WorldWideScience

Sample records for characterizing environmental health

  1. Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our environment affects our health. If parts of the environment, like the air, water, or soil become polluted, it ... in the home can trigger asthma attacks. Some environmental risks are a part of the natural world, ...

  2. Methylated and thiolated arsenic species for environmental and health research - A review on synthesis and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, William R; Liu, Qingqing; Lu, Xiufen; McKnight-Whitford, Anthony; Peng, Hanyong; Popowich, Aleksandra; Yan, Xiaowen; Zhang, Qi; Fricke, Michael; Sun, Hongsui; Le, X Chris

    2016-11-01

    Hundreds of millions of people around the world are exposed to elevated concentrations of inorganic and organic arsenic compounds, increasing the risk of a wide range of health effects. Studies of the environmental fate and human health effects of arsenic require authentic arsenic compounds. We summarize here the synthesis and characterization of more than a dozen methylated and thiolated arsenic compounds that are not commercially available. We discuss the methods of synthesis for the following 14 trivalent (III) and pentavalent (V) arsenic compounds: monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), dicysteinylmethyldithioarsenite (MMA(III)(Cys)2), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), monomethylmonothioarsonic acid (MMMTA(V)) or monothio-MMA(V), monomethyldithioarsonic acid (MMDTA(V)) or dithio-MMA(V), monomethyltrithioarsonate (MMTTA(V)) or trithio-MMA(V), dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)), dimethylarsino-glutathione (DMA(III)(SG)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTA(V)) or monothio-DMA(V), dimethyldithioarsinic acid (DMDTA(V)) or dithio-DMA(V), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO(V)), arsenobetaine (AsB), and an arsenicin-A model compound. We have reviewed and compared the available methods, synthesized the arsenic compounds in our laboratories, and provided characterization information. On the basis of reaction yield, ease of synthesis and purification of product, safety considerations, and our experience, we recommend a method for the synthesis of each of these arsenic compounds.

  3. Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the environment, either natural or manmade. Learn More Air Pollution Chemicals Climate Change Water Pollution Next Previous Interested in a trailer of our animations about characteristics, uses, and health effects of hazardous chemicals? Please, click here to preview. ...

  4. Using NASA Remotely Sensed Data to Help Characterize Environmental Risk Factors for National Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Economou, S.; Estes, M., Jr.; Estes, S. M.; Hemmings, S. N.; Kent, S.; Loop, M.; Puckett, M.; Quattrochi, D. A.; Wade, G.; McClure, L.

    2012-12-01

    The overall goal of this study is to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by using NASA remotely sensed data and products. This study is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Universities Space Research Association (USRA), the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services. The objectives of this study are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, link these with public health data from a national cohort study, and deliver the environmental data sets and associated public health analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. Three daily environmental data sets were developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on a 10-km grid using US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA's MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST); and (3) a 12-km grid of daily incoming solar radiation and maximum and minimum air temperature using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data. These environmental datasets were linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes. These environmental national datasets will also be made available to public health professionals, researchers and the general public via the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system, where they can be aggregated to the county-level, state-level, or regional-level as per users' need and downloaded in tabular, graphical

  5. Using NASA Remotely Sensed Data to Help Characterize Environmental Risk Factors for National Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Economou, Sigrid; Estes,Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Hemmings, Sarah; Kent, Shia; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale; Wade, Gina; McClure, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by using NASA remotely sensed data and products. This study is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Universities Space Research Association (USRA), the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services. The objectives of this study are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, link these with public health data from a national cohort study, and deliver the environmental data sets and associated public health analyses to local, state and federal end ]user groups. Three daily environmental data sets were developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on a 10-km grid using US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA's MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST); and (3) a 12-km grid of daily incoming solar radiation and maximum and minimum air temperature using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data. These environmental datasets were linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes. These environmental national datasets will also be made available to public health professionals, researchers and the general public via the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system, where they can be aggregated to the county-level, state-level, or regional-level as per users f need and downloaded in tabular, graphical

  6. Where Are We Heading in Nanotechnology Environmental Health and Safety and Materials Characterization?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nel, Andre; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Chan, Warren C.; Xia, Tian; Hersam, Mark C.; Brinker, C. J.; Zink, Jeffery I.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Baer, Donald R.; Weiss, Paul S.

    2015-06-23

    Every chemist, material scientist, physicist, engineer, or commercial enterprise involved in the synthesis and/or production of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) or nano-enabled products aspires to develop safe materials. Nanotechnology environmental health and safety (nanoEHS) is a research discipline that involves the study of the possible adverse health and biological effects that nanomaterials may have on humans and environmental organisms and ecosystems. NanoEHS research has provided a body of experimental evidence indicating the possibility of hazardous outcomes as a result of the interactions of unique ENM physicochemical properties with similar scale processes occurring at a wide range of nano/bio interfaces, including at biomolecular, cellular, subcellular, organ, systemic, whole organism, or ecosystems levels. This projected hazard and risk potential warrants rigorous attention to safety assessment, safe use, safe implementation, benign design, regulatory oversight, governance, and public awareness to address the possibility and prevention of nanotoxicity, now or at any time in the future.1 Thus, we should understand the properties of the ENMs that are responsible for the toxicological response, so that we can re-engineer their physicochemical characteristics for risk prevention and safer ENM design.2 However, in spite of widespread use, no human toxicological disease or major environmental impact has been reported for ENMs. Thus, while “Nanotoxicology” is a thriving sub-discipline of Nano-EHS, the use of the “root” word toxicology may elicit a feeling that nanomaterials are inherently toxic despite the fact that toxicity has not been established in real-life use so far. As a community, we may want to rename this sub-discipline as “Nanosafety,” since the objective is to use toxicology information to guide the design of safer nanomaterials for use in medicine, biology, electronics, lighting systems, etc. At ACS Nano, we are interested in

  7. Characterizing environmental and phenotypic associations using information theory and electronic health records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Hripcsak, George; Friedman, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Background The availability of up-to-date, executable, evidence-based medical knowledge is essential for many clinical applications, such as pharmacovigilance, but executable knowledge is costly to obtain and update. Automated acquisition of environmental and phenotypic associations in biomedical and clinical documents using text mining has showed some success. The usefulness of the association knowledge is limited, however, due to the fact that the specific relationships between clinical entities remain unknown. In particular, some associations are indirect relations due to interdependencies among the data. Results In this work, we develop methods using mutual information (MI) and its property, the data processing inequality (DPI), to help characterize associations that were generated based on use of natural language processing to encode clinical information in narrative patient records followed by statistical methods. Evaluation based on a random sample consisting of two drugs and two diseases indicates an overall precision of 81%. Conclusion This preliminary study demonstrates that the proposed method is effective for helping to characterize phenotypic and environmental associations obtained from clinical reports. PMID:19761567

  8. Environmental Health Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Alan; Smith, Robert

    1975-01-01

    Describes an environmental health science technology curriculum designed to provide technicians in the areas of air, water and wastewater analyses, treatment plant operators, public health enforcement officers, and pollution inspectors. (GS)

  9. Natural and anthropogenic environmental nanoparticulates: Their microstructural characterization and respiratory health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, L. E.; Garza, K. M.

    A wide range of environmental particulate matter (PM) both indoor and outdoor and consisting of natural and anthropogenic PM was collected by high volume air filters, electrostatic precipitation, and thermophoretic precipitation directly onto transmission electron microscope (TEM) coated grid platforms. These collected PM have been systematically characterized by TEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the El Paso, TX, USA/Juarez, Mexico metroplex 93% of outdoor PM 1 is crystalline while 40% of PM 1 is carbonaceous soot (including multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and multiconcentric fullerenes) PM. Multiply-replicated cytotoxicity ( in vitro) assays utilizing a human epithelial (lung model) cell line (A549) consistently demonstrated varying degrees of cell death for essentially all PM which was characterized as aggregates of nanoparticulates or primary nanoparticles. Cytokine release was detected for Fe 2O 3, chrysotile asbestos, BC, and MWCNT PM while reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been detected for Fe 2O 3, asbestos, BC, and MWCNT aggregate PM as well as natural gas combustion PM. Nanoparticulate materials in the indoor and outdoor environments appear to be variously cytotoxic, especially carbonaceous nano-PM such as multiwall carbon nanotubes, black carbon, and soot nano-PM produced by natural gas combustion.

  10. 2013 environmental health legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Doug; Ellis, Amy C

    2013-10-01

    The NEHA Government Affairs program has a long and productive association with the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). The organizations have worked together on any number of legislative and policy areas that directly impact the environmental health profession. One of the keys to the successes of the NEHA/NCSL collaboration has been the recognition of the fact that often some of the most significant legislation and policy initiatives related to environmental public health occur in state legislatures. The states have, in a very real sense, been the innovators in developing new programs and practices. In recognition of this fact, we have asked NCSL to provide occasional overviews of state environmental public health legislative activity, covering topics that are of the most pressing public concern. Doug Farquhar, program director for NCSI's Environmental Health Program, has worked with NCSL since 1990. Mr. Farquhar directs development, management, and research for the Environmental Health Program. These projects encompass consultation and policy analysis of state and federal policies and statutes, regulations, and programs regarding environmental and related topics for state legislatures and administrative programs. Amy Ellis is a law clerk for NCSL within the Environment, Energy, and Transportation Group. As a law clerk she has researched a wide variety of environmental health policies. She is expected to obtain her JD from the University of Colorado Law School in 2015.

  11. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  12. Environmental health indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Posada de la Paz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This presentation gives a general overview of the project titled Environmental Health Indicators, coordinated by WHO and managed by the Research Centre on the Toxic Oil Syndrome and Rare Diseases in Spain. The presentations describes the objectives of the project, the steps taken and the results obtained during the feasibility study. The project aims to develop an environmental health information system that will allow the monitoring of public health and its health determinants and make international comparisons, develop environmental policies and facilitate communication with citizens. WHO developed a methodology for the development of these indicators within the conceptual framework of DPSEEA (Driving Force, Pressure, State, Exposure, Effect, Action and selected a total of 55 indicators (which included 168 variables in 10 environmental health areas. The feasibility study predicted the successful gathering of 89% of the indicators. However, data recollection proved difficult due to the frequent incompatibility of some variables in the Spanish information systems with the WHO defined variables. On a management level, the greatest difficulty arose from the disperse distribution of responsibilities in environmental health matters. In addition to the technical contribution of this project to Environmental Health in Spain, an added value has been to establish a close collaboration with the different Ministries involved.

  13. Preliminary assessment of the health and environmental effects of coal utilization in the midwest. Volume I. Energy scenarios, technology characterizations, air and water resource impacts, and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin is presented. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Included are: (1) a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and (2) the related impacts on air quality, water availability, water quality, and human health.

  14. Center for Environmental Health Sciences

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The primary research objective of the Center for Environmental Health Sciences (CEHS) at the University of Montana is to advance knowledge of environmental impacts...

  15. Ozone (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air ...

  16. Plastics (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air ...

  17. Lead (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air ...

  18. Arsenic (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air ...

  19. Methods for characterizing fine particulate matter using ground observations and remotely sensed data: potential use for environmental public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z; Crosson, William L; Limaye, Ashutosh S; Rickman, Douglas L; Quattrochi, Dale A; Estes, Maurice G; Qualters, Judith R; Sinclair, Amber H; Tolsma, Dennis D; Adeniyi, Kafayat A; Niskar, Amanda Sue

    2009-07-01

    This study describes and demonstrates different techniques for surface fitting daily environmental hazards data of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 microm (PM2.5) for the purpose of integrating respiratory health and environmental data for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) pilot study of Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELIX)-Atlanta. It presents a methodology for estimating daily spatial surfaces of ground-level PM2.5 concentrations using the B-Spline and inverse distance weighting (IDW) surface-fitting techniques, leveraging National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to complement U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observation data. The study used measurements of ambient PM2.5 from the EPA database for the year 2003 as well as PM2.5 estimates derived from NASA's satellite data. Hazard data have been processed to derive the surrogate PM2.5 exposure estimates. This paper shows that merging MODIS remote sensing data with surface observations of PM,2. not only provides a more complete daily representation of PM,2. than either dataset alone would allow, but it also reduces the errors in the PM2.5-estimated surfaces. The results of this study also show that although the IDW technique can introduce some numerical artifacts that could be due to its interpolating nature, which assumes that the maxima and minima can occur only at the observation points, the daily IDW PM2.5 surfaces had smaller errors in general, with respect to observations, than those of the B-Spline surfaces. Finally, the methods discussed in this paper establish a foundation for environmental public health linkage and association studies for which determining the concentrations of an environmental hazard such as PM2.5 with high accuracy is critical.

  20. Exploiting Satellite Remote-Sensing Data in Fine Particulate Matter Characterization for Serving the Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN): The HELIX-Atlanta Experience and NPOESS Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G.; Qualters, Judith R.; Sinclair, Amber H.; Tolsma, Dennis D.; Adeniyi, Kafayat A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the U.S. National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN), the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) led a project in collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) called Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELIX-Atlanta). Under HELIX-Atlanta, pilot projects were conducted to develop methods to better characterize exposure; link health and environmental datasets; and analyze spatial/temporal relationships. This paper describes and demonstrates different techniques for surfacing daily environmental hazards data of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM(sub 2.5) for the purpose of integrating respiratory health and environmental data for the CDC's pilot study of HELIX-Atlanta. It describes a methodology for estimating ground-level continuous PM(sub 2.5) concentrations using spatial surfacing techniques and leveraging NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to complement the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observation data. The study used measurements of ambient PM(sub 2.5) from the EPA database for the year 2003 as well as PM(sub 2.5) estimates derived from NASA's MODIS data. Hazard data have been processed to derive the surrogate exposure PM(sub 2.5) estimates. The paper has shown that merging MODIS remote sensing data with surface observations of PM(sub 2.5), may provide a more complete daily representation of PM(sub 2.5), than either data set alone would allow, and can reduce the errors in the PM(sub 2.5) estimated surfaces. Future work in this area should focus on combining MODIS column measurements with profile information provided by satellites like the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). The Visible Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Aerosol

  1. Communication models in environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Tee L

    2013-01-01

    Communication models common in environmental health are not well represented in the literature on health communication. Risk communication is a systematic approach to conveying essential information about a specific environmental issue and a framework for thinking about community risk and the alternatives for dealing with it. Crisis communication is intended to provide essential information to people facing an emergency in order to mitigate its effects and to enable them to make appropriate decisions, and it is primarily used in emergency management. Corporate communication is intended to achieve a change in attitude or perception of an organization, and its role in environmental health is usually public relations or to rehabilitate a damaged reputation. Environmental health education is a more didactic approach to science education with respect to health and the environment. Social marketing uses conventional marketing methods to achieve a socially desirable purpose but is more heavily used in health promotion generally. Communication models and styles in environmental health are specialized to serve the needs of the field in communicating with the community. They are highly structured and executed in different ways but have in common a relative lack of emphasis on changing personal or lifestyle behavior compared with health promotion and public health in general and a tendency to emphasize content on specific environmental issues and decision frameworks for protecting oneself or the community through collective action.

  2. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Page Brochures & Fact Sheets Environmental Health Topics Science Education Kids Environment | Kids Health Research Home Page At NIEHS ... Health & Education Brochures & Fact Sheets Environmental Health Topics Science Education Kids Environment | Kids Health Research Home Research At NIEHS ...

  3. National Center for Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Practical Tips on Safely Cleaning Mold After a Flood After a flood, mold might be an issue. Learn how to ... Homes Healthy Places – Community Design Lead Poisoning Prevention Vessel Sanitation Environmental Hazards and Health Effects Air ...

  4. TOXMAP®: Environmental Health Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — TOXMAP® is a Geographic Information System (GIS) that uses maps of the United States and Canada to help users visually explore data primarily from the EPA's Toxics...

  5. COMPETITIVENESS THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Cristina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This millennium, confronted with a globalization of means leading as fast as possible at certain pursued aims, highlights the importance of competitiveness from the perspective of the continuous fight against limitation of resources. In this context, the machine of life evolution and economy has got an engine named competitiveness. The rules of circulation should focus on all livings to whom, from the perspective of survival and natural, human and social life accomplishment, the well- known concept of health may be attached. At the same time, competitiveness through environment health should try to reach the convergent performances which means that any form of superior knowledge and experience should always take into consideration environment health.

  6. Epigenomics in environmental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen J Marsit

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This review considers the emerging relationships between environmental factors and epigenetic alterations and the application of genome-wide assessments to better define these relationships. First we will briefly cover epigenetic programming in development, one-carbon metabolism and exposures that may disrupt normal developmental programming of epigenetic states. In addition, because a large portion of epigenetic research has focused on cancer, we discuss exposures associated with carcinogenesis including asbestos, alcohol, radiation, arsenic, and air pollution. Research on other exposures that may affect epigenetic states such as endocrine disruptors is also described, and we also review the evidence for epigenetic alterations associated with aging that may reflect cumulative effects of exposures. From this evidence, we posit potential mechanisms by which exposures modify epigenetic states, noting that understanding the true effect of environmental exposures on the human epigenome will require additional research with appropriate epidemiologic studies and application of novel technologies. With a more comprehensive understanding of the affects of exposures on the epigenome, including consideration of genetic background, the prediction of the toxic potential of new compounds may be more readily achieved, and may lead to the development of more personalized disease prevention and treatment strategies.

  7. Economics of children's environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Economic analyses are increasingly appearing in the children's environmental-health literature. In this review, an illustrative selection of articles that represent cost analyses, cost-effectiveness analyses, and cost-benefit analyses is analyzed for the relative merits of each approach. Cost analyses remain the dominant approach due to lack of available data. Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses in this area face challenges presented by estimation of costs of environmental interventions, whose costs are likely to decrease with further technological innovation. Benefits are also more difficult to quantify economically and can only be partially alleviated through willingness-to-pay approaches. Nevertheless, economic analyses in children's environmental health are highly informative and important informants to public-health and policy practice. Further attention and training in their appropriate use are needed.

  8. Urban environmental health hazards and health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Friel, Sharon; Dixon, Jane; Corvalan, Carlos; Rehfuess, Eva; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Gore, Fiona; Bartram, Jamie

    2007-05-01

    This paper outlines briefly how the living environment can affect health. It explains the links between social and environmental determinants of health in urban settings. Interventions to improve health equity through the environment include actions and policies that deal with proximal risk factors in deprived urban areas, such as safe drinking water supply, reduced air pollution from household cooking and heating as well as from vehicles and industry, reduced traffic injury hazards and noise, improved working environment, and reduced heat stress because of global climate change. The urban environment involves health hazards with an inequitable distribution of exposures and vulnerabilities, but it also involves opportunities for implementing interventions for health equity. The high population density in many poor urban areas means that interventions at a small scale level can assist many people, and existing infrastructure can sometimes be upgraded to meet health demands. Interventions at higher policy levels that will create more sustainable and equitable living conditions and environments include improved city planning and policies that take health aspects into account in every sector. Health equity also implies policies and actions that improve the global living environment, for instance, limiting greenhouse gas emissions. In a global equity perspective, improving the living environment and health of the poor in developing country cities requires actions to be taken in the most affluent urban areas of the world. This includes making financial and technical resources available from high-income countries to be applied in low-income countries for urgent interventions for health equity. This is an abbreviated version of a paper on "Improving the living environment" prepared for the World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health, Knowledge Network on Urban Settings.

  9. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    and providing it to environmental, natural resource, agricultural, and public-health managers. The USGS is a Federal science agency with a broad range of natural science expertise relevant to environmental health. USGS provides scientific information and tools as a scientific basis for management and policy decision making. USGS specializes in science at the environment-health interface, by characterizing the processes that affect the interaction among the physical environment, the living environment, and people, and the resulting factors that affect ecological and human exposure to disease agents. This report describes a 10-year strategy that encompasses the portfolio of USGS environmental health science. It summarizes national environmental health priorities that USGS is best suited to address, and will serve as a strategic framework for USGS environmental health science goals, actions, and outcomes for the next decade. Implementation of this strategy is intended to aid coordination of USGS environmental health activities and to provide a focal point for disseminating information to stakeholders. The "One Health" paradigm advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2011), and the American Veterinary Medicine Association (AVMA, 2008), among others, is based on a general recognition that the health of humans, animals, and the environment are inextricably linked. Thus, successful efforts to protect that health will require increased interdisciplinary research and increased communication and collaboration among the broader scientific and health community. This strategy is built upon that paradigm. The vision, mission, and five cornerstone goals of the USGS Environmental Health Science Strategy were developed with significant input from a wide range of stakeholders. Vision - The USGS is a premier source of the environmental health science needed to safeguard the health of the environment, fish, wildlife, and people. Mission - The mission of USGS in environmental

  10. Linking Meteorology, Air Quality Models and Observations to Characterize Human Exposures in Support of the Environmental Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies are critical in establishing the association between exposure to air pollutants and adverse health effects. Results of epidemiologic studies are used by U.S. EPA in developing air quality standards to protect the public from the health effects of air polluta...

  11. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    and providing it to environmental, natural resource, agricultural, and public-health managers. The USGS is a Federal science agency with a broad range of natural science expertise relevant to environmental health. USGS provides scientific information and tools as a scientific basis for management and policy decision making. USGS specializes in science at the environment-health interface, by characterizing the processes that affect the interaction among the physical environment, the living environment, and people, and the resulting factors that affect ecological and human exposure to disease agents. This report describes a 10-year strategy that encompasses the portfolio of USGS environmental health science. It summarizes national environmental health priorities that USGS is best suited to address, and will serve as a strategic framework for USGS environmental health science goals, actions, and outcomes for the next decade. Implementation of this strategy is intended to aid coordination of USGS environmental health activities and to provide a focal point for disseminating information to stakeholders. The "One Health" paradigm advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2011), and the American Veterinary Medicine Association (AVMA, 2008), among others, is based on a general recognition that the health of humans, animals, and the environment are inextricably linked. Thus, successful efforts to protect that health will require increased interdisciplinary research and increased communication and collaboration among the broader scientific and health community. This strategy is built upon that paradigm. The vision, mission, and five cornerstone goals of the USGS Environmental Health Science Strategy were developed with significant input from a wide range of stakeholders. Vision - The USGS is a premier source of the environmental health science needed to safeguard the health of the environment, fish, wildlife, and people. Mission - The mission of USGS in environmental

  12. Health Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This booklet notes that for a long time the American people were willing to pay any price for progress. Now may refuse to accept an environment that menaces their health and lowers their enjoyment of life. They are embracing a new environmental consciousness, a broader vision of reality, a more profound sense of their place in nature. Among the…

  13. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulcahy, Maurice

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  14. Volatile Organic Compunds (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air ...

  15. Natural Disasters (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air ...

  16. Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air ...

  17. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation National Library of Medicine Environmental Health Student Portal Connecting Middle School Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air ...

  18. 20 CFR 638.804 - Environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental health. 638.804 Section 638.804... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Administrative Provisions § 638.804 Environmental health. The Job Corps Director shall provide guidelines for proper environmental health conditions....

  19. An Assessment of Environmental Health Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. In manned spacecraft, environmental health risks are mitigated by a multi-disciplinary effort, employing several measures including active and passive controls, by establishing environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits), and through environmental monitoring. Human Health and Performance (HHP) scientists and Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. ECLS engineers use environmental monitoring data to monitor and confirm the health of ECLS systems, whereas HHP scientists use the data to manage the health of the human system. Because risks can vary between missions and change over time, environmental monitoring is critical. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in environmental health knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of the roadmap development and findings are presented in this paper.

  20. VT - Environmental Public Health Tracking Data Explorer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — What is Environmental Public Health Tracking?Tracking is an ongoing national effort to better understand how environmental hazards can contribute to certain...

  1. Health and Environmental Research Online (HERO) database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — HERO contains the key studies EPA uses to develop environmental risk assessments for the public. EPA uses risk assessments to characterize the nature and magnitude...

  2. Application of Health Promotion Theories and Models for Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Edith A.; Baldwin, Grant T.; Israel, Barbara; Salinas, Maria A.

    2004-01-01

    The field of environmental health promotion gained new prominence in recent years as awareness of physical environmental stressors and exposures increased in communities across the country and the world. Although many theories and conceptual models are used routinely to guide health promotion and health education interventions, they are rarely…

  3. Methods for Characterizing Fine Particulate Matter Using Satellite Remote-Sensing Data and Ground Observations: Potential Use for Environmental Public Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G.; Qualters, Judith R.; Niskar, Amanda S.; Sinclair, Amber H.; Tolsma, Dennis D.; Adeniyi, Kafayat A.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes and demonstrates different techniques for surfacing daily environmental / hazards data of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) for the purpose of integrating respiratory health and environmental data for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC s) pilot study of Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELIX)-Atlanta. It described a methodology for estimating ground-level continuous PM2.5 concentrations using B-Spline and inverse distance weighting (IDW) surfacing techniques and leveraging National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data to complement The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observation data. The study used measurements of ambient PM2.5 from the EPA database for the year 2003 as well as PM2.5 estimates derived from NASA s satellite data. Hazard data have been processed to derive the surrogate exposure PM2.5 estimates. The paper has shown that merging MODIS remote sensing data with surface observations of PM2.5 not only provides a more complete daily representation of PM2.5 than either data set alone would allow, but it also reduces the errors in the PM2.5 estimated surfaces. The results of this paper have shown that the daily IDW PM2.5 surfaces had smaller errors, with respect to observations, than those of the B-Spline surfaces in the year studied. However the IDW mean annual composite surface had more numerical artifacts, which could be due to the interpolating nature of the IDW that assumes that the maxima and minima can occur only at the observation points. Finally, the methods discussed in this paper improve temporal and spatial resolutions and establish a foundation for environmental public health linkage and association studies for which determining the concentrations of an environmental hazard such as PM2.5 with good accuracy levels is critical.

  4. Institutional lessons learned in environmental health programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Lawrence J.; Sencer, David J.

    1999-01-01

    During the last four years, the Environmental Health Project (EHP) has been engaged in a wide range of environmental health activities, many of which have had an institutional component. While some were specifically designated as institutional development activities, a number of them were focused pr

  5. Measuring Environmental Health Perception among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Brown, Stephen L.; Middleton, Wendi K.; Wodika, Alicia B.

    2011-01-01

    One's knowledge, perception, and attitude are fundamental in determining how one behaves regarding environmental hazards. While science has made great strides in promoting environmental health, threats still exist, largely due to individual actions in response to potential health hazards. Undergraduate students (n = 395) enrolled in an…

  6. Paediatric environmental health history taking: Why bother?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W. ten Tusscher; M.M. Leijs; J.G. Koppe

    2006-01-01

    Environmental health history taking is often not part of standard medical history taking for clinical physicians. During recent years attention has been placed on home environments and asthma and allergies, high caloric intake and obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, yet environmental health histor

  7. 75 FR 65365 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Environmental Health Sciences Review Committee; Research Career... applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T....

  8. Environmental pollution, chromosomes, and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In mid-May, 1980, President Carter declared a state of emergency at the Love Canal area, near Niagara Falls, New York. The reason for this was for the U.S. to underwrite the relocation costs ($3-5 million) of some 2500 residents who, according to a report by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) may have suffered damaged chromosomes. These injuries were apparently caused by contact with toxic wastes that had been dumped in the area in the years prior to development for housing.That the toxic compounds exist in the Love Canal and Niagara Falls subsurface zones, including public water supplies, appears to be established fact. That the residents of the Love Canal area suffered chromosomal damage may be established fact as well. Whether or not these two findings can be linked to ill health of the residents is another matter. Recently, the EPA report has been described as having ‘close to zero scientific significance,’ and has been ‘discredited’(Science, 208, 123a, 1980). The reasons for this disparity go beyond differences of opinion, beyond possible inadequacies of the EPA study, and even beyond problems that probably will arise from future studies, including those now in the planning stages. The problem is that even if victims have easily recognizable injuries from toxic substances (injury that apparently has not occurred to Love Canal residents), medical science usually cannot show a causal relationship. Even chromosomal damage is, at best, difficult to interpret. In ideal studies of significant populations and control groups, the association of toxic chemical to chromosome damage and to cancer and birth defects is indirect and, up to now, has been shown to have little or no significance to an individual member of the exposed population.

  9. Environmental Health Disparities: A Framework Integrating Psychosocial and Environmental Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Gee, Gilbert C.; Payne-Sturges, Devon C

    2004-01-01

    Although it is often acknowledged that social and environmental factors interact to produce racial and ethnic environmental health disparities, it is still unclear how this occurs. Despite continued controversy, the environmental justice movement has provided some insight by suggesting that disadvantaged communities face greater likelihood of exposure to ambient hazards. The exposure–disease paradigm has long suggested that differential “vulnerability” may modify the effects of toxicants on b...

  10. Merging Environmental Health and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Community colleges nationwide are retrofitting their campuses to meet best environmental principles, creating comprehensive "living laboratories" where participants have a direct impact on reducing an institution's carbon footprint. Environmental stewardship is a growing priority among millennials, observers say. Sixty-six percent of…

  11. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pesticides are and commonly used ones around the house. Pesticides (Tox Town - National Library of Medicine) - Introduction to the health effects associated with exposure to pesticides and where ...

  12. Integrating mitochondriomics in children's environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunst, Kelly J; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-09-01

    The amount of scientific research linking environmental exposures and childhood health outcomes continues to grow; yet few studies have teased out the mechanisms involved in environmentally-induced diseases. Cells can respond to environmental stressors in many ways: inducing oxidative stress/inflammation, changes in energy production and epigenetic alterations. Mitochondria, tiny organelles that each retains their own DNA, are exquisitely sensitive to environmental insults and are thought to be central players in these pathways. While it is intuitive that mitochondria play an important role in disease processes, given that every cell of our body is dependent on energy metabolism, it is less clear how environmental exposures impact mitochondrial mechanisms that may lead to enhanced risk of disease. Many of the effects of the environment are initiated in utero and integrating mitochondriomics into children's environmental health studies is a critical priority. This review will highlight (i) the importance of exploring environmental mitochondriomics in children's environmental health, (ii) why environmental mitochondriomics is well suited to biomarker development in this context, and (iii) how molecular and epigenetic changes in mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may reflect exposures linked to childhood health outcomes.

  13. Integrating environmental health into medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehle, Kimberly S; Crawford, Jewel L; Hatcher, Michael T

    2011-10-01

    Although environmental factors contribute to more than 25% of all global disease, and toxic agents ranked fifth in underlying causes of U.S. deaths in 2000, environmental medicine education is largely omitted in the continuum of U.S. medical education. The paucity of specialists trained in environmental medicine (i.e., occupational medicine and other preventive medicine specialties and subspecialties), coupled with the lack of adequate general medical education on how to prevent, diagnose, refer, or treat patients exposed to hazardous substances in the environment, contributes to lost opportunities for primary prevention or early intervention to mitigate or minimize environmentally related disease burden. Survey findings of graduating medical students over the past few years have identified environmental health as a medical school topic area that can be improved. This article reflects a panel presentation on the challenge of including environmental health in general medical education. It was given at the 2010 "Patients and Populations: Public Health in Medical Education" conference cosponsored by the CDC and the American Association of Medical Colleges. A variety of educational strategies, models, and educational resources are presented that illustrate how recommended competency-based environmental health content can be integrated into medical education to better prepare medical students and physicians without specialized expertise in environmental medicine to provide or facilitate environmental preventive or curative patient care.

  14. European birth cohorts for environmental health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna;

    2012-01-01

    Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning....

  15. Increasing cropping system diversity balances productivity, profitability and environmental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and can have large negative im...

  16. Understanding Wicked Problems: A Key to Advancing Environmental Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, Marshall W.; De Rosa, Christopher; Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.

    2004-01-01

    Complex environmental health problems--like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning--are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as "wicked problems" wherein stakeholders may have…

  17. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, S; Morris, G.; Fleming, L. E.

    2015-01-01

    the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession......Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era......, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach...

  18. Interdisciplinary Environmental-health Science Throughout Disaster Lifecycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.; Hoefen, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Potential human health effects from exposures to hazardous disaster materials and environmental contamination are common concerns following disasters. Using several examples from US Geological Survey environmental disaster responses (e.g., 2001 World Trade Center, mine tailings spills, 2005 Hurricane Katrina, 2007-2013 wildfires, 2011 Gulf oil spill, 2012 Hurricane Sandy, 2013 Colorado floods) and disaster scenarios (2011 ARkStorm, 2013 SAFRR tsunami) this presentation will illustrate the role for collaborative earth, environmental, and health science throughout disaster lifecycles. Pre-disaster environmental baseline measurements are needed to help understand environmental influences on pre-disaster health baselines, and to constrain the magnitude of a disaster's impacts. During and following disasters, there is a need for interdisciplinary rapid-response and longer-term assessments that: sample and characterize the physical, chemical, and microbial makeup of complex materials generated by the disasters; fingerprint material sources; monitor, map, and model dispersal and evolution of disaster materials in the environment; help understand how the materials are modified by environmental processes; and, identify key characteristics and processes that influence the exposures and toxicity of disaster materials to humans and the living environment. This information helps emergency responders, public health experts, and cleanup managers: 1) identify short- and long-term exposures to disaster materials that may affect health; 2) prioritize areas for cleanup; and 3) develop appropriate disposal solutions or restoration uses for disaster materials. By integrating lessons learned from past disasters with geospatial information on vulnerable sources of natural or anthropogenic contaminants, the environmental health implications of looming disasters or disaster scenarios can be better anticipated, which helps enhance preparedness and resilience. Understanding economic costs of

  19. The Watershed as A Conceptual Framework for the Study of Environmental and Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The watershed provides a physical basis for establishing linkages between aquatic contaminants, environmental health and human health. Current attempts to establish such linkages are limited by environmental and epidemiological constraints. Environmental limitations include difficulties in characterizing the temporal and spatial dynamics of agricultural runoff, in fully understanding the degradation and metabolism of these compounds in the environment, and in understanding complex mixtures. E...

  20. Teaching Home Environmental Health to Resident Physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Zickafoose, Joseph S.; Greenberg, Stuart; Dorr G Dearborn

    2011-01-01

    Healthy Homes programs seek to integrate the evaluation and management of a multitude of health and safety risks in households. The education of physicians in the identification, evaluation, and management of these home health and safety issues continues to be deficient. Healthy Homes programs represent a unique opportunity to educate physicians in the home environment and stimulate ongoing, specific patient-physician discussions and more general learning about home environmental health. The ...

