in the storage ring of the Swiss Light Source (SLS). As pickup, button type bpms are used, which have been designed for a broad band behavior in the excess of 30 GHz. Three bpms together with their individual front ends are used in order to sample the beam spectrum at frequencies of 6, 12 and 18 GHz, which compares to the standard spectrum of a 1 mA single bunch extending to approximately 12 GHz (13 ps rms bunch length). The signals are mixed to base band in loco using the multiplied RF frequency as a LO. By shifting the LO phase, simultaneously the amplitude roll off as well the complex phase of the beam spectrum can be obtained. Where using a resonator as a pickup would smear out the response over several bunches, allowing only the determination of...

  15. Heavy Coronal Ions in the Heliosphere: I. Global Distribution of Charge-states of C, N, O, Mg, Si and S

    OpenAIRE

    Grzedzielski, S.; Wachowicz, M. E.; Bzowski, M.; Izmodenov, V.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Investigate/Study de-charging of solar wind C, N, O, Mg, Si and S ions and assess fluxes of resulting ENA in the heliosphere. Methods: The model treats the heavy ions as test particles convected by (and in a particular case also diffusing through) a hydrodynamically calculated background plasma flow, from 1 AU to the termination shock (TS), to heliosheath (HS) and finally to heliospheric tail (HT). The ions undergo radiative and dielectronic recombinations, charge exchanges, photo- and ...

  16. Estimation of the diameter-charge distribution in polydisperse electrically charged sprays of electrically insulating liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigit, A. R. H.; Shrimpton, John S.

    2009-06-01

    The majority of scientific and industrial electrical spray applications make use of sprays that contain a range of drop diameters. Indirect evidence suggests the mean drop diameter and the mean drop charge level are usually correlated. In addition, within each drop diameter class there is every reason to suspect a distribution of charge levels exist for a particular drop diameter class. This paper presents an experimental method that uses the joint PDF of drop velocity and diameter, obtained from phase Doppler anemometry measurements, and directly obtained spatially resolved distributions of the mass and charge flux to obtain a drop diameter and charge frequency distribution. The method is demonstrated using several data-sets obtained from experimental measurements of steady poly-disperse sprays of an electrically insulating liquid produced with the charge injection technique. The space charge repulsion in the spray plume produces a hollow cone spray structure. In addition an approximate self-similarity is observed, with the maximum radial mass and charge flow occurring at r/ d ~ 200. The charge flux profile is slightly offset from the mass flux profile, and this gives direct evidence that the spray specific charge increases from approximately 20% of the bulk mean spray specific charge on the spray axis to approximately 200% of the bulk mean specific charge in the periphery of the spray. The results from the drop charge estimation model suggest a complex picture of the correlation between drop charge and drop diameter, with spray specific charge, injection velocity and orifice diameter all contributing to the shape of the drop diameter-charge distribution. Mean drop charge as a function of the Rayleigh limit is approximately 0.2, and is invariant with drop diameter and also across the spray cases tested.

  17. Influence of argon and oxygen on charge-state-resolved ion energydistributions of filtered aluminum arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, Johanna; Anders, Andre; Mraz, Stanislav; Atiser, Adil; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2006-03-23

    The charge-state-resolved ion energy distributions (IEDs) in filtered aluminum vacuum arc plasmas were measured and analyzed at different oxygen and argon pressures in the range 0.5 8.0 mTorr. A significant reduction of the ion energy was detected as the pressure was increased, most pronounced in an argon environment and for the higher charge states. The corresponding average charge state decreased from 1.87 to 1.0 with increasing pressure. The IEDs of all metal ions in oxygen were fitted with shifted Maxwellian distributions. The results show that it is possible to obtain a plasma composition with a narrow charge-state distribution as well as a narrow IED. These data may enable tailoring thin-film properties through selecting growth conditions that are characterized by predefined charge state and energy distributions.

  18. Charged cylindrical polytropes with generalized polytropic equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, M.; Mardan, S. A.; Noureen, I.; Rehman, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    We study the general formalism of polytropes in the relativistic regime with generalized polytropic equations of state in the vicinity of cylindrical symmetry. We take a charged anisotropic fluid distribution of matter with a conformally flat condition for the development of a general framework of the polytropes. We discuss the stability of the model by the Whittaker formula and conclude that one of the models developed is physically viable.

  19. Charged cylindrical polytropes with generalized polytropic equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, M. [University of Education, Division of Science and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Mardan, S.A.; Noureen, I.; Rehman, M.A. [University of the Management and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-09-15

    We study the general formalism of polytropes in the relativistic regime with generalized polytropic equations of state in the vicinity of cylindrical symmetry. We take a charged anisotropic fluid distribution of matter with a conformally flat condition for the development of a general framework of the polytropes. We discuss the stability of the model by the Whittaker formula and conclude that one of the models developed is physically viable. (orig.)

  20. Fuzzy-Logic-Based Gain-Scheduling Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy Storage Systems for DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    -charge or deep-discharge in one of the energy storage units. Primary control in a microgrid is responsible for power sharing among units; and droop control is typically used in this stage. This paper proposes a modular and decentralized gain-scheduling control strategy based on fuzzy logic that ensures balanced...

  1. Revealing dressed quarks via the proton's charge distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloët, Ian C; Roberts, Craig D; Thomas, Anthony W

    2013-09-01

    The proton is arguably the most fundamental of nature's readily detectable building blocks. It is at the heart of every nucleus and has never been observed to decay. It is nevertheless a composite object, defined by its valence-quark content: u+u+d--i.e., two up (u) quarks and one down (d) quark; and the manner by which they influence, inter alia, the distribution of charge and magnetization within this bound state. Much of novelty has recently been learned about these distributions; and it now appears possible that the proton's momentum-space charge distribution possesses a zero. Experiments in the coming decade should answer critical questions posed by this and related advances; we explain how such new information may assist in charting the origin and impact of key emergent phenomena within the strong interaction. Specifically, we show that the possible existence and location of a zero in the proton's electric form factor are a measure of nonperturbative features of the quark-quark interaction in the standard model, with particular sensitivity to the running of the dressed-quark mass.

  2. 介观超导环中的电荷分布%Charge distributions in mesoscopic superconducting rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂必红; 查国桥; 周世平

    2007-01-01

    The charge distribution in thin mesoscopic superconducting ring is studied by the phenomenological GinzburgLandau theory. In the giant vortex states we find that the mesoscopic rings may present three kinds of charge distribution while the disk only owns the first two kinds. The charge near the inner radius may change its sign from negative to positive with increasing applied field. In the multivortex state we find that there exist saddle-point states and stable multivortex states.The distribution of charge and the superconducting electron density in the (0:2) saddle states and the (0:4), and (1:5) stable multivortex states has also been studied. The contour plot of the charge distribution and the Cooper pair density distribution are given.

  3. Theory for charge states of energetic oxygen ions in the earth's radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.; Fritz, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    Fluxes of geomagnetically trapped energetic oxygen ions have been studied in detail. Ion distributions in radial locations below the geostationary orbit, energy spectra between 1 keV and 100 MeV, and the distribution over charge states have been computed for equatorially mirroring ions. Both ionospheric and solar wind oxygen ion sources have been considered, and it is found that the charge state distributions in the interior of the radiation belts are largely independent of the charge state characteristics of the sources. In the MeV range, oxygen ions prove to be a more sensitive probe for radiation belt dynamics than helium ions and protons.

  4. Method of measuring charge distribution of nanosized aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S H; Woo, K S; Liu, B Y H; Zachariah, M R

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, we present the development of a method to accurately measure the positive and negative charge distribution of nanosized aerosols using a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) system. From the series of TDMA measurements, the charge fraction of nanosized aerosol particles was obtained as a function of equivalent mobility particle diameter ranging from 50 to 200 nm. The capability of this new approach was implemented by sampling from a laminar diffusion flame which provides a source of highly charged particles due to naturally occurring flame ionization process. The results from the TDMA measurement provide the charge distribution of nanosized aerosols which we found to be in reasonable agreement with Boltzmann equilibrium charge distribution theory and a theory based upon charge population balance equation (PBE) combined with Fuchs theory (N.A. Fuchs, Geofis. Pura Appl. 56 (1963) 185). The theoretically estimated charge distribution of aerosol particles based on the PBE provides insight into the charging processes of nanosized aerosols surrounded by bipolar ions and electrons, and agree well with the TDMA results.

  5. The Calculation of the Electrostatic Potential of Infinite Charge Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzic, Dragan V.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss some interesting aspects in the calculation of the electrostatic potential of charge distributions extending to infinity. The presentation is suitable for the advanced undergraduate level. (Contains 3 footnotes.)

  6. Charged fluid distribution in higher dimensional spheroidal space-time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G P Singh; S Kotambkar

    2005-07-01

    A general solution of Einstein field equations corresponding to a charged fluid distribution on the background of higher dimensional spheroidal space-time is obtained. The solution generates several known solutions for superdense star having spheroidal space-time geometry.

  7. Dust particle charge distribution in a stratified glow discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhinin, Gennady I [Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentyev Ave., 1, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Fedoseev, Alexander V [Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Lavrentyev Ave., 1, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Ramazanov, Tlekkabul S [Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole Bi, 96a, Almaty 050012 (Kazakhstan); Dzhumagulova, Karlygash N [Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole Bi, 96a, Almaty 050012 (Kazakhstan); Amangaliyeva, Rauan Zh [Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole Bi, 96a, Almaty 050012 (Kazakhstan)

    2007-12-21

    The influence of a highly pronounced non-equilibrium characteristic of the electron energy distribution function in a stratified dc glow discharge on the process of dust particle charging in a complex plasma is taken into account for the first time. The calculated particle charge spatial distribution is essentially non-homogeneous and it can explain the vortex motion of particles at the periphery of a dusty cloud obtained in experiments.

  8. Experimental Tests of Charge Symmetry Violation in Parton Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.T. Londergan; D.P. Murdock; A.W. Thomas

    2005-07-01

    Recently, a global phenomenological fit to high energy data has included charge symmetry breaking terms, leading to limits on the allowed magnitude of such effects. We discuss two possible experiments that could search for isospin violation in valence parton distributions. We show that, given the magnitude of charge symmetry violation consistent with existing global data, such experiments might expect to see effects at a level of several percent. Alternatively, such experiments could significantly decrease the upper limits on isospin violation in parton distributions.

  9. Charge and longitudinal momentum distributions in transverse coordinate space

    CERN Document Server

    Mondal, Chandan; Dahiya, Harleen; Chakrabarti, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the charge distributions for the $u$ and $d$ quarks in transverse coordinate space in a light-front quark-diquark model for the nucleons using the overlaps of the wave functions constructed from the soft-wall AdS/QCD prediction. We have also obtained the charge distributions for proton and neutron in transverse coordinate space and compared it with the distributions obtained in impact-parameter space. Further, we study the longitudinal momentum distributions using the wave functions in the transverse coordinate space. We have also shown the explicit fermionic and bosonic contributions for different struck $u$ and $d$ quarks.

  10. Pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements of embedded charge distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, J. R.; Pearson, Lee H.

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution and evolution of embedded charge in thin dielectric materials has important applications in semiconductor, high-power electronic device, high-voltage DC power cable insulation, high-energy and plasma physics apparatus, and spacecraft industries. Knowing how, where, and how much charge accumulates and how it redistributes and dissipates can predict destructive charging effects. Pulsed Electro-acoustic (PEA) measurements— and two closely related methods, Pressure Wave Propagation (PWP) and Laser Intensity Modulation (LIMM)— nondestructively probe such internal charge distributions. We review the instrumentation, methods, theory and signal processing of simple PEA experiments, as well as the related PPW and LIMM methods. We emphasize system improvements required to achieve high spatial resolution for in vacuo measurements of thin dielectrics charged using electron beam injection.

  11. Multiplicity distributions and charged-neutral fluctuations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tapan K Nayak; M M Aggarwal; A Agnihotri; Z Ahammed; A L S Angelis; V Antonenko; V Arefiev; V Astakhov; V Avdeitchikov; T C Awes; P V K S Baba; S K Badyal; A Baldine; L Barabach; C Barlag; S Bathe; B Tatiounia; T Bernier; K B Bhalla; V S Bhatia; C Blume; R Bock; E-M Bohne; D Bucher; A Buijs; E-J Buis; H Büsching; L Carlen; V Chalyshev; S Chattopadhyay; K E Chenawi; R Cherbatchev; T Chujo; A Claussen; A C Das; M P Decowski; V Djordjadze; P Donni; I Doubovik; A K Dubey; M R Dutta Majumdar; S Eliseev; K Enosawa; H Feldmann; P Foka; S Fokin; V Frolov; M S Ganti; S Garpman; O Gavrishchuk; F J M Geurts; T K Ghosh; R Glasow; S K Gupta; B Guskov; H A Gustafsson; H H Gutbrod; R Higuchi; I Hrivnacova; M Ippolitov; H Kalechofsky; R Kamermans; K-H Kampert; K Karadjev; K Karpio; S Kato; S Kees; H Kim; B W Kolb; I Kosarev; I Koutcheryaev; A Kugler; P Kulinich; V Kumar; M Kurata; K Kurita; K Kuzmin; I Langbein; A Lebedev; Y Y Lee; H Löhner; D P Mahapatra; V Manko; M Martin; A Maximov; R Mehdiyev; G Mgebrichvili; Y Miake; D Mikhalev; G C Mishra; Y Miyamoto; B Mohanty; D Morrison; D S Mukhopadhyay; V Myalkovski; H Naef; B K Nandi; S K Nayak; T K Nayak; S Neumaier; A Nianine; V Nikitine; S Nikolaev; S Nishimura; P Nomokov; J Nystrand; F E Obenshain; A Oskarsson; I Otterlund; M Pachr; A Parfenov; S Pavliouk; T Peitzmann; V Petracek; F Plasil; M L Purschke; B Raeven; J Rak; R Raniwala; S Raniwala; V S Ramamurthy; N K Rao; F Retiere; K Reygers; G Roland; L Rosselet; I Roufanov; J M Rubio; S S Sambyal; R Santo; S Sato; H Schlagheck; H-R Schmidt; G Shabratova; I Sibiriak; T Siemiarczuk; B C Sinha; N Slavine; K Söderström; N Solomey; G Sood; S P Sørensen; P Stankus; G Stefanek; P Steinberg; E Stenlund; D Stüken; M Sumbera; T Svensson; M D Trivedi; A Tsvetkov; C Twenhöfel; L Tykarski; J Urbahn; N V Eijndhoven; W H V Heeringen; G J V Nieuwenhuizen; A Vinogradov; Y P Viyogi; A Vodopianov; S Vörös; M A Vos; B Wyslouch; K Yogi; Y Yokota; G R Young

    2001-08-01

    Results from the multiplicity distributions of inclusive photons and charged particles, scaling of particle multiplicities, event-by-event multiplicity fluctuations, and charged-neutral fluctuations in 158 GeV Pb+Pb collisions are presented and discussed. A scaling of charged particle multiplicity as $N^{1.07± 0:05}_{\\text{part}}$ and photons as $N^{1.12± 0:03}_{\\text{part}}$ have been observed, indicating violation of naive wounded nucleon model. The analysis of localized charged-neutral fluctuation indicates a model-independent demonstration of non-statistical fluctuations in both charged particles and photons in limited azimuthal regions. However, no correlated charged-neutral fluctuations are observed.

  12. 77 FR 60005 - Schedule of Charges Outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Schedule of Charges Outside the United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation... of charges for services of FAA Flight Standards Aviation Safety Inspectors outside the United...

  13. Langevin description of fission fragment charge distribution from excited nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Karpov, A V

    2002-01-01

    A stochastic approach to fission dynamics based on a set of three-dimensional Langevin equations was applied to calculate fission-fragment charge distribution of compound nucleus sup 2 sup 3 sup 6 U. The following collective coordinates have been chosen - elongation coordinate, neck-thickness coordinate, and charge-asymmetry coordinate. The friction coefficient of charge mode has been calculated in the framework of one-body and two-body dissipation mechanisms. Analysis of the results has shown that Langevin approach is appropriate for investigation of isobaric distribution. Moreover, the dependences of the variance of the charge distribution on excitation energy and on the two-body viscosity coefficient has been studied

  14. Metastable states of plasma particles close to a charged surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavlov, A. V., E-mail: shavlov@ikz.ru [The Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian branch, 625000, P.O. 1230, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, 38, Volodarskogo St., 625000, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Dzhumandzhi, V. A. [The Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian branch, 625000, P.O. 1230, Tyumen (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    The free energy of the plasma particles and the charged surface that form an electroneutral system is calculated on the basis of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. It is shown that, owing to correlation of light plasma particles near the charged surface and close to heavy particles of high charge, there can be metastable states in plasma. The corresponding phase charts of metastable states of the separate components of plasma, and plasma as a whole, are constructed. These charts depend on temperature, the charge magnitude, the size of the particles, and the share of the charge of the light carriers out of the total charge of the plasma particles.

  15. Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2005-10-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(η2) in prior art to O(η) where η is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution", . We present a general theory of the decoy state protocol and propose a decoy method based on only one signal state and two decoy states. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the signal state and the two decoy states. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--a vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol as a special case of Vacuum+Weak decoy method. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical. This part of work is published in "Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution

  16. Molecular Structures and Momentum Transfer Cross Sections: The Influence of the Analyte Charge Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Meggie N.; Bleiholder, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Structure elucidation by ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry methods is based on the comparison of an experimentally measured momentum transfer cross-section to cross-sections calculated for model structures. Thus, it is imperative that the calculated cross-section must be accurate. However, it is not fully understood how important it is to accurately model the charge distribution of an analyte ion when calculating momentum transfer cross-sections. Here, we calculate and compare momentum transfer cross-sections for carbon clusters that differ in mass, charge state, and mode of charge distribution, and vary temperature and polarizability of the buffer gas. Our data indicate that the detailed distribution of the ion charge density is intimately linked to the contribution of glancing collisions to the momentum transfer cross-section. The data suggest that analyte ions with molecular mass 3 kDa or momentum transfer cross-section 400-500 Å2 would be significantly influenced by the charge distribution in nitrogen buffer gas. Our data further suggest that accurate structure elucidation on the basis of IMS-MS data measured in nitrogen buffer gas must account for the molecular charge distribution even for systems as large as C960 ( 12 kDa) when localized charges are present and/or measurements are conducted under cryogenic temperatures. Finally, our data underscore that accurate structure elucidation is unlikely if ion mobility data recorded in one buffer gas is converted into other buffer gases when electronic properties of the buffer gases differ.

  17. Influence of kinematic cuts on the net charge distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Hannah; Steinheimer, Jan; Bleicher, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The higher moments of the net charge distributions, e.g. the skewness and kurtosis, are studied within an infinite hadronic matter calculation in a transport approach. By dividing the box into several parts, the volume dependence of the fluctuations is investigated. After confirming that the initial distributions follow the expectations from a Poisson distribution, the influence of quantum number conservation in this case the net charge in the system on the higher moments is evaluated. For this purpose, the composition of the hadron gas is adjusted and only pions and $\\rho$ mesons are simulated to investigate the charge conservation effect. In addition, the effect of imposing kinematic cuts in momentum space is analysed. The role of resonance excitations and decays on the higher moments can also be studied within this model. This work is highly relevant to understand the experimental measurements of higher moments obtained in the RHIC beam energy scan and their comparison to lattice results and other theoreti...

  18. Theoretical study of the central depression of nuclear charge density distribution by electron scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian; CHU Yan-Yun; REN Zhong-Zhou; WANG Zai-Jun

    2012-01-01

    The charge form factors of elastic electron scattering for isotones with N =20 and N =28 are calculated using the phase-shift analysis method,with corresponding charge density distributions from relativistic mean-field theory.The results show that there are sharp variations at the inner parts of charge distributions with the proton number decreasing.The corresponding charge form factors are divided into two groups because of the unique properties of the s-states wave functions,though the proton numbers change uniformly in two isotonic chains.Meanwhile,the shift regularities of the minima are also discussed,and we give a clear relation between the minima of the charge form factors and the corresponding charge radii.This relation is caused by the diffraction effect of the electron.Under this conclusion,we calculate the charge density distributions and the charge form factors of the A =44 nuclei chain.The results are also useful for studying the central depression in light exotic nuclei.

  19. 78 FR 61446 - Schedule of Charges Outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Schedule of Charges Outside the United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation... for services of FAA Flight Standards Aviation Safety Inspectors outside the United States....

  20. Response of electrostatic probes to eccentric charge distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Torben; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    2001-01-01

    The response of an electrostatic probe mounted in an electrode is examined with reference to eccentric charge distributions. The study involves using the probe λ function to derive a characteristic parameter. This parameter enables the response of the probe to different degrees of eccentricity...

  1. Charge-displacement analysis for excited states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronca, Enrico, E-mail: enrico@thch.unipg.it; Tarantelli, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.tarantelli@unipg.it [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Pastore, Mariachiara, E-mail: chiara@thch.unipg.it; Belpassi, Leonardo; De Angelis, Filippo [Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, via Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2014-02-07

    We extend the Charge-Displacement (CD) analysis, already successfully employed to describe the nature of intermolecular interactions [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13046 (2010)] and various types of controversial chemical bonds [L. Belpassi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 1048 (2008); N. Salvi et al., Chem. Eur. J. 16, 7231 (2010)], to study the charge fluxes accompanying electron excitations, and in particular the all-important charge-transfer (CT) phenomena. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new approach through applications to exemplary excitations in a series of molecules, encompassing various typical situations from valence, to Rydberg, to CT excitations. The CD functions defined along various spatial directions provide a detailed and insightful quantitative picture of the electron displacements taking place.

  2. Exact solutions to model surface and volume charge distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Majumdar, N.; Bhattacharya, P.; Jash, A.; Bhattacharya, D. S.

    2016-10-01

    Many important problems in several branches of science and technology deal with charges distributed along a line, over a surface and within a volume. Recently, we have made use of new exact analytic solutions of surface charge distributions to develop the nearly exact Boundary Element Method (neBEM) toolkit. This 3D solver has been successful in removing some of the major drawbacks of the otherwise elegant Green's function approach and has been found to be very accurate throughout the computational domain, including near- and far-field regions. Use of truly distributed singularities (in contrast to nodally concentrated ones) on rectangular and right-triangular elements used for discretizing any three-dimensional geometry has essentially removed many of the numerical and physical singularities associated with the conventional BEM. In this work, we will present this toolkit and the development of several numerical models of space charge based on exact closed-form expressions. In one of the models, Particles on Surface (ParSur), the space charge inside a small elemental volume of any arbitrary shape is represented as being smeared on several surfaces representing the volume. From the studies, it can be concluded that the ParSur model is successful in getting the estimates close to those obtained using the first-principles, especially close to and within the cell. In the paper, we will show initial applications of ParSur and other models in problems related to high energy physics.

  3. Charge sensitive amplifies. The state of arts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kunishiro [Clear Pulse Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    In the radiation detectors, signals are essentially brought with charges produced by radiation, then it is naturally the best way to use a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) system to extract those signals. The CSA is thought to be the best amplifier suitable to almost all the radiation detectors, if neglecting economical points of view. The CSA has been only applied to special fields like radiation detection because the concept of `charges` is not so universal against the concepts of `voltage` and `current`. The CSA, however, is low in noise and a high speed amplifier and may be applicable not only to radiation measurement but also piezoelectric devices and also bolometers. In this article, noise in the CSA, basic circuit on the CSA, concepts of `equivalent noise charge` (ENC), a method for the ENC, and importance of the `open-loop gain` in the CSA to achieve better performance of it and how to realize in a practical CSA were described. And, characteristics on a counting rate of the CSA, various circuit used in the CSA, and CSAs which are commercially available at present and special purpose CSAs were also introduced. (G.K.)

  4. Microscopic modeling of mass and charge distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Nazarewicz, Witold; Schunck, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    We propose a methodology to calculate microscopically the mass and charge distributions of spontaneous fission yields. We combine the multidimensional minimization of collective action for fission with stochastic Langevin dynamics to track the relevant fission paths from the ground-state configuration up to scission. The nuclear potential energy and collective inertia governing the tunneling motion are obtained with nuclear density functional theory in the collective space of shape deformations and pairing. We obtain a quantitative agreement with experimental data and find that both the charge and mass distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu are sensitive both to the dissipation in collective motion and to adiabatic fission characteristics.

  5. Microscopic modeling of mass and charge distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu

    CERN Document Server

    Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Schunck, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we outline a methodology to calculate microscopically mass and charge distributions of spontaneous fission yields. We combine the multi-dimensional minimization of collective action for fission with stochastic Langevin dynamics to track the relevant fission paths from the ground-state configuration up to scission. The nuclear potential energy and collective inertia governing the tunneling motion are obtained with nuclear density functional theory in the collective space of shape deformations and pairing. We obtain a quantitative agreement with experimental data and find that both the charge and mass distributions in the spontaneous fission of 240Pu are sensitive both to the dissipation in collective motion and to adiabatic characteristics.

  6. Charging Schedule for Electric Vehicles in Danish Residential Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    The prospects of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in providing clean transportation and supporting renewable electricity is widely discussed in sustainable energy forums worldwide. The battery storage of EVs could be used to address the variability and unpredictability of electricity produced from renewable...... energy sources like wind in power systems. The EV batteries could be used to charge during periods of excess electricity production from wind power and reduce the charging rate or discharge on deficit of power in the grid, supporting system stability and reliability. By providing such grid services......, the vehicle owner, vehicle fleet operator and other parties involved in the process could economically benefit from the process. This paper investigates an optimal EV charging plan in Danish residential distribution grids in view of supporting high volumes of wind power in electricity grids. The results...

  7. The axial charges of the hidden-charm pentaquark states

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guang-Juan; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    With the chiral quark model, we have calculated the axial charges of the pentaquark states with $(I,I_3)=(\\frac{1}{2},\\frac{1}{2})$ and $J^{P}=\\frac{1}{2}^{\\pm},\\frac{3}{2}^{\\pm},\\frac{5}{2}^{\\pm}$. The $P_c$ states with the same $J^P$ quantum numbers but different color-spin-flavor configurations have very different axial charges, which encode important information on their underlying structures. For some of the $J^{P}=\\frac{3}{2}^{\\pm}$ or $\\frac{5}{2}^{\\pm}$ pentaquark states, their axial charges are much smaller than that of the proton.

  8. The ECRIS charge state breeding project at TRIUMF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, F; Baartman, R; Bricault, P; Jayamanna, K; McDonald, M; Schmor, P; Spanjers, T; Yuan, D H L; Lamy, T

    2008-02-01

    The performance of charge state breeding with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source intended to increase the charge state of online produced radioactive ions at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF has been investigated. A 14 GHz PHOENIX from PANTECHNIK has been setup on a test bench. Singly charged ions have been produced with several ion sources typical for the on-line operation and were injected into the charge breeder. The main purpose of the tests has been the optimization of the efficiency for the charge breeding into the desired charge state. Maximum efficiencies reached so far with the standard one step deceleration of the ions in front of the plasma are up to about 6% for noble gas ions and about 3.5% for alkalines. As ion optics simulations show, the acceptance can be increased by a two step deceleration. In order to meet the velocity acceptance of the accelerator at different A/q values a similar two gap acceleration system for the highly charged ions has been installed to allow the source to run at different voltages. For the further beam transport to the accelerator, cross sections for charge exchange of the highly charged ions with the residual gas have been determined.

  9. Phase diagrams of charged colloidal rods: Can a uniaxial charge distribution break chiral symmetry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drwenski, Tara; Dussi, Simone; Hermes, Michiel; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Roij, René

    2016-03-07

    We construct phase diagrams for charged rodlike colloids within the second-virial approximation as a function of rod concentration, salt concentration, and colloidal charge. Besides the expected isotropic-nematic transition, we also find parameter regimes with a coexistence between a nematic and a second, more highly aligned nematic phase including an isotropic-nematic-nematic triple point and a nematic-nematic critical point, which can all be explained in terms of the twisting effect. We compute the Frank elastic constants to see if the twist elastic constant can become negative, which would indicate the possibility of a cholesteric phase spontaneously forming. Although the twisting effect reduces the twist elastic constant, we find that it always remains positive. In addition, we find that for finite aspect-ratio rods the twist elastic constant is also always positive, such that there is no evidence of chiral symmetry breaking due to a uniaxial charge distribution.

  10. Small-signal charge transfer inefficiency experiments explained by the McWhorter interface state model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning De Vries, René G.M.; Wallinga, Hans

    1984-01-01

    The small-signal charge transfer inefficiency (SCTI) of a surface-channel CCD has been studied. The experimentally observed behavior of the SCTI could not be explained by the conventional interface state model. Using the McWhorter model for the interface states, which assumes a distribution of the s

  11. Theoretical study on the distribution of atomic charges in the Schiff bases of 3-hydroxypyridine-4-aldehyde and alanine. The effect of the protonation state of the pyridine and imine nitrogen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casasnovas, Rodrigo; Salva, Antoni; Frau, Juan; Donoso, Josefa [Institut Universitari d' Investigacio en Ciencies de la Salut (IUNICS), Departament de Quimica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Munoz, Francisco [Institut Universitari d' Investigacio en Ciencies de la Salut (IUNICS), Departament de Quimica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra. Valldemossa km 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)], E-mail: dqufmi0@uib.es

    2009-01-27

    The protonation state of the pyridine and imine nitrogen atoms on the 'electron-sink' effect was studied by DFT(B3LYP/6-31+G*) calculations in the Schiff bases formed between 3-hydroxypyridine-4-aldehyde and alanine and their C{alpha}-carbanionic counterparts. Results indicate that the protonation of pyridine nitrogen promotes the enolimine-ketoenamine tautomerism. The importance of pyridine nitrogen on the 'electron-sink' effect in the carbanionic molecules clearly depends on the protonation state of the imine nitrogen: in the enolimine tautomers, where the imine nitrogen is deprotonated, a 70% of the electron charge is delocalized on the pyridine ring, whereas in the ketoenamine type structures, where the imine nitrogen is fully protonated, just a 20% of this charge is delocalized in this molecular moiety. The results are discussed in relation to the chemistry of some PLP-dependent enzymes and the structure of their active sites.

  12. Isolating Protein Charge State Reduction in Electrospray Droplets Using Femtosecond Laser Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Santosh; Sistani, Habiballah; Archer, Jieutonne J.; Shi, Fengjian; Levis, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Charge state distributions are measured using mass spectrometry for both native and denatured cytochrome c and myoglobin after laser vaporization from the solution state into an electrospray (ES) plume consisting of a series of solution additives differing in gas-phase basicity. The charge distribution depends on both the pH of the protein solution prior to laser vaporization and the gas-phase basicity of the solution additive employed in the ES solvent. Cytochrome c (myoglobin) prepared in solutions with pH of 7.0, 2.6, and 2.3 resulted in the average charge state distribution (Zavg) of 7.0 ± 0.1 (8.2 ± 0.1), 9.7 ± 0.2 (14.5 ± 0.3), and 11.6 ± 0.3 (16.4 ± 0.1), respectively, in ammonium formate ES solvent. The charge distribution shifted from higher charge states to lower charge states when the ES solvent contained amines additives with higher gas-phase basicity. In the case of triethyl ammonium formate, Zavg of cytochrome c (myoglobin) prepared in solutions with pH of 7.0, 2.6, and 2.3 decreased to 4.9 (5.7), 7.4 ± 0.2 (9.6 ± 0.3), and 7.9 ± 0.3 (9.8 ± 0.2), respectively. The detection of a charge state distribution corresponding to folded protein after laser vaporized, acid-denatured protein interacts with the ES solvent containing ammonium formate, ammonium acetate, triethyl ammonium formate, and triethyl ammonium acetate suggests that at least a part of protein population folds within the electrospray droplet on a millisecond timescale.

  13. Ionic strength independence of charge distributions in solvation of biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virtanen, J. J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Sosnick, T. R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Freed, K. F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2014-12-14

    Electrostatic forces enormously impact the structure, interactions, and function of biomolecules. We perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations for 5 proteins and 5 RNAs to determine the dependence on ionic strength of the ion and water charge distributions surrounding the biomolecules, as well as the contributions of ions to the electrostatic free energy of interaction between the biomolecule and the surrounding salt solution (for a total of 40 different biomolecule/solvent combinations). Although water provides the dominant contribution to the charge density distribution and to the electrostatic potential even in 1M NaCl solutions, the contributions of water molecules and of ions to the total electrostatic interaction free energy with the solvated biomolecule are comparable. The electrostatic biomolecule/solvent interaction energies and the total charge distribution exhibit a remarkable insensitivity to salt concentrations over a huge range of salt concentrations (20 mM to 1M NaCl). The electrostatic potentials near the biomolecule's surface obtained from the MD simulations differ markedly, as expected, from the potentials predicted by continuum dielectric models, even though the total electrostatic interaction free energies are within 11% of each other.

  14. Influence of kinematic cuts on the net charge distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hannah; Oliinychenko, Dmytro; Steinheimer, Jan; Bleicher, Marcus

    2016-12-01

    The higher moments of the net charge distributions, e.g. the skewness and kurtosis, are studied within an infinite hadronic matter calculation in a transport approach. By dividing the box into several parts, the volume dependence of the fluctuations is investigated. After confirming that the initial distributions follow the expectations from a binomial distribution, the influence of quantum number conservation in this case the net charge in the system on the higher moments is evaluated. For this purpose, the composition of the hadron gas is adjusted and only pions and ρ mesons are simulated to investigate the charge conservation effect. In addition, the effect of imposing kinematic cuts in momentum space is analysed. The role of resonance excitations and decays on the higher moments can also be studied within this model. This work is highly relevant to understand the experimental measurements of higher moments obtained in the RHIC beam energy scan and their comparison to lattice results and other theoretical calculations assuming infinite matter.

  15. Measurements of aerosol charging states in Helsinki, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gagné

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The charging state of aerosol populations was measured with an Ion-DMPS in Helsinki, Finland between December 2008 and February 2010. Based on the charging states, we calculated the ion-induced nucleation fraction to be around 0.8 % ± 0.9 %. We review the role of ion-induced nucleation and propose different explanations for a low ion-induced nucleation participation in urban areas. We present a new method to retrieve the average charging state for an event, and a given size. We also use a new theoretical framework that allows for different concentrations of small cluster ions for different polarities (polarity asymmetry. We extrapolate the ion-induced fraction using polarity symmetry and asymmetry. Finally, a method to calculate the growth rates from the variation of the charging state as a function of the particle diameter using polarity symmetry and asymmetry is presented and used on a selection of new particle formation events.

  16. Explosion and final state of the charged black hole bomb

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchis-Gual, Nicolas; Montero, Pedro J; Font, José A; Herdeiro, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    A Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole (BH) is superradiantly unstable against spherical perturbations of a charged scalar field, enclosed in a cavity, with frequency lower than a critical value. We use numerical relativity techniques to follow the development of this unstable system -- dubbed charged BH bomb -- into the non-linear regime, solving the full Einstein--Maxwell--Klein-Gordon equations, in spherical symmetry. We show that: $i)$ the process stops before all the charge is extracted from the BH; $ii)$ the system settles down into a hairy BH: a charged horizon in equilibrium with a scalar field condensate, whose phase is oscillating at the (final) critical frequency. For low scalar field charge, $q$, the final state is approached smoothly and monotonically. For large $q$, however, the energy extraction overshoots and an explosive phenomenon, akin to a $bosenova$, pushes some energy back into the BH. The charge extraction, by contrast, does not reverse.

  17. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum ARC ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1-4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several {mu}s) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution.

  18. Electromagnetic contribution to charge symmetry violation in parton distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.G. Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a calculation of the combined effect of photon radiation and quark mass differences on charge symmetry violation (CSV in the parton distribution functions of the nucleon. Following a recent suggestion of Martin and Ryskin, the initial photon distribution is calculated in terms of coherent radiation from the proton as a whole, while the effect of the quark mass difference is based on a recent lattice QCD simulation. The distributions are then evolved to a scale at which they can be compared with experiment by including both QCD and QED radiation. Overall, at a scale of 5 GeV2, the total CSV effect on the phenomenologically important difference between the d and u-quark distributions is some 20% larger than the value based on quark mass differences alone. In total these sources of CSV account for approximately 40% of the NuTeV anomaly.

  19. l-distributions of the first electron transferred to multiply charged ions interacting with solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, M. A.; Nedeljkovic, N. N.

    2008-07-01

    We analyze the angular momentum distributions of the electron transferred into the Rydberg states of multiply charged ions escaping the solid surfaces. The population probabilities are calculated within the framework of two-state-vector model; in the case of large values of the angular momentum quantum numbers l the model takes into account an importance of a wide space region around the projectile trajectory. The reionization of the previously populated states is also taken into account. The corresponding ionization rates are obtained by the appropriate etalon equation method; in the large-l case the radial electronic coordinate rho is treated as variational parameter. The theoretical predictions based on the proposed population-reionization mechanism fit the available beam-foil experimental data; the obtained large-l distributions are also used to elucidate the recent experimental data concerning the multiply charged Rydberg ions interacting with micro-capillary foil.

  20. Influence of layer charge and charge distribution of smectites on the flow behaviour and swelling of bentonites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidis, G.E.; Blum, A.E.; Eberl, D.D.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of layer charge and charge distribution of dioctahedral smectites on the rheological and swelling properties of bentonites is examined. Layer charge and charge distribution were determined by XRD using the LayerCharge program [Christidis, G.E., Eberl, D.D., 2003. Determination of layer charge characteristics of smectites. Clays Clay Miner. 51, 644-655.]. The rheological properties were determined, after sodium exchange using the optimum amount of Na2CO3, from free swelling tests. Rheological properties were determined using 6.42% suspensions according to industrial practice. In smectites with layer charges of - 0.425 to - 0.470 per half formula unit (phfu), layer charge is inversely correlated with free swelling, viscosity, gel strength, yield strength and thixotropic behaviour. In these smectites, the rheological properties are directly associated with the proportion of low charge layers. By contrast, in low charge and high charge smectites there is no systematic relation between layer charge or the proportion of low charge layers and rheological properties. However, low charge smectites yield more viscous suspensions and swell more than high charge smectites. The rheological properties of bentonites also are affected by the proportion of tetrahedral charge (i.e. beidellitic charge), by the existence of fine-grained minerals having clay size, such as opal-CT and to a lesser degree by the ionic strength and the pH of the suspension. A new method for classification of smectites according to the layer charge based on the XRD characteristics of smecites is proposed, that also is consistent with variations in rheological properties. In this classification scheme the term smectites with intermediate layer charge is proposed. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Charge distribution dependency on gap thickness of CMS endcap RPC

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Sung Keun

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic study of charge distribution dependency of CMS Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) on gap thickness.Prototypes of double-gap with five different gap thickness from 1.8mm to 1.0mm in 0.2mm steps have been built with 2mm thick phenolic high-pressure-laminated (HPL) plates. The charges of cosmic-muon signals induced on the detector strips are measured as a function of time using two four-channel 400-MHz fresh ADCs. In addition, the arrival time of the muons and the strip cluster sizes are measured by digitizing the signal using a 32-channel voltage-mode front-end-electronics and a 400-MHz 64-channel multi-hit TDC. The gain and the input impedance of the front-end-electronics were 200mV/mV and 20 Ohm, respectively.

  2. Electrification and Charge Distribution in Vertically Shaken Granular Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Ruben; Nordsiek, Freja; Lathrop, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Granular charging of particle laden flows at large scales is a widespread phenomenon and has long been observed in nature: Volcanic ash clouds, desert sandstorms, dust devils, thunderstorms and snowstorms all undergo electrification at large scale. As a first approach to understand this phenomenon, we confined granular particles to a vertically oscillating cylindrical chamber with top and bottom conducting plates. Long term voltage transients between the plates and a high dependence on the total particle surface area suggested the preponderance of collective effects in the electrification processes. In order to further explore this hypothesis, we reduced the electrode area for the measurement with two 2-cm circular flat probes on the top plate. With this setup we detected differences in the charge distribution among the particles due to a more localized measurement of the voltage. This research was supported by the Julian Schwinger Foundation.

  3. Dust charging processes with a Cairns-Tsallis distribution function with negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abid, A. A., E-mail: abidaliabid1@hotmail.com [Applied Physics Department, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Khan, M. Z., E-mail: mzk-qau@yahoo.com [Applied Physics Department, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Yap, S. L. [Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Terças, H., E-mail: hugo.tercas@tecnico.ul.pt [Physics of Information Group, Instituto de Telecomunicações, Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisbon 1049-001 (Portugal); Mahmood, S. [Science Place, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N5A2 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Dust grain charging processes are presented in a non-Maxwellian dusty plasma following the Cairns-Tsallis (q, α)–distribution, whose constituents are the electrons, as well as the positive/negative ions and negatively charged dust grains. For this purpose, we have solved the current balance equation for a negatively charged dust grain to achieve an equilibrium state value (viz., q{sub d} = constant) in the presence of Cairns-Tsallis (q, α)–distribution. In fact, the current balance equation becomes modified due to the Boltzmannian/streaming distributed negative ions. It is numerically found that the relevant plasma parameters, such as the spectral indexes q and α, the positive ion-to-electron temperature ratio, and the negative ion streaming speed (U{sub 0}) significantly affect the dust grain surface potential. It is also shown that in the limit q → 1 the Cairns-Tsallis reduces to the Cairns distribution; for α = 0 the Cairns-Tsallis distribution reduces to pure Tsallis distribution and the latter reduces to Maxwellian distribution for q → 1 and α = 0.

  4. Interfacial Charge Transfer States in Condensed Phase Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewal, Koen

    2016-05-01

    Intermolecular charge transfer (CT) states at the interface between electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials in organic thin films are characterized by absorption and emission bands within the optical gap of the interfacing materials. CT states efficiently generate charge carriers for some D-A combinations, and others show high fluorescence quantum efficiencies. These properties are exploited in organic solar cells, photodetectors, and light-emitting diodes. This review summarizes experimental and theoretical work on the electronic structure and interfacial energy landscape at condensed matter D-A interfaces. Recent findings on photogeneration and recombination of free charge carriers via CT states are discussed, and relations between CT state properties and optoelectronic device parameters are clarified.

  5. An EBIS for charge state breeding in the SPES project

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Variale; G Brautti; T Clauser; A Rainò; V Stagno; G Lamanna; V Valentino; A Boggia; Y Boimelshtein; P Logatchov; B Skarbo; M Tiunov

    2002-11-01

    The ‘charge state breeder’, BRIC (breeding ion charge) is in construction at the INFN section of Bari (Italy). It is based on EBIS scheme and it is designed to accept radioactive ion beam (RIB) with charge state +1 in a slow injection mode. This experiment can be considered as a first step towards the design and construction of a charge breeder for the SPES project. The new feature of BRIC, with respect to the classical EBIS, is given by the insertion, in the ion chamber, of a rf-quadrupole aiming at filtering the unwanted masses and then making a more efficient containment of the wanted ions. In this paper, the breeder design, the simulation results of the electron and ion beam propagation and the construction problems of the device will be reported.

  6. Impacts of electric vehicle charging on distribution networks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lizhong; Yang, Guang Ya; Xu, Zhao;

    2011-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) provide a unique opportunity to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the transport sector by drawing on renewable resources. As EVs become increasingly popular in the automotive market, the study of its impacts on the low-voltage grid has become increasingly important....... The model of EVs is affected by the user, battery characteristics, as well as the environment. Studies are carried out based on the Danish case. A preliminary model on demand is created by integrating the driving pattern and battery charging characteristics. The model is applied to a typical distribution...

  7. Efficient charge generation by relaxed charge-transfer states at organic interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewal, Koen; Albrecht, Steve; Hoke, Eric T.; Graham, Kenneth R.; Widmer, Johannes; Douglas, Jessica D.; Schubert, Marcel; Mateker, William R.; Bloking, Jason T.; Burkhard, George F.; Sellinger, Alan; Fréchet, Jean M. J.; Amassian, Aram; Riede, Moritz K.; McGehee, Michael D.; Neher, Dieter; Salleo, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Interfaces between organic electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials have the ability to generate charge carriers on illumination. Efficient organic solar cells require a high yield for this process, combined with a minimum of energy losses. Here, we investigate the role of the lowest energy emissive interfacial charge-transfer state (CT1) in the charge generation process. We measure the quantum yield and the electric field dependence of charge generation on excitation of the charge-transfer (CT) state manifold via weakly allowed, low-energy optical transitions. For a wide range of photovoltaic devices based on polymer:fullerene, small-molecule:C60 and polymer:polymer blends, our study reveals that the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is essentially independent of whether or not D, A or CT states with an energy higher than that of CT1 are excited. The best materials systems show an IQE higher than 90% without the need for excess electronic or vibrational energy.