  1. Environmental health needs and launching of an environmental health protection unit in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Z A; Kazi, B M; Bile, K M; Magan, M; Nasir, J A

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan is seriously confronted by many complex and difficult environmental challenges related to air, water, soil, forests and food including issues such as climate change. The close link between environment and health is neither well understood nor appreciated. The annual cost of environmental degradation in Pakistan has been estimated to be around US $4.0 billion orat least 6% of the country's GDP. Up to 35% of the burden of disease is attributable to environmental hazards and risk factors and most of this burden is preventable. A systematic process for identifying environmental health needs and issues as well as the efforts made by the government of Pakistan and the World Health Organization in establishing and launching an environmental health protection unit are described. Also presented are the mission, functions, structure (operational and logistical) and technical requirements as well as sustainability aspects of the environmental health protection unit.

  2. Environmental health in the Karelian Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynkkynen, V.P.

    1999-11-01

    When looking at environmental health risks in the Karelian Republic from the viewpoint of environmental history, the cause and effect relationships of present environmental health risks can be comprehensively understood. The decrease experienced in drinking water quality, which has been induced by the extensive environmental changes, has been exposing the Karelian population to significant health risks. Several waterborne gastrointestinal epidemics witnessed in the Republic and the excess cancer risk of strongly chlorinated humus-rich drinking water are, together with the industrial and traffic and pollution, the most significant environmental health risks in the Karelian Republic today. In order to diminish the health risks related to drinking water, the use of surface water bodies as a drinking water source should be restricted and the so called shallow ground water sources, located near the settlements should be taken into use. In those locations where the water supply cannot be solely based on ground water resources, the raw water intake site should at least be moved further away from polluted water areas. (orig.)

  3. National Coal Utilization Assessment. a preliminary assessment of the health and environmental effects of coal utilization in the Midwest. Volume I. Energy scenarios, technology characterizations, air and water resource impacts, and health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for 1975-2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. The following are among the more significant issues identified and evaluated in this study: If environmental and related issues can be resolved, coal will continue to be a major source of energy for the Midwest; existing sulfur emission constraints will increase use of western coal; the resource requirements and environmental impacts of coal utilization will require major significant environmental and economic tradeoffs in site selection; short-term (24-hr) ambient standards for sulfur dioxide will limit the sizes of coal facilities or require advanced control technologies; an impact on public health may result from long-range transport of airborne sulfur emissions from coal facilities in the Midwest; inadequately controlled effluents from coal gasification may cause violations of water-quality standards; the major ecological effects of coal extraction are from pre-mining and post-reclamation land use; and sulfur dioxide is the major potential contributor to effects on vegetation of atmospheric emissions from coal facilities.

  4. Health environmental risks surveillance systems: toxicological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ferrer Dufol

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the Clinical Toxicological Section, about the Epidemiological Surveillance in Emergency Services, in relation to chemical products intoxications during the 1999-2003 period, is presented. This work is a result of an agreement between the Spanish Toxicological Association (AETOX and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption, and was presented in the National Congress of Environment (CONAMA within the “Health Environmental Risks Surveillance Systems” working group.

  5. Health environmental risks surveillance systems: toxicological surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ferrer Dufol; Santiago Nogué Xarau; Francisco Vargas Marcos; Olivia Castillo Soria; Pilar Gascó Alberich; Ana de la Torre Reoyo; Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2004-01-01

    A study of the Clinical Toxicological Section, about the Epidemiological Surveillance in Emergency Services, in relation to chemical products intoxications during the 1999-2003 period, is presented. This work is a result of an agreement between the Spanish Toxicological Association (AETOX) and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption, and was presented in the National Congress of Environment (CONAMA) within the “Health Environmental Risks Surveillance Systems” working group.

  6. Environmental health aspects of the microelectronics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, J S; Levy, B S

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews examples of contamination to the surface or groundwater, the ambient air, and soil resulting from the microelectronics industry. The potential effects on human health arising from such environmental contamination are discussed, as well as aspects of their diagnosis, treatment, and related public health implications. Given the high costs of pollution control, the emphasis must be on prevention, which can be facilitated by a high level of suspicion and by the design of safety and pollution control into manufacturing processes.

  7. Politics of coordination in environmental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper; Kjærgård, Bente; Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    on environmental policy integration, for studying the efforts and paradoxes in sector co-ordination, in order to reflect on the pro et cons of integrative approaches to environment and public health. We will give an overview of the various approaches to coordinative efforts from an international to a national...

  8. Critical Thinking for Environmental Health Risk Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Robin

    1991-01-01

    Proposes an approach for helping school-age children to think critically about environmental health risks. Discusses elements of a school curriculum--defining a decision perspective, making choices under uncertainty, and thinking about consequences--and recommends classroom implementation procedures. (Author/JOW)

  9. A Guide for Environmental Health Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Gene M.

    1972-01-01

    Outlines objectives and resources to be assessed in a community environmental health plan. Considers: water; liquid waste disposal; housing maintenance; solid waste disposal; air pollution; food and food protection; rodent control; insect control; migrant labor camps; recreation sites; mobile homes - trailer parks; schools, institutions - public…

  10. Environmental Quality Index and Childhood Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood mental disorders affect between 13%-20% of children in the United States (US) annually and impact the child, family, and community. Literature suggests associations exist between environmental and children’s mental health such as air pollution with autism and ADHD...

  11. Healthy e-health? Think 'environmental e-health'!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Richard E; Saunders, Chad; Palacios, Moné; Nguyen, Duyen Thi Kim; Ali, Sajid

    2010-01-01

    The Environmental e-Health Research and Training Program has completed its scoping study to understand the breadth of a new field of research: Environmental e-Health. Nearly every aspect of modern life is associated, directly or indirectly, with application of technology, from a cup of coffee, through transportation to and from work, to appliances in the home and industrial activities. In recent decades the rapidly increasing application of information and communications technologies (ICT) has added to the cacophony of technological 'noise' around us. Research has shown that technology use, including ICTs, has impact upon the environment. Studying environmental impact in such a complex global setting is daunting. e-Health is now being used as a convenient microcosm of ICT application within which to study these impacts, and is particularly poignant given that e-Health's environmental harms conflict with its noble goals of 'doing no harm'. The study has identified impacts, both benefits and harms in all three life-cycle phases for e-Health: up-stream (materials extraction, manufacturing, packaging, distribution), mid-stream (use period), and down-stream (end-of-life processes--disposal, recycling). In addition the literature shows that a holistic 'Life Cycle Assessment' approach is essential to understand the complexity of the setting, and determine the true balance between total harms and total benefits, and for whom.

  12. UMTRA Project environmental, health, and safety plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    The basic health and safety requirements established in this plan are designed to provide guidelines to be applied at all Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites. Specific restrictions are given where necessary. However, an attempt has been made to provide guidelines which are generic in nature, and will allow for evaluation of site-specific conditions. Health and safety personnel are expected to exercise professional judgment when interpreting these guidelines to ensure the health and safety of project personnel and the general population. This UMTRA Project Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH S) Plan specifies the basic Federal health and safety standards and special DOE requirements applicable to this program. In addition, responsibilities in carrying out this plan are delineated. Some guidance on program requirements and radiation control and monitoring is also included. An Environmental, Health, and Safety Plan shall be developed as part of the remedial action plan for each mill site and associated disposal site. Special conditions at the site which may present potential health hazards will be described, and special areas that should should be addressed by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) will be indicated. Site-specific EH S concerns will be addressed by special contract conditions in RAC subcontracts. 2 tabs.

  13. Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pracha P. Eamranond

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status.

  14. What characterizes persons with poor mental health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette;

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to identify and characterize groups with poor mental health defined by the SF-12 Mental Component Summary (MCS-12) scale. Methods: The study is based on the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2005 and includes 10,082 participants (16 years or older). Data were...... health were further characterized by being a heavy smoker, and having a BMI below 25. Women with poor mental health were further characterized by being 16-44 years old and sedentary in leisure time. CONCLUSIONS THE PREVALENCE OF POOR MENTAL HEALTH IS HIGHER AMONG WOMEN THAN MEN, AND DIFFERENT FACTORS...

  15. [Environmental quality: wellfare, confort and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Marcos, Francisco; Gallego Pulgarín, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Different ways of interpreting environmental conditions have led to the development of concepts such as the sick building, indoor air quality or indoor environment quality, for understanding the complexity of the pollutants in enclosed environments and the implications thereof on the health. The "Indoor Environment Quality" proposal is an advancement, operative and conceptual, surpassing amply prior ones, given that it orients the actions toward healthy environments without limiting the idea of pollution to the air alone. The aim is identifying the competence to preventing hazards related to exposure to pollutants within the confines of indoor environments and know the legislative framework useful for taking the actions. Optimum conditions within indoor environments must redound in health, well-being and comfort with regard to both working life as well as the environments in which everyday activities outside of work, extracurricular, leisure-time and entertainment activities are carried out. Today's society is demanding safe, clean, well-climatized places, for this is necessary to integrate the inhabitant's perceptions and demands and achieve an optimum balance among social standards, energy use and sustainable development. Legislation is being further expanded upon in the direction of occupational health and safety and the regulation of chemical substances. Environmental Health carries out prevention and control tasks, takes part in the enforcement of international pollution and waste reduction agreements and promotes measures for carrying out the European Environment and Health Strategy. It is considered useful the elaboration of protocols for the evaluation and administration gives the risks associated to the interior pollutants.

  16. 76 FR 79201 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... Research and Training, Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615... the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards;...

  17. Environmental health implications of global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Robert T.; Patz, Jonathan; Gubler, Duane J.; Parson, Edward A.; Vincent, James H.

    2005-07-01

    This paper reviews the background that has led to the now almost-universally held opinion in the scientific community that global climate change is occurring and is inescapably linked with anthropogenic activity. The potential implications to human health are considerable and very diverse. These include, for example, the increased direct impacts of heat and of rises in sea level, exacerbated air and water-borne harmful agents, and - associated with all the preceding - the emergence of environmental refugees. Vector-borne diseases, in particular those associated with blood-sucking arthropods such as mosquitoes, may be significantly impacted, including redistribution of some of those diseases to areas not previously affected. Responses to possible impending environmental and public health crises must involve political and socio-economic considerations, adding even greater complexity to what is already a difficult challenge. In some areas, adjustments to national and international public health practices and policies may be effective, at least in the short and medium terms. But in others, more drastic measures will be required. Environmental monitoring, in its widest sense, will play a significant role in the future management of the problem. (Author)

  18. A Smart Green Building: An Environmental Health Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Ting Huang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the establishment of an environmental health information management platform providing residential users with a comfortable, healthy indoor environment. Taking the S House as an example, the study: (1 assigned environmental health performance indicators, (2 established constraints to maintain environmental conditions, and (3 provided optimized management control mechanisms and methods. The environmental health information management platform provides an optimized control and solution pathway ensuring the quality of the indoor health environment and equipment energy conservation.

  19. Community intervention in higher education of environmental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cidália Guia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, in the Bologna context, university teaching methods focus on the student and on a learning experience based on practical methods. Under the guidance of teachers, students in the second year of the first Environmental Health Course at the Polytechnic Institute of Beja have designed and developed the following nine community intervention projects relating to environmental health: dangerous products (mercury; habitability and geriatrics; health education and the environment; drinking water; information and communication in environmental health; efficient use of resources in public buildings; child development in outdoor spaces; and allergenic factors in housing. This pedagogical action takes place over three semesters, corresponding to the three distinct phases: design, implementation and evaluation / dissemination. To ensure the viability of the projects, each group of three students has established partnerships with various entities, such as city and parish councils, hospitals, schools, consumer cooperatives, companies dealing with hazardous waste, the Youth Institute and other commercial enterprises. Although it has not been possible to evaluate the whole project, preliminary results suggest that the planned activities have been very successful, with health benefits for the people involved, through environmental improvements or an increase in empowerment. It was also possible to achieve economic gains and contribute to the conservation of the environment. The students were able to gain skills and knowledge in a teaching model characterized by the absence of lectures in which students, assisted by teachers, take decisions and independent action, simulating a real context of professional practice. This experience suggests that, by utilizing the Bologna method, the polytechnic institutions may improve their real contribution to the health of communities.

  20. Environmental Management of Pediatric Asthma: Guidelines for Health Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James R.; McCurdy, Leyla Erk

    2005-01-01

    These guidelines are the product of a new Pediatric Asthma Initiative aimed at integrating environmental management of asthma into pediatric health care. This document outlines competencies in environmental health relevant to pediatric asthma that should be mastered by primary health care providers, and outlines the environmental interventions…

  1. Environmental health indicators Indicadores de salud ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Posada de la Paz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This presentation gives a general overview of the project titled Environmental Health Indicators, coordinated by WHO and managed by the Research Centre on the Toxic Oil Syndrome and Rare Diseases in Spain. The presentations describes the objectives of the project, the steps taken and the results obtained during the feasibility study. The project aims to develop an environmental health information system that will allow the monitoring of public health and its health determinants and make international comparisons, develop environmental policies and facilitate communication with citizens. WHO developed a methodology for the development of these indicators within the conceptual framework of DPSEEA (Driving Force, Pressure, State, Exposure, Effect, Action and selected a total of 55 indicators (which included 168 variables in 10 environmental health areas. The feasibility study predicted the successful gathering of 89% of the indicators. However, data recollection proved difficult due to the frequent incompatibility of some variables in the Spanish information systems with the WHO defined variables. On a management level, the greatest difficulty arose from the disperse distribution of responsibilities in environmental health matters. In addition to the technical contribution of this project to Environmental Health in Spain, an added value has been to establish a close collaboration with the different Ministries involved.Esta ponencia presenta una visión general del proyecto de Indicadores de Salud Ambiental, coordinado por la OMS a nivel internacional y liderado por el Centro de Investigación sobre el Síndrome del Aceite Tóxico y Enfermedades Raras (CISATER en España. En ella se describen los objetivos del proyecto, las gestiones realizadas y los resultados obtenidos durante la fase de viabilidad de este proyecto. El proyecto consiste en el establecimiento de un sistema de información sobre salud ambiental que permita desarrollar una vigilancia

  2. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7–10 years was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  3. Risk Analysis for Environmental Health Triage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K T

    2005-11-18

    The Homeland Security Act mandates development of a national, risk-based system to support planning for, response to and recovery from emergency situations involving large-scale toxic exposures. To prepare for and manage consequences effectively, planners and responders need not only to identify zones of potentially elevated individual risk, but also to predict expected casualties. Emergency response support systems now define ''consequences'' by mapping areas in which toxic chemical concentrations do or may exceed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) or similar guidelines. However, because AEGLs do not estimate expected risks, current unqualified claims that such maps support consequence management are misleading. Intentionally protective, AEGLs incorporate various safety/uncertainty factors depending on scope and quality of chemical-specific toxicity data. Some of these factors are irrelevant, and others need to be modified, whenever resource constraints or exposure-scenario complexities require responders to make critical trade-off (triage) decisions in order to minimize expected casualties. AEGL-exceedance zones cannot consistently be aggregated, compared, or used to calculate expected casualties, and so may seriously misguide emergency response triage decisions. Methods and tools well established and readily available to support environmental health protection are not yet developed for chemically related environmental health triage. Effective triage decisions involving chemical risks require a new assessment approach that focuses on best estimates of likely casualties, rather than on upper plausible bounds of individual risk. If risk-based consequence management is to become a reality, federal agencies tasked with supporting emergency response must actively coordinate to foster new methods that can support effective environmental health triage.

  4. CDC National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking Network)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is a system of integrated health, exposure, and hazard information and data from a variety of national,...

  5. [Health and environmental governance for sustainable development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet; Gallo, Edmundo; Magalhães, Danielly de Paiva; Setti, Andréia Faraoni Freitas; Franco Netto, Francisco de Abreu; Buss, Daniel Forsin

    2012-06-01

    The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio+20, will address the challenges for sustainable development (SD), 'green economy and poverty eradication' and the 'institutional structure of sustainable development'. Therefore it will address the governance needed to achieve such goals. This paper discusses the structure of global, regional and national governance of and for health and environment in the context of SD. Among other global actions, the Millenium Development Goals were a significant recent political effort, but despite its advances, it fails when ignores the structural causes of production and consumption patterns and the unequal distribution of power, which are responsible for inequities and impede true development. To achieve SD, proposals must avoid reductionism, advancing conceptually and methodologically to face the challenges of the socio-environmental determinants of health through intersectoral action, including social participation and all levels of government. It is paramount to continue the implementation of Agenda 21, to meet the MDGs and to create 'Sustainable Development Goals'. Regarding the health field, Rio+20 Summit must reassure the connection between health and sustainability - as a part of the Social pillar of sustainable development - inspiring politics and actions in multiple levels.

  6. Plastics and environmental health: the road ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Emily J; Halden, Rolf U

    2013-01-01

    Plastics continue to benefit society in innumerable ways, even though recent public focus on plastics has centered mostly on human health and environmental concerns, including their endocrine-disrupting properties and the long-term pollution they represent. The benefits of plastics are particularly apparent in medicine and public health. Plastics are versatile, cost-effective, require less energy to produce than alternative materials like metal or glass, and can be manufactured to have many different properties. Due to these characteristics, polymers are used in diverse health applications like disposable syringes and intravenous bags, sterile packaging for medical instruments as well as in joint replacements, tissue engineering, etc. However, not all current uses of plastics are prudent and sustainable, as illustrated by the widespread, unwanted human exposure to endocrine-disrupting bisphenol A (BPA) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), problems arising from the large quantities of plastic being disposed of, and depletion of non-renewable petroleum resources as a result of the ever-increasing mass production of plastic consumer articles. Using the health-care sector as example, this review concentrates on the benefits and downsides of plastics and identifies opportunities to change the composition and disposal practices of these invaluable polymers for a more sustainable future consumption. It highlights ongoing efforts to phase out DEHP and BPA in the health-care and food industry and discusses biodegradable options for plastic packaging, opportunities for reducing plastic medical waste, and recycling in medical facilities in the quest to reap a maximum of benefits from polymers without compromising human health or the environment in the process.

  7. Medical education for obstetricians and gynecologists should incorporate environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinney, Veronica A; Paulson, Jerome A; Bathgate, Susanne L; Larsen, John W

    2015-02-01

    Obstetricians-gynecologists can protect the reproductive health of women, men, and their offspring from environmental hazards through preconception and prenatal counseling and encouraging patients to take actions to reduce environmental exposures. Although obstetricians-gynecologists are well positioned to prevent hazardous exposures, education on environmental health in medical education is limited. The Mid-Atlantic Center for Children's Health and the Environment and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of George Washington University convened a meeting to begin integration of environmental health topics into medical education for obstetricians-gynecologists. Several avenues were identified to incorporate environmental health topics into medical education including continuing education requirements, inclusion of environmental health questions on board certification examinations and the creation of a curriculum on environmental health specific to obstetrics-gynecology.

  8. 76 FR 50234 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice... and Training (DERT), Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615... and Training (DERT), Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health,...

  9. Environmental Health And Building Related Illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Li Chan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has good environmental laws toprotect the outdoor environment and public health.However there are no laws governing indoor air quality(IAQ and the knowledge among the public about itsimportance is also lacking. Environmental professionalsthink it is not a priority and this influences the policydecisions in the country. Therefore there is a need tocreate awareness by way of research, education andother promotional activities. What is much needed atthis time is the establishment of standards for theconduct of risk assessment studies. To establishstandards we need reliable data which can be used todevelop appropriate guidelines for the purpose ofmitigation and adaptation programmes. IAQ can havesignificant influence on health resulting in drop inproductivity and economy of a country. It has beenestimated that in the US, building related illnesses(BRI symptoms have a relationship with decrease (3 to5% in work performance in an affected populationresulting in an annual loss of US$60 billion in revenue.However, based on efficient management programmesthey have also projected that the potential annualsavings can be in the region of US$10 to 30 billion. Thisestablishes that fact that good management programmesbased on efficient guidelines is of economic value to acountry and wellbeing of the population. The IMU hasembarked on a research programme to collect themuch-needed data for the framing of a good IAQguideline for Malaysia.

  10. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrew E; Evans, Alexandra E

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning.

  11. Programs director`s report for the Office of Health and Environmental Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    Since its establishment, the Department of Energy`s Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has had responsibility for conducting biological research to develop the knowledge needed to identify, understand, and anticipate the long-term health consequences of energy use and development, including the potential health impacts of radiation. The Health Effects Research Program has established the basis for understanding the health consequences of radiation for humans, developed radiation dosimetry methodology, characterized and evaluated the health impacts of fossil fuels, and developed and conducted research to determine the health impacts of inhaled toxicants. The results of this research have provided input for setting genetic standards for radiation and chemical exposure.

  12. Environmental tobacco smoke and children's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Hwang, Jong Hee; Moon, Jin Soo; Lee, Do-Hoon

    2012-02-01

    Passive exposure to tobacco smoke significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in children. Children, in particular, seem to be the most susceptible population to the harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Paternal smoking inside the home leads to significant maternal and fetal exposure to ETS and may subsequently affect fetal health. ETS has been associated with adverse effects on pediatric health, including preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal mortality, respiratory illness, neurobehavioral problems, and decreased performance in school. A valid estimation of the risks associated with tobacco exposure depends on accurate measurement. Nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine, are commonly used as smoking biomarkers, and their levels can be determined in various biological specimens such as blood, saliva, and urine. Recently, hair analysis was found to be a convenient, noninvasive technique for detecting the presence of nicotine exposure. Because nicotine/cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, it is a unique measure of long-term, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Although smoking ban policies result in considerable reductions in ETS exposure, children are still exposed significantly to tobacco smoke not only in their homes but also in schools, restaurants, child-care settings, cars, buses, and other public places. Therefore, more effective strategies and public policies to protect preschool children from ETS should be consolidated.

  13. Status of health and environmental research relative to coal gasification 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilzbach, K.E.; Reilly, C.A. Jr. (comps.)

    1982-10-01

    Health and environmental research relative to coal gasification conducted by Argonne National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under DOE sponsorship is summarized. The studies have focused on the chemical and toxicological characterization of materials from a range of process streams in five bench-scale, pilot-plant and industrial gasifiers. They also address ecological effects, industrial hygiene, environmental control technology performance, and risk assessment. Following an overview of coal gasification technology and related environmental concerns, integrated summaries of the studies and results in each area are presented and conclusions are drawn. Needed health and environmental research relative to coal gasification is identified.

  14. 76 FR 77239 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W. Alexander Drive... Research and Training, Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health,...

  15. 75 FR 55805 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... Director, Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences... Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114,...

  16. Waste foundry sand: Environmental implication and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Penkaitis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of analyses using Scanning Electron Microscopy in field samples of waste foundry sand, as well as the results of granulometric, chemical and groundwater analyses. Field data allowed to characterize waste foundry sand and showed that there are elevated concentrations of metals in the groundwater (iron, manganese, boron and selenium, in addition to other potentially toxic elements (chromium, copper, cobalt, nickel, zinc, aluminum, iron, manganese, which are present in the waste and are considered not hazardous by current standards. Even if these elements are not considered hazardous, their concentrations above the permissible limit compromise the environmental quality of the site, posing risks to the local population, since they work in agriculture and use groundwater. Two different types of waste foundry sands were identified using granulometric analyses. Electron microscopy showed features related to morphological, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of grains that make up the waste. Quartz was the dominant mineral. Waste foundry sand is composed of two types of grains: a rounded grain with almost no incrustations formed during alloy production, and a second type of grain, which is not rounded, has incrustations, and always has several metals derived from alloys and associated with these incrustations. Chemical elements detected in groundwater with concentrations above the limits established by the regulatory bodies were found in wells located in the landfill area. Most of these elements show higher concentrations downstream, some of them with concentrations above the regulatory limit, and others show an increase in concentration upstream, indicating that the landfill may be impacting the local environment.

  17. An Assessment of Environmental Health Needs for Manned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. Environmental monitoring coupled with other measures including active and passive controls and the implementation of environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits) are used to ensure environmental health in manned spacecraft. NASA scientists and engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. Environmental monitoring data confirms the health of ECLS systems, in addition to contributing to the management of the health of human systems. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of Exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of this assessment and findings are presented in this paper.

  18. University of Washington Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  19. Social Science-Environmental Health Collaborations: An Exciting New Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Jacob; Brown, Phil; Brody, Julia

    2016-08-22

    The Social Science-Environmental Health Collaborations Conference in May 2016 was a unique gathering of scholars from the social sciences and environmental health sciences, government agency professionals, community organizers and activists, and students. Conference participants described the research and practice of environmental public health as done through a transdisciplinary lens and with a community-based participatory research/community-engaged research model. NIEHS' role in supporting such work has helped create a growing number of social and environmental health scientists who cross boundaries as they work with each other and with community-based organizations.

  20. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Resnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

  1. Sensitizing nurses for a changing environmental health role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedje, L B; Wood, J

    1995-12-01

    This paper traces the evolution of a broader environmental health role for nursing by focusing on the health effects of exposure to environmental pollutants and of global environmental change. This evolving role is reviewed through the examination of selected community health nursing texts published during the last several decades. Key role strategies based on this expanded and evolving environmental role are proposed. Finally, a survey is described that is intended to heighten awareness of personal and professional attitudes and behaviors related to the environment.

  2. Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This special issue ‘Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health’ is part of the internationally leading 'International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health’. I was invited to be the guest editor, and to oversee the refereeing process and subsequent selection of timely, relevant and high quality papers highlighting particularly novel aspects concerned with sustainability issues in environmental studies. [...

  3. 77 FR 61771 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Environmental Health Sciences Review Committee. Date: November 15... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W. Alexander...

  4. 76 FR 52672 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis.... Agenda: To review and evaluate contract proposals. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health...

  5. 78 FR 59042 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES, including... Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W. Alexander Drive, Research...

  6. 77 FR 9673 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, including... Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W. Alexander Drive, Research...

  7. 76 FR 59147 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice..., Director, Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences..., Director, Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health...

  8. 77 FR 5261 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis..., Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program Operations, Scientific...

  9. 78 FR 59944 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health...

  10. 78 FR 64221 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. ] Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis...: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute of Environmental Health...

  11. 76 FR 57065 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, including.... Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T....

  12. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences,...

  13. 78 FR 26643 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES, including... Biomarker-Based Epidemiology Group. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building...

  14. 75 FR 57280 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES, including... Toxicology. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T....

  15. 77 FR 6569 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Special Emphasis... Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health...

  16. 76 FR 63311 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section... Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Review of Worker... Review Administrator, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program...

  17. 76 FR 27653 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Review Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute Environmental Health...

  18. 78 FR 18997 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, including..., Neuropharmacology and Human Metabolism Groups. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building...

  19. 75 FR 35076 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences,...

  20. 75 FR 7487 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program Operations, Scientific Review Branch,...

  1. 76 FR 5184 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis.... Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health...

  2. 77 FR 61613 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute Environmental Health Sciences, P....

  3. 76 FR 19378 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis...: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health...

  4. 77 FR 21788 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice...., Director, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences... Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to...

  5. 78 FR 32672 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS... that the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Division of Extramural Research... Division. Organizing Institute: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Dates and Times:...

  6. 78 FR 42968 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building...

  7. 77 FR 26300 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, including.... Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W. Alexander...

  8. 77 FR 40076 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences,...

  9. 77 FR 33472 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Administrator, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program Operations, Scientific...

  10. 75 FR 44273 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis.... Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health...

  11. 76 FR 26311 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to...

  12. 77 FR 16844 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... . Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel;...

  13. 78 FR 7794 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied...

  14. 78 FR 26793 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences,...

  15. 77 FR 12602 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... and evaluate grant applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building...

  16. 77 FR 60448 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice... and projects conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, including...:50 a.m. Agenda: Scientific Presentations Place: National Institute of Environmental Health...

  17. Who's in charge of children's environmental health at school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Jerome; Barnett, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Children spend many hours each week in and around school buildings. Their short- and long-term health outcomes and ability to learn are affected by numerous environmental factors related to the school buildings, the school grounds, the school transportation system, and the use of various products and materials in and around the school. Many school buildings are old, and they-and even newer buildings-can contain multiple environmental health hazards. While some districts self-report they have environmental health policies in place, no independent verification of these policies or their quality exists. Teachers and other staff, but not children who are more vulnerable to hazards than adults, are afforded some protections from hazards by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations, by their employment contracts, or through adult occupational health services. Major environmental problems include: indoor air quality, lighting, pests and pesticides, heavy metals and chemical management issues, renovation of occupied buildings, noise, and cleaning processes and products. No agency at the federal or state levels is charged with ensuring children's health and safety in and around school buildings. No systematic means exists for collecting data about exposures which occur in the school setting. Recommendations are made for dealing with issues of data collection, federal actions, state and local actions, and for building the capacity of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-designated and funded Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units (PEHSU) in responding to and evaluating risks to children's environmental health in schools.

  18. Tracks: A National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network Overview

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-08-04

    In this podcast, Dr. Mike McGeehin, Director of CDC's Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, provides an overview of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. It highlights the Tracking Network's goal, how it will improve public health, its audience, and much more.  Created: 8/4/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/4/2009.

  19. Community intervention in higher education of environmental health

    OpenAIRE

    Cidália Guia; Raquel Rodrigues dos Santos; Rogério da Silva Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Currently, in the Bologna context, university teaching methods focus on the student and on a learning experience based on practical methods. Under the guidance of teachers, students in the second year of the first Environmental Health Course at the Polytechnic Institute of Beja have designed and developed the following nine community intervention projects relating to environmental health: dangerous products (mercury); habitability and geriatrics; health education and the environment; drinking...

  20. [Environmental sustainability and health indicators in the Legal Amazonia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Carlos Machado de; Giatti, Leandro Luiz

    2009-06-01

    One of the challenges for public health is to build systems of indicators that allow monitoring current conditions and trends in environmental and health sustainability. This article focuses on the Legal Amazonia macro-region, which has undergone profound socioeconomic, environmental, and health changes since the mid-20th century. The conceptual framework adopted here was the model entitled Driving Forces, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, and Action (DPSEEA) proposed by the World Health Organization and adopted for environmental health surveillance by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The results show that numerous motor forces and pressures have contributed to the growth of the economy and the population, as well as to improvements in some traditional health indicators (a reduction in infant mortality and an increase in life expectancy), alongside major social and economic inequalities and heterogeneity in environmental health impacts. This same process has been accompanied by environmental changes that indicate an unsustainable development model for present and future generations, demanding comprehensive action by public health and environmental institutions.

  1. Integrating mitochondriomics in children’s environmental health

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The amount of scientific research linking environmental exposures and childhood health outcomes continues to grow; yet few studies have teased out the mechanisms involved in environmentally-induced diseases. Cells can respond to environmental stressors in many ways: inducing oxidative stress/inflammation, changes in energy production and epigenetic alterations. Mitochondria, tiny organelles that each retains their own DNA, are exquisitely sensitive to environmental insults and are thought to ...

  2. Environmental Health Promotion Interventions: Considerations for Preparation and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Miner, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Interventions to address current, future, and potential public health dilemmas, such as air pollution, urban sprawl, brown field reclamation, and threats of intentional toxic exposures would benefit from a synergy between the disciplines of environmental health and health education. A comparison between the Protocol for Assessing Community…

  3. Environmental victims: environmental injustice issues that threaten the health of children living in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cureton, Shava

    2011-01-01

    Children living in poverty are disproportionately at risk from and affected by environmental hazards. According to the National Center for Children in Poverty, 13 million children in America live in poverty. Thus, not only are millions of children living in poverty but are also living in environments that are hazardous to their health. Impoverished children are more likely to live in environments with heavily polluting industries, hazardous waste sites, contaminated water and soil, in old housing with deteriorating lead-based paint, in areas with limited access to healthy food, and more. Poor children residing in these toxic environments are either at risk or suffer from a myriad of health disparities, such as asthma, cancer, lead poisoning, obesity, and hyperactivity. This unfortunate reality is better known as environmental injustice. Environmental injustice recognizes that economically disadvantaged groups are adversely affected by environmental hazards more than other groups. To remedy this dilemma, environmental justice seeks to address these unfair burdens of environmental health hazards on poor communities. The purpose of this article is to (a) examine the environmental living conditions of children living in poverty, (b) examine the environmental health disparities of children living in poverty, (c) discuss environmental justice legislation, (d) describe government initiatives to improve environmental health, and (e) propose recommendations that executes measures to protect the health of children.

  4. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Springer, Andrew E; Evans, Alexandra E.

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influenc...

  5. Environmental Nutrition: A New Frontier for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Joan; Harwatt, Helen; Soret, Samuel

    2016-05-01

    Food systems must operate within environmental constraints to avoid disastrous consequences for the biosphere. Such constraints must also take into account nutritional quality and health outcomes. Given the intrinsic relationships between the environmental sciences and nutritional sciences, it is imperative that public health embraces environmental nutrition as the new frontier of research and practice and begins a concerted focus on the new discipline of environmental nutrition, which seeks to comprehensively address the sustainability of food systems. We provide an overview to justify our proposition, outline a research and practice agenda for environmental nutrition, and explore how the complex relationships within food systems that affect public health could be better understood through the environmental nutrition model.

  6. Characterizing mammography reports for health analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Carlos C; Patton, Robert M; Beckerman, Barbara G

    2011-10-01

    As massive collections of digital health data are becoming available, the opportunities for large-scale automated analysis increase. In particular, the widespread collection of detailed health information is expected to help realize a vision of evidence-based public health and patient-centric health care. Within such a framework for large scale health analytics we describe the transformation of a large data set of mostly unlabeled and free-text mammography data into a searchable and accessible collection, usable for analytics. We also describe several methods to characterize and analyze the data, including their temporal aspects, using information retrieval, supervised learning, and classical statistical techniques. We present experimental results that demonstrate the validity and usefulness of the approach, since the results are consistent with the known features of the data, provide novel insights about it, and can be used in specific applications. Additionally, based on the process of going from raw data to results from analysis, we present the architecture of a generic system for health analytics from clinical notes.

  7. Health ecology and environmental management in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Andrew E

    2002-12-01

    A health ecology approach to infectious disease incidence recognises that the weighting and interconnectivity of influences on health vary in terms of nature and context, from place to place and over time. It helps explain inherent limitations in the prediction and management of major infectious disease events and consequently why victims of ill health and policy often lack appropriate strategies for disease avoidance and health disaster mitigation. With reference to ongoing research in Mozambique, the paper uses the approach for assessment of health insecurity and to provide a realistic framework for management of complex disease hazards.