  8. Efficient charge generation by relaxed charge-transfer states at organic interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vandewal, Koen

    2013-11-17

    Interfaces between organic electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials have the ability to generate charge carriers on illumination. Efficient organic solar cells require a high yield for this process, combined with a minimum of energy losses. Here, we investigate the role of the lowest energy emissive interfacial charge-transfer state (CT1) in the charge generation process. We measure the quantum yield and the electric field dependence of charge generation on excitation of the charge-transfer (CT) state manifold via weakly allowed, low-energy optical transitions. For a wide range of photovoltaic devices based on polymer:fullerene, small-molecule:C60 and polymer:polymer blends, our study reveals that the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is essentially independent of whether or not D, A or CT states with an energy higher than that of CT1 are excited. The best materials systems show an IQE higher than 90% without the need for excess electronic or vibrational energy. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  9. Photoemission spectra of charge density wave states in cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wei-Lin; Chen, Peng-Jen; Lee, Ting-Kuo

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy(ARPES) experiments have reported many exotic properties of cuprates, such as Fermi arc at normal state, two gaps at superconducting state and particle-hole asymmetry at the antinodal direction. On the other hand, a number of inhomogeneous states or so-called charge density waves(CDW) states have also been discovered in cuprates by many experimental groups. The relation between these CDW states and ARPES spectra is unclear. With the help of Gutzwiller projected mean-field theory, we can reproduce the quasiparticle spectra in momentum space. The spectra show strong correspondence to the experimental data with afore-mentioned exotic features in it.

  10. Low-energy state-selective charge transfer by multiply charged ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubinski, G; Juhasz, Z; Morgenstern, R; Hoekstra, R

    2001-01-01

    We present a combined rf-guided ion beam and photon emission spectroscopy method, which facilitates state-selective charge-transfer measurements at energies of direct relevance for astrophysics and fusion-plasma diagnostics and modeling. Ion energies have been varied from 1000 eV/amu down to energie

  11. Breaking of symmetrical charge distribution in xanthylocyanine chromophores detecting by their absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyluk, S. V.; Viniychuk, O. O.; Poronik, Ye. M.; Kovtun, Yu. P.; Shandura, M. P.; Yashchuk, V. M.; Kachkovsky, O. D.

    2011-03-01

    A detailed experimental investigation and quantum-chemical analysis of symmetrical cyanines with xanthylium and its substituted derivatives and with different polymethine chain (containing 1 and 2 vinylene groups) have been performed with the goal of understanding the nature of the electronic transitions in molecules. It is established electronic transitions in carbocyanines are similar to that in the typical Brooker's cyanines. In contrast, the absorption spectra of dicarbocyanines demonstrate a strong solvent dependence and substantial band broadening represented by the growth of the short wavelength shoulder. Basing on the results of the quantum-chemical calculation and conception of the mobile solitonic-like charge waves, we have concluded that the dicarbocyanines exist in two charged forms in the ground state with symmetrical and unsymmetrical distributions of the charge density. These are the examples of the cationic cyanines with the shortest chain when the symmetry breaking occurs.

  12. Isospin restrictions on charge distributions in charmed-particle decays. [Branching ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peshkin, M.; Rosner, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    The isospin properties of the semileptonic and nonleptonic charm-changing weak interactions lead to restrictions on the branching ratios of the different charge states that can occur in multi-particle decays of charmed particles. Upper and lower bounds imposed by isospin invariance on these ratios, and on the average number of charged decay products, are calculated for various charmed-particle decay modes. Simultaneous bounds on the branching ratios of two different charge distributions in the same decay mode, or in isospin-related decay modes, are presented. Branching ratios are also calculated under the statistical postulate that all the allowed invariant isospin channels contribute equally and incoherently in each decay mode.

  13. Energy loss and charge state dependency of swift Nq+ ions scattered off a Pt(110)(1 x 2) surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robin, A; Hatke, N; Jensen, J; Plachke, D; Carstanjen, HD; Heiland, W

    2003-01-01

    We present new surface scattering results combining measurements of energy loss and charge state distributions of 0.7-1.4 MeV Nq+ (q = 1, 2) ions. The energy range is still below the bulk stopping power maximum and charge exchange occurs. The projectiles scatter from a Pt(110)(1 x 2) single crystal

  14. Fast electronic resistance switching involving hidden charge density wave states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskivskyi, I.; Mihailovic, I. A.; Brazovskii, S.; Gospodaric, J.; Mertelj, T.; Svetin, D.; Sutar, P.; Mihailovic, D.

    2016-05-01

    The functionality of computer memory elements is currently based on multi-stability, driven either by locally manipulating the density of electrons in transistors or by switching magnetic or ferroelectric order. Another possibility is switching between metallic and insulating phases by the motion of ions, but their speed is limited by slow nucleation and inhomogeneous percolative growth. Here we demonstrate fast resistance switching in a charge density wave system caused by pulsed current injection. As a charge pulse travels through the material, it converts a commensurately ordered polaronic Mott insulating state in 1T-TaS2 to a metastable electronic state with textured domain walls, accompanied with a conversion of polarons to band states, and concurrent rapid switching from an insulator to a metal. The large resistance change, high switching speed (30 ps) and ultralow energy per bit opens the way to new concepts in non-volatile memory devices manipulating all-electronic states.

  15. Modeling Battery Behavior for Accurate State-of-Charge Indication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Veld, op het J.H.G.; Regtien, P.P.L.; Danilov, D.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2006-01-01

    Li-ion is the most commonly used battery chemistry in portable applications nowadays. Accurate state-of-charge (SOC) and remaining run-time indication for portable devices is important for the user's convenience and to prolong the lifetime of batteries. A new SOC indication system, combining the ele

  16. Universal state-of-charge indication for portable applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.

    2007-01-01

    Many leading semiconductors companies (e.g. Philips, Texas Instruments, Microchip, Maxim, etc.) are paying even more attention to accurate State-of-Charge (SoC) indication. Following the technological revolution and the appearance of more power consuming devices on the automotive electronics and por

  17. Conformal anisotropic relativistic charged fluid spheres with a linear equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esculpi, M.; Alomá, E.

    2010-06-01

    We obtain two new families of compact solutions for a spherically symmetric distribution of matter consisting of an electrically charged anisotropic fluid sphere joined to the Reissner-Nordstrom static solution through a zero pressure surface. The static inner region also admits a one parameter group of conformal motions. First, to study the effect of the anisotropy in the sense of the pressures of the charged fluid, besides assuming a linear equation of state to hold for the fluid, we consider the tangential pressure p ⊥ to be proportional to the radial pressure p r , the proportionality factor C measuring the grade of anisotropy. We analyze the resulting charge distribution and the features of the obtained family of solutions. These families of solutions reproduce for the value C=1, the conformal isotropic solution for quark stars, previously obtained by Mak and Harko. The second family of solutions is obtained assuming the electrical charge inside the sphere to be a known function of the radial coordinate. The allowed values of the parameters pertained to these solutions are constrained by the physical conditions imposed. We study the effect of anisotropy in the allowed compactness ratios and in the values of the charge. The Glazer’s pulsation equation for isotropic charged spheres is extended to the case of anisotropic and charged fluid spheres in order to study the behavior of the solutions under linear adiabatic radial oscillations. These solutions could model some stage of the evolution of strange quark matter fluid stars.

  18. Formation and Distribution of Space-Charge in Cross-Linked Polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye-Wen; Li, Ji-Xiao; Zheng, Fei-Hu; Peng, Zong-Ren; Wu, Chang-Shun; Xia, Zhong-Fu

    2002-08-01

    The formation and distribution of space-charge in a cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) sample are investigated by means of pressure wave propagation, infrared spectroscopy and electrostatic force microscopy (EFM). The related mechanism of space-charge distribution and the structure of XLPE are discussed. The EFM images show that quite large quantitative space-charges locate at the surface of spherulites.

  19. Distributed Coordination of Electric Vehicle Charging in a Community Microgrid Considering Real-Time Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Schaltz, Erik; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    The predictable increasing adoption of EV by residential users imposes the necessity of Electric Vehicle charging coordination, in order to charge effectively while minimizing the impact on the grid. In this paper, a two-stage distributed coordination algorithm for electric vehicle charging...... activity based on the real-time price, while meeting the requirement of technical constraints of the distribution system....

  20. Improving and Handling Electric Vehicle Penetration Level by Different Smart Charging Algorithms in Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2015-01-01

    for distribution system operators (DSOs). Two smart charging algorithms are proposed in this study. The proposed algorithms are applied to a part of the Danish distribution grid as a case study. As a comparison, a dumb charging scenario, i.e. charging EVs without any specific order or algorithm, is also simulated...

  1. Fractional charge and spin states in topological insulator constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinovaja, Jelena; Loss, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    We theoretically investigate the properties of two-dimensional topological insulator constrictions both in the integer and fractional regimes. In the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, the constriction functions as a spin filter with near-perfect efficiency and can be switched by electric fields only. Domain walls between different topological phases can be created in the constriction as an interface between tunneling, magnetic fields, charge density wave, or electron-electron interaction dominated regions. These domain walls host non-Abelian bound states with fractional charge and spin and result in degenerate ground states with parafermions. If a proximity gap is induced bound states give rise to an exotic Josephson current with 8 π periodicity.

  2. Solar Energetic Particle Drifts and the Energy Dependence of 1 AU Charge States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, S.; Marsh, M. S.; Battarbee, M.

    2017-01-01

    The event-averaged charge state of heavy ion solar energetic particles (SEPs), measured at 1 au from the Sun, typically increases with the ions’ kinetic energy. The origin of this behavior has been ascribed to processes taking place within the acceleration region. In this paper we study the propagation through interplanetary space of SEP Fe ions, injected near the Sun with a variety of charge states that are uniformly distributed in energy, by means of a 3D test particle model. In our simulations, due to gradient and curvature drifts associated with the Parker spiral magnetic field, ions of different charge propagate with very different efficiencies to an observer that is not magnetically well connected to the source region. As a result we find that, for many observer locations, the 1 au event-averaged charge state , as obtained from our model, displays an increase with particle energy E, in qualitative agreement with spacecraft observations. We conclude that drift-associated propagation is a possible explanation for the observed distribution of versus E in SEP events, and that the distribution measured in interplanetary space cannot be taken to represent that at injection.

  3. Dielectric sample with two-layer charge distribution for space charge calibration purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens; Rasmussen, C.

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper is described a dielectric test sample with two very narrow concentrations of bulk charges, achieved by two internal electrodes not affecting the acoustical properties of the sample, a fact important for optimal application of most space charge measuring systems. Space charge...

  4. New charging strategy for lithium-ion batteries based on the integration of Taguchi method and state of charge estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Thanh Tu; Chen, Xiaopeng; Shen, Weixiang; Kapoor, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new charging strategy of lithium-polymer batteries (LiPBs) has been proposed based on the integration of Taguchi method (TM) and state of charge estimation. The TM is applied to search an optimal charging current pattern. An adaptive switching gain sliding mode observer (ASGSMO) is adopted to estimate the SOC which controls and terminates the charging process. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed charging strategy can successfully charge the same types of LiPBs with different capacities and cycle life. The proposed charging strategy also provides much shorter charging time, narrower temperature variation and slightly higher energy efficiency than the equivalent constant current constant voltage charging method.

  5. Charge transfer to ground-state ions produces free electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, D.; Fukuzawa, H.; Sakakibara, Y.; Takanashi, T.; Ito, Y.; Maliyar, G. G.; Motomura, K.; Nagaya, K.; Nishiyama, T.; Asa, K.; Sato, Y.; Saito, N.; Oura, M.; Schöffler, M.; Kastirke, G.; Hergenhahn, U.; Stumpf, V.; Gokhberg, K.; Kuleff, A. I.; Cederbaum, L. S.; Ueda, K.

    2017-01-01

    Inner-shell ionization of an isolated atom typically leads to Auger decay. In an environment, for example, a liquid or a van der Waals bonded system, this process will be modified, and becomes part of a complex cascade of relaxation steps. Understanding these steps is important, as they determine the production of slow electrons and singly charged radicals, the most abundant products in radiation chemistry. In this communication, we present experimental evidence for a so-far unobserved, but potentially very important step in such relaxation cascades: Multiply charged ionic states after Auger decay may partially be neutralized by electron transfer, simultaneously evoking the creation of a low-energy free electron (electron transfer-mediated decay). This process is effective even after Auger decay into the dicationic ground state. In our experiment, we observe the decay of Ne2+ produced after Ne 1s photoionization in Ne-Kr mixed clusters.

  6. The equilibrium probability distribution of a conductive sphere's floating charge in a collisionless, drifting Maxwellian plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Drew M

    2013-01-01

    A dust grain in a plasma has a fluctuating electric charge, and past work concludes that spherical grains in a stationary, collisionless plasma have an essentially Gaussian charge probability distribution. This paper extends that work to flowing plasmas and arbitrarily large spheres, deriving analytic charge probability distributions up to normalizing constants. We find that these distributions also have good Gaussian approximations, with analytic expressions for their mean and variance.

  7. Electrostatic field generated by a charge polynomial distribution in an elliptic beam; Champ electrostatique genere par une distribution de charge polynomiale dans un faisceau de section elliptique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coacolo, J.L

    1999-07-01

    In this work, the electrostatic field generated from a polynomial charge distribution with an elliptic outline, has been calculated. One of the interests of this calculation is the introduction of the field analytical expression, in a space charge routine of a beam dynamic simulation particle code. The field analytical expression calculated here is exact only for a continuous field. (A.L.B.)

  8. Quantum collision states for positive charges in an octahedral cage

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, R V

    2003-01-01

    One-electron energy levels are studied for a configuration of two positive charges inside an octahedral cage, the vertices of the cage being occupied by atoms with a partially filled shell. Although ground states correspond to large separations, there are relatively low-lying states with large collision probabilities. Electromagnetic radiation fields used to excite the quantum collisional levels may provide a means to control nuclear reactions. However, given the scale of the excitation energies involved, this mechanism cannot provide an explanation for the unexplained ``cold fusion'' events.

  9. Net-charge probability distributions in heavy ion collisions at chemical freeze-out

    CERN Document Server

    Braun-Munzinger, P; Karsch, F; Redlich, K; Skokov, V

    2011-01-01

    We explore net charge probability distributions in heavy ion collisions within the hadron resonance gas model. The distributions for strangeness, electric charge and baryon number are derived. We show that, within this model, net charge probability distributions and the resulting fluctuations can be computed directly from the measured yields of charged and multi-charged hadrons. The influence of multi-charged particles and quantum statistics on the shape of the distribution is examined. We discuss the properties of the net proton distribution along the chemical freeze-out line. The model results presented here can be compared with data at RHIC energies and at the LHC to possibly search for the relation between chemical freeze-out and QCD cross-over lines in heavy ion collisions.

  10. Ligand and Charge Distribution (LCD) model for the description of fulvic acid adsorption to goethite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Liping; Van Riemsdijk, Willem H; Koopal, Luuk K; Hiemstra, Tjisse

    2006-10-15

    The LCD model (Ligand and Charge Distribution) has recently been proposed to describe the adsorption of humic substances to oxides, in which the CD-MUSIC model and the NICA model for ion binding to respectively oxides and humic substances are integrated. In this paper, the LCD model is improved by applying the ADAPT model (ADsorption and AdaPTation) to calculate the equilibrium distribution of the humic substances based on the change of the average chemical state of the particles. The improved LCD model is applied to calculate the adsorption of fulvic acid (Strichen) to goethite, in which it is assumed that the carboxylic type of groups of fulvic acid can form innersphere complexes with the surface sites. The charge of the carboxylic groups in the innersphere complexes is distributed between the 0- and d-plane, whereas the charge of the other carboxylic and phenolic groups is located in the d-plane. The average distribution of the carboxylic and phenolic groups among their various chemical states (carboxylic groups: innersphere complex, protonated and deprotonated; phenolic groups: protonated and deprotonated) depends on pH, ionic strength and loading, and are the outcome of the model. The calculation shows that the LCD model can describe sufficiently the effects of pH, ionic strength and loading on the adsorption of fulvic acid, using one adjustable parameter (logK (S,1)). The model calculations indicate that the chemical complexation between fulvic acid and goethite is the main driving force of the adsorption, while the electrostatic repulsion between the particles and the surface is the major limiting factor for further adsorption.

  11. Projectile charge state dependent sputtering of solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Hayderer, G

    2000-01-01

    dependence on the ion kinetic energy. This new type of potential sputtering not only requires electronic excitation of the target material, but also the formation of a collision cascade within the target in order to initiate the sputtering process and has therefore been termed kinetically assisted potential sputtering. In order to study defects induced by potential sputtering on the atomic scale we performed measurements of multiply charged Ar ion irradiated HOPG (highly oriented pyrolitic graphite) samples with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The only surface defects found in the STM images are protrusions. The mean diameter of the defects increases with projectile charge state while the height of the protrusions stays roughly the same indicating a possible pre-equilibrium effect of the stopping of slow multiply charged projectiles in HOPG. Total sputter yields for impact of slow singly and multiply charged ions on metal- (Au), oxide- (Al2O3, MgO) and alkali-halide surfaces (LiF) have been measured as a...

  12. Charge Order Induced in an Orbital Density-Wave State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dheeraj Kumar; Takimoto, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by recent angle resolved photoemission measurements [D. V. Evtushinsky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 147201 (2010)] and evidence of the density-wave state for the charge and orbital ordering [J. García et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 107202 (2012)] in La0.5Sr1.5MnO4, the issue of charge and orbital ordering in a two-orbital tight-binding model for layered manganite near half doping is revisited. We find that the charge order with the ordering wavevector 2{Q} = (π ,π ) is induced by the orbital order of d-/d+-type having B1g representation with a different ordering wavevector Q, where the orbital order as the primary order results from the strong Fermi-surface nesting. It is shown that the induced charge order parameter develops according to TCO - T by decreasing the temperature below the orbital ordering temperature TCO, in addition to the usual mean-field behavior of the orbital order parameter. Moreover, the same orbital order is found to stabilize the CE-type spin arrangement observed experimentally below TCE < TCO.

  13. Effect of Molecular Packing and Charge Delocalization on the Nonradiative Recombination of Charge-Transfer States in Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Xian Kai

    2016-09-05

    In organic solar cells, a major source of energy loss is attributed to nonradiative recombination from the interfacial charge transfer states to the ground state. By taking pentacene–C60 complexes as model donor–acceptor systems, a comprehensive theoretical understanding of how molecular packing and charge delocalization impact these nonradiative recombination rates at donor–acceptor interfaces is provided.

  14. Spin and charge distribution in iron porphyrin models: a coupled cluster and density-functional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Mikael P; Sundholm, Dage

    2004-02-15

    We recently performed detailed analyses of the electronic structure of low-spin iron porphyrins using density-functional theory (DFT). Both the spin-density distributions of the oxidized, ferric forms, as well as the changes in total charge density upon reduction to the ferrous forms have been explored. Here, we compare the DFT results with wave-function theory, more specifically, with the approximate singles and doubles coupled-cluster method (CC2). Different spin states are considered by studying representative models of low spin, intermediate spin, and high spin species. The CC2 calculations corroborate the DFT results; the spin density exhibits the same amount of molecular spin polarization, and the charge delocalization is of comparable magnitude. Slight differences in the descriptions are noted and discussed.

  15. Local distortion in Co-doped LSMO from entropy-maximized charge density distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed Ali, K.S. [Department of Physics, The Madura College, Madurai 625011 (India); Saravanan, R., E-mail: saragow@dataone.i [Department of Physics, The Madura College, Madurai 625011 (India); Pashchenko, A.V.; Pashchenko, V.P. [Galkin Donetsk Institute of Physics and Technology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk 83114 (Ukraine)

    2010-07-09

    Perovskite structure manganites La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.22}Mn{sub 1.11-x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3} were prepared by the solid state reaction method. An X-ray analysis of the structure was undertaken using the Rietveld technique on the experimental powder X-ray diffraction data and, then, a charge density distribution study was undertaken, using the maximum entropy method (MEM). The charge density in the unit cell was reconstructed and the effect of Co{sup 3+} doping in the Mn-O matrix was studied. Local distortions due to Co doping were analyzed and the results are now discussed.

  16. Environment effect on spectral and charge distribution characteristics of some drugs of folate derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem Sadigh, M.; Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Seyed Ahmadian, S. M.; Johari-Ahar, M.; Zare Haghighi, L.

    2017-01-01

    Molecular surrounding media as an important factor can effect on the operation of wide variety of drugs. For more study in this paper, spectral properties of Methotrexate and Folinic acid have been studied in various solvents. Our results show that the photo-physical of solute molecules depend strongly on solute-solvent interactions and active groups in their chemical structures. In order to investigate the contribution of specific and nonspecific interactions on the various properties of drug molecules, the linear solvation energy relationships concept is used. Moreover, charge distribution characteristics of used samples with various resonance structures in solvent environments were calculated by means of solvatochromic method. The high value of dipole moments in excited state show that local intramolecular charge transfer can occur by excitation. These results about molecular interactions can be extended to biological systems and can indicate completely the behaviors of Methotrexate and Folinic acid in polar solvents such as water in body system.

  17. Charged oscillator quantum state generation with Rydberg atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Robin; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Lesanovsky, Igor

    2016-01-01

    We explore the possibility of engineering quantum states of a charged mechanical oscillator by coupling it to a stream of atoms in superpositions of high-lying Rydberg states. Our scheme relies on the driving of a two-phonon resonance within the oscillator by coupling it to an atomic two-photon transition. This approach effectuates a controllable open system dynamics on the oscillator that permits the creation of squeezed and other non-classical states. We show that these features are robust to thermal noise arising from a coupling of the oscillator with the environment. The possibility to create non-trivial quantum states of mechanical systems, provided by the proposed setup, is central to applications such as sensing and metrology and moreover allows the exploration of fundamental questions concerning the boundary between classical and quantum mechanical descriptions of macroscopic objects.

  18. The effect of polymer charge density and charge distribution on the formation of multilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Voigt, U; Tauer, K; Hahn, M; Jäger, W; Klitzing, K V

    2003-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers which are built up by alternating adsorption of polyanions and polycations from aqueous solutions at a solid interface are investigated by reflectometry and ellipsometry. Below a degree of charge of about 70% the adsorption stops after a certain number of dipping cycles and no multilayer formation occurs. This indicates an electrostatically driven adsorption process. Below a charge density of 70% an adsorption can take place if the charged segments are combined as a block of the polymer.

  19. Charge state breeding experiences and plans at TRIUMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, F., E-mail: ames@triumf.ca; Marchetto, M.; Mjøs, A.; Morton, A. C. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T2A3 (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    At the Isotope Separation and ACceleration (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been set up for the charge state breeding of radioactive ions. In order to reduce background from stable ions generated in the ECRIS, several measures, including changing materials for the plasma chamber and the surrounding components, have been implemented. Further reduction has been achieved by using the post-accelerator chain as a mass filter. Since the implementation of those measures in 2013, physics experiments with accelerated radioactive isotopes of Rb, Sr, K, and Mg have been performed. In most cases, a charge breeding efficiency of several percent has been achieved. With the planned expansion of the isotope production capabilities at TRIUMF within the Advanced Rare IsotopE Laboratory project, two new target stations, one using photo-fission induced by a high-power electron beam at 50 MeV and the other one using 480 MeV protons as at ISAC, will be put into operation within the next 5 yr. Additionally, a new electron beam ion source (EBIS) based charge state breeding system will be installed. Background from such a source is expected to be much lower. The drawback is that for the efficient operation of such a system, pulsed beam operation is required, which makes the installation of an additional ion buncher in front of the EBIS necessary.

  20. Atomic arrangement and charge distribution in YBCO tilt grain boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bording, J. K.; Halley, J. W.; Zhu, Y.

    2005-03-01

    It is well known that the critical current, Jc, in high-Tc superconductors is reduced at grain boundaries. Recent high resolution holography experiments show the [100] tilt grain boundaries in YBa2Cu3O7-x to have an excess negative charge localized at the boundary dislocation core. Upon doping with Ca, this charge is reduced and the critical current increased. To shed light on this behavior at an atomic scale, we carried out Tight Binding (TB) calculations of these boundaries. Our TB scheme is charge self consistent to allow charge transfer typical for ionic materials. We present the arrangement of atoms and charge in YBCO tilt grain boundaries as determined by a combination of TB calculations, recent high resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy measurements.

  1. MULTIPLY CHARGED IONS COLLISIONS WITH ATOMS INTO EXCITED STATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PanGuangyan

    1990-01-01

    The emission spectra in collisions between Ions and Atoms have been measured by an Optical Multichannel Analysis System (OMA).The experimental results demonstrate that there are two channels of excitation in collision between single charged ions and atoms and three channels of excitation in collision between double charged ions and atoms.Emission cross cestions and excitation cross sections have been obtained.K.Kadota et al and R.Shingal et al suggested that,under the appropriate conditions,the H42+-Li and He2++Na collision systems can be used efficiently to produce a laser of Lyman-α(30,4nm) and Lyman-β(25.6nm)lines via cascade to He+(2P)state.

  2. Observations of high and low Fe charge states in individual solar wind streams with coronal-hole origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich-Meisner, Verena; Peleikis, Thies; Kruse, Martin; Berger, Lars; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Context. The solar wind originating from coronal holes is comparatively well-understood and is characterized by lower densities and average charge states compared to the so-called slow solar wind. Except for wave perturbations, the average properties of the coronal-hole solar wind are passably constant. Aims: In this case study, we focus on observations of the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS) on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) of individual streams of coronal-hole solar wind that illustrate that although the O and C charge states are low in coronal-hole wind, the Fe charge distribution is more variable. In particular, we illustrate that the Fe charge states in coronal-hole solar wind are frequently as high as in slow solar wind. Methods: We selected individual coronal-hole solar wind streams based on their collisional age as well as their respective O and C charge states and analyzed their Fe charge-state distributions. Additionally, with a combination of simple ballistic back-mapping and the potential field source surface model, transitions between streams with high and low Fe charge states were mapped back to the photosphere. The relative frequency of high and low Fe charge-state streams is compared for the years 2004 and 2006. Results: We found several otherwise typical coronal-hole streams that include Fe charge states either as high as or lower than in slow solar wind. Eight such transitions in 2006 were mapped back to equatorial coronal holes that were either isolated or connected to the northern coronal-hole. Attempts to identify coronal structures associated with the transitions were so far inconclusive.

  3. Observation of High Iron Charge States at Low Energies in Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z.; Möbius, E.; Klecker, B.; Bochsler, P.; Connell, J. J.; Kartavykh, Y. Y.; Mason, G. M.; Popecki, M. A.

    2014-04-01

    The ionic charge states of solar energetic particles (SEPs) provide direct information about the source plasma, the acceleration environment, and their transport. Recent studies report that both gradual and impulsive SEP events show mean iron charge states langQ Ferang ~ 10-14 at low energies E nuc-1, consistent with their origin from typical corona material at temperatures 1-2 MK. Observed increases of langQ Ferang up to 20 at energies 0.1-0.5 MeV nuc-1 in impulsive SEPs are attributed to stripping during acceleration. However, Q Fe > 16 is occasionally found in the solar wind, particularly coming from active regions, in contrast to the exclusively reported langQ Ferang = 14 throughout the entire SEPICA and STOF energy range have been identified. Four of the nine events are impulsive events identified through velocity dispersion that are consistent with source temperatures >=2 MK up to ~4 MK. The other five events show evidence of interplanetary acceleration. Four of them involve re-acceleration of impulsive material, whose original energy dependent charge states appear re-distributed to varying extent bringing higher charge states to lower energy. One event, which shows flat but elevated langQ Ferang ~ 14.2 over the entire energy range, can be associated with interplanetary acceleration of high temperature material. This event may exemplify a rare situation when a second shock plows through high temperature coronal mass ejection material.

  4. Distribution of charge carriers in dissipative structure of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Kamilov, I K; Kovalev, A S

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown experimentally that redistribution of the charge carrier concentration takes place in the volume of Te and InSb monocrystals under formation and excitation by the strong field of a dissipative structure in nonequilibrium electron-hole plasma. This leads to a situation when the presence of only longitudinal autosolitons in the dissipative structure reduces the charge carrier concentration outside autosolitons while the presence of only transversal autosolitons makes the charge carriers concentration larger. These effects are explained in the following manner: longitudinal autosolitons, occurring in nonequilibrium electron-hole plasma created by the Joule heating are considered as cold and transversal autosolitons are considered as hot ones

  5. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Jin, Q. Y.; Sha, S.; Zhang, J. J.; Li, Z. M.; Liu, W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  6. The study towards high intensity high charge state laser ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Jin, Q Y; Sha, S; Zhang, J J; Li, Z M; Liu, W; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W

    2014-02-01

    As one of the candidate ion sources for a planned project, the High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility, a laser ion source has been being intensively studied at the Institute of Modern Physics in the past two years. The charge state distributions of ions produced by irradiating a pulsed 3 J/8 ns Nd:YAG laser on solid targets of a wide range of elements (C, Al, Ti, Ni, Ag, Ta, and Pb) were measured with an electrostatic ion analyzer spectrometer, which indicates that highly charged ions could be generated from low-to-medium mass elements with the present laser system, while the charge state distributions for high mass elements were relatively low. The shot-to-shot stability of ion pulses was monitored with a Faraday cup for carbon target. The fluctuations within ±2.5% for the peak current and total charge and ±6% for pulse duration were demonstrated with the present setup of the laser ion source, the suppression of which is still possible.

  7. Characterization of Final State Interaction Strength in Plastic Scintillator by Muon-Neutrino Charged Current Charged Pion Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberly, Brandon M. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Precise knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions is increasingly important as neutrino oscillation measurements transition into the systematics-limited era. In addition to modifying the initial interaction, the nuclear medium can scatter and absorb the interaction by-products through final state interactions, changing the types and kinematic distributions of particles seen by the detector. Recent neutrino pion production data from MiniBooNE is inconsistent with the final state interaction strength predicted by models and theoretical calculations, and some models fit best to the MiniBooNE data only after removing final state interactions entirely. This thesis presents a measurement of dσ/dTπ and dσ/dθπ for muon-neutrino charged current charged pion production in the MINER A scintillator tracker. MINER A is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. The analysis is limited to neutrino energies between 1.5-10 GeV. Dependence on invariant hadronic mass W is studied through two versions of the analysis that impose the limits W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV. The lower limit on W increases compatibility with the MiniBooNE pion data. The shapes of the differential cross sections, which depend strongly on the nature of final state interactions, are compared to Monte Carlo and theoretical predictions. It is shown that the measurements presented in this thesis favor models that contain final state interactions. Additionally, a variety of neutrino-nucleus interaction models are shown to successfully reproduce the thesis measurements, while simultaneously failing to describe the shape of the MiniBooNE data.

  8. The evolution of ion charge states in cathodic vacuum arc plasmas: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2011-12-18

    Cathodic vacuum arc plasmas are known to contain multiply charged ions. 20 years after “Pressure Ionization: its role in metal vapour vacuum arc plasmas and ion sources” appeared in vol. 1 of Plasma Sources Science and Technology, it is a great opportunity to re-visit the issue of pressure ionization, a non-ideal plasma effect, and put it in perspective to the many other factors that influence observable charge state distributions, such as the role of the cathode material, the path in the density-temperature phase diagram, the “noise” in vacuum arc plasma as described by a fractal model approach, the effects of external magnetic fields and charge exchange collisions with neutrals. A much more complex image of the vacuum arc plasma emerges putting decades of experimentation and modeling in perspective.

  9. High-Intensity, High Charge-State Heavy Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Alessi, J

    2004-01-01

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions will be reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. The benefits and limitations for these type sources will be described, for both dc and pulsed applications. Possible future improvements in these type sources will also be discussed.

  10. Local solid-state modification of nanopore surface charges

    CERN Document Server

    Kox, Ronald; Chen, Chang; Arjmandi, Nima; Lagae, Liesbet; Borghs, Gustaaf; 10.1088/0957-4484/21/33/335703

    2012-01-01

    The last decade, nanopores have emerged as a new and interesting tool for the study of biological macromolecules like proteins and DNA. While biological pores, especially alpha-hemolysin, have been promising for the detection of DNA, their poor chemical stability limits their use. For this reason, researchers are trying to mimic their behaviour using more stable, solid-state nanopores. The most successful tools to fabricate such nanopores use high energy electron or ions beams to drill or reshape holes in very thin membranes. While the resolution of these methods can be very good, they require tools that are not commonly available and tend to damage and charge the nanopore surface. In this work, we show nanopores that have been fabricated using standard micromachning techniques together with EBID, and present a simple model that is used to estimate the surface charge. The results show that EBID with a silicon oxide precursor can be used to tune the nanopore surface and that the surface charge is stable over a...

  11. Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution with Odd Coherent State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shi-Hai; GAO Ming; DAI Hong-Yi; CHEN Ping-Xing; LI Cheng-Zu

    2008-01-01

    We propose a decoy state quantum key distribution scheme with odd coherent state which follows sub-Poissonian distributed photon count and has low probability of the multi-photon event and vacuum event in each pulse. The numerical calculations show that our scheme can improve efficiently the key generation rate and secure communication distance. Furthermore, only one decoy state is necessary to approach to the perfect asymptotic limit with infinite decoy states in our scheme, but at least two decoy states are needed in other scheme.

  12. Identifying interfacial charge transfer states in organic heterostructures (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Andreas P.; Gerhard, Marina; Howard, Ian A.; Koch, Martin; Lemmer, Ulrich

    2016-09-01

    Charge transfer (CT) states play evidently an important role at the interface of organic heterostructures but their identification and characterization is often experimentally less obvious and challenging. We studied two exemplary material systems which both represented a benchmark within the research of organic photovoltaics at their time: the homopolymer P3HT blended with PC61BM and the copolymer PTB7 blended with PC71BM. In both heterostructures, we could identify a distinct CT state emission by the use of NIR time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) [1], [2]. The selectivity of this technique enables us to clearly probe the energetics and dynamics of weak emitting interfacial states and therefore to prove differences in the CT state characteristics between the two systems. We went beyond this previous work and investigated the time and temperature dependent emission anisotropy as well as the electric field dependence of the time-resolved PL for both blends and the pristine polymers, respectively. In both cases the CT state emission clearly deviates from the one of the primarily excited singlet excitons: the emission anisotropy reveals an additional relaxation pathway for the exciton which is connected with a change of the transition dipole moment of the emission, and under applied bias different quenching thresholds can give access to varying binding energies of the emissive excitons involved. Finally, we think that our findings demonstrate how interfacial CT state emission can be clearly identified as such and how it can be unambiguously distinguished from singlet exciton emission.

  13. Solar Energetic Particle drifts and the energy dependence of 1 AU charge states

    CERN Document Server

    Dalla, S; Battarbee, M

    2016-01-01

    The event-averaged charge state of heavy ion Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs), measured at 1 AU from the Sun, typically increases with the ions' kinetic energy. The origin of this behaviour has been ascribed to processes taking place within the acceleration region. In this paper we study the propagation through interplanetary space of SEP Fe ions, injected near the Sun with a variety of charge states that are uniformly distributed in energy, by means of a 3D test particle model. In our simulations, due to gradient and curvature drifts associated with the Parker spiral magnetic field, ions of different charge propagate with very different efficiencies to an observer that is not magnetically well connected to the source region. As a result we find that, for many observer locations, the 1 AU event-averaged charge state , as obtained from our model, displays an increase with particle energy E, in qualitative agreement with spacecraft observations. We conclude that drift-associated propagation is a possible explan...

  14. Unfolding of event-by-event net-charge distributions in heavy-ion collision

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, P; Netrakanti, P K; Mohanty, A K; Mohanty, B

    2012-01-01

    We discuss a method to obtain the true event-by-event net-charge multiplicity distributions from a corresponding measured distribution which is subjected to detector effects such as finite particle counting efficiency. The approach is based on the Bayes method for unfolding of distributions. We are able to faithfully unfold back the measured distributions to match with their corresponding true distributions obtained for a widely varying underlying particle production mechanism, beam energy and collision centrality. Particularly the mean, variance, skewness, kurtosis, their products and ratios of net-charge distributions from the event generators are shown to be successfully unfolded from the measured distributions constructed to mimic a real experimental distribution. We demonstrate the necessity to account for detector effects before associating the higher moments of net-charge distributions with physical quantities or phenomena. The advantage of this approach being that one need not construct new observable...

  15. The influence of charge clustering on the anti-HIV-1 activity and in vivo distribution of negatively charged albumins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beljaars, Leonie; Floris, René; Berkhout, Ben; Smit, Catharina; Meijer, Dirk K F; Molema, Grietje

    2002-01-01

    The substitution of human serum albumin with negatively charged molecules, such as succinic acid (Suc-HSA) or aconitic acid (Aco-HSA), resulted in proteins with potent anti-HIV activities, by binding to viral gp120 (V3 loop). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the distribution o

  16. Nonorthogonal Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-Bo; FANG Xi-Ming

    2006-01-01

    @@ In practical quantum key distribution (QKD), weak coherent states as the photon source have a limit in the secure key rate and transmission distance because of the existence of multi-photon pulses and heavy loss in transmission line.

  17. Analysis of Ion Charge States in Solar Wind and CMEs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arati Dasgupta; J. M. Laming

    2008-03-01

    We discuss needs in dielectronic recombination data motivated by recent work directed at a quantitative understanding of ion charge states of various elements observed in situ in the solar wind and CMEs. The competing processes of ionization and recombination lead to departures from collision ionization equilibrium. The use of this as a diagnostic of acceleration and heating processes of the solar wind and CMEs is sensitive to the accuracy of the atomic rates in a way that steady state ionization equilibrium plasmas are not. The most pressing need is dielectronic recombination rates for ions Fe8+-12+. These are among the dominant species observed in various regions of the solar wind and CMEs, and in remotely sensed EUV spectra.

  18. The charge state of iron implanted into sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHargue, C.J.; Sklad, P.S.; White, C.W.; Farlow, G.C.; Perez, A.; Kornilios, N.; Marest, G.

    1987-08-01

    Several techniques (RBS, TEM, CEMS) have been used to characterize sapphire single crystals implanted with iron at room temperature to fluences of 10/sup 16/ to 10/sup 17/ ions cm/sup -2/. At low fluences the as-implanted iron is found mainly in the ferrous state. As the fluence is increased, Fe/sup 3 +/ and metallic iron clusters became dominant. There is a strong correlation between the probability of finding specific configurations of iron ions within four cation coordination shells and the relative amounts of each charge state observed. The superparamagnetic behavior of the clusters suggest that they are of the order of 2 nm in size but the large amount of irradiation-induced damage and residual stress has prevented their imaging by TEM. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Support vector based battery state of charge estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Terry; Wang, Chia-Jiu

    This paper investigates the use of a support vector machine (SVM) to estimate the state-of-charge (SOC) of a large-scale lithium-ion-polymer (LiP) battery pack. The SOC of a battery cannot be measured directly and must be estimated from measurable battery parameters such as current and voltage. The coulomb counting SOC estimator has been used in many applications but it has many drawbacks [S. Piller, M. Perrin, Methods for state-of-charge determination and their application, J. Power Sources 96 (2001) 113-120]. The proposed SVM based solution not only removes the drawbacks of the coulomb counting SOC estimator but also produces accurate SOC estimates, using industry standard US06 [V.H. Johnson, A.A. Pesaran, T. Sack, Temperature-dependent battery models for high-power lithium-ion batteries, in: Presented at the 17th Annual Electric Vehicle Symposium Montreal, Canada, October 15-18, 2000. The paper is downloadable at website http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/28716.pdf] aggressive driving cycle test procedures. The proposed SOC estimator extracts support vectors from a battery operation history then uses only these support vectors to estimate SOC, resulting in minimal computation load and suitable for real-time embedded system applications.

  20. Coulomb charging energy of vacancy-induced states in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, V. G.; Dias da Silva, Luis G. G. V.; Lewenkopf, C. H.

    2016-08-01

    Vacancies in graphene have been proposed to give rise to π -like magnetism in carbon materials, a conjecture which has been supported by recent experimental evidence. A key element in this "vacancy magnetism" is the formation of magnetic moments in vacancy-induced electronic states. In this work we compute the charging energy U of a single-vacancy-generated localized state for bulk graphene and graphene ribbons. We use a tight-binding model to calculate the dependency of the charging energy U on the amplitudes of the localized wave function on the graphene lattice sites. We show that for bulk graphene U scales with the system size L as (lnL) -2, confirming the predictions in the literature, based on heuristic arguments. In contrast, we find that for realistic system sizes U is of the order of eV, a value that is orders of magnitude higher than the previously reported estimates. Finally, when edges are considered, we show that U is very sensitive to the vacancy position with respect to the graphene flake boundaries. In the case of armchair nanoribbons, we find a strong enhancement of U in certain vacancy positions as compared to the value for vacancies in bulk graphene.

  1. Charged Hadron Multiplicity Distribution at Relativistic Heavy-Ion Colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews facts and problems concerning charge hadron production in high energy collisions. Main emphasis is laid on the qualitative and quantitative description of general characteristics and properties observed for charged hadrons produced in such high energy collisions. Various features of available experimental data, for example, the variations of charged hadron multiplicity and pseudorapidity density with the mass number of colliding nuclei, center-of-mass energies, and the collision centrality obtained from heavy-ion collider experiments, are interpreted in the context of various theoretical concepts and their implications. Finally, several important scaling features observed in the measurements mainly at RHIC and LHC experiments are highlighted in the view of these models to draw some insight regarding the particle production mechanism in heavy-ion collisions.

  2. Distributed Solar Photovoltaics for Electric Vehicle Charging: Regulatory and Policy Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    Increasing demand for electric vehicle (EV) charging provides an opportunity for market expansion of distributed solar technology. A major barrier to the current deployment of solar technology for EV charging is a lack of clear information for policy makers, utilities and potential adopters. This paper introduces the pros and cons of EV charging during the day versus at night, summarizes the benefits and grid implications of combining solar and EV charging technologies, and offers some regulatory and policy options available to policy makers and regulators wanting to incentivize solar EV charging.

  3. Distribution Locational Marginal Pricing for Optimal Electric Vehicle Charging through Chance Constrained Mixed-Integer Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a distribution locational marginal pricing (DLMP) method through chance constrained mixed-integer programming designed to alleviate the possible congestion in the future distribution network with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs). In order to represent the stochastic...... constrained MIP can successfully alleviate the congestion in the distribution network due to the EV charging while keeping the failure probability of EV charging not meeting driving needs below the predefined confidence....

  4. Application of Genetic Neural Network in Power Battery Charging State-of-Charge Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqin Zhou

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available With global non-renewable resources and environmental issues becoming more apparent, the development of new energy vehicles have become the trend of auto industry. Hybrid vehicle becomes the key development of new energy vehicles with its long distance, low pollution, low fuel consumption characteristics and so on. The battery performances directly influence the quality of the whole vehicle performance. Considering the importance of the battery state of charge (SOC estimation and the nonlinear relationship between the battery SOC and the external characteristic, genetic algorithm (GA and back propagation (BP neural network are proposed. Because of the strong global search capability of the genetic algorithm and the generalization ability of BP neural network, the hybrid vehicle Ni-MH power battery GA-BP charging model is designed. In this approach, the network training speed is superior to the traditional BP network. According to the real-time data of the batteries, the optimal solution can be concluded in a short time and with high estimation precision.

  5. The lowest-energy charge-transfer state and its role in charge separation in organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Guangjun; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Gang

    2016-06-29

    Energy independent, yet higher than 90% internal quantum efficiency (IQE), has been observed in many organic photovoltaics (OPVs). However, its physical origin remains largely unknown and controversial. The hypothesis that the lowest charge-transfer (CT) state may be weakly bound at the interface has been proposed to rationalize the experimental observations. In this paper, we study the nature of the lowest-energy CT (CT1) state, and show conclusively that the CT1 state is localized in typical OPVs. The electronic couplings in the donor and acceptor are found to determine the localization of the CT1 state. We examine the geminate recombination of the CT1 state and estimate its lifetime from first principles. We identify the vibrational modes that contribute to the geminate recombination. Using material parameters determined from first principles and experiments, we carry out kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to examine the charge separation of the localized CT1 state. We find that the localized CT1 state can indeed yield efficient charge separation with IQE higher than 90%. Dynamic disorder and configuration entropy can provide the energetic and entropy driving force for charge separation. Charge separation efficiency depends more sensitively on the dimension and crystallinity of the acceptor parallel to the interface than that normal to the interface. Reorganization energy is found to be the most important material parameter for charge separation, and lowering the reorganization energy of the donor should be pursued in the materials design.

  6. Measurements of charged-particle distributions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cairo, Valentina Maria Martina

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive charged-particle measurements probe the low-energy region of the non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics. The ATLAS collaboration has recently measured the charged-particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in special data sets with low LHC beam currents, recorded at centre-of-mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The measurements at 8 TeV cover a wide spectrum using charged-particle selections with minimum transverse momentum of both 100 MeV and 500 MeV and in various phase space regions of low and high charged-particle multiplicities, some of which are studied for the first time by ATLAS. The measurements at 13 TeV also present detailed studies with a minimum transverse momentum of both 100 MeV and 500 MeV. The measurements are compared with predictions of various tuned Monte Carlo generators and are found to provide strong constraints on these. None of the Monte Carlo generators with their respective tunes are able to reproduce all the features of the data.

  7. The Charge State of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Across Reflection Nebulae: PAH Charge Balance and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2016-11-01

    Low-resolution Spitzer spectral map data (>1700 spectra) of ten reflection nebulae (RNe) fields are analyzed using the data and tools available through the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The PAH emission is broken down into PAH charge state using a database fitting approach. Here, the physics of the PAH emission process is taken into account and uses target appropriate parameters, e.g., a stellar radiation model for the exciting star. The breakdown results are combined with results derived using the traditional PAH band strength approach, which interprets particular PAH band strength ratios as proxies for the PAH charge state, e.g., the 6.2/11.2 μm PAH band strength ratio. These are successfully calibrated against their database equivalent; the PAH ionized fraction (f i ). The PAH ionized fraction is converted into the PAH ionization parameter, which relates the PAH ionized fraction to the strength of the radiation field, gas temperature and electron density. The behavior of the 12.7 μm PAH band is evaluated as a tracer for PAH ionization and erosion. The plot of the 8.6 versus 11.2 μm PAH band strength for the northwest photo-dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is shown to be a robust diagnostic template for the PAH ionized fraction. Remarkably, most of the other RNe fall within the limits set by NGC 7023. Finally, PAH spectroscopic templates are constructed and verified as principal components. Template spectra derived from NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 compare extremely well with each other, with those derived for NGC 7023 successfully reproducing the PAH emission observed from NGC 2023.

  8. Charge-state-dependent energy loss of slow ions. I. Experimental results on the transmission of highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Richard A.; Gruber, Elisabeth; Smejkal, Valerie; Facsko, Stefan; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2016-05-01

    We report on energy loss measurements of slow (v ≪v0 ), highly charged (Q >10 ) ions upon transmission through a 1-nm-thick carbon nanomembrane. We emphasize here the scaling of the energy loss with the velocity and charge exchange or loss. We show that a weak linear velocity dependence exists, whereas charge exchange dominates the kinetic energy loss, especially in the case of a large charge capture. A universal scaling of the energy loss with the charge exchange and velocity is found and discussed in this paper. A model for charge-state-dependent energy loss for slow ions is presented in paper II in this series [R. A. Wilhelm and W. Möller, Phys. Rev. A 93, 052709 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.052709].

  9. Linear and nonlinear excitations in complex plasmas with nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation and dust size distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Li-Ping; Xue Ju-Kui; Li Yan-Long

    2011-01-01

    Both linear and nonlinear excitation in dusty plasmas have been investigated including the nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation and Gaussian size distribution dust particles.A linear dispersion relation and a Korteweg-de VriesBurgers equation governing the dust acoustic shock waves are obtained.The relevance of the instability of wave and the wave evolution to the dust size distribution and nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation is illustrated both analytically and numerically.The numerical results show that the Gaussian size distribution of dust particles and the nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation have strong common influence on the propagation of both linear and nonlinear excitations.

  10. Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Studies of Charge Distributions in Molecular Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Steven Garry

    A detailed description of an NMR-NQR double resonance spectrometer designed and constructed in this laboratory is given, including some instruction on its use. ('14)N NQR data obtained by pulse methods for six classes of nitrogen-containing compounds are presented and analyzed in the framework of the Townes and Dailey theory. A study of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide, isophosphamide and triphosphamide suggests the existence of a correlation between the substance's chemotherapeutic efficacy and the (pi) - (sigma)(,NP) charge density at the trigonal nitrogen. Satisfactory correlations of the NQR spectra of 22 monosubstituted anilines with both the Hammett (sigma) parameters and the in vitro biological activities of the corresponding sulfanilamides have been found, indicating that the nitrogen lone-pair orbital is more sensitive than the nitrogen-carbon sigma orbital is to substituent effects. NQR spectra of several N-acetyl amino acids and related compounds are reported. The inductive effect of the chloroacetyl group on the nitrogen is discussed. A positive correlation between the (pi) - (sigma)(,NC) electron density at the nitrogen and the Taft inductive parameter (sigma)* is observed, suggesting that the nitrogen (pi) -charge density in the N-acetyl amino acids does not vary appreciably. Both ('14)N and ('35)Cl NQR data have been obtained for a series of compounds containing nitrogen directly bonded to chlorine. The existence of a linear correlation between the ('14)N and ('35)Cl quadrupole coupling constants is interpreted in terms of a simple model dealing with charge excesses and deficiencies at the respective nuclei. A study of two complexes of 4-aminopyridine (4AP) addresses the loss of pyridine nitrogen lone-pair charge upon formation of the strong and asymmetric N-H-N bond characteristic of these complexes. Evidence of hydrogen bonding interactions involving the amino nitrogens is found to be in agreement with a published neutron diffraction study

  11. Deployment Strategy for Charging Piles Based on Distribution Network Capacity Planning and Users’ Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Chongyang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles are the most potential transports in the future. However, the large scale of charging facilities will make a great influence on gird. There is a need to make a research on the construction of charging facilities. Based on the power demand characteristics of electric vehicle charging, distribution network capacity, charging system performance and other aspects, this paper mainly researched the deployment strategy of charging piles. First, the authors built up a model with characteristics of charging power demand of electric vehicle and a model of charging service system. The characteristic of daily load curve is analyzed. Second, based on these works, the authors designed the progress of strategy making. At last, the progress was verified by the actual use case.

  12. Space charge distribution measurement methods and particle loaded insulating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hole, S [Laboratoire des Instruments et Systemes d' Ile de France, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France); Sylvestre, A [Laboratoire d' Electrostatique et des Materiaux Dielectriques, CNRS UMR5517, 25 avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Lavallee, O Gallot [Laboratoire d' Etude Aerodynamiques, CNRS UMR6609, boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie, Teleport 2, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope, Chasseneuil (France); Guillermin, C [Schneider Electric Industries SAS, 22 rue Henry Tarze, 38000 Grenoble (France); Rain, P [Laboratoire d' Electrostatique et des Materiaux Dielectriques, CNRS UMR5517, 25 avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Rowe, S [Schneider Electric Industries SAS, 22 rue Henry Tarze, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2006-03-07

    In this paper the authors discuss the effects of particles (fillers) mixed in a composite polymer on the space charge measurement techniques. The origin of particle-induced spurious signals is determined and silica filled epoxy resin is analysed using the laser-induced-pressure-pulse (LIPP) method, the pulsed-electro-acoustic (PEA) method and the laser-induced-thermal-pulse (LITP) method. A spurious signal identified as the consequence of a piezoelectric effect of some silica particles is visible for all the method. Moreover, space charges are clearly detected at the epoxy/silica interface after a 10 kV mm{sup -1} poling at room temperature for 2 h.

  13. High Intensity High Charge State ECR Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The next-generation heavy ion beam accelerators such as the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory at RIKEN, the GSI upgrade project, the LHC-upgrade, and IMP in Lanzhou require a great variety of high charge state ion beams with a magnitude higher beam intensity than currently achievable. High performance Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources can provide the flexibility since they can routinely produce beams from hydrogen to uranium. Over the last three decades, ECR ion sources have continued improving the available ion beam intensities by increasing the magnetic fields and ECR heating frequencies to enhance the confinement and the plasma density. With advances in superconducting magnet technology, a new generation of high field superconducting sources is now emerging, designed to meet the requirements of these next generation accelerator projects. The talk will briefly review the field of high performance ECR ion sources and the latest developments for high intens...

  14. State of charge estimation in Ni-MH rechargeable batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milocco, R.H. [Grupo Control Automatico y Sistemas (GCAyS), Depto. Electrotecnia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina); Castro, B.E. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Suc 4, CC16 (1900), La Plata (Argentina)

    2009-10-20

    In this work we estimate the state of charge (SOC) of Ni-MH rechargeable batteries using the Kalman filter based on a simplified electrochemical model. First, we derive the complete electrochemical model of the battery which includes diffusional processes and kinetic reactions in both Ni and MH electrodes. The full model is further reduced in a cascade of two parts, a linear time invariant dynamical sub-model followed by a static nonlinearity. Both parts are identified using the current and potential measured at the terminals of the battery with a simple 1-D minimization procedure. The inverse of the static nonlinearity together with a Kalman filter provide the SOC estimation as a linear estimation problem. Experimental results with commercial batteries are provided to illustrate the estimation procedure and to show the performance. (author)

  15. Low charge state heavy ion production with sub-nanosecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanesue, T., E-mail: tkanesue@bnl.gov; Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kumaki, M. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ikeda, S. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    We have investigated laser ablation plasma of various species using nanosecond and sub-nanosecond lasers for both high and low charge state ion productions. We found that with sub-nanosecond laser, the generated plasma has a long tail which has low charge state ions determined by an electrostatic ion analyzer even under the laser irradiation condition for highly charged ion production. This can be caused by insufficient laser absorption in plasma plume. This property might be suitable for low charge state ion production. We used a nanosecond laser and a sub-nanosecond laser for low charge state ion production to investigate the difference of generated plasma using the Zirconium target.

  16. Low charge state heavy ion production with sub-nanosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, T; Kumaki, M; Ikeda, S; Okamura, M

    2016-02-01

    We have investigated laser ablation plasma of various species using nanosecond and sub-nanosecond lasers for both high and low charge state ion productions. We found that with sub-nanosecond laser, the generated plasma has a long tail which has low charge state ions determined by an electrostatic ion analyzer even under the laser irradiation condition for highly charged ion production. This can be caused by insufficient laser absorption in plasma plume. This property might be suitable for low charge state ion production. We used a nanosecond laser and a sub-nanosecond laser for low charge state ion production to investigate the difference of generated plasma using the Zirconium target.

  17. Instantaneous charge state of Uranium projectiles in fully ionized plasmas from energy loss experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Roberto; Casas, David

    2016-01-01

    The instantaneous charge state of uranium ions traveling through a fully ionized hydrogen plasma has been theoretically studied and compared with one of the first energy loss experiments in plasmas, carried out at GSI-Darmstadt by Hoffmann \\textit{et al.} in the 90's. For this purpose, two different methods to estimate the instantaneous charge state of the projectile have been employed: (1) rate equations using ionization and recombination cross sections, and (2) equilibrium charge state formulas for plasmas. Also, the equilibrium charge state has been obtained using these ionization and recombination cross sections, and compared with the former equilibrium formulas. The equilibrium charge state of projectiles in plasmas is not always reached, it depends mainly on the projectile velocity and the plasma density. Therefore, a non-equilibrium or an instantaneous description of the projectile charge is necessary. The charge state of projectile ions cannot be measured, except after exiting the target, and experime...

  18. Probabilistic Harmonic Calculation in Distribution Networks with Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxue Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrating EV charging station into power grid will bring impacts on power system, among which the most significant one is the harmonic pollution on distribution networks. Due to the uncertainty of the EV charging process, the harmonic currents brought by EV charging stations have a random nature. This paper proposed a mathematical simulation method for studying the working status of charging stations, which considers influencing factors including random leaving factor, electricity price, and waiting time. Based on the proposed simulation method, the probability distribution of the harmonic currents of EV charging stations is obtained and used in the calculation of the probability harmonic power flow. Then the impacts of EVs and EV charging stations on distribution networks can be analyzed. In the case study, the proposed simulation and analysis method is implemented on the IEEE-34 distribution network. The influences of EV arrival rates, the penetration rate, and the accessing location of EV charging station are also investigated. Results show that this research has good potential in guiding the planning and construction of charging station.

  19. Absence of State Collapse and Revival in a Superconducting Charge Qubit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Hamiltonian of a superconducting charge qubit with a configuration of dc SQUID contains an interaction between the LC oscillator part and charge qubit. This interaction may leads to quantum state collapse and revival which degrades the charge qubits and leads to serious decoherence. An analysis shows that the existing charge qubit parameters do not lead to this phenomenon, which is very good for the superconducting charge qubit.

  20. Distribution Locational Marginal Pricing for Optimal Electric Vehicle Charging Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ruoyang; Wu, Qiuwei; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated distribution locational marginal pricing (DLMP) method designed to alleviate congestion induced by electric vehicle (EV) loads in future power systems. In the proposed approach, the distribution system operator (DSO) determines distribution locational marginal...... prices (DLMPs) by solving the social welfare optimization of the Electric distribution system which considers EV aggregators as Price takers in the local DSO market and demand price elasticity. Nonlinear optimization has been used to solve the social welfare optimization problem in order to obtain...... the DLMPs. The efficacy of the proposed approach was demonstrated by using the bus 4 distribution system of the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) and Danish driving data. The case study results show that the integrated DLMP methodology can successfully alleviate the congestion caused by EV loads. It is also...

  1. Critical review of electrical conductivity measurements and charge distribution analysis of magnesium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Friedemann; Freund, Minoru M.; Batllo, Francois

    1993-01-01

    The electrical conductivity sigma of MgO single crystals shows a sharp increase at 500-800 C, in particular of sigma surface, generally attributed to surface contamination. Charge Distribution Analysis (CDA), a new technique providing information on fundamental properties that was previously unavailable, allows for the determination of surface charges, their sign and associated internal electric field. Data on 99.99% purity, arc-fusion grown MgO crystals show that mobile charge carriers start to appear in the bulk of the MgO crystals between 200 and 400 C when sigma (measured by conventional techniques) is in t he 10(exp -14) to 10(exp -16) /omega/cm range. Above 500 C, as sigma increases to 10(exp -6) to 10(exp -7)/omega/cm, more charges appear giving rise to a strong positive surface charge supported by a strong internal field. This indicates that charges are generated in the bulk and diffuse to the surface by an internally controlled process. On the basis of their positive sign they are identified as holes (defect electrons). Because of the low cation content of these very pure MgO crystals, theses holes cannnot be associated with transition metal impurties. Instead, they are associated with the O(2-) sublattice, e.g. consist of O(-) states or positive holes. This conclusion is supported by magnetic susceptibility data showing the appearance of 1000 +/- 500 ppm paramagnetic species between 200-500 C. The magnetic data are consistent with strongly coupled, diamagnetic O(-) pairs below 200-500 C, chemically equivalent to peroxy anions, O2(2-), and probably associated with cation vacancies in the MgO matrix. The formation of O2(2-) in arc-fusion grown MgO crystals is very unexpected because of the highly reducing growth conditions. Their presence implies an internal redox reaction involving dissolved 'water' by which OH(-) pairs convert to O2(2-) plus H2 molecules. This redox conversion is supported by mass spectroscopic measurements of the H2 release from highly

  2. Measurements of charged-particle inclusive distributions in hadronic decays of the Z boson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, G.S.; Adolphsen, C.E.; Averill, D.; Ballam, J.; Barish, B.C.; Barklow, T.; Barnett, B.A.; Bartelt, J.; Bethke, S.; Blockus, D.; Bonvicini, G.; Boyarski, A.; Brabson, B.; Breakstone, A.; Bulos, F.; Burchat, P.R.; Burke, D.L.; Cence, R.J.; Chapman, J.; Chmeissani, M.; Cords, D.; Coupal, D.P.; Dauncey, P.; DeStaebler, H.C.; Dorfan, D.E.; Dorfan, J.M.; Drewer, D.C.; Elia, R.; Feldman, G.J.; Fernandes, D.; Field, R.C.; Ford, W.T.; Fordham, C.; Frey, R.; Fujino, D.; Gan, K.K.; Gero, E.; Gidal, G.; Glanzman, T.; Goldhaber, G.; Gomez Cadenas, J.J.; Gratta, G.; Grindhammer, G.; Grosse-Wiesmann, P.; Hanson, G.; Harr, R.; Harral, B.; Harris, F.A.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hayes, K.; Hearty, C.; Heusch, C.A.; Hildreth, M.D.; Himel, T.; Hinshaw, D.A.; Hong, S.J.; Hutchinson, D.; Hylen, J.; Innes, W.R.; Jacobsen, R.G.; Jaros, J.A.; Jung, C.K.; Kadyk, J.A.; Kent, J.; King, M.; Klein, S.R.; Koetke, D.S.; Komamiya, S.; Koska, W.; Kowalski, L.A.; Kozanecki, W.; Kral, J.F.; Kuhlen, M.; Labarga, L.; Lankford

    1990-03-19

    We have measured inclusive distributions for charged particles in hadronic decays of the {ital Z} boson. The variables chosen for study were charged-particle multiplicity, scaled momentum, and momenta transverse to the sphericity axes. The distributions have been corrected for detector effects and are compared with data from {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}} annihilation at lower energies and with the predictions of several QCD-based models. The data are in reasonable agreement with expectations.

  3. Imaging the potential distribution of charged adsorbates on graphene by low-energy electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Escher, Conrad; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2016-01-01

    While imaging individual atoms can routinely be achieved in high resolution transmission electron microscopy, visualizing the potential distribution of individually charged adsorbates leading to a phase shift of the probing electron wave is still a challenging task. Since low-energy electrons are sensitive to localized potential gradients, we employed this tool in the 30 eV kinetic energy range to visualize the potential distribution of localized charged adsorbates present on free-standing graphene.

  4. Valence state parameters of all transition metal atoms in metalloproteins--development of ABEEMσπ fluctuating charge force field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Jiang; Zhao, Dong-Xia

    2014-09-05

    To promote accuracy of the atom-bond electronegativity equalization method (ABEEMσπ) fluctuating charge polarizable force fields, and extend it to include all transition metal atoms, a new parameter, the reference charge is set up in the expression of the total energy potential function. We select over 700 model molecules most of which model metalloprotein molecules that come from Protein Data Bank. We set reference charges for different apparent valence states of transition metals and calibrate the parameters of reference charges, valence state electronegativities, and valence state hardnesses for ABEEMσπ through linear regression and least square method. These parameters can be used to calculate charge distributions of metalloproteins containing transition metal atoms (Sc-Zn, Y-Cd, and Lu-Hg). Compared the results of ABEEMσπ charge distributions with those obtained by ab initio method, the quite good linear correlations of the two kinds of charge distributions are shown. The reason why the STO-3G basis set in Mulliken population analysis for the parameter calibration is specially explained in detail. Furthermore, ABEEMσπ method can also quickly and quite accurately calculate dipole moments of molecules. Molecular dynamics optimizations of five metalloproteins as the examples show that their structures obtained by ABEEMσπ fluctuating charge polarizable force field are very close to the structures optimized by the ab initio MP2/6–311G method. This means that the ABEEMσπ/MM can now be applied to molecular dynamics simulations of systems that contain metalloproteins with good accuracy.

  5. On the Distribution of Neutral and Charged Pions through the Production of a Classical Pion Field

    CERN Document Server

    Anselm, A A; Bander, Myron

    1994-01-01

    High energy reactions may produce a state around the collision point that is best described by a classical pion field. Such a field might be an isospin rotated vacuum of the chiral $\\sigma$-model or, as discussed in this work, a solution of the equations of motion resultinng from the coupling of fields of this model to quarks produced in the collision. In such configurations all directions in isospin space are allowed leading to a sizable probability of events with, essentially, only charged particles (Centauros) or all neutral particles (anti-Centauros). (In more common statistical models of multiparticle production, the probability of such events is suppressed exponentially by the total multiplicity.) We find that the isospin violation due to the mass difference of the up and down quarks has a significant effect on these distributions and enhances the production of events consisting predominantly of neutral particles.

  6. Charge States of Solar Cosmic Rays and Constraints on Acceleration Times and Transport within the Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, David

    1997-04-01

    We examine effects on the charge states of solar cosmic ray ions due to shock heating or stripping at suprathermal ion velocities. Recent measurements of the mean charges of various elements after the gradual solar flares of 1992 Oct 30 and 1992 Nov 2 allow one to place limits on the product of the electron density times the acceleration or coronal residence time experienced by the escaping ions. In particular, any residence in coronal loops must be for bird cage model) in which escaping ions travel to distant solar longitudes within coronal loops. The results do not contradict models of distributed shock acceleration of energetic ions from coronal plasma at various solar longitudes, followed by prompt injection into the interplanetary medium.

  7. Power system operations: State estimation distributed processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimian, Mohammad Reza

    We present an application of a robust and fast parallel algorithm to power system state estimation with minimal amount of modifications to existing state estimators presently in place using the Auxiliary Problem Principle. We demonstrate its effectiveness on IEEE test systems, the Electric Reliability Counsel of Texas (ERCOT), and the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) systems. Since state estimation formulation may lead to an ill-conditioned system, we provide analytical explanations of the effects of mixtures of measurements on the condition of the state estimation information matrix. We demonstrate the closeness of the analytical equations to condition of several test case systems including IEEE RTS-96 and IEEE 118 bus systems. The research on the condition of the state estimation problem covers the centralized as well as distributed state estimation.

  8. Diagnostics of many-particle electronic states: non-stationary currents and residual charge dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, N. S.; Mantsevich, V. N.; Arseyev, P. I.

    2017-01-01

    We propose the method for identifying many particle electronic states in the system of coupled quantum dots (impurities) with Coulomb correlations. We demonstrate that different electronic states can be distinguished by the complex analysis of localized charge dynamics and non-stationary characteristics. We show that localized charge time evolution strongly depends on the properties of initial state and analyze different time scales in charge kinetics for initially prepared singlet and triplet states. We reveal the conditions for existence of charge trapping effects governed by the selection rules for electron transitions between the states with different occupation numbers.

  9. Multipole correction of atomic monopole models of molecular charge distribution. I. Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokalski, W. A.; Keller, D. A.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.

    1993-01-01

    The defects in atomic monopole models of molecular charge distribution have been analyzed for several model-blocked peptides and compared with accurate quantum chemical values. The results indicate that the angular characteristics of the molecular electrostatic potential around functional groups capable of forming hydrogen bonds can be considerably distorted within various models relying upon isotropic atomic charges only. It is shown that these defects can be corrected by augmenting the atomic point charge models by cumulative atomic multipole moments (CAMMs). Alternatively, sets of off-center atomic point charges could be automatically derived from respective multipoles, providing approximately equivalent corrections. For the first time, correlated atomic multipoles have been calculated for N-acetyl, N'-methylamide-blocked derivatives of glycine, alanine, cysteine, threonine, leucine, lysine, and serine using the MP2 method. The role of the correlation effects in the peptide molecular charge distribution are discussed.

  10. Direct Mapping of Charge Distribution during Lithiation of Ge Nanowires Using Off-Axis Electron Holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Zhaofeng; Gu, Meng; Tang, Jianshi; Wang, Chiu-Yen; He, Yang; Wang, Kang L.; Wang, Chongmin; Smith, David J.; McCartney, Martha R.

    2016-06-08

    The successful operation of rechargeable batteries relies on reliable insertion/ extraction of ions into/from the electrodes. The battery performance and the response of the electrodes to such ion insertion and extraction are directly related to the spatial distribution of the charge and its dynamic evolution. However, it remains unclear how charge is distributed in the electrodes during normal battery operation. In this work, we have used offaxis electron holography to measure charge distribution during lithium ion insertion into a Ge nanowire (NW) under dynamic operating conditions. We discovered that the surface region of the Ge core is negatively charged during the core-shell lithiation of the Ge NW, which is counterbalanced by positive charge on the inner surface of the lithiated LixGe shell. The remainder of the lithiated LixGe shell is free from net charge, consistent with its metallic characteristics. The present work provides a vivid picture of charge distribution and dynamic evolution during Ge NW lithiation and should form the basis for tackling the response of these and related materials under real electrochemical conditions.

  11. 2D coherent charge transport in highly ordered conducting polymers doped by solid state diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Keehoon; Watanabe, Shun; Broch, Katharina; Sepe, Alessandro; Brown, Adam; Nasrallah, Iyad; Nikolka, Mark; Fei, Zhuping; Heeney, Martin; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Marumoto, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Hisaaki; Kuroda, Shin-Ichi; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2016-08-01

    Doping is one of the most important methods to control charge carrier concentration in semiconductors. Ideally, the introduction of dopants should not perturb the ordered microstructure of the semiconducting host. In some systems, such as modulation-doped inorganic semiconductors or molecular charge transfer crystals, this can be achieved by spatially separating the dopants from the charge transport pathways. However, in conducting polymers, dopants tend to be randomly distributed within the conjugated polymer, and as a result the transport properties are strongly affected by the resulting structural and electronic disorder. Here, we show that in the highly ordered lamellar microstructure of a regioregular thiophene-based conjugated polymer, a small-molecule p-type dopant can be incorporated by solid state diffusion into the layers of solubilizing side chains without disrupting the conjugated layers. In contrast to more disordered systems, this allows us to observe coherent, free-electron-like charge transport properties, including a nearly ideal Hall effect in a wide temperature range, a positive magnetoconductance due to weak localization and the Pauli paramagnetic spin susceptibility.

  12. Two rods confined by positive plates: effective forces and charge distribution profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odriozola, G; Jimenez-Angeles, F; Lozada-Cassou, M [Programa de IngenierIa Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2006-09-13

    The effect of confinement on the interaction force between two negatively charged rods is studied through Monte Carlo simulations. Confinement is produced by two parallel, charged or uncharged plates. The system is immersed in a 0.1 M 1-1 restricted primitive model electrolyte. The effect on the rod-rod effective force by the plate charge distribution is analysed. A strong modification of the rod-rod effective force due to confinement is found, as compared to the bulk case. In particular, rod-rod attraction was found for plates having a charge equal to that of fully charged bilipid bilayers. In spite of the simplicity of the model, these results agree with some DNA-phospholipid experimental observations. On the other hand, for a model having the plate charges fixed on a grid, very long range, oscillatory rod-rod effective forces were obtained.

  13. Quantum Key Distribution Using Decoy State Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sellami Ali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Quantum key distribution provides unconditional security guaranteed by the fundamental laws of quantum physics. Unfortunately, for real-life experimental set-ups, which mainly based on faint laser pulses, the occasional production of multi-photons and channel loss make it possible for sophisticated eavesdroppers to launch various subtle eavesdropping attacks including the Photon Number Splitting (PNS attack. The decoy state protocols recently proposed to beat PNS attack and to improve dramatically distance and secure key generation rate of Quantum Key Distribution (QKD. Approach: Objective of this study was experimental implementation of weak decoy + vacuum states QKD for increasing the performance of QKD system. To show conceptually how simple it was to apply the weak decoy + vacuum state idea to a commercial QKD system, we chosen ID-3000 commercial quantum key distribution system manufactured by id quantique. To implement the weak decoy + vacuum state protocol, we had to add some new optical and electronics components to id quantique and to attenuate each signal to the intensity of either signal state or weak decoy or vacuum state randomly. Results: In our implementation, the attenuation will be done by placing a VOA (variable optical attenuator in Alice’s side. Specifically, our QKD system required the polarizations of 2 pulses from the same signal to be orthogonal. Therefore the VOA must be polarization independent so as to attenuate the two pulses equally. The VOA utilized in experiment to attenuate signals dynamically was Intensity Modulator (IM. We had implemented weak + vacuum protocol on a modified commercial QKD system over a 25 km of telecom fibers with an unconditionally secure key rate of 6.2931x10-4 per pulse. Conclusion: By making simple modifications to a commercial quantum key distribution system, we could achieve much better performance with substantially higher key generation rate and longer distance than

  14. Upper-division Student Understanding of Coulomb's Law: Difficulties with Continuous Charge Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Bethany R; Pepper, Rachel E; Pollock, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing the integral expression of Coulomb's Law to determine the electric potential from a continuous charge distribution is a canonical exercise in Electricity and Magnetism (E&M). In this study, we use both think-aloud interviews and responses to traditional exam questions to investigate student difficulties with this topic at the upper-division level. Leveraging a theoretical framework for the use of mathematics in physics, we discuss how students activate, construct, execute and reflect on the integral form of Coulomb's Law when solving problems with continuous charge distributions. We present evidence that junior-level E&M students have difficulty mapping physical systems onto the mathematical expression for the Coulomb potential. Common challenges include difficulty expressing the difference vector in appropriate coordinates as well as determining expressions for the differential charge element and limits of integration for a specific charge distribution. We discuss possible implications of t...

  15. Probing lithium-ion batteries' state-of-charge using ultrasonic transmission - Concept and laboratory testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Lukas; Bach, Tobias; Virsik, Wolfgang; Schmitt, Angelika; Müller, Jana; Staab, Torsten E. M.; Sextl, Gerhard

    2017-03-01

    For electrically powered applications such as consumer electronics and especially for electric vehicles a precise state-of-charge estimation for their lithium-ion batteries is desired to reduce aging, e.g. avoiding detrimental states-of-charge. Today, this estimation is performed by battery management systems that solely rely on charge bookkeeping and cell voltage measurements. In the present work we introduce a new, physical probe for the state-of-charge based on ultrasonic transmission. Within the simple experimental setup raised cosine pulses are applied to lithium-ion battery pouch cells, whose signals are sensitive to changes in porosity of the graphite anode during charging/dis-charging and, therefore, to the state-of-charge. The underlying physical principle can be related to Biot's theory about propagation of waves in fluid saturated porous media and by including scattering by boundary layers inside the cell.

  16. Lithium-Ion Battery Failure: Effects of State of Charge and Packing Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-22

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6180--16-9689 Lithium-Ion Battery Failure: Effects of State of Charge and Packing ...PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Lithium-Ion Battery Failure: Effects of State of Charge and Packing Configuration Neil S. Spinner,* Katherine M. Hinnant...geometries, abuse scenarios, and analysis techniques. In this report, different states of charge and packing configurations of a commercially available

  17. Universal Bounds on Charged States in 2d CFT and 3d Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Benjamin, Nathan; Fitzpatrick, A Liam; Kachru, Shamit

    2016-01-01

    We derive an explicit bound on the dimension of the lightest charged state in two dimensional conformal field theories with a global abelian symmetry. We find that the bound scales with $c$ and provide examples that parametrically saturate this bound. We also prove than any such theory must contain a state with charge-to-mass ratio above a minimal lower bound. We comment on the implications for charged states in three dimensional theories of gravity.

  18. Magnetic latitude dependence of oxygen charge states in the global magnetosphere: Insights into solar wind-originating ion injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. C.; Livi, S. A.; Vines, S. K.; Goldstein, J.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the sources and subsequent evolution of plasma in a magnetosphere holds intrinsic importance for magnetospheric dynamics. Previous studies have investigated the balance of ionospheric-originating heavy ions (low charge state) from those of solar wind origin (high charge state) in the magnetosphere of Earth. These studies have suggested a variety of entry mechanisms for solar wind ions to penetrate into the magnetosphere. Following from recently published distributions for oxygen charge states observed by the Polar spacecraft, this paper investigates oxygen charge state flux distributions versus L shell and magnetic latitude. By showing these distributions in this frame, and binning by various proxies for magnetospheric dynamics (Dst, AE, VSW∗BZ, Pdyn), insight has been gained into the underlying physics at play for oxygen injection. Ionospheric-originating oxygen is observed to depend predominantly on Dst, whereas solar wind-originating oxygen is observed to have a strong dependence on solar wind dynamic pressure (Pdyn) at the flanks and on VSW∗BZ at the dayside. This suggests that both Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and reconnection play major roles in solar wind ion penetration into a magnetosphere. Additionally, the near-Earth magnetotail reconnection site does not seem to be a major injection site of solar wind-originating plasma in the 1 to 200 keV/e energy range.

  19. Estimation of the spatial distribution of traps using space-charge-limited current measurements in an organic single crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Dacuña, Javier

    2012-09-06

    We used a mobility edge transport model and solved the drift-diffusion equation to characterize the space-charge-limited current of a rubrene single-crystal hole-only diode. The current-voltage characteristics suggest that current is injection-limited at high voltage when holes are injected from the bottom contact (reverse bias). In contrast, the low-voltage regime shows that the current is higher when holes are injected from the bottom contact as compared to hole injection from the top contact (forward bias), which does not exhibit injection-limited current in the measured voltage range. This behavior is attributed to an asymmetric distribution of trap states in the semiconductor, specifically, a distribution of traps located near the top contact. Accounting for a localized trap distribution near the contact allows us to reproduce the temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics in forward and reverse bias simultaneously, i.e., with a single set of model parameters. We estimated that the local trap distribution contains 1.19×1011 cm -2 states and decays as exp(-x/32.3nm) away from the semiconductor-contact interface. The local trap distribution near one contact mainly affects injection from the same contact, hence breaking the symmetry in the charge transport. The model also provides information of the band mobility, energy barrier at the contacts, and bulk trap distribution with their corresponding confidence intervals. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  20. Charge distribution in the neutron at short distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamyan, Sergey; E02-013 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Elastic form-factors are a fundamental property of the nucleon, and provide critical information on the nucleon's transverse spatial structure. Furthermore, by combining knowledge of the neutron electromagnetic form factors with the corresponding form factors of the proton, it is possible to gain understanding of the flavor structure of the nucleon. In this talk we present final results of the JLab experiment E02-013, comprising four measurements of the ratio of the neutron's electric and magnetic form factors, GEn /GMn , at four values of the four-momentum transfer Q2 = 1.2, 1.7, 2.5 and 3.4 GeV2. We note that the result at 1 GeV2 has not been previously reported. In E02-013, a double-polarization asymmetry was measured in the reaction 3 He --> (e-> ,e' n) p p in order to determine the ratio GEn /GMn . We present key aspects of the experimental approach that was used, as well as essential features of the data analysis such as exclusive quasi-elastic event selection, hadron charge identification and analysis of FSI effects.

  1. Distributed Sensor Nodes Charged by Mobile Charger with Directional Antenna and by Energy Trading for Balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Celso; Myung, Sunghee; Lee, Sangkeum; Har, Dongsoo

    2017-01-10

    Provision of energy to wireless sensor networks is crucial for their sustainable operation. Sensor nodes are typically equipped with batteries as their operating energy sources. However, when the sensor nodes are sited in almost inaccessible locations, replacing their batteries incurs high maintenance cost. Under such conditions, wireless charging of sensor nodes by a mobile charger with an antenna can be an efficient solution. When charging distributed sensor nodes, a directional antenna, rather than an omnidirectional antenna, is more energy-efficient because of smaller proportion of off-target radiation. In addition, for densely distributed sensor nodes, it can be more effective for some undercharged sensor nodes to harvest energy from neighboring overcharged sensor nodes than from the remote mobile charger, because this reduces the pathloss of charging signal due to smaller distances. In this paper, we propose a hybrid charging scheme that combines charging by a mobile charger with a directional antenna, and energy trading, e.g., transferring and harvesting, between neighboring sensor nodes. The proposed scheme is compared with other charging scheme. Simulations demonstrate that the hybrid charging scheme with a directional antenna achieves a significant reduction in the total charging time required for all sensor nodes to reach a target energy level.

  2. Rendering high charge density of states in ionic liquid-gated MoS 2 transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Y.; Lee, J.; Kim, S.; Park, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated high charge density of states (DOS) in the bandgap of MoS2 nanosheets with variable temperature measurements on ionic liquid-gated MoS2 transistors. The thermally activated charge transport indicates that the electrical current in the two-dimensional MoS 2 nanosheets under high charg

  3. A simple scheme to generate x-type four-charge entangled states in circuit QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Gui-Long; Song Fu-Quan; Huang Shou-Sheng; Wang Hui; Yuan Xian-Zhang; Wang Ming-Feng; Jiang Nian-Quan

    2012-01-01

    We propose a simple scheme to generate x-type four-charge entangled states by using SQUID-based charge qubits capacitively coupled to a transmission line resonator (TLR).The coupling between the superconducting qubit and the TLR can be effectively controlled by properly adjusting the control parameters of the charge qubit.The experimental feasibility of our scheme is also shown.

  4. Formation and decay of the Rydberg states of multiply charged ions interacting with solid surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkovic, M A; Nedeljkovic, N N; Bozanic, D K, E-mail: gmirkomarko@sezampro.rs

    2010-11-01

    Processes of formation and decay of the Rydberg states of multiply charged ions escaping solid surfaces with intermediate velocities (v {approx} 1 a.u.) represent complex quantum events that require a detailed quantum description. We have developed a two-state vector model for the population process, with the functions {Psi}{sub 1} and {Psi}{sub 2} for definition of the state of a single active electron. The electron exchange between the solid and the moving ion is described by a mixed flux through a plane positioned between them. For the low values of the angular momentum quantum numbers l the radial electronic coordinate {rho} can be neglected, whereas for the large-l values a wide space region around the projectile trajectory was taken into account. The reionization of the previously populated states is considered as a decay of the wave function {Psi}{sub 2}. The corresponding decay rates are obtained by an appropriate etalon equation method: in the large-l case the radial electronic coordinate {rho} is treated as a variational parameter. The theoretical predictions based on that population-reionization mechanism are compared with the available beam-foil experimental data, as well as the experimental data obtained in the interaction of multiply charged ions with micro-capillary foil. Generally, the model reproduces the experimentally observed non-linear trend of the l distributions from l = 0 to l{sub max} = n - 1.

  5. Charge distribution of Kr ions produced upon photoionization around the 2s edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.C.F., E-mail: toni@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21991-972 (Brazil); Pilling, S. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncroton, Campinas 13084-971 (Brazil); Almeida, D.P. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis 88040-979 (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Charge spectra of Kr after photoionization of the L shell have been measured. • Multiple photoionization of krypton around the 2s edge is a collective process. • Electron correlation plays an important role in multiple ionization of heavy atoms. - Abstract: Charge state spectra of krypton ions generated after ionization (by a single photon) of the L shell have been measured by using the PEPICO technique. Relative abundances of Kr{sup q+} ions in charge state up to 8+ were obtained using monochromatized synchrotron radiation. A comparison with other experimental and theoretical data is presented.

  6. States of Cybersecurity: Electricity Distribution System Discussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Ivonne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ingram, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martin, Maurice [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-16

    State and local entities that oversee the reliable, affordable provision of electricity are faced with growing and evolving threats from cybersecurity risks to our nation's electricity distribution system. All-hazards system resilience is a shared responsibility among electric utilities and their regulators or policy-setting boards of directors. Cybersecurity presents new challenges and should be a focus for states, local governments, and Native American tribes that are developing energy-assurance plans to protect critical infrastructure. This research sought to investigate the implementation of governance and policy at the distribution utility level that facilitates cybersecurity preparedness to inform the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis; states; local governments; and other stakeholders on the challenges, gaps, and opportunities that may exist for future analysis. The need is urgent to identify the challenges and inconsistencies in how cybersecurity practices are being applied across the United States to inform the development of best practices, mitigations, and future research and development investments in securing the electricity infrastructure. By examining the current practices and applications of cybersecurity preparedness, this report seeks to identify the challenges and persistent gaps between policy and execution and reflect the underlying motivations of distinct utility structures as they play out at the local level. This study aims to create an initial baseline of cybersecurity preparedness within the distribution electricity sector. The focus of this study is on distribution utilities not bound by the cybersecurity guidelines of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) to examine the range of mechanisms taken by state regulators, city councils that own municipal utilities, and boards of directors of rural cooperatives.

  7. Quantum key distribution using three basis states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhash Kak

    2000-05-01

    This note presents a method of public key distribution using quantum communication of photons that simultaneously provides a high probability that the bits have not been tampered. It is a variant of the quantum method of Bennett and Brassard (BB84) where the transmission states have been decreased from 4 to 3 and the detector states have been increased from 2 to 3. Under certain assumptions regarding method of attack, it provides superior performance (in terms of the number of usable key bits) for < 18, where is the number of key bits used to verify the integrity of the process in the BB84-protocol.

  8. Measurements of charge distributions of the fragments in the low energy fission reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taofeng; Han, Hongyin; Meng, Qinghua; Wang, Liming; Zhu, Liping; Xia, Haihong

    2013-01-01

    The measurement for charge distributions of fragments in spontaneous fission 252Cf has been performed by using a unique style of detector setup consisting of a typical grid ionization chamber and a ΔΕ-Ε particle telescope, in which a thin grid ionization chamber served as the ΔΕ-section and the E-section was an Au-Si surface barrier detector. The typical physical quantities of fragments, such as mass number and kinetic energies as well as the deposition in the gas ΔΕ detector and E detector were derived from the coincident measurement data. The charge distributions of the light fragments for the fixed mass number A2* and total kinetic energy (TKE) were obtained by the least-squares fits for the response functions of the ΔΕ detector with multi-Gaussian functions representing the different elements. The results of the charge distributions for some typical fragments are shown in this article which indicates that this detection setup has the charge distribution capability of Ζ:ΔΖ>40:1. The experimental method developed in this work for determining the charge distributions of fragments is expected to be employed in the neutron induced fissions of 232Th and 238U or other low energy fission reactions.

  9. High-energy Electron Scattering and the Charge Distributions of Selected Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, B.; Ravenhall, D. G.; Hofstadter, R.

    1955-10-01

    Experimental results are presented of electron scattering by Ca, V, Co, In, Sb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Bi, Th, and U, at 183 Mev and (for some of the elements) at 153 Mev. For those nuclei for which asphericity and inelastic scattering are absent or unimportant, i.e., Ca, V, Co, In, Sb, Au, and Bi, a partial wave analysis of the Dirac equation has been performed in which the nuclei are represented by static, spherically symmetric charge distributions. Smoothed uniform charge distributions have been assumed; these are characterized by a constant charge density in the central region of the nucleus, with a smoothed-our surface. Essentially two parameters can be determined, related to the radium and to the surface thickness. An examination of the Au experiments show that the functional forms of the surface are not important, and that the charge density in the central regions is probably fairly flat, although it cannot be determined very accurately.

  10. Adding high time resolution to charge-state-specific ion energy measurements for pulsed copper vacuum arc plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Koichi; Zhou, Xue; Anders, André

    2015-01-01

    Charge-state-resolved ion energy-time-distributions of pulsed Cu arc plasma were obtained by using direct (time dependent) acquisition of the ion detection signal from a commercial ion mass-per-charge and energy-per-charge analyzer. We find a shift of energies of Cu2+, Cu3+ and Cu4+ ions to lower values during the first few hundred microseconds after arc ignition, which is evidence for particle collisions in the plasma. The generation of Cu1+ ions in the later part of the pulse, measured by the increase of Cu1+ signal intensity and an associated slight reduction of the mean charge state point to charge exchange reactions between ions and neutrals. At the very beginning of the pulse, when the plasma expands into vacuum and the plasma potential strongly fluctuates, ions with much higher energy (over 200 eV) were observed. Early in the pulse, the ion energies observed are approximately proportional to the ion charge state, and we conclude that the acceleration mechanism is primarily based on acceleration in an e...

  11. The charge percolation mechanism and simulation of Ziegler–Natta polymerizations Part III. Oxidation states of transition metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANKA PILIC

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation state of the transition metal (Mt active centre is the most disputable question in the polymerization of olefins by Ziegler–Natta (ZN and metallocene complexes. In this paper the importance and the changes of the Mt active centres are presented and discussed on the basis of a charge percolation mechanism (CPM of olefin polymerization. Mt atoms can exist in different oxidation states and can be easily transformed from one to another state during activation. In all cases, the Mt atoms are present in several oxidation states, i.e., Mt+(n-1, Mt+(n to Mt+(n+1, producing an irregular charge distribution over the support surface. There is a tendency to equalize the oxidation states by a charge transfer from Mt+(n–1 (donor toMt+(n+1 (acceptor. This cannot occur since the different oxidation states are highly separated on the support. However, monomer molecules are adsorbed on the support producing clusters with stacked p-bonds, making a p-bond bridge between a donor and an acceptor. Once a bridge is formed (percolation moment, charge transfer occurs. The donor and acceptor equalize their oxidation states simultaneously with the polymerization of the monomer. The polymer chain is desorbed from the support, freeing the surface for subsequent monomer adsorption. The whole process is repeated with the oxidation-reduction of other donor-acceptor ensembles.

  12. A parametrisation of the energy loss distributions of charged particles and its applications for silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sikler, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    The energy loss distribution of charged particles in silicon is approximated by a simple analytical parametrization. Its use is demonstrated through several examples. With the help of energy deposits in sensing elements of the detector, the position of track segments and the corresponding deposited energy are estimated with improved accuracy and less bias. The parametrization is successfully used to estimate the energy loss rate of charged particles, and it is applied to detector gain calibration tasks.

  13. Role of Molecular Weight Distribution on Charge Transport in Semiconducting Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Himmelberger, Scott

    2014-10-28

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Model semiconducting polymer blends of well-controlled molecular weight distributions are fabricated and demonstrated to be a simple method to control intermolecular disorder without affecting intramolecular order or degree of aggregation. Mobility measurements exhibit that even small amounts of low molecular weight material are detrimental to charge transport. Trends in charge carrier mobility can be reproduced by a simple analytical model which indicates that carriers have no preference for high or low molecular weight chains and that charge transport is limited by interchain hopping. These results quantify the role of long polymer tie-chains and demonstrate the need for controlled polydispersity for achieving high carrier mobilities.

  14. Effects of charge distribution on water filling process in carbon nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG LingYi; LI QiKai; SHUAI ZhiGang

    2009-01-01

    Using umbrella sampling technique with molecular dynamics simulation, we investigated the nanoflu-idic transport of water in carbon nanotube (CNT). The simulations showed that a positive charge modi-fication to the carbon nanotube can slow down the water column growth process, while the negative charge modification to the carbon nanotube will, on the other hand, quicken the water column growth process. The free energy curves were obtained through the statistical process of water column growth under different charge distributions, and the results indicated that these free energy curves can be employed to explain the dynamical process of water column growth in the nanosized channels.