  8. Environmental Health Ethics in Study of Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, L. E.; Hansen, P. W.; Pedersen, M.;

    2017-01-01

    and lactating child may be exposed to environmental pollutants that depend on the maternal exposures. Also children are exposed to different levels of environmental agents because of the size and developmental stage. Children may experience different sources of exposure because of behavior, for example, eating......Children are not small adults in relation to exposure and vulnerability. Rapid growth, development, and anatomical and physiological changes in various organs and organ systems differentiate children from adults in relation to exposure and vulnerability to environmental exposures. The unborn child...

  9. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-05-04

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues.

  10. Environmental Risk to Health of the Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anopchenko, Tatiana Y.; Murzin, Anton D.; Kandrashina, Elena A.; Kosyakova, Inessa V.; Surnina, Olga E.

    2016-01-01

    Researches of the last years in the field of ecological epidemiology and the analysis of risk for health allow to claim with confidence that the polluted environment is one of the important factors defining changes of a state of health of the population. Expert opinions on the scale of this influence differ considerably now. These estimations vary…

  11. Sixth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health highlights selected papers presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research organized by Jackson State University (JSU from September 13−16, 2009 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi, USA. The Symposium was built upon the overwhelming success of previous symposia hosted by JSU and co-sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH RCMI-Center for Environmental Health, the U.S. Department of Education Title III Graduate Education Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the JSU Office of Academic Affairs, and the JSU Office of Research and Federal Relations. [...

  12. Seventh International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is dedicated to the publication of selected papers presented at the Seventh International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium was organized by Jackson State University (JSU from September 12–15, 2010 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi. It was built upon the overwhelming success of previous symposia hosted by JSU and co-sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH RCMI-Center for Environmental Health, the U.S. Department of Education Title III Graduate Education Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the JSU Office of Academic Affairs, and the JSU Office of Research and Federal Relations. [...

  13. Air Quality Measures on the National Environmental Health Tracking Network

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provides air pollution data about ozone and particulate matter (PM2.5) to CDC for the Tracking Network. The EPA maintains a...

  14. Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is dedicated to the publication of selected papers presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium was organized by Jackson State University (JSU from September 18-21, 2011 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi. It was built upon the overwhelming success of seven previous symposia hosted by JSU. [...

  15. Ninth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is dedicated to the publication of selected papers presented at the Eighth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium was organized by Jackson State University (JSU from 16–19 September, 2012 at the Marriott Hotel in Jackson, Mississippi, USA. It was built upon the overwhelming success of seven previous symposia hosted by JSU.

  16. [Epidemiological research on environmental health risks and their economic consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haucke, F; Holle, R; Wichmann, H E

    2009-12-01

    In environmental health research, methods for quantitative analysis of human population studies data are gaining importance. In recent years, it has been realized that they can also provide an important link to the economic view on environmental health effects. In this review, fundamental concepts and methods from environmental epidemiology and health economics are presented and it is shown how they can be linked in order to support environmental policy decisions. In addition, the characteristics of environmental epidemiology and the role of epidemiologic studies in risk assessment are discussed. From the economic point of view, cost-of-illness studies and cost effectiveness studies are the main approaches, and we have placed special focus on methods of monetary valuation of health effects that are generally proposed in the environmental context. Two conceptually differing strategies to combine epidemiologic and economic evidence are presented: the environmental attributable fraction model as a top-down approach and the impact pathway approach which follows a bottom-up analysis strategy. Finally, two examples are used to illustrate the application of these concepts and methods: health risks caused by fine particle air pollution and their costs, and the cost-effectiveness of radon exposure reduction policies.

  17. Minnows as a Classroom Model for Human Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniel N.; Hesselbach, Renee; Kane, Andrew S.; Petering, David H.; Petering, Louise; Berg, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding human environmental health is difficult for high school students, as is the process of scientific investigation. This module provides a framework to address both concerns through an inquiry-based approach using a hypothesis-driven set of experiments that draws upon a real-life concern, environmental exposures to lead (Pb2+). Students…

  18. Safety, Health, and Environmental Auditing A Practical Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Pain, Simon Watson

    2010-01-01

    A practical guide to environmental, safety, and occupational health audits. It allows organizations and business to avoid expensive external auditors and retain the knowledge and learning 'in-house'. It allows any competent manager or safety/environmental officer to undertake in-house audits in a competent and reproducible fashion.

  19. TOXNET: A computerized collection of toxicological and environmental health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonger, G C; Stroup, D; Thomas, P L; Wexler, P

    2000-01-01

    The Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program, managed by the National Library of Medicine's Division of Specialized Information Services, provides access to a number of online bibliographic and factual computer files concerned with the toxicology, safety and handling, and environmental fate of chemicals, along with other files that cover genetic toxicology, developmental and reproductive toxicology, mutagenesis, carcinogenesis and toxic chemical releases.

  20. Assessment of environmental health in the 2012 East Azerbaijan earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Fatemi

    2013-09-01

    Material and Methods: Through multi-stages stratified sampling, we selected 8 and 4 villages from the earthquake zones of Heris and Varzaghan respectively. The collecting data tools in this research were the WHO checklist in 7 categories, 14 subcategories, and 37 environmental health activities and also the minimum standards of Sphere Project checklist. The status of environmental health in each village was assessed using the mentioned checklists. This study was carried out with attendance of research team in earthquake zones 21 days after the occurrence of earthquake. Results: Among the 37 environmental health activities, 7 activities were the joint ones, which Environmental Health Department had to carry it out with the coordination of other related organizations. In other words, the environmental health has the supervising role in these activities. Totally, such activities had more nonconformities compared with the activities in which environmental health was administered as the main responder. The details of results have been expressed in the full text. Conclusion: Providing intra-sector coordination, prioritizing the needs of the affected population and considering the principles of community based management in the natural disaster are proposed as the recommendations of this study.

  1. Travelers' Health: Natural Disasters and Environmental Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visiting Friends and Family in Areas with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika Visiting Friends or Family in an ... N, Cox-Ganser J, Damon S, et al. Mold prevention strategies and possible health effects in the aftermath ...

  2. Oral Health Inequalities: Relationships between Environmental and Individual Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, E; Robinson, P G; Marya, C M; Baker, S R

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has emphasized the relationships between environmental and individual factors that may influence population oral health and lead to health inequalities. However, little is known about the effect of interactions between environmental and individual factors on inequalities in clinical (e.g., decayed teeth) and subjective oral health outcomes (e.g., oral health-related quality of life [OHQoL]). This cohort study aimed to explore the direct and mediated longitudinal interrelationships between key environmental and individual factors on clinical and subjective oral health outcomes in adults. Self-reported measures of OHQoL and individual (sense of coherence [SOC], social support, stress, oral health beliefs, dental behaviors, and subjective socioeconomic status [SES]) and environmental factors (SES and social network) were collected at baseline and 3-mo follow-up, together with a baseline clinical examination of 495 adult employees of an automobile parts manufacturer in India. Lagged structural equation modeling was guided by the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model linking clinical, individual, and environmental variables to quality of life. The study provides tentative evidence that SES may influence levels of resources such as social support and SOC, which mediate stress and in turn may influence subjective oral health outcomes. Accordingly, the present findings and the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model on which they are predicted provide support for the psychosocial pathway being key in the SES-oral health relationship. The pathways through which environmental factors interact with individual factors to impact subjective oral health outcomes identified here may bring opportunities for more targeted oral health promotion strategies.

  3. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Polanska; W. Hanke; R. Ronchetti; P. van den Hazel; M. Zuurbier; J.G. Koppe; A. Bartonova

    2006-01-01

    Almost half of the child population is involuntarily exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The ETS exposure gives rise to an excessive risk of several diseases in infancy and childhood, including sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory infections, asthma and middle ear dise

  4. Environmentally Related Health Hazards in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, James B.; Neuroth, Richard

    The quality of air inside the schoolhouses of America may have a profound effect on students' ability to concentrate on their lessons. The environmental hazards that influence the quality of the indoor air (IAQ) of our schools have not been well understood. Research evidence suggests that school age children and youth (especially those under the…

  5. Environmental and health aspects of lighting: Mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1993-07-01

    Most discharge lamps, including fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps, and high pressure sodium lamps, contain Mercury, a toxic chemical. Lighting professionals need to be able to respond to questions about the direct hazards of Mercury from accidentally breaking lamps, and the potential environmental hazards of lamp operation and disposal. We calculated the exposures that could occur from an accidental breakage of lamps. Acute poisoning appears almost impossible. Under some circumstances a sealed environment, such as a space station, could be contaminated enough to make it unhealthy for long-term occupation. Mercury becomes a potential environmental hazard after it becomes methylated. Mercury is methylated in aquatic environments, where it may accumulate in fish, eventually rendering them toxic to people and other animals. Lighting causes Mercury to enter the environment directly from lamp disposal, and indirectly from power plant emissions. The environmental tradeoffs between incandescent and discharge lamps depend upon the amounts released by these two sources, their local concentrations, and their probabilities of being methylated. Indirect environmental effects of lighting also include the release of other heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic), and other air pollutants and carbon dioxide that are emitted by fossil fuel power plants. For a given light output, the level of power plant emissions depends upon the efficacy of the light source, and is thus much larger for incandescent lamps than for fluorescent or discharge lamps. As disposal and control technologies change the relative direct and indirect emissions from discharge and incandescent lamps will change.

  6. Listed waste determination report. Environmental characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    On September 23, 1988, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a notice clarifying interim status requirements for the management of radioactive mixed waste thereby subjecting the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and other applicable Department of Energy (DOE) sites to regulation under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Therefore, the DOE was required to submit a Part A Permit application for each treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) unit within the INEL, defining the waste codes and processes to be regulated under RCRA. The September 1990 revised Part A Permit application, that was approved by the State of Idaho identified 101 potential acute and toxic hazardous waste codes (F-, P-, and U- listed wastes according to 40 CFR 261.31 and 40 CFR 261.33) for some TSD units at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Most of these waste were assumed to have been introduced into the High-level Liquid Waste TSD units via laboratory drains connected to the Process Equipment Waste (PEW) evaporator (PEW system). At that time, a detailed and systematic evaluation of hazardous chemical use and disposal practices had not been conducted to determine if F-, P-, or Unlisted waste had been disposed to the PEW system. The purpose of this investigation was to perform a systematic and detailed evaluation of the use and disposal of the 101 F-, P-, and Unlisted chemicals found in the approved September 1990 Part A Permit application. This investigation was aimed at determining which listed wastes, as defined in 40 CFR 261.31 (F-listed) and 261.33 (P & Unlisted) were discharged to the PEW system. Results of this investigation will be used to support revisions to the RCRA Part A Permit application.

  7. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hai-Ying

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as ‘a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain’. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions.

  8. Knowledge assistant for robotic environmental characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.; Rivera, J.; Tucker, S.; Matek, J.

    1996-08-01

    A prototype sensor fusion framework called the {open_quotes}Knowledge Assistant{close_quotes} has been developed and tested on a gantry robot at Sandia National Laboratories. This Knowledge Assistant guides the robot operator during the planning, execution, and post analysis stages of the characterization process. During the planning stage, the Knowledge Assistant suggests robot paths and speeds based on knowledge of sensors available and their physical characteristics. During execution, the Knowledge Assistant coordinates the collection of data through a data acquisition {open_quotes}specialist.{close_quotes} During execution and postanalysis, the Knowledge Assistant sends raw data to other {open_quotes}specialists,{close_quotes} which include statistical pattern recognition software, a neural network, and model-based search software. After the specialists return their results, the Knowledge Assistant consolidates the information and returns a report to the robot control system where the sensed objects and their attributes (e.g., estimated dimensions, weight, material composition, etc.) are displayed in the world model. This report highlights the major components of this system.

  9. Environmental Volunteering and Health Outcomes over a 20-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period. Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and…

  10. Exploring Australian health promotion and environmental sustainability initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Rebecca; Kingsley, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Health promotion practitioners have important roles in applying ecosystem approaches to health and actively promoting environmental sustainability within community-level practice. The present study identified the nature and scope of health promotion activities across Australia that tackle environmental sustainability. Methods A mixed-method approach was used, with 82 participants undertaking a quantitative survey and 11 undertaking a qualitative interview. Purposeful sampling strategies were used to recruit practitioners who were delivering community-level health promotion and sustainability programs in Australia. The data were analysed thematically and interpretation was guided by the principles of triangulation. Results Study participants were at various stages of linking health promotion and environmental sustainability. Initiatives focused on healthy and sustainable food, active transport, energy efficiency, contact with nature and capacity building. Conclusion Capacity building approaches were perceived as essential to strengthening this field of practice. Healthy and sustainable food and active transport were suitable platforms for simultaneously promoting community health and sustainability. There was potential for expansion of programs that emphasise contact with nature and energy issues, as well as interventions that emphasise systems thinking and interdisciplinary approaches. So what? It was promising that Australian health promotion programs have started to address complexity rather than single issues, as evidenced by explicit engagement with environmental sustainability. However, more effort is required to enable a shift towards ecosystem approaches to health.

  11. Health, safety and environmental issues in thin film manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.; Baumann, A.E.; Hill, R.; Patterson, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation is made of Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) aspects for the manufacturing, use and decommissioning of CdTe, CIS and a-Si modules. Issues regarding energy requirements, resource availability, emissions of toxic materials, occupational health and safety and module waste treatmen

  12. Our Environment, Our Health: A Community-Based Participatory Environmental Health Survey in Richmond, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alison; Lopez, Andrea; Malloy, Nile; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a health survey conducted by a community-based participatory research partnership between academic researchers and community organizers to consider environmental health and environmental justice issues in four neighborhoods of Richmond, California, a low-income community of color living along the fence line of a major oil…

  13. Environmental Health and Aging: Activity, Exposure and Biological Models to Improve Risk Assessment and Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other public health agencies are concerned that the environmental health of America’s growing population of older adults has not been taken into consideration in current approaches to risk assessment. The reduced capacity to respo...

  14. THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION ON HEALTH EXPENDITURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALERICĂ TOPLICIANU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight the link between economic growth, environmental quality and health of the population and their implications on health expenditure growth.Health is influenced by multiple factors knows as the determinants of health, whose action can not always be kept under control. One of the determinants of health is the quality of the environment, which, together with the quality of the people (genetic heritage, lifestyle, standards of living, health system characteristics, has a bearing both on health and on health expenditure.Most of the determinants of population health have a mutual connection with the degree of economic development of a country and its level of education. In this respect, the high level of the health-related human capital has a positive effect on labor productivity and economic growth rate.Economic growth induces both an increase in standards of living, with positive effects on health, and a deterioration of the environmental conditions, which triggers changes in the degree of incidence of the disease, consequently favoring an increased financial burden on the health system.

  15. 76 FR 13197 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences... Sciences (NIEHS), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Request for comments and.... Linda S. Birnbaum, Director, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and National...

  16. Health and Environmental Hazards of Electronic Waste in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthakur, Anwesha

    2016-04-01

    Technological waste in the form of electronic waste (e-waste) is a threat to all countries. E-waste impacts health and the environment by entering the food chain in the form of chemical toxicants and exposing the population to deleterious chemicals, mainly in the form of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. This special report tries to trace the environmental and health implications of e-waste in India. The author concludes that detrimental health and environmental consequences are associated with e-waste and the challenge lies in producing affordable electronics with minimum chemical toxicants.

  17. Environmental Health: the first five years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Ozonoff, David

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Health is now firmly established as a major venue for publishing in the field of environmental health. While remaining selective in our acceptances - of the 217 manuscripts that we have processed by June 2007, 115 (53%) were accepted - the number of manuscripts continues to grow from...... year to year. Last year we published 33 articles (of 64 submitted) and the number of submissions by June this year has already reached 40. The journal has now been in existence for five years, so the time seems ripe for us to assess the health of our journal and the opportunities offered by open access...

  18. Selection of reproductive health end points for environmental risk assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Savitz, D A; Harlow, S D

    1991-01-01

    In addition to the challenges inherent in environmental health risk assessment, the study of reproductive health requires thorough consideration of the very definition of reproductive risk. Researchers have yet to determine which end points need to be considered to comprehensively evaluate a community's reproductive health. Several scientific issues should be considered in the selection of end points: the severity of the outcomes, with a trade-off between clinical severity and statistical or ...

  19. Environmental Health and Gram Panchayat Members of Western Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadam Yugantara R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of environmental health is to create and maintain ecological conditions that will promote health and thus prevent disease. Gram Panchayat is a local government agency at village level. As community leaders, Gram Panchayat members (elected members of Gram Panchayat have more responsibility towards maintaining environmental health. Their awareness, attitude and practices regarding environmental health will determine village environment. Method: It is a cross-sectional study conducted in villages from talukas (administrative areas of Kolhapur District. All Gram Panchayat members of six villages from three talukas were administered Self designed questionnaire. Results In awareness 41.3% members scored above 75% and in attitude and practice 71.73% and 67.39% members scored above 50% respectively. Only 6 (13.04% members scored <50% in awareness. Awareness, attitude & practices were independent of age, sex, experience, post & distance from urban area. Members’ awareness improves attitude and practices regarding environmental health. Gram Swachhata Abhiyan (Rural Sanitation Drive that helps in improving awareness. Conclusion By improving environmental health awareness of Gram Panchayat members it is possible to improve attitude & practices.

  20. Health and environmental risks of energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper gives four examples of health risk assessments of energy systems: (1) Comparative risk assessment of the health effects of the coal and nuclear fuel cycles. Estimates differ from previous values chiefly by inclusion of ranges of uncertainty, but some coal-cycle numbers were re-estimated. Upper-boundary public disease risks of air pollution from coal-fired plants dominate. Reactors probably account for most of the potential effect of major nuclear accidents. Accidental death rates in electricity generation are low for reactors and higher for coal. (2) Upper boundary air pollution health risks of existing fossil-based energy technologies in the United States. Preliminary mortality estimates were obtained combining potential impacts of three index pollutants - SO/sub 4/, NO/sub 2/, and CO - as independent measures of risk. Four fuel cycle trajectories leading to three end-uses were analyzed. Example results: domestic wood burning has substantial potential impact, with an upper boundary exceeding that of coal; upper-boundary air pollution impacts of gas can exceed those of oil, because of NO/sub 2/. (3) Health risks of acid deposition and other transported air pollutants, carried out as part of an assessment of the US Congress Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) Acid Rain and Transported Air Pollutants - Implications for Public Policy. Three scenarios were examined, leading to estimates of 40,000 to 50,000 annual premature deaths, depending on year (1978 vs 2000) and scenario (holding total emissions constant vs 30% reduction). (4) health effects of uranium mill tailings piles. Mortality risk is estimated to be minuscule (8.7 x 10/sup -9/ average individual lifetime cancer risk from a model mill, compared with 9.5 x 10/sup -4/ for background radiation). Methods that sum risks over the indefinite future are shown to be to be unrealistic. 39 references, 7 figures, 15 tables.

  1. Socio-environmental health analysis in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Caldeira, Felipe; Callegary, James; Gray, Floyd; O’ Rourke, Mary Kay; Meranza, Veronica; Van Rijn, Saskia

    2012-01-01

    In Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, some neighborhoods, or colonias, have intermittent delivery of water through pipes from the city of Nogales’s municipal water-delivery system while other areas lack piped water and rely on water delivered by truck or pipas. This research examined how lifestyles, water quality, and potential disease response, such as diarrhea, differs seasonally from a colonia with access to piped water as opposed to one using alternative water-delivery systems. Water samples were collected from taps or spigots at homes in two Nogales colonias. One colonia reflected high socio-environmental conditions where residents are supplied with municipal piped water (Colonia Lomas de Fatima); the second colonia reflected low socio-environmental conditions, lacking access to piped water and served by pipas (Colonia Luis Donaldo Colosio). A survey was developed and implemented to characterize perceptions of water quality, health impacts, and quality of life. Water samples were analyzed for microbial and inorganic water-quality parameters known to impact human health including, Escherichia coli (E. coli), total coliform bacteria, arsenic, and lead. A total of 21 households agreed to participate in the study (14 in Colosio and 7 in Fatima). In both colonias metal concentrations from water samples were all well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (US EPA’s) maximum contaminant levels. E. coli concentrations exceeded the US EPA’s drinking-water standard in Colosio but not Fatima. Total coliform bacteria were present in over 50 % of households in both colonias. Microbial contamination was significantly higher in the summer than in the winter in both colonias. Resulting analysis suggests that residents in colonias without piped water are at a greater risk of gastrointestinal illness from consumption of compromised drinking water. Our survey corroborated reports of gastrointestinal illness in the summer months but not in the winter. Chloride

  2. Socio-Environmental Health Analysis in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M; Caldeira, Felipe; Callegary, James; Gray, Floyd; O' Rourke, Mary Kay; Meranza, Veronica; Van Rijn, Saskia

    2012-06-01

    In Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, some neighborhoods, or colonias, have intermittent delivery of water through pipes from the city of Nogales's municipal water-delivery system while other areas lack piped water and rely on water delivered by truck or pipas. This research examined how lifestyles, water quality, and potential disease response, such as diarrhea, differs seasonally from a colonia with access to piped water as opposed to one using alternative water-delivery systems. Water samples were collected from taps or spigots at homes in two Nogales colonias. One colonia reflected high socio-environmental conditions where residents are supplied with municipal piped water (Colonia Lomas de Fatima); the second colonia reflected low socio-environmental conditions, lacking access to piped water and served by pipas (Colonia Luis Donaldo Colosio). A survey was developed and implemented to characterize perceptions of water quality, health impacts, and quality of life. Water samples were analyzed for microbial and inorganic water-quality parameters known to impact human health including, Escherichia coli (E. coli), total coliform bacteria, arsenic, and lead. A total of 21 households agreed to participate in the study (14 in Colosio and 7 in Fatima). In both colonias metal concentrations from water samples were all well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) maximum contaminant levels. E. coli concentrations exceeded the US EPA's drinking-water standard in Colosio but not Fatima. Total coliform bacteria were present in over 50 % of households in both colonias. Microbial contamination was significantly higher in the summer than in the winter in both colonias. Resulting analysis suggests that residents in colonias without piped water are at a greater risk of gastrointestinal illness from consumption of compromised drinking water. Our survey corroborated reports of gastrointestinal illness in the summer months but not in the winter. Chloride was found

  3. Urban environmental health applications of remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, M.; Goldstein, J.; Hsi, B. P.; Olsen, C. B.

    1974-01-01

    An urban area was studied through the use of the inventory-by-surrogate method rather than by direct interpretation of photographic imagery. Prior uses of remote sensing in urban and public research are examined. The effects of crowding, poor housing conditions, air pollution, and street conditions on public health are considered. Color infrared photography was used to categorize land use features and the grid method was used in photo interpretation analysis. The incidence of shigella and salmonella, hepatitis, meningitis, tuberculosis, myocardial infarction and veneral disease were studied, together with mortality and morbidity rates. Sample census data were randomly collected and validated. The hypothesis that land use and residential quality are associated with and act as an influence upon health and physical well-being was studied and confirmed.

  4. The watershed as a conceptual framework for the study of environmental and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolok, Alan S; Beseler, Cheryl L; Chen, Xun-Hong; Shea, Patrick J

    2009-02-18

    The watershed provides a physical basis for establishing linkages between aquatic contaminants, environmental health and human health. Current attempts to establish such linkages are limited by environmental and epidemiological constraints. Environmental limitations include difficulties in characterizing the temporal and spatial dynamics of agricultural runoff, in fully understanding the degradation and metabolism of these compounds in the environment, and in understanding complex mixtures. Epidemiological limitations include difficulties associated with the organization of risk factor data and uncertainty about which measurable endpoints are most appropriate for an agricultural setting. Nevertheless, it is our contention that an adoption of the watershed concept can alleviate some of these difficulties. From an environmental perspective, the watershed concept helps identify differences in land use and application of agrichemicals at a level of resolution relevant to human health outcomes. From an epidemiological perspective, the watershed concept places data into a construct with environmental relevance. In this perspectives paper, we discuss how the watershed can provide a conceptual framework for studies in environmental and human health.

  5. Can Health and Environmental Concerns Meet in Food Choices?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Cavaliere

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to analyze if there is a relationship between health and environmental sustainability concerns in food choices. We used data of 300 Italian consumers collected through a vis-à-vis survey. We performed cross-tabulations and chi-square tests for a selected set of variables measuring both types of concerns, segmenting the sample by age, gender and education. Our results suggest that the association between health and environmental concerns is often statistically significant, though we observe a high variable specificity of the associations. Socio-demographic conditions seem to play a role in determining the association between the two concerns, with middle-aged and/or highly-educated respondents showing a stronger association between health and environmental concerns.

  6. Lessons learned from "the skeptical environmentalist": an environmental health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Agnes; Castorina, Rosemary; Desai, Manish; Duramad, Paurene; Fischer, Susan; Klepeis, Neil; Liang, Song; Mehta, Sumi; Naumoff, Kyra; Noth, Elizabeth M; Schei, Morten; Tian, Linwei; Vork, Kathleen L; Smith, Kirk R

    2004-01-01

    Few books about the environment have generated as much heated debate as Bjørn Lomborg's 'The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World', published by Cambridge University Press in 2001. A flavor of the controversy can be gleaned from a series of reviews and rebuttals published in 'Scientific American' (Rennie 2002). In general, most positive reviews appeared in the popular press (e.g., 'The Economist', 'Washington Post Book Review', 'The Wall Street Journal') and most negative reviews appeared in the scientific press (e.g., 'Science', 'Nature', 'Bioscience'). Although 'The Skeptical Environmentalist' (TSE) addresses a number of environmental health issues, voices from the environmental health community have not been prominent among the participants in this debate. Now that the dust from the initial stampede to praise and condemn the book has settled, we will explore lessons to be learned from TSE and the associated debate from an environmental health perspective.

  7. Environmental pollution and child health in central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, E F; Schell, L M; Marshall, E G; Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Zejda, J E

    1998-01-01

    For the last 50 years, the economic and industrial development of the nations of Central and Eastern Europe has been achieved at the cost of environmental degradation. The health risks posed by this pollution to children and the steps necessary to ameliorate such risks are only beginning to be investigated. At a recent conference in Poland, sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, participants from 11 countries in the region, together with scientists from Western Europe and the United States, met to share information regarding pediatric environmental health in Central and Eastern Europe, to consider methodologic issues in the design and conduct of such studies, and to discuss preventive strategies. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines problem areas such as heavy metals and air pollution, delineates research and training needs to help Central and Eastern Europeans deal more effectively with such problems, and recommends specific future actions and collaborative efforts. PMID:9618345

  8. An Introductory Lesson to Environmental Health: Media Analysis and Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Rhodes, Darson L.

    2010-01-01

    This activity is designed to provide students with an overview of environmental health and to encourage them to think critically about how they can minimize their potential negative health impacts from environmental exposures. Objectives: Students will (a) define environmental health, (b) analyze media wherein environmental health issues are…

  9. Human exposure to environmental health concern by types of urban environment: The case of Tel Aviv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Izhak; Potchter, Oded; Yaakov, Yaron; Epstein, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    This study classifies urban environments into types characterized by different exposure to environmental risk factors measured by general sense of discomfort and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). We hypothesize that a set of environmental factors (micro-climatic, CO, noise and individual heart rate) that were measured simultaneously in random locations can provide a better understanding of the distribution of human exposure to environmental loads throughout the urban space than results calculated based on measurements from close fixed stations. We measured micro-climatic and thermal load, CO and noise, individual Heart Rate, Subjective Social Load and Sense of Discomfort (SD) were tested by questionnaire survey. The results demonstrate significant differences in exposure to environmental factors among 8 types of urban environments. It appears that noise and social load are the more significant environmental factors to enhance health risks and general sense of discomfort.

  10. Dysbiotic drift: mental health, environmental grey space, and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Alan C

    2015-05-07

    Advances in research concerning the mental health implications of dietary patterns and select nutrients have been remarkable. At the same time, there have been rapid increases in the understanding of the ways in which non-pathogenic microbes can potentially influence many aspects of human health, including those in the mental realm. Discussions of nutrition and microbiota are often overlapping. A separate, yet equally connected, avenue of research is that related to natural (for example, green space) and built environments, and in particular, how they are connected to human cognition and behaviors. It is argued here that in Western industrial nations a 'disparity of microbiota' might be expected among the socioeconomically disadvantaged, those whom face more profound environmental forces. Many of the environmental forces pushing against the vulnerable are at the neighborhood level. Matching the developing microbiome research with existing environmental justice research suggests that grey space may promote dysbiosis by default. In addition, the influence of Westernized lifestyle patterns, and the marketing forces that drive unhealthy behaviors in deprived communities, might allow dysbiosis to be the norm rather than the exception in those already at high risk of depression, subthreshold (subsyndromal) conditions, and subpar mental health. If microbiota are indeed at the intersection of nutrition, environmental health, and lifestyle medicine (as these avenues pertain to mental health), then perhaps the rapidly evolving gut-brain-microbiota conversation needs to operate through a wider lens. In contrast to the more narrowly defined psychobiotic, the term eco-psychotropic is introduced.

  11. Exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting compounds and men's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D

    2010-07-01

    Human exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have received increased attention in recent years due to the documentation of widespread exposure to a number of EDCs among the general population, experimental data demonstrating endocrine-related effects on reproduction, development, metabolism, and cancer, and observations for increasing trends (as well as geographic trends) in endocrine-related disorders among populations. However, human studies of exposure to most environmental EDCs in relation to adverse health outcomes remain limited. This review focuses on the human data generated to date on the relationship between exposures to environmental EDCs and men's health. The agents discussed here, which include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were chosen based on their exposure prevalence and the presence of existing human data in studies of male reproductive health, altered reproductive and thyroid hormone levels, diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome, and endocrine-related cancers. Taken together, the epidemiologic data on the environmental EDCs suggest that there may be associations between exposure and adverse health outcomes in men. However, the limited human data, and in many instances inconsistent data across studies, highlight the need for further research on these chemicals. Future longitudinal molecular epidemiology studies with appropriately designed exposure assessments are needed to determine potential causal relationships, to identify the most important time windows/life stages of exposure, and to define individual susceptibility factors for adverse effects on men's health in response to exposure.

  12. Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilman, David; Clark, Michael

    2014-11-27

    Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower global life expectancies. Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet-environment-health trilemma is a global challenge, and opportunity, of great environmental and public health importance.

  13. Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilman, David; Clark, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower global life expectancies. Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet-environment-health trilemma is a global challenge, and opportunity, of great environmental and public health importance.

  14. Taking the Pulse of Environmental Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NLM 175 th Anniversary Taking the Pulse of Environmental Health Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents Photo: ... NLM) has provided professionals and the public with environmental health information since 1967 through its Toxicology and Environmental ...

  15. Designing and developing management systems for environmental, health and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdsworth, Rodger D.; Franklyn-Alderman, Christy [Risk, Reliability and Safety Engineering, Houston, TX (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The introduction of Quality, Risk, Safety and Environmental management philosophies has significantly changed industry view of company organization and controlling processes entering the new millennium. Quality, Risk, Health and Environmental programs and systems, such as ISO/Q S 9000, ISO 14000, Process Safety, risk management are impacting the way industry meet the challenges of safety and environmental risks and the needs of the customer. A wealth of knowledge can be extracted from practical application, which might otherwise be unobtainable without years of management systems experience related to management systems design, development, implementation and control. (author)

  16. Environmental impact and health; Umweltbelastung und Gesundheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-01

    The press documentation of the BMFT (Federal Ministry of Research and Technology) presents selected examples of previous project support and interministerial working groups in short survey articles which are partly available as a brochure in a detailed form. The single subjects are 1. effects of diesel engine waste gases on the health, 2. noble metal emissions from catalytic converter vehicles, 3. dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment, 4. check of chemicals on carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, tertogenesis, 4. improvement of the air quality interior spaces, 6. the Federal Government and its Laender AG `dioxins`. (VHE) [Deutsch] Die Pressedokumentation des BMFT stellt in kurzer Uebersichtsartikeln ausgewaehlte Beispiele der bisherigen Projektfoerderung und aus interministeriellen Arbeitsgruppen vor, die teilweise auch in ausfuehrlicher Form als Broschuere vorliegen. Die einzelnen Themen sind 1. Auswirkungen von Dieselmotorabgasen auf die Gesundheit; 2. Edelmetallemissionen aus Katalysatorfahrzeugen; 3. Dioxine, Furane und polychlorierte Biphenyle in der Umwelt; 4. Pruefung von Chemikalien auf Carcinogenese, Mutagenese, Teratogenese; 5. Verbesserung der Luftqualitaet in Innenraeumen; 6. Bund/Laender-AG `Dioxine`. (VHE)

  17. [Health effects of environmental noise exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In the EU 27 countries about 100 million persons are exposed to road traffic noise above 55 dB (LDEN) according to the European Environment Agency. Exposure to railway noise affects 16 million individuals, aircraft noise 4 million and industry noise 1 million persons. Although the proportion of people reporting to be annoyed by noise exposure is substantial, health effects of noise is rarely an issue in general practitioners' consultations. According to stress models chronic noise exposure results in an increased allostatic load by direct physiological responses as well as psychological stress responses including sleep disturbances. In relation to acute and chronic noise exposure an increase of blood pressure was observed in epidemiological studies. An association between ischemic heart diseases and noise exposure was observed in various studies. However, the data is less consistent for other cardiovascular diseases and for cognitive effects in children. The association between metabolic syndrome and noise has rarely been investigated so far. Recently an association between road traffic noise and diabetes was observed in a Danish cohort study. Given the plausibility for a noise effect, general practitioners should consider noise exposure in patients with increased cardiometabolic risk.

  18. Where the chips fall: environmental health in the semiconductor industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Chepesiuk, R

    1999-01-01

    Three recent lawsuits are focusing public attention on the environmental and occupational health effects of the world's largest and fastest growing manufacturing sector-the $150 billion semiconductor industry. The suits allege that exposure to toxic chemicals in semiconductor manufacturing plants led to adverse health effects such as miscarriage and cancer among workers. To manufacture computer components, the semiconductor industry uses large amounts of hazardous chemicals including hydrochl...

  19. Study of resilience and environmental adversity in midlife health (STREAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Velthorst, Eva; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Levine, Stephen Z.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Jerusalem study of resilience and environmental adversity in midlife health (STREAM) was established to examine the prevalence of common mental and physical health issues in mid-adulthood in the inner city of Jerusalem, and to examine their association with lifespan psychosocial factors of vulnerability and resilience. Method Participants were 811 randomly selected individuals from 7000 individuals who were born and grew up in inner-Jerusalem. Participants were 34–44 years old dur...

  20. Setting a new syllabus: environmental health science in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Valerie J

    2004-10-01

    Environmental health is a subject that has only relatively recently become prominent in the social consciousness. Even as its significance becomes known, finding ways to integrate the subject into education for primary and secondary students is difficult because of federal testing requirements under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and other demands placed on teachers. A number of efforts are under way, however, to provide teachers with resources to help them bring environment health into their classrooms.

  1. Mercury: Major issues in environmental health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarkson, T.W. (Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine, NY (United States))

    1993-04-01

    In the past, methylmercury compounds were manufactured as fungicides or appeared as unwanted byproducts of the chemical industry, but today the methylation of inorganic mercury in aquatic sediments and soils is the predominant if not the sole source of methylmercury. This form of mercury is bioaccumulated to a higher degree in aquatic food chains to attain its highest concentrations in edible tissues in long-lived predatory fish living in both fresh and ocean waters. It is well absorbed from the diet and distributes within a few days to all tissues in the body. It crosses without hindrance the blood-brain and placental barriers to reach its principal target tissue, the brain. It is eliminated chiefly in the feces after conversion to inorganic mercury. The biological half-time of methylmercury in human tissues is about 50 days, but there is wide individual variation. Adult poisoning is characterized by focal damage to discrete anatomical areas of the brain such as the visual cortex and granule layer of the cerebellum. A latent period of weeks or months may ensue before the appearance of signs and symptoms of poisoning. The latter manifest themselves as paresthesia, staxia, constriction of the visual fields, and hearing loss. The presented period is the most sensitive stage of the life cycle to methylmercury. Prenatally poisoned infants exhibit a range of effects from severe cerebral palsy to subtle development delays. Methylmercury is believed to inhibit those processes in the brain specially involved in development and growth such as neuronal cell division and migration. 78 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Status of health and environmental research relative to direct coal liquefaction: 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, R.H.; Cowser, K.E. (eds.)

    1982-06-01

    This document describes the status of health and environmental research efforts, supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), to assist in the development of environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction processes. Four major direct coal liquefaction processes are currently in (or have been investigated at) the pilot plant stage of development. Two solvent refined coal processes (SRC-I and -II), H-coal (a catalytic liquefaction process) and Exxon donor solvent (EDS). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was assigned responsibility for evaluating SRC process materials and prepared comprehensive health and environmental effects research program plans for SRC-I and -II. A similar program plan was prepared for H-coal process materials by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A program has been developed for EDS process materials by Exxon Research and Engineering Co. The program includes short-term screening of coal-derived materials for potential health and ecological effects. Longer-term assays are used to evaluate materials considered most representative of potential commercial practice and with greatest potential for human exposure or release to the environment. Effects of process modification, control technologies and changing operational conditions on potential health and ecological effects are also being evaluated. These assessments are being conducted to assist in formulating cost-effective environmental research programs and to estimate health and environmental risks associated with a large-scale coal liquefaction industry. Significant results of DOE's health and environmental research efforts relative to coal liquefaction include the following: chemical characterization, health effects, ecological fate and effects, amelioration and risk assessment.

  3. 76 FR 72715 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... Institutes of Health, Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615/3112, Research... and Education; 93.894, Resources and Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences;...

  4. 76 FR 67748 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615/3112, Research Triangle Park... and Education; 93.894, Resources and Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences;...

  5. Methodology for measuring environmental health within Europe. Health Risk from Environmental Pollution Levels in Urban Systems (HEREPLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Zscheppang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The European Commission funds a European research project titled “Health Risk from Environmental Pollution Levels in Urban Systems” (HEREPLUS that focuses on environmental health within Europe. The HEREPLUS project was presented at the 16th EUPHA conference in Lisbon in November 2008 within a workshop named “The assessment of the effect of air pollution on population and environmental health: the integration of epidemiology and geographical information system (GIS”.

    Methods: The HEREPLUS project aims to measure the correlation between air pollution (especially ozone and particulate matter, meteorology, vegetation and human health in four European cities (Rome, Madrid, Athens and Dresden by using a Geoinformation System to develop risk maps and subsequently guidelines to reduce air pollution and number of diseases.

    Results: The project started in September 2008 and a large, structured, relational database has been developed and completed. A literature review including national as well as international scientific literature goes on and will be completed in April 2009. Final results will be presented and published in 2011.

    Conclusions: Detailed scientific knowledge is important and needed to implement environmental programmes with the overall aim to protect human population against environmental related diseases.

  6. 76 FR 62424 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences... Cancer and Environmental Research Coordinating Committee's State of Science Subcommittee...

  7. Lay perceptions of health and environmental inequalities and their associations to mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Maria Luisa; Morais, Rita

    2015-11-01

    Health inequalities are very well documented in epidemiological research: rich people live longer and have fewer diseases than poor people. Recently, a growing amount of evidence from environmental sciences confirms that poor people are also more exposed to pollution and other environmental threats. However, research in the social sciences has shown a broad lack of awareness about health inequalities. In this paper, based on data collected in Portugal, we will analyze the consciousness of both health and environmental injustices and test one hypothesis for this social blindness. The results show, even more clearly than before, that public opinion tends to see rich and poor people as being equally susceptible to health and environmental events. Furthermore, those who have this equal view of the world present lower levels of depression and anxiety. Following cognitive adaptation theory, this "belief in an equal world" can be interpreted as a protective positive illusion about social justice, particularly relevant in one of the most unequal countries in Europe.

  8. Environmental health impacts of feeding crops to farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; MacDonald, Graham K; West, Paul C; Engstrom, Peder M; Nachman, Keeve E; Lawrence, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    Half of the seafood consumed globally now comes from aquaculture, or farmed seafood. Aquaculture therefore plays an increasingly important role in the global food system, the environment, and human health. Traditionally, aquaculture feed has contained high levels of wild fish, which is unsustainable for ocean ecosystems as demand grows. The aquaculture industry is shifting to crop-based feed ingredients, such as soy, to replace wild fish as a feed source and allow for continued industry growth. This shift fundamentally links seafood production to terrestrial agriculture, and multidisciplinary research is needed to understand the ecological and environmental health implications. We provide basic estimates of the agricultural resource use associated with producing the top five crops used in commercial aquaculture feed. Aquaculture's environmental footprint may now include nutrient and pesticide runoff from industrial crop production, and depending on where and how feed crops are produced, could be indirectly linked to associated negative health outcomes. We summarize key environmental health research on health effects associated with exposure to air, water, and soil contaminated by industrial crop production. Our review also finds that changes in the nutritional content of farmed seafood products due to altered feed composition could impact human nutrition. Based on our literature reviews and estimates of resource use, we present a conceptual framework describing the potential links between increasing use of crop-based ingredients in aquaculture and human health. Additional data and geographic sourcing information for crop-based ingredients are needed to fully assess the environmental health implications of this trend. This is especially critical in the context of a food system that is using both aquatic and terrestrial resources at unsustainable rates.

  9. Lay perceptions of health and environmental inequalities and their associations to mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luisa Lima; Rita Morais

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Health inequalities are very well documented in epidemiological research: rich people live longer and have fewer diseases than poor people. Recently, a growing amount of evidence from environmental sciences confirms that poor people are also more exposed to pollution and other environmental threats. However, research in the social sciences has shown a broad lack of awareness about health inequalities. In this paper, based on data collected in Portugal, we will analyze the consciousne...

  10. First, Do No Harm: Children's Environmental Health in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatham-Stephens, Kevin M.; Mann, Mana; Schwartz, Andrea Wershof; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    In the past century, the threats to children's health have shifted radically. Life-threatening infectious diseases--smallpox, polio, and cholera--have been largely conquered. But children are growing up in a world in which environmental toxins are ubiquitous. Measurable levels of hundreds of man-made chemicals are routinely found in the bodies of…

  11. NLM Web Resources for Environmental Health and Biomedical Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, R.

    2010-09-12

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is sponsoring this course to increase awareness of the availability and value of NLM’s online environmental health and toxicology information resources that provide invaluable tools to address these issues—for professionals and consumers alike. Participants will receive hands-on practice with selected NLM resources, and demonstrations of other valuable resources will be provided.

  12. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  13. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1992-12-01

    This fifth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Information is presented on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. Models are described that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. Federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable for the NEPA documents at the Hanford Site, are provided.

  14. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J. [and others

    1997-08-01

    This ninth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. Not all of the sections have been updated for this revision. The following lists the updated sections: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); culture, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; all of Chapter 6.

  15. Ethics in studies on children and environmental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlo, D F; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Matusiewicz, K

    2007-01-01

    Children, because of age-related reasons, are a vulnerable population, and protecting their health is a social, scientific and emotional priority. The increased susceptibility of children and fetuses to environmental (including genotoxic) agents has been widely discussed by the scientific community...... and their parents, physicians and public health researchers, and the society as a whole, with its ethical, regulatory, administrative and political components. The important ethical issues are information of participants and consent to participate. Follow-up and protection of data (samples and information derived...... on children is necessary in both clinical and environmental fields, to provide age-specific relevant data regarding the efficacy and safety of medical treatments, and regarding the assessment of risk from unintended environmental exposure. In this context, the stakeholders are many, including children...

  16. Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: A threat to health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian Halperin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental noise, especially that caused by transportation means, is viewed as a significant cause of sleep disturbances. Poor sleep causes endocrine and metabolic measurable perturbations and is associated with a number of cardiometabolic, psychiatric and social negative outcomes both in adults and children. Nocturnal environmental noise also provokes measurable biological changes in the form of a stress response, and clearly affects sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep quality. These sleep perturbations are similar in their nature to those observed in endogenous sleep disorders. Apart from these measurable effects and the subjective feeling of disturbed sleep, people who struggle with nocturnal environmental noise often also suffer the next day from daytime sleepiness and tiredness, annoyance, mood changes as well as decreased well-being and cognitive performance. But there is also emerging evidence that these short-term effects of environmental noise, particularly when the exposure is nocturnal, may be followed by long-term adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Nocturnal environmental noise may be the most worrying form of noise pollution in terms of its health consequences because of its synergistic direct and indirect (through sleep disturbances acting as a mediator influence on biological systems. Duration and quality of sleep should thus be regarded as risk factors or markers significantly influenced by the environment and possibly amenable to modification through both education and counseling as well as through measures of public health. One of the means that should be proposed is avoidance at all costs of sleep disruptions caused by environmental noise.

  17. Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: A threat to health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Demian

    2014-01-01

    Environmental noise, especially that caused by transportation means, is viewed as a significant cause of sleep disturbances. Poor sleep causes endocrine and metabolic measurable perturbations and is associated with a number of cardiometabolic, psychiatric and social negative outcomes both in adults and children. Nocturnal environmental noise also provokes measurable biological changes in the form of a stress response, and clearly affects sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep quality. These sleep perturbations are similar in their nature to those observed in endogenous sleep disorders. Apart from these measurable effects and the subjective feeling of disturbed sleep, people who struggle with nocturnal environmental noise often also suffer the next day from daytime sleepiness and tiredness, annoyance, mood changes as well as decreased well-being and cognitive performance. But there is also emerging evidence that these short-term effects of environmental noise, particularly when the exposure is nocturnal, may be followed by long-term adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Nocturnal environmental noise may be the most worrying form of noise pollution in terms of its health consequences because of its synergistic direct and indirect (through sleep disturbances acting as a mediator) influence on biological systems. Duration and quality of sleep should thus be regarded as risk factors or markers significantly influenced by the environment and possibly amenable to modification through both education and counseling as well as through measures of public health. One of the means that should be proposed is avoidance at all costs of sleep disruptions caused by environmental noise. PMID:26483931

  18. Environmental transport and human exposure: A multimedia approach in health-risk policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, T.E.

    1992-05-01

    In his treatise Air, Water, and Places, the ancient-Greek physician Hippocrates demonstrated that the appearance of disease in human populations is influenced by the quality of air, water, and food; the topography of the land; and general living habits. This approach is still relevant and, indeed, the conerstone of modem efforts to relate public health to environmental factors. What has changed is the precision with which we can measure and model these long-held relationships. Environmental scientists recognize that plants, animals, and humans encounter environmental contaminants via complex transfers through air, water, and food and use multimedia models to evaluate these transfers. In this report, I explore the use of multimedia models both to examine pollution trends and as a basis for characterizing human health risks and ecological risks. The strengths and weaknesses of the approach are discussed.

  19. Improving Environmental Health Literacy and Justice through Environmental Exposure Results Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica D. Ramirez-Andreotta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the short- and long-term impacts of a biomonitoring and exposure project and reporting personal results back to study participants is critical for guiding future efforts, especially in the context of environmental justice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning outcomes from environmental communication efforts and whether environmental health literacy goals were met in an environmental justice community. We conducted 14 interviews with parents who had participated in the University of Arizona’s Metals Exposure Study in Homes and analyzed their responses using NVivo, a qualitative data management and analysis program. Key findings were that participants used the data to cope with their challenging circumstances, the majority of participants described changing their families’ household behaviors, and participants reported specific interventions to reduce family exposures. The strength of this study is that it provides insight into what people learn and gain from such results communication efforts, what participants want to know, and what type of additional information participants need to advance their environmental health literacy. This information can help improve future report back efforts and advance environmental health and justice.

  20. Health and environmental effects of complex chemical mixtures: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy supports a broad long-term research program on human health and environmental effects from potential exposure to energy-related complex chemical mixtures. The program seeks basic mechanistic data on the effects of complex mixtures at the cellular, molecular, and whole animal levels to aid in predicting human health effects and seeks ecological data on biological and physical transformations in the mixtures, concentrations of the mixtures in various compartments of the environment, and potential routes for human exposure to these mixtures (e.g., food chain). On June 17-18, 1985, OHER held its First Annual Technical Meeting on the Complex Chemical Mixtures Program in Chicago, IL. The primary purpose of the meeting was to enable principal investigators to report the research status and accomplishments of ongoing complex chemical mixture studies supported by OHER. To help focus future research directions round table discussions were conducted.

  1. Sensitizing events as trigger for discursive renewal and institutional change in Flanders’ environmental health approach, 1970s-1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sensitizing events may trigger and stimulate discursive renewal. From a discursive institutional perspective, changing discourses are the driving force behind the institutional dynamics of policy domains. Theoretically informed by discursive institutionalism, this article assesses the impact of a series of four sensitizing events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders between the 1970s till the 1990s, and led onto the gradual institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. Methods The Policy Arrangement Approach is used as the analytical framework to structure the empirical results of the historical analysis based on document analysis and in-depth interviews. Results Until the 1990s, environmental health was characterized as an ad hoc policy field in Flanders, where agenda setting was based on sensitizing events – also referred to as incident-driven. Each of these events contributed to a gradual rethinking of the epistemological discourses about environmental health risks and uncertainties. These new discourses were the driving forces behind institutional dynamics as they gradually resulted in an increased need for: 1) long-term, policy-oriented, interdisciplinary environmental health research; 2) policy coordination and integration between the environmental and public health policy fields; and 3) new forms of science-policy interactions based on mutual learning. These changes are desirable in order to detect environmental health problems as fast as possible, to react immediately and communicate appropriately. Conclusions The series of four events that triggered serious environmental health concerns in Flanders provided the opportunity to rethink and re-organize the current affairs concerning environmental health and gradually resulted into the institutionalization of a Flemish environmental health arrangement. PMID:23758822

  2. DARTAB: a program to combine airborne radionuclide environmental exposure data with dosimetric and health effects data to generate tabulations of predicted health impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begovich, C.L.; Eckerman, K.F.; Schlatter, E.C.; Ohr, S.Y.; Chester, R.O.

    1981-08-01

    The DARTAB computer code combines radionuclide environmental exposure data with dosimetric and health effects data to generate tabulations of the predicted impact of radioactive airborne effluents. DARTAB is independent of the environmental transport code used to generate the environmental exposure data and the codes used to produce the dosimetric and health effects data. Therefore human dose and risk calculations need not be added to every environmental transport code. Options are included in DARTAB to permit the user to request tabulations by various topics (e.g., cancer site, exposure pathway, etc.) to facilitate characterization of the human health impacts of the effluents. The DARTAB code was written at ORNL for the US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation Programs.

  3. Using NASA Environmental Data to Enhance Public Health Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Economou, Sigrid; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Hemmings, Sarah; Kent, Shia; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale; Wade, Gina; McClure, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is collaborating with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by utilizing NASA remotely sensed data and products. The objectives of this collaboration are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, and deliver the data sets and associated analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. These data can be linked spatially and temporally to public health data, such as mortality and disease morbidity, for further analysis and decision making. Three daily environmental data sets have been developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the time period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures on a 10-km grid utilizing the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA s MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of Land Surface Temperature (LST) using MODIS data; and (3) a 12-km grid of daily Solar Insolation (SI) and maximum and minimum air temperature using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) forcing data. These environmental data sets will be linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline and other health outcomes. These environmental datasets and public health linkage analyses will be made available to public health professionals, researchers and the general public through the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system and through peer reviewed publications. To date, two of the data sets have been released to the public in CDC

  4. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2004-09-22

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the sixteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the seventeenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety and health, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  5. Increasing cropping system diversity balances productivity, profitability and environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Adam S; Hill, Jason D; Chase, Craig A; Johanns, Ann M; Liebman, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and large negative impacts on the environment. We hypothesized that cropping system diversification would promote ecosystem services that would supplement, and eventually displace, synthetic external inputs used to maintain crop productivity. To test this, we conducted a field study from 2003-2011 in Iowa that included three contrasting systems varying in length of crop sequence and inputs. We compared a conventionally managed 2-yr rotation (maize-soybean) that received fertilizers and herbicides at rates comparable to those used on nearby farms with two more diverse cropping systems: a 3-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + red clover) and a 4-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + alfalfa-alfalfa) managed with lower synthetic N fertilizer and herbicide inputs and periodic applications of cattle manure. Grain yields, mass of harvested products, and profit in the more diverse systems were similar to, or greater than, those in the conventional system, despite reductions of agrichemical inputs. Weeds were suppressed effectively in all systems, but freshwater toxicity of the more diverse systems was two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional system. Results of our study indicate that more diverse cropping systems can use small amounts of synthetic agrichemical inputs as powerful tools with which to tune, rather than drive, agroecosystem performance, while meeting or exceeding the performance of less diverse systems.

  6. Increasing cropping system diversity balances productivity, profitability and environmental health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S Davis

    Full Text Available Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and large negative impacts on the environment. We hypothesized that cropping system diversification would promote ecosystem services that would supplement, and eventually displace, synthetic external inputs used to maintain crop productivity. To test this, we conducted a field study from 2003-2011 in Iowa that included three contrasting systems varying in length of crop sequence and inputs. We compared a conventionally managed 2-yr rotation (maize-soybean that received fertilizers and herbicides at rates comparable to those used on nearby farms with two more diverse cropping systems: a 3-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + red clover and a 4-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + alfalfa-alfalfa managed with lower synthetic N fertilizer and herbicide inputs and periodic applications of cattle manure. Grain yields, mass of harvested products, and profit in the more diverse systems were similar to, or greater than, those in the conventional system, despite reductions of agrichemical inputs. Weeds were suppressed effectively in all systems, but freshwater toxicity of the more diverse systems was two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional system. Results of our study indicate that more diverse cropping systems can use small amounts of synthetic agrichemical inputs as powerful tools with which to tune, rather than drive, agroecosystem performance, while meeting or exceeding the performance of less diverse systems.

  7. U.S. Geological Survey environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2013-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, quality of life, and economic prosperity lead to environmental change. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will compound the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, synthetic chemicals and substances, natural earth materials, toxins, and other biogenic compounds.

  8. Characterization of wastewaters from vehicle washing companies and environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The car wash business has developed rapidly in recent years due to the increased number of cars, thus, it can cause serious environmental problems considering its potential source of pollution. The aim of this study was to characterize the wastewater from car washing companies in the city of Campina Grande, in Paraiba state, and to analyze the environmental impacts generated. A survey was conducted from November 2009 to July 2010. The first step we present a survey of car wash businesses in the city, and identified 20 licensed companies in which we evaluated the number of vehicles washed per week, the existence of a system of pre-treatment of wastewater generated and infrastructure that would allow the realization of the collection of samples of the effluent, the second step was carried out chemical and physical characterization of wastewater from five 20 companies surveyed in the previous step, and third stage were measured pollution loads of wastewater from washing of vehicles in the city, from the results obtained in previous steps. The characterization parameters were analyzed: oil and grease, COD, heavy metals, TS, TSS, turbidity, TKN, total P, pH and color. The results demonstrated that the wastewater from the car wash establishments shows high concentrations of organic matter, oils and grease, heavy metals and solids, and as such did not conform with the specific environmental legislation. Evaluation of pollutant loads demonstrated that if releases without proper treatment, it can cause serious environmental problems. It is therefore essential that these establishments are properly monitored.

  9. New developments in children's environmental health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburlini, Giorgio

    2006-09-01

    Important developments have taken place in Europe regarding children's environmental health (CEH) over the last few years. In 1999 the Third Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health identified CEH as a priority area and started a process of scientific review and policy development that culminated at the Fourth Ministerial Conference held in Budapest in June 2004 with the adoption of the Children's Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE). The rationale of the CEHAPE is based on a thorough review of the scientific evidence on CEH and on a study that quantified for the first time the burden of disease related to the main environmental exposures of children and adolescents in Europe. The Action Plan suggests actions and policies to achieve the four main priority goals: clean air, safe water, chemical and physical agents, and injuries. Over the same period, the European Commission (EC) has strengthened its focus on environment and health issues, has supported research on CEH, and has developed a proposal for a new EU regulatory framework for chemicals that has clear implications for children and for the reproductive period. The proposed new system, called REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals), currently under examination by the European Parliament, aims at reducing risks to human health and improvement of environmental quality through the better and earlier identification of the properties of chemical substances. The EC also adopted policies and action plans that are very relevant to children, such as the EU European Environment and Health Strategy, referred to as the SCALE initiative (Science, Children, Awareness, Legislation, Evaluation), and the 2004-2010 Environment and Health Action Plan.

  10. Effective Factors in Environmental Health Status of Grocery Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Asadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the Study: This study was carried out to determine the effective factors in environmental health status of grocery stores in the city of Qom (located in the center of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 283 grocery stores from 3 different regions were selected randomly using stratified sampling. Data were gathered through observation, interview, and questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of two sections: section 1 dealt with some shop managers’ features including the age, educational level, job satisfaction, passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses”, store ownership, duration of employment, and features of stores including their location (Region and environmental health condition. And section 2 dealt with the important aspects of regulations of Article 13. The data analyzed using statistical procedures such as Spearman Rank Correlation and Multivariate Regression Analysis. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Among the investigated factors, the manager’s educational level had a greater impact on the environmental health conditions of grocery stores. The ownership status of grocery stores, Job satisfaction and passing “food and occupational hygiene training courses” were next in the ranking, respectively (p <0.001 for all measures, except for shop ownership, for which p-value was <0.02. Conclusions: Planning and implementation of effective operational and strategic programs addressing the above mentioned issues seems to be necessary. Such programs will improve the health status of the stores over time.

  11. Economic Evaluation of Environmental Health Interventions to Support Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hutton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental burden of disease represents one quarter of overall disease burden, hence necessitating greater attention from decision makers both inside and outside the health sector. Economic evaluation techniques such as cost- effectiveness analysis and cost-benefit analysis provide key information to health decision makers on the efficiency of environmental health interventions, assisting them in choosing interventions which give the greatest social return on limited public budgets and private resources. The aim of this article is to review economic evaluation studies in three environmental health areas—water, sanitation, hygiene (WSH, vector control, and air pollution—and to critically examine the policy relevance and scientific quality of the studies for selecting and funding public programmers. A keyword search of Medline from 1990–2008 revealed 32 studies, and gathering of articles from other sources revealed a further 18 studies, giving a total of 50 economic evaluation studies (13 WSH interventions, 16 vector control and 21 air pollution. Overall, the economic evidence base on environmental health interventions remains relatively weak—too few studies per intervention, of variable scientific quality and from diverse locations which limits generalisability of findings. Importantly, there still exists a disconnect between economic research, decision making and programmer implementation. This can be explained by the lack of translation of research findings into accessible documentation for policy makers and limited relevance of research findings, and the often low importance of economic evidence in budgeting decisions. These findings underline the importance of involving policy makers in the defining of research agendas and commissioning of research, and improving the awareness of researchers of the policy environment into which their research feeds.

  12. 78 FR 8156 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special.... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709,...

  13. 76 FR 46308 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Environmental Health Sciences Review Committee. Date: August 23-25...'l Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30, Research Triangle Park,...

  14. 78 FR 14312 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis.... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30/Room 3171, Research Triangle Park,...

  15. 78 FR 64511 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Environmental Health Sciences Review Committee. Date: November 14... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Rall Building 101, Conference Room B, 111 T.W. Alexander...

  16. 76 FR 7572 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice..., Director, Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences... Environmental Health Sciences, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615/3112, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (919)...

  17. 76 FR 31620 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis..., Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O....

  18. 78 FR 56902 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Research and Education; 93.894, Resources and Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences;...

  19. 75 FR 34147 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD...

  20. 76 FR 7574 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615... of Environmental Health Sciences, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615/3112, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709,...

  1. 78 FR 25754 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special ] Emphasis.... Institute of Environmental Health Science, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30/Room 3170 B, Research Triangle Park,...

  2. 75 FR 41505 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Environmental Health Sciences Review Committee. Date: August 10-12... Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W. Alexander Drive, Conference Rooms...

  3. 78 FR 27410 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Research and Education; 93.894, Resources and Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences;...

  4. 75 FR 8976 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Science, P. O. Box 12233, MD...

  5. 78 FR 35637 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences... Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, July 15, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to July 15, 2013, 5:00 p.m., National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park,...

  6. 78 FR 39739 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Environmental Health Sciences Review Committee. Date: July 24-26, 2013... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709,...

  7. 75 FR 78719 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program Operations, Scientific Review Branch, P.O. Box 12233 MD...

  8. 76 FR 21387 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Science, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30/Room 3170...

  9. 78 FR 51734 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Research and Education; 93.894, Resources and Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences;...

  10. 77 FR 66853 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel Career Grants in the Environmental Health Sciences. Date: November 29-30, 2012 Time: 8:00 a.m....

  11. 76 FR 11500 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program Operations, Scientific Review Branch, P.O. Box 12233 MD...

  12. 78 FR 13358 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Training, Nat. Institute Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30, Research Triangle...

  13. 77 FR 4572 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Science, P.O. Box...

  14. 75 FR 55807 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis...-Tilotta, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office...

  15. 75 FR 61765 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. ] Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis.... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program Operations, Scientific Review Branch, P.O....

  16. 77 FR 30019 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Science, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30/Room 3170...

  17. 75 FR 68367 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis.... Institute of Environmental Health Science, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30/Room 3170 B, Research Triangle Park,...

  18. 76 FR 62080 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Environmental Health Sciences Review Committee. Date: November 9, 2011...'l Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30, Research Triangle Park,...

  19. 76 FR 7225 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice..., National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615/3112, Research Triangle Park, NC..., National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615/3112, Research Triangle Park,...

  20. 75 FR 32797 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD...

  1. 75 FR 41506 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box...

  2. 77 FR 37423 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis..., Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O....

  3. 78 FR 14562 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program Operations, Scientific Review Branch, P.O. Box 12233,...

  4. 76 FR 46823 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The... of Committee: National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. Date: September 1-2,...

  5. 77 FR 60445 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Institute of Environmental Health Science, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30/Room 3170 B, Research Triangle Park,...

  6. 77 FR 43849 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: Environmental Health Sciences Review Committee. Date: August 22-23... Training, Nat'l Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30, Research...

  7. 76 FR 4925 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... the meeting will be provided. In Person: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Keystone... Research and Education; 93.894, Resources and Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences;...

  8. 76 FR 58521 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Environmental Health Science, P. O. Box 12233, MD EC-30/Room 3170 B, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (919)...

  9. 76 FR 10040 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... and projects conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, including... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 T.W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709....

  10. 75 FR 2876 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (919) 541-...

  11. 76 FR 13650 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30/Room 3171, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (919)...

  12. 76 FR 35225 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Research and Training, Nat. Institute Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30,...

  13. [Environmental health and inequalities: building indicators for sustainable development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Franco Netto, Guilherme; Corvalan, Carlos; de Freitas, Carlos Machado; Sales, Luiz Belino Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Despite its progress in terms of socio-economic indicators, Brazil is still unequal, which is due to an unequal and exclusionary historical process. In this paper we selected the Human Development Index - HDI and other social, economic, environmental and health indicators to exemplify this situation. We selected the municipalities that had the lowest HDI in the country in 2000 comparing their evolution over time between 2000 and 2010 by means of indicators linked to the economic, environmental and social pillars of sustainable development. These municipalities have an HDI classified as low (sustainable development with quality of life, the improvement of sanitation and education indicators should be a priority for Brazil.

  14. An analytical assessment of population reaction to environmental health hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stasiukaitis, B.

    1994-12-31

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), being a nuclear production facility, has created concern for the communities in the surrounding areas. After completing a Perceived Risk Survey (PRS) in 1993, it was found that some people express their concerns by contacting a public official. Thus, the Legislative Environmental Health Survey (LEHS) was created. This survey asked legislators of Georgia and South Carolina to respond to questions concerning various environmental concerns. The questions reflected how the legislators viewed their constituencies` concerns. These two surveys were compared to find differences in legislators` and public views.

  15. Anticipating environmental and environmental-health implications of extreme storms: ARkStorm scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Alpers, Charles N.; Morman, Suzette A.; San Juan, Carma A.

    2016-01-01

    The ARkStorm Scenario predicts that a prolonged winter storm event across California would cause extreme precipitation, flooding, winds, physical damages, and economic impacts. This study uses a literature review and geographic information system-based analysis of national and state databases to infer how and where ARkStorm could cause environmental damages, release contamination from diverse natural and anthropogenic sources, affect ecosystem and human health, and cause economic impacts from environmental-remediation, liability, and health-care costs. Examples of plausible ARkStorm environmental and health concerns include complex mixtures of contaminants such as petroleum, mercury, asbestos, persistent organic pollutants, molds, and pathogens; adverse physical and contamination impacts on riverine and coastal marine ecosystems; and increased incidences of mold-related health concerns, some vector-borne diseases, and valley fever. Coastal cities, the San Francisco Bay area, the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, parts of the Central Valley, and some mountainous areas would likely be most affected. This type of screening analysis, coupled with follow-up local assessments, can help stakeholders in California and disaster-prone areas elsewhere better plan for, mitigate, and respond to future environmental disasters.

  16. Integrating Medical and Environmental Sociology with Environmental Health: Crossing Boundaries and Building Connections through Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Phil

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the personal and professional processes of developing an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complex issues of environmental health in their community, political-economic, social science, and scientific contexts. This interdisciplinary approach includes a synthesis of research, policy work, and advocacy. To examine…

  17. Defining the role of omics in assessing ecosystem health: Perspectives from the Canadian environmental monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamonde, Paulina A; Feswick, April; Isaacs, Meghan A; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Scientific reviews and studies continue to describe omics technologies as the next generation of tools for environmental monitoring, while cautioning that there are limitations and obstacles to overcome. However, omics has not yet transitioned into national environmental monitoring programs designed to assess ecosystem health. Using the example of the Canadian Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program, the authors describe the steps that would be required for omics technologies to be included in such an established program. These steps include baseline collection of omics endpoints across different species and sites to generate a range of what is biologically normal within a particular ecosystem. Natural individual variability in the omes is not adequately characterized and is often not measured in the field, but is a key component to an environmental monitoring program, to determine the critical effect size or action threshold for management. Omics endpoints must develop a level of standardization, consistency, and rigor that will allow interpretation of the relevance of changes across broader scales. To date, population-level consequences of routinely measured endpoints such as reduced gonad size or intersex in fish is not entirely clear, and the significance of genome-wide molecular, proteome, or metabolic changes on organism or population health is further removed from the levels of ecological change traditionally managed. The present review is not intended to dismiss the idea that omics will play a future role in large-scale environmental monitoring studies, but rather outlines the necessary actions for its inclusion in regulatory monitoring programs focused on assessing ecosystem health.

  18. Arsenic and Environmental Health: State of the Science and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure to inorganic and organic arsenic compounds is a major public health problem that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Exposure to arsenic is associated with cancer and noncancer effects in nearly every organ in the body, and evidence is mounting for health effects at lower levels of arsenic exposure than previously thought. Building from a tremendous knowledge base with > 1,000 scientific papers published annually with “arsenic” in the title, the question becomes, what questions would best drive future research directions? Objectives: The objective is to discuss emerging issues in arsenic research and identify data gaps across disciplines. Methods: The National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program convened a workshop to identify emerging issues and research needs to address the multi-faceted challenges related to arsenic and environmental health. This review summarizes information captured during the workshop. Discussion: More information about aggregate exposure to arsenic is needed, including the amount and forms of arsenic found in foods. New strategies for mitigating arsenic exposures and related health effects range from engineered filtering systems to phytogenetics and nutritional interventions. Furthermore, integration of omics data with mechanistic and epidemiological data is a key step toward the goal of linking biomarkers of exposure and suscepti

  19. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This seventh revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, environmental monitoring, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors. Chapter 5.0 was not updated from the sixth revision (1994). It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions. The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE Orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  20. Energy technology characterizations handbook: environmental pollution and control factors. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    This Handbook deals with environmental characterization information for a range of energy-supply systems and provides supplementary information on environmental controls applicable to a select group of environmentally characterized energy systems. Environmental residuals, physical-resource requirements, and discussion of applicable standards are the principal information provided. The quantitative and qualitative data provided are useful for evaluating alternative policy and technical strategies and for assessing the environmental impact of facility siting, energy production, and environmental controls.

  1. Characterizing Health Information for Different Target Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yueping; Hou, Zhen; Hou, Li; Li, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Different groups of audiences in health care: health professionals and health consumers, each have different information needs. Health monographs targeting different audiences are created by leveraging readers' background knowledge. The NCI's Physician Data Query (PDQ®) Cancer Information Summaries provide parallel cancer information and education resources with different target audiences. In this paper, we used targeted audience-specific cancer information PDQs to measure characteristic differences on the element level between audiences. In addition, we compared vocabulary coverage. Results show a significant difference between the professional and patient version of cancer monographs in both content organization and vocabulary. This study provides a new view to assess targeted audience-specific health information, and helps editors to improve the quality and readability of health information.