  15. Effects of charge distribution on water filling process in carbon nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Using umbrella sampling technique with molecular dynamics simulation,we investigated the nanoflu-idic transport of water in carbon nanotube(CNT).The simulations showed that a positive charge modi-fication to the carbon nanotube can slow down the water column growth process,while the negative charge modification to the carbon nanotube will,on the other hand,quicken the water column growth process.The free energy curves were obtained through the statistical process of water column growth under different charge distributions,and the results indicated that these free energy curves can be employed to explain the dynamical process of water column growth in the nanosized channels.

  16. A multi-state fragment charge difference approach for diabatic states in electron transfer: extension and automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chou-Hsun; Hsu, Chao-Ping

    2013-10-21

    The electron transfer (ET) rate prediction requires the electronic coupling values. The Generalized Mulliken-Hush (GMH) and Fragment Charge Difference (FCD) schemes have been useful approaches to calculate ET coupling from an excited state calculation. In their typical form, both methods use two eigenstates in forming the target charge-localized diabatic states. For problems involve three or four states, a direct generalization is possible, but it is necessary to pick and assign the locally excited or charge-transfer states involved. In this work, we generalize the 3-state scheme for a multi-state FCD without the need of manual pick or assignment for the states. In this scheme, the diabatic states are obtained separately in the charge-transfer or neutral excited subspaces, defined by their eigenvalues in the fragment charge-difference matrix. In each subspace, the Hamiltonians are diagonalized, and there exist off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix elements between different subspaces, particularly the charge-transfer and neutral excited diabatic states. The ET coupling values are obtained as the corresponding off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix elements. A similar multi-state GMH scheme can also be developed. We test the new multi-state schemes for the performance in systems that have been studied using more than two states with FCD or GMH. We found that the multi-state approach yields much better charge-localized states in these systems. We further test for the dependence on the number of state included in the calculation of ET couplings. The final coupling values are converged when the number of state included is increased. In one system where experimental value is available, the multi-state FCD coupling value agrees better with the previous experimental result. We found that the multi-state GMH and FCD are useful when the original two-state approach fails.

  17. A multi-state fragment charge difference approach for diabatic states in electron transfer: Extension and automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chou-Hsun; Hsu, Chao-Ping

    2013-10-01

    The electron transfer (ET) rate prediction requires the electronic coupling values. The Generalized Mulliken-Hush (GMH) and Fragment Charge Difference (FCD) schemes have been useful approaches to calculate ET coupling from an excited state calculation. In their typical form, both methods use two eigenstates in forming the target charge-localized diabatic states. For problems involve three or four states, a direct generalization is possible, but it is necessary to pick and assign the locally excited or charge-transfer states involved. In this work, we generalize the 3-state scheme for a multi-state FCD without the need of manual pick or assignment for the states. In this scheme, the diabatic states are obtained separately in the charge-transfer or neutral excited subspaces, defined by their eigenvalues in the fragment charge-difference matrix. In each subspace, the Hamiltonians are diagonalized, and there exist off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix elements between different subspaces, particularly the charge-transfer and neutral excited diabatic states. The ET coupling values are obtained as the corresponding off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix elements. A similar multi-state GMH scheme can also be developed. We test the new multi-state schemes for the performance in systems that have been studied using more than two states with FCD or GMH. We found that the multi-state approach yields much better charge-localized states in these systems. We further test for the dependence on the number of state included in the calculation of ET couplings. The final coupling values are converged when the number of state included is increased. In one system where experimental value is available, the multi-state FCD coupling value agrees better with the previous experimental result. We found that the multi-state GMH and FCD are useful when the original two-state approach fails.

  18. Direct observation of the spatial distribution of charges on a polypropylene fiber via Electrostatic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, R; Avila, A; Montenegro, C; Hinestroza, J

    2012-12-01

    The spatial distribution of electrical charges along the longitudinal axes of a polypropylene electret fiber was determined using Electrostatic Force Microscopy (EFM). EFM mapping on highly curved surfaces, such as those of polymeric fibers, is a challenging endeavour and most work reported in the scientific literature has been limited to single line-scan analysis or flat specimens. Charged polymeric fibers, electrets, are extensively used in high performance filtration applications and methods to determine the amount and magnitude of the charges on these fibers remain elusive. Electrical charge maps of individual fibers were obtained by biasing the tip to -10 V and maintaining a constant tip-sample distance of 100 nm. Spatially dependant EFM phase and magnitude gradients were determined and the developed technique may provide a unique understanding into the heterogeneous charge distribution on electrets fibers. Direct mapping of the charge distribution in electrets fibers can offer new insights in the development of antistatic additives, new means to facilitate electrostatic self-assembly of nano-moieties on the surface of fibrous materials and a quantitative metrics capable of determining discharge dynamics and predicting the shelf-life of filtration media.

  19. Combining Market-Based Control with Distribution Grid Constraints when Coordinating Electric Vehicle Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deconinck Geert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The charging of electric vehicles (EVs impacts the distribution grid, and its cost depends on the price of electricity when charging. An aggregator that is responsible for a large fleet of EVs can use a market-based control algorithm to coordinate the charging of these vehicles, in order to minimize the costs. In such an optimization, the operational parameters of the distribution grid, to which the EVs are connected, are not considered. This can lead to violations of the technical constraints of the grid (e.g., under-voltage, phase unbalances; for example, because many vehicles start charging simultaneously when the price is low. An optimization that simultaneously takes the economic and technical aspects into account is complex, because it has to combine time-driven control at the market level with event-driven control at the operational level. Different case studies investigate under which circumstances the market-based control, which coordinates EV charging, conflicts with the operational constraints of the distribution grid. Especially in weak grids, phase unbalance and voltage issues arise with a high share of EVs. A low-level voltage droop controller at the charging point of the EV can be used to avoid many grid constraint violations, by reducing the charge power if the local voltage is too low. While this action implies a deviation from the cost-optimal operating point, it is shown that this has a very limited impact on the business case of an aggregator, and is able to comply with the technical distribution grid constraints, even in weak distribution grids with many EVs.

  20. Particles inside electrolytes with ion-specific interactions, their effective charge distributions, and effective interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Mingnan; Liang, Yihao; Xing, Xiangjun

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we explore the statistical physics of colloidal particles that interact with electrolytes via ion-specific interactions. Firstly we study particles interacting weakly with electrolyte using linear response theory. We find that the mean potential around a particle is linearly determined by the effective charge distribution of the particle, which depends both on the bare charge distribution and on ion-specific interactions. We also discuss the effective interaction between two such particles and show that, in the far field regime, it is bilinear in the effective charge distributions of two particles. We subsequently generalize the above results to the more complicated case where particles interact strongly with the electrolyte. Our results indicate that in order to understand the statistical physics of non-dilute electrolytes, both ion-specific interactions and ionic correlations have to be addressed in a single unified and consistent framework. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174196 and 91130012).

  1. Hierarchical charge distribution controls self-assembly process of silk in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Cencen; Liu, Lijie; Kaplan, David L.; Zhu, Hesun; Lu, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Silk materials with different nanostructures have been developed without the understanding of the inherent transformation mechanism. Here we attempt to reveal the conversion road of the various nanostructures and determine the critical regulating factors. The regulating conversion processes influenced by a hierarchical charge distribution were investigated, showing different transformations between molecules, nanoparticles and nanofibers. Various repulsion and compressive forces existed among silk fibroin molecules and aggregates due to the exterior and interior distribution of charge, which further controlled their aggregating and deaggregating behaviors and finally formed nanofibers with different sizes. Synergistic action derived from molecular mobility and concentrations could also tune the assembly process and final nanostructures. It is suggested that the complicated silk fibroin assembly processes comply a same rule based on charge distribution, offering a promising way to develop silk-based materials with designed nanostructures.

  2. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, P.P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the

  3. Quantum State Transfer between Charge and Flux Qubits in Circuit-QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qin-Qin; LIAO Jie-Qiao; KUANG Le-Man

    2008-01-01

    @@ We propose a scheme to implement quantum state transfer in a hybrid circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED)system which consists of a superconducting charge qubit, a flux qubit, and a transmission line resonator (TLR).It is shown that quantum state transfer between the charge qubit and the flux qubit can be realized by using the TLR as the data bus.

  4. Ion distributions at charged aqueous surfaces: Synchrotron X-ray scattering studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Wei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Surface sensitive synchrotron X-ray scattering studies were performed to obtain the distribution of monovalent ions next to a highly charged interface at room temperature. To control surface charge density, lipids, dihexadecyl hydrogen-phosphate (DHDP) and dimysteroyl phosphatidic acid (DMPA), were spread as monolayer materials at the air/water interface, containing CsI at various concentrations. Five decades in bulk concentrations (CsI) are investigated, demonstrating that the interfacial distribution is strongly dependent on bulk concentration. We show that this is due to the strong binding constant of hydronium H3O+ to the phosphate group, leading to proton-transfer back to the phosphate group and to a reduced surface charge. Using anomalous reflectivity off and at the L3 Cs+ resonance, we provide spatial counterion (Cs+) distributions next to the negatively charged interfaces. The experimental ion distributions are in excellent agreement with a renormalized surface charge Poisson-Boltzmann theory for monovalent ions without fitting parameters or additional assumptions. Energy Scans at four fixed momentum transfers under specular reflectivity conditions near the Cs+ L3 resonance were conducted on 10-3 M CsI with DHDP monolayer materials on the surface. The energy scans exhibit a periodic dependence on photon momentum transfer. The ion distributions obtained from the analysis are in excellent agreement with those obtained from anomalous reflectivity measurements, providing further confirmation to the validity of the renormalized surface charge Poisson-Boltzmann theory for monovalent ions. Moreover, the dispersion corrections f0 and f00 for Cs+ around L3 resonance, revealing the local environment of a Cs+ ion in the solution at the interface, were extracted simultaneously with output of ion distributions.

  5. A 128-channel picoammeter system and its application on charged particle beam current distribution measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Deyang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Mingwu; Cai, Xiaohong; Hu, Jianjun; Dong, Jinmei; Li, Xin

    2015-01-01

    A 128-channel picoammeter system is constructed based on instrumentation amplifiers. Taking the advantages of high electric potential and narrow bandwidth in DC energetic charged beam measurements, current resolution better than 5 fA can be achieved. Two 128-channel Faraday cup arrays are built, and are employed for ion and electron beam current distribution measurements. Tests with 60 keV O3+ ions and 2 keV electrons show that it can provide exact boundaries when a positive charged particle beam current distribution is measured.

  6. Isovector coupling channel and central properties of the charge density distribution in heavy spherical nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Haddad

    2010-09-01

    The influence of the isovector coupling channel on the central depression parameter and the central value of the charge density distribution in heavy spherical nuclei was studied. The isovector coupling channel leads to about 50% increase of the central depression parameter, and weakens the dependency of both central depression parameter and central density on the asymmetry, impressively contributing to the semibubble form of the charge density distribution in heavy nuclei, and increasing the probability of larger nuclei with higher proton numbers and higher neutron-to-proton ratios stable.

  7. A 128-channel picoammeter system and its application on charged particle beam current distribution measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Deyang, E-mail: d.yu@impcas.ac.cn; Liu, Junliang; Xue, Yingli; Zhang, Mingwu; Cai, Xiaohong; Hu, Jianjun; Dong, Jinmei [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Xin [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-11-15

    A 128-channel picoammeter system is constructed based on instrumentation amplifiers. Taking advantage of a high electric potential and narrow bandwidth in DC energetic charged beam measurements, a current resolution better than 5 fA can be achieved. Two sets of 128-channel strip electrodes are implemented on printed circuit boards and are employed for ion and electron beam current distribution measurements. Tests with 60 keV O{sup 3+} ions and 2 keV electrons show that it can provide exact boundaries when a positive charged particle beam current distribution is measured.

  8. Core charge distribution and self assembly of columnar phases: the case of triphenylenes and azatriphenylenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berardi Roberto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relation betweeen the structure of discotic molecules and columnar properties, a crucial point for the realization of new advanced materials, is still largely unknown. A paradigmatic case is that hexa-alkyl-thio substituted triphenylenes present mesogenic behavior while the corresponding azatriphenylenes, similar in shape and chemical structure, but with a different core charge distribution, do not form any liquid crystalline mesophase. This study is aimed at investigating, with the help of computer simulations techniques, the effects on phase behaviour of changes of the charge distribution in the discotic core. Results We described the shape and the pair, dispersive and electrostatic, interactions of hexa alkyl triphenylenes by uniaxial Gay-Berne discs with embedded point charges. Gay-Berne parameters were deduced by fitting the dispersive energies obtained from an atomistic molecular dynamics simulation of a small sample of hexa-octyl-thio triphenylene molecules in columnar phase, while a genetic algorithm was used to get a minimal set of point charges that properly reproduces the ab anitio electrostatic potential. We performed Monte Carlo simulations of three molecular models: the pure Gay-Berne disc, used as a reference, the Gay-Berne disc with hexa-thio triphenylene point charges, the Gay-Berne disc with hexa-thio azatriphenylene point charges. The phase diagram of the pure model evidences a rich polymorphism, with isotropic, columnar and crystalline phases at low pressure, and the appearance of nematic phase at higher pressure. Conclusion We found that the intermolecular electrostatic potential among the cores is fundamental in sta-bilizing/destabilizing columnar phases; in particular the triphenylene charge distribution stabilizes the columnar structure, while the azatriphenylene distribution suppresses its formation in favor of the nematic phase. We believe the present model could be successfully employed as the

  9. Magnetism tuned by the charge states of defects in bulk C-doped SnO2 materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying-Bo; Ling, Z C; Cong, Wei-Yan; Zhang, Peng

    2015-10-21

    To analyze the controversial conclusions on the magnetism of C-doped SnO2 (SnO2:C) bulk materials between theoretical calculations and experimental observations, we propose the critical role of the charge states of defects in the geometric structures and magnetism, and carry out a series of first principle calculations. By changing the charge states, we can influence Bader charge distributions and atomic orbital occupancies in bulk SnO2:C systems, which consequently conduct magnetism. In all charged SnO2:C supercells, C-2px/py/pz electron occupancies are significantly changed by the charge self-regulation, and thus they make the C-2p orbitals spin polarized, which contribute to the dominant magnetic moment of the system. When the concentration of C dopant in the SnO2 supercell increases, the charge redistribution assigns extra electrons averagely to each dopant, and thus effectively modulates the magnetism. These findings provide an experimentally viable way for controlling the magnetism in these systems.

  10. Risk Assessment of Distribution Networks Considering the Charging-Discharging Behaviors of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EVs have received wide attention due to their higher energy efficiency and lower emissions. However, the random charging and discharging behaviors of substantial numbers of EVs may lead to safety risk problems in a distribution network. Reasonable price incentives can guide EVs through orderly charging and discharging, and further provide a feasible solution to reduce the operational risk of the distribution network. Considering three typical electricity prices, EV charging/discharging load models are built. Then, a Probabilistic Load Flow (PLF method using cumulants and Gram-Charlier series is proposed to obtain the power flow of the distribution network including massive numbers of EVs. In terms of the risk indexes of node voltage and line flow, the operational risk of the distribution network can be estimated in detail. From the simulations of an IEEE-33 bus system and an IEEE 69-bus system, the demonstrated results show that reasonable charging and discharging prices are conducive to reducing the peak-valley difference, and consequently the risks of the distribution network can be decreased to a certain extent.

  11. Layer-by-Layer Insight into Electrostatic Charge Distribution of Few-Layer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokni, Hossein; Lu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    In few-layer graphene (FLG) systems on a dielectric substrate such as SiO2, the addition of each extra layer of graphene can drastically alter their electronic and structural properties. Here, we map the charge distribution among the individual layers of finite-size FLG systems using a novel spatial discrete model that describes both electrostatic interlayer screening and fringe field effects. Our results reveal that the charge density in the region very close to the edges is screened out an order of magnitude more weakly than that across the central region of the layers. Our discrete model suggests that the interlayer charge screening length in 1–8 layer thick graphene systems depends mostly on the overall gate/molecular doping level rather than on temperature, in particular at an induced charge density >5 × 1012 cm−2, and can reliably be determined to be larger than half the interlayer spacing but shorter than the bilayer thickness. Our model can be used for designing FLG-based devices, and offers a simple rule regarding the charge distribution in FLG: approximately 70%, 20%, 6% and 3% (99% overall) of the total induced charge density reside within the four innermost layers, implying that the gate-induced electric field is not definitely felt by >4th layer. PMID:28220816

  12. Layer-by-Layer Insight into Electrostatic Charge Distribution of Few-Layer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokni, Hossein; Lu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    In few-layer graphene (FLG) systems on a dielectric substrate such as SiO2, the addition of each extra layer of graphene can drastically alter their electronic and structural properties. Here, we map the charge distribution among the individual layers of finite-size FLG systems using a novel spatial discrete model that describes both electrostatic interlayer screening and fringe field effects. Our results reveal that the charge density in the region very close to the edges is screened out an order of magnitude more weakly than that across the central region of the layers. Our discrete model suggests that the interlayer charge screening length in 1–8 layer thick graphene systems depends mostly on the overall gate/molecular doping level rather than on temperature, in particular at an induced charge density >5 × 1012 cm‑2, and can reliably be determined to be larger than half the interlayer spacing but shorter than the bilayer thickness. Our model can be used for designing FLG-based devices, and offers a simple rule regarding the charge distribution in FLG: approximately 70%, 20%, 6% and 3% (99% overall) of the total induced charge density reside within the four innermost layers, implying that the gate-induced electric field is not definitely felt by >4th layer.

  13. Charge distribution and conduction characteristics of 2-vinylpyridine-grafted polyethylenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kwang S.; Kim, Jong Eun; Oh, Woo Jung; Yoon, Ho Gyu; Takada, Tatsuo

    2000-05-01

    This article describes electrical properties such as space charge distribution and electrical conduction characteristics of 2-vinylpyridine (VP) grafted low density polyethylenes (PE). The VP incorporated onto PE chains changes electrical properties of PE. For example, the homocharge found in virgin PE decreases with the increase of graft ratio. As a result of the nitrogen acting as an electron donor, no space charge develops at high graft ratios. It has been found that VP reduces the current density in PE. Grafted PE with VP content of 0.754 wt % has also been found to obey a space charge limited conduction mechanism: effective charge mobility at 70 °C was calculated to be 4.6×10-16 m2/V s: an activation energy for the conduction was estimated to be 0.81 eV at 70 °C.

  14. On combining Thole's induced point dipole model with fixed charge distributions in molecular mechanics force fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Hanne S; Salonen, Emppu

    2015-04-15

    The Thole induced point dipole model is combined with three different point charge fitting methods, Merz-Kollman (MK), charges from electrostatic potentials using a grid (CHELPG), and restrained electrostatic potential (RESP), and two multipole algorithms, distributed multipole analysis (DMA) and Gaussian multipole model (GMM), which can be used to describe the electrostatic potential (ESP) around molecules in molecular mechanics force fields. This is done to study how the different methods perform when intramolecular polarizability contributions are self-consistently removed from the fitting done in the force field parametrization. It is demonstrated that the polarizable versions of the partial charge models provide a good compromise between accuracy and computational efficiency in describing the ESP of small organic molecules undergoing conformational changes. For the point charge models, the inclusion of polarizability reduced the the average root mean square error of ESP over the test set by 4-10%.

  15. Measurements of the charged particle multiplicity distribution in restricted rapidity intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Meinhard, H; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stierlin, U; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Duarte, H; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Rosowsky, A; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Si Mohand, D; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1995-01-01

    Charged particle multiplicity distributions have been measured with the ALEPH detector in restricted rapidity intervals |Y| \\leq 0.5,1.0, 1.5,2.0\\/ along the thrust axis and also without restriction on rapidity. The distribution for the full range can be parametrized by a log-normal distribution. For smaller windows one finds a more complicated structure, which is understood to arise from perturbative effects. The negative-binomial distribution fails to describe the data both with and without the restriction on rapidity. The JETSET model is found to describe all aspects of the data while the width predicted by HERWIG is in significant disagreement.

  16. Distributed Robust Power System State Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Kekatos, Vassilis

    2012-01-01

    Deregulation of energy markets, penetration of renewables, advanced metering capabilities, and the urge for situational awareness, all call for system-wide power system state estimation (PSSE). Implementing a centralized estimator though is practically infeasible due to the complexity scale of an interconnection, the communication bottleneck in real-time monitoring, regional disclosure policies, and reliability issues. In this context, distributed PSSE methods are treated here under a unified and systematic framework. A novel algorithm is developed based on the alternating direction method of multipliers. It leverages existing PSSE solvers, respects privacy policies, exhibits low communication load, and its convergence to the centralized estimates is guaranteed even in the absence of local observability. Beyond the conventional least-squares based PSSE, the decentralized framework accommodates a robust state estimator. By exploiting interesting links to the compressive sampling advances, the latter jointly es...

  17. Determination of the Ionic Charge States of SEPs Using the University of Chicago IMP-8 Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, W.

    We use a new method to calculate the mean ionization charge state of solar energetic particles (SEPs) observed with the University of Chicago Cosmic Ray Nuclear Composition experiment on the IMP-8 satellite. The method, using the time to maximum flux, is demonstrated for several gradual SEP events, including the events on 29 September 1989, 19 October 1989, 24 October 1989, and 6 November 1997. Mean ionic charge states are deduced for heavy ions with energies in the range ~10- 500 MeV/nucleon. The ionic charge determination is made only during the onset of the SEP events. These mean charge states agree well with previous measurements for SEP events both at low energy (~0.5-4 MeV/nucleon reported by ISEE-3) and at higher energies (~200-500 MeV/nucleon reported by LDEF). The mean ionic charge states are then used to determine an average temperature and source region for these particles.

  18. Radiative charge transfer lifetime of the excited state of (NaCa)$^+$

    CERN Document Server

    Makarov, O P; Michels, H J; Smith, W W; Makarov, Oleg P.

    2003-01-01

    New experiments were proposed recently to investigate the regime of cold atomic and molecular ion-atom collision processes in a special hybrid neutral-atom--ion trap under high vacuum conditions. The collisional cooling of laser pre-cooled Ca$^+$ ions by ultracold Na atoms is being studied. Modeling this process requires knowledge of the radiative lifetime of the excited singlet A$^1\\Sigma^+$ state of the (NaCa)$^+$ molecular system. We calculate the rate coefficient for radiative charge transfer using a semiclassical approach. The dipole radial matrix elements between the ground and the excited states, and the potential curves were calculated using Complete Active Space Self-Consistent field and M\\"oller-Plesset second order perturbation theory (CASSCF/MP2) with an extended Gaussian basis, 6-311+G(3df). The semiclassical charge transfer rate coefficient was averaged over a thermal Maxwellian distribution. In addition we also present elastic collision cross sections and the spin-exchange cross section. The ra...

  19. Variable Charge State Impurities in Coupled Kinetic Plasma-Kinetic Neutral Transport Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotler, D. P.; Hager, R.; Kim, K.; Koskela, T.; Park, G.

    2015-11-01

    A previous version of the XGC0 neoclassical particle transport code with two fully stripped impurity species was used to study kinetic neoclassical transport in the DIII-D H-mode pedestal. To properly simulate impurities in the scrape-off layer and divertor and to account for radiative cooling, however, the impurity charge state distributions must evolve as the particles are transported into regions of different electron temperatures and densities. To do this, the charge state of each particle in XGC0 is included as a parameter in the list that represents the particle's location in phase space. Impurity ionizations and recombinations are handled with a dedicated collision routine. The associated radiative cooling is accumulated during the process and applied to the electron population later in the time step. The density profiles of the neutral impurities are simulated with the DEGAS 2 neutral transport code and then used as a background for electron impact ionization in XGC0 via a test particle Monte Carlo method analogous to that used for deuterium. This work supported by US DOE contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  20. Direct measurement of the charge distribution along a biased carbon nanotube bundle using electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beleggia, Marco; Kasama, Takeshi; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2011-01-01

    Nanowires and nanotubes can be examined in the transmission electron microscope under an applied bias. Here we introduce a model-independent method, which allows the charge distribution along a nanowire or nanotube to be measured directly from the Laplacian of an electron holographic phase image........ We present results from a biased bundle of carbon nanotubes, in which we show that the charge density increases linearly with distance from its base, reaching a value of ~0.8 electrons/nm near its tip.......Nanowires and nanotubes can be examined in the transmission electron microscope under an applied bias. Here we introduce a model-independent method, which allows the charge distribution along a nanowire or nanotube to be measured directly from the Laplacian of an electron holographic phase image...

  1. Charge fluctuations in a final state with QGP

    OpenAIRE

    Fialkowski, K.; Wit, R. de

    2001-01-01

    Charge fluctuations as a possible signal of quark - gluon plasma (QGP) were recently suggested. A short summary of comments presented on this subject is given and supplemented by a discussion of the coexistence of pions produced "directly" and through a QGP phase. Such a coexistence may obscure the expected plasma signal similarly to the effects considered in the comments mentioned above.

  2. Search for charged Higgs bosons using other final states

    CERN Document Server

    Sandoval Usme, Carlos; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Three different searches for charged Higgs bosons with the ATLAS detector were presented. First, a search for a charged Higgs boson in t ¯t decays was presented, where one of the top quarks decays via t → H+b, followed by H+ → c ¯ s [1]. 95 % confidence level (CL) upper limits on B(t → bH+) varying between 5 % and 1 % for H+ masses between 90 GeV and 150 GeV, assuming B(H+ →c ¯ s) = 100% were presented. This was followed by the presentation of a search for charged Higgs bosons through the violation of lepton universality in t ¯t events, were signatures containing leptons (e/m) and/or a hadronically decaying t (thad) were used [2]. No significant deviation from the Standard Model predictions was observed. With the assumption that the branching fraction B(H+→tn ) is 100%, upper limits in the range 3.2% to 4.4% on the branching fraction B(t →bH+) for charged Higgs boson masses in the range 90−140 GeV were presented. Finally, a search for new particles in an extension to the Standard Model that ...

  3. Improved solid state electron-charge-storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuper, A. B.

    1970-01-01

    Storage device is applicable in memory systems and in high-resolution arrays for light-responsive image sensing. The device offers high yield in multiple arrays and allows charge release with light striking only the edge of a metal electrode.

  4. Evaluating Electronic Couplings for Excited State Charge Transfer Based on Maximum Occupation Method ΔSCF Quasi-Adiabatic States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junzi; Zhang, Yong; Bao, Peng; Yi, Yuanping

    2017-02-14

    Electronic couplings of charge-transfer states with the ground state and localized excited states at the donor/acceptor interface are crucial parameters for controlling the dynamics of exciton dissociation and charge recombination processes in organic solar cells. Here we propose a quasi-adiabatic state approach to evaluate electronic couplings through combining maximum occupation method (mom)-ΔSCF and state diabatization schemes. Compared with time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) using global hybrid functional, mom-ΔSCF is superior to estimate the excitation energies of charge-transfer states; moreover it can also provide good excited electronic state for property calculation. Our approach is hence reliable to evaluate electronic couplings for excited state electron transfer processes, which is demonstrated by calculations on a typical organic photovoltaic system, oligothiophene/perylenediimide complex.

  5. Scaled momentum distributions of charged particles in dijet photoproduction at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2009-04-15

    The scaled momentum distributions of charged particles in jets have been measured for dijet photoproduction with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 359 pb{sup -1}. The distributions are compared to predictions based on perturbative QCD carried out in the framework of the modified leading-logarithmic approximation (MLLA) and assuming local parton-hadron duality (LPHD). The universal MLLA scale, {lambda}{sub eff}, and the LPHD parameter, {kappa}{sup ch}, are extracted. (orig.)

  6. Droop-Control-Based State-of-Charge Balancing Method for Charging and Discharging Process in Autonomous DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a droop control based state-of-charge (SoC) balancing method in autonomous DC microgrids is proposed. Both charging and discharging process have been considered. In particular, in the charging process, the droop coefficient is set to be proportional to SoCn, and in the discharging...... process, the droop coefficient is set to be inversely proportional to SoCn. Since the injected/output power is in inverse-proportion to the droop coefficient, with the proposed method, the energy storage unit (ESU) with higher SoC absorbs less power in the charging process and delivers more power...... in the discharging process. Meanwhile, the ESU with lower SoC absorbs more power in the charging process and delivers less power in the discharging process. Eventually, the SoC and injected/output power in each ESU are equalized. The exponent n for SoC is employed to regulate the balancing speed of the So...

  7. Charged particle density distributions in Au + Au collisions at relativistic heavy-ion collider energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fauad Rami

    2003-05-01

    Charged particle pseudorapidity distributions have been measured in Au + Au collisions using the BRAHMS detector at RHIC. The results are presented as a function of the collision centrality and the center of mass energy. They are compared to the predictions of different parton scattering models and the important role of hard scattering processes at RHIC energies is discussed.

  8. Market-based coordinated charging of electric vehicles on the low-voltage distribution grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghijsen, M.; D'hulst, R

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a market based coordination mechanism for charging electric vehicles. In market based coordination, a virtual market is used to match supply and demand of a commodity. The goal is to limit the impact of the electric vehicles on the low voltage distribution grid. First it is shown

  9. Dirac-Fock atomic electronic structure calculations using different nuclear charge distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, L; Dyall, KG

    1997-01-01

    Numerical Hartree-Fock calculations based on the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian for the first 109 elements of the periodic table are presented. The results give the total electronic energy, as a function of the nuclear model that is used, for four different models of the nuclear charge distribution. The

  10. Importance of volume corrections on the net-charge distributions at the RHIC BES energies

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Hao-jie

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents my recent investigations of volume corrections on the cumulant products of net-charge distributions in statistical model, corresponding to the data reported by the STAR collaboration. The corrected statistical expectations, under simple Poisson approximations, can reasonably explain the data measured in experiment. The results indicate that volume corrections play crucial role in event-by-event multiplicity fluctuation studies.

  11. Geometry of non-supersymmetric three-charge bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimon, Eric; Gimon, Eric G.; Levi, Thomas S.; Ross, Simon F.

    2007-05-14

    We study the smooth non-supersymmetric three-charge microstatesof Jejjala, Madden, Ross and Titchener using Kaluza-Klein reductions of the solutions to five and four dimensions. Our aim is to improve our understanding of the relation between these non-supersymmetric solutions and the well-studied supersymmetric cases. We find some surprising qualitative differences. In the five-dimensional description, the solution has orbifold fixed points which break supersymmetry locally, so the geometries cannot be thought of as made up of separate half-BPS centers. In the four-dimensional description, the two singularities in the geometry are connected by a conical singularity, which makes it impossible to treat them independently and assign unambiguous brane charges to these centers.

  12. Evidence of Delocalization in Charge-Transfer State Manifold for Donor:Acceptor Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhiqiang; Li, Ho-Wa; Zhang, Jinfeng; Cheng, Yuanhang; Yang, Qingdan; Lo, Ming-Fai; Ng, Tsz-Wai; Tsang, Sai-Wing; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2016-08-24

    How charge-transfer states (CTSs) assist charge separation of a Coulombically bound exciton in organic photovoltaics has been a hot topic. It is believed that the delocalization feature of a CTS plays a crucial role in the charge separation process. However, the delocalization of the "hot" and the "relaxed" CTSs is still under debate. Here, with a novel frequency dependent charge-modulated electroabsorption spectroscopy (CMEAS) technique, we elucidate clearly that both "hot" and "relaxed" CTSs are loosely bound and delocalized states. This is confirmed by comparing the CMEAS results of CTSs with those of localized polaron states. Our results reveal the role of CTS delocalization on charge separation and indicate that no substantial delocalization gradient exists in CTSs.

  13. Characterization of the surface charge distribution on kaolinite particles using high resolution atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naveen; Zhao, Cunlu; Klaassen, Aram; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder; Siretanu, Igor

    2016-02-01

    Most solid surfaces, in particular clay minerals and rock surfaces, acquire a surface charge upon exposure to an aqueous environment due to adsorption and/or desorption of ionic species. Macroscopic techniques such as titration and electrokinetic measurements are commonly used to determine the surface charge and ζ -potential of these surfaces. However, because of the macroscopic averaging character these techniques cannot do justice to the role of local heterogeneities on the surfaces. In this work, we use dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine the distribution of surface charge on the two (gibbsite-like and silica-like) basal planes of kaolinite nanoparticles immersed in aqueous electrolyte with a lateral resolution of approximately 30 nm. The surface charge density is extracted from force-distance curves using DLVO theory in combination with surface complexation modeling. While the gibbsite-like and the silica-like facet display on average positive and negative surface charge values as expected, our measurements reveal lateral variations of more than a factor of two on seemingly atomically smooth terraces, even if high resolution AFM images clearly reveal the atomic lattice on the surface. These results suggest that simple surface complexation models of clays that attribute a unique surface chemistry and hence homogeneous surface charge densities to basal planes may miss important aspects of real clay surfaces.

  14. Theoretical Study of the Charge-Transfer State Separation within Marcus Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volpi, Riccardo; Nassau, Racine; Nørby, Morten Steen

    2016-01-01

    We study, within Marcus theory, the possibility of the charge-transfer (CT) state splitting at organic interfaces and a subsequent transport of the free charge carriers to the electrodes. As a case study we analyze model anthracene-C60 interfaces. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations on the cold...

  15. Measuring the charge state of an adatom with noncontact atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, L.; Mohn, F.; Liljeroth, P.; Repp, J.; Meyer, G.; Giessibl, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Charge states of atoms can be investigated with scanning tunneling microscopy, but this method requires a conducting substrate. We investigated the charge-switching of individual adsorbed gold and silver atoms (adatoms) on ultrathin NaCl films on Cu(111) using a qPlus tuning fork atomic force micros

  16. Predicting and rationalizing the effect of surface charge distribution and orientation on nano-wire based FET bio-sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vico, L.; Iversen, L.; Sørensen, Martin Hedegård

    2011-01-01

    A single charge screening model of surface charge sensors in liquids (De Vico et al., Nanoscale, 2011, 3, 706-717) is extended to multiple charges to model the effect of the charge distributions of analyte proteins on FET sensor response. With this model we show that counter-intuitive signal...... changes (e.g. a positive signal change due to a net positive protein binding to a p-type conductor) can occur for certain combinations of charge distributions and Debye lengths. The new method is applied to interpret published experimental data on Streptavidin (Ishikawa et al., ACS Nano, 2009, 3, 3969...

  17. Dust charge fluctuation effects on Langmuir waves with kappa distributed electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, M.; Rouhani, M. R.; Hakimi Pajouh, H.

    2016-03-01

    Using a kinetic description, dust charge fluctuations due to the inelastic collisions between dust particles and plasma particles are studied in unmagnetized dusty plasmas. Most astrophysical and space plasmas are observed to have non-Maxwellian high energy tail. Therefore, a kappa distribution for electrons in the equilibrium is assumed. The dispersion relation and damping rates for Langmuir waves are obtained. Considering the dust charge fluctuations increases the damping rate of Langmuir waves. It is shown that the damping rate of Langmuir waves depends on the spectral index and the dust density parameter.

  18. Using Kappa Functions to Characterize Outer Heliosphere Proton Distributions in the Presence of Charge-exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; McComas, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Kappa functions have long been used in the analysis and modeling of suprathermal particles in various space plasmas. In situ observations of the supersonic solar wind show its distribution contains a cold ion core and power-law tail, which is well-represented by a kappa function. In situ plasma observations by Voyager, as well as observations of energetic neutral atom (ENA) spectra by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX), showed that the compressed and heated inner heliosheath (IHS) plasma beyond the termination shock can also be represented by a kappa function. IBEX exposes the IHS plasma properties through the detection of ENAs generated by charge-exchange in the IHS. However, charge-exchange modifies the plasma as it flows through the IHS, and makes it difficult to ascertain the parent proton distribution. In this paper we investigate the evolution of proton distributions, initially represented by a kappa function, that experience losses due to charge-exchange in the IHS. In the absence of other processes, it is no longer representable by a single kappa function due to the energy-dependent, charge-exchange process. While one can still fit a kappa function to the evolving proton distribution over limited energy ranges, this yields fitting parameters (pseudo-density, pseudo-temperature, pseudo-kappa index) that depend on the energy range of the fit. We discuss the effects of fitting a kappa function to the IHS proton distribution over limited energy ranges, its dependence on the initial proton distribution properties at the termination shock, and implications for understanding the observations.

  19. Potential energy, force distribution and oscillatory motion of chloride ion inside electrically charged carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, F.; Ansari, R.; Darvizeh, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this research, a continuum-based model is presented to explore potential energy, force distribution and oscillatory motion of ions, and in particular chloride ion, inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs) decorated by functional groups at two ends. To perform this, van der Waals (vdW) interactions between ion and nanotube are modeled by the 6-12 Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential, whereas the electrostatic interactions between ion and functional groups are modeled by the Coulomb potential and the total interactions are analytically derived by summing the vdW and electrostatic interactions. Making the assumption that carbon atoms and charge of functional groups are all uniformly distributed over the nanotube surface and the two ends of nanotube, respectively, a continuum approach is utilized to evaluate the related interactions. Based on the actual force distribution, the equation of motion is also solved numerically to arrive at the time history of displacement and velocity of inner core. With respect to the proposed formulations, comprehensive studies on the variations of potential energy and force distribution are carried out by varying functional group charge and nanotube length. Moreover, the effects of these parameters together with initial conditions on the oscillatory behavior of system are studied and discussed in detail. It is found out that chloride ion escapes more easily from negatively charged CNTs which is followed by uncharged and positively charged ones. It is further shown that the presence of functional groups leads to enhancing the operating frequency of such oscillatory systems especially when the electric charges of ion and functional groups have different signs.

  20. Charge states and lattice sites of dilute implanted Sn in ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølholt, T. E.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Johnston, K.; Mantovan, R.; Röder, J.; Adoons, V.; Mokhles Gerami, A.; Masenda, H.; Matveyev, Y. A.; Ncube, M.; Unzueta, I.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Gislason, H. P.; Krastev, P.; Langouche, G.; Naidoo, D.; Ólafsson, S.; Zenkevich, A.; ISOLDE Collaboration

    2017-04-01

    The common charge states of Sn are 2+  and 4+. While charge neutrality considerations favour 2+  to be the natural charge state of Sn in ZnO, there are several reports suggesting the 4+  state instead. In order to investigate the charge states, lattice sites, and the effect of the ion implantation process of dilute Sn atoms in ZnO, we have performed 119Sn emission Mössbauer spectroscopy on ZnO single crystal samples following ion implantation of radioactive 119In (T ½  =  2.4 min) at temperatures between 96 K and 762 K. Complementary perturbed angular correlation measurements on 111mCd implanted ZnO were also conducted. Our results show that the 2+  state is the natural charge state for Sn in defect free ZnO and that the 4+  charge state is stabilized by acceptor defects created in the implantation process.

  1. Temperature dependency of state of charge inhomogeneities and their equalization in cylindrical lithium-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osswald, P. J.; Erhard, S. V.; Rheinfeld, A.; Rieger, B.; Hoster, H. E.; Jossen, A.

    2016-10-01

    The influence of cell temperature on the current density distribution and accompanying inhomogeneities in state of charge (SOC) during cycling is analyzed in this work. To allow for a detailed insight in the electrochemical behavior of the cell, commercially available 26650 cells were modified to allow for measuring local potentials at four different, nearly equidistant positions along the electrodes. As a follow-up to our previous work investigating local potentials within a cell, we apply this method for studying SOC deviations and their sensitivity to cell temperature. The local potential distribution was studied during constant current discharge operations for various current rates and discharge pulses in order to evoke local inhomogeneities for temperatures ranging from 10 °C to 40 °C. Differences in local potentials were considered for estimating local SOC variations within the electrodes. It could be observed that even low currents such as 0.1C can lead to significant inhomogeneities, whereas a higher cell temperature generally results in more pronounced inhomogeneities. A rapid SOC equilibration can be observed if the variation in the SOC distribution corresponds to a considerable potential difference defined by the open circuit voltage of either the positive or negative electrode. With increasing temperature, accelerated equalization effects can be observed.

  2. Quasiparticle Scattering off Defects and Possible Bound States in Charge-Ordered YBa2 Cu3 Oy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, R.; Hirata, M.; Wu, T.; Vinograd, I.; Mayaffre, H.; Krämer, S.; Horvatić, M.; Berthier, C.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P. L.; Liang, R.; Hardy, W. N.; Bonn, D. A.; Julien, M.-H.

    2017-01-01

    We report the NMR observation of a skewed distribution of 17O Knight shifts when a magnetic field quenches superconductivity and induces long-range charge-density-wave (CDW) order in YBa2Cu3Oy . This distribution is explained by an inhomogeneous pattern of the local density of states N (EF) arising from quasiparticle scattering off, yet unidentified, defects in the CDW state. We argue that the effect is most likely related to the formation of quasiparticle bound states, as is known to occur, under specific circumstances, in some metals and superconductors (but not in the CDW state, in general, except for very few cases in 1D materials). These observations should provide insight into the microscopic nature of the CDW, especially regarding the reconstructed band structure and the sensitivity to disorder.

  3. Charge states of energetic solar particles. Die Ladungszustaende solarer energetischer Teilchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhn, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The dissertation deals with the measurement and interpretation of the charge state of energetic solar particles. Measurements of the C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S and Fe ions were carried out with the ULEZEQ sensor on the ISEE-3 satellite. For the first time it was possible to determine the three parameters energy, atomic number and charge state of infalling ions separately and indepedent from each other.

  4. ARCHITECTURE OF A CHARGE-TRANSFER STATE REGULATING LIGHT HARVESTING IN A PLANT ANTENNA PROTEIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Graham; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Avenson, Thomas J.; Ballottari, Matteo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R.

    2008-04-02

    Energy-dependent quenching of excess absorbed light energy (qE) is a vital mechanism for regulating photosynthetic light harvesting in higher plants. All of the physiological characteristics of qE have been positively correlated with charge-transfer between coupled chlorophyll and zeaxanthin molecules in the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II (PSII). In this work, we present evidence for charge-transfer quenching in all three of the individual minor antenna complexes of PSII (CP29, CP26, and CP24), and we conclude that charge-transfer quenching in CP29 involves a de-localized state of an excitonically coupled chlorophyll dimer. We propose that reversible conformational changes in CP29 can `tune? the electronic coupling between the chlorophylls in this dimer, thereby modulating the energy of the chlorophylls-zeaxanthin charge-transfer state and switching on and off the charge-transfer quenching during qE.

  5. Architecture of a charge-transfer state regulating light harvesting in a plant antenna protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Tae Kyu; Avenson, Thomas J; Ballottari, Matteo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung; Niyogi, Krishna K; Bassi, Roberto; Fleming, Graham R

    2008-05-01

    Energy-dependent quenching of excess absorbed light energy (qE) is a vital mechanism for regulating photosynthetic light harvesting in higher plants. All of the physiological characteristics of qE have been positively correlated with charge transfer between coupled chlorophyll and zeaxanthin molecules in the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II (PSII). We found evidence for charge-transfer quenching in all three of the individual minor antenna complexes of PSII (CP29, CP26, and CP24), and we conclude that charge-transfer quenching in CP29 involves a delocalized state of an excitonically coupled chlorophyll dimer. We propose that reversible conformational changes in CP29 can "tune" the electronic coupling between the chlorophylls in this dimer, thereby modulating the energy of the chlorophyll-zeaxanthin charge-transfer state and switching on and off the charge-transfer quenching during qE.

  6. Charge-state-dependent energy loss of slow ions. II. Statistical atom model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Richard A.; Möller, Wolfhard

    2016-05-01

    A model for charge-dependent energy loss of slow ions is developed based on the Thomas-Fermi statistical model of atoms. Using a modified electrostatic potential which takes the ionic charge into account, nuclear and electronic energy transfers are calculated, the latter by an extension of the Firsov model. To evaluate the importance of multiple collisions even in nanometer-thick target materials we use the charge-state-dependent potentials in a Monte Carlo simulation in the binary collision approximation and compare the results to experiment. The Monte Carlo results reproduce the incident charge-state dependence of measured data well [see R. A. Wilhelm et al., Phys. Rev. A 93, 052708 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.052708], even though the experimentally observed charge exchange dependence is not included in the model.

  7. Charged-particle distributions in $pp$ interactions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069742; ATLAS Collaboration; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of charged-particle distributions which are produced in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV and recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. A special dataset recorded in 2012 with a small number of interactions per beam crossing (below 0.004) and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $160 \\mathrm{\\mu b^{-1}}$ was used. A minimum-bias trigger was utilised to select a data sample of more than 9 million collision events. The multiplicity, pseudorapidity, and transverse momentum distributions of charged particles are shown in different regions of kinematics and charged-particle multiplicity, including measurements of final states at high multiplicity. The results are presented as particle-level distributions to which predictions of various Monte Carlo event generator models are compared.