  2. Health Consequences of Environmental Exposures: Causal Thinking in Global Environmental Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sly, Peter D; Carpenter, David O; Van den Berg, Martin; Stein, Renato T; Landrigan, Philip J; Brune-Drisse, Marie-Noel; Suk, William

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease estimates indicate a trend toward increasing years lived with disability from chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Risk factors examined included smoking, diet, alcohol, drug abuse, and physical inactivity. By contrast, little consideration was given to accumulating evidence that exposures to environmental chemicals, psychosocial stress, and malnutrition during fetal development and across the life span also increase risk of NCDs. To address this gap, we undertook a narrative review of early-life environmental contributions to disease. We documented numerous etiologic associations. We propose that future GBD estimates use an expanded approach for assessing etiologic contributions of environmental exposures to recognized disease risk factors. We argue that broadening the definition of environmental disease, together with improved methods of assessing early life exposures and their health outcomes across the life span, will allow better understanding of causal associations and provide the incentives required to support strategies to control avoidable exposures and reduce disease risk.

  3. Environmental health risk assessment and management for global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, P.

    2014-12-01

    This environmental health risk assessment and management approach for atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution is based almost entirely on IPCC AR5 (2014) content, but the IPCC does not make recommendations. Large climate model uncertainties may be large environmental health risks. In accordance with environmental health risk management, we use the standard (IPCC-endorsed) formula of risk as the product of magnitude times probability, with an extremely high standard of precaution. Atmospheric GHG pollution, causing global warming, climate change and ocean acidification, is increasing as fast as ever. Time is of the essence to inform and make recommendations to governments and the public. While the 2ºC target is the only formally agreed-upon policy limit, for the most vulnerable nations, a 1.5ºC limit is being considered by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The Climate Action Network International (2014), representing civil society, recommends that the 1.5ºC limit be kept open and that emissions decline from 2015. James Hansen et al (2013) have argued that 1ºC is the danger limit. Taking into account committed global warming, its millennial duration, multiple large sources of amplifying climate feedbacks and multiple adverse impacts of global warming and climate change on crops, and population health impacts, all the IPCC AR5 scenarios carry extreme environmental health risks to large human populations and to the future of humanity as a whole. Our risk consideration finds that 2ºC carries high risks of many catastrophic impacts, that 1.5ºC carries high risks of many disastrous impacts, and that 1ºC is the danger limit. IPCC AR4 (2007) showed that emissions must be reversed by 2015 for a 2ºC warming limit. For the IPCC AR5 only the best-case scenario RCP2.6, is projected to stay under 2ºC by 2100 but the upper range is just above 2ºC. It calls for emissions to decline by 2020. We recommend that for catastrophic environmental health risk aversion, emissions decline

  4. Organic foods: health and environmental advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Joel; Silverstein, Janet

    2012-11-01

    The US market for organic foods has grown from $3.5 billion in 1996 to $28.6 billion in 2010, according to the Organic Trade Association. Organic products are now sold in specialty stores and conventional supermarkets. Organic products contain numerous marketing claims and terms, only some of which are standardized and regulated. In terms of health advantages, organic diets have been convincingly demonstrated to expose consumers to fewer pesticides associated with human disease. Organic farming has been demonstrated to have less environmental impact than conventional approaches. However, current evidence does not support any meaningful nutritional benefits or deficits from eating organic compared with conventionally grown foods, and there are no well-powered human studies that directly demonstrate health benefits or disease protection as a result of consuming an organic diet. Studies also have not demonstrated any detrimental or disease-promoting effects from an organic diet. Although organic foods regularly command a significant price premium, well-designed farming studies demonstrate that costs can be competitive and yields comparable to those of conventional farming techniques. Pediatricians should incorporate this evidence when discussing the health and environmental impact of organic foods and organic farming while continuing to encourage all patients and their families to attain optimal nutrition and dietary variety consistent with the US Department of Agriculture's MyPlate recommendations. This clinical report reviews the health and environmental issues related to organic food production and consumption. It defines the term "organic," reviews organic food-labeling standards, describes organic and conventional farming practices, and explores the cost and environmental implications of organic production techniques. It examines the evidence available on nutritional quality and production contaminants in conventionally produced and organic foods. Finally, this

  5. Texas Barrier Islands Region ecological characterization: environmental synthesis papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shew, D.M.; Baumann, R.H.; Fritts, T.H.; Dunn, L.S.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a synthesis of selected environmental literature for the Texas Barrier Islands Region and is a part of the Texas Barrier Islands Region Ecological Characterization Study. The Texas Barrier Islands Region is defined to include the coastal counties and extends 64 km inland and offshore to the State-Federal demarcation. These papers deal with six drainage basins along the Texas coast: Galveston, Matagorda-Brazos, San Antonio, Copano-Aransas, Corpus Christi and Laguna Madre; as well as the marine system offshore. The papers address the geology, climate, hydrology and hydrography, and the biology of each basin.

  6. Children's environmental health: an under-recognised area in paediatric health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavidia, Tania G; Pronczuk de Garbino, Jenny; Sly, Peter D

    2009-02-06

    The knowledge that the environment in which we live, grow and play, can have negative or positive impacts on our health and development is not new. However the recognition that adverse environments can significantly and specifically affect the growth and development of a child from early intrauterine life through to adolescence, as well as impact their health later in adulthood, is relatively recent and has not fully reached health care providers involved in paediatric care.Over the past 15 years, world declarations and statements on children's rights, sustainable development, chemical safety and most recently climate change, have succeeded in cultivating a global focus on children's health and their right to a healthy environment. Many international calls for research in the area, have also been able to identify patterns of environmental diseases in children, assess children's exposures to many environmental toxicants, identify developmental periods of vulnerability, and quantify the cost benefits to public health systems and beyond, of addressing environmentally related diseases in children. Transferring this information to front-line health care providers and increasing their awareness about the global burden of disease attributed to the environment and children's special vulnerability to environmental threats is the salient aim of this commentary.

  7. Health and Environmental Research: Summary of Accomplishments. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    This is an account of some of the accomplishments of the health and environmental research program performed in national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. Both direct and indirect societal benefits emerged from the new knowledge provided by the health and environmental research program. In many cases, the private sector took this knowledge and applied it well beyond the mission of supporting the defense and energy needs of the Nation. Industrial and medical applications, for example, have in several instances provided annual savings to society of $100 million or more. The form of this presentation is, in fact, through "snapshots" - examples of significant, tangible accomplishments in each of the areas at certain times to illustrate the role and impact of the research program. The program's worth is not necessarily confined to such accomplishments; it extends, rather, to its ability to identify and help solve potential health and environmental problems before they become critical. This anticipatory mission has been pursued with an approach that combines applied problem solving with a commitment to fundamental research that is long-term and high-risk. The narrative of this research program concludes with a perspective of its past and a prospectus on its future.

  8. [Intersectoriality, social and environmental determinants and health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kênia Lara; Sena, Roseni Rosângela; Akerman, Marco; Belga, Stephanie Marques Moura; Rodrigues, Andreza Trevenzoli

    2014-11-01

    The study seeks to analyze intersectoriality from the socio-environmental perspective on health promotion. Qualitative research was conducted in six municipalities in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The data were obtained from the mapping of health promotion experiences considered successful by municipal managers, interviews with coordinators, professionals and participants and observations of participants of the practices. The data were subjected to thematic content analysis. Intersectoriality was revealed as a premise for the political definition of the majority of the practices. At the normative program level, the social assistance sector has shown greater potential to develop intersectorial practices and centrality in the implementation grid due to its involvement with the social and environmental determinants. The results indicate that there is a gap between the intention to practice intersectoriality, witnessed by the political decisions in the municipalities, and effective intersectorial action in everyday life. The conclusion reached is that there is potential for intersectorial interventions on the social and environmental determinants in favor of health promotion, but the lack of consistency between what occurs in practice and the political aspects reveal a challenge to be overcome.

  9. Health and Environmental Research: summary of accomplishments. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    This is an account of some of the accomplishments of the health and environmental research program performed in national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. Both direct and indirect societal benefits emerged from the new knowledge provided by the health and environmental research program. In many cases, the private sector took this knowledge and applied it well beyond the mission of supporting the defense and energy needs of the Nation. Industrial and medical applications, for example, have in several instances provided annual savings to society of $100 million or more. The form of this presentation is, in fact, through ''snapshots'' - examples of significant, tangible accomplishments in each of the areas at certain times to illustrate the role and impact of the research program. The program's worth is not necessarily confined to such accomplishments; it extends, rather, to its ability to identify and help solve potential health and environmental problems before they become critical. This anticipatory mission has been pursued with an approach that combines applied problem solving with a commitment to fundamental research that is long-term and high-risk. The narrative of this research program concludes with a perspective of its past and a prospectus on its future.

  10. Bilateral environmental and occupational health program with India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Mike; Campolucci, Sharon; Falk, Henry; Ganguly, N K; Saiyed, H N; Shah, Bela

    2003-08-01

    In spite of considerable economic progress in recent years, India continues to face challenges dealing with poverty, unemployment, malnutrition, disease and disability. The governments of India and the United States have formed a collaborative effort to address outstanding issues in the fields of environmental and occupational health. The Joint Statement on Indo-U.S. Collaboration in Environmental and Occupational Health, which was approved by the Minister of the Indian Union of Health and Family Welfare and the Secretary of Health and Human Services of the United State in Geneva in May of 2002, formalizes the collaborative relationship and calls for the development of Implementation Guidelines. The Implementation Guidelines establish a Joint Working Group, which is responsible for identifying and implementing the collaborative projects. The collaborating organizations have identified three broad areas for collaboration: emergency preparedness and response; training, education, and technology transfer; and research. Within the three broad areas, the organizations have identified two subject areas for initiation: arsenicosis and asbestosis. Researchers and health officials in both India and the U.S. share interest in both research and interventions efforts in these subject areas. As many as 42 million people in the West Bengal area of India may be exposed to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations of health concern. Similarly, as many as 10 million industrial or mine workers in India may be exposed to asbestos or other dusts at concentrations of health concern. The first Joint Working Group meeting is scheduled for March 2003 in New Delhi and will consider these subject areas in developing collaborative projects. Other tasks being undertaken by the signatory agencies include expanding the relationship to include academic and nongovernmental organizations and obtaining funds for the various projects from governmental and nongovernmental sources.

  11. Environmental Health in the School Setting: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Bernadette Moran; Bryner, Janet; Chau, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental health is a branch of public health that is concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines environmental health as those aspects of human health and diseases that are determined by factors in the environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing and…

  12. 76 FR 50235 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice..., Director, Division of Extramural Research and Training (DERT), Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences... Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615/3112, Research Triangle Park,...

  13. The content and efficacy of environmental public health journal homepages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindars, E S; Spickett, J T

    2000-01-01

    The information on several environmental public health journal homepages has been assessed for its quality and quantity, using selected key criteria. These criteria included the extent of text available, the ability to search the website, the table of contents free via email, and the presence of hyper-links. A high degree of variability is seen, with services and facilities offered ranging from none to the entire journal available for no fee. The journal homepages that are the most comprehensive are those that are associated with major institutions and hence financed by contributions from their members or public money, i.e. the British Medical Association, the World Health Organisation and the US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. The journal homepages associated with these institutions offered full text of both current and archived issues as well as additions such as the ability to search other sites, web links, and in some cases hyper-linked references and information on related articles. The provision of text on the Internet should be an essential aim for all journal Homepages, to ensure fast and effective conveyance of information to health professionals.

  14. Comparative survey of environmental health status of schools have health trainer and without health trainer in Bushehr province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Ramavandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: School, as a reliable place in student's education, has an important role in training. If health principles do not comply with in schools, students may be suffering from infectious diseases. Health trainer can be effective in improving school health. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of health trainer on environmental health level of schools in Bushehr province. Material and Methods This study was a descriptive - analytic study. A total of 20 samples were selected from each of the elementary schools have and not have health trainer using the method of stratified random sampling in the Bushehr province in the year 91-92. Data collected by researcher direct observation and using an assessment form of school environmental health contains 30 questions in 9 different sections. The statistical method used to analyze and test questions in this study were the chi square and Fisher exact test. Results: Based on findings of this research, between the environment health situation in schools with and without health trainer in 19 cases of health variables the significant difference was observed. The statistical analysis showed significant differences between health status of toilets (p<0.005, drinking water taps and buffet (p<0.001, yard and corridors (p<0.01, and solid waste disposal (p<0.025 in schools with and without health trainer in the year 91-92. Conclusion: Overall, the results indicate that the presence of health trainers in schools can lead to improved health status of the school. The schools without health trainer had very poor health status this issue required further try of concerned authorities to employee health trainers in schools.

  15. The insertion of the environmental health surveillance in the unified health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilo Baltazar Barreira Filho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of environmental monitoring activities in the Unified Health System (SUS shows some characteristics that differentiate it from the practice of epidemiological surveillance. This occurs mainly because much data on exposure to environmental factors is obtained outside the health sector and the adoption of actions that seek to control and/or prevent requires, in most cases, an intra andintersectoral understanding and articulation, since the health sector is not able, by itself, to provide answers to environmental health issues.In recent years, there has been an increasingly consolidation of the field of environmental health, which includes the area of public health, accustomed to scientific knowledge, to the formulation of public policies and the corresponding interventions (actions related to the interaction between human health and both natural and anthropic environmental factors, which determine, modulate and influence such interaction, in order to improve the quality of human life from the point of view of sustainability(1.As agreed at the Ist Seminar of the National Environmental Health, held in October 2005 and consolidated in the first National Conference on Environmental Health, held in December 2009, it is understood as an area of intersectoral and interdisciplinarypractice focused on the outcomes, in human health, of ecogeossocialrelations between man and environment(1.Accordingly, the Ministry of Health has been implementing, throughout the country, a Surveillance System in Environmental Health (SINVISA, seeking the improvement of this “model” of activities, establishing expertise into the three levels of government, aiming to consolidate the practice of Environmental Health within the SUS.Normative Instruction No. 1, March 7, 2005, creates SINVISA, establishes the area of action, the scope of the three levels of management within SUS and defines the Environmental Health Surveillance as a set of actions and services

  16. Information for Government Agencies about Specific Environmental Health Issues in Child-Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    research on child care environmental health issues, identify key state and regional healthy child care organizations for partnerships, and see how other states are addressing child care environmental health issues.

  17. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Joanne P.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Chamness, Mickie A.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Kennedy, Ellen P.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Scott, Michael J.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2007-09-27

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site for the many environmental documents being prepared by DOE contractors concerning the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). No statements regarding significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year’s report is the eighteen revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the nineteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. Two chapters are included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6), numbered to correspond to chapters typically presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology; air quality; geology; hydrology; ecology; cultural, archaeological, and historical resources; socioeconomics; noise; and occupational health and safety. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. When possible, subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, for the 100, 200, 300 and other areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities. Information in Chapter 6 can be adapted and supplemented with

  18. Environmental Health: Children׳s Health, a Clinician׳s Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClafferty, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    Few pediatricians receive training in environmental health, yet accumulating research shows that a disproportionate burden of exposure from environmental toxicants (man-made contaminants) is borne by children, adolescents, and the developing fetus. This is explained in part because of children׳s vulnerability to environmental-toxicants based on socioeconomic status, body surface area, metabolism, and potential transfers via placenta and breast milk. Public concern about toxicants affecting children in air, land, water, food, and beverages places pediatricians in the challenging position of being expected to knowledgably answer questions about environmental exposures while lacking sufficient training in the field. Surveys show pediatricians have high interest in environmental topics, yet feel a low sense of self-efficacy regarding patient education and lack evidence-based treatment guidelines and other effective educational tools. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of selected toxicants relevant to pediatric health, review practical suggestions to reduce or eliminate children's exposures, and introduce resources for taking an environmental health history to better prepare pediatricians and other clinicians caring for children to decrease harmful exposures in infants, children, and adolescents.

  19. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. [ed.; Baker, D.A.; Chamness, M.A. [and others

    1994-08-01

    This sixth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Site-related NEPA documentation. Chapter 4.0 summarizes up-to-date information on climate and meteorology, geology and hydrology, ecology, history and archaeology, socioeconomics, land use, and noise levels prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. More detailed data are available from reference sources cited or from the authors; Chapter 5.0 has been significantly updated from the fifth revision. It describes models, including their principal underlying assumptions, that are to be used in simulating realized or potential impacts from nuclear materials at the Hanford Site. Included are models of radionuclide transport in groundwater and atmospheric pathways, and of radiation dose to populations via all known pathways from known initial conditions; The updated Chapter 6.0 provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE orders and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site, following the structure of Chapter 4.0. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be utilized directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the Hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  20. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A. [and others

    1996-08-01

    This eighth revision of the Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization presents current environmental data regarding the Hanford Site and its immediate environs. This information is intended for use in preparing Chapters 4 and 6 in Hanford Site-related NEPA documents. Chapter 4 (Affected Environment) includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, historical, archaeological and cultural resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) provides the preparer with the federal and state regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. The following sections were updated in this revision: climate and meteorology; ecology (threatened and endangered species section only); historical; archaeological and cultural resources; and all of chapter 6. No conclusions or recommendations are given in this report. Rather, it is a compilation of information on the Hanford Site environment that can be used directly by Site contractors. This information can also be used by any interested individual seeking baseline data on the hanford Site and its past activities by which to evaluate projected activities and their impacts.

  1. Mapping cumulative environmental effects, social vulnerability, and health in the San Joaquin Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ganlin; London, Jonathan

    2012-05-01

    To understand the social distribution of environmental hazards, methods to assess cumulative effects and their health implications are needed. We developed a cumulative environmental hazard index integrating environmental data on pollution sites, air quality, and pesticide use; a social vulnerability index to measure residents' resources to prevent or mitigate health effects; and a health index. We found that communities in California's San Joaquin Valley with high social vulnerability face more environmental burdens and have worse health conditions.

  2. Program director`s report for the Office of Health and Environmental Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    LBNL performs basic and applied research and develops technologies in support of the Department of Energy Office of Health and Environmental Research`s mission to explore and mitigate the long-term health and environmental consequences of energy use and to advance solutions to major medical challenges. The ability of the Laboratory to engage in this mission depends upon the strength of its core competencies. In addition, there are several key capabilities that are crosscutting, or underlie, many of the core competencies. They are: bioscience and biotechnology; environmental assessment and remediation; advanced detector systems; materials characterization and synthesis; chemical dynamics, catalysis, and surface science; advanced technologies for energy supply and energy efficiency; particle and photon beams; national research facilities; computation and information management; engineering design and fabrication technologies; and education of future scientists and engineers. Research in progress and major accomplishments are summarized for projects in analytical technology; environmental research; health effects; molecular carcinogenesis; general life sciences; human genome project; medical applications; and imaging of E-binding proteins.

  3. The effects of urban green space on environmental health equity and resilience to extreme weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Exposure to environmental hazards and beneficial factors varies with income and other socioeconomic and demographic factors. The resulting environmental inequalities have direct and indirect impacts on health and wellbeing. Many environmental inequalities relate to n...

  4. Epidemiology and health-environment relationship: reflections on environmental change, sustainable development and population health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M. Montoya

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents a discussion on current environmental problems and their relationship to the health of populations. The limitations of the model of economic and social development are analyzed focusing on the augmentation of the capital and the industrial production and its negative impact on natural resources, the balance of ecosystems and human vulnerability. The methodological basics and the developments in environmental epidemiological approach are exposed analyzing their main potential application. Finally, options for solutions are formulated linking them to the premises of sustainable development and environmental justice. The responsibility of the academic environment is pointed out in the training of human and scientific resources in the field of environmental epidemiology, as well as the role of the community in terms of environmental awareness and active participation from a point of view that becomes critical, responsible and capable of defining proposals to make part of the solution.

  5. Addressing Human Variability in Next-Generation Human Health Risk Assessments of Environmental Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, Frederic Y.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Hattis, Dale; Rusyn, Ivan; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Characterizing variability in the extent and nature of responses to environmental exposures is a critical aspect of human health risk assessment. Objective: Our goal was to explore how next-generation human health risk assessments may better characterize variability in the context of the conceptual framework for the source-to-outcome continuum. Methods: This review was informed by a National Research Council workshop titled “Biological Factors that Underlie Individual Susceptibility to Environmental Stressors and Their Implications for Decision-Making.” We considered current experimental and in silico approaches, and emerging data streams (such as genetically defined human cells lines, genetically diverse rodent models, human omic profiling, and genome-wide association studies) that are providing new types of information and models relevant for assessing interindividual variability for application to human health risk assessments of environmental chemicals. Discussion: One challenge for characterizing variability is the wide range of sources of inherent biological variability (e.g., genetic and epigenetic variants) among individuals. A second challenge is that each particular pair of health outcomes and chemical exposures involves combinations of these sources, which may be further compounded by extrinsic factors (e.g., diet, psychosocial stressors, other exogenous chemical exposures). A third challenge is that different decision contexts present distinct needs regarding the identification—and extent of characterization—of interindividual variability in the human population. Conclusions: Despite these inherent challenges, opportunities exist to incorporate evidence from emerging data streams for addressing interindividual variability in a range of decision-making contexts. PMID:23086705

  6. 76 FR 6146 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Advisory Environmental Health Sciences. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. Date: February 16-17, 2011....

  7. 77 FR 3480 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below... Environmental Health Sciences Council. Date: February 15-16, 2012. Time: February 15, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to 2...

  8. Environmental and health impacts of artificial turf: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan; Reinhard, Martin

    2014-02-18

    With significant water savings and low maintenance requirements, artificial turf is increasingly promoted as a replacement for natural grass on athletic fields and lawns. However, there remains the question of whether it is an environmentally friendly alternative to natural grass. The major concerns stem from the infill material that is typically derived from scrap tires. Tire rubber crumb contains a range of organic contaminants and heavy metals that can volatilize into the air and/or leach into the percolating rainwater, thereby posing a potential risk to the environment and human health. A limited number of studies have shown that the concentrations of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in the air above artificial turf fields were typically not higher than the local background, while the concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants in the field drainages were generally below the respective regulatory limits. Health risk assessment studies suggested that users of artificial turf fields, even professional athletes, were not exposed to elevated risks. Preliminary life cycle assessment suggested that the environmental impacts of artificial turf fields were lower than equivalent grass fields. Areas that need further research to better understand and mitigate the potential negative environmental impacts of artificial turf are identified.

  9. Proceedings of the symposium on potential health and environmental effects of synthetic fossil fuel technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    This symposium included five sessions. Session I dealt with the technology for contending with harmful effluents primarily from coal conversion processes. Session II was designed to address the need for the systematic application of existing capabilities to the collection and characterization of materials of importance to the life scientists. Session III had the underlying theme of the health effects research - biologists, chemists, and technologists working together to confront the problems of the emerging industries. Session IV provided the most recent data in the areas of atmospheric, solid, and liquid releases. Session V dealt with effects on humans and on those people who may potentially be affected by the toxic material that they produce. In summary, the sessions were: technology, chemical, characterization, biological effects, environmental and ecological effects and occupational health effects. 29 pages were included.

  10. Health and environmental impact of mercury: Past and present experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A. T. F.; Cortes-Maramba, N. P.; Akagi, H.

    2003-05-01

    Mercury exists in various forms including metallic mercury, inorganie and organic mercury compounds. Research studies show that contamination brought about by natural and man-made activities is clearly a growing problem today. In 1956, the first recognized poisoning outbreaks occurred. Minamata Disease is a disorder of the central nervous system caused by the consumption of fish and shellfish contaminated with methylmercury. Clinical manifestation differs from inorganic mercury poisoning in which the kidneys and the renal system are damaged. The toxidrome consists of sensory disorders in the distal portion of the four extremities, cerebral ataxia, bilateral concentric constriction of the visual field. central disorder of ocular movement, central hearing impairment and disequilibrium. Fetal type Minamata Disease bom of mothers being exposed to methylmercury during pregnancy resulted in conditions similar to those associated with “infantile cerebral palsy" were also documented. Measures to control environmental pollution were implemented such as the environmental restoration project, compensation and relief of victims as part of the health and environmental management undertaken by the government. At present, global research studies are focusing on long-term and low-dose inorganic and methyl mercury exposure; and developmental neurobehavioral toxicity including relevant environmental factors influencing mercury transformations, mass balances and partitioning in ecosystems.

  11. Characterization Techniques for Aggregated Nanomaterials in Biological and Environmental Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seongho

    Nanoparticles, which are defined as objects with characteristic lengths in the 10--9 -- 10--7 m (nanoscale) size range, are used with increasing frequency in a wide of applications, leading to increases in nanomaterial interactions with biological and environmental systems. There is therefore considerable interest in studying the influence nanomaterials can have when inside the human body or dispersed in the ambient environment. However, nanoparticles persist as homo aggregates or heterogeneous mixtures with organic matters, such as proteins, in biological and environmental systems. A large and growing body of research confirm that nanomaterial morphology as well as the degree of aggregation between nanomaterials influences nanomaterial interactions with their surroundings. Specifically, the structures/morphologies of nanoparticles determine their overall surface areas and corresponding surface reactivity (e.g. their catalytic activity). Nanoparticle transport properties (e.g. diffusion coefficient and extent of cellular uptake) are also determined by both their structures and surface properties. Unfortunately, techniques to characterize nanomaterial size and shape quantitatively, when nanomaterials have complex geometries or persist as aggregates, are lacking. Hydrodynamic sizes of nanoparticles and their aggregates can be inferred by dynamic light scattering (DLS) or nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). However, since these techniques are relied on the scattering light intensity properties, sizes of polydisperse sub 30 nm particles cannot be effectively measured in those techniques. For structure inference of aggregated nanomaterials, microscopy images have been used for qualitative visual analysis, but the quantitative morphology analysis technique is yet to be developed. Five studies in this dissertation are hence aimed to develop new techniques to provide improved morphology characterization of aggregated nanomaterials in various biological and environmental

  12. Synthesis and characterization of environmentally friendly fluorescent particle tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Porfiri, Maurizio; Rapiti, Emiliano; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2013-04-01

    Tracers are widely used in experimental fluid mechanics and hydrology to investigate complex flows and water cycle processes. Commonly used tracers include dyes, artificial tracers, naturally occurring isotopes and chemicals, microorganisms, and DNA-based systems. Tracers should be characterized by low detection limits and high accuracy in following water paths and flow structures. For natural studies, tracers are also expected to be nontoxic and with low sorption affinity to natural substrates to minimize losses in the environment. In this context, while isotopes are completely natural, their use in field studies is limited by their ubiquity and, therefore, by the high uncertainty in data processing methodologies. Further, the use of dyes and artificial tracers can be hampered by extremely low detection limits due to dilution in natural streams and microorganisms, while DNA-based system may require physical sampling and time-consuming functionalization and detection procedures. In this work, we present the synthesis and characterization of fluorescent beads incorporating an eco-compatible fluorophore for environmental and laboratory applications. The particles are synthesized from natural beeswax through an inexpensive thermal procedure and can be engineered to present variable densities and diameters. A thorough characterization of their surface morphology at the nanoscale, crystal structure and size, chemical composition, and dye incorporation into the beeswax matrix is described by using a wide array of microscopy techniques. In addition, the particle fluorescence response is studied by performing excitation and emission scans on melted beeswax bead samples. The feasibility of using the synthesized particles in environmental settings is assessed through the design of ad-hoc weathering agent experiments where the beads are exposed to high energy radiation and hot water. Further, a proof of concept test is described to understand the particles' potential as a

  13. Destruction of the World Trade Center Towers. Lessons Learned from an Environmental Health Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibman, Joan; Levy-Carrick, Nomi; Miles, Terry; Flynn, Kimberly; Hughes, Catherine; Crane, Michael; Lucchini, Roberto G

    2016-05-01

    The assault and subsequent collapse of the World Trade Center towers in New York City on September 11, 2001 (9/11), released more than a million tons of debris and dust into the surrounding area, engulfing rescue workers as they rushed to aid those who worked in the towers, and the thousands of nearby civilians and children who were forced to flee. In December 2015, almost 15 years after the attack, and 5 years after first enactment, Congress reauthorized the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act, a law designed to respond to the adverse health effects of the disaster. This reauthorization affords an opportunity to review human inhalation exposure science in relation to the World Trade Center collapse. In this Special Article, we compile observations regarding the collective medical response to the environmental health disaster with a focus on efforts to address the adverse health effects experienced by nearby community members including local residents and workers. We also analyze approaches to understanding the potential for health risk, characterization of hazardous materials, identification of populations at risk, and shortfalls in the medical response on behalf of the local community. Our overarching goal is to communicate lessons learned from the World Trade Center experience that may be applicable to communities affected by future environmental health disasters. The World Trade Center story demonstrates that communities lacking advocacy and preexisting health infrastructures are uniquely vulnerable to health disasters. Medical and public health personnel need to compensate for these vulnerabilities to mitigate long-term illness and suffering.

  14. Child labor and environmental health: government obligations and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Joseph J; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm.

  15. Child Labor and Environmental Health: Government Obligations and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Joseph J.; Buchanan, Jane; Cohen, Jane; Kippenberg, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and environmental hazards pose significant risks. Drawing upon recent human rights investigations of child labor in tobacco farming in Kazakhstan and gold mining in Mali, the role of international human rights mechanisms, advocacy with government and private sector officials, and media attention in reducing harmful environmental exposures of child workers is discussed. Human rights-based advocacy in both cases was important to raise attention and help ensure that children are protected from harm. PMID:23316246

  16. Lay perceptions of health and environmental inequalities and their associations to mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Lima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health inequalities are very well documented in epidemiological research: rich people live longer and have fewer diseases than poor people. Recently, a growing amount of evidence from environmental sciences confirms that poor people are also more exposed to pollution and other environmental threats. However, research in the social sciences has shown a broad lack of awareness about health inequalities. In this paper, based on data collected in Portugal, we will analyze the consciousness of both health and environmental injustices and test one hypothesis for this social blindness. The results show, even more clearly than before, that public opinion tends to see rich and poor people as being equally susceptible to health and environmental events. Furthermore, those who have this equal view of the world present lower levels of depression and anxiety. Following cognitive adaptation theory, this “belief in an equal world” can be interpreted as a protective positive illusion about social justice, particularly relevant in one of the most unequal countries in Europe.

  17. Alternative Testing Methods for Predicting Health Risk from Environmental Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Colacci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to animal testing are considered as promising tools to support the prediction of toxicological risks from environmental exposure. Among the alternative testing methods, the cell transformation assay (CTA appears to be one of the most appropriate approaches to predict the carcinogenic properties of single chemicals, complex mixtures and environmental pollutants. The BALB/c 3T3 CTA shows a good degree of concordance with the in vivo rodent carcinogenesis tests. Whole-genome transcriptomic profiling is performed to identify genes that are transcriptionally regulated by different kinds of exposures. Its use in cell models representative of target organs may help in understanding the mode of action and predicting the risk for human health. Aiming at associating the environmental exposure to health-adverse outcomes, we used an integrated approach including the 3T3 CTA and transcriptomics on target cells, in order to evaluate the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM on toxicological complex endpoints. Organic extracts obtained from PM2.5 and PM1 samples were evaluated in the 3T3 CTA in order to identify effects possibly associated with different aerodynamic diameters or airborne chemical components. The effects of the PM2.5 extracts on human health were assessed by using whole-genome 44 K oligo-microarray slides. Statistical analysis by GeneSpring GX identified genes whose expression was modulated in response to the cell treatment. Then, modulated genes were associated with pathways, biological processes and diseases through an extensive biological analysis. Data derived from in vitro methods and omics techniques could be valuable for monitoring the exposure to toxicants, understanding the modes of action via exposure-associated gene expression patterns and to highlight the role of genes in key events related to adversity.

  18. Health, safety and environmental aspects of used crankcase lubricating oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewstone, R K

    1994-12-01

    This paper indicates the health, safety and environmental concerns which have been expressed regarding the handling, re-use and disposal of used crankcase lubricating oils and discusses the factors which are believed to these concerns. It also indicates the current and developing situation with regard to legislation in this area, discusses briefly the disposal of used oils in cement kilns and sets out the views of the industry sectors most involved. Finally, it describes the simple safeguards the adoption of which should enable these materials to be handled with a high degree of safety.

  19. 77 FR 74198 - National Institute Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute Environmental Health Sciences Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The... Health Sciences Council. Date: February 20, 2013. Open: 8:30 a.m. to 4:35 p.m. Agenda: Discussion...

  20. 75 FR 49500 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The... Health Sciences Council. Date: September 1-2, 2010. Open: September 1, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m....

  1. 78 FR 18359 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (919) 541-0752,...

  2. 78 FR 48695 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The... Health Sciences Council. Date: September 10, 2013. Open: 8:30 a.m. to 3:15 p.m. Agenda: Discussion...

  3. 76 FR 71046 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615/3112, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (919....894, Resources and Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113,...

  4. 75 FR 3474 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The... Health Sciences Council. Date: February 18-19, 2010. Open: February 18, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m....

  5. 76 FR 80954 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice.../ . Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W... Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615/3112, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709,...

  6. 75 FR 45133 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis... Health Science, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30/Room 3170 B, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (919)...

  7. 77 FR 18252 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The... Health Sciences Council. Date: May 22-23, 2012. Open: May 22, 2012, 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m....

  8. 78 FR 64516 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences... Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, October 10, 2013, 12:30 p.m. to October 10, 2013, 5:00...

  9. 78 FR 32259 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences... Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, July 15, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to July 15, 2013, 5:00...

  10. 77 FR 48164 - National Institute Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The... Health Sciences Council. Date: September 11, 2012. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. Agenda: Discussion...

  11. 78 FR 20931 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The... Health Sciences Council. Date: May 14-15, 2013. ] Open: May 14, 2013, 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m....

  12. 78 FR 29374 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Amended; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Amended... Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, June 6, 2013, 08:00 a.m. to June 6, 2013, 05:00...

  13. 76 FR 5594 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. The... Health Sciences Council. Date: February 16-17, 2011. Open: February 16, 2011, 8:30 a.m. to 2:45...

  14. Environmental health: present and future. A view from the Basque Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Cambra Contín

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The field of the Environmental Health is defined as the actions related to environmental risk factors, on a community level, aimed at primary prevention, in which human populations are involved. Some key issues are addressed in connection with the Environmental Health in the future. It is needed further clarification of the functions of the environmental health services, and teamwork promotion. Besides, actions to carry out must be pertinent and useful, for which they have to be based on health planning and the use of suitable methodologies. Finally, a summary of the environmental health organisation in the Basque Country is given.