  8. Electroluminescence from charge transfer states in Donor/Acceptor solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherafatipour, Golenaz; Madsen, Morten

    charge transfer (CT) excitons, which is Coulombically bound interfacial electron- hole pairs residing at the donor/acceptor heterojunctions. The CT state represents an intermediate state between the exciton dissociation and recombination back to the ground state. Since the recombination of photo...... at the donor/acceptor interface is detected. As a less studied system, we examine here the interfacial charge transfer state recombination in DBP:C70 thin-films. The weak EL from the small molecule solar cell biased in the forward direction gives valuable information about the CT state recombination, from...... which the maximum open-circuit voltage can be estimated, and further can be used in the modeling and optimization of the OPV devices. [1] C. Deibe, T. Strobe, and V. Dyakonov, “Role of the charge transfer state in organic donor-acceptor solar cells,” Adv. Mater., vol. 22, pp. 4097–4111, 2010. [2] K...

  9. Controlling the Charge State and Redox Properties of Supported Polyoxometalates via Soft Landing of Mass Selected Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunaratne, Kalupathirannehelage Don D.; Johnson, Grant E.; Andersen, Amity; Du, Dan; Zhang, Weiying; Prabhakaran, Venkateshkumar; Lin, Yuehe; Laskin, Julia

    2014-12-04

    We investigate the controlled deposition of Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) anions, PMo12O403- and PMo12O402-, onto different self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces via soft landing of mass-selected ions. Utilizing in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS), ex situ cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electronic structure calculations, we examine the structure and charge retention of supported multiply-charged POM anions and characterize the redox properties of the modified surfaces. SAMs of alkylthiol (HSAM), perfluorinated alkylthiol (FSAM), and alkylthiol terminated with NH3+ functional groups (NH3+SAM) are chosen as model substrates for soft landing to examine the factors which influence the immobilization and charge retention of multiply charged anionic molecules. The distribution of charge states of POMs on different SAM surfaces are determined by comparing the IRRAS spectra with vibrational spectra calculated using density functional theory (DFT). In contrast to the results obtained previously for multiply charged cations, soft landed anions are found to retain charge on all three SAM surfaces. This charge retention is attributed to the substantial electron binding energy of the POM anions. Investigation of redox properties by CV reveals that, while surfaces prepared by soft landing exhibit similar features to those prepared by adsorption of POM from solution, the soft landed POM2- has a pronounced shift in oxidation potential compared to POM3- for one of the redox couples. These results demonstrate that ion soft landing is uniquely suited for precisely controlled preparation of substrates with specific electronic and chemical properties that cannot be achieved using conventional deposition techniques.

  10. Spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panitzsch, Lauri

    2013-02-08

    The experimental determination of the spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) defines the focus of this thesis. The spatial distributions of different ion species were obtained in the object plane of the bending magnet ({approx}45 cm downstream from the plasma electrode) and in the plane of the plasma electrode itself, both in high spatial resolution. The results show that each of the different ion species forms a bloated, triangular structure in the aperture of the plasma electrode. The geometry and the orientation of these structures are defined by the superposition of the radial and axial magnetic fields. The radial extent of each structure is defined by the charge of the ion. Higher charge states occupy smaller, more concentrated structures. The total current density increases towards the center of the plasma electrode. The circular and star-like structures that can be observed in the beam profiles of strongly focused, extracted ion beams are each dominated by ions of a single charge state. In addition, the spatially resolved current density distribution of charged particles in the plasma chamber that impinge on the plasma electrode was determined, differentiating between ions and electrons. The experimental results of this work show that the electrons of the plasma are strongly connected to the magnetic field lines in the source and thus spatially well confined in a triangular-like structure. The intensity of the electrons increases towards the center of the plasma electrode and the plasma chamber, as well. These electrons are surrounded by a spatially far less confined and less intense ion population. All the findings mentioned above were already predicted in parts by simulations of different groups. However, the results presented within this thesis represent the first (and by now only) direct experimental verification of those predictions and are qualitatively transferable to

  11. Charged patchy particle models in explicit salt: Ion distributions, electrostatic potentials, and effective interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigit, Cemil; Dzubiella, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.dzubiella@helmholtz-berlin.de [Soft Matter and Functional Materials, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Virtual Institute “Multifunctional Biomaterials for Medicine,” 14513 Teltow (Germany); Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Heyda, Jan [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, 166 28 Praha 6 (Czech Republic)

    2015-08-14

    We introduce a set of charged patchy particle models (CPPMs) in order to systematically study the influence of electrostatic charge patchiness and multipolarity on macromolecular interactions by means of implicit-solvent, explicit-ion Langevin dynamics simulations employing the Gromacs software. We consider well-defined zero-, one-, and two-patched spherical globules each of the same net charge and (nanometer) size which are composed of discrete atoms. The studied mono- and multipole moments of the CPPMs are comparable to those of globular proteins with similar size. We first characterize ion distributions and electrostatic potentials around a single CPPM. Although angle-resolved radial distribution functions reveal the expected local accumulation and depletion of counter- and co-ions around the patches, respectively, the orientation-averaged electrostatic potential shows only a small variation among the various CPPMs due to space charge cancellations. Furthermore, we study the orientation-averaged potential of mean force (PMF), the number of accumulated ions on the patches, as well as the CPPM orientations along the center-to-center distance of a pair of CPPMs. We compare the PMFs to the classical Derjaguin-Verwey-Landau-Overbeek theory and previously introduced orientation-averaged Debye-Hückel pair potentials including dipolar interactions. Our simulations confirm the adequacy of the theories in their respective regimes of validity, while low salt concentrations and large multipolar interactions remain a challenge for tractable theoretical descriptions.

  12. Processing and charge state engineering of MoOx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitana Tarazaga Martín-Luengo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of wet chemical processing employed in device fabrication standards are studied on molybdenum oxide (MoOx ultra-thin films. We have combined x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, angle resolved XPS and x-ray reflectivity to gain insight into the changes in composition, structure and electronic states upon treatment of films with different initial stoichiometry prepared by reactive sputtering. Our results show significant reduction effects associated with the development of gap states in MoOx, as well as changes in the composition and structure of the films, systematically correlated with the initial oxidation state of Mo.

  13. Processing and charge state engineering of MoOx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Luengo, Aitana Tarazaga; Köstenbauer, Harald; Winkler, Jörg; Bonanni, Alberta

    2017-01-01

    The effects of wet chemical processing employed in device fabrication standards are studied on molybdenum oxide (MoOx) ultra-thin films. We have combined x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), angle resolved XPS and x-ray reflectivity to gain insight into the changes in composition, structure and electronic states upon treatment of films with different initial stoichiometry prepared by reactive sputtering. Our results show significant reduction effects associated with the development of gap states in MoOx, as well as changes in the composition and structure of the films, systematically correlated with the initial oxidation state of Mo.

  14. Development of a charge-transfer distribution model for stack simulation of solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaka, H.; Iwai, H.; Kishimoto, M.; Saito, M.; Yoshida, H.; Brus, G.; Szmyd, J. S.

    2016-09-01

    An overpotential model for planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is developed and applied to a stack numerical simulation. Charge-transfer distribution within the electrodes are approximated using an exponential function, based on which the Ohmic loss and activation overpotential are evaluated. The predicted current-voltage characteristics agree well with the experimental results, and also the overpotentials within the cell can reproduce the results obtained from a numerical analysis where the distribution of the charge-transfer current within the electrodes is fully solved. The proposed model is expected to be useful to maintain the accuracy of SOFC simulations when the cell components, consisting of anode, electrolyte and cathode, are simplified into one layer element.

  15. Solitary waves in a dusty plasma with charge fluctuation and dust size distribution and vortex like ion distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Chowdhury, K. [Department of Physics, J.C.C. College, Kolkata 700 033 (India); Mishra, Amar P. [High Energy Physics Division, Department of Physics Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Roy Chowdhury, A. [High Energy Physics Division, Department of Physics Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2006-07-15

    A modified KdV equation is derived for the propagation of non-linear waves in a dusty plasma, containing N different dust grains with a size distribution and charge fluctuation with electrons in the background. The ions are assumed to obey a vortex like distribution due to their non-isothermal nature. The standard distribution for the dust size is a power law. The variation of the soliton width is studied with respect to normalized size of the dust grains. A numerical solution of the equation is done by considering the soliton solution of the modified KdV as the initial pulse. It shows considerable broadening of the pulse variation of width with {beta} {sub 1} is shown.

  16. Fundamental studies of interfacial excited-state charge transfer in molecularly tethered semiconductor nanoassemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youker, Diane Greer

    The research presented in this dissertation focuses on elucidating the parameters affecting dynamics and yield of electron transfer reactions in semiconducting nanoparticle assemblies through the use of time-resolved spectroscopy. In particular, the dissertation focuses on photoinduced electron injection in assemblies of CdSe, CdS, or PbS quantum dots covalently bound to either metal oxide films or each other through the use of bifunctional molecular linkers. Chapter 2 elucidates the influence of electronic coupling on excited-state electron transfer from CdS quantum dots to TiO2 nanoparticles via molecular linkers with phenylene bridges. We establish that the efficiency of electron injection from CdS quantum dots to TiO2 nanoparticle varies dramatically with electronic coupling, which can be controlled by tuning the properties of molecular linkers. Chapter 3 presents the role of excitation energy on interfacial electron transfer in tethered assemblies of CdSe quantum dots and TiO2 nanoparticles. Through this work, we determined that injection efficiency from band-edge states is independent of excitation energy. However, the efficiency of injection from trap-states decreases at lower-energy excitation. We attribute the decrease to a lower energy distribution of emissive trap-states from which injection is less efficient. Chapter 4 presents the observation of multiphasic electron injection dynamics from photoexcited PbS quantum dots to TiO2 nanoparticles. In this collaborative study with Dr. Masumoto from the University of Tsukuba we observed electron injection on multiple timescales. We determined that electron injection occurred in this system through two different mechanisms. The first involved injection from thermalized PbS excited states and the second through injection of hot electrons through Auger recombination of biexcitons that creates high lying excitonic states. Chapter 5 investigates charge transfer in covalently bound quantum dot assemblies. We utilize

  17. Gluon saturation and pseudo-rapidity distributions of charged hadrons at RHIC energy regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xin-Bing; FENG Sheng-Qin

    2012-01-01

    We modified the gluon saturation model by rescaling the momentum fraction according to saturation momentum and introduced Cooper-Frye hydrodynamic evolution to systematically study the pseudorapidity distributions of final charged hadrons at different energies and different centralities for Au-Au collisions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).The features of both gluon saturation and hydrodynamic evolution at different energies and different centralities for Au-Au collisions are investigated in this paper.

  18. Charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zeng-Wei; JIANG Zhi-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Using the Glauber model, we present the formulas for calculating the numbers of participants,spectators and binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. Based on this work, we get the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles as the function of the impact parameter in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The theoretical results agree well with the experimental observations made by the BRAHMS Collaboration in Au+Au collisions at √SNN=200 GeV in different centrality bins over the whole pseudorapidity range.

  19. Charge distribution and transport properties in reduced ceria phases: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoko, E.; Smith, M. F.; McKenzie, Ross H.

    2011-12-01

    The question of the charge distribution in reduced ceria phases (CeO2-x) is important for understanding the microscopic physics of oxygen storage capacity, and the electronic and ionic conductivities in these materials. All these are key properties in the application of these materials in catalysis and electrochemical devices. Several approaches have been applied to study this problem, including ab initio methods. Recently [1], we applied the bond valence model (BVM) to discuss the charge distribution in several different crystallographic phases of reduced ceria. Here, we compare the BVM results to those from atomistic simulations to determine if there is consistency in the predictions of the two approaches. Our analysis shows that the two methods give a consistent picture of the charge distribution around oxygen vacancies in bulk reduced ceria phases. We then review the transport theory applicable to reduced ceria phases, providing useful relationships which enable comparison of experimental results obtained by different techniques. In particular, we compare transport parameters obtained from the observed optical absorption spectrum, α(ω), dc electrical conductivity with those predicted by small polaron theory and the Harrison method. The small polaron energy is comparable to that estimated from α(ω). However, we found a discrepancy between the value of the electron hopping matrix element, t, estimated from the Marcus-Hush formula and that obtained by the Harrison method. Part of this discrepancy could be attributed to the system lying in the crossover region between adiabatic and nonadiabatic whereas our calculations assumed the system to be nonadiabatic. Finally, by considering the relationship between the charge distribution and electronic conductivity, we suggest the possibility of low temperature metallic conductivity for intermediate phases, i.e., x˜0.3. This has not yet been experimentally observed.

  20. Effect of trapped ions and nonequilibrium electron-energy distribution function on dust-particle charging in gas discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhinin, G I; Fedoseev, A V; Antipov, S N; Petrov, O F; Fortov, V E

    2009-03-01

    Dust-particles charging in a low-pressure glow discharge was investigated theoretically. The dust-particle charge was found on the basis of a developed self-consistent model taking into account the nonequilibrium character of electron distribution function and the formation of an ionic coat composed of bound or trapped ions around the dust particle. The dust-particle charge, the radial distributions of electron density, free and trapped ions densities, and the distribution of electrostatic potential were found. It was shown that the non-Maxwellian electron distribution function and collisional flux of trapped ions both reduce the dust-particle charge in comparison with that received with the help of the conventional orbital motion limited (OML) model. However, in rare collisional regimes in plasma when the collisional flux is negligible, the formation of ionic coat around a particle leads to a shielding of the proper charge of a dust particle. In low-pressure experiments, it is only possible to detect the effective charge of a dust particle that is equal to the difference between the proper charge of the particle and the charge of trapped ions. The calculated effective dust particle charge is in fairly good agreement with the experimental measurements of dust-particle charge dependence on gas pressure.

  1. Different electronic charges in two-component superconductor by coherent state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xuguang, E-mail: shixg@bjfu.edu.cn

    2015-07-17

    Recently, the different electronic charges, which are related to the different coupling constants with magnetic field, in the two-component superconductor have been studied in the frame of Ginzburg–Landau theory. In order to study the electronic charges in detail we suggest the wave function in the two-component superconductor to be in the coherent state. We find the different electronic charges exist not only in the coherent state but also in the incoherent state. But the ratio of the different charges in the coherent state is different from the ratio in the incoherence. The expressions of the coupling constants are given directly based on the coherence effects. We also discuss the winding number in such a system. - Highlights: • Suggest the wave function in two-component superconductor is coherent. • Interpret the existence of different electric charges by the coherent states. • Derive a new expression for the supercurrent. • Reveal the relation between different electric charges and winding number.

  2. Dalitz Plot Analysis Of Neutral B-meson Decays To Charged Kaon, Charged Pion, And Neutral Pion Final States

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Z

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes a Dalitz plot analysis of B0 → K+π−π 0 decays. The data sample comprises 213 million &Ugr;(4 S) → BB¯ decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California (SLAGC). Preliminary results are presented for measurements of the inclusive branching fraction, quasi-two-body fractions and CP-violating charge asymmetries for intermediate states including K*(892)+π − and ρ(770)−K +. Observations of B0 decays to the Kπ S-wave intermediate states, K*0 (1430)+π− and K*0 (1430)0π0, are reported. Evidence of the decay B0 → K*(892) 0π0 is seen. We set tipper limits at 90% confidence level on branching fractions of the nonresonant and other less significant intermediate states.

  3. Exceptionally Long-Lived Charge Separated State in Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework: Implication for Photocatalytic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattengale, Brian; Yang, Sizhuo; Ludwig, John; Huang, Zhuangqun; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Huang, Jier

    2016-07-01

    Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) have emerged as a novel class of porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for catalysis application because of their exceptional thermal and chemical stability. Inspired by the broad absorption of ZIF-67 in UV-vis-near IR region, we explored its excited state and charge separation dynamics, properties essential for photocatalytic applications, using optical (OTA) and X-ray transient absorption (XTA) spectroscopy. OTA results show that an exceptionally long-lived excited state is formed after photoexcitation. This long-lived excited state was confirmed to be the charge-separated (CS) state with ligand-to-metal charge-transfer character using XTA. The surprisingly long-lived CS state, together with its intrinsic hybrid nature, all point to its potential application in heterogeneous photocatalysis and energy conversion.

  4. Distribution of separated energy and injected charge at normal falling of fast electron beam on target

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyar, V A; Eremin, V V

    2002-01-01

    In terms of a kinetic equation diffusion model for a beam of electrons falling on a target along the normal one derived analytical formulae for distributions of separated energy and injected charge. In this case, no empirical adjustable parameters are introduced to the theory. The calculated distributions of separated energy for an electron plate directed source within infinite medium for C, Al, Sn and Pb are in good consistency with the Spencer data derived on the basis of the accurate solution of the Bethe equation being the source one in assumption of a diffusion model, as well

  5. Unfolding of event-by-event net-charge distributions in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, P; Netrakanti, P K; Mohanty, A K; Mohanty, B

    2013-01-01

    An unfolding method, based on Bayes theorem is presented to obtain true event-by-event net-charge multiplicity distribution from a corresponding measured distribution, which is subjected to detector artifacts. The unfolding is demonstrated to work for widely varying particle production mechanism, beam energy and collision centrality. Further the necessity of taking into account the detector effects is emphasized before comparing the experimental measurements to the theoretical calculations, particularly in case of higher moments. The advantage of this approach being that one need not construct new observable to cancel out detector effects which loose their ability to be connected to physical quantities calculable in standard theories.

  6. Constructing diabatic states from adiabatic states: extending generalized Mulliken-Hush to multiple charge centers with boys localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subotnik, Joseph E; Yeganeh, Sina; Cave, Robert J; Ratner, Mark A

    2008-12-28

    This article shows that, although Boys localization is usually applied to single-electron orbitals, the Boys method itself can be applied to many electron molecular states. For the two-state charge-transfer problem, we show analytically that Boys localization yields the same charge-localized diabatic states as those found by generalized Mulliken-Hush theory. We suggest that for future work in electron transfer, where systems have more than two charge centers, one may benefit by using a variant of Boys localization to construct diabatic potential energy surfaces and extract electronic coupling matrix elements. We discuss two chemical examples of Boys localization and propose a generalization of the Boys algorithm for creating diabatic states with localized spin density that should be useful for Dexter triplet-triplet energy transfer.

  7. Constructing diabatic states from adiabatic states: Extending generalized Mulliken-Hush to multiple charge centers with Boys localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subotnik, Joseph E.; Yeganeh, Sina; Cave, Robert J.; Ratner, Mark A.

    2008-12-01

    This article shows that, although Boys localization is usually applied to single-electron orbitals, the Boys method itself can be applied to many electron molecular states. For the two-state charge-transfer problem, we show analytically that Boys localization yields the same charge-localized diabatic states as those found by generalized Mulliken-Hush theory. We suggest that for future work in electron transfer, where systems have more than two charge centers, one may benefit by using a variant of Boys localization to construct diabatic potential energy surfaces and extract electronic coupling matrix elements. We discuss two chemical examples of Boys localization and propose a generalization of the Boys algorithm for creating diabatic states with localized spin density that should be useful for Dexter triplet-triplet energy transfer.

  8. Stationary self-consistent distributions for a charged particle beam in the longitudinal magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivotin, O. I.; Ovsyannikov, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    A review of analytical solutions of the Vlasov equation for a beam of charged particles is given. These results are analyzed on the basis of a unified approach developed by the authors. In the context of this method, a space of integrals of motion is introduced in which the integrals of motion of particles are considered as coordinates. In this case, specifying a self-consistent distribution is reduced to defining a distribution density in this space. This approach allows us to simplify the construction and analysis of different self-consistent distributions. In particular, it is possible, in some cases, to derive new solutions by considering linear combinations of well-known solutions. This approach also makes it possible in many cases to give a visual geometric representation of self-consistent distributions in the space of integrals of motion.

  9. Inference in Hidden Markov Models with Explicit State Duration Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Dewar, Michael; Wood, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In this letter we borrow from the inference techniques developed for unbounded state-cardinality (nonparametric) variants of the HMM and use them to develop a tuning-parameter free, black-box inference procedure for Explicit-state-duration hidden Markov models (EDHMM). EDHMMs are HMMs that have latent states consisting of both discrete state-indicator and discrete state-duration random variables. In contrast to the implicit geometric state duration distribution possessed by the standard HMM, EDHMMs allow the direct parameterisation and estimation of per-state duration distributions. As most duration distributions are defined over the positive integers, truncation or other approximations are usually required to perform EDHMM inference.

  10. Charge pump DC-DC converter comprising solid state batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reefman, D.; Roozeboom, F.; Notten, P.H.L.; Klootwijk, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    An electronic device is provided which comprises a DC-DC converter. The DC-DC converter comprises at least one solid-state rechargeable battery (B1, B2) for storing energy for the DC-DC conversion and an output capacitor (C2).

  11. Evidence for the Improved Defect-Pool Model for Gap States in Amorphous Silicon from Charge DLTS Experiments on Undoped a-Si:H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nádazdy, V.; Durný, R.; Pinc̆ik, E.

    1997-02-01

    Results of the first charge deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements on undoped a-Si:H are presented. The ability of the charge DLTS technique to resolve the gap-state distribution and to monitor directly its evolution after preequilibrium preparation by bias annealing is demonstrated. Three groups of gap states with mean energies of 0.63, 0.82, and 1.25 eV are observed. The condition for their creation as well as the energy values are in a good agreement with the D+, D0, and D- states of the improved defect-pool model.

  12. Local state-of-charge mapping of lithium-ion battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, Jagjit [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Remillard, Jeffrey; O' Neill, Ann; Bernardi, Dawn; Ro, Tina; Nietering, Kenneth E.; Miller, Ted J. [Research and Advanced Engineering, Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States); Go, Joo-Young [SB LiMotive, R and D Team, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-09

    Current lithium-ion battery technology is gearing towards meeting the robust demand of power and energy requirements for all-electric transportation without compromising on the safety, performance, and cycle life. The state-of-charge (SOC) of a Li-ion cell can be a macroscopic indicator of the state-of-health of the battery. The microscopic origin of the SOC relates to the local lithium content in individual electrode particles and the effective ability of Li-ions to transport or shuttle between the redox couples through the cell geometric boundaries. Herein, micrometer-resolved Raman mapping of a transition-metal-based oxide positive electrode, Li{sub 1-x}(Ni{sub y}Co{sub z}Al{sub 1-y-z})O{sub 2}, maintained at different SOCs, is shown. An attempt has been made to link the underlying changes to the composition and structural integrity at the individual particle level. Furthermore, an SOC distribution at macroscopic length scale of the electrodes is presented. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Evaluation of Model Based State of Charge Estimation Methods for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyue Zou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Four model-based State of Charge (SOC estimation methods for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries are studied and evaluated in this paper. Different from existing literatures, this work evaluates different aspects of the SOC estimation, such as the estimation error distribution, the estimation rise time, the estimation time consumption, etc. The equivalent model of the battery is introduced and the state function of the model is deduced. The four model-based SOC estimation methods are analyzed first. Simulations and experiments are then established to evaluate the four methods. The urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS current profiles are applied to simulate the drive situations of an electrified vehicle, and a genetic algorithm is utilized to identify the model parameters to find the optimal parameters of the model of the Li-ion battery. The simulations with and without disturbance are carried out and the results are analyzed. A battery test workbench is established and a Li-ion battery is applied to test the hardware in a loop experiment. Experimental results are plotted and analyzed according to the four aspects to evaluate the four model-based SOC estimation methods.

  14. Space Charge Distribution Measurement in Insulation Film with Thickness of Several Tens μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Akihiro; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Maeno, Takashi

    Since electronic equipment is required to be smaller and lighter, an insulating material for such equipment is consequently required to be thinner. However, under a certain DC voltage, the electric field in it becomes relatively higher according to the insulating material becomes thinner. Therefore, the insulating performance under high electric field must be important in such thin films. On the other hand, it is said that a space charge accumulation in them under DC high electric field is important because sometimes an electrical breakdown occurs in them due to an enhancement of electric field induced by the accumulated space charge. To investigate the characteristics of the space charge accumulation in them, PEA (Pulsed Electroacoustic) method is usually used. However, a spatial resolution of ordinary PEA system is not enough to observe the space charge distribution in thin films with thickness of several tens μm. Therefore, a new measurement system with high positional resolution is developed by making a thin piezo-electric film that is used as a sensor for PEA system. The obtained resolution of the developed system is 4 μm, and it is used for a typical measurement in LDPE film with thickness of 40 μm.

  15. Controllable Quantum State Transfer Between a Josephson Charge Qubit and an Electronic Spin Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Run-Ying; Wang, Hong-Ling; Feng, Zhi-Bo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a theoretical scheme to implement controllable quantum state transfer between a superconducting charge qubit and an electronic spin ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy centers. By an electro-mechanical resonator acting as a quantum data bus, an effective interaction between the charge qubit and the spin ensemble can be achieved in the dispersive regime, by which state transfers are switchable due to the adjustable electrical coupling. With the accessible experimental parameters, we further numerically analyze the feasibility and robustness. The present scheme could provide a potential approach for transferring quantum states controllably with the hybrid system.

  16. Continuum-state selectivity in hydrogen in Stark fields by charge-shape tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Y.; Nayfeh, M.H.

    1987-02-15

    We present numerical calculations of the photoionization of atomic hydrogen in the presence of a strong dc electric field, using three-photon excitation with two-photon resonance with intermediate Stark states. The systematics of the dependence of the cross section on the intermediate Stark states is calculated for the n = 2 to n = 9 manifolds. Our results indicate that one can use ''charge-shape tuning'' to selectively excite and enhance Stark-induced giant dipoles near E = 0 in hydrogen without the excitation of the overlapping continuum. Frequency selectivity can be used to excite from 1s (spherical charge) an intermediate whose charge is focused along the field followed by another excitation to the giant dipoles. Charge tunability can be achieved by controlling the degree of focusing by choice of the field and intermediates.

  17. Non-Gaussianities in the topological charge distribution of the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cé, Marco; Engel, Georg P; Giusti, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    We study the topological charge distribution of the SU(3) Yang--Mills theory with high precision in order to be able to detect deviations from Gaussianity. The computation is carried out on the lattice with high statistics Monte Carlo simulations by implementing a naive discretization of the topological charge evolved with the Yang--Mills gradient flow. This definition is far less demanding than the one suggested from Neuberger's fermions and, as shown in this paper, in the continuum limit its cumulants coincide with those of the universal definition appearing in the chiral Ward identities. Thanks to the range of lattice volumes and spacings considered, we can extrapolate the results for the second and fourth cumulant of the topological charge distribution to the continuum limit with confidence by keeping finite volume effects negligible with respect to the statistical errors. Our best results for the topological susceptibility is t_0^2*chi=6.67(7)*10^-4, where t_0 is a standard reference scale, while for the...

  18. Probabilistic Method to Assess the Impact of Charging of Electric Vehicles on Distribution Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Martínez-Vicente

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a grid impact analysis of charging electric vehicles (EV using charging curves with detailed battery modelling. A probabilistic method using Monte Carlo was applied to a typical Spanish distribution grid, also using mobility patterns of Barcelona. To carry out this analysis, firstly, an IEEE test system was adapted to a typical distribution grid configuration; secondly, the EV and its battery types were modeled taking into account the current vehicle market and the battery characteristics; and, finally, the recharge control strategies were taken into account. Once these main features were established, a statistical probabilistic model for the household electrical demand and for the EV charging parameters was determined. Finally, with these probabilistic models, the Monte Carlo analysis was performed within the established scenario in order to study the lines’ and the transformers’ loading levels. The results show that an accurate model for the battery gives a more precise estimation about the impact on the grid. Additionally, mobility patterns have been proved to be some of the most important key aspects for these type of studies.

  19. Detection and control of charge states in a quintuple quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takumi; Otsuka, Tomohiro; Amaha, Shinichi; Delbecq, Matthieu R.; Nakajima, Takashi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Noiri, Akito; Kawasaki, Kento; Tarucha, Seigo

    2016-12-01

    A semiconductor quintuple quantum dot with two charge sensors and an additional contact to the center dot from an electron reservoir is fabricated to demonstrate the concept of scalable architecture. This design enables formation of the five dots as confirmed by measurements of the charge states of the three nearest dots to the respective charge sensor. The gate performance of the measured stability diagram is well reproduced by a capacitance model. These results provide an important step towards realizing controllable large scale multiple quantum dot systems.

  20. 20 CFR 628.305 - State distribution of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State distribution of funds. 628.305 Section 628.305 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE II OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT State Programs § 628.305 State distribution of funds....

  1. Topological charges in 2d N=(2,2) theories and massive BPS states

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    We study how charges of global symmetries that are manifest in the ultra-violet definition of a theory are realized as topological charges in its infra-red effective theory for two-dimensional theories with $\\mathcal{N}=(2,2)$ supersymmetry. We focus on the charges that the states living on $S^1$ carry. The central charge---or BPS masses---of the supersymmetry algebra play a crucial role in making this correspondence precise. We study two examples: $U(1)$ gauge theories with chiral matter, and world-volume theories of "dynamical surface operators" of 4d $\\mathcal{N}=2$ gauge theories. In the former example, we show that the flavor charges of the theory are realized as topological winding numbers in the effective theory on the Coulomb branch. In the latter, we show that there is a one-to-one correspondence between topological charges of the effective theory of the dynamical surface operator and the electric, magnetic, and flavor charges of the 4d gauge theory. We also examine the topologically charged massive ...

  2. Performance characteristics of a battery charger and state-of-charge indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D.; Klein, J.

    1984-01-01

    A battery charge/state of charge indicator (BC/SCI) system for electric vehicle use was developed. The original and subsequent objectives for the BC/SCI and the rationale for those objectives are described. The requirements generated from the objectives are listed and a description of the BC/SCI is provided. The power section problem, the tests, and the test results are discussed.

  3. Cathode material comparison of thermal runaway behavior of Li-ion cells at different state of charges including over charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Hernandez, Omar Samuel; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Nishikawa, Yuuki; Maruyama, Yuki; Umeda, Minoru

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of Li-ion secondary cells under outstanding conditions, as overcharge and high temperatures, is important to determine thermal abuse characteristics of electroactive materials and precise risk assessments on Li-ion cells. In this work, the thermal runaway behavior of LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4 cathode materials were compared at different state of charges (SOCs), including overcharge, by carrying out accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) measurements using 18650 Li-ion cells. Onset temperatures of self-heating reactions and thermal runaway behavior were identified, and by using these onset points thermal mapping plots were made. We were able to identify non-self-heating, self-heating and thermal runaway regions as a function of state of charge and temperature. The cell using LiMn2O4 cathode material was found to be more thermally stable than the cell using LiCoO2. In parallel with the ARC measurements, the electrochemical behavior of the cells was monitored by measuring the OCV and internal resistance of the cells. The electrochemical behavior of the cells showed a slightly dependency on SOC.

  4. A vacuum spark ion source: High charge state metal ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkov, G. Yu.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Frolova, V. P.

    2016-02-01

    High ion charge state is often important in ion beam physics, among other reasons for the very practical purpose that it leads to proportionately higher ion beam energy for fixed accelerating voltage. The ion charge state of metal ion beams can be increased by replacing a vacuum arc ion source by a vacuum spark ion source. Since the voltage between anode and cathode remains high in a spark discharge compared to the vacuum arc, higher metal ion charge states are generated which can then be extracted as an ion beam. The use of a spark of pulse duration less than 10 μs and with current up to 10 kA allows the production of ion beams with current of several amperes at a pulse repetition rate of up to 5 pps. We have demonstrated the formation of high charge state heavy ions (bismuth) of up to 15 + and a mean ion charge state of more than 10 +. The physics and techniques of our vacuum spark ion source are described.

  5. Modulation of nitrogen vacancy charge state and fluorescence in nanodiamonds using electrochemical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaveli, Sinan; Gaathon, Ophir; Wolcott, Abraham; Sakakibara, Reyu; Shemesh, Or A.; Peterka, Darcy S.; Boyden, Edward S.; Owen, Jonathan S.; Yuste, Rafael; Englund, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV-) center in diamond has attracted strong interest for a wide range of sensing and quantum information processing applications. To this end, recent work has focused on controlling the NV charge state, whose stability strongly depends on its electrostatic environment. Here, we demonstrate that the charge state and fluorescence dynamics of single NV centers in nanodiamonds with different surface terminations can be controlled by an externally applied potential difference in an electrochemical cell. The voltage dependence of the NV charge state can be used to stabilize the NV- state for spin-based sensing protocols and provides a method of charge state-dependent fluorescence sensing of electrochemical potentials. We detect clear NV fluorescence modulation for voltage changes down to 100 mV, with a single NV and down to 20 mV with multiple NV centers in a wide-field imaging mode. These results suggest that NV centers in nanodiamonds could enable parallel optical detection of biologically relevant electrochemical potentials.

  6. Modulation of nitrogen vacancy charge state and fluorescence in nanodiamonds using electrochemical potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaveli, Sinan; Gaathon, Ophir; Wolcott, Abraham; Sakakibara, Reyu; Shemesh, Or A; Peterka, Darcy S; Boyden, Edward S; Owen, Jonathan S; Yuste, Rafael; Englund, Dirk

    2016-04-12

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV(-)) center in diamond has attracted strong interest for a wide range of sensing and quantum information processing applications. To this end, recent work has focused on controlling the NV charge state, whose stability strongly depends on its electrostatic environment. Here, we demonstrate that the charge state and fluorescence dynamics of single NV centers in nanodiamonds with different surface terminations can be controlled by an externally applied potential difference in an electrochemical cell. The voltage dependence of the NV charge state can be used to stabilize the NV(-) state for spin-based sensing protocols and provides a method of charge state-dependent fluorescence sensing of electrochemical potentials. We detect clear NV fluorescence modulation for voltage changes down to 100 mV, with a single NV and down to 20 mV with multiple NV centers in a wide-field imaging mode. These results suggest that NV centers in nanodiamonds could enable parallel optical detection of biologically relevant electrochemical potentials.

  7. A vacuum spark ion source: High charge state metal ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushkov, G. Yu., E-mail: gyushkov@mail.ru; Nikolaev, A. G.; Frolova, V. P. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Oks, E. M. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University of Control System and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    High ion charge state is often important in ion beam physics, among other reasons for the very practical purpose that it leads to proportionately higher ion beam energy for fixed accelerating voltage. The ion charge state of metal ion beams can be increased by replacing a vacuum arc ion source by a vacuum spark ion source. Since the voltage between anode and cathode remains high in a spark discharge compared to the vacuum arc, higher metal ion charge states are generated which can then be extracted as an ion beam. The use of a spark of pulse duration less than 10 μs and with current up to 10 kA allows the production of ion beams with current of several amperes at a pulse repetition rate of up to 5 pps. We have demonstrated the formation of high charge state heavy ions (bismuth) of up to 15 + and a mean ion charge state of more than 10 +. The physics and techniques of our vacuum spark ion source are described.

  8. Defect charge states in Si doped hexagonal boron-nitride monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapasha, R E; Molepo, M P; Andrew, R C; Chetty, N

    2016-02-10

    We perform ab initio density functional theory calculations to investigate the energetics, electronic and magnetic properties of isolated stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric substitutional Si complexes in a hexagonal boron-nitride monolayer. The Si impurity atoms substituting the boron atom sites SiB giving non-stoichiometric complexes are found to be the most energetically favourable, and are half-metallic and order ferromagnetically in the neutral charge state. We find that the magnetic moments and magnetization energies increase monotonically when Si defects form a cluster. Partial density of states and standard Mulliken population analysis indicate that the half-metallic character and magnetic moments mainly arise from the Si 3p impurity states. The stoichiometric Si complexes are energetically unfavorable and non-magnetic. When charging the energetically favourable non-stoichiometric Si complexes, we find that the formation energies strongly depend on the impurity charge states and Fermi level position. We also find that the magnetic moments and orderings are tunable by charge state modulation q  =  -2, -1, 0, +1, +2. The induced half-metallic character is lost (retained) when charging isolated (clustered) Si defect(s). This underlines the potential of a Si doped hexagonal boron-nitride monolayer for novel spin-based applications.

  9. Direct observation of charge re-distribution in a MgB2 superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng Yun; Shih, Po-Hsun; Ji, Jhong-Yi; Chan, Ting-Shan; Yang, Chun Chuen

    2016-04-01

    To study the origin of negative thermal expansion effects near the superconducting transition temperature TC in MgB2, low-temperature high-energy synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction was used to probe the charge redistribution near the boron atoms. Our results reveal that the in-plane hole-distribution of B- hops through the direct orbital overlap of Mg2+ along the c-axis at 50 K and is re-distributed out-of-plane. This study shows that the out-of-plane π-hole distribution plays a dominant role in the possible origin of superconductivity and negative thermal effects in MgB2.

  10. General classical solutions of nonlinear $\\sigma$-model and pion charge distribution of disoriented chiral condensate

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Z; Huang, Zheng; Suzuki, Mahiko

    1996-01-01

    We obtain the general analytic solutions of the nonlinear \\sigma-model in 3+1 dimensions as the candidates for the disoriented chiral condensate (DCC). The nonuniformly isospin-orientated solutions are shown to be related to the uniformly oriented ones through the chiral (axial) rotations. We discuss the pion charge distribution arising from these solutions. The distribution dP/df=1/(2\\sqrt{f}) holds for the uniform solutions in general and the nonuniform solutions in the 1+1 boost invariant case. For the nonuniform solution in 1+1 without a boost-invariance and in higher dimensions, the distribution does not hold in the integrated form. However, it is applicable to the pions selected from a small segment in the momentum phase space. We suggest that the nonuniform DCC's may correspond to the mini-Centauro events.

  11. Quantum State Transmission in a Superconducting Charge Qubit-Atom Hybrid

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Deshui; Hufnagel, Christoph; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Hybrids consisting of macroscopic superconducting circuits and microscopic components, such as atoms and spins, have the potential of transmitting an arbitrary state between different quantum species, leading to the prospective of high-speed operation and long-time storage of quantum information. Here we propose a novel hybrid structure, where a neutral-atom qubit directly interfaces with a superconducting charge qubit, to implement the qubit-state transmission. The highly-excited Rydberg atom located inside the gate capacitor strongly affects the behavior of Cooper pairs in the box while the atom in the ground state hardly interferes with the superconducting device. In addition, the DC Stark shift of the atomic states significantly depends on the charge-qubit states. By means of the standard spectroscopic techniques and sweeping the gate voltage bias, we show how to transfer an arbitrary quantum state from the superconducting device to the atom and vice versa.

  12. Quantum State Transmission in a Superconducting Charge Qubit-Atom Hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deshui; Valado, María Martínez; Hufnagel, Christoph; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, Rainer

    2016-12-06

    Hybrids consisting of macroscopic superconducting circuits and microscopic components, such as atoms and spins, have the potential of transmitting an arbitrary state between different quantum species, leading to the prospective of high-speed operation and long-time storage of quantum information. Here we propose a novel hybrid structure, where a neutral-atom qubit directly interfaces with a superconducting charge qubit, to implement the qubit-state transmission. The highly-excited Rydberg atom located inside the gate capacitor strongly affects the behavior of Cooper pairs in the box while the atom in the ground state hardly interferes with the superconducting device. In addition, the DC Stark shift of the atomic states significantly depends on the charge-qubit states. By means of the standard spectroscopic techniques and sweeping the gate voltage bias, we show how to transfer an arbitrary quantum state from the superconducting device to the atom and vice versa.

  13. Charge Transfer and Triplet States in High Efficiency OPV Materials and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyakonov, Vladimir

    2013-03-01

    The advantage of using polymers and molecules in electronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LED), field-effect transistors (FET) and, more recently, solar cells (SC) is justified by the unique combination of high device performance and processing of the semiconductors used. Power conversion efficiency of nanostructured polymer SC is in the range of 10% on lab scale, making them ready for up-scaling. Efficient charge carrier generation and recombination in SC are strongly related to dissociation of the primary singlet excitons. The dissociation (or charge transfer) process should be very efficient in photovoltaics. The mechanisms governing charge carrier generation, recombination and transport in SC based on the so-called bulk-heterojunctions, i.e. blends of two or more semiconductors with different electron affinities, appear to be very complex, as they imply the presence of the intermediate excited states, neutral and charged ones. Charge transfer states, or polaron pairs, are the intermediate states between free electrons/holes and strongly bound excitons. Interestingly, the mostly efficient OLEDs to date are based on the so-called triplet emitters, which utilize the triplet-triplet annihilation process. In SC, recent investigations indicated that on illumination of the device active layer, not only mobile charges but also triplet states were formed. With respect to triplets, it is unclear how these excited states are generated, via inter-system crossing or via back transfer of the electron from acceptor to donor. Triplet formation may be considered as charge carrier loss channel; however, the fusion of two triplets may lead to a formation of singlet excitons instead. In such case, a generation of charges by utilizing of the so far unused photons will be possible. The fundamental understanding of the processes involving the charge transfer and triplet states and their relation to nanoscale morphology and/or energetics of blends is essential for the

  14. Electronic structure, charge distribution, and charge transfer in α- and β-Si3N4 and at the Si(111)/Si3N4(001) interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G. L.; Bachlechner, M. E.

    1997-02-01

    The electronic structure, charge distribution, and charge transfer in α- and β- Si3N4 and at the Si(111)/Si3N4(001) interface have been studied using a self-consistent first-principles LCAO method. The calculated charge transfer suggests that both in α- and β-phases, the ionic formula may be written as Si3+1.24N4-0.93. For the Si(111)/Si3N4(001) interface, the silicon atoms from the Si(111) side give some electrons to the N atoms of Si3N4 forming the Si-N bonds at the interface. One Si-N bond is associated with a charge transfer of about 0.31 electrons.

  15. Near-infrared-enhanced charge state conversion for low power optical nanoscopy with nitrogen vacancy center in diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiang-Dong; Shen, Ao; Dong, Yang; Dong, Chun-Hua; Guo, Guang-Can; Sun, Fang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) optical pumped photophysics of nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond was experimentally studied by considering both the charge state conversion and stimulated emission. We found that the NIR laser can help to highly enhance the charge state conversion rate, which can be applied to improve the performance of charge state depletion nanoscopy. Using a doughnut-shaped visible laser beam and a Gaussian-shaped NIR laser beam for charge state manipulation, we developed a low power charge state depletion nanoscopy for NV center. A spatial resolution of 14 nm was achieved with the depletion laser intensity approximately three orders lower than that used for the stimulated emission depletion nanoscopy with NV center. With high spatial resolution and low laser power, the nanoscopy can be used for nanoscale quantum sensing with NV center. And our study on the charge state conversion can help to further optimize the NV center spin state initialization and detection.

  16. Self organizing distributed state-estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijs, J.; Papp, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Distributed solutions for signal processing techniques are important for establishing large-scale monitoring and control applications. They enable the deployment of scalable sensor networks for particular application areas. Typically, such networks consists of a large number of vulnerable components

  17. Landau Level Splittings, Phase Transitions, and Nonuniform Charge Distribution in Trilayer Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Leonardo C; Taychatanapat, Thiti; Serbyn, Maksym; Surakitbovorn, Kawin; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Abanin, Dmitry A; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2016-08-05

    We report on magnetotransport studies of dual-gated, Bernal-stacked trilayer graphene (TLG) encapsulated in boron nitride crystals. We observe a quantum Hall effect staircase which indicates a complete lifting of the 12-fold degeneracy of the zeroth Landau level. As a function of perpendicular electric field, our data exhibit a sequence of phase transitions between all integer quantum Hall states in the filling factor interval -8Landau level splittings and quantum Hall phase transitions can be understood within a single-particle picture, but imply the presence of a charge density imbalance between the inner and outer layers of TLG, even at charge neutrality and zero transverse electric field. Our results indicate the importance of a previously unaccounted band structure parameter which, together with a more accurate estimate of the other tight-binding parameters, results in a significantly improved determination of the electronic and Landau level structure of TLG.

  18. Simulations of ion velocity distribution functions taking into account both elastic and charge exchange collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihui; Sukhomlinov, Vladimir S.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Mustafaev, Alexander S.

    2017-02-01

    Based on accurate representation of the He+-He angular differential scattering cross sections consisting of both elastic and charge exchange collisions, we performed detailed numerical simulations of the ion velocity distribution functions (IVDF) by Monte Carlo collision method (MCC). The results of simulations are validated by comparison with the experimental data of the ion mobility and the transverse diffusion. The IVDF simulation study shows that due to significant effect of scattering in elastic collisions IVDF cannot be separated into product of two independent IVDFs in the transverse and parallel to the electric field directions.

  19. A direct and at nanometer scale study of electrical charge distribution on membranes of alive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlière Christian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented an innovative method to map in-vivo and at nanometer scale the electrical charge distribution on membranes of alive cells. It relies on a new atomic force microscopy (AFM mode based on an electro-mechanical coupling effect. Furthermore, an additional electrical signal detected by both the deflection of the AFM cantilever and simultaneous direct current measurements was detected at low scanning rates. It was attributed to the detection of the current stemming from ionic channels. It opens a new way to directly investigate in situ biological electrical surface processes involved in bacterial adhesion, biofilm formation, microbial fuel cells, etc.