  15. Medicine 'misuse': Implications for health and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Felicity; Depledge, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Recent decades have witnessed a global rise in the use of medical pharmaceuticals to combat disease. However, estimates suggest that over half of all medicines are prescribed, dispensed or sold inappropriately, and that half of all patients fail to take them as directed. Bringing together research from across the medical, natural and social sciences, this paper considers what we know about the causes, impacts and implications of medicine misuse in relation to health, the sustainable use of pharmaceuticals and their unintended effects in the environment. We suggest that greater insight and understanding of medicine misuse can be gained by integrating the biomedical-focused approaches used in public health with approaches that consider the social and environmental determinants of medical prescribing and consuming practices.

  16. Characterization of Encapsulated Corrosion Inhibitors for Environmentally Friendly Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, B. P.; Calle, L. M.; Zhang, X.; Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Johnsey, M. N.; Montgomery, E. L.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Surma, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center's Corrosion Technology Lab at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, U.S.A. has been developing multifunctional smart coatings based on the microencapsulation of environmentally friendly corrosion indicators, inhibitors and self-healing agents. This allows the incorporation of autonomous corrosion control functionalities, such as corrosion detection and inhibition as well as the self-healing of mechanical damage, into coatings. This paper presents technical details on the characterization of inhibitor-containing particles and their corrosion inhibitive effects using electrochemical and mass loss methods. Three organic environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated in organic microparticles that are compatible with desired coatings. The release of the inhibitors from the microparticles in basic solution was studied. Fast release, for immediate corrosion protection, as well as long-term release for continued protection, was observed. The inhibition efficacy of the inhibitors, incorporated directly and in microparticles, on carbon steel was evaluated. Polarization curves and mass loss measurements showed that, in the case of 2MBT, its corrosion inhibition effectiveness was greater when it was delivered from microparticles.

  17. Transcriptome characterization of Ishige okamurae (Phaeophyceae) shows strong environmental acclimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Jieqiong; WANG Xumin; CHI Shan; WU Shuangxiu; SUN Jing; LIU Cui; CHEN Shengping; YU Jun; LIU Tao

    2014-01-01

    Ishige okamurae, with leathery branched narrow fronds consisting of cylindrical hairs, is the typical species of the genus Ishige, which is considered as one of the most basal genera in the phylogeny of the Phaeophy-ceae. Apart from great public interest from the evolutionary respect, more attention has been brought on the abundant bioactive compounds in I. okamurae for therapeutic or economic considerations, such as di-phlorethohydroxycarmalol and ishigoside. Yet little is known about related key genes or metabolic pathways involved in I. okamurae, which calls upon us to carry out global analyses of transcriptome by next generation sequencing. Altogether, we obtained 78 583 assembled scaffolds with N50 of 1 709 nucleotides, and 25 357 unigenes with significant BLAST matches (E-value cutoff of 10-5). In terms of characterization of the tran-scriptome of I. okamurae, we focused on anti-stress metabolic pathways and synthetic routes of bioactive compounds in an attempt to obtain a better understanding of the interactive organism-environment regula-tory networks. Pathway-based analysis helped us to deepen our comprehension of the interaction between I. okamurae and its surroundings, with MAPK signal pathway as an example. Furthermore, we discovered a wide range of novel putative functional proteins that could be of wide application, such as Rab family, using sequence-based transcriptome. In conclusion, transcriptome characterization of I. okamurae (Phaeophy-ceae) shows strong environmental acclimation.

  18. A taxonomy characterizing complexity of consumer eHealth Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Connie V; Matthews, Lisa A; Kaufman, David R

    2009-11-14

    There are a range of barriers precluding patients from fully engaging in and benefiting from the spectrum of eHealth interventions developed to support patient access to health information, disease self-management efforts, and patient-provider communication. Consumers with low eHealth literacy skills often stand to gain the greatest benefit from the use of eHealth tools. eHealth skills are comprised of reading/writing/numeracy skills, health literacy, computer literacy, information literacy, media literacy, and scientific literacy [1]. We aim to develop an approach to characterize dimensions of complexity and to reveal knowledge and skill-related barriers to eHealth engagement. We use Bloom's Taxonomy to guide development of an eHealth literacy taxonomy that categorizes and describes each type of literacy by complexity level. Illustrative examples demonstrate the utility of the taxonomy in characterizing dimensions of complexity of eHealth skills used and associated with each step in completing an eHealth task.

  19. [Earthquakes--a historical review, environmental and health effects, and health care measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Žuškin, Eugenija; Kratohvil, Mladen

    2013-06-01

    Earthquakes are natural disasters that can occur at any time, regardless of the location. Their frequency is higher in the Circum-Pacific and Mediterranean/Trans-Asian seismic belt. A number of sophisticated methods define their magnitude using the Richter scale and intensity using the Mercani-Cancani-Sieberg scale. Recorded data show a number of devastating earthquakes that have killed many people and changed the environment dramatically. Croatia is located in a seismically active area, which has endured a series of historical earthquakes, among which several occurred in the Zagreb area. The consequences of an earthquake depend mostly on the population density and seismic resistance of buildings in the affected area. Environmental consequences often include air, water, and soil pollution. The effects of this kind of pollution can have long-term health effects. The most dramatic health consequences result from the demolition of buildings. Therefore, quick and efficient aid depends on well-organized health professionals as well as on the readiness of the civil defence, fire department, and Mountain Rescue Service members. Good coordination among these services can save many lives Public health interventions must include effective control measures in the environment as secondary prevention methods for health problems caused by unfavourable environmental factors. The identification and control of long-term hazards can reduce chronic health effects. The reduction of earthquake-induced damages includes setting priorities in building seismically safe buildings.

  20. Scientific integrity: critical issues in environmental health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlo Domenico

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental health research is a relatively new scientific area with much interdisciplinary collaboration. Regardless of which human population is included in field studies (e.g., general population, working population, children, elderly, vulnerable sub-groups, etc. their conduct must guarantee well acknowledged ethical principles. These principles, along with codes of conduct, are aimed at protecting study participants from research-related undesired effects and guarantee research integrity. A central role is attributed to the need for informing potential participants (i.e., recruited subjects who may be enrolled in a study, obtaining their written informed consent to participate, and making them aware of their right to refuse to participate at any time and for any reason. Data protection is also required and communication of study findings must respect participant's willingness to know or not know. This is specifically relevant for studies including biological markers and/or storing biological samples that might be analysed years later to tackle research objectives that were specified and communicated to participants at the time of recruitment or that may be formulated after consent was obtained. Integrity is central to environmental health research searching for causal relations. It requires open communication and trust and any violation (i.e., research misconduct, including fabrication or falsification of data, plagiarism, conflicting interests, etc. may endanger the societal trust in the research community as well as jeopardize participation rates in field projects.

  1. Scientific integrity: critical issues in environmental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Domenico Franco; Vahakangas, Kirsi; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2008-06-05

    Environmental health research is a relatively new scientific area with much interdisciplinary collaboration. Regardless of which human population is included in field studies (e.g., general population, working population, children, elderly, vulnerable sub-groups, etc.) their conduct must guarantee well acknowledged ethical principles. These principles, along with codes of conduct, are aimed at protecting study participants from research-related undesired effects and guarantee research integrity. A central role is attributed to the need for informing potential participants (i.e., recruited subjects who may be enrolled in a study), obtaining their written informed consent to participate, and making them aware of their right to refuse to participate at any time and for any reason. Data protection is also required and communication of study findings must respect participant's willingness to know or not know. This is specifically relevant for studies including biological markers and/or storing biological samples that might be analysed years later to tackle research objectives that were specified and communicated to participants at the time of recruitment or that may be formulated after consent was obtained.Integrity is central to environmental health research searching for causal relations. It requires open communication and trust and any violation (i.e., research misconduct, including fabrication or falsification of data, plagiarism, conflicting interests, etc.) may endanger the societal trust in the research community as well as jeopardize participation rates in field projects.

  2. Global health and development: conceptualizing health between economic growth and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowy, Iris

    2013-07-01

    After World War II, health was firmly integrated into the discourse about national development. Transition theories portrayed health improvements as part of an overall development pattern based on economic growth as modeled by the recent history of industrialization in high-income countries. In the 1970s, an increasing awareness of the environmental degradation caused by industrialization challenged the conventional model of development. Gradually, it became clear that health improvements depended on poverty-reduction strategies including industrialization. Industrialization, in turn, risked aggravating environmental degradation with its negative effects on public health. Thus, public health in low-income countries threatened to suffer from lack of economic development as well as from the results of global economic development. Similarly, demands of developing countries risked being trapped between calls for global wealth redistribution, a political impossibility, and calls for unrestricted material development, which, in a world of finite land, water, air, energy, and resources, increasingly looked like a physical impossibility, too. Various international bodies, including the WHO, the Brundtland Commission, and the World Bank, tried to capture the problem and solution strategies in development theories. Broadly conceived, two models have emerged: a "localist model," which analyzes national health data and advocates growth policies with a strong focus on poverty reduction, and a "globalist" model, based on global health data, which calls for growth optimization, rather than maximization. Both models have focused on different types of health burdens and have received support from different institutions. In a nutshell, the health discourse epitomized a larger controversy regarding competing visions of development.

  3. Utility of MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth for Estimating PM2.5 Exposure in Environmental Public Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Limaye, Ashutosh; Rickman, Doug; Quattrochi, Dale; Estes, Maury; Adeniyi, Kafayat; Qualters, Judith; Niskar, Amanda Sue

    2006-01-01

    As part of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (EPHTN) the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is leading a project called Health and Environment Linked for Information Exchange (HELIX-Atlanta). The goal of developing the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is to improve the health of communities. Currently, few systems exist at the state or national level to concurrently track many of the exposures and health effects that might be associated with environmental hazards. An additional challenge is estimating exposure to environmental hazards such as particulate matter whose aerodynamic diameter is less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM(2.5)) HELIX-Atlanta's goal is to examine the feasibility of building an integrated electronic health and environmental data network in five counties of Metropolitan Atlanta, GA (Clayton, Cobb, DeKalb, Fulton, and Gwinnett counties). Under HELIX-Atlanta, pilot projects are being conducted to develop methods to characterize exposure; link health and environmental data; analyze the relationship between health and environmental factors; and communicate findings. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) is collaborating with CDC to combine NASA earth science satellite observations related to air quality and environmental monitoring data to model surface estimates of PM(2.5) concentrations that can be linked with clinic visits for asthma. From 1999-2000 there were over 9,400 hospitalizations per year in Georgia with asthma as the primary diagnosis. The majority of these hospitalizations occurred in medical facilities in the five most populous Metro-Atlanta counties. Hospital charges resulting from asthma in Georgia are approximately $59 million dollars annually. There is evidence in the research literature that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to environmental factors

  4. Structural Health Monitoring under Nonlinear Environmental or Operational Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Kullaa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration-based structural health monitoring is based on detecting changes in the dynamic characteristics of the structure. It is well known that environmental or operational variations can also have an influence on the vibration properties. If these effects are not taken into account, they can result in false indications of damage. If the environmental or operational variations cause nonlinear effects, they can be compensated using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM without the measurement of the underlying variables. The number of Gaussian components can also be estimated. For the local linear components, minimum mean square error (MMSE estimation is applied to eliminate the environmental or operational influences. Damage is detected from the residuals after applying principal component analysis (PCA. Control charts are used for novelty detection. The proposed approach is validated using simulated data and the identified lowest natural frequencies of the Z24 Bridge under temperature variation. Nonlinear models are most effective if the data dimensionality is low. On the other hand, linear models often outperform nonlinear models for high-dimensional data.

  5. The restructuring of the health resources devoted to the environmental health in the Community of Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ordóñez Iriarte

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Health, in its broadest sense, wich includes what is administratively meant Environmental Health and Food Hygiene, was traditionally performed by the Titular Chemists, Dictors and Veterinary Surgeons who perforrmed their duties within the limits of the Partidos (Areas or districts within the jurisdiction of a Court. Upon this structures, created in 1953, different technical and political events have been influencing for years, making their restructuring necessary in order to be able to answer the whole of the problems that worry the Public Health.This work tries to describe the model of Chemist and Veterinary Services restructuring carried out within the Community of Madrid, to analyze this model, and to propose a model of restructuring of this Services that can be a paradigm for thouse Communities that have not undertaken the same process yet.The methodology we have used is the analysis of the situation before and after the Chemist and Veterinary Services restructuring carried out by means of two different Orders of the Community of Madrid.“Partido” structures have become obsolete, so the restructuring of resources is a necessity. The approach of this restructuring must be done far from any corporativist tamptation and considerating the possibility of incorporating other professionals different from the traditional ones in view of the increasing complexity of the problems of Environmental Health.

  6. Environmental contaminants and human health in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, S G; Van Oostdam, J; Tikhonov, C; Feeley, M; Armstrong, B; Ayotte, P; Boucher, O; Bowers, W; Chan, L; Dallaire, F; Dallaire, R; Dewailly, E; Edwards, J; Egeland, G M; Fontaine, J; Furgal, C; Leech, T; Loring, E; Muckle, G; Nancarrow, T; Pereg, D; Plusquellec, P; Potyrala, M; Receveur, O; Shearer, R G

    2010-10-15

    The third Canadian Arctic Human Health Assessment conducted under the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), in association with the circumpolar Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), addresses concerns about possible adverse health effects in individuals exposed to environmental contaminants through a diet containing country foods. The objectives here are to: 1) provide data on changes in human contaminant concentrations and exposure among Canadian Arctic peoples; 2) identify new contaminants of concern; 3) discuss possible health effects; 4) outline risk communication about contaminants in country food; and 5) identify knowledge gaps for future contaminant research and monitoring. The nutritional and cultural benefits of country foods are substantial; however, some dietary studies suggest declines in the amount of country foods being consumed. Significant declines were found for most contaminants in maternal blood over the last 10 years within all three Arctic regions studied. Inuit continue to have the highest levels of almost all persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals among the ethnic groups studied. A greater proportion of people in the East exceed Health Canada's guidelines for PCBs and mercury, although the proportion of mothers exceeding these guidelines has decreased since the previous assessment. Further monitoring and research are required to assess trends and health effects of emerging contaminants. Infant development studies have shown possible subtle effects of prenatal exposure to heavy metals and some POPs on immune system function and neurodevelopment. New data suggest important beneficial effects on brain development for Inuit infants from some country food nutrients. The most successful risk communication processes balance the risks and benefits of a diet of country food through input from a variety of regional experts and the community, to incorporate the many socio-cultural and economic factors to arrive at a risk

  7. Defense Health Care: DOD Needs to Clarify Policies Related to Occupational and Environmental Health Surveillance and Monitor Risk Mitigation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    and environmental health surveillance OEHSA Occupational and Environmental Health Site Assessment POEMS Periodic Occupational and...inhalation from burn pits in Iraq and Afghanistan, the Institute of Medicine was unable to determine whether long -term health effects are likely to result...Washington, D.C.: May 1, 2012). 5See Institute of Medicine for the Department of Veterans’ Affairs. Long -Term Health Consequences of Exposure to Burn

  8. Factores medioambientales, vivienda y salud Environmental factors, housing and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Iglesias García

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los factores medioambientales más importantes que influyen en la salud de las personas es la vivienda, en la que pasamos dos tercios del día.En primer lugar, se realiza una revisión bibliográfica de los condicionantes de la vivienda que influyen sobre la salud. En segundo lugar, se analiza una serie de encuestas realizadas a residentes en bloques de viviendas, de varias ciudades europeas. Por último, se establecen los determinantes de la vivienda que influyen más en la salud y calidad de vida de sus residentes y que deben tenerse en cuenta en la renovación o modernización de las viviendas.A continuación se determinan los “factores ambientales de la vivienda que influyen potencialmente sobre la salud” y que deben ser reflejados en cualquier estudio sobre vivienda y salud. Por último se enumeran una serie de conclusiones y recomendaciones.One of the most important environmental factors affecting people is housing, since we live three quarters of our lives inside them.Firstly, a bibliographical revision about conditioning factors affecting health is made. Secondly, a series of questionnaires are analysed. They are addressed to apartment houses dwellers, in different European cities. Lastly, dwelling determinants which influence the most in health and quality of life, to be taken into account in the renovation or modernization of dwellings, are established.To end up, “environmental factors of dwellings potentially influencing health” and which must be taken into consideration in any study on housing and health, are determined. Finally, a series of conclusions and recommendations are made.

  9. Hygienic environmental assessment and health of children in Penza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Korochkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the carcinogenic risk from air pollution, the chemical composition of the drinking water and the content of contaminants in food showed that the total cancer risk for both inhalation and oral routes of administering priority pollutants and contaminants into the body of Penza children and adolescents complies with the maximum permissible level. The greatest risk of non-carcinogenic impact associated with air pollution is generated in respect of the respiratory system, eyes and immune system. The maximum hazard indices associated with the consumption of drinking water, are set for blood, hormone system and kidneys. The risk of negative impacts associated with the receipt of food contaminants is observed in respect of the hematopoietic and cardiovascular systems. Application of risk assessment methodology to study the effects of chemicals polluting the environment on health has allowed to justify preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk to the health of children and adolescents, as well as increased monitoring researches of environmental objects to isolate areas of high risk to children's health.

  10. Global environmental health and sustainable development: the role at Rio+20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furie, Gregg Lawrence; Balbus, John

    2012-06-01

    The Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development represents a crucial opportunity to place environmental health at the forefront of the sustainable development agenda. Billions of people living in low- and middle-income countries continue to be afflicted by preventable diseases due to modifiable environmental exposures, causing needless suffering and perpetuating a cycle of poverty. Current processes of economic development, while alleviating many social and health problems, are increasingly linked to environmental health threats, ranging from air pollution and physical inactivity to global climate change. Sustainable development practices attempt to reduce environmental impacts and should, in theory, reduce adverse environmental health consequences compared to traditional development. Yet these efforts could also result in unintended harm and impaired economic development if the new "Green Economy" is not carefully assessed for adverse environmental and occupational health impacts. The environmental health community has an essential role to play in underscoring these relationships as international leaders gather to craft sustainable development policies.

  11. Interprofessional education for internationally educated health professionals: an environmental scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mubashir Arain,1 Esther Suter,1 Sara Mallinson,1 Shelanne L Hepp,1 Siegrid Deutschlander,1 Shyama Dilani Nanayakkara,2 Elizabeth Louise Harrison,3 Grace Mickelson,4 Lesley Bainbridge,5 Ruby E Grymonpre2 1Workforce Research & Evaluation, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB, 2College of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, 3School of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, 4Provincial Health Services Authority, Vancouver, BC, 5Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Objective: The objective of this environmental scan was to identify Western Canadian interprofessional education (IPE resources that currently exist for internationally educated health professionals (IEHPs. Methodology: A web-based search was conducted to identify learning resources meeting defined inclusion criteria with a particular focus on the resources available in the Western Canadian provinces. Information was extracted using a standardized template, and we contacted IEHP programs for additional information if necessary. Members of the research team reviewed preliminary findings, identified missing information from their respective provinces, and contacted organizations to fill in any gaps. Results: The scan identified 26 learning resources for IEHPs in Western Canadian provinces and 15 in other provinces focused on support for IEHPs to meet their profession-specific licensing requirements and to acquire knowledge and competencies relevant to working in the Canadian health care system. Most learning resources, such as those found in bridging programs for IEHPs, included an orientation to the Canadian health care system, components of cultural competence, and at least one aspect of interprofessional competence (eg, communication skills. None of the 41 learning resources provided comprehensive training for IEHPs to cover the six interprofessional competency

  12. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences: 50 Years of Advancing Science and Improving Lung Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Veena B; Redlich, Carrie A; Pinkerton, Kent E; Balmes, John; Harkema, Jack R

    2016-11-15

    The American Thoracic Society celebrates the 50th anniversary of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). The NIEHS has had enormous impact through its focus on research, training, and translational science on lung health. It has been an advocate for clean air both in the United States and across the world. The cutting-edge science funded by the NIEHS has led to major discoveries that have broadened our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment for lung disease. Importantly, the NIEHS has developed and fostered mechanisms that require cross-cutting science across the spectrum of areas of inquiry, bringing together environmental and social scientists with clinicians to bring their expertise on specific areas of investigation. The intramural program of the NIEHS nurtures cutting-edge science, and the extramural program encourages investigator-initiated research while at the same time providing broader direction through important initiatives. Under the umbrella of the NIEHS and guided by Dr. Linda Birnbaum, the director of the NIEHS, important collaborative programs, such as the Superfund Program and the National Toxicology Program, work to discover mechanisms to protect from environmental toxins. The American Thoracic Society has overlapping goals with the NIEHS, and the strategic plans of both august bodies converge to synergize on population lung health. These bonds must be tightened and highlighted as we work toward our common goals.

  13. Environmental Health Program Implementation at Public Health Center (PHC in Tuban District East Java Province (Analysis Data of National Health Fasilities Research 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugeni Sugiharto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental health program is preventive in activities to improve environmental health quality hence it is useful to improve life quality and human health and is in accord with Kepmenkes RI No 1428/2006 and this environmental health program is mandatory to perform in Puskesmas. Objective: The study was to elaboratie the difference of environmental health program implementation between urban Public Health Care (PHC and rural PHC, difference of environmental health program performance output based on environmental health staff and availability and feedback giving among PHCs. Methods: Comparative analysis through descriptive method is in form of Rifaskes 2011 table and graphic from secondary data. Population was PHC in Tuban District and it was used as total sample and PHC as analysis unit. Result: PHC in Tuban Regency had not been optimum in performing all environmental health programs. Difference between urban and rural PHCs were the urban PHC didn’t perform all kesling program while the rural PHC performed all environmental health program albeit non maximum. There was difference between sanitarian staff availability between PHCs including in reaching output and there was difference between PHCs that perform performance assessment by obtaining feedback only 9 (27% PHCs, and feedback benefit had not been influencing environmental health program performance improvement. Less than 50% PHC obtained performance “good” category on public places assessment and other environmental health program was still categorized “poor.” Conclusion: There was difference of environmental health program implementation among PHCs and sanitary staff availability that still lack and feedback benefit had not been effecting environmental health program performance improvement.

  14. 78 FR 47715 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Environmental...

  15. 77 FR 73667 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Studies to Evaluate Early Life Exposure. Date: January 17... Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (919) 541- 0752,...

  16. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Health Sciences, Special Emphasis Panel, Breast Cancer Center Review Committee. Date: March 11-12, 2010.... Institute Environmental Health Sciences, P. O. Box 12233, MD EC-30, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709,...

  17. Synthetic fuels technology overview with health and environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, E. J., Jr.; Salmon, E. J.

    1981-06-01

    An introduction is presented to the following synthetic fuels technologies: (1) the Lurgi gasification of coal; (2) the Fischer-Tropsch liquefaction of coal; (3) coal-methanol conversion; (4) donor solvent gas liquefaction; (5) Tosco surface shale retorting; ethanol production from coal; and (6) the coal-methanol-gasoline conversion process. After establishing the system characteristics of these six technologies, consideration is given to their potential major health, safety, environmental and socio-economic impacts at the global, regional and local levels. It is determined that the main global consequence of synfuels development is climate modification, to which may be added the regional impact of dry and wet deposition of gaseous and particulate pollutants, and land and water quality deterioration due to soil erosion at the local level.

  18. Environmental tobacco smoke: health policy and focus on Italian legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldi, G; Fovi De Ruggiero, G; Marsella, L T; De Luca d'Alessandro, E

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide tobacco smoking kills nearly 6 million people each year, including more than 600,000 non-smokers who die from smoke exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, also called secondhand smoke, involuntary smoke, or passive smoke) is the combination of sidestream smoke, the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and mainstream smoke, the smoke exhaled by smokers. People may be exposed to ETS in homes, cars, workplaces, and public places, such as bars, restaurants, and recreational settings. In addition, there is another type of smoke which until now has not been recognized: the so-called thirdhand smoke, that comes from the reaction of mainstream smoke and environmental nitrous acid (HNO2) making carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). The effects of ETS on human health are well-known, passive smoking is harmful to those who breathe the toxins and it is a serious problem for public health. The smoking ban in Italy had reduced ETS pollution, as in the United States and in other countries all over the world. However, the implementation of comprehensive legislation on smoking policy will necessitate other tobacco control measures for its successful fulfillment: increased media awareness, telephone smoking cessation helplines and smoking cessation support services could be an opportunity to ensure awareness, comprehension and support to those who want to quit smoking. The effectiveness of legislative efforts will also depend on successful enforcement of smoking bans and compliance with the legislation. This review summarizes the evidences about the effect of ETS and provides an overview of smoke-free laws and policies.

  19. Environmental Sanitation Crisis: More than just a health issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Harvey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The global environmental sanitation crisis cannot be denied: well over a century after the sanitary revolution in 19th century Europe, 40% of the world’s population still lacks access to improved sanitation. Important lessons from the past must be applied today if the crisis is to be averted. Sanitation has suffered from a lack of prioritization for as long as it has remained the poor relation to water supply. The International Year of Sanitation 2008 provides an opportunity to separate the two and give sanitation the emphasis it requires. The economic argument for sanitation must be articulated and non-health incentives for improved sanitation exploited. Environmental sanitation results in a multitude of socio-economic benefits and can contribute positively to all the Millennium Development Goals. Community-led bottom-up approaches, rather than supply-led or technology-driven approaches, are most effective in increasing and sustaining access to sanitation but need to be implemented at scale. Targeted strategies for urban and school sanitation are also required. Evidence-based advocacy can help develop the political will that is now needed to ensure sufficient public sector investment, leadership, legislation and regulation to ensure that the fundamental human right of access to sanitation is realized.

  20. Evolving WTO Law Concerning Health, Safety and Environmental Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Orellana

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of the World Trade Organization (WTO in 1995, the international trading system faced a new challenge: reinventing its mandate under the light of the sustainable development challenges confronting the global community in the twenty-first century. This challenge has emerged central to the identity of the WTO, since the organization is no longer simply about removing obstacles to trade, like its predecessor – the GATT, 1947. Instead, the WTO is facing the loaded question of how far it will go in scrutinizing the exercise of governmental authority of Members, in regard to internal regulatory issues that relate to trade. Facing this question has been far from easy, especially in connection with disputes concerning health, safety and environmental (HSE measures, since HSE-related disputes touch upon core environmental and human rights issues. The WTO’s Appellate Body has approached the tensions that surface in the adjudication of these disputes by engaging in a process of dialogue among the various legal regimes that bear on HSE measures. This process of normative dialogue and interpretation has allowed the WTO to overcome the GATT’s isolation by situating WTO law within the broader public international law universe. Normative dialogue has thus fundamentally transformed the evolving WTO law concerning HSE measures. This article explores the contours of this proposition, with a view to assessing the degree to which WTO law secures the quantum of policy space that governments need to realize human rights and protection of the environment.

  1. Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose

  2. Management of environmental health issues for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: is enhanced integrated environmental health surveillance needed in every day routine operation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chervoni Julia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of environmental health issues is an integral part of public health systems. An active integrated environmental health surveillance and response system was developed for the Athens Olympics to monitor and prevent exposure to environmental hazards. The potential for permanent implementation of the program was examined. Methods The environmental health surveillance and response system included standardization, computerization and electronic transmission of data concerning environmental inspections of 17 site categories (restaurants, swimming pools etc of public health interest, drinking and recreational water examinations and suggested corrective actions. The Olympic Planning Unit integrated and centrally managed data from 13 public health agencies, recommended, supervised and coordinated prompt corrective actions. Methods used to test the effectiveness of the program were the assessment of water quality test and inspection results trends over time using linear regression and epidemiological surveillance findings. Results Between January 2003 and September the 30th, 2004, 196 inspectors conducted 8562 inspections, collected 5024 water samples and recommended 17 027 corrective actions. In 10 cruise ships used as floating hotels inspectors conducted 10 full inspections, 2 re-inspections, and 27 follow-up inspections. Unsatisfactory inspection results (r = 0.44, p Conclusion Lessons learned for future events include timely implementation and installation of communication processes, and rapid and coordinated response to unsatisfactory inspection results. Routine national programs need to adopt enhanced environmental health surveillance aimed at public health decision-making, but with a different perspective.

  3. [Environmental exposure to silver and its health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyayama, Takamitsu; Arai, Yuta; Hirano, Seishiro

    2012-05-01

    Silver (Ag) possesses a well-known antibacterial activity and has been used for medical treatment and cosmetics such as wound dressing and deodorant powders. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) proposed that the permissible exposure limit (PEL) for both metallic and most soluble Ag compounds should be 0.01 mg/m3. Argyria and argyrosis are known to be caused by deposition of insoluble Ag in the dermis and cornea/conjunctiva. However, the metabolic behavior and biological roles of Ag have not been well characterized in mammals. Ag can be absorbed into the systemic circulation from drinking water, and also through parenteral routes such as inhalation and dermal exposure. Experimental studies have demonstrated that Ag+ induces and binds to metallothionein I and II (MTs), which are cysteine-rich proteins, in cells. MTs are major cytoplasmic metal binding proteins and thereby reduce cellular damage caused by toxic heavy metals including Ag. Profiles of Ag distribution in MTs and other Ag-binding proteins can be determined using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). This technique directly provides information on the intracellular behavior of Ag, which is important for elucidating the mechanism underlying Ag toxicity. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are also commercially used mainly as antimicrobial agents. Despite the widespread use of AgNPs, relatively few studies have been undertaken to evaluate the health effects of AgNP exposure. In the present paper, we discuss the absorption, toxicodynamics, and metabolism of both Ag and AgNPs in mammals and their health effects.

  4. Reviewing the environmental and human health knowledge base of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Aasgeir; Wick, Peter; Koehler, Andreas; Schmid, Kaspar; Som, Claudia

    2007-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are considered one of the most promising materials in nanotechnology, with attractive properties for many technologic applications. The different synthesis, purification, and postprocessing methods produce CNTs with different physical characteristics, which can be applied in different fields ranging from composite materials, medical applications, and electronics to energy storage. The widespread projected use of CNTs makes it important to understand their potential harmful effects. In this environmental health review we observed a remarkable range of results of some of the toxicology studies. The comparability should be improved by further standardization and introduction of reference materials. However, at present the findings of this review suggest several key points: a) there are different types of CNTs, and therefore they cannot be considered a uniform group of substances; and b) in environmental compartments, CNTs can be bioavailable to organisms. The properties of CNTs suggest a possible accumulation along the food chain and high persistence. In organisms the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity of CNTs depend on the inherent physical and chemical characteristics such as CNT functionalization, coating, length, and agglomeration state that are influenced by the external environmental conditions during CNT production, use, and disposal stages. Characterized exposure scenarios could therefore be useful when conducting toxicologic studies. However, CNTs produce a toxic response upon reaching the lungs in sufficient quantity; this reaction is produced in a time-and dose-dependent manner. The identification of possible risks to human health and environment is a prerequisite for a successful introduction of CNTs in future applications.

  5. Environmental justice and health practices: understanding how health inequities arise at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Katherine L; Abel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    While empirical evidence continues to show that people living in low socio-economic status neighbourhoods are less likely to engage in health-enhancing behaviour, our understanding of why this is so remains less than clear. We suggest that two changes could take place to move from description to understanding in this field; (i) a move away from the established concept of individual health behaviour to a contextualised understanding of health practices; and (ii) a switch from focusing on health inequalities in outcomes to health inequities in conditions. We apply Pierre Bourdieu's theory on capital interaction but find it insufficient with regard to the role of agency for structural change. We therefore introduce Amartya Sen's capability approach as a useful link between capital interaction theory and action to reduce social inequities in health-related practices. Sen's capability theory also elucidates the importance of discussing unequal chances in terms of inequity, rather than inequality, in order to underscore the moral nature of inequalities. We draw on the discussion in social geography on environmental injustice, which also underscores the moral nature of the spatial distribution of opportunities. The article ends by applying this approach to the 'Interdisciplinary study of inequalities in smoking' framework.

  6. Environmental tobacco smoke and children`s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyun Hwang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Passive exposure to tobacco smoke significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in children. Children, in particular, seem to be the most susceptible population to the harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS. Paternal smoking inside the home leads to significant maternal and fetal exposure to ETS and may subsequently affect fetal health. ETS has been associated with adverse effects on pediatric health, including preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal mortality, respiratory illness, neurobehavioral problems, and decreased performance in school. A valid estimation of the risks associated with tobacco exposure depends on accurate measurement. Nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine, are commonly used as smoking biomarkers, and their levels can be determined in various biological specimens such as blood, saliva, and urine. Recently, hair analysis was found to be a convenient, noninvasive technique for detecting the presence of nicotine exposure. Because nicotine/cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, it is a unique measure of longterm, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Although smoking ban policies result in considerable reductions in ETS exposure, children are still exposed significantly to tobacco smoke not only in their homes but also in schools, restaurants, child-care settings, cars, buses, and other public places. Therefore, more effective strategies and public policies to protect preschool children from ETS should be consolidated.

  7. Health and environmental effects document on geothermal energy: 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; O' Banion, K.D.

    1981-12-04

    Several of the important health and environmental risks associated with a reference geothermal industry that produces 21,000 MW/sub e/ for 30 y (equivalent to 20 x 10/sup 18/ J) are assessed. The analyses of health effects focus on the risks associated with exposure to hydrogen sulfide, particulate sulfate, benzene, mercury, and radon in air and arsenic in water. Results indicate that emissions of hydrogen sulfide are likely to cause odor-related problems in geothermal resources areas, assuming that no pollution controls are employed. For individuals living within an 80 km radius of the geothermal resources, chronic exposure to particulate sulfate could result in between 0 to 95 premature deaths per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity generated. The mean population risk of leukemia from the inhalation of benzene was calculated to be 3 x 10/sup -2/ cases per 10/sup 18/ J. Exposure to elemental mercury in the atmosphere could produce between 0 and 8.2 cases of tremors per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity. Inhalation of radon and its short-lived daughters poses a mean population risk of 4.2 x 10/sup -1/ lung cancers per 10/sup 18/ J. Analysis of skin cancer risk from the ingestion of surface water contaminated with geothermally derived arsenic suggests that a dose-response model is inconsistent with data showing that arsenic is an essential element and that excessive body burdens do not appear even when arsenic reaches 100 ..mu..g/liter in drinking water. Estimates of occupational health effects were based on rates of accidental deaths and occupational diseases in surrogate industries. According to calculations, there would be 14 accidental deaths per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity and 340 cases of occupational diseases per 10/sup 18/ J. The analysis of the effects of noncondensing gases on vegetation showed that ambient concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide are more likely to enhance rather than inhibit the growth of plants.

  8. Health Care Utilisation and Attitudes towards Health Care in Subjects Reporting Environmental Annoyance from Electricity and Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Eek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally intolerant persons report decreased self-rated health and daily functioning. However, it remains unclear whether this condition also results in increased health care costs. The aim of this study was to describe the health care consumption and attitudes towards health care in subjects presenting subjective environmental annoyance in relation to the general population, as well as to a group with a well-known disorder as treated hypertension (HT. Methods. Postal questionnaire (n = 13 604 and record linkage with population-based register on health care costs. Results. Despite significantly lower subjective well being and health than both the general population and HT group, the environmentally annoyed subjects had lower health care costs than the hypertension group. In contrast to the hypertension group, the environmentally annoyed subjects expressed more negative attitudes toward the health care than the general population. Conclusions. Despite their impaired subjective health and functional capacity, health care utilisation costs were not much increased for the environmentally annoyed group. This may partly depend on negative attitudes towards the health care in this group.

  9. Integrating Environmental and Human Health Databases in the Great Lakes Basin: Themes, Challenges and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L. Bassil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many government, academic and research institutions collect environmental data that are relevant to understanding the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. Integrating these data with health outcome data presents new challenges that are important to consider to improve our effective use of environmental health information. Our objective was to identify the common themes related to the integration of environmental and health data, and suggest ways to address the challenges and make progress toward more effective use of data already collected, to further our understanding of environmental health associations in the Great Lakes region. Environmental and human health databases were identified and reviewed using literature searches and a series of one-on-one and group expert consultations. Databases identified were predominantly environmental stressors databases, with fewer found for health outcomes and human exposure. Nine themes or factors that impact integration were identified: data availability, accessibility, harmonization, stakeholder collaboration, policy and strategic alignment, resource adequacy, environmental health indicators, and data exchange networks. The use and cost effectiveness of data currently collected could be improved by strategic changes to data collection and access systems to provide better opportunities to identify and study environmental exposures that may impact human health.

  10. University of Illinois FRIENDS Children’s Environmental Health Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The FRIENDS Children's Environmental Health Center at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, was established in 2001 to investigate the interactive effects of...

  11. NIEHS/EPA Children’s Environmental Health Centers: Lifecourse Exposures & Diet: Epigenetics, Maturation & Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) at Columbia University studies long-term health of urban pollutants on children raised in minority neighborhoods in inner-city communities.

  12. NIEHS/EPA CEHCs: Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Center - Dartmouth College

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) at Columbia University studies long-term health of urban pollutants on children raised in minority neighborhoods in inner-city communities.

  13. Health and Environmental Effects Document on Geothermal Energy -- 1982 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, David W.; Daniels, Jeffrey I.; Anspaugh, Lynn R.; O' Banion, Kerry D.

    1983-11-30

    We assess several of the important health and environmental risks associated with a reference geothermal industry that produces 21,000 MWe for 30 y (equivalent to 20 x 10{sup 18} J). The analyses of health effects focus on the risks associated with exposure to hydrogen sulfide, particulate sulfate, benzene, mercury, and radon in air and arsenic in food. Results indicate that emissions of hydrogen sulfide are likely to cause odor-related problems in 29 of 51 geothermal resources areas, assuming that no pollution controls are employed. Our best estimates and ranges of uncertainty for the health risks of chronic population exposures to atmospheric pollutants are as follows (risks expressed per 10{sup 18} J of electricity): particulate sulfate, 44 premature deaths (uncertainty range of 0 to 360); benzene, 0.15 leukemias (range of 0 to 0.51); elemental mercury, 14 muscle tremors (range of 0 to 39); and radon, 0.68 lung cancers (range of 0 to 1.8). The ultimate risk of fatal skin cancers as the result of the transfer of waste arsenic to the general population over geologic time ({approx} 100,000 y) was calculated as 41 per 10{sup 18} J. We based our estimates of occupational health effects on rates of accidental deaths together with data on occupational diseases and injuries in surrogate industries. According to our best estimates, there would be 8 accidental deaths per 10{sup 18} J of electricity, 300 cases of occupational diseases per 10{sup 18} J, and 3400 occupational injuries per 10{sup 18}J. The analysis of the effects of noncondensing gases on vegetation showed that ambient concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide are more likely to enhance rather than inhibit the growth of plants. We also studied the possible consequences of accidental releases of geothermal fluids and concluded that probably less than 5 ha of land would be affected by such releases during the production of 20 x 10{sup 18} J of electricity. Boron emitted from cooling towers in the

  14. Impact of environmental chemicals, sociodemographic variables, depression, and clinical indicators of health and nutrition on self-reported health status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public health researchers ideally integrate social, environmental, and clinical measures to identify predictors of poor health. Chemicals measured in human tissues are often evaluated in relation to intangible or rare health outcomes, or are studied one chemical at a time. Using ...

  15. Characterization and genetic variation of vibrio cholerae isolated from clinical and environmental sources in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siriphap, Achiraya; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Kaas, Rolf Sommer

    2017-01-01

    Cholera is still an important public health problem in several countries, including Thailand. In this study, a collection of clinical and environmental V. cholerae serogroup O1, O139, and non-O1/non-O139 strains originating from Thailand (1983 to 2013) was characterized to determine phenotypic...... and genotypic traits and to investigate the genetic relatedness. Using a combination of conventional methods and whole genome sequencing (WGS), 78 V. cholerae strains were identified. WGS was used to determine the serogroup, biotype, virulence, mobile genetic elements, and antimicrobial resistance genes using...... online bioinformatics tools. In addition, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance was determined by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. The 78 V. cholerae strains belonged to the following serogroups O1: (n = 44), O139 (n = 16) and non-O1/non-O139 (n = 18). Interestingly, we found...

  16. A network of Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units (PEHSUs: Filling a critical gap in the health care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Zachek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A network of pediatric environmental health specialty units (PEHSUs in the United States was formed in 1998 out of a recognized need for clinical expertise in children’s environmental health. Documented trends in a rise of pediatric diseases caused or exacerbated by environmental conditions, coupled with the failure of medical schools and residency programs to cover these issues in a significant way, leaves health care providers, parents, communities, and governments at a loss for this specialized knowledge. The PEHSUs fill this gap by providing: 1 medical education, 2 general outreach and communications, and 3 consultative services to communities and health care professionals. This paper presents examples of key situations where PEHSU involvement was instrumental in improved patient outcomes or advancing clinical expertise in children’s environmental health. Challenges and opportunities for future directions for the program are also discussed.

  17. Environmental Health Risk Assessment and Countermeasures on a Fire Extinguisher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.K.; Jeong, D.W. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    Brominated flame retardants encompass a large number of different organic compounds sharing the common feature of containing bromine, which has an inhibitory effect on the development of fire. The substances are added to plastic materials, insulation foam, and other materials so as to enable the products to comply with fire safety requirements and wishes. The most problematic groups of compounds are polybrominated biphenyls(PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers(PBDEs). The objective of this project is to develop a management strategy for all problematic brominated flame retardants. A number of studies have shown that several of the brominated flame retardants occur in increasing concentrations in nature and in human beings. This is of concern because certain of the brominated flame retardants are suspected of having undesirable effects on the environment and health. The substances are generally very stable, especially so in the case of PBBs and PBDEs. These are strong reasons for hastening the phase-out of PBBs and PBDEs as group. Moreover, PBBs and PBDEs have attracted international attention. Within the OECD, business organisations have made voluntary agreements concerning PBBs and PBDEs. Rules of the EU forbid the use of PBBs in textiles coming into contact with the skin. The environmental and health risks of PBDEs are currently being evaluated as a part of an EU programme for existing substances. In Germany, PBBs and PBDEs are restricted through the Dioxin Ordinance and voluntary agreements with industry. Brominated flame retardants encompass a large number of different organic compounds sharing the common feature of containing bromine, which has an inhibitory effect on the development of fire. The substances are added to plastic materials, insulation foam, and other materials so as to enable the products to comply with fire safety requirements and wishes. The most problematic groups of compounds are polybrominated biphenyls(PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl

  18. Environmental Health Risk Assessment and Countermeasures on a Fire Extinguisher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.K.; Jeong, D.W. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    Brominated flame retardants encompass a large number of different organic compounds sharing the common feature of containing bromine, which has an inhibitory effect on the development of fire. The substances are added to plastic materials, insulation foam, and other materials so as to enable the products to comply with fire safety requirements and wishes. The most problematic groups of compounds are polybrominated biphenyls(PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers(PBDEs). The objective of this project is to develop a management strategy for all problematic brominated flame retardants. A number of studies have shown that several of the brominated flame retardants occur in increasing concentrations in nature and in human beings. This is of concern because certain of the brominated flame retardants are suspected of having undesirable effects on the environment and health. The substances are generally very stable, especially so in the case of PBBs and PBDEs. These are strong reasons for hastening the phase-out of PBBs and PBDEs as group. Moreover, PBBs and PBDEs have attracted international attention. Within the OECD, business organisations have made voluntary agreements concerning PBBs and PBDEs. Rules of the EU forbid the use of PBBs in textiles coming into contact with the skin. The environmental and health risks of PBDEs are currently being evaluated as a part of an EU programme for existing substances. In Germany, PBBs and PBDEs are restricted through the Dioxin Ordinance and voluntary agreements with industry. Brominated flame retardants encompass a large number of different organic compounds sharing the common feature of containing bromine, which has an inhibitory effect on the development of fire. The substances are added to plastic materials, insulation foam, and other materials so as to enable the products to comply with fire safety requirements and wishes. The most problematic groups of compounds are polybrominated biphenyls(PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl

  19. 76 FR 30734 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences..., 12 p.m. to 2:30 p.m., NIEHS/National Institutes of Health, Building 4401, East Campus, 79...

  20. The pivotal role of the social sciences in environmental health sciences research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Symma; Collman, Gwen

    2016-09-06

    Environmental health sciences research seeks to elucidate environmental factors that put human health at risk. A primary aim is to develop strategies to prevent or reduce exposures and disease occurrence. Given this primary focus on prevention, environmental health sciences research focuses on the populations most at risk such as communities of color and/or low socioeconomic status. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences research programs incorporate the principles of Community-Based Participatory Research to study health disparities. These programs promote community engagement, culturally appropriate communications with a variety of stakeholders, and consideration of the social determinants of health that interact with environmental factors to increase risk. Multidisciplinary research teams that include social and behavioral scientists are essential to conduct this type of research. This article outlines the history of social and behavioral research funding at National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and offers examples of National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences-funded projects that exemplify the value of social science to the environmental health sciences.

  1. [Citizens' veillance on environmental health through ICT and Genomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallacchini, Mariachiara; Biggeri, Annibale

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade three different phenomena have merged: the widespread use of ICT devices to collect and potentially share personal and scientific data, and to build networked communities; biobanking for genomics, namely the organized storage of human biological samples and information; and the collaboration between scientists and citizens in creating knowledge, namely peer-production of knowledge, for shared social goals. These different forms of knowledge, technical tools, and skills have merged in community based scientific and social, as well as legal, initiatives, where scientists and citizens use genetic information and ICT as powerful ways to gain more control over their health and the environment. These activities can no longer be simply qualified as epidemiological research and surveillance. Instead, they can be framed as new forms of citizens' participatory "veillance:" an attitude of cognitive proactive alertness towards the protection of common goods. This paper illustrates two Italian case-studies where citizens and scientists, by making use of both ICT and biobanking, have joined with the goal of protecting environmental health in highly polluted contexts. The statute of these initiatives still needs to be defined as to both the validity of the underlying citizen science and the lack of adequate legal tools for structuring them. However, as to their scientific quality and use of sophisticated technologies, these activities cannot be compared to previous experiences, such as those inspired by so-called popular epidemiology. Moreover, the deep awareness towards the data to be transparent, reliable, and accessible, as well as towards funding mechanisms to be crowdsourced, allows these experiences to go beyond the mere confrontation with institutional knowledge, and to represent a potential model for knowledge production for institutional implementation.

  2. Environmental health impacts of dispersed mineralisation in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T. C.; Mundalamo, H. R.

    2010-11-01

    The crust of South Africa has undergone various episodes and styles of mineralisation, dating as far back as the Archaean. The suite of minerals produced is diverse and includes metals, non-metals and industrial minerals. Since the Pleistocene, substantial quantities of elements, both nutritional and toxic, that were involved in ore forming processes, have been remobilised and redistributed by surficial processes of intense tropical weathering, leaching, eluviation, podsolisation and gleying; and more recently, by mining and related processes, as well as by other urban and industrial activities. As a result of this "dispersion" it is not uncommon to find large tracts of the country containing anomalous trace element contents or deficiencies in essential micro-nutrient elements. Through water and food crops, extremes in trace element variation in soils are transmitted into the food chain, with often undesirable consequences for human and animal health. But the known variations are not as yet adequately documented. Nor is there sufficient knowledge on the implications of these variations for the health of the environment and its ecosystems. Nutrient deficient soils may be the principal causative factor in the devastating endemic osteoarthritic disease that afflicts two-thirds of the women in Maputaland, for instance. The generally low Se status of agricultural soils could represent an important co-factor in the relatively high diffusion rates of HIV-AIDS in the country. The impact of geology on animal health also remains an area of critical concern to both farmers and managers of the hugely important wildlife game reserves. This paper discusses a few known relationships between trace element excess/deficiency stemming originally from mineralisation processes, and the local and regional distribution of diseases in man and animals in South Africa. It is submitted that the challenge for future research in medical geology would lie in an organised effort aimed at

  3. Sustainable Organic Farming For Environmental Health A Social Development Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijun Rijwan Susanto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this study the researcher attempted 1 to understand the basic features of organic farming in The Paguyuban Pasundans Cianjur 2 to describe and understand how the stakeholders were are able to internalize the challenges of organic farming on their lived experiences in the community 3 to describe and understand how the stakeholders were are able to internalize and applied the values of benefits of organic farming in support of environmental health on their lived experiences in the community 4 The purpose was to describe and understand how the stakeholders who are able to articulate their ideas regarding the model of sustainable organic farming 5 The Policy Recommendation for Organic Farming. The researcher employed triangulation thorough finding that provides breadth and depth to an investigation offering researchers a more accurate picture of the phenomenon. In the implementation of triangulation researchers conducted several interviews to get saturation. After completion of the interview results are written compiled and shown to the participants to check every statement by every participant. In addition researchers also checked the relevant documents and direct observation in the field The participants of this study were the stakeholders namely 1 The leader of Paguyuban Pasundans Organic Farmer Cianjur PPOFC 2 Members of Paguyuban Pasundans Organic FarmersCianjur 3 Leader of NGO 4 Government officials of agriculture 5 Business of organic food 6 and Consumer of organic food. Generally the findings of the study revealed the following 1 PPOFC began to see the reality as the impact of modern agriculture showed in fertility problems due to contaminated soil by residues of agricultural chemicals such as chemical fertilizers and chemical pesticides. So he wants to restore the soil fertility through environmentally friendly of farming practices 2 the challenges of organic farming on their lived experiences in the community farmers did not

  4. Health impacts of an environmental disaster: a polemic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorling, Danny [Department of Geography, University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Barford, Anna [Department of Geography, University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Wheeler, Ben [Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    At this early point in the 21st century a major concern that we face is the future possible effects of people-induced global warming. The predicted effects are severe, but argued by some to be avoidable if we act now. Here we consider the dimensions of another disaster: one for which not only the causes, but also their horrific consequences, are current worldwide. The implicit question is 'why are we more worried about future disasters than those already occurring?' The worldmapper collection of cartograms (where a map is used like a pie-chart to present data) is used here to illustrate the extent of international inequalities in health and living conditions, discussed in relation to other aspects of human lives. Though the shape that we can see the world is in is shocking, we can also envisage a positive future. We compare these current global times to more local past times experienced during the ravaging inequalities of Victorian Britain. We use Britain simply as an example. We end by suggesting a further step the current British Prime Minister could make in his thinking. Doing this we can see the potential for environmental reconstruction, which would result (as it did before) in considerable reductions in infant mortality. Our common future is not already mapped out; it is still to be won.

  5. Examining the Breadth and Depth of Environmental Health through a Modified Delphi Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Brown, Stephen L.; Wodika, Alicia B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Environmental health, a crucial part of our everyday lives, is a multidisciplinary field with many discrepancies as to what encompasses the core areas. Purpose: This study intended to establish core areas and corresponding topics of environmental health as a preliminary step to identifying knowledge, attitude and behavior questions for…

  6. TOXNET and Beyond - Using the NLMs Environmental Health and Toxicology Portal-February

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templin-Branner, W.

    2010-02-24

    The purpose of this training is to familiarize participants with reliable online environmental health and toxicology information, from the National Library of Medicine and other reliable sources. Skills and knowledge acquired in this training class will enable participants to access, utilize, and refer others to environmental health and toxicology information.

  7. 77 FR 37678 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry: Notice of Charter..., that the Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for...

  8. Survey on basic knowledge about exposure and potential environmental and health risks for selected nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sonja Hagen; Hansen, Erik; Christensen, Trine Boe

    Based on a literature review this report provides a general description as well as an environmental and health profile of 7 nanomaterials. The examined nanomaterials are selected because of expected high use or specific environmental and health properties. Fullerenes, iron, silver, nanoclay...... other nanomaterials were identified, there are areas where there may be reason for attention and thus need for more knowledge....

  9. TOXNET and Beyond: Using the National Library of Medicine's Environmental Health and Toxicology Portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templin-Branner, W.

    2010-10-20

    The National Library of Medicine's Environmental Health and Toxicology Portal provides access to numerous databases that can help you explore environmental chemicals and risks. TOXNET and Beyond: Using NLM's Environmental Health and Toxicology Portal conveys the fundamentals of searching the NLM's TOXNET system of databases in chemistry, toxicology, environmental health, and related fields. In addition to TOXNET, the course will highlight various resources available through the Environmental Health and Toxicology Portal.

  10. [Principle for strategic decision based on population health risk in emergence environmental cadmium pollution control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qi

    2012-05-01

    The principles for strategic decision in emergence environmental pollution control was summarized based on population health risk and features of emergence events of environmental cadmium pollution. Main task and strategies for the events control was suggested in emergency treatment and post-event for water and soil cadmium pollution respectively. The work, monitoring method, key problems for both environment cadmium pollution and human health risk, and main content of health education for cadmium exposure people was proposed in follow-up action, at meanwhile, achievements of study on human health effects caused by environmental cadmium pollution was introduced briefly over recent years.

  11. Implications of Literacy Related to Comprehension of Environmental Health Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Martha Ann

    2010-01-01

    Health literacy involves basic reading and numeracy, which allow a person to function as a health care consumer, by reading, understanding, evaluating and using information in health documents. For thirty years, the gap between the reading level of most of the public, eighth grade, and the reading level of most written health information, above…

  12. Environmental Stressors: The Mental Health Impacts of Living Near Industrial Activity*

    OpenAIRE

    Downey, Liam; VAN WILLIGEN, MARIEKE

    2005-01-01

    A growing literature examines whether the poor, the working class, and people of color are disproportionately likely to live in environmentally hazardous neighborhoods. This literature assumes that environmental characteristics such as industrial pollution and hazardous waste are detrimental to human health, an assumption that has not been well tested. Drawing upon the sociology of mental health and environmental inequality studies, we ask whether industrial activity has an impact on psycholo...

  13. The environmental and health impacts of tobacco agriculture, cigarette manufacture and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas E Novotny; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Burt, Lindsay; Curtis, Clifton; Luiza da Costa, Vera; Iqtidar, Silvae Usman; Liu, Yuchen; Pujari, Sameer; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The health consequences of tobacco use are well known, but less recognized are the significant environmental impacts of tobacco production and use. The environmental impacts of tobacco include tobacco growing and curing; product manufacturing and distribution; product consumption; and post-consumption waste. The World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control addresses environmental concerns in Articles 17 and 18, which primarily apply to tobacco agriculture. Arti...

  14. Engaging academia to advance the science and practice of environmental public health tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strosnider, Heather; Zhou, Ying; Balluz, Lina; Qualters, Judith

    2014-10-01

    Public health agencies at the federal, state, and local level are responsible for implementing actions and policies that address health problems related to environmental hazards. These actions and policies can be informed by integrating or linking data on health, exposure, hazards, and population. The mission of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention׳s National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program) is to provide information from a nationwide network of integrated health, environmental hazard, and exposure data that drives actions to improve the health of communities. The Tracking Program and federal, state, and local partners collect, integrate, analyze, and disseminate data and information to inform environmental public health actions. However, many challenges exist regarding the availability and quality of data, the application of appropriate methods and tools to link data, and the state of the science needed to link and analyze health and environmental data. The Tracking Program has collaborated with academia to address key challenges in these areas. The collaboration has improved our understanding of the uses and limitations of available data and methods, expanded the use of existing data and methods, and increased our knowledge about the connections between health and environment. Valuable working relationships have been forged in this process, and together we have identified opportunities and improvements for future collaborations to further advance the science and practice of environmental public health tracking.

  15. An Approach to Developing Local Climate Change Environmental Public Health Indicators in a Rural District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Climate change represents a significant and growing threat to population health. Rural areas face unique challenges, such as high rates of vulnerable populations; economic uncertainty due to their reliance on industries that are vulnerable to climate change; less resilient infrastructure; and lower levels of access to community and emergency services than urban areas. This article fills a gap in public health practice by developing climate and health environmental public health indicators for a local public health department in a rural area. We adapted the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network's framework for climate and health indicators to a seven-county health department in Western Kentucky. Using a three-step review process, we identified primary climate-related environmental public health hazards for the region (extreme heat, drought, and flooding) and a suite of related exposure, health outcome, population vulnerability, and environmental vulnerability indicators. Indicators that performed more poorly at the county level than at the state and national level were defined as “high vulnerability.” Six to eight high vulnerability indicators were identified for each county. The local health department plans to use the results to enhance three key areas of existing services: epidemiology, public health preparedness, and community health assessment. PMID:28352286

  16. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization, Revision 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Burk, Kenneth W.; Cannon, Sandra D.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Reidel, Steve P.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.; Woody, Dave M.

    2003-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  17. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2001-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  18. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Eschbach, Tara O.; Fowler, Richard A.; Fritz, Brad G.; Goodwin, Shannon M.; Harvey, David W.; Hendrickson, Paul L.; Hoitink, Dana J.; Horton, Duane G.; Last, George V.; Poston, Ted M.; Prendergast-Kennedy, Ellen L.; Rohay, Alan C.; Scott, Michael J.; Thorne, Paul D.

    2002-09-01

    This document describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No statements of significance or environmental consequences are provided. This year's report is the thirteenth revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the fourteenth revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA, State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA), and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is typically presented in environmental impact statements (Weiss) and other Hanford Site NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological, and historical resources, socioeconomics, occupational safety, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and presidential executive orders that are applicable to the NEPA documents prepared for Hanford Site activities.

  19. Towards validating use of self reported health (SRH) for community-based studies: Impact of environmental chemicals, sociodemographic variables, depression, and clinical indicators of health and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental health impact assessment (HIA) studies, should consider social, behavioral, nutritional, dietary, environmental exposure and health risk factors at both the individual and community levels. Chemicals measured in blood or urine are often evaluated in relation to one ...

  20. Use of comparative genomics approaches to characterize interspecies differences in response to environmental chemicals: Challenges, opportunities, and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess-Herbert, Sarah L., E-mail: sarah.burgess@alum.mit.edu [American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Science and Technology Policy Fellow at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 2009–10 (United States); Euling, Susan Y. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    A critical challenge for environmental chemical risk assessment is the characterization and reduction of uncertainties introduced when extrapolating inferences from one species to another. The purpose of this article is to explore the challenges, opportunities, and research needs surrounding the issue of how genomics data and computational and systems level approaches can be applied to inform differences in response to environmental chemical exposure across species. We propose that the data, tools, and evolutionary framework of comparative genomics be adapted to inform interspecies differences in chemical mechanisms of action. We compare and contrast existing approaches, from disciplines as varied as evolutionary biology, systems biology, mathematics, and computer science, that can be used, modified, and combined in new ways to discover and characterize interspecies differences in chemical mechanism of action which, in turn, can be explored for application to risk assessment. We consider how genetic, protein, pathway, and network information can be interrogated from an evolutionary biology perspective to effectively characterize variations in biological processes of toxicological relevance among organisms. We conclude that comparative genomics approaches show promise for characterizing interspecies differences in mechanisms of action, and further, for improving our understanding of the uncertainties inherent in extrapolating inferences across species in both ecological and human health risk assessment. To achieve long-term relevance and consistent use in environmental chemical risk assessment, improved bioinformatics tools, computational methods robust to data gaps, and quantitative approaches for conducting extrapolations across species are critically needed. Specific areas ripe for research to address these needs are recommended.

  1. Characterizing the Environmental Availability of Trace Metals in Savannah River Site Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-03-18

    An eight step sequential extraction technique was used to characterize the environmental availability of trace metals from background and waste site soil samples collected from the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS).

  2. Human health risk characterization of petroleum coke calcining facility emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Davinderjit; Johnson, Giffe T; Harbison, Raymond D

    2015-12-01

    Calcining processes including handling and storage of raw petroleum coke may result in Particulate Matter (PM) and gaseous emissions. Concerns have been raised over the potential association between particulate and aerosol pollution and adverse respiratory health effects including decrements in lung function. This risk characterization evaluated the exposure concentrations of ambient air pollutants including PM10 and gaseous pollutants from a petroleum coke calciner facility. The ambient air pollutant levels were collected through monitors installed at multiple locations in the vicinity of the facility. The measured and modeled particulate levels in ambient air from the calciner facility were compared to standards protective of public health. The results indicated that exposure levels were, on occasions at sites farther from the facility, higher than the public health limit of 150 μg/m(3) 24-h average for PM10. However, the carbon fraction demonstrated that the contribution from the calciner facility was de minimis. Exposure levels of the modeled SO2, CO, NOx and PM10 concentrations were also below public health air quality standards. These results demonstrate that emissions from calcining processes involving petroleum coke, at facilities that are well controlled, are below regulatory standards and are not expected to produce a public health risk.

  3. Health and safety plan for operations performed for the Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippet, W.A. II (IT Corp., (United States)); Reneau, M.; Morton, S.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the EPR. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP.

  4. Data summary for the near-shore sediment characterization task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, D.A.; Hargrove, W.W.; Campbell, K.R.; Wood, M.A.; Rash, C.D.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents the results of the Near-Shore Sediment Characterization Task of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). The goals of the task were to (1) determine the extent to which near-shore surface sediments are contaminated by releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and (2) provide data for the Watts Bar Reservoir Interagency Permitting Group (WBRIPG) to evaluate the human health risks from exposure to sediments during and following dredging operations. The data collected for this task are also to be used in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RLTS) for the CR-ERP operable units (Lower Watts Bar and Clinch River) to characterize the human health risk associated with exposure to near-shore sediments throughout the Watts Bar Reservoir.

  5. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

  6. Information resources used in health risk assessment by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, G.B.; Baratta, M.; Wolfson, S.; McGeorge, L. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection`s responsibilities related to health-based risk assessment are described, including its research projects and its development of health based compound specific standards and guidance levels. The resources used by the agency to support health risk assessment work are outlined.

  7. Environmental health literacy within the Italian Asbestos Project: experience in Italy and Latin American contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Marsili

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of multidisciplinary approaches to foster scientific research in public health and strengthen its impact on society is nowadays unavoidable. Environmental health literacy (EHL may be defined as the ability to search for, understand, evaluate, and use environmental health information to promote the adoption of informed choices, the reduction of health risks, the improvement of quality of life and the protection of the environment. Both public health and environmental health literacy involve access to and dissemination of scientific information (including research findings, individual and collective decision-making and critical thinking. Specific experiences in environmental health literacy have been developed within the Italian National Asbestos Project (Progetto Amianto in Latin American countries where the use of asbestos is still permitted, and in Italy where a specific effort in EHL has been dedicated to the risks caused by the presence of fluoro-edenite fibers in the town of Biancavilla (Sicily. Taking into account the different geographical and socio-economic contexts, both public health and environmental health literacy were addressed to a wide range of stakeholders, within and outside the health domain.

  8. Development of Environmental Health Indicators for EU Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overveld AJP van; Staatsen BAM; MGO

    2005-01-01

    Within the framework of the National Environment and Health Action Plan (NEHAP), the Netherlands is working on a national environment and health information system. One of the purposes of the system is to facilitate evaluations of (environment and health) policies and for geographical comparisons in

  9. Environmental correlates of mental health measures for women in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Emily Jane; Magalhães, Ricardo Jorge Soares; Speldewinde, Peter; Weinstein, Philip; Dobson, Annette

    2014-12-01

    A recent study in Western Australia identified area level associations between soil salinisation and hospital admissions for depression. Our study assessed the quantitative relationship between mental health measures at the individual level and location specific environmental measurements on salinity, as well as two other indicators of environmental degradation and change: land surface temperature and normalised difference vegetation index, a proxy for rainfall. Location-specific environmental measurements were linked to individual mental health scores of women in three age cohorts from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health using a geographic information system. Bayesian geostatistical linear regression models were developed to assess associations between environmental exposures and mental health scores of women. In contrast to previous studies using area level measures, our study found no associations between individual level measurements of mental health scores for women in south-west Western Australia and salinity, LST or NDVI.

  10. Unsafe occupational health behaviours: Understanding mercury-related environmental health risks to artisanal gold miners in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Ato Armah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between environmental exposure and health outcomes is complex, multidirectional and dynamic. Therefore, we need an understanding of these linkages for effective health risk communication. Despite the severe health hazards, artisanal gold mining is widespread globally, with an estimated 30 million people engaged in it. In this study, the relationships between artisanal gold miners’ knowledge of environmental and health effects of Hg and compositional, contextual and occupational factors were assessed using generalized linear models (negative log-log regression. A cross-sectional survey in three urban gold mining hubs in Ghana (Prestea, Tarkwa and Damang, was carried out among 588 (482 male and 106 female artisanal gold miners. The results showed that 89% of artisanal gold miners had very low to low levels of knowledge whereas 11% had moderate to very high levels of knowledge of deleterious health effects of Hg. Also, individuals who perceived their health-related work conditions to be excellent had very low to low levels of knowledge of environmental and health effects of Hg. Interestingly, artisanal gold miners who were still working were less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their counterparts who were currently unemployed. Similarly, artisanal gold miners who had attained either primary or secondary education were less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their counterparts who had no formal education. This finding, although counterintuitive, can be understood within the fact that artisanal gold miners in Ghana without formal education tend to have considerably higher number of years of practical experience compared with their counterparts with formal education. Female artisanal gold miners were 68% less likely to know the environmental and health effects of Hg compared with their male counterparts (OR=0.32, p<0.05. Artisanal gold miners who had

  11. Evaluation of the Waste Tire Resources Recovery Program and Environmental Health Policy in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ching Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of Taiwanese environmental health policies, whose aim is to improve environmental quality by reducing tire waste via the Tire Resource Recovery Program. The results confirm that implemented environmental health policies improve the overall health of the population (i.e. a decrease in death caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases. Current policy expenditures are far below the optimal level, as it is estimated that a ten percent increase in the subsidy would decrease the number of deaths caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases by 0.58% per county/city per year on average.

  12. Environment, Safety and Health independent evaluation of Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Company`s (FERMCO) Comprehensive Environmental Occupational Safety and Health Program (CEOSHP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) requested the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) to perform an independent evaluation of Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation`s (FERMCO`s) Comprehensive Environmental occupational Safety and Health Program (CEOSHP) document. In 1992, FERMCO was awarded the Department of Energy`s (DOE) first Environmental Restoration Management Contract and developed the CEOSHP to respond to contract requirements. EH limited its review to the CEOSHP because this document constitutes FERMCO`s written environment, safety and health (ES&H) program document and thus provides the basis for FERMCO`s ES&H program. EH`s independent review identified several major areas of the CEOSHP that need to be revised if it is to function successfully as the program-level document for FERMCO`s environment, safety and health program. The problems identified occur throughout the document and apply across the three CEOSHP sections evaluated by EH: the Occupational Safety and Health program, the Environmental Protection program, and the Radiological Control program. Primary findings of the CEOSHP: (1) Does not fully reflect the occupational safety and health, environmental protection, and radiological control requirements of the Department; (2) Does not convey a strong sense of management leadership of the program or clearly delineate employee rights, responsibilities, and roles in FERMCO`s ES&H program; (3) Is not a program management-level document; (4) Does not describe a ``seamless`` ES&H program; and (5) Does not clearly convey how FERMCO`s ES&H program actually works. EH`s detailed evaluation of FERMCO`s CEOSHP, along with specific recommendations are presented in Sections 2, 3, and 4 of this report. EH believes that EM will find this review and analysis useful in its efforts to assist FERMCO in a comprehensive redrafting of the CEOSHP.

  13. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization. Revision 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [ed.; Fosmire, C.J.; Fowler, R.A. [and others

    1998-09-01

    This document describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site environment and is numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in Hanford Site NEPA related documents. The document is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents that are being prepared by contractors. The two chapters in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered this way to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes the Hanford Site environment, and includes information on climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomics, and noise. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site.

  14. Out of our inner city backyards: re-scaling urban environmental health inequity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Jeffrey R; Teelucksingh, Cheryl; Zupancic, Tara; Crabtree, Alexis; Haber, Rebecca; Skinner, Emily; Poland, Blake; Frankish, Jim; Fridell, Mara

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we report the results of a three-year research project (2008-2011) that aimed to identify urban environmental health inequities using a photography-mediated qualitative approach adapted for comparative neighbourhood-level assessment. The project took place in Vancouver, Toronto, and Winnipeg, Canada and involved a total of 49 inner city community researchers who compared environmental health conditions in numerous neighbourhoods across each city. Using the social determinants of health as a guiding framework, community researchers observed a wide range of differences in health-influencing private and public spaces, including sanitation services, housing, parks and gardens, art displays, and community services. The comparative process enabled community researchers to articulate in five distinct ways how such observable conditions represented system level inequities. The findings inform efforts to shift environmental health intervention from constricted action within derelict urban districts to more coordinated mobilization for health equity in the city.