  20. Average Distribution of Ionic Charges and Ionizability for the Au Plasma System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨天丽; 蒋刚; 朱正和

    2002-01-01

    Using relativistic multi-configuration Dirac-Fock theory, we calculate the transition data of 3dj - n fj, (n =5, 6, 7) for the M-shell from an Ni-like Au ion to an As-like Auion using the GRASP programme with the core-polarization, quantum electrodynamical effect and Breit correction. Based on the present calculation results andthe experiment of the Xingguang-Ⅱ laser facilities, the average distribution of ionic charge and the ionizabilityhave been derived. The average ionization degree of Au plasma Z* is 49.06 ± 0.5, which is comparable with theresult of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  1. Simulations of Ion Velocity Distribution Functions Taken into Account Both Elastic and Charge Exchange Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Huihui; Kaganovich, Igor D; Mustafaev, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Based on accurate representation of the He+-He differential angular scattering cross sections consisting of both elastic and charge exchange collisions, we performed detailed numerical simulations of the ion velocity distribution functions (IVDF) by Monte Carlo collision method (MCC). The results of simulations are validated by comparison with the experimental data of the mobility and the transverse diffusion. The IVDF simulation study shows that due to significant effect of scattering in elastic collisions IVDF cannot be separated into product of two independent IVDFs in the transverse and parallel to the electric field directions.

  2. Efficient determination of distribution tariffs for the prevention of congestion from EV Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    into the day-ahead market. The DT acts to disperse charging at congested periods and locations, thereby preventing congestion on a day-ahead basis. The magnitude of the DT is determined from a simulated locational marginal prices (LMPs), and the time extent of the DT is determined from analysis of the system...... loading curve prior to the application of the DT. Case studies were performed using a sample distribution network modelled on a network from the Danish island of Bornholm. A variety of price profiles were used to illustrate the efficacy of this approach. The case study results show that this approach...

  3. Distributed Cooperative Control of Multi Flywheel Energy Storage System for Electrical Vehicle Fast Charging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in electrical vehicles will play a critical role in future smart grid and sudden connection of electrical vehicles chargers may cause huge power-peaks with high slew-rates on grid. In order to cope with this issue, this paper applies a distributed cooperative control for fast charging station...... consensus based voltage observer by communicating with its neighbors. The control system can realize the power balancing and DC voltage regulation with low reliance on communications. Finally, real-time hardware-in-the-loop results have been reported in order to verify the feasibility of proposed approach....

  4. Distribution of gas-charged sediment in Norton Sound and Chirikov Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, M.L.; Thor, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Numerous zone of anomalous acoustic resonses caused by gas in the subsurface sediment layers have been detected on seismic reflection records from Norton Sound and Chirikov Basin. The frequency and distribution of these zones suggest that as much as 7000km2 of the northeastern Bering Sea may be underlain by gas-charged sediment. Much of the gas is of shallow biogenic origin, having been generated in buried peat deposits. Seismic velocity beneath a large gas seep south of Nome decreases in the interval from 250 to 440m below the seafloor, where thermogenic gases of deeper origin are migrating upward along a system of basin margin faults.-from Authors

  5. Battery State-of-Charge and Parameter Estimation Algorithm Based on Kalman Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Sucic, Stjepan; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    on operating conditions, momentary replenishment and a number of past charge/discharge cycles. A good indicator for the quality of overall customer service in any battery based application is the availability and reliability of these informations, as they point out important runtime variables...... such as the actual state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH). Therefore, a modern battery management systems (BMSs) should incorporate functions that accommodate real time tracking of these nonlinearities. For that purpose, Kalman filter based algorithms emerged as a convenient solution due to their ability...

  6. Charge Transfer Dissociation (CTD) Mass Spectrometry of Peptide Cations: Study of Charge State Effects and Side-Chain Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Jackson, Glen P.

    2017-01-01

    1+, 2+, and 3+ precursors of substance P and bradykinin were subjected to helium cation irradiation in a 3D ion trap mass spectrometer. Charge exchange with the helium cations produces a variety of fragment ions, the number and type of which are dependent on the charge state of the precursor ions. For 1+ peptide precursors, fragmentation is generally restricted to C-CO backbone bonds (a and x ions), whereas for 2+ and 3+ peptide precursors, all three backbone bonds (C-CO, C-N, and N-Cα) are cleaved. The type of backbone bond cleavage is indicative of possible dissociation channels involved in CTD process, including high-energy, kinetic-based, and ETD-like pathways. In addition to backbone cleavages, amino acid side-chain cleavages are observed in CTD, which are consistent with other high-energy and radical-mediated techniques. The unique dissociation pattern and supplementary information available from side-chain cleavages make CTD a potentially useful activation method for the structural study of gas-phase biomolecules.

  7. Characteristics of mass and nuclear charge distributions of sup 229 Th(n sub th ,f). Implications for fission dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocquet, J.P.; Faust, H.R. (Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)); Brissot, R. (Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France). Inst. des Sciences Nucleaires); Fowler, M.; Wilhelmy, J. (Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), NM (USA). Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Div.); Asghar, M.; Djebara, M. (Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumedienne, Algiers (Algeria))

    1990-01-01

    The mass and nuclear charge distributions of fission fragments from {sup 229}Th(n{sub th},f) have been measured at several kinetic energies with the mass spectrometer Lohengrin (ILL-Grenoble). The average proton e-o effect, which reaches 41%, induces large oscillations in the parameters of the isotopic charge distribution. A comparison of the data from different fissile nuclei shows the importance of the last stage of the process for intrinsic excitations. (orig.).

  8. Charge transfer state in DBP:C70 organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherafatipour, Golenaz; Benduhn, Johannes; Spoltore, Donato

    -acceptor interface via delocalized charge-transfer (CT) states, which represents an intermediate state between the exciton dissociation and recombination back to the ground state. In this work we perform the electroluminescence (EL) created by bimolecular free career recombination and sensitive external quantum....... Electroluminescence from charge transfer states in polymer solar cells. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 11819–11824 (2009)....... efficiency measurements (sEQE) in DBP:C70 based SCs as a less studied system in order to study the energy and effect of CT states on degradation of the devices2. The results from these measurements reveal valuable information about the loss mechanism during the aging experiment as well as the energy...

  9. Control of donor charge states with the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichmann, K.; Wenderoth, M.; Loth, S.; Ulbrich, R.G. [IV. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany); Garlef, J.K.; Wijnheijmer, A.P.; Koenraad, P.M. [PSN, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    The functionality of nanoscale semiconductor devices crucially depends on details of the electrostatic potential landscape on the atomic scale and its microscopic response to external electric fields. We report here an investigation of charge state switching of buried single Si donors in 6.10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} n-doped GaAs with scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) under UHV conditions at 5 K. The effect of tip induced band bending (TIBB) through the freshly cleaved (110)-surface was used to change the charge state of individual donors from neutral to positively charged and reverse. Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS) revealed a ring like feature around each donor center. The ring radius depends on tip bias voltage. The charge state of each donor in the random arrangement of dopants was in most cases unambiguously fixed by the extension of the tip-induced space charge cloud, which was located under the tip and controlled by the applied voltage. For certain geometric configurations the system showed bi- (or multi-) stable behaviour, this lead to dynamic flickering of the ionization sequence.

  10. Repair activities on the LHC cryogenic distribution line in charge of TS/MME

    CERN Document Server

    Atieh, S; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2005-01-01

    The Cryogenic Distribution Line (QRL), running inside the machine tunnel parallel to the regular lattice of superconducting quadrupole and dipole magnets of LHC, transports the refrigeration power produced by the refrigerators over long distances. With a total length of about 25.8 km, QRL consists of a modular set-up of pipe and Service Modules (SM), Vacuum Barriers (VB), Fixed Points (FP), steps and elbows. TS department was charged to replace non-conform sliding tables included in the Cryogenic Distribution Line QRL. For this repair work, based on technologically advanced methods, TS/MME imposed a high level of quality assurance and follow-up for mechanical repair works as well as for the metrological measurements carried out which an innovative polyarticulated arm, a portable measuring device, and leak testing by argon.

  11. Mesoscopic capacitor and zero-point energy: Poisson's distribution for virtual charges, pressure, and decoherence control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, J. C.

    2014-08-01

    Mesoscopic capacitor theory, which includes intrinsic inductive effects from quantum tunneling, is applied to conducting spherical shells. The zero-point pressure and the number of virtual charged pairs are determined assuming a Poisson distribution. They are completely defined by a dimensionless mesoscopic parameter (χc) measuring the average number of virtual pairs per solid angle and carrying mesoscopic information. Fluctuations remain finite and well defined. Connections with usual quantum-field-theory limit enables us to evaluate χc 1.007110. Equivalently, for a mesoscopic parallel-plate capacitor, the shot noise distribution becomes operative with χc 0.94705 as well being related to the density of virtual pairs. Temperature decoherence and capacitor control are discussed by considering typical values of quantum dot devices and Coulomb blockade theory.

  12. Multifractal analysis of charged particle distributions using horizontal visibility graph and sandbox algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, P.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Manna, S. K.; Haldar, P. K.; Singh, G.

    2017-03-01

    Horizontal visibility graphs (HVGs) and the sandbox (SB) algorithm usually applied for multifractal characterization of complex network systems that are converted from time series measurements, are used to characterize the fluctuations in pseudorapidity densities of singly charged particles produced in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Besides obtaining the degree distribution associated with event-wise pseudorapidity distributions, the common set of observables, typical of any multifractality measurement, are studied in 16O-Ag/Br and 32S-Ag/Br interactions, each at an incident laboratory energy of 200 GeV/nucleon. For a better understanding, we systematically compare the experiment with a Monte Carlo model simulation based on the Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD). Our results suggest that the HVG-SB technique is an efficient tool that can characterize multifractality in multiparticle emission data, and in some cases, it is even superior to other methods more commonly used in this regard.

  13. Performance on the low charge state laser ion source in BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, M.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Costanzo, M.; DeSanto, L.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kanesue, T.; Lambiase, R.; Lehn, D.; Liaw, C. J.; McCafferty, D.; Morris, J.; Olsen, R.; Pikin, A.; Raparia, D.; Steszyn, A.; Ikeda, S.

    2015-09-07

    On March 2014, a Laser Ion Source (LIS) was commissioned which delivers high-brightness, low-charge-state heavy ions for the hadron accelerator complex in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Since then, the LIS has provided many heavy ion species successfully. The low-charge-state (mostly singly charged) beams are injected to the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), where ions are then highly ionized to fit to the following accelerator’s Q/M acceptance, like Au32+. Recently we upgraded the LIS to be able to provide two different beams into EBIS on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Now the LIS is simultaneously providing beams for both the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL).

  14. Excited-state proton coupled charge transfer modulated by molecular structure and media polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchenko, Alexander P; Tang, Kuo-Chun; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2013-02-01

    Charge and proton transfer reactions in the excited states of organic dyes can be coupled in many different ways. Despite the complementarity of charges, they can occur on different time scales and in different directions of the molecular framework. In certain cases, excited-state equilibrium can be established between the charge-transfer and proton-transfer species. The interplay of these reactions can be modulated and even reversed by variations in dye molecular structures and changes of the surrounding media. With knowledge of the mechanisms of these processes, desired rates and directions can be achieved, and thus the multiple emission spectral features can be harnessed. These features have found versatile applications in a number of cutting-edge technological areas, particularly in fluorescence sensing and imaging.

  15. Tomographic measurement of the phase space distribution of a space-charge-dominated beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratakis, Diktys

    Many applications of accelerators, such as free electron lasers, pulsed neutron sources, and heavy ion fusion, require a good quality beam with high intensity. In practice, the achievable intensity is often limited by the dynamics at the low-energy, space-charge dominated end of the machine. Because low-energy beams can have complex distribution functions, a good understanding of their detailed evolution is needed. To address this issue, we have developed a simple and accurate tomographic method to map the beam phase using quadrupole magnets, which includes the effects from space charge. We extend this technique to use also solenoidal magnets which are commonly used at low energies, especially in photoinjectors, thus making the diagnostic applicable to most machines. We simulate our technique using a particle in cell code (PIC), to ascertain accuracy of the reconstruction. Using this diagnostic we report a number of experiments to study and optimize injection, transport and acceleration of intense space charge dominated beams. We examine phase mixing, by studying the phase-space evolution of an intense beam with a transversely nonuniform initial density distribution. Experimental measurements, theoretical predictions and PIC simulations are in good agreement each other. Finally, we generate a parabolic beam pulse to model those beams from photoinjectors, and combine tomography with fast imaging techniques to investigate the time-sliced parameters of beam current, size, energy spread and transverse emittance. We found significant differences between the slice emittance profiles and slice orientation as the beam propagates downstream. The combined effect of longitudinal nonuniform profiles and fast imaging of the transverse phase space provided us with information about correlations between longitudinal and transverse dynamics that we report within this dissertation.

  16. Measurement and modeling of electric field and space-charge distributions in obstructed helium discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendel, Peter [Thorlabs, 56 Sparta Avenue, Newton, New Jersey 07860 (United States); Ganguly, Biswa N.; Bletzinger, Peter [Air Force Research Laboratory, WPAFB, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Axial and radial variations of electric field have been measured in dielectric shielded 0.025 m diameter parallel plate electrode with 0.0065 m gap for 1.6 mA, 2260 V helium dc discharge at 1.75 Torr. The axial and radial electric field profiles have been measured from the Stark splitting of 2{sup 1}S→11 {sup 1}P transition through collision induced fluorescence from 4{sup 3}D→2{sup 3}P. The electric field values showed a strong radial variation peaking to 500 kV/m near the cathode radial boundary, and decreasing to about 100 kV/m near the anode edge, suggesting the formation of an obstructed discharge for this low nd condition, where n is the gas density and d is the gap distance. The off-axis Stark spectra showed that the electric field vector deviates from normal to the cathode surface which permits longer path electron trajectories in the inter-electrode gap. Also, the on-axis electric field gradient was very small and off-axis electric field gradient was large indicating a radially non-uniform current density. In order to obtain information about the space charge distribution in this obstructed discharge, it was modeled using the 2-d axisymmetric Poisson solver with the COMSOL finite element modeling program. The best fit to the measured electric field distribution was obtained with a space charge variation of ρ(r) = ρ{sub 0}(r/r{sub 0}){sup 3}, where ρ(r) is the local space charge density, ρ{sub 0} = 6 × 10{sup −3} Coulomb/m{sup 3}, r is the local radial value, and r{sub 0} is the radius of the electrode.

  17. Space charge, plasma potential and electric field distributions in HiPIMS discharges of varying configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, B.; Bradley, J. W.

    2013-08-01

    An electron-emitting (emissive) probe has been used to study the temporal and spatial distribution of the plasma potential during high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges with various substrate and magnetic field configurations. The average power was 700 W, with a repetition frequency of 100 Hz and pulse duration of 100 µs. Strongly negative plasma potentials exceeding -300 V and electric fields up to 10 kV m-1, caused by strong separation of charges with net charge carrier densities Δn of about 1014 m-3, were observed during the ignition of the discharge. The spatial distribution of the plasma potential in the stable stage of the discharge showed values consistently 5 V more negative for a floating substrate compared with a grounded one, so enhancing electron transport around the insulated substrate to grounded walls. However, this change in the electrical configuration of the plasma does not alter significantly the fraction of ionized sputtered particles (of about 30%) that can potentially reach the substrate. By changing the degree of unbalance of the sputtering source, we find a strong correlation between the electric field strength in the magnetic trap (created through charge separation) and the absolute value (and shape) of the magnetic field. For the more unbalanced magnetron, a flattening of the plasma potential structure (decrease in the axial electric field) was observed close to the target. Our findings show in principle that manipulation of the potential barrier close to the target through changing the magnetic field can regulate the proportion of sputtered and ionized species reaching the substrate.

  18. Study on charge equilibration time of highly charged ions in carbon foils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Yan; Xiao Guo-Qing; Xu Hu-Shan; Sun Zhi-Yu; Zhao Yong-Wao; Hu Zheng-Guo; Xu Hua-Gen; Huang Wian-Heng; Wang Yu-Yu

    2008-01-01

    Charge state distribution of 0.8MeV/u uranium ions after transmission through a thin carbon foil has been studied.It is observed that the charge state distribution is equilibrated after the uranium ions have passed through a 15 μg/cm2 carbon foil.The equilibrated average charge state is 33.72 and the charge equilibration time of uranium ions in carbon foil is less than 5.4fs.

  19. Dissociation of charge-transfer states at donor-acceptor interfaces of organic heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inche Ibrahim, M. L.

    2017-02-01

    The dissociation of charge-transfer (CT) states into free charge carriers at donor-acceptor (DA) interfaces is an important step in the operation of organic solar cells and related devices. In this paper, we show that the effect of DA morphology and architecture means that the directions of CT states (where a CT state’s direction is defined as the direction from the electron to the hole of the CT state) may deviate from the direction of the applied electric field. The deviation means that the electric field is not fully utilized to assist, and could even hinder the dissociation process. Furthermore, we show that the correct charge carrier mobilities that should be used to describe CT state dissociation are the actual mobilites at DA interfaces. The actual mobilities are defined in this paper, and in general are not the same as the mobilities that are used to calculate electric currents which are the mobilites along the direction of the electric field. Then, to correctly describe CT state dissociation, we modify the widely used Onsager-Braun (OB) model by including the effect of DA morphology and architecture, and by employing the correct mobilities. We verify that when the modified OB model is used to describe CT state dissociation, the fundamental issues that concern the original OB model are resolved. This study demonstrates that DA morphology and architecture play an important role by strongly influencing the CT state dissociation as well as the mobilites along the direction of the electric field.

  20. Tracking excited-state charge and spin dynamics in iron coordination complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenkai; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    to spin state, can elucidate the spin crossover dynamics of [Fe(2,2'-bipyridine)(3)](2+) on photoinduced metal-to-ligand charge transfer excitation. We are able to track the charge and spin dynamics, and establish the critical role of intermediate spin states in the crossover mechanism. We anticipate......Crucial to many light-driven processes in transition metal complexes is the absorption and dissipation of energy by 3d electrons(1-4). But a detailed understanding of such non-equilibrium excited-state dynamics and their interplay with structural changes is challenging: a multitude of excited...... states and possible transitions result in phenomena too complex to unravel when faced with the indirect sensitivity of optical spectroscopy to spin dynamics(5) and the flux limitations of ultrafast X-ray sources(6,7). Such a situation exists for archetypal poly-pyridyl iron complexes, such as [Fe(2...

  1. Smart and Accurate State-of-Charge Indication in Portable Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate State-of-Charge (SoC) and remaining run-time indication for portable devices is important for the user-convenience and to prolong the lifetime of batteries. However, the known methods of SoC indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. The meth

  2. Ground-state charge transfer as a mechanism for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippitsch, Max E.

    1984-03-01

    A model is presented for the contribution of ground-state charge transfer between a metal and adsorbate to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). It is shown that this contribution can be understood using the vibronic theory for calculating Raman intensities. The enhancement is due to vibronic coupling of the molecular ground state to the metal states, the coupling mechanism being a modulation of the ground-state charge-transfer energy by the molecular vibrations. An analysis of the coupling operator gives the selection rules for this process, which turn out to be dependent on the overall symmetry of the adsorbate-metal system, even if the charge transfer is small enough for the symmetry of the adsorbate to remain the same as that of the free molecule. It is shown that the model can yield predictions on the properties of SERS, e.g., specificity to adsorption geometry, appearance of forbidden bands, dependence on the applied potential, and dependence on the excitation wavelength. The predictions are in good agreement with experimental results. It is also deduced from this model that in many cases atomic-scale roughness is a prerequisite for the observation of SERS. A result on the magnitude of the enhancement can only be given in a crude approximation. Although in most cases an additional electromagnetic enhancement seems to be necessary to give an observable signal, this charge-transfer mechanism should be important in many SERS systems.

  3. 42 CFR 447.68 - Alternative copayments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost sharing charges: State plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative copayments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost sharing charges: State plan requirements. 447.68 Section 447.68 Public Health CENTERS... Under Section 1916a § 447.68 Alternative copayments, coinsurance, deductibles, or similar cost...

  4. A Real-Time evaluation system for a state-of-charge indication algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The known methods of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. This paper describes a real- time evaluation LabVIEW system for an SoC algorithm, that calculates the SoC in [%] and also the remaining run-time available under the

  5. Spectroscopy of charge transfer states in Mg1 - x Ni x O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churmanov, V. N.; Sokolov, V. I.; Pustovarov, V. A.; Gruzdev, N. B.; Mironova-Ulmane, N.

    2016-10-01

    Photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectra of solid solution Mg1- x Ni x O ( x = 0.008) have been analyzed. The contributions of charge transfer electronic states and nonradiative Auger relaxation to the formation of the photoluminescence spectrum are discussed.

  6. Symmetry-breaking intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state of meso-linked BODIPY dyads

    KAUST Repository

    Whited, Matthew T.

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of symmetric BODIPY dyads where the chromophores are attached at the meso position, using either a phenylene bridge or direct linkage. Both molecules undergo symmetry-breaking intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state, and the directly linked dyad serves as a visible-light-absorbing analogue of 9,9′-bianthryl.

  7. Average charge states of heavy and superheavy ions passing through a rarified gas : Theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khuyagbaatar, J.; Shevelko, V. P.; Borschevsky, A.; Duellmann, Ch. E.; Tolstikhina, I. Yu.; Yakushev, A.

    2013-01-01

    The average charge states (q) over bar of heavy and superheavy ions (atomic numbers Z = 80-114) passing through He gas are studied experimentally and theoretically. Experimental data were measured at the gas-filled recoil separator, i.e., the TransActinide Separator and Chemistry Apparatus (TASCA) a

  8. Smart Charging of EVs in Residential Distribution Systems Using the Extended Iterative Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart charging of electrical vehicles (EVs is critical to provide the secure and cost-effective operation for distribution systems. Three model objective functions which are minimization of total supplied power, energy costs and maximization of profits are formulated. The conventional household load is modeled as a ZIP load that consists of constant power, constant current and constant impedance components. The imbalance of distribution system, constraints on nodal voltages and thermal loadings of lines and transformers are all taken into account. Utilizing the radial operation structure of distribution system, an extended iterative method is proposed to greatly reduce the dimensions of optimization variables and thus improve calculation speed. Impacts of the conventional household load model on the simulation results are also investigated. Case studies on three distribution systems with 2, 14, and 141 buses are performed and analyzed. It is found that the linear constrained convex quadratic programming model is applicable at each iteration, when the conventional household load is composed of constant power and constant impedance load. However, it is not applicable when the conventional household load consists of constant current load. The accuracy and computational efficiency of the proposed method are also validated.

  9. X-ray derived experimental charge density distribution in GaF3 and VF3 solid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha, K.; Israel, S.; Anzline, C.; Niranjana Devi, R.; Sheeba, R. A. J. R.

    2016-09-01

    The electronic structure and bonding features of metal and transition metal fluorides in low oxidation states, GaF3 and VF3, have been studied from precise single crystal X-ray diffraction data using multipole and maximum entropy methods. The topology of the charge density is analyzed and the (3,-1) bond critical points are determined. Existences of ionic nature of bonding in low valent fluorine compounds are clearly evident. The spherical core of metal atom and aspherical or twisted core of transition metal atom reveal the fact that GaF3 is much more rigid than VF3. Aspherical cores of the polarized ligand atoms are also visible in the two-dimensional density distribution pictures. The true valence charge density surfaces with encapsulating the atomic basins maps are elucidated. An elongated saddle with mid-bond density of 0.6191 e/Å3, observed in the compound VF3, shows that its lattice is less rigid and has more ionic character than GaF3.

  10. Charge Neutral Fermionic States and Current Oscillation in a Graphene-Superconductor Hybrid Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenye; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Chao; Jin, Kuijuan; Ma, Zhongshui

    2016-10-01

    The proximity properties of edge currents in the vicinity of the interface between the graphene and superconductor in the presence of magnetic field are investigated. It is shown that the edge states introduced by Andreev reflection at the graphene-superconductor (G/S) interface give rise to the charge neutral states in all Landau levels. We note that in a topological insulator-superconductor (TI/S) hybrid structure, only N = 0 Landau level can support this type of charge neutral states. The different interface states of a G/S hybrid and a TI/S hybrid is due to that graphene consists of two distinct sublattices. The armchair edge consists of two inequivalent atoms. This gives rise to unique electronic properties of edge states when connected to a superconductor. A direct consequence of zero charge states in all Landau levels is that the current density approaches zero at interface. The proximity effect leads to quantum magnetic oscillation of the current density in the superconductor region. The interface current density can also be tuned with a finite interface potential. For sharp δ-type interface potential, the derivative of the wavefunction is discontinuous. As a result, we found that there is current density discontinuity at the interface. The step of the current discontinuity is proportional to the strength of the interface potential.

  11. Mitigation of the Impact of High Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration on Residential Distribution Grid Using Smart Charging Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Cao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle electrification presents a great opportunity to reduce transportation greenhouse gas emissions. The greater use of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs, however, puts stress on local distribution networks. This paper presents an optimal PEV charging control method integrated with utility demand response (DR signals to mitigate the impact of PEV charging to several aspects of a grid, including load surge, distribution accumulative voltage deviation, and transformer aging. To build a realistic PEV charging load model, the results of National Household Travel Survey (NHTS have been analyzed and a stochastic PEV charging model has been defined based on survey results. The residential distribution grid contains 120 houses and is modeled in GridLAB-D. Co-simulation is performed using Matlab and GridLAB-D to enable the optimal control algorithm in Matlab to control PEV charging loads in the residential grid modeled in GridLAB-D. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimal charging control method in mitigating the negative impacts of PEV charging on the residential grid.

  12. Fusion strategies for unequal state vectors in distributed Kalman filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noack, B.; Sijs, J.; Hanebeck, U.D.

    2014-01-01

    Distributed implementations of state estimation algorithms generally have in common that each node in a networked system computes an estimate on the entire global state. Accordingly, each node has to store and compute an estimate of the same state vector irrespective of whether its sensors can only

  13. Impact of charging electric-powered vehicles on the management of power distribution systems at volatile wind energy input; Einfluss gesteuerten Ladens von Elektrofahrzeugen auf die Netzbetriebsfuehrung bei volatiler Windeinspeisung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agsten, Michael

    2011-10-10

    This work summarizes findings obtained by controlled charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs) regarding volatile wind power generation. Based on the state of the art of the negotiation of the charging process between the EV and the charging point two approaches will be explained. The Wind-2-Vehicle method (W2V) is an example for using controlled EV charging in order to create a renewable supply following demand by optimizing the energy supply quota wind in each charging process. The Local Load Management (LLM) method is an example of using information from distribution grids to limit the charging power of EVs over time. In this work, two case studies are carried out to quantify the controlled/uncontrolled charging of EVs and their impact on electric power systems. The first case study describes charging of fifty EVs by a reduced W2V approach. The charging process has been analyzed from different point of views. Controlled/Uncontrolled charging results in peak demand (of EV fleets), due to synchronized charging. This may result in violation of preassigned operation limits. The utilization of the developed LLM method in the second case study shows that a small reduction of the achievable W2V quality results in an improved charging performance for small as well as large fleets. Therefore applying LLM can avoid violations of operation limits.

  14. Charge States of Solar Cosmic Rays and Constraints on Acceleration Times and Coronal Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffolo, D

    1997-01-01

    We examine effects on the charge states of energetic ions associated with gradual solar flares due to shock heating and stripping at high ion velocities. Recent measurements of the mean charges of various elements after the flares of 1992 Oct 30 and 1992 Nov 2 allow one to place limits on the product of the electron density times the acceleration or coronal residence time. In particular, any residence in coronal loops must be for < 0.03 s, which rules out models of coronal transport in loops, such as the bird cage model. The results do not contradict models of shock acceleration of energetic ions from coronal plasma at various solar longitudes.

  15. Modeling of direct beam extraction for a high-charge-state fusion driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O. A.; Grant Logan, B.

    A newly proposed type of multicharged ion source offers the possibility of an economically advantageous high-charge-state fusion driver. Multiphoton absorption in an intense uniform laser focus can give multiple charge states of high purity, simplifying or eliminating the need for charge-state separation downstream. Very large currents (hundreds of amperes) can be extracted from this type of source. Several arrangements are possible. For example, the laser plasma could be tailored for storage in a magnetic bucket, with beam extracted from the bucket. A different approach, described in this report, is direct beam extraction from the expanding laser plasma. We discuss extraction and focusing for the particular case of a 4.1 MV beam of Xe 16+ ions. The maximum duration of the beam pulse is limited by the total charge in the plasma, while the practical pulse length is determined by the range of plasma radii over which good beam optics can be achieved. The extraction electrode contains a solenoid for beam focusing. Our design studies were carried out first with an envelope code and then with a self-consistent particle code. Results from our initial model showed that hundreds of amperes could be extracted, but that most of this current missed the solenoid entrance or was intercepted by the wall and that only a few amperes were able to pass through. We conclude with an improved design which increases the surviving beam to more than 70 A.

  16. Charge states of a hydrogen defect (3326 cm{sup -1} line) in ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herklotz, Frank; Lavrov, Eduard; Weber, Joerg [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen in ZnO is a common impurity that strongly influences its electrical and optical properties, in particular, via formation of shallow donor states. An IR absorption study of a H-related defect resulting in a local vibrational mode (LVM) at 3326 cm{sup -1} is presented. We observed that a sub band-gap illumination results in the appearance of an IR absorption line at 3358 cm{sup -1} at the expense of the 3326 cm{sup -1} signal. The results of isotope substitution experiments strongly reveal that the two signals are LVMs of the same defect in different charge states. From the energy of the sub band-gap light it is concluded that this defect has a deep level in the band-gap. Data on thermal stability as well as the transition between the different charge states at different temperatures are also presented. The microscopic nature of the defect is discussed.

  17. Full control of quadruple quantum dot circuit charge states in the single electron regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbecq, M. R., E-mail: matthieu.delbecq@riken.jp; Nakajima, T.; Otsuka, T.; Amaha, S. [RIKEN, Center for Emergent Matter Science, 3-1 Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Watson, J. D. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Manfra, M. J. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Tarucha, S. [RIKEN, Center for Emergent Matter Science, 3-1 Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-05-05

    We report the realization of an array of four tunnel coupled quantum dots in the single electron regime, which is the first required step toward a scalable solid state spin qubit architecture. We achieve an efficient tunability of the system but also find out that the conditions to realize spin blockade readout are not as straightforwardly obtained as for double and triple quantum dot circuits. We use a simple capacitive model of the series quadruple quantum dots circuit to investigate its complex charge state diagrams and are able to find the most suitable configurations for future Pauli spin blockade measurements. We then experimentally realize the corresponding charge states with a good agreement to our model.

  18. Highly charged ions in Penning traps, a new tool for resolving low lying isomeric states

    CERN Document Server

    Gallant, A T; Brunner, T; Chowdhury, U; Ettenauer, S; Simon, V V; Mané, E; Simon, M C; Andreoiu, C; Delheij, P; Gwinner, G; Pearson, M R; Ringle, R; Dilling, J

    2011-01-01

    The use of highly charged ions greatly increases the precision and resolving power, in particular for short-lived species produced at on-line radio-isotope beam facilities, achievable with Penning trap mass spectrometers. This increase in resolving power provides a new and unique access to resolving low-lying long-lived ($T_{1/2} > 50$ ms) nuclear isomers. Recently, the $111.19(22)$ keV (determined from $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy) isomeric state in $^{78}$Rb has been resolved from the ground state, in a charge state of $q=8+$ with the TITAN Penning trap at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility. The energy level of the isomer was measured to be $108.7(6.4)$ keV above the ground state. The extracted masses for both the ground and isomeric states, and their difference, agree with the AME2003 and Nuclear Data Sheet values. This proof of principle measurement demonstrates the feasibility of using Penning trap mass spectrometers coupled to charge breeders to study nuclear isomers and opens a new route for isomer searches.

  19. Explicit solvent DRF INDOs/CIS computations of charge transfer state energetics in a pyrenyldeoxyuridine nucleoside model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duijnen, Piet Th; Netzel, Thomas L

    2006-02-16

    In this work we present calculated absorption and emission spectra in acetonitrile (MeCN) solution of N-acetyl-1-aminopyrene (PAAc, a spectroscopic model compound) and N-(1-pyrenyl)-1-methyluracil-5-carboxamide (PAU(Me), a computational model for 5-(N-carboxyl-1-aminopyrenyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (PAdU)). The computational method used--the discrete reaction field approach (DRF)--combines a quantum mechanical (QM) description of the solute (here DFT and INDOs/CIS, i.e., the INDO parametrization for spectroscopy) with a classical, molecular mechanics (MM) description of the solvent molecules. The latter are modeled with point charges representing the permanent charge distribution and polarizabilities to account for many-body interactions among the solute and other solvent molecules. Molecular dynamics is used to sample the degrees of freedom of the solution around several solute conformations each in two electronic excited states. This leads to a large number of solute/solvent configurations from which 800 are selected for each excited state and collected into a single ensemble by means of proper Boltzmann averaging. DRF INDOs/CIS applied to the selected solute/solvent configurations give simulated absorption and emission band spectra--each based on 15,200 calculated transitions--that compare well with experimental results. For example, the much broader absorption and emission bands in PAdU compared with PAAc are reproduced, and the simulated emission spectra of PAU(Me) agree well with broad (380-550 nm) charge transfer (CT) emission seen for PAdU in MeCN. The observed multiexponential fluorescence decay profiles for PAdU in different polar solvents are interpreted in terms of solute/solvent conformational heterogeneity here generated in the MD simulations for PAU(Me) in MeCN. Additionally, the simulations demonstrate the mixing of the forbidden Py*+/dU*- CT states with allowed pyrenyl 1(pi,pi*) states.

  20. Random Bures mixed states and the distribution of their purity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Osipov, V; Sommers, H-J [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); Zyczkowski, K, E-mail: Vladimir.Al.Osipov@gmail.co, E-mail: H.J.Sommers@uni-due.d, E-mail: karol@cft.edu.p [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2010-02-05

    Ensembles of random density matrices determined by various probability measures are analysed. A simple and efficient algorithm to generate at random density matrices distributed according to the Bures measure is proposed. This procedure may serve as an initial step in performing the Bayesian approach to quantum state estimation based on the Bures prior. We study the distribution of purity of random mixed states. The moments of the distribution of purity are determined for quantum states generated with respect to the Bures measure. This calculation serves as an exemplary application of the 'deform-and-study' approach in the theory of integrable systems leading to one of Painleves transcendents.

  1. Momentum distribution of charged particles in jets in dijet events and comparison to perturbative QCD predictions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M E ZOMORRODIAN; M HASHEMINIA; S M ZABIHINPOUR; A MIRJALILI

    2016-08-01

    Inclusive momentum distributions of charged particles are measured in dijet events. Events were produced at the AMY detector with a centre of mass energy of 60 ${\\rm GeV}$. Our results were compared, on the one hand to those obtained from other $e^+ e^-$, $ep$ as well as CDF data, and on the other hand to the perturbative QCD calculations carried out in the framework of the modified leading log approximation (MLLA) and assuming local parton--hadron duality (LPHD). A fit of the shape of the distributions yields $\\scr Q_{eff} = 263 \\pm 13 {\\rm MeV}$ for the AMY data. In addition, a fit to the evolution of the peak position with dijet mass using all data from different experiments gives $\\scr Q_{eff} = 226 \\pm 18 {\\rm MeV}$. Next, αs was extracted using the shape of the distribution at the Z0 scale, with a value of 0.118 \\pm 0.013. This is consistent, within the statistical errors, with many accurate measurements. We conclude that it is the success of LPHD + MLLA that the extracted value of $\\alpha_{s}$ is correct. Possible explanations for all these features will be presented in this paper.

  2. Charge-exchange Induced Modulation of the Heliosheath Ion Distribution Downstream of the Termination Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, H. J.; Fichtner, H.; Scherer, K.

    2015-12-01

    We consider the evolution of the solar wind ion distribution function alongthe plasma flow downstream from the termination shock induced by chargeexchange processes with cold interstellar H-atoms. We start from a kineticphase space transport equation valid in the bulk frame of the plasma flowthat takes into account convective changes, cooling processes, energydiffusion and ion injection, and describes solar wind and pick-up ionsas a co-moving, isotropic, joint ion population. From this kinetic transportequation one can ascend to an equation for the pressure moment of the iondistribution function, a so-called pressure transport equation, describingthe evolution of the ion pressure in the comoving rest frame. Assuming thatthe local ion distribution can be represented by an adequate kappa functionwith a kappa parameter that varies with the streamline coordinate, weobtain an ordinary differential equation for kappa as function of thestreamline coordinate s. With this result then we gain the heliosheath iondistribution function downstream of the termination shock. The latter thencan be used to predict the Voyager-2 measured moments of the distributionfunction like ion density and ion temperature, and it can also be used topredict spectral fluxes of ENA`s originating from these ions and registeredby IBEX-Hi and IBEX-Lo.We especially analyse the solar wind ion temperature decreasemeasured by Voyager-2 between the years 2008 to 2011 and try to explain itas a charge-exchange induced cooling of the ion distribution function duringthe associated ion convection period.

  3. Vertical distribution of overpotentials and irreversible charge losses in lithium ion battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, Stefan; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; La Mantia, Fabio

    2014-08-01

    Porous lithium ion battery electrodes are characterized using a vertical distribution of cross-currents. In an appropriate simplification, this distribution can be described by a transmission line model (TLM) consisting of infinitely thin electrode layers. To investigate the vertical distribution of currents, overpotentials, and irreversible charge losses in a porous graphite electrode in situ, a multi-layered working electrode (MWE) was developed as the experimental analogue of a TLM. In this MWE, each layer is in ionic contact but electrically insulated from the other layers by a porous separator. It was found that the negative graphite electrodes get lithiated and delithiated stage-by-stage and layer-by-layer. Several mass-transport- as well as non-mass-transport-limited processes could be identified. Local current densities can reach double the average, especially on the outermost layer at the beginning of each intercalation stage. Furthermore, graphite particles close to the counter electrode act as "electrochemical sieve" reducing the impurities present in the electrolyte such as water.

  4. Electronic Structure, Dielectric Response, and Surface Charge Distribution of RGD (1FUV) Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Puja; Wen, Amy M.; French, Roger H.; Parsegian, V. Adrian; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Podgornik, Rudolf; Ching, Wai-Yim

    2014-07-01

    Long and short range molecular interactions govern molecular recognition and self-assembly of biological macromolecules. Microscopic parameters in the theories of these molecular interactions are either phenomenological or need to be calculated within a microscopic theory. We report a unified methodology for the ab initio quantum mechanical (QM) calculation that yields all the microscopic parameters, namely the partial charges as well as the frequency-dependent dielectric response function, that can then be taken as input for macroscopic theories of electrostatic, polar, and van der Waals-London dispersion intermolecular forces. We apply this methodology to obtain the electronic structure of the cyclic tripeptide RGD-4C (1FUV). This ab initio unified methodology yields the relevant parameters entering the long range interactions of biological macromolecules, providing accurate data for the partial charge distribution and the frequency-dependent dielectric response function of this peptide. These microscopic parameters determine the range and strength of the intricate intermolecular interactions between potential docking sites of the RGD-4C ligand and its integrin receptor.

  5. Charged particle assisted nuclear reactions in solid state environment: renaissance of low energy nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    The features of electron assisted neutron exchange processes in crystalline solids are survayed. It is stated that, contrary to expectations, the cross section of these processes may reach an observable magnitude even in the very low energy case because of the extremely huge increment caused by the Coulomb factor of the electron assisted processes and by the effect of the crystal-lattice. The features of electron assisted heavy charged particle exchange processes, electron assisted nuclear capure processes and heavy charged particle assisted nuclear processes are also overviewed. Experimental observations, which may be related to our theoretical findings, are dealt with. The anomalous screening phenomenon is related to electron assisted neutron and proton exchange processes in crystalline solids. A possible explanation of observations by Fleischmann and Pons is presented. The possibility of the phenomenon of nuclear transmutation is qualitatively explained with the aid of usual and charged particle assisted r...

  6. Investigation Of The EMF Versus State Of Charge Behavior Of Individual Electrodes In New And Cycled Sony 18650 HC Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, G.; Mattle, T.

    2011-10-01

    Individual electrode EMFs of new and cycled Sony 18650 HC cells have been measured with the help of a lithium reference electrode inserted into complete cells. Results have revealed the relative contribution of each electrode to voltage hysteresis (the difference in cell EMF between charge and discharge at the same state of charge).They have also shown changes to the shape of the positive electrode EMF versus state of charge in cycled compared to beginning of life cells.

  7. Estimation of State of Charge for Two Types of Lithium-Ion Batteries by Nonlinear Predictive Filter for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Hua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of state of charge (SOC is of great importance for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. This paper presents a state of charge estimation method using nonlinear predictive filter (NPF and evaluates the proposed method on the lithium-ion batteries with different chemistries. Contrary to most conventional filters which usually assume a zero mean white Gaussian process noise, the advantage of NPF is that the process noise in NPF is treated as an unknown model error and determined as a part of the solution without any prior assumption, and it can take any statistical distribution form, which improves the estimation accuracy. In consideration of the model accuracy and computational complexity, a first-order equivalent circuit model is applied to characterize the battery behavior. The experimental test is conducted on the LiCoO2 and LiFePO4 battery cells to validate the proposed method. The results show that the NPF method is able to accurately estimate the battery SOC and has good robust performance to the different initial states for both cells. Furthermore, the comparison study between NPF and well-established extended Kalman filter for battery SOC estimation indicates that the proposed NPF method has better estimation accuracy and converges faster.

  8. Decay rates of large-l Rydberg states of multiply charged ions approaching solid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeljkovic, N. N.; Mirkovic, M. A.; Bozanic, D. K.

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the ionization of large-l multiply charged Rydberg ions approaching solid surfaces within the framework of decay model and applying the etalon equation method. The radial coordinate rho of the active electron is treated as a variational parameter and therefore the parabolic symmetry is preserved in this procedure. The complex eigenenergies are calculated from which the energy terms and the ionization rates are derived. We find that the large-l Rydberg states decay at approximately the same ion-surface distances as the low-l states oriented toward the vacuum and considerably closer to the surface comparing to the low-l states oriented towards the surface.

  9. Ground State and Charge Renormalization in a Nonlinear Model of Relativistic Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Gravejat, Philippe; Sere, Eric

    2007-01-01

    We study the reduced Bogoliubov-Dirac-Fock (BDF) energy which allows to describe relativistic electrons interacting with the Dirac sea, in an external electrostatic potential. The model can be seen as a mean-field approximation of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) where photons and the so-called exchange term are neglected. A state of the system is described by its one-body density matrix, an infinite rank self-adjoint operator which is a compact perturbation of the negative spectral projector of the free Dirac operator (the Dirac sea). We study the minimization of the reduced BDF energy under a charge constraint. We prove the existence of minimizers for a large range of values of the charge, and any positive value of the coupling constant $\\alpha$. Our result covers neutral and positively charged molecules, provided that the positive charge is not large enough to create electron-positron pairs. We also prove that the density of any minimizer is an $L^1$ function and compute the effective charge of the system, re...

  10. Pressure-dependent optical investigations of Fabre salts in the charge-ordered state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshenko, Ievgen; Herter, Melina; Beyer, Rebeca; Pustogow, Andrej; Dressel, Martin

    2017-03-01

    In a comprehensive infrared study, the molecular vibrational features of (TMTTF)2SbF6, (TMTTF)2AsF6 and (TMTTF)2PF6 single crystals have been measured down to temperatures as low as 7 K by applying hydrostatic pressure up to 11 kbar. We follow the charge disproportionation below the critical temperatures T CO as pressure increases, and determine the critical pressure values p CO at which the charge-ordered phase is suppressed. The coexistence of the spin-Peierls phase with charge order is explored at low temperatures, and the competition of these two phases is observed. Based on our measurements we construct a generic phase diagram of the Fabre salts with centrosymmetric anions. The pressure-dependent anion and methyl-group dynamics in these quasi-one-dimensional charge transfer compounds yields information about the interplay of the organic molecules in the stacks and the anions, and how this interaction varies upon the transition to the charge-ordered state.

  11. The s-channel charged Higgs in the fully hadronic final state at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Ijaz [University of Malaya, National Center for Particle Physics, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad (Pakistan); Hashemi, Majid [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tajuddin, Wan Ahmad [University of Malaya, National Center for Particle Physics, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-04-15

    With the current measurements performed by CMS and ATLAS experiments, the light charged Higgs scenario (m{sub H}{sup {sub ±}} < 160 GeV), is excluded for most of the parameter space in the context of MSSM. However, there is still possibility to look for heavy charged Higgs boson particularly in the s-channel single top production process where the charged Higgs may appear as a heavy resonance state and decay to t anti b. The production process under consideration in this paper is pp → H{sup ±} → t anti b + h.c., where the top quark decays to W{sup +}b and W{sup +} boson subsequently decays to two light jets. It is shown that despite the presence of large QCD and electroweak background events, the charged Higgs signal can be extracted and observed at a large area of MSSM parameter space (m{sub H}{sup {sub ±}}, tanβ) at LHC. The observability of charged Higgs is potentially demonstrated with 5σ contours and 95% confidence level exclusion curves at different integrated LHC luminosities assuming a nominal center of mass energy of √(s) = 14 TeV. (orig.)

  12. Correlation between the Open-Circuit Voltage and Charge Transfer State Energy in Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yunlong; Holmes, Russell J

    2015-08-26

    In order to further improve the performance of organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), it is essential to better understand the factors that limit the open-circuit voltage (VOC). Previous work has sought to correlate the value of VOC in donor-acceptor (D-A) OPVs to the interface energy level offset (EDA). In this work, measurements of electroluminescence are used to extract the charge transfer (CT) state energy for multiple small molecule D-A pairings. The CT state as measured from electroluminescence is found to show better correlation to the maximum VOC than EDA. The difference between EDA and the CT state energy is attributed to the Coulombic binding energy of the CT state. This correlation is demonstrated explicitly by inserting an insulating spacer layer between the donor and acceptor materials, reducing the binding energy of the CT state and increasing the measured VOC. These results demonstrate a direct correlation between maximum VOC and CT state energy.

  13. Vibrational population distributions of the product of the chemiluminescent charge transfer reaction: O + (2D)+HCl --> O+HCl + (A 2Sigma + )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Yasushi; Kusunoki, Isao

    1987-12-01

    The chemiluminescent charge transfer reaction of O+ (2 D)ions with HCl has been studied in the energy range of 7 to 100 eVc.m. . The vibrational population distributions of the HCl+(A 2 Σ+,v') product have been analyzed from the emission spectra of the A→X transition. At low collision energy the distribution has a peak at v'=3. The partial reaction cross section σ(3) for this level increases with decreasing collision energy. The features of the reaction are very similar to the F+ +CO→ F+CO+ (A) reaction reported previously. The mechanism has been discussed on the basis of curve crossing between the initial and final states along the HCl vibrational coordinate in the asymptotic region of the [O-HCl]+ system. The projectile ions C+ and N+ have also been tested for the charge transfer reaction of HCl(X)→HCl+(A).

  14. Linear and angular momentum of electromagnetic fields generated by an arbitrary distribution of charge and current densities at rest

    CERN Document Server

    Thidé, B; Then, H; Tamburini, F

    2010-01-01

    Starting from Stratton-Panofsky-Phillips-Jefimenko equations for the electric and magnetic fields generated by completely arbitrary charge and current density distributions at rest, we derive far-zone approximations for the fields, containing all components, dominant as well as sub-dominant. Using these approximate formulas, we derive general formulas for the total electromagnetic linear momentum and angular momentum, valid at large distances from arbitrary, non-moving charge and current sources.

  15. North Slope, Alaska: Source rock distribution, richness, thermal maturity, and petroleum charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.E.; Magoon, L.B.; Bird, K.J.; Valin, Z.C.; Keller, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Four key marine petroleum source rock units were identified, characterized, and mapped in the subsurface to better understand the origin and distribution of petroleum on the North Slope of Alaska. These marine source rocks, from oldest to youngest, include four intervals: (1) Middle-Upper Triassic Shublik Formation, (2) basal condensed section in the Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Kingak Shale, (3) Cretaceous pebble shale unit, and (4) Cretaceous Hue Shale. Well logs for more than 60 wells and total organic carbon (TOC) and Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses for 1183 samples in 125 well penetrations of the source rocks were used to map the present-day thickness of each source rock and the quantity (TOC), quality (hydrogen index), and thermal maturity (Tmax) of the organic matter. Based on assumptions related to carbon mass balance and regional distributions of TOC, the present-day source rock quantity and quality maps were used to determine the extent of fractional conversion of the kerogen to petroleum and to map the original TOC (TOCo) and the original hydrogen index (HIo) prior to thermal maturation. The quantity and quality of oil-prone organic matter in Shublik Formation source rock generally exceeded that of the other units prior to thermal maturation (commonly TOCo > 4 wt.% and HIo > 600 mg hydrocarbon/g TOC), although all are likely sources for at least some petroleum on the North Slope. We used Rock-Eval and hydrous pyrolysis methods to calculate expulsion factors and petroleum charge for each of the four source rocks in the study area. Without attempting to identify the correct methods, we conclude that calculations based on Rock-Eval pyrolysis overestimate expulsion factors and petroleum charge because low pressure and rapid removal of thermally cracked products by the carrier gas retards cross-linking and pyrobitumen formation that is otherwise favored by natural burial maturation. Expulsion factors and petroleum charge based on hydrous pyrolysis may also be high

  16. Charge state dynamics of the nitrogen vacancy center in diamond under near-infrared excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Peng; Dutt, M. V. Gurudev

    2016-05-01

    The negatively charged NV defect center (NV-) in diamond has become prominent for applications in quantum information, nanoscale magnetic and electric field sensing, and fluorescent biological markers. Switching between NV- and neutral charge states (NV0) have been extensively studied and modeled using exciting laser wavelengths that are shorter than the NV- zero-phonon line (ZPL), and typically result in decreased fluorescence from the NV- state. In this work, we report on the experimental observation that NV0 converts to NV- under excitation with near-infrared (1064 nm) light, resulting in increased fluorescence from the NV- state. We have observed this effect in both ensembles of NVs in bulk diamond, and in diamond nanocrystals, and find that it is robust both at room and low temperature. We carried out microwave and two-color excitation combined with spectral and time-resolved experimental studies. We used rate-equation modeling and find evidence for competition between one-photon and two-photon processes for hole and electron ionization. This finding may help elucidate the study of the NV energy level structure, and impact recently emerging research in single-shot measurement of the NV- spin state via spin-to-charge conversion.

  17. Sensing the charge state of single gold nanoparticles via work function measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Pluchery, Olivier; Caillard, Louis; Lamic-Humblot, Anne-Félicie; Casale, Sandra; Chabal, Yves J; Salmeron, Miquel

    2015-01-14

    Electrostatic interactions at the nanoscale can lead to novel properties and functionalities that bulk materials and devices do not have. Here we used Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) to study the work function (WF) of gold nanoparticles (NPs) deposited on a Si wafer covered by a monolayer of alkyl chains, which provide a tunnel junction. We find that the WF of Au NPs is size-dependent and deviates strongly from that of the bulk Au. We attribute the WF change to the charging of the NPs, which is a consequence of the difference in WF between Au and the substrate. For an NP with 10 nm diameter charged with ∼ 5 electrons, the WF is found to be only ∼ 3.6 eV. A classical electrostatic model is derived that explains the observations in a quantitative way. We also demonstrate that the WF and charge state of Au NPs are influenced by chemical changes of the underlying substrate. Therefore, Au NPs could be used for chemical and biological sensing, whose environmentally sensitive charge state can be read out by work function measurements.

  18. Landau Level Splittings, Phase Transitions, and Nonuniform Charge Distribution in Trilayer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Leonardo C.; Taychatanapat, Thiti; Serbyn, Maksym; Surakitbovorn, Kawin; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Abanin, Dmitry A.; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2016-08-01

    We report on magnetotransport studies of dual-gated, Bernal-stacked trilayer graphene (TLG) encapsulated in boron nitride crystals. We observe a quantum Hall effect staircase which indicates a complete lifting of the 12-fold degeneracy of the zeroth Landau level. As a function of perpendicular electric field, our data exhibit a sequence of phase transitions between all integer quantum Hall states in the filling factor interval -8 theoretical model and argue that, in contrast to monolayer and bilayer graphene, the observed Landau level splittings and quantum Hall phase transitions can be understood within a single-particle picture, but imply the presence of a charge density imbalance between the inner and outer layers of TLG, even at charge neutrality and zero transverse electric field. Our results indicate the importance of a previously unaccounted band structure parameter which, together with a more accurate estimate of the other tight-binding parameters, results in a significantly improved determination of the electronic and Landau level structure of TLG.

  19. Milk production and distribution in nine western states in the 1950s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, G.M.; Whicker, F.W.

    1987-03-01

    This report provides information on milk distribution and dairy cattle feeding practices in Nevada, Utah and portions of seven other adjacent states during the 1950s. The information was gathered to support the US Department of Energy's ''Offsite Radiation Exposure Review Project (ORERP).'' This project is charged with providing radiation dose estimates for residents of Nevada, Utah, and surrounding states from nuclear weapons testing conducted at the Nevada Test Site from 1951 through 1962. The information on milk production and distribution is essential for assessment of the internal organ doses received by people as a result of ingesting radioactive fallout-contaminated foods. The information is used as input data for Colorado State University's PATHWAY computer code which estimates the ingestion of twenty radionuclides by people relative to a given level of fallout deposition.

  20. The effect of realistic nuclear charge distributions on isotope shifts and towards the extraction of higher order nuclear radial moments

    CERN Document Server

    Papoulia, A; Ekman, J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atomic spectral lines from different isotopes display a small shift in energy, commonly referred to as the line isotope shift. One of the components of the isotope shift is the field shift, which depends on the extent and the shape of the nuclear charge density distribution. Purpose: To investigate how sensitive field shifts are with respect to variations in the nuclear size and shape and what information of nuclear charge distributions that can be extracted from measured field shifts. Methods: Nuclear properties are obtained from nuclear density functional theory calculations based on the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach. These results are combined with multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock methods to obtain realistic field shifts. Results: Phenomena such as nuclear deformation and variations in the diffuseness of nuclear charge distributions give measurable contributions to the field shifts. Using a novel approach, we demonstrate the possibility to extract new information concerning the n...

  1. Virtual charge state separator as an advanced tool coupling measurements and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaramyshev, S.; Vormann, H.; Adonin, A.; Barth, W.; Dahl, L.; Gerhard, P.; Groening, L.; Hollinger, R.; Maier, M.; Mickat, S.; Orzhekhovskaya, A.

    2015-05-01

    A new low energy beam transport for a multicharge uranium beam will be built at the GSI High Current Injector (HSI). All uranium charge states coming from the new ion source will be injected into GSI heavy ion high current HSI Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), but only the design ions U4 + will be accelerated to the final RFQ energy. A detailed knowledge about injected beam current and emittance for pure design U4 + ions is necessary for a proper beam line design commissioning and operation, while measurements are possible only for a full beam including all charge states. Detailed measurements of the beam current and emittance are performed behind the first quadrupole triplet of the beam line. A dedicated algorithm, based on a combination of measurements and the results of advanced beam dynamics simulations, provides for an extraction of beam current and emittance values for only the U4 + component of the beam. The proposed methods and obtained results are presented.

  2. Laser Plasmas : Multiple charge states of titanium ions in laser produced plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Shukla; S Bandhyopadhyay; V N Rai; A V Kilpio; H C Pant

    2000-11-01

    An intense laser radiation (1012 to 1014 W/cm-2) focused on the solid target creates a hot (≥ 1 keV) and dense plasma having high ionization state. The multiple charged ions with high current densities produced during laser matter interaction have potential application in accelerators as an ion source. This paper presents generation and detection of highly stripped titanium ions (Ti) in laser produced plasma. An Nd:glass laser (KAMETRON) delivering 50 J energy ( = 0.53 m) in 2.5 ns was focused onto a titanium target to produce plasma. This plasma was allowed to drift across a space of ∼ 3 m through a diagnostic hole in the focusing mirror before ions are finally detected with the help of electrostatic ion analyzer. Maximum current density was detected for the charge states of +16 and +17 of Ti ions for laser intensity of ∼ 1014 W/cm-2.

  3. Suprathermal Electrons in the Solar Corona: Can Nonlocal Transport Explain Heliospheric Charge States?

    CERN Document Server

    Cranmer, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    There have been several ideas proposed to explain how the Sun's corona is heated and how the solar wind is accelerated. Some models assume that open magnetic field lines are heated by Alfven waves driven by photospheric motions and dissipated after undergoing a turbulent cascade. Other models posit that much of the solar wind's mass and energy is injected via magnetic reconnection from closed coronal loops. The latter idea is motivated by observations of reconnecting jets and also by similarities of ion composition between closed loops and the slow wind. Wave/turbulence models have also succeeded in reproducing observed trends in ion composition signatures versus wind speed. However, the absolute values of the charge-state ratios predicted by those models tended to be too low in comparison with observations. This letter refines these predictions by taking better account of weak Coulomb collisions for coronal electrons, whose thermodynamic properties determine the ion charge states in the low corona. A perturb...

  4. Hospitalization frequency and charges for neurocysticercosis, United States, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Seth E; Flecker, Robert H

    2015-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis, brain infection with Taenia solium larval cysts, causes substantial neurologic illness around the world. To assess the effect of neurocysticercosis in the United States, we reviewed hospitalization discharge data in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2003-2012 and found an estimated 18,584 hospitalizations for neurocysticercosis and associated hospital charges totaling >US $908 million. The risk for hospitalization was highest among Hispanics (2.5/100,000 population), a rate 35 times higher than that for the non-Hispanic white population. Nearly three-quarters of all hospitalized patients with neurocysticercosis were Hispanic. Male sex and age 20-44 years also incurred increased risk. In addition, hospitalizations and associated charges related to cysticercosis far exceeded those for malaria and were greater than for those for all other neglected tropical diseases combined. Neurocysticercosis is an increasing public health concern in the United States, especially among Hispanics, and costs the US health care system a substantial amount of money.

  5. The dependence of the electronic conductivity of carbon molecular sieve electrodes on their charging states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Elad; Genish, Isaschar; Salitra, Gregory; Soffer, Abraham; Klein, Lior; Aurbach, Doron

    2006-04-13

    The dependence of the electronic conductivity of activated carbon electrodes on their potential in electrolyte solutions was examined. Kapton polymer films underwent carbonization (1000 degrees C), followed by a mild oxidation process (CO(2) at 900 degrees C) for various periods of time, to obtain carbons of different pore structures. A specially designed cell was assembled in order to measure the conductivity of carbon electrodes at different potentials in solutions. When the carbon electrodes possessed molecular sieving properties, a remarkable dependence of their conductivity on their charging state was observed. Aqueous electrolyte solutions containing ions of different sizes were used in order to demonstrate this phenomenon. As the average pore size of the activated carbons was larger, their molecular sieving ability was lower, and the dependence of their conductivity on their charging state regained its classical form. This behavior is discussed herein.

  6. Effects of volume corrections and resonance decays on cumulants of net-charge distributions in a Monte Carlo hadron resonance gas model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao-jie

    2017-02-01

    The effects of volume corrections and resonance decays (the resulting correlations between positive charges and negative charges) on cumulants of net-proton distributions and net-charge distributions are investigated by using a Monte Carlo hadron resonance gas (MCHRG) model. The required volume distributions are generated by a Monte Carlo Glauber (MC-Glb) model. Except the variances of net-charge distributions, the MCHRG model with more realistic simulations of volume corrections, resonance decays and acceptance cuts can reasonably explain the data of cumulants of net-proton distributions and net-charge distributions reported by the STAR collaboration. The MCHRG calculations indicate that both the volume corrections and resonance decays make the cumulant products of net-charge distributions deviate from the Skellam expectations: the deviations of Sσ and κσ2 are dominated by the former effect while the deviations of ω are dominated by the latter one.

  7. Role of band states and trap states in the charge transport properties of organic semiconductors (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coropceanu, Veaceslav

    2016-11-01

    In this contribution, we examine the main factors that define charge transport in organic semiconductors. We consider both crystals based on a single molecule building block, such as oligoacenes, and two-component donor-acceptor crystals in which one component acts as an electron donor and the other as an acceptor. We will first discuss the state-of-the-art methodologies used in the derivation of the microscopic parameters (electron-vibration couplings, transfer integrals, band gaps, bandwidths, and effective masses) describing charge transport. In particular, we will discuss the impact that the amount of nonlocal Hartree-Fock exchange included in a hybrid density functional has on these parameters. In order to understand the role of disorder we use a combination of electronic-structure calculations and molecular mechanics/molecular dynamics simulations complemented by ensemble and time average approaches to separate the static and dynamic disorder components. The temperature dependence of the charge carrier mobility is studied by treating the electron-phonon interaction as a perturbation (Boltzmann theory), in the static approximation (Kubo formalism) and in the framework of mixed quantum/classical dynamics. Finally, based on the results of the kinetic Monte Carlo simulations we will compare the merits of a hopping model and a mobility edge model in the description of the effect of charge-carrier concentration on the electrical conductivity, carrier mobility, and Fermi energy of organic semiconductors.

  8. State of Charge Dependent Mechanical Integrity Behavior of 18650 Lithium-ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Xu; Binghe Liu; Dayong Hu

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of mechanical deformation/stress-induced electrical failure of lithium–ion batteries (LIBs) is important in crash-safety design of power LIBs. The state of charge (SOC) of LIBs is a critical factor in their electrochemical performance; however, the influence of SOC with mechanical integrity of LIBs remains unclear. This study investigates the electrochemical failure behaviors of LIBs with various SOCs under both compression and bending loadings, underpinned by the ...

  9. Device and Method for Continuously Equalizing the Charge State of Lithium Ion Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Paul D. (Inventor); Martin, Mark N. (Inventor); Roufberg, Lewis M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method of equalizing charge states of individual cells in a battery includes measuring a previous cell voltage for each cell, measuring a previous shunt current for each cell, calculating, based on the previous cell voltage and the previous shunt current, an adjusted cell voltage for each cell, determining a lowest adjusted cell voltage from among the calculated adjusted cell voltages, and calculating a new shunt current for each cell.

  10. Lithium-Ion Battery Failure: Effects of State of Charge and Packing Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-22

    geometries, abuse scenarios, and analysis techniques. In this report, different states of charge and packing configurations of a commercially available...15 1 1.0 Background and Motivation Lithium-ion batteries are a popular choice of power source for a variety of...military systems due to their promise of high power and high energy density. However, safety remains a significant concern, as battery failure leads

  11. Solid-state NMR Study of Ion Adsorption and Charge Storage in Graphene Film Supercapacitor Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kecheng; Bo, Zheng; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2016-12-01

    Graphene film has been demonstrated as promising active materials for electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs), mainly due to its excellent mechanical flexibility and freestanding morphology. In this work, the distribution and variation pattern of electrolyte ions in graphene-film based EDLC electrodes are investigated with a 11B magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopy. For neutral graphene films soaked with different amounts of electrolytes (1 M TEABF4/ACN), weakly and strongly adsorbed anions are identified based on the resonances at different 11B chemical shifts. Unlike other porous carbonaceous materials, the strongly adsorbed anions are found as the major electrolyte anions components in graphene films. Further measurements on the ion population upon charging are carried out with applying different charging voltages on the graphene films. Results indicate that the charging process of graphene-film based EDLCs can be divided into two distinct charge storage stages (i.e., ejection of co-ions and adsorption of counter-ions) for different voltages. The as-obtained results will be useful for the design and fabrication of high performance graphene-film based EDLCs.

  12. The role of hydrogen bonding in excited state intramolecular charge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipem, Francis A S; Mishra, Anasuya; Krishnamoorthy, G

    2012-07-07

    Intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) that occurs upon photoexcitation of molecules is a vital process in nature and it has ample applications in chemistry and biology. The ICT process of the excited molecules is affected by several environmental factors including polarity, viscosity and hydrogen bonding. The effect of polarity and viscosity on the ICT processes is well understood. But, despite the fact that hydrogen bonding significantly influences the ICT process, the specific role of hydrogen bonding in the formation and stabilization of the ICT state is not unambiguously established. Some literature reports predicted that the hydrogen bonding of the solvent with a donor promotes the formation of a twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state. Some other reports stated that it inhibits the formation of the TICT state. Alternatively, it was proposed that the hydrogen bonding of the solvent with an acceptor favors the TICT state. It is also observed that a dynamic equilibrium is established between the free and the hydrogen bonded ICT states. This perspective focuses on the specific role played by hydrogen bonding of the solvent with the donor and the acceptor, and by proton transfer in the ICT process. The utility of such influence in molecular recognition and anion sensing is discussed with a few recent literature examples in the end.

  13. Charge-Transfer Excited States in Aqueous DNA: Insights from Many-Body Green's Function Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huabing; Ma, Yuchen; Mu, Jinglin; Liu, Chengbu; Rohlfing, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Charge-transfer (CT) excited states play an important role in the excited-state dynamics of DNA in aqueous solution. However, there is still much controversy on their energies. By ab initio many-body Green's function theory, together with classical molecular dynamics simulations, we confirm the existence of CT states at the lower energy side of the optical absorption maximum in aqueous DNA as observed in experiments. We find that the hydration shell can exert strong effects (˜1 eV) on both the electronic structure and CT states of DNA molecules through dipole electric fields. In this case, the solvent cannot be simply regarded as a macroscopic screening medium as usual. The influence of base stacking and base pairing on the CT states is also discussed.

  14. Prospects of charged-oscillator quantum-state generation with Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Robin; Minář, Jiří; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Lesanovsky, Igor

    2016-10-01

    We explore the possibility of engineering quantum states of a charged mechanical oscillator by coupling it to a stream of atoms in superpositions of high-lying Rydberg states. Our scheme relies on the driving of a two-phonon resonance within the oscillator by coupling it to an atomic two-photon transition. This approach effectuates a controllable open system dynamics on the oscillator that in principle permits versatile dissipative creation of squeezed and other nonclassical states which are central to sensing applications or for studies of fundamental questions concerning the boundary between classical and quantum-mechanical descriptions of macroscopic objects. We show that these features survive thermal coupling of the oscillator with the environment. We perform a detailed feasibility study finding that current state-of-the-art parameters result in atom-oscillator couplings which are too weak to efficiently implement the proposed oscillator state preparation protocol. Finally, we comment on ways to circumvent the present limitations.

  15. Stability Analysis of DC Distribution Systems with Droop-Based Charge Sharing on Energy Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina I. Makrygiorgou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct current (DC distribution systems and DC microgrids are becoming a reliable and efficient alternative energy system, compatible with the DC nature of most of the distributed energy resources (DERs, storage devices and loads. The challenging problem of redesigning an autonomous DC-grid system in view of using energy storage devices to balance the power produced and absorbed, by applying simple decentralized controllers on the electronic power interfaces, is investigated in this paper. To this end, a complete nonlinear DC-grid model has been deployed that includes different DC-DERs, two controlled parallel battery branches, and different varying DC loads. Since many loads in modern distribution systems are connected through power converters, both constant power loads and simple resistive loads are considered in parallel. Within this system, suitable cascaded controllers on the DC/DC power converter interfaces to the battery branches are proposed, in a manner that ensures stability and charge sharing between the two branches at the desired ratio. To achieve this task, inner-loop current controllers are combined with outer-loop voltage, droop-based controllers. The proportional-integral (PI inner-loop current controllers include damping terms and are fully independent from the system parameters. The controller scheme is incorporated into the system model and a globally valid nonlinear stability analysis is conducted; this differs from small-signal linear methods that are valid only for specific systems, usually via eigenvalue investigations. In the present study, under the virtual cost of applying advanced Lyapunov techniques on the entire nonlinear system, a rigorous analysis is formulated to prove stability and convergence to the desired operation, regardless of the particular system characteristics. The theoretical results are evaluated by detailed simulations, with the system performance being very satisfactory.

  16. Charge cluster distribution in nanosites traversed by a single ionizing particle An experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszona, S.; Bantsar, A.; Kula, J.

    2008-11-01

    A method for modeling charge cluster formation by a single ionizing particle in nanoelectronic structures of few nanometres size is presented. The method is based on experimental modeling of charge formation in the equivalent gaseous nanosites irradiated by single charged particles and the subsequent scaling procedure to a needed medium. Propane irradiated by alpha particles is presented as an example.

  17. Substituent and Solvent Effects on Excited State Charge Transfer Behavior of Highly Fluorescent Dyes Containing Thiophenylimidazole-Based Aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Javier; Bu, Xiu R.; Mintz, Eric A.

    2001-01-01

    The excited state charge transfer for a series of highly fluorescent dyes containing thiophenylimidazole moiety was investigated. These systems follow the Twisted Intramolecular Charge Transfer (TICT) model. Dual fluorescence was observed for each substituted dye. X-ray structures analysis reveals a twisted ground state geometry for the donor substituted aryl on the 4 and 5 position at the imidazole ring. The excited state charge transfer was modeled by a linear solvation energy relationship using Taft's pi and Dimroth's E(sub T)(30) as solvent parameters. There is linear relation between the energy of the fluorescence transition and solvent polarity. The degree of stabilization of the excited state charge transfer was found to be consistent with the intramolecular molecular charge transfer. Excited dipole moment was studied by utilizing the solvatochromic shift method.

  18. Nanoscale femtosecond imaging of transient hot solid density plasmas with elemental and charge state sensitivity using resonant coherent diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, T.; Bussmann, M.; Chung, H.-K.; Gutt, C.; Huang, L. G.; Zacharias, M.; Schramm, U.; Cowan, T. E.

    2016-03-01

    Here, we propose to exploit the low energy bandwidth, small wavelength, and penetration power of ultrashort pulses from XFELs for resonant Small Angle Scattering (SAXS) on plasma structures in laser excited plasmas. Small angle scattering allows to detect nanoscale density fluctuations in forward scattering direction. Typically, the SAXS signal from laser excited plasmas is expected to be dominated by the free electron distribution. We propose that the ionic scattering signal becomes visible when the X-ray energy is in resonance with an electron transition between two bound states (resonant coherent X-ray diffraction). In this case, the scattering cross-section dramatically increases so that the signal of X-ray scattering from ions silhouettes against the free electron scattering background which allows to measure the opacity and derived quantities with high spatial and temporal resolution, being fundamentally limited only by the X-ray wavelength and timing. Deriving quantities such as ion spatial distribution, charge state distribution, and plasma temperature with such high spatial and temporal resolution will make a vast number of processes in shortpulse laser-solid interaction accessible for direct experimental observation, e.g., hole-boring and shock propagation, filamentation and instability dynamics, electron transport, heating, and ultrafast ionization dynamics.

  19. Symmetric Telecloning and Entanglement Distribution of Spin Quantum States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiong; LI Ji-Xin; ZANG Hao-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ We propose a physical realization of symmetric telecloning machine for spin quantum states. The concept of area average fidelity is introduced to describe the telecloning quality. It is indicated that for certain input states this quantity may come to an enough high level to satisfy the need of quantum information processing. We also study the properties of entanglement distribution via the spin chain for arbitrary two-qubit entangled pure states as inputs and find that the decay ratio of entanglement for the output states is only determined by the parameters of spin chain and waiting time, independent of the initial input states.

  20. F-theory compactifications and central charges of BPS-states

    CERN Document Server

    Obikhod, Tetiana V

    2016-01-01

    F-theory, as Theory of Everything is compactified on Calabi-Yau threefolds or fourfolds. Using toric approximation of Batyrev and mirror symmetry of Calabi-Yau manifolds it is possible to present Calabi-Yau in the form of dual integer polyhedra. With the help of Gelfand, Zelevinsky, Kapranov algorithm were calculated the numbers of BPS-states in F-theory, and by application of Tate algorithm were determined the enhanced symmetries. As the result, any integral dual polyhedron representing a Calabi-Yau manifold, is characterized by its own set of topological invariants - the numbers of BPS states, whose central charges are classified by enhanced symmetries.

  1. Continuous variable quantum key distribution with modulated entangled states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars S; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Lassen, Mikael;

    2012-01-01

    based on coherent states and continuous variable measurements are resilient to high loss in the channel, but are strongly affected by small amounts of channel excess noise. Here we propose and experimentally address a continuous variable quantum key distribution protocol that uses modulated fragile...... entangled states of light to greatly enhance the robustness to channel noise. We experimentally demonstrate that the resulting quantum key distribution protocol can tolerate more noise than the benchmark set by the ideal continuous variable coherent state protocol. Our scheme represents a very promising...

  2. An efficient quantum key distribution protocol with orthogonal product states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yu-Guang; Wen Qiao-Yan

    2007-01-01

    An efficient quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol with orthogonal product states in the 3(×)3 Hilbert space is presented. The sender, Alice, disorders the orthogonal product state sequence and sends it to Bob. After Alice has published the matching information of the particle sequence, Bob recovers the correct correspondences and makes an orthogonal measurement on the orthogonal product states to obtain the information sent by Alice. Finally, security analysis is also made.

  3. Random graph states, maximal flow and Fuss-Catalan distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, BenoIt; Nechita, Ion [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Ottawa, Ontario K1N8M2 (Canada); Zyczkowski, Karol [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2010-07-09

    For any graph consisting of k vertices and m edges we construct an ensemble of random pure quantum states which describe a system composed of 2m subsystems. Each edge of the graph represents a bipartite, maximally entangled state. Each vertex represents a random unitary matrix generated according to the Haar measure, which describes the coupling between subsystems. Dividing all subsystems into two parts, one may study entanglement with respect to this partition. A general technique to derive an expression for the average entanglement entropy of random pure states associated with a given graph is presented. Our technique relies on Weingarten calculus and flow problems. We analyze the statistical properties of spectra of such random density matrices and show for which cases they are described by the free Poissonian (Marchenko-Pastur) distribution. We derive a discrete family of generalized, Fuss-Catalan distributions and explicitly construct graphs which lead to ensembles of random states characterized by these novel distributions of eigenvalues.

  4. Fragile charge order in the nonsuperconducting ground state of the underdoped high-temperature superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B S; Harrison, N; Zhu, Z; Balakirev, F; Ramshaw, B J; Srivastava, A; Sabok-Sayr, S A; Sabok, S A; Dabrowski, B; Lonzarich, G G; Sebastian, Suchitra E

    2015-08-04

    The normal state in the hole underdoped copper oxide superconductors has proven to be a source of mystery for decades. The measurement of a small Fermi surface by quantum oscillations on suppression of superconductivity by high applied magnetic fields, together with complementary spectroscopic measurements in the hole underdoped copper oxide superconductors, point to a nodal electron pocket from charge order in YBa2Cu3(6+δ). Here, we report quantum oscillation measurements in the closely related stoichiometric material YBa2Cu4O8, which reveals similar Fermi surface properties to YBa2Cu3(6+δ), despite the nonobservation of charge order signatures in the same spectroscopic techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, that revealed signatures of charge order in YBa2Cu3(6+δ). Fermi surface reconstruction in YBa2Cu4O8 is suggested to occur from magnetic field enhancement of charge order that is rendered fragile in zero magnetic fields because of its potential unconventional nature and/or its occurrence as a subsidiary to more robust underlying electronic correlations.

  5. Recombination Kinetics in Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: Excitons, Free Charge, and Subgap States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranks, Samuel D.; Burlakov, Victor M.; Leijtens, Tomas; Ball, James M.; Goriely, Alain; Snaith, Henry J.

    2014-09-01

    Organic-inorganic perovskites are attracting increasing attention for their use in high-performance solar cells. Nevertheless, a detailed understanding of charge generation, interplay of excitons and free charge carriers, and recombination pathways, crucial for further device improvement, remains incomplete. Here, we present an analytical model describing both equilibrium properties of free charge carriers and excitons in the presence of electronic subgap trap states and their time evolution after photoexcitation in CH3NH3PbI3-xClx. At low fluences the charge-trapping pathways limit the photoluminescence quantum efficiency, whereas at high fluences the traps are predominantly filled and recombination of the photogenerated species is dominated by efficient radiative processes. We show experimentally that the photoluminescence quantum efficiency approaches 100% at low temperatures and at high fluences, as predicted by our model. Our approach provides a theoretical framework to understand the fundamental physics of perovskite semiconductors and to help in designing and enhancing the material for improved optoelectronic device operation.

  6. Excited State Structural Dynamics of Carotenoids and ChargeTransfer Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Tassle, Aaron Justin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation describes the development andimplementation of a visible/near infrared pump/mid-infrared probeapparatus. Chapter 1 describes the background and motivation ofinvestigating optically induced structural dynamics, paying specificattention to solvation and the excitation selection rules of highlysymmetric molecules such as carotenoids. Chapter 2 describes thedevelopment and construction of the experimental apparatus usedthroughout the remainder of this dissertation. Chapter 3 will discuss theinvestigation of DCM, a laser dye with a fluorescence signal resultingfrom a charge transfer state. By studying the dynamics of DCM and of itsmethyl deuterated isotopomer (an otherwise identical molecule), we areable to investigate the origins of the charge transfer state and provideevidence that it is of the controversial twisted intramolecular (TICT)type. Chapter 4 introduces the use of two-photon excitation to the S1state, combined with one-photon excitation to the S2 state of thecarotenoid beta-apo-8'-carotenal. These 2 investigations show evidencefor the formation of solitons, previously unobserved in molecular systemsand found only in conducting polymers Chapter 5 presents an investigationof the excited state dynamics of peridinin, the carotenoid responsiblefor the light harvesting of dinoflagellates. This investigation allowsfor a more detailed understanding of the importance of structuraldynamics of carotenoids in light harvesting.

  7. New passive decoy-state quantum key distribution with thermal distributed parametric down-conversion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Wang, Qin

    2017-02-01

    We present a new scheme on implementing the passive quantum key distribution with thermal distributed parametric down-conversion source. In this scheme, only one-intensity decoy state is employed, but we can achieve very precise estimation on the single-photon-pulse contribution by utilizing those built-in decoy states. Moreover, we compare the new scheme with other practical methods, i.e., the standard three-intensity decoy-state BB84 protocol using either weak coherent states or parametric down-conversion source. Through numerical simulations, we demonstrate that our new scheme can drastically improve both the secure transmission distance and the key generation rate.

  8. Fission fragment charge and mass distributions in 239Pu(n ,f ) in the adiabatic nuclear energy density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, D.; Dubray, N.; Schunck, N.; Verrière, M.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r process to fuel cycle optimization for nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data are available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. Purpose: In this work, we calculate the pre-neutron emission charge and mass distributions of the fission fragments formed in the neutron-induced fission of 239Pu using a microscopic method based on nuclear density functional theory (DFT). Methods: Our theoretical framework is the nuclear energy density functional (EDF) method, where large-amplitude collective motion is treated adiabatically by using the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). In practice, the TDGCM is implemented in two steps. First, a series of constrained EDF calculations map the configuration and potential-energy landscape of the fissioning system for a small set of collective variables (in this work, the axial quadrupole and octupole moments of the nucleus). Then, nuclear dynamics is modeled by propagating a collective wave packet on the potential-energy surface. Fission fragment distributions are extracted from the flux of the collective wave packet through the scission line. Results: We find that the main characteristics of the fission charge and mass distributions can be well reproduced by existing energy functionals even in two-dimensional collective spaces. Theory and experiment agree typically within two mass units for the position of the asymmetric peak. As expected, calculations are sensitive to the structure of the initial state and the prescription for the collective inertia. We emphasize that results are also sensitive to the continuity of the collective landscape near scission. Conclusions: Our analysis confirms

  9. Measurements of charged-particle distributions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ and $13$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00332935; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive charged-particle measurements at hadron colliders probe the low-energy non-perturbative region of QCD. The ATLAS collaboration has measured the primary-charged-particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in special data sets with low LHC proton--proton beam currents, recorded at centre-of-mass energies of 8~TeV and 13~TeV. The new precise measurements at 8~TeV cover a wide spectrum of distributions using charged-particle selections with minimum transverse momentum of both 100~MeV and 500~MeV and in various phase-space regions of low and high charged-particle multiplicities. Two measurements at 13~TeV present the first detailed studies with a minimum transverse momentum of 500~MeV and 100~MeV. The measurements are compared with predictions of various MC generators and are found to provide strong constraints on these.

  10. Forward-backward correlations and charged-particle azimuthal distributions in $pp$ interactions using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Hernandez, Carlos Medina; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; 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Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuler, Georges; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Maria; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    Using inelastic proton-proton interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 GeV and 7 TeV, recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC, measurements have been made of the correlations between forward and backward charged-particle multiplicities and, for the first time, between forward and backward charged-particle summed transverse momentum. In addition, jet-like structure in the events is studied by means of azimuthal distributions of charged particles relative to the charged particle with highest transverse momentum in a selected kinematic region of the event. The results are compared with predictions from tunes of the PYTHIA and HERWIG++ Monte Carlo generators, which in most cases are found to provide a reasonable description of the data.

  11. Charged particle multiplicity and transverse energy distribution using Weibull-Glauber approach in heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Behera, Nirbhay K; Naik, Bharati; Nandi, Basanta K; Pani, Tanmay

    2016-01-01

    The charged particle multiplicity distribution and the transverse energy distribution measured in heavy-ion collisions at top RHIC and LHC energies are described using the two-component model approach based on convolution of Monte Carlo Glauber model with the Weibull model for particle production. The model successfully describes the multiplicity and transverse energy distribution of minimum bias collision data for a wide range of energies. We also propose that Weibull-Glauber model can be used to determine the centrality classes in heavy-ion collision as an alternative to the conventional Negative Binomial distribution for particle production.

  12. Calculation of photon angular distribution and polarization for radiative recombination for high-charged hydrogen-like ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Tian-Ming; Chen Chong-Yang; Wang Yan-Sen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a systematic study is carried out on the angular distribution and polarization of photons emitted following radiative recombination of H-like ions by a non-relativistic dipole approximation. In order to incorporate the screening effect due to inner-shell electrons, a distorted wave approach is used. The dependences of the calculated angular distribution and polarization on the reduced energy and nuclear charge are fitted by the corresponding empirical formulas respectively.

  13. Local equilibria and state transfer of charged classical particles on a helix in an electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Plettenberg, J; Zampetaki, A V; Schmelcher, P

    2016-01-01

    We explore the effects of a homogeneous external electric field on the static properties and dynamical behavior of two charged particles confined to a helix. In contrast to the field-free setup which provides a separation of the center-of-mass and relative motion, the existence of an external force perpendicular to the helix axis couples the center-of-mass to the relative degree of freedom leading to equilibria with a localized center of mass. By tuning the external field various fixed points are created and/or annihilated through different bifurcation scenarios. We provide a detailed analysis of these bifurcations based on which we demonstrate a robust state transfer between essentially arbitrary equilibrium configurations of the two charges that can be induced by making the external force time-dependent.

  14. Multicolour Emission States from Charge Transfer between Carbon Dots and Surface Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengliang Hu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The emissive states of carbon dots have been tuned by controlling the charge transfer process. The carbon dots couple with molecules, which are made of a benzene ring and different heteroatom substituents, through amino-carboxylic bonds that are generally identified as charge transfer promoters at the interface. New ways of radiative recombination are created due to the transfer of photo-excited electrons from carbon dots to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO of the grafted molecules. By variation of the molecular orbital energy levels via heteroatom substituents in the benzene ring, the different optical properties and emission colors of the carbon dots were presented. This work opens up new opportunities for the application of carbon dots since different heteroatom substituents could lead to many possibilities for conjugation with drugs and biomolecules.

  15. Semilocal and Hybrid Density Embedding Calculations of Ground-State Charge-Transfer Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Laricchia, S; Della Sala, F; 10.1063/1.4795825

    2013-01-01

    We apply the frozen density embedding method, using a full relaxation of embedded densities through a freeze-and-thaw procedure, to study the electronic structure of several benchmark ground-state charge-transfer complexes, in order to assess the merits and limitations of the approach for this class of systems. The calculations are performed using both semilocal and hybrid exchange-correlation (XC) functionals. The results show that embedding calculations using semilocal XC functionals yield rather large deviations with respect to the corresponding supermolecular calculations. Due to a large error cancellation effect, however, they can often provide a relatively good description of the electronic structure of charge-transfer complexes, in contrast to supermolecular calculations performed at the same level of theory. On the contrary, when hybrid XC functionals are employed, both embedding and supermolecular calculations agree very well with each other and with the reference benchmark results. In conclusion, fo...

  16. Counting charged massless states in the (0,2) heterotic CFT/geometry connection

    CERN Document Server

    Beccaria, Matteo; Puhm, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    We use simple current techniques and their relation to orbifolds with discrete torsion for studying the (0,2) CFT/geometry duality with non-rational internal $N=2$ SCFTs. Explicit formulas for the charged spectra of heterotic $SO(10)$ GUT models are computed in terms of their extended Poincar\\'{e} polynomials and the complementary Poincar\\'{e} polynomial which can be computed in terms of the elliptic genera. While non-BPS states contribute to the charged spectrum, their contributions can be determined also for non-rational cases. For model building, with generalizations to $SU(5)$ and SM gauge groups, one can take advantage of the large class of Landau-Ginzburg orbifold examples.

  17. Tuning the role of charge-transfer states in intramolecular singlet exciton fission through side-group engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukman, Steven; Chen, Kai; Hodgkiss, Justin M.; Turban, David H. P.; Hine, Nicholas D. M.; Dong, Shaoqiang; Wu, Jishan; Greenham, Neil C.; Musser, Andrew J.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the mechanism of singlet exciton fission, in which a singlet exciton separates into a pair of triplet excitons, is crucial to the development of new chromophores for efficient fission-sensitized solar cells. The challenge of controlling molecular packing and energy levels in the solid state precludes clear determination of the singlet fission pathway. Here, we circumvent this difficulty by utilizing covalent dimers of pentacene with two types of side groups. We report rapid and efficient intramolecular singlet fission in both molecules, in one case via a virtual charge-transfer state and in the other via a distinct charge-transfer intermediate. The singlet fission pathway is governed by the energy gap between singlet and charge-transfer states, which change dynamically with molecular geometry but are primarily set by the side group. These results clearly establish the role of charge-transfer states in singlet fission and highlight the importance of solubilizing groups to optimize excited-state photophysics.

  18. Inclusive transverse momentum distributions of charged particles in diffractive and non-diffractive photoproduction at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Derrick, Malcolm; Magill, S; Mikunas, D; Musgrave, B; Repond, J; Stanek, R; Talaga, R L; Zhang, H; Ayad, R; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruni, P; Cara Romeo, G; Castellini, G; Chiarini, M; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Corradi, M; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Iacobucci, G; Laurenti, G; Levi, G; Margotti, A; Massam, Thomas; Nania, R; Nemoz, C; Palmonari, F; Polini, A; Sartorelli, G; Timellini, R; Zamora-Garcia, Yu E; Zichichi, Antonino; Bargende, A; Crittenden, James Arthur; Desch, Klaus; Diekmann, B; Doeker, T; Eckert, M; Feld, L; Frey, A; Geerts, M; Geitz, G; Grothe, M; Haas, T; Hartmann, H; Haun, D; Heinloth, K; Hilger, E; Jakob, H P; Katz, U F; Mari, S M; Mass, A; Mengel, S; Mollen, J; Paul, E; Rembser, C; Schattevoy, R; Schramm, D; Stamm, J; Wedemeyer, R; Campbell-Robson, S; Cassidy, A; Dyce, N; Foster, B; George, S; Gilmore, R; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Llewellyn, T J; Morgado, C J S; Norman, D J P; O'Mara, J A; Tapper, R J; Wilson, S S; Yoshida, R; Rau, R R; Arneodo, M; Iannotti, L; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Bernstein, A M; Caldwell, A; Cartiglia, N; Parsons, J A; Ritz, S; Sciulli, F; Straub, P B; Wai, L; Yang, S; Zhu, Q; Borzemski, P; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, Andrzej; Piotrzkowski, K; Zachara, M; Zawiejski, L; Adamczyk, L; Bednarek, B; Jelen, K; Kisielewska, D; Kowalski, T; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Suszycki, L; Zajac, J; Kotanski, Andrzej; Przybycien, M B; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Beier, H; Bienlein, J K; Coldewey, C; Deppe, O; Desler, K; Drews, G; Flasinski, M; Gilkinson, D J; Glasman, C; Göttlicher, P; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gutjahr, B; Hain, W; Hasell, D; Hessling, H; Iga, Y; Joos, P; Kasemann, M; Klanner, Robert; Koch, W; Köpke, L; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Labs, J; Ladage, A; Löhr, B; Loewe, M; Lüke, D; Manczak, O; Monteiro, T; Ng, J S T; Nickel, S; Notz, D; Ohrenberg, K; Roco, M T; Rohde, M; Roldán, J; Schneekloth, U; Schulz, W; Selonke, F; Stiliaris, E; Surrow, B; Voss, T; Westphal, D; Wolf, G; Youngman, C; Zhou, J F; Grabosch, H J; Kharchilava, A I; Leich, A; Mattingly, M C K; Meyer, A; Schlenstedt, S; Wulff, N; Barbagli, G; Pelfer, P G; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Maccarrone, G D; De Pasquale, S; Votano, L; Bamberger, Andreas; Eisenhardt, S; Freidhof, A; Söldner-Rembold, S; Schröder, J; Trefzger, T M; Brook, N H; Bussey, Peter J; Doyle, A T; Fleck, I; Saxon, D H; Utley, M L; Wilson, A S; Dannemann, A; Holm, U; Horstmann, D; Neumann, T; Sinkus, R; Wick, K; Badura, E; Burow, B D; Hagge, L; Lohrmann, E; Mainusch, J; Milewski, J; Nakahata, M; Pavel, N; Poelz, G; Schott, W; Zetsche, F; Bacon, Trevor C; Butterworth, Ian; Gallo, E; Harris, V L; Hung, B Y H; Long, K R; Miller, D B; Morawitz, P P O; Prinias, A; Sedgbeer, J K; Whitfield, A F; Mallik, U; McCliment, E; Wang, M Z; Wang, S M; Wu, J T; Zhang, Y; Cloth, P; Filges, D; An Shiz Hong; Hong, S M; Nam, S W; Park, S K; Suh, M H; Yon, S H; Imlay, R; Kartik, S; Kim, H J; McNeil, R R; Metcalf, W; Nadendla, V K; Barreiro, F; Cases, G; Graciani, R; Hernández, J M; Hervás, L; Labarga, L; Del Peso, J; Puga, J; Terrón, J; De Trocóniz, J F; Smith, G R; Corriveau, F; Hanna, D S; Hartmann, J; Hung, L W; Lim, J N; Matthews, C G; Patel, P M; Sinclair, L E; Stairs, D G; Saint-Laurent, M G; Ullmann, R T; Zacek, G; Bashkirov, V; Dolgoshein, B A; Stifutkin, A; Bashindzhagian, G L; Ermolov, P F; Gladilin, L K; Golubkov, Yu A; Kobrin, V D; Kuzmin, V A; Proskuryakov, A S; Savin, A A; Shcheglova, L M; Solomin, A N; Zotov, N P; Botje, M; Chlebana, F S; Dake, A P; Engelen, J; De Kamps, M; Kooijman, P M; Kruse, A; Tiecke, H G; Verkerke, W; Vreeswijk, M; Wiggers, L; De Wolf, E; Van Woudenberg, R; Acosta, D; Bylsma, B G; Durkin, L S; Honscheid, K; Li Chuan; Ling, T Y; McLean, K W; Murray, W N; Park, I H; Romanowsky, T A; Seidlein, R; Bailey, D S; Blair, G A; Byrne, A; Cashmore, Roger J; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Daniels, D C; Devenish, R C E; Harnew, N; Lancaster, M; Luffman, P; Lindemann, L; McFall, J D; Nath, C; Noyes, V A; Quadt, A; Uijterwaal, H; Walczak, R; Wilson, F F; Yip, T; Abbiendi, G; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Dal Corso, F; De Giorgi, M; Dosselli, U; Limentani, S; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Stanco, L; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Bulmahn, J; Butterworth, J M; Feild, R G; Whitmore, J; D'Agostini, Giulio; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Tassi, E; Hart, J C; McCubbin, N A; Prytz, K; Shah, T P; Short, T L; Barberis, E; Dubbs, T; Heusch, C A; Van Hook, M; Hubbard, B; Lockman, W; Rahn, J T; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Biltzinger, J; Seifert, R J; Walenta, Albert H; Zech, G; Abramowicz, H; Briskin, G M; Dagan, S; Levy, A; Hasegawa, T; Hazumi, M; Ishii, T; Kuze, M; Mine, S; Nagasawa, Y; Nakao, M; Susuki, I; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Chiba, M; Hamatsu, R; Hirose, T; Homma, K; Kitamura, S; Nakamitsu, Y; Yamauchi, K; Cirio, R; Costa, M; Ferrero, M I; Lamberti, L; Maselli, S; Peroni, C; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Dardo, M; Bailey, D C; Bandyopadhyay, D; Bénard, F; Brkic, M; Crombie, M B; Gingrich, D M; Hartner, G F; Joo, K K; Levman, G M; Martin, J F; Orr, R S; Sampson, C R; Teuscher, R; Catterall, C D; Jones, T W; Kaziewicz, P B; Lane, J B; Saunders, R L; Shulman, J; Blankenship, K; Lu, B; Mo, L W; Bogusz, W; Charchula, K; Ciborowski, J; Gajewski, J; Grzelak, G; Kasprzak, M; Krzyzanowski, M; Muchorowski, K; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Tymieniecka, T; Wróblewski, A K; Zakrzewski, J A; Zarnecki, A F; Adamus, M; Eisenberg, Y; Karshon, U; Revel, D; Zer-Zion, D; Ali, I; Badgett, W F; Behrens, B H; Dasu, S; Fordham, C; Foudas, C; Goussiou, A; Loveless, R J; Reeder, D D; Silverstein, S; Smith, W H; Vaiciulis, A W; Wodarczyk, M; Tsurugai, T; Bhadra, S; Cardy, M L; Fagerstroem, C P; Frisken, W R; Furutani, K M; Khakzad, M; Schmidke, W B

    1995-01-01

    Inclusive transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in photoproduction events in the laboratory pseudorapidity range -1.2<\\eta<1.4 have been measured up to p_{T}=8\\GeV using the ZEUS detector. Diffractive and non--diffractive reactions have been selected with an average \\gamma p centre of mass (c.m.) energy of \\langle W \\rangle = 180\\GeV. For diffractive reactions, the p_{T} spectra of the photon dissociation events have been measured in two intervals of the dissociated photon mass with mean values \\langle M_{X} \\rangle = 5 GeV and 10 GeV. The inclusive transverse momentum spectra fall exponentially in the low p_{T} region. The non--diffractive data show a pronounced high p_{T} tail departing from the exponential shape. The p_{T} distributions are compared to lower energy photoproduction data and to hadron--hadron collisions at a similar c.m. energy. The data are also compared to the results of a next--to--leading order QCD calculation.

  19. A new class of solutions of anisotropic charged distributions on pseudo-spheroidal spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Ratanpal, B S; Pandya, D M

    2015-01-01

    In the present article a new class of exact solutions of Einstein's field equations for charged anisotropic distribution is obtained on the background of pseudo-spheroidal spacetime characterized by the metric potential $g_{rr}=\\frac{1+K\\frac{r^{2}}{R^{2}}}{1+\\frac{r^{2}}{R^{2}}}$, where $K$ and $R$ are geometric parameters of the spacetime. The radial pressure $p_{r}$ and electric field intensity $E$ are taken in the form $8\\pi p_{r}=\\frac{K-1}{R^{2}}\\frac{\\left(1-\\frac{r^{2}}{R^{2}} \\right)}{\\left(1+K\\frac{r^{2}}{R^{2}} \\right)^{2}}$ and $E^{2}=\\frac{\\alpha(K-1)\\frac{r^{2}}{R^{2}}}{R^{2}\\left(1+K\\frac{r^{2}}{R^{2}} \\right)^{2}}$. The bounds of geometric parameter $K$ and the parameter $\\alpha$ appearing in the expression of $E^{2}$ are obtained by imposing the requirements for a physically acceptable model. It is found that the model is in good agreement with the observational data of number of compact stars like 4U 1820-30, PSR J1903+327, 4U 1608-52, Vela X-1, PSR J1614-2230, Cen X-3 given by Gangopadhyay ...

  20. A new class of solutions of compact stars with charged distributions on pseudo-spheroidal spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, V O

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new class of exact solutions of Einstein's field equations for compact stars with charged distributions is obtained on the basis of pseudo-spheroidal spacetime characterized by the metric potential $g_{rr}=\\frac{1+K\\frac{r^{2}}{R^{2}}}{1+\\frac{r^{2}}{R^{2}}}$, where $K$ and $R$ are geometric parameters of the spacetime. The expressions for radial pressure ($ p_r $) and electric field intensity ($ E $) are chosen in such a way that the model falls in the category of physically acceptable one. The bounds of geometric parameter $K$ and the physical parameters $ p_0 $ and $\\alpha$ are obtained by imposing the physical requirements and regularity conditions. The present model is in good agreement with the observational data of various compact stars like 4U 1820-30, PSR J1903+327, 4U 1608-52, Vela X-1, SMC X-4, Cen X-3 given by Gangopadhyay {\\em{et al.}} [Gangopadhyay T., Ray S., Li X-D., Dey J. and Dey M., {\\it Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.} {\\bf431} (2013) 3216]. When $ \\alpha = 0, $ the model reduces...

  1. The role of emissive charge transfer states in two polymer-fullerene organic photovoltaic blends : tuning charge photogeneration through the use of processing additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, Tracey M.; Peet, Jeff; Lungenschmied, Christoph; Drolet, Nicolas; Lu, Xinhui; Ocko, Benjamin M.; Mozer, Attila J.; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    The role of charge transfer (CT) states in organic photovoltaic systems has been debated in the recent literature. In this paper the device performances of two structurally analogous polymers PDTSiTTz (also known as KP115) and PCPDTTTz blended with PCBM are investigated, focusing on the effect the p

  2. Measurements of $ \\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ charge asymmetry using dilepton final states in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2072000; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahrous, Ayman; Radi, Amr; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Peltola, Timo; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Filipovic, Nicolas; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Toriashvili, Tengizi; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Nayak, Aruna; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Jain, Sandhya; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Montecassiano, Fabio; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Traczyk, Piotr; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Korenkov, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Mitsyn, Valeri Valentinovitch; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Tikhonenko, Elena; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Chadeeva, Marina; Chistov, Ruslan; Danilov, Mikhail; Markin, Oleg; Tarkovskii, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korneeva, Natalia; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Soares, Mara Senghi; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; Curras, Esteban; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Benhabib, Lamia; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Futyan, David; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Penning, Bjoern; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Benelli, Gabriele; Berry, Edmund; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Jesus, Orduna; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Derdzinski, Mark; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lewis, Jonathan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Bruner, Christopher; Castle, James; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Benvenuti, Alberto; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bartek, Rachel; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Low, Jia Fu; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Rupprecht, Nathaniel; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Ling, Ta-Yung; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, Kurt; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Sun, Jian; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hidas, Dean; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Wood, John; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Woods, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    The charge asymmetry in $ \\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ events is measured using dilepton final states produced in pp collisions at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s}= $ 8 TeV. The data sample, collected with the CMS detector, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb$^{-1}$. The measurements are performed using events with two oppositely charged leptons (electrons or muons) and two or more jets, where at least one of the jets is identified as originating from a bottom quark. The charge asymmetry is measured from differences in kinematic distributions, unfolded to the parton level, of positively and negatively charged top quarks and leptons. The $ \\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ and leptonic charge asymmetries are found to be 0.011 $\\pm$ 0.011(stat) $\\pm$ 0.007 (syst) and 0.003 $\\pm$ 0.006 (stat) $\\pm$ 0.003 (syst), respectively. These results, as well as charge asymmetry measurements made as a function of $ \\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ system kinematic properties, are in agreement with predictions of the standard model.

  3. Measurements of t t ‾ charge asymmetry using dilepton final states in pp collisions at √{ s} = 8TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rad, N.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moortgat, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Parijs, I.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Goldouzian, R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Randle-Conde, A.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; de Visscher, S.; Delaere, C.; Delcourt, M.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mora Herrera, C.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Fang, W.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Leggat, D.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Carrera Jarrin, E.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahrous, A.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Peltola, T.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Abdulsalam, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Lisniak, S.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.

    2016-09-01

    The charge asymmetry in t t ‾ events is measured using dilepton final states produced in pp collisions at the LHC at √{ s} = 8TeV. The data sample, collected with the CMS detector, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 19.5fb-1. The measurements are performed using events with two oppositely charged leptons (electrons or muons) and two or more jets, where at least one of the jets is identified as originating from a bottom quark. The charge asymmetry is measured from differences in kinematic distributions, unfolded to the parton level, of positively and negatively charged top quarks and leptons. The t t ‾ and leptonic inclusive charge asymmetries are found to be 0.011 ± 0.011(stat) ± 0.007(syst) and 0.003 ± 0.006(stat) ± 0.003(syst), respectively. These results, as well as charge asymmetry measurements made as a function of the invariant mass, rapidity, and transverse momentum of the t t ‾ system, are in agreement with predictions of the standard model.

  4. Identifying the magnetoconductance responses by the induced charge transfer complex states in pentacene-based diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Shun; Lee, Tsung-Hsun; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Huang, J. C. A.; Wen, Ten-Chin

    2012-07-01

    We investigate the magnetoconductance (MC) responses in photocurrent, unipolar injection, and bipolar injection regimes in pentacene-based diodes. Both photocurrent and bipolar injection contributed MC responses show large difference in MC line shape, which are attributed to triplet-polaron interaction modulated by the magnetic field dependent singlet fission and the intersystem crossing of the polaron pair, respectively. By blending 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane into pentacene, all the MC responses are suppressed but the MC response at unipolar injection regime is enhanced, which is attributed to the induced charge transfer complex states (CT complex states). This work identify the MC responses between single carrier contributed MC and exciton related MC by the induced CT complex states.

  5. Is dipole moment a valid descriptor of excited state's charge-transfer character?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petelenz, Piotr; Pac, Barbara

    2013-11-20

    In the ongoing discussion on excited states of the pentacene crystal, dipole moment values have been recently invoked to gauge the CT admixture to excited states of Frenkel parentage in a model cluster. In the present paper, a simple dimer model is used to show that, in general, the dipole moment is not a valid measure of the CT contribution. This finding eliminates some apparent disagreement between the computational results published by different research groups. The implications of our results and other related aspects of cluster-type quantum chemistry calculations are discussed in the context of the standing literature dispute concerning the mechanism of singlet fission in the pentacene crystal, notably the role of charge transfer contributions vs the involvement of an excimer-like doubly excited intermediate (D state).

  6. On the effect of excited states in lattice calculations of the nucleon axial charge

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Maxwell T

    2016-01-01

    Excited-state contamination is one of the dominant uncertainties in lattice calculations of the nucleon axial-charge, $g_A$. Recently published results in leading-order chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) predict the excited-state contamination to be independent of the nucleon interpolator and positive. However, empirical results from numerical lattice calculations show negative contamination (downward curvature), indicating that present-day calculations are not in the regime where the leading-order ChPT predictions apply. In this paper we show that, under plausible assumptions, one can reproduce the behavior of lattice correlators by taking into account final-state $N \\pi$ interactions, in particular the effect of the Roper resonance, and by postulating a sign change in the infinite-volume $N \\to N \\pi$ axial-vector transition amplitude.

  7. Modeling environmental effects on charge density distributions in polar organometallics: validation of embedded cluster models for the methyl lithium crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Kathrin; Meier, Florian; Gatti, Carlo; Burow, Asbjörn M; Sierka, Marek; Sauer, Joachim; Kaupp, Martin

    2010-11-15

    The charge density and its Laplacian at the Li-C and C-H bond critical points and other features of the electron density distribution of the methyl lithium crystal have been compared by density functional methods for (i) the isolated (LiCH(3))(4) tetramer or larger clusters, (ii) for quantum mechanically treated clusters in polarizable continuum model (PCM) surroundings, (iii) for clusters augmented by the periodic electrostatic embedded cluster model (PEECM), and for (iv) the periodic crystal. Comparisons with identical functional and basis sets indicate that both PCM and PEECM embedding of only a tetramer did not fully account for the environmental effect. In contrast, embedding of a full unit cell gave results that were essentially converged to the periodic crystal data. Effects of basis set and exchange correlation functional on the QTAIM bond descriptors are of a comparable order of magnitude as the crystal environmental effects. In this context, embedded cluster computations provide distinct advantages over explicit solid-state calculations with respect to their freedom of the choice of computational and theoretical level. This is demonstrated by embedded MP2 calculations.

  8. Recoil-ion charge-state-resolved electron-production cross sections at 55° for 1 MeV/u C5+ on He and Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segner, F.; Breinig, M.; Desai, D. D.; Wig, A.; Straus, L.

    1996-08-01

    Recoil-ion charge-state-resolved doubly differential cross sections for ejecting electrons at ~55° with respect to the incident beam direction in collisions between 1 MeV/u C5+ projectiles and Ar and He targets have been measured. Electrons with kinetic energies between 100 and 1250 eV have been detected. A prominent feature in the electron energy distributions is the binary-encounter peak. Experimental results are compared with binary-encounter electron production cross sections obtained using the impulse approximation and with theoretical predictions from many-body classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations. An enhancement in the fraction of electrons detected with singly charged He recoil ions and a corresponding decrease in the fraction detected in coincidence with doubly charged He recoil ions as a function of the electron energy have been observed near the binary-encounter electron energy. This structure has been predicted by recent many-body classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations.

  9. Random graph states, maximal flow and Fuss-Catalan distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Benoit; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2010-01-01

    For any graph consisting of $k$ vertices and $m$ edges we construct an ensemble of random pure quantum states which describe a system composed of $2m$ subsystems. Each edge of the graph represents a bi-partite, maximally entangled state. Each vertex represents a random unitary matrix generated according to the Haar measure, which describes the coupling between subsystems. Dividing all subsystems into two parts, one may study entanglement with respect to this partition. A general technique to derive an expression for the average entanglement entropy of random pure states associated to a given graph is presented. Our technique relies on Weingarten calculus and flow problems. We analyze statistical properties of spectra of such random density matrices and show for which cases they are described by the free Poissonian (Marchenko-Pastur) distribution. We derive a discrete family of generalized, Fuss-Catalan distributions and explicitly construct graphs which lead to ensembles of random states characterized by thes...

  10. Spin to Charge Interconversion Phenomena in the Interface and Surface States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yuichiro; Shiraishi, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    In 1985, Johnson and Silsbee realized the creation of a spin current in nonmagnetic metals, which inspired a vast number of studies related to the spin current until now. Creation of the spin current has been realized in metals, semiconductors, and insulators to date and has provided a fruitful research field. Spin-dependent conductance and spin torque paved a new way for spintronic application, and highly efficient interconversion between spin information and an industrially used one, such as charge current, light, magnetic moment and heat current, became a central topic. In the early stage, the main field of such interconversion was bulk materials; the focus then gradually shifted to surface and interface states. The properties of surface and interface states became pronounced in nanoscale spintronics devices, and a variety of functions have been realized at the interface between two materials, enabling limitless possibilities for spin functions. This review provides an overview of the recent progress of the spin-charge interconversion in the surface and interface states. We also introduce several spurious effects that should be paid careful attention for quantitative investigations.

  11. Observation of excited state charge transfer with fs/ps-CARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Alex Jason [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Excited state charge transfer processes are studied using the fs/ps-CARS probe technique. This probe allows for multiplexed detection of Raman active vibrational modes. Systems studied include Michler's Ketone, Coumarin 120, 4-dimethylamino-4'-nitrostilbene, and several others. The vibrational spectrum of the para di-substituted benzophenone Michler's Ketone in the first excited singlet state is studied for the first time. It is found that there are several vibrational modes indicative of structural changes of the excited molecule. A combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to study the simplest 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin, Coumarin 120. Vibrations observed in FTIR and spontaneous Raman spectra are assigned using density functional calculations and a continuum solvation model is used to predict how observed modes are affected upon inclusion of a solvent. The low frequency modes of the excited state charge transfer species 4-dimethylamino-4{prime}-nitrostilbene are studied in acetonitrile. Results are compared to previous work on this molecule in the fingerprint region. Finally, several partially completed projects and their implications are discussed. These include the two photon absorption of Coumarin 120, nanoconfinement in cyclodextrin cavities and sensitization of titania nanoparticles.

  12. The Effect of Interfacial Geometry on Charge-Transfer States in the Phthalocyanine/Fullerene Organic Photovoltaic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong H; Geva, Eitan; Dunietz, Barry D

    2016-05-19

    The dependence of charge-transfer states on interfacial geometry at the phthalocyanine/fullerene organic photovoltaic system is investigated. The effect of deviations from the equilibrium geometry of the donor-donor-acceptor trimer on the energies of and electronic coupling between different types of interfacial electronic excited states is calculated from first-principles. Deviations from the equilibrium geometry are found to destabilize the donor-to-donor charge transfer states and to weaken their coupling to the photoexcited donor-localized states, thereby reducing their ability to serve as charge traps. At the same time, we find that the energies of donor-to-acceptor charge transfer states and their coupling to the donor-localized photoexcited states are either less sensitive to the interfacial geometry or become more favorable due to modifications relative to the equilibrium geometry, thereby enhancing their ability to serve as gateway states for charge separation. Through these findings, we eludicate how interfacial geometry modifications can play a key role in achieving charge separation in this widely studied organic photovoltaic system.

  13. Experimental passive decoy-state quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi-Chao; Wang, Wei-Long; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Fei; Pelc, Jason S.; Fejer, M. M.; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Chen, Xianfeng; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-08-01

    The decoy-state method is widely used in practical quantum key distribution systems to replace ideal single photon sources with realistic light sources of varying intensities. Instead of active modulation, the passive decoy-state method employs built-in decoy states in a parametric down-conversion photon source, which can decrease the side channel information leakage in decoy-state preparation and hence increase the security. By employing low dark count up-conversion single photon detectors, we experimentally demonstrate the passive decoy-state method over a 50 km long optical fiber and obtain a key rate of about 100 bit s-1. Our result suggests that the passive decoy-state source is a practical candidate for future quantum communication implementation.

  14. Fission fragment charge and mass distributions in 239Pu(n,f) in the adiabatic nuclear energy density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Regnier, D; Schunck, N; Verriere, M

    2016-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r-process to fuel cycle optimization for nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data is available is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. In this work, we calculate the pre-neutron emission charge and mass distributions of the fission fragments formed in the neutron-induced fission of 239Pu using a microscopic method based on nuclear energy density functional (EDF) method, where large amplitude collective motion is treated adiabatically using the time dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). Fission fragment distributions are extracted from the flux of the collective wave packet through the scission line. We find that the main characteristics of the fission charge and mass distributions can be well reproduced by existing energy functionals even in tw...

  15. Kalman-variant estimators for state of charge in lithium-sulfur batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Propp, Karsten; Auger, Daniel J.; Fotouhi, Abbas;

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are now commercially available, offering high specific energy density, low production costs and high safety. However, there is no commercially-available battery management system for them, and there are no published methods for determining state of charge in situ...... practical experimentation, considering both a pulse-discharge test and a test based on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Experimentation is carried out at a constant temperature, mirroring the environment expected in the authors' target automotive application. It is shown that the estimators, which...

  16. Effect of Surface Defect States on Valence Band and Charge Separation and Transfer Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juan; Teng, Yiran; Teng, Fei

    2016-09-01

    Both energy band and charge separation and transfer are the crucial affecting factor for a photochemical reaction. Herein, the BiOCl nanosheets without and with surface bismuth vacancy (BOC, V-BOC) are prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. It is found that the new surface defect states caused by bismuth vacancy have greatly up-shifted the valence band and efficiently enhanced the separation and transfer rates of photogenerated electron and hole. It is amazing that the photocatalytic activity of V-BOC is 13.6 times higher than that of BOC for the degradation methyl orange (MO). We can develop an efficient photocatalyst by the introduction of defects.

  17. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in 4-(1-azetidinyl)benzonitrile: Solvent isotope effects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tuhin Pradhan; Piue Ghoshal; Ranjit Biswas

    2009-01-01

    Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4-(1-azetidinyl) benzonitrile (P4C) in deuterated and normal methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile has been studied in order to investigate the solvent isotope effects on reaction rates and yields. These quantities (reaction rates and yields) along with several other properties such as quantum yield and radiative rates have been found to be insensitive to the solvent isotope substitution in all these solvents. The origin of the solvent isotope insensitivity of the reaction is discussed and correlated with the observed slowing down of the solvation dynamics upon isotope substitution.

  18. Measuring neutrino-induced exclusive charge-current final states on hydrogen at T2K

    CERN Document Server

    Coplowe, David; Barr, Giles

    2016-01-01

    By taking advantage of symmetries with respect to the plane containing the directions of the neutrino and outgoing lepton, it is possible to isolate neutrino interactions on hydrogen in composite nuclear targets. This technique enables us to study the `primary' neutrino-nucleon interaction and therefore gain access to fundamental model parameters free from nuclear effects. Using T2K Monte Carlo equivalent to $\\sim7\\times10^{21}$ POT, we present an update on the measurement of the exclusive charged-current $\\mu^-$, p, $\\pi^+$ final state on hydrogen.

  19. Topological charge transfer in frequency doubling of fractional orbital angular momentum state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, R.; Niu, Y. F.; Du, L.; Hu, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, S. N.

    2016-10-01

    Nonlinear frequency conversion is promising for manipulating photons with orbital angular momentum (OAM). In this letter, we investigate the second harmonic generation (SHG) of light beams carrying fractional OAM. By measuring the OAM components of the generated second harmonic (SH) waves, we find that the integer components of the fundamental beam will interact with each other during the nonlinear optical process; thus, we figure out the law for topological charge transfer in frequency doubling of the fractional OAM state. Theoretical predictions by solving the nonlinear coupled wave equations are consistent with the experimental results.

  20. Collision states and scar effects in charged three-body problems

    CERN Document Server

    Vilela-Mendes, R

    1997-01-01

    Semiclassical methods form a bridge between classical systems and their quantum counterparts. An interesting phenomenon discovered in this connection is the scar effect, whereby energy eigenstates display enhancement structures resembling the path of unstable periodic orbits. This paper deals with collision states in charged three-body problems, in periodic media, which are scarred by unstable classical orbits. The scar effect has a potential for practical applications because orbits corresponding to zero measure classical configurations may be reached and stabilized by resonant excitation. It may be used, for example, to induce reactions that are favoured by unstable configurations.

  1. State of charge modeling of lithium-ion batteries using dual exponential functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ting-Jung; Lee, Kung-Yen; Huang, Chien-Kang; Chen, Jau-Horng; Chiu, Wei-Li; Huang, Chih-Fang; Wu, Shuen-De

    2016-05-01

    A mathematical model is developed by fitting the discharging curve of LiFePO4 batteries and used to investigate the relationship between the state of charge and the closed-circuit voltage. The proposed mathematical model consists of dual exponential terms and a constant term which can fit the characteristics of dual equivalent RC circuits closely, representing a LiFePO4 battery. One exponential term presents the stable discharging behavior and the other one presents the unstable discharging behavior and the constant term presents the cut-off voltage.

  2. Charge states of a hydrogen defect (3326 cm-1 line) in ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herklotz, F.; Lavrov, E. V.; Weber, J.

    2012-08-01

    The hydrogen defect in ZnO that gives rise to a local vibrational mode at 3326 cm-1 is investigated by means of IR absorption. Sub-band gap illumination results in the appearance of a new line at 3358 cm-1 at the expense of the 3326 cm-1 signal. The measurements identify both IR absorption signals as O-H stretch modes of the same defect in different charge states. The effect of the sub-band gap light strongly suggest that this defect has a deep level in the band gap. Additionally, results on the thermal stability of the 3326 cm-1 feature are presented.

  3. Temperature and Magnetic Field Effects on the Transport Controlled Charge State of a Single Quantum Dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskalenko ES

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Individual InAs/GaAs quantum dots are studied by micro-photoluminescence. By varying the strength of an applied external magnetic field and/or the temperature, it is demonstrated that the charge state of a single quantum dot can be tuned. This tuning effect is shown to be related to the in-plane electron and hole transport, prior to capture into the quantum dot, since the photo-excited carriers are primarily generated in the barrier.

  4. Study on battery state of charge correct algorithm of electric vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KAN Ping; QIAN Lijun

    2012-01-01

    State of Charge (SOC) is used to adjust the initialization SOC value so as to make electric vehicle simulation results close to real vehicle performance. This paper firstly analyses the battery SOC correct algorithm, then uses ADVISOR which is a electric vehicle simulation software to simulate a hybrid electric car with three different cases of no SOC correct, linear SOC correct and zero delta SOC correct, as well as makes the compare and analysis for those simulation results. In the end, an overall conclusion to SOC correct algorithm is given.

  5. ESTIMATION METHOD ON THE BATTERY STATE OF CHARGE FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANG Jiaxi; AO Guoqiang; YANG Lin

    2008-01-01

    A combined algorithm for battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is proposed to solve the critical issue of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). To obtain a more accurate SOC, both coulomb-accumulation and battery resistance-capacitor (RC) model are weighted combined to compensate the deficiencies of individual methods. In order to solve the key issue of coulomb-accumulation, the battery thermal model is used. Based on the principle of energy conservation, the heat generated from battery charge and discharge process is converted into the equivalent electricity to calculate charge and discharge efficiency under variable current. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) as a closed loop algorithm is applied to estimate the parameters of resistance-capacitor model. The input variables do not increase much computing difficulty. The proposed combined algorithm is implemented by adjusting the weighting factor of coulomb- accumulation and resistance-capacitor model. In the end, four different methods including Ah-efficiency, Ah-Equip, RC-SOC and Combined-SOC are compared in federal testing procedure (FTP) drive cycle. The experiment results show that the proposed method has good robustness and high accuracy which is suitable for HEV application.

  6. Planning Future Electric Vehicle Central Charging Stations Connected to Low-Voltage Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Træholt, Chresten; Larsen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    A great interest is recently paid to Electric Vehicles (EV) and their integration into electricity grids. EV can potentially play an important role in power system operation, however, the EV charging infrastructures have been only partly defined, considering them as limited to individual charging...

  7. Heavy Inertial Confinement Energy: Interactions Involoving Low charge State Heavy Ion Injection Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuBois, Robert D

    2006-04-14

    During the contract period, absolute cross sections for projectile ionization, and in some cases for target ionization, were measured for energetic (MeV/u) low-charge-state heavy ions interacting with gases typically found in high and ultra-high vacuum environments. This information is of interest to high-energy-density research projects as inelastic interactions with background gases can lead to serious detrimental effects when intense ion beams are accelerated to high energies, transported and possibly confined in storage rings. Thus this research impacts research and design parameters associated with projects such as the Heavy Ion Fusion Project, the High Current and Integrated Beam Experiments in the USA and the accelerator upgrade at GSI-Darmstadt, Germany. Via collaborative studies performed at GSI-Darmstadt, at the University of East Carolina, and Texas A&M University, absolute cross sections were measured for a series of collision systems using MeV/u heavy ions possessing most, or nearly all, of their bound electrons, e.g., 1.4 MeV/u Ar{sup +}, Xe{sup 3+}, and U{sup 4,6,10+}. Interactions involving such low-charge-state heavy ions at such high energies had never been previously explored. Using these, and data taken from the literature, an empirical model was developed for extrapolation to much higher energies. In order to extend our measurements to much higher energies, the gas target at the Experimental Storage Ring in GSI-Darmstadt was used. Cross sections were measured between 20 and 50 MeV/u for U{sup 28+}- H{sub 2} and - N{sub 2}, the primary components found in high and ultra-high vacuum systems. Storage lifetime measurements, information inversely proportional to the cross section, were performed up to 180 MeV/u. The lifetime and cross section data test various theoretical approaches used to calculate cross sections for many-electron systems. Various high energy density research projects directly benefit by this information. As a result, the general

  8. Evidence of self-affne multiplicity scaling of charged-particle multiplicity distribution in hadron–nucleus interaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipak Ghosh; Argha Deb; Sitaram Pal; Swarnapratim Bhattacharyya

    2007-05-01

    A self-affne analysis of charged-particle multiplicity distribution (protons + pions) in − –AgBr interaction at 350 GeV/c is performed according to the two-dimensional factorial moment methodology using the concept of Hurst exponent in $X_{\\cos\\theta^{-}}$ phase space. Comparing with the results obtained from self-similar analysis, the self affine analysis shows a better power-law behaviour. Corresponding results are compared with shower multiplicity distribution (pions). Multifractal behaviour is observed for both types of distributions.

  9. Charge state modification in Mn site substituted CMR manganites: strong deleterious influence on the ferromagnetic-metallic state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmi, L Seetha [XS and CGS, Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre For Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India); Doerr, K [Institute of Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, Postach 270116, Dresden 01171 (Germany); Nenkov, K [Institute of Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, Postach 270116, Dresden 01171 (Germany); Sastry, V S [XS and CGS, Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre For Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India); Mueller, K-H [Institute of Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, Postach 270116, Dresden 01171 (Germany)

    2007-06-13

    The effect of charge state modification at the Mn site on the physical properties of CMR manganites is reported. With a view to avoiding additional complexity of local spin coupling effects, Mn site substitution of La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} is carried out with appropriate diamagnetic ions-Zn{sup 2+}, Zr{sup 4+}, Ta{sup 5+} and W{sup 6+}-of different valence states. The substitution results in size changes of the unit cell and enhanced local structural distortions, which increase in the order Zn, Zr, Ta and W. The ground state is ferromagnetic-metallic below a certain critical concentration x{sub c} of the substituents, beyond which the magnetic ground state shows a glassy behaviour. The phase transition temperatures (T{sub MI} and T{sub c}) decrease with substitution, but to different extents. The observed suppression rates of the Curie temperature, T{sub c}, of {approx}39 K/at.% and {approx}45 K/at.% respectively for Ta{sup 5+} and W{sup 6+} substituted compounds are the highest reported in the Mn site substituted CMR manganites. Besides the modification of majority carrier concentration due to the increased (decreased) Mn{sup 3+} concentration and enhanced local structural effects, the local electrostatic potential of the substituents seems to contribute to the unusually strong reduction in the itinerant ferromagnetism and the observed glassy states.

  10. Fractional charge and inter-Landau-level states at points of singular curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rudro R.; Thanh Son, Dam

    2016-08-01

    The quest for universal properties of topological phases is fundamentally important because these signatures are robust to variations in system-specific details. Aspects of the response of quantum Hall states to smooth spatial curvature are well-studied, but challenging to observe experimentally. Here we go beyond this prevailing paradigm and obtain general results for the response of quantum Hall states to points of singular curvature in real space; such points may be readily experimentally actualized. We find, using continuum analytical methods, that the point of curvature binds an excess fractional charge and sequences of quantum states split away, energetically, from the degenerate bulk Landau levels. Importantly, these inter-Landau-level states are bound to the topological singularity and have energies that are universal functions of bulk parameters and the curvature. Our exact diagonalization of lattice tight-binding models on closed manifolds demonstrates that these results continue to hold even when lattice effects are significant. An important technological implication of these results is that these inter-Landau-level states, being both energetically and spatially isolated quantum states, are promising candidates for constructing qubits for quantum computation.

  11. Mean field theory of charge-density wave state in magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Pavel; Lyubshin, Dmitrij

    2005-03-01

    We develop a mean field theory of charge-density wave (CDW) state in magnetic field and study properties of this state below the transition temperature. We show that the CDW state with shifted wave vector in high magnetic field (CDWx phase) has a double harmonic modulation on the most part of the phase diagram. At perfect nesting the single harmonic CDW state with shifted wave vector exists only in a very narrow region near the triple point. We show that the transition from CDW0 to CDWx state below the critical temperature is accompanied by a jump of the CDW order parameter and of the CDW wave vector rather than by their continuous increase. This implies a first order transition between these CDW states and explains a strong hysteresis accompanying this transition. The similarities between CDW in high magnetic field and nonuniform LOFF superconducting phase are pointed out. Our investigation provides a theoretical description for recent experiments on organic metal α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 and other compounds. In particular, we explain the higher value of the kink transition field and provide the calculation of the phase diagram in the case of perfect nesting.

  12. Fractional charge and inter-Landau-level states at points of singular curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rudro R; Son, Dam Thanh

    2016-08-02

    The quest for universal properties of topological phases is fundamentally important because these signatures are robust to variations in system-specific details. Aspects of the response of quantum Hall states to smooth spatial curvature are well-studied, but challenging to observe experimentally. Here we go beyond this prevailing paradigm and obtain general results for the response of quantum Hall states to points of singular curvature in real space; such points may be readily experimentally actualized. We find, using continuum analytical methods, that the point of curvature binds an excess fractional charge and sequences of quantum states split away, energetically, from the degenerate bulk Landau levels. Importantly, these inter-Landau-level states are bound to the topological singularity and have energies that are universal functions of bulk parameters and the curvature. Our exact diagonalization of lattice tight-binding models on closed manifolds demonstrates that these results continue to hold even when lattice effects are significant. An important technological implication of these results is that these inter-Landau-level states, being both energetically and spatially isolated quantum states, are promising candidates for constructing qubits for quantum computation.

  13. Developing a Distributed Computing Architecture at Arizona State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armann, Neil; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Development of Arizona State University's computing architecture, designed to ensure that all new distributed computing pieces will work together, is described. Aspects discussed include the business rationale, the general architectural approach, characteristics and objectives of the architecture, specific services, and impact on the university…

  14. Numerical analysis of decoy state quantum key distribution protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Jim W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rice, Patrick R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Decoy state protocols are a useful tool for many quantum key distribution systems implemented with weak coherent pulses, allowing significantly better secret bit rates and longer maximum distances. In this paper we present a method to numerically find optimal three-level protocols, and we examine how the secret bit rate and the optimized parameters are dependent on various system properties, such as session length, transmission loss, and visibility. Additionally, we show how to modify the decoy state analysis to handle partially distinguishable decoy states as well as uncertainty in the prepared intensities.

  15. Semiclassical Wigner distribution for two-mode entangled state

    CERN Document Server

    Dechoum, K; Vallejos, R O; Khoury, A Z; 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.043834

    2011-01-01

    We derive the steady state solution of the Fokker-Planck equation that describes the dynamics of the nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator in the truncated Wigner representation of the density operator. We assume that the pump mode is strongly damped, which permits its adiabatic elimination. When the elimination is correctly executed, the resulting stochastic equations contain multiplicative noise terms, and do not admit a potential solution. However, we develop an heuristic scheme leading to a satisfactory steady-state solution. This provides a clear view of the intracavity two-mode entangled state valid in all operating regimes of the OPO. A nongaussian distribution is obtained for the above threshold solution.

  16. Automated charge state determination of complex isotope-resolved mass spectra by peak-target Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Yap, Yee Leng

    2008-01-01

    This study describes a new algorithm for charge state determination of complex isotope-resolved mass spectra. This algorithm is based on peak-target Fourier transform (PTFT) of isotope packets. It is modified from the widely used Fourier transform method because Fourier transform may give ambiguous charge state assignment for low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) or overlapping isotopic clusters. The PTFT algorithm applies a novel "folding" strategy to enhance peaks that are symmetrically spaced about the targeted peak before applying the FT. The "folding" strategy multiplies each point to the high-m/z side of the targeted peak by its counterpart on the low-m/z side. A Fourier transform of this "folded" spectrum is thus simplified, emphasizing the charge state of the "chosen" ion, whereas ions of other charge states contribute less to the transformed data. An intensity-dependent technique is also proposed for charge state determination from frequency signals. The performance of PTFT is demonstrated using experimental electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectra. The results show that PTFT is robust for charge state determination of low S/N and overlapping isotopic clusters, and also useful for manual verification of potential hidden isotopic clusters that may be missed by the current analysis algorithms, i.e., AID-MS or THRASH.

  17. Projectile- and charge-state-dependent electron yields from ion penetration of solids as a probe of preequilibrium stopping power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothard, H.; Schou, Jørgen; Groeneveld, K.-O.

    1992-01-01

    Kinetic electron-emission yields gamma from swift ion penetration of solids are proportional to the (electronic) stopping power gamma approximately Beta-S*, if the preequilibrium evolution of the charge and excitation states of the positively charged ions is taken into account. We show...... that the concept of the preequilibrium near-surface stopping S* can be applied successfully to describe the dependence of the ion-induced electron yields on the projectile atomic number Z(P) and on the charge states q(i) of the incoming ions. We discuss the implementation of this concept into Schou's transport...

  18. Instantaneous generation of charge-separated state on TiO₂ surface sensitized with plasmonic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Run; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2014-03-19

    Photoexcitation of the plasmon band in metallic nanoparticles adsorbed on a TiO2 surface initiates many important photovoltaic and photocatalytic processes. The traditional view on the photoinduced charge separation involves excitation of a surface plasmon, its subsequent dephasing into electron-hole pairs, followed by electron transfer (ET) from the metal nanoparticle into TiO2. We use nonadiabatic molecular dynamics combined with time-domain density functional theory to demonstrate that an electron appears inside TiO2 immediately upon photoexcitation with a high probability (~50%), bypassing the intermediate step of electron-hole thermalization inside the nanoparticle. By providing a detailed, atomistic description of the charge separation, energy relaxation, and electron-hole recombination processes, the simulation rationalizes why the experimentally observed ultrafast photoinduced ET in an Au-TiO2 system is possible in spite of the fast energy relaxation. The simulation shows that the photogenerated plasmon is highly delocalized onto TiO2, and thus, it is shared by the electron donor and acceptor materials. In the 50% of the cases remaining after the instantaneous photogeneration of the charge-separated state, the electron injects into TiO2 on a sub-100 fs time scale by the nonadiabatic mechanism due to high density of acceptor states. The electron-phonon relaxation parallels the injection and is slower, resulting in a transient heating of the TiO2 surface by 40 K. Driven by entropy, the electron moves further into TiO2 bulk. If the electron remains trapped at the TiO2 surface, it recombines with the hole on a picosecond time scale. The obtained ET and recombination times are in excellent agreement with the experiment. The delocalized plasmon state observed in our study establishes a novel concept for plasmonic photosensitization of wide band gap semiconductors, leading to efficient conversion of photons to charge carriers and to hybrid materials with a wide

  19. The intramolecular charge transfer state in carbonyl-containing polyenes and carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, Miriam M; Fuciman, Marcel; LaFountain, Amy M; Wagner, Nicole L; Birge, Robert R; Frank, Harry A

    2010-09-30

    Numerous femtosecond time-resolved optical spectroscopic experiments have reported that the lifetime of the low-lying S(1) state of carbonyl-containing polyenes and carotenoids decreases with increasing solvent polarity. The effect becomes even more pronounced as the number of double bonds in the conjugated π-electron system decreases. The effect has been attributed to an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state coupled to S(1), but it is still not clear what the precise molecular nature of this state is, and how it is able to modulate the spectral and dynamic properties of polyenes and carotenoids. In this work, we examine the nature of the ICT state in three substituted polyenes: crocetindial, which contains two terminal, symmetrically substituted carbonyl groups in conjugation with the π-electron system, 8,8'-diapocarotene-8'-ol-8-al, which has one terminal conjugated carbonyl group and one hydroxyl group, and 8,8'-diapocarotene-8,8'-diol, which has two terminal, symmetrically positioned, hydroxyl groups but no carbonyls. Femtosecond time-resolved optical spectroscopic experiments on these molecules reveal that only the asymmetrically substituted 8,8'-diapocarotene-8'-ol-8-al exhibits any substantial effect of solvent on the excited state spectra and dynamics. The data are interpreted using molecular orbital theory which shows that the ICT state develops via mixing of the low-lying S(1) (2(1)A(g)-like) and S(2) (1(1)B(u)-like) excited singlet states to form a resultant state that preferentially evolves in polar solvent and exhibits a very large (∼25 D) dipole moment. Molecular dynamics calculations demonstrate that the features of the ICT state are present in ∼20 fs.

  20. Pseudorapidity distribution of charged hadrons in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

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Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Bylinkin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Khein, Lev; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Lukina, Olga; Myagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Salerno, Daniel; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Bartek, Rachel; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Fiori, Francesco; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Petrakou, Eleni; Tsai, Jui-fa; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Asavapibhop, Burin; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Cerci, Salim; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Taylan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Barducci, Daniele; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Cripps, Nicholas; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Gastler, Daniel; Lawson, Philip; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Saltzberg, David; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova PANEVA, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Pierini, Maurizio; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Mulholland, Troy; Nauenberg, Uriel; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Sun, Werner; Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Jung, Andreas Werner; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Osherson, Marc; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sady, Alice; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; Xin, Yongjie; You, Can; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Majumder, Devdatta; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Kunkle, Joshua; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; 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    2015-01-01

    The pseudorapidity distribution of charged hadrons in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 13 TeV is measured using a data sample obtained with the CMS detector, operated at zero magnetic field, at the CERN LHC. The yield of primary charged long-lived hadrons produced in inelastic pp collisions is determined in the central region of the CMS pixel detector ($|\\eta|$ < 2) using both hit pairs and reconstructed tracks. For central pseudo-rapidities ($|\\eta|$ < 0.5), the charged-hadron multiplicity density ${\\rm d}N_{\\rm ch}/{\\rm d}\\eta | _{|\\eta| {\\rm\\ < 0.5}}$ = $5.49 \\pm 0.01 {\\rm\\ (stat)} \\pm 0.17 {\\rm\\ (syst)}$ , a value obtained by combining the two methods. The result is compared to predictions from Monte Carlo event generators and to similar measurements made at lower collision energie.

  1. Pseudorapidity distribution of charged hadrons in proton–proton collisions at s=13 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Khachatryan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The pseudorapidity distribution of charged hadrons in pp collisions at s=13 TeV is measured using a data sample obtained with the CMS detector, operated at zero magnetic field, at the CERN LHC. The yield of primary charged long-lived hadrons produced in inelastic pp collisions is determined in the central region of the CMS pixel detector (|η|<2 using both hit pairs and reconstructed tracks. For central pseudorapidities (|η|<0.5, the charged-hadron multiplicity density is dNch/dη||η|<0.5=5.49±0.01(stat±0.17(syst, a value obtained by combining the two methods. The result is compared to predictions from Monte Carlo event generators and to similar measurements made at lower collision energies.

  2. Influence of intensity on the steady and transient state space-charge fields in photorefractive polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁保红; 孙秀冬; 姜永远; 周忠祥; 姚凤凤; 李焱

    2002-01-01

    We have proven theoretically that there are sublinear, linear and superlinear relations between the response ratesand total incident intensity for different cases of traps in photorefractive polymer materials. These relations wereobserved in inorganic photorefractive crystals many years ago. Also, the steady-state space-charge field is a functionof the total incident intensity, which has also been found in inorganic photorefractive crystals. We have measured therelations of the steady-state diffraction efficiency and the response rate wi