  15. Characterization of Environmental Nano- and Macrocolloid Particles Extracted from Selected Soils and Biosolids

    OpenAIRE

    J. L. Ghezzi; A. D. Karathanasis; C. J. Matocha; Unrine, J.; Thompson, Y. L.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental nanoparticles found in soil systems and biosolids may pose a considerable risk to groundwater quality as contaminant carriers. Little effort has been invested in the characterization of natural nanocolloids compared to corresponding macrocolloids. This study involved physicochemical, mineralogical, and morphological characterizations of nanocolloids and macrocolloids fractionated from three Kentucky soils and one biosolid. Particle size and morphology were investigated using sca...

  16. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, A.C.; Fosmire, C.J.; Neitzel, D.A.; Hoitink, D.J.; Harvey, D.W.; Antonio, E.J.; Wright, M.K.; Thorne, P.D.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Fowler, R.A.; Goodwin, S.M.; Poston, T.M.

    1999-09-28

    This document describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site environment. It is updated each year and is intended to provide a consistent description of the Hanford Site environment for the many NEPA documents being prepared by DOE contractors. No conclusions or recommendations are provided. This year's report is the eleventh revision of the original document published in 1988 and is (until replaced by the 12th revision) the only version that is relevant for use in the preparation of Hanford NEPA; SEPA and CERCLA documents. The two chapters included in this document (Chapters 4 and 6) are numbered to correspond to the chapters where such information is presented in environmental impact statements (EISs) and other Site-related NEPA or CERCLA documentation. Chapter 4.0 (Affected Environment) describes Hanford Site climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology, ecology, cultural, archaeological and historical resources, socioeconomic; occupational safety, and noise. Sources for extensive tabular data related to these topics are provided in the chapter. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information, where available, of the 100,200,300, and other Areas. This division allows the reader to go directly to those sections of particular interest. When specific information on each of these separate areas is not complete or available, the general Hanford Site description should be used. Chapter 6.0 (Statutory and Regulatory Requirements) is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6.0, which describes applicable federal and state laws and regulations, DOE directives and permits, and environmental standards directly applicable to the NEPA documents on the Hanford Site. People preparing environmental assessments and EISs should also be cognizant of the document entitled ''Recommendations for the Preparation of Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact

  17. Environmental and occupational health research and training needs in Colombia: A Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura A.; González, Beatriz Elena; Vera, Lina María; Patz, Jonathan; Bautista, Leonelo E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Environmental factors contribute with 16% of the burden of disease in Colombia. A main obstacle in implementing national and regional environmental and occupational health policies is the limited knowledge on the local ability to study and control the impact of harmful exposures on health. Objective To identify needs for research and training in environmental and occupational health in Colombia. Materials and methods We conducted a three-round hybrid Delphi study. A group of environmental and occupational health Colombian experts (n=16) from government agencies, universities, and research centers was recruited to participate in the study. Expert’s opinions on research and training needs were gathered through online questionnaires, followed by an in-person meeting. The percentage of agreement and the coefficient of variation were used to measure consensus. Results Air pollution and chemical products were considered the most important environmental and occupational exposures, due to their significant impact on chronic non-communicable diseases, such as respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Research on the effects of outdoor air pollution on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases was considered of the greatest importance. Priority training areas included environmental and occupational health risk assessment, exposure modeling, advanced statistical methods, urban planning, occupational safety and hygiene, and epidemiology and toxicology. Conclusions These findings provide a valuable input for the definition and implementation of national environmental and occupational health policies and for the development of a regional hub aimed at strengthening the capacity for research and training in Colombia. PMID:26535742

  18. Advancing environmental health surveillance in the US through a national human biomonitoring network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latshaw, Megan Weil; Degeberg, Ruhiyyih; Patel, Surili Sutaria; Rhodes, Blaine; King, Ewa; Chaudhuri, Sanwat; Nassif, Julianne

    2016-09-17

    The United States lacks a comprehensive, nationally-coordinated, state-based environmental health surveillance system. This lack of infrastructure leads to: • varying levels of understanding of chemical exposures at the state & local levels • often inefficient public health responses to chemical exposure emergencies (such as those that occurred in the Flint drinking water crisis, the Gold King mine spill, the Elk river spill and the Gulf Coast oil spill) • reduced ability to measure the impact of public health interventions or environmental policies • less efficient use of resources for cleaning up environmental contamination Establishing the National Biomonitoring Network serves as a step toward building a national, state-based environmental health surveillance system. The Network builds upon CDC investments in emergency preparedness and environmental public health tracking, which have created advanced chemical analysis and information sharing capabilities in the state public health systems. The short-term goal of the network is to harmonize approaches to human biomonitoring in the US, thus increasing the comparability of human biomonitoring data across states and communities. The long-term goal is to compile baseline data on exposures at the state level, similar to data found in CDC's National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Barriers to success for this network include: available resources, effective risk communication strategies, data comparability & sharing, and political will. Anticipated benefits include high quality data on which to base public health and environmental decisions, data with which to assess the success of public health interventions, improved risk assessments for chemicals, and new ways to prioritize environmental health research.

  19. Mapping the future of environmental health and nursing: strategies for integrating national competencies into nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Laura S; Butterfield, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    :Nurses are increasingly the primary contact for clients concerned about health problems related to their environment. In response to the need for nursing expertise in the field of environmental health, the Institute of Medicine (IOM), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) have designed core competencies for the nursing profession. The IOM competencies focus on four areas: (1) knowledge and concepts; (2) assessment and referral; advocacy, ethics, and risk communication; and (4) legislation and regulation. The competencies establish a baseline of knowledge and awareness in order for nurses to prevent and minimize health problems associated with exposure to environmental agents. To address the known difficulties of incorporating new priorities into established practice, nurses attending an environmental health short course participated in a nominal group process focusing on the question, "What specific actions can we take to bring environmental health into the mainstream of nursing practice?" This exercise was designed to bring the concepts of the national initiatives (IOM, NINR, ATSDR) to the awareness of individual nurses involved in the direct delivery of care. Results include 38 action items nurses identified as improving awareness and utilization of environmental health principles. The top five ideas were: (1) get environmental health listed as a requirement or competency in undergraduate nursing education; (2) improve working relationships with interdepartmental persons-a team approach; (3) strategically place students in essential organizations such as NIOSH, ATSDR, or CDC; (4) educate nurse educators; and (5) create environmental health awards in nursing. The 38 original ideas were also reorganized into a five-tiered conceptual model. The concepts of this model include: (1) developing partnerships; (2) strengthening publications; (3) enhancing continuing education; (4) updating nursing

  20. Effective environmental public health surveillance programs: a framework for identifying and evaluating data resources and indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Kristen C; Resnick, Beth; Burke, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    The complexity and multidisciplinary nature of environmental public health (EPH) surveillance call for a systematic framework and a concrete set of criteria to guide development, selection, and evaluation of environmental public health indicators. Environmental public health indicators are the foundation of a comprehensive EPH surveillance system, providing quantitative summary measures and descriptive information about spatial and temporal trends of hazard, exposure, and health effects over person, place, and time. A case-synthesis review of environmental regulatory and public health indicator models was employed to develop a framework and outline a methodological approach to EPH surveillance system development, including the selection of content areas and the corresponding data and environmental public health indicators. The framework is organized around three assessment phases: (1) scientific basis and relevance, (2) analytic soundness, and (3) feasibility, interpretation and utility. By outlining a process and identifying important constructs and criteria, the framework provides practitioners with an effective and systematic tool for making scientifically valid programmatic decisions about EPH content development. Improved decision making ensures more effective EPH surveillance systems and enhanced opportunities to understand and protect the public health from environmental threats.

  1. Fipronil: environmental fate, ecotoxicology, and human health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, Colin C D; Rother, Joachim A; Dewhurst, Charles F; Lauer, Sasha; King, William J

    2003-01-01

    be warranted. The use of some fipronil-based products on domestic animals is not recommended where handlers spend significant amounts of time grooming or handling treated animals. In general, it would appear unwise to use fipronil-based insecticides without accompanying environmental and human health monitoring, in situations, regions, or countries where it has not been used before, and where its use may lead to its introduction into the wider environment or bring it into contact with people. Further work is needed on the impacts of fipronil on nontarget vertebrate fauna (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) in the field before the risk to wildlife from this insecticide can be adequately validated. Further field study of the effects of fipronil on the nutrient cycling and soil water-infiltration activities of beneficial termites is required to assess the ecological impacts of the known toxicity of fipronil to these insects.

  2. 76 FR 5185 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Request for Information (NOT-ES-11...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Request for Information (NOT-ES-11-006): Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research Coordinating Committee AGENCY: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of...

  3. Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children’s Health Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table of Contents ... 1998, the Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research have been examining the effect of environmental ...

  4. Regional characterization of freshwater Use in LCA: modeling direct impacts on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, Anne-Marie; Bulle, Cécile; Bayart, Jean-Baptiste; Deschênes, Louise; Margni, Manuele

    2011-10-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a methodology that quantifies potential environmental impacts for comparative purposes in a decision-making context. While potential environmental impacts from pollutant emissions into water are characterized in LCA, impacts from water unavailability are not yet fully quantified. Water use can make the resource unavailable to other users by displacement or quality degradation. A reduction in water availability to human users can potentially affect human health. If financial resources are available, there can be adaptations that may, in turn, shift the environmental burdens to other life cycle stages and impact categories. This paper proposes a model to evaluate these potential impacts in an LCA context. It considers the water that is withdrawn and released, its quality and scarcity in order to evaluate the loss of functionality associated with water uses. Regionalized results are presented for impacts on human health for two modeling approaches regarding affected users, including or not domestic uses, and expressed in disability-adjusted life years (DALY). A consumption and quality based scarcity indicator is also proposed as a midpoint. An illustrative example is presented for the production of corrugated board with different effluents, demonstrating the importance of considering quality, process effluents and the difference between the modeling approaches.

  5. The Health Impact of Urban Poor Housing and Environmental Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Solon, Orville C.

    1989-01-01

    How does housing affect households’ health status? How does housing interact with other health inputs? What trade-offs exist between housing and medical care, housing and education and housing and nutrition? It is hoped that from this paper, other efforts towards the resolution of these questions shall be initiated.

  6. Environmental Scanning as a Public Health Tool: Kentucky’s Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, Amanda; Knight, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Borrowing from business, quality improvement programs, and strategic planning principles, environmental scanning is gaining popularity in public health practice and research and is advocated as an assessment and data collection tool by federal funding agencies and other health-related organizations. Applicable to a range of current and emerging health topics, environmental scans — through various methods — assess multiple facets of an issue by engaging stakeholders who can ask or answer research questions, exploring related policy, critiquing published and gray literature, collecting and analyzing qualitative and quantitative data in both primary and secondary forms, disseminating findings to internal and external stakeholders, and informing subsequent planning and decision making. To illustrate the environmental scanning process in a public health setting and showcase its value to practitioners in the field, we describe a federally funded environmental scan for a human papillomavirus vaccination project in Kentucky. PMID:27536901

  7. Participation in environmental health research by placenta donation - a perception study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Uffe; Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Much environmental health research depends on human volunteers participating with biological samples. The perception study explores why and how people participate in a placenta perfusion study in Copenhagen. The participation implies donation of the placenta after birth and some...

  8. HEALTH CARE GUIDE TO POLLUTION PREVENTION IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Health Care Guide to Pollution Prevention Implementation through Environmental Management Systems provides example EMS procedures and forms used in four ISO 14001 EMS certified hospitals. The latest revisions include more EMS hospital case studies, more compliance resources, ...

  9. Code of Sustainable Practice in Occupational and Environmental Health and Safety for Corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Barry; Allen, Barbara; Barca, Stefania; Bohme, Susanna Rankin; Henry, Emmanuel; Kaur, Amarjit; Massard-Guilbaud, Genvieve; Melling, Joseph; Menendez-Navarro, Alfredo; Renfrew, Daniel; Santiago, Myrna; Sellers, Christopher; Tweedale, Geoffrey; Zalik, Anna; Zavestoski, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    At a conference held at Stony Brook University in December 2007, "Dangerous Trade: Histories of Industrial Hazard across a Globalizing World," participants endorsed a Code of Sustainable Practice in Occupational and Environmental Health and Safety for Corporations. The Code outlines practices that would ensure corporations enact the highest health and environmentally protective measures in all the locations in which they operate. Corporations should observe international guidelines on occupational exposure to air contaminants, plant safety, air and water pollutant releases, hazardous waste disposal practices, remediation of polluted sites, public disclosure of toxic releases, product hazard labeling, sale of products for specific uses, storage and transport of toxic intermediates and products, corporate safety and health auditing, and corporate environmental auditing. Protective measures in all locations should be consonant with the most protective measures applied anywhere in the world, and should apply to the corporations' subsidiaries, contractors, suppliers, distributors, and licensees of technology. Key words: corporations, sustainability, environmental protection, occupational health, code of practice.

  10. Wastewater irrigation and environmental health: implications for water governance and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanjra, Munir A; Blackwell, John; Carr, Gemma; Zhang, Fenghua; Jackson, Tamara M

    2012-04-01

    Climate change is a large-scale and emerging environmental risk. It challenges environmental health and the sustainability of global development. Wastewater irrigation can make a sterling contribution to reducing water demand, recycling nutrients, improving soil health and cutting the amount of pollutants discharged into the waterways. However, the resource must be carefully managed to protect the environment and public health. Actions promoting wastewater reuse are every where, yet the frameworks for the protection of human health and the environment are lacking in most developing countries. Global change drivers including climate change, population growth, urbanization, income growth, improvements in living standard, industrialization, and energy intensive lifestyle will all heighten water management challenges. Slowing productivity growth, falling investment in irrigation, loss of biodiversity, risks to public health, environmental health issues such as soil salinity, land degradation, land cover change and water quality issues add an additional layer of complexity. Against this backdrop, the potential for wastewater irrigation and its benefits and risks are examined. These include crop productivity, aquaculture, soil health, groundwater quality, environmental health, public health, infrastructure constraints, social concerns and risks, property values, social equity, and poverty reduction. It is argued that, wastewater reuse and nutrient capture can contribute towards climate change adaptation and mitigation. Benefits such as avoided freshwater pumping and energy savings, fertilizer savings, phosphorous capture and prevention of mineral fertilizer extraction from mines can reduce carbon footprint and earn carbon credits. Wastewater reuse in agriculture reduces the water footprint of food production on the environment; it also entails activities such as higher crop yields and changes in cropping patterns, which also reduce carbon footprint. However, there is a

  11. [Summary of ongoing activities on environmental noise and health at the WHO regional office for Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroux, M E; Braubach, M; Dramac, D; Korol, N; Paunovic, E; Zastenskaya, I

    2014-01-01

    The environmental noise is an important public health issue, according to recent assessment of the burden of diseases among environmental health risk factors in order of importance the environmental noise occupies the second place after air pollution. The World Health Organization (WHO) for the first time published its public health recommendations for the environmental noise in 1999 in the "WHO Guidelines for Community Noise (1999)". These recommendations found their development in WHO Night Noise Guidelines for Europe" (2009). From then onward there have been published new important data on the impact of the environmental noise on the health, that stipulated the revision of existing guidelines. Furthermore, both in the European Union (EU) Directive 2002/49/ EC and the Parma Declaration from 2010 there was pointed out the importance of renewal environmental noise recommendations. Responding to appearing interrogation, WHO Regional Office for Europe has recently initiated the process of the elaboration of new guiding principles known as "WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region". The Guidelines will include a systematic review of most critical or important health consequences and also concentrate on health benefits of measures for the reducing noise levels. The Guidelines will consider noise coming from various noise sources such as aircraft, railroad, personal electronic devices and wind turbines. The Guidelines will also consider the particularity of such accommodations as residences, hospitals, and educational facilities. The work in the mentioned spheres is ongoing and the revised Guidelines are expected to be published in mid-2015. The Guidelines will provide up-to-date information on the health risks related to the environmental noise and evidence-based recommendations in order to support for WHO Member States in their efforts to prevent of the excessive noise and the struggle with their negative impact.

  12. Exploring Mexican adolescents' perceptions of environmental health risks: a photographic approach to risk analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Börner; Juan Carlos Torrico Albino; Luz María Nieto Caraveo; Ana Cristina Cubillas Tejeda

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore Mexican adolescents' perceptions of environmental health risks in contaminated urban areas, and to test the environmental photography technique as a research tool for engaging adolescents in community-based health research. The study was conducted with 74 adolescents from two communities in the city of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Participants were provided with disposable cameras and asked to take photographs of elements and situations which they believ...

  13. Health Effects and Environmental Justice Concerns of Exposure to Uranium in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlin, Laura; Rock, Tommy; Cordova, Jamie; Woodin, Mark; Durant, John L; Gute, David M; Ingram, Jani; Brugge, Doug

    2016-12-01

    We discuss the recent epidemiologic literature regarding health effects of uranium exposure in drinking water focusing on the chemical characteristics of uranium. While there is strong toxicologic evidence for renal and reproductive effects as well as DNA damage, the epidemiologic evidence for these effects in people exposed to uranium in drinking water is limited. Further, epidemiologic evidence is lacking for cardiovascular and oncogenic effects. One challenge in characterizing health effects of uranium in drinking water is the paucity of long-term cohort studies with individual level exposure assessment. Nevertheless, there are environmental justice concerns due to the substantial exposures for certain populations. For example, we present original data suggesting that individuals living in the Navajo Nation are exposed to high levels of uranium in unregulated well water used for drinking. In 10 out of 185 samples (5.4 %), concentrations of uranium exceeded standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Therefore, efforts to mitigate exposure to toxic elements in drinking water are warranted and should be prioritized.

  14. Environmental stressors: the mental health impacts of living near industrial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Van Willigen, Marieke

    2005-09-01

    A growing literature examines whether the poor, the working class, and people of color are disproportionately likely to live in environmentally hazardous neighborhoods. This literature assumes that environmental characteristics such as industrial pollution and hazardous waste are detrimental to human health, an assumption that has not been well tested. Drawing upon the sociology of mental health and environmental inequality studies, we ask whether industrial activity has an impact on psychological well-being. We link individual-level survey data with data from the US. Census and the Toxic Release Inventory and find that residential proximity to industrial activity has a negative impact on mental health. This impact is both direct and mediated by individuals' perceptions of neighborhood disorder and personal powerlessness, and the impact is greater for minorities and the poor than it is for whites and wealthier individuals. These results suggest that public health officials need to take seriously the mental health impacts of living near industrial facilities.

  15. Impact of Hydrophobic Pollutants' Behavior on Occupational and Environmental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijeoma Kanu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the influence of hydrophobic pollutant behavior on environmental hazards and risks. The definition and examples of hydrophobic pollutants are given as a guide to better understand the sources of release and the media of dispersion in the environment. The properties and behavior of hydrophobic pollutants are described and their influence on environmental hazard and risk is reviewed and evaluated. The overall outcome of the assessment and evaluation showed that all hydrophobic pollutants are hazardous and risky to all organisms, including man. Their risk effects are due to their inherent persistence, bioaccumulation potential, environmental mobility, and reactivity. Their hazardous effects on organisms occur at varying spatial and temporal degrees of emissions, toxicities, exposures, and concentrations.

  16. Characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes for environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, S.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Adsorption capacities of N2 and various organic vapors (methyl-ethyl ketone (MEK), toluene, and cyclohexane) on select electric-arc and HiPco produced single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) were measured at 77 and 298 K, respectively. The amount of N2 adsorbed on a SWNT sample depended on the sample purity, methodology, and on the sample age. Adsorption capacities of organic vapors (100-1000 ppm vol) on SWNT in humid conditions were much higher than those for microporous activated carbons. These results established a foundation for additional studies related to potential environmental applications of SWNT. The MEK adsorption capacities of samples EA95 and CVD80 and mesoporous tire-derived activated carbon in humid conditions were lower than in dry conditions. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the AIChE Annual Meeting (Austin, TX 11/7-12/2004).

  17. Geostatistics and GIS: tools for characterizing environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, Shannon L; Curriero, Frank C; Shields, Timothy M; Glass, Gregory E; Strickland, Paul T; Breysse, Patrick N

    2004-08-01

    Geostatistics is a set of statistical techniques used in the analysis of georeferenced data that can be applied to environmental contamination and remediation studies. In this study, the 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) contamination at a Superfund site in western Maryland is evaluated. Concern about the site and its future clean up has triggered interest within the community because residential development surrounds the area. Spatial statistical methods, of which geostatistics is a subset, are becoming increasingly popular, in part due to the availability of geographic information system (GIS) software in a variety of application packages. In this article, the joint use of ArcGIS software and the R statistical computing environment are demonstrated as an approach for comprehensive geostatistical analyses. The spatial regression method, kriging, is used to provide predictions of DDE levels at unsampled locations both within the site and the surrounding areas where residential development is ongoing.

  18. Using Microfluidics for Droplet and Particle Characterization of Environmental Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Andrew; Hogan, Chris; Dutcher, Cari

    2016-11-01

    Two-phase flows in microfluidic platforms enable high-throughput experiments for measurement of rheological, thermodynamic, and kinetic interfacial properties. In this talk, I will highlight biphasic microfluidic studies with environmental applications, including atmospheric aerosol properties and water contamination. For example, the fate of atmospheric aerosol particles can be profoundly affected by the presence of surface-active species within the aerosol liquid. In this work, the presence of these species is detected with microfluidic interfacial tensiometry, in which the behavior of the droplet interface under extensional shear is measured. Both secondary organic aerosol chemical mimics and aerosol filter extracts are used in droplet generation. In addition, preliminary work for use of the platform for water treatment applications will be highlighted. Particulate contamination in water can be detected by freezing contaminated droplets at different temperatures to study the perturbed thermodynamic state.

  19. Making the Case for Sustainable K-12 School Environmental Health Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Kara; Utebay, Kudret; McArthur, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers resources to help a school or school district improve the environmental health and energy performance of its facilities, and in many cases, apply the savings generated through improved energy efficiency toward facility improvements, for the betterment of students, faculty, and staff. As an…

  20. Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment for Risk Governance Purposes; Across What Do We Integrate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebret, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment (IEHIA) can be considered as an element in the third phase of environmental risk management. Its focus is on providing inclusive descriptions of multiple impacts from multiple stressors in such a way that they can be evaluated against the potential s

  1. 76 FR 78661 - Correction for Draft Vieques Report: An Evaluation of Environmental, Biological, and Health Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Draft Vieques Report: An Evaluation of Environmental, Biological, and Health Data From the Island of....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This report's principal focus is to review updated environmental data... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Correction for Draft Vieques Report:...

  2. 76 FR 77234 - Availability of Draft Vieques Report: An Evaluation of Environmental, Biological, and Health Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... availability of the Draft Vieques Report: An Evaluation of Environmental, Biological, and Health Data from the... environmental data on Vieques air, water, soil, seafood, and locally grown foods. In addition, this report.... This notice announces the availability of the draft Vieques Report: An Evaluation of...

  3. An update on environmental, health and safety issues of interest to the photovoltaic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Viren, J.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-08-01

    There is growing interest in the environmental, health, and safety issues related to new photovoltaic technologies as they approach commercialization. Such issues include potential toxicity of II--VI compounds; the impacts of new environmental regulations on module manufacturers; and, the need for recycling of spent modules and manufacturing wastes. This paper will review these topics. 20 refs.

  4. An update on environmental, health and safety issues of interest to the photovoltaic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Viren, J.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    There is growing interest in the environmental, health, and safety issues related to new photovoltaic technologies as they approach commercialization. Such issues include potential toxicity of II--VI compounds; the impacts of new environmental regulations on module manufacturers; and, the need for recycling of spent modules and manufacturing wastes. This paper will review these topics. 20 refs.

  5. Environmental and Occupational Health Information Resources from the National Library of Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philip Wexler

    2004-01-01

    @@ For nearly forty years,the National Library of Medicine' s(NLM)Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program(TEHIP) has been a signifcant leader in organizing and providing public access to an extensive storehouse of environmental, occupational medicine, and toxicological information through its online databases.

  6. Hanford Site National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E. (ed.)

    1988-09-01

    This document describes the Hanford Site environment (Chapter 4) and contains data in Chapter 5 and 6 which will guide users in the preparation of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)-related documents. Many NEPA compliance documents have been prepared and are being prepared by site contractors for the US Department of Energy, and examination of these documents reveals inconsistencies in the amount of detail presented and the method of presentation. Thus, it seemed necessary to prepare a consistent description of the Hanford environment to be used in preparing Chapter 4 of environmental impact statements and other site-related NEPA documentation. The material in Chapter 5 is a guide to the models used, including critical assumptions incorporated in these models, in previous Hanford NEPA documents. The users will have to select those models appropriate for the proposed action. Chapter 6 is essentially a definitive NEPA Chapter 6, which describes the applicable laws, regulations, and DOE and state orders. In this document, a complete description of the environment is presented in Chapter 4 without excessive tabular data. For these data, sources are provided. Most subjects are divided into a general description of the characteristics of the Hanford Site, followed by site-specific information where it is available on the 100, 200, 300, and other Areas. This division will allow a person requiring information to go immediately to those sections of particular interest. However, site-specific information on each of these separate areas is not always complete or available. In this case, the general Hanford Site description should be used. 131 refs., 19 figs., 32 tabs.

  7. Characterization and Genetic Variation of Vibrio cholerae Isolated from Clinical and Environmental Sources in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriphap, Achiraya; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Kaas, Rolf S; Theethakaew, Chonchanok; Aarestrup, Frank M; Sutheinkul, Orasa; Hendriksen, Rene S

    2017-01-01

    Cholera is still an important public health problem in several countries, including Thailand. In this study, a collection of clinical and environmental V. cholerae serogroup O1, O139, and non-O1/non-O139 strains originating from Thailand (1983 to 2013) was characterized to determine phenotypic and genotypic traits and to investigate the genetic relatedness. Using a combination of conventional methods and whole genome sequencing (WGS), 78 V. cholerae strains were identified. WGS was used to determine the serogroup, biotype, virulence, mobile genetic elements, and antimicrobial resistance genes using online bioinformatics tools. In addition, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance was determined by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. The 78 V. cholerae strains belonged to the following serogroups O1: (n = 44), O139 (n = 16) and non-O1/non-O139 (n = 18). Interestingly, we found that the typical El Tor O1 strains were the major cause of clinical cholera during 1983-2000 with two Classical O1 strains detected in 2000. In 2004-2010, the El Tor variant strains revealed genotypes of the Classical biotype possessing either only ctxB or both ctxB and rstR while they harbored tcpA of the El Tor biotype. Thirty O1 and eleven O139 clinical strains carried CTXϕ (Cholera toxin) and tcpA as well four different pathogenic islands (PAIs). Beside non-O1/non-O139, the O1 environmental strains also presented chxA and Type Three Secretion System (TTSS). The in silico MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) discriminated the O1 and O139 clinical strains from other serogroups and environmental strains. ST69 was dominant in the clinical strains belonging to the 7th pandemic clone. Non-O1/non-O139 and environmental strains showed various novel STs indicating genetic variation. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains were observed and conferred resistance to ampicillin, azithromycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and trimethoprim and harboured variants of the SXT elements

  8. Characterization and Genetic Variation of Vibrio cholerae Isolated from Clinical and Environmental Sources in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriphap, Achiraya; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Kaas, Rolf S.; Theethakaew, Chonchanok; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Sutheinkul, Orasa; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2017-01-01

    Cholera is still an important public health problem in several countries, including Thailand. In this study, a collection of clinical and environmental V. cholerae serogroup O1, O139, and non-O1/non-O139 strains originating from Thailand (1983 to 2013) was characterized to determine phenotypic and genotypic traits and to investigate the genetic relatedness. Using a combination of conventional methods and whole genome sequencing (WGS), 78 V. cholerae strains were identified. WGS was used to determine the serogroup, biotype, virulence, mobile genetic elements, and antimicrobial resistance genes using online bioinformatics tools. In addition, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance was determined by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. The 78 V. cholerae strains belonged to the following serogroups O1: (n = 44), O139 (n = 16) and non-O1/non-O139 (n = 18). Interestingly, we found that the typical El Tor O1 strains were the major cause of clinical cholera during 1983–2000 with two Classical O1 strains detected in 2000. In 2004–2010, the El Tor variant strains revealed genotypes of the Classical biotype possessing either only ctxB or both ctxB and rstR while they harbored tcpA of the El Tor biotype. Thirty O1 and eleven O139 clinical strains carried CTXϕ (Cholera toxin) and tcpA as well four different pathogenic islands (PAIs). Beside non-O1/non-O139, the O1 environmental strains also presented chxA and Type Three Secretion System (TTSS). The in silico MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) discriminated the O1 and O139 clinical strains from other serogroups and environmental strains. ST69 was dominant in the clinical strains belonging to the 7th pandemic clone. Non-O1/non-O139 and environmental strains showed various novel STs indicating genetic variation. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains were observed and conferred resistance to ampicillin, azithromycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and trimethoprim and harboured variants of the SXT elements

  9. Trace elements in coal. Environmental and health significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Trace elements can have profound adverse effects on the health of people burning coal in homes or living near coal deposits, coal mines, and coal- burning power plants. Trace elements such as arsenic emitted from coal- burning power plants in Europe and Asia have been shown to cause severe health problems. Perhaps the most widespread health problems are caused by domestic coal combustion in developing countries where millions of people suffer from fluorosis and thousands from arsenism. Better knowledge of coal quality characteristics may help to reduce some of these health problems. For example, information on concentrations and distributions of potentially toxic elements in coal may help delineate areas of a coal deposit to be avoided. Information on the modes of occurrence of these elements and the textural relations of the minerals in coal may help to predict the behavior of the potentially toxic trace metals during coal cleaning, combustion, weathering, and leaching.

  10. The insertion of the environmental health surveillance in the unified health system - 10.5020/18061230.2012.p3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilo Baltazar Barreira Filho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of environmental monitoring activities in the Unified Health System (SUS shows some characteristics that differentiate it from the practice of epidemiological surveillance. This occurs mainly because much data on exposure to environmental factors is obtained outside the health sector and the adoption of actions that seek to control and/or prevent requires, in most cases, an intra andintersectoral understanding and articulation, since the health sector is not able, by itself, to provide answers to environmental health issues.In recent years, there has been an increasingly consolidation of the field of environmental health, which includes the area of public health, accustomed to scientific knowledge, to the formulation of public policies and the corresponding interventions (actions related to the interaction between human health and both natural and anthropic environmental factors, which determine, modulate and influence such interaction, in order to improve the quality of human life from the point of view of sustainability(1.As agreed at the Ist Seminar of the National Environmental Health, held in October 2005 and consolidated in the first National Conference on Environmental Health, held in December 2009, it is understood as an area of intersectoral and interdisciplinarypractice focused on the outcomes, in human health, of ecogeossocialrelations between man and environment(1.Accordingly, the Ministry of Health has been implementing, throughout the country, a Surveillance System in Environmental Health (SINVISA, seeking the improvement of this “model” of activities, establishing expertise into the three levels of government, aiming to consolidate the practice of Environmental Health within the SUS.Normative Instruction No. 1, March 7, 2005, creates SINVISA, establishes the area of action, the scope of the three levels of management within SUS and defines the Environmental Health Surveillance as a set of actions and services

  11. The insertion of the environmental health surveillance in the unified health system - 10.5020/18061230.2012.p1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilo Baltazar Barreira Filho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of environmental monitoring activities in the Unified Health System (SUS shows some characteristics that differentiate it from the practice of epidemiological surveillance. This occurs mainly because much data on exposure to environmental factors is obtained outside the health sector and the adoption of actions that seek to control and/or prevent requires, in most cases, an intra andintersectoral understanding and articulation, since the health sector is not able, by itself, to provide answers to environmental health issues.In recent years, there has been an increasingly consolidation of the field of environmental health, which includes the area of public health, accustomed to scientific knowledge, to the formulation of public policies and the corresponding interventions (actions related to the interaction between human health and both natural and anthropic environmental factors, which determine, modulate and influence such interaction, in order to improve the quality of human life from the point of view of sustainability(1.As agreed at the Ist Seminar of the National Environmental Health, held in October 2005 and consolidated in the first National Conference on Environmental Health, held in December 2009, it is understood as an area of intersectoral and interdisciplinarypractice focused on the outcomes, in human health, of ecogeossocialrelations between man and environment(1.Accordingly, the Ministry of Health has been implementing, throughout the country, a Surveillance System in Environmental Health (SINVISA, seeking the improvement of this “model” of activities, establishing expertise into the three levels of government, aiming to consolidate the practice of Environmental Health within the SUS.Normative Instruction No. 1, March 7, 2005, creates SINVISA, establishes the area of action, the scope of the three levels of management within SUS and defines the Environmental Health Surveillance as a set of actions and services

  12. [Environmental licensing of major undertakings: possible connection between health and environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Missifany; Araújo Neto, Mário Diniz de

    2014-09-01

    The prospect of multidisciplinary assessment that considers the environmental impacts on the health of the population during the implementation of potentially polluting projects is incipient in Brazil. Considering the scenario of major undertakings in the country, broadening the outlook on the health and environment relationship based on social and economic development processes striving for environmentally sustainable projects is a key strategy. This article examines the debate on the relationship between the current development model, the risks, the environment and health and discusses the importance of the participation of the health sector in the environmental licensing procedures, which is the instrument of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Seeking to create more environmentally and socially sustainable territories, the health sector has been looking for opportunities to participate in the licensing processes of major undertakings from the EIA standpoint. Results of research conducted by the Ministry of Health have demonstrated the form of participation in these processes, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses that favor or hinder the increase of preventive actions in public health in the implementation of major undertakings in Brazil.

  13. Assessing and evaluating the health impact of environmental exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, Augustinus Ernst Maria de

    2004-01-01

    Never in our Western-European history we have been as healthy as we are now. Until the 20th century the (physical) environment was the source of 70-80 percent of disease burden, nowadays, environmental factors probably contribute less than 5%, while life-style is responsible for the bulk of the curr

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF HEAVY METALS ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION FOR ASSESSMENT OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IN THE BOLOGNA CITY (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Vittori Antisari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The suburban area of Bologna city in southeast portion of Po Valley (Northern Italy is characterized by high emission from industrial, urban, agriculture and traffic sources. The presence of an urban waste incinerator get inhabitants to require answers about impact of its emissions on the environmental quality related to human health. The concentrations of some pollutants (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined in topsoil, plants and mosses tissues sampled in sites selected according to different falling out conditions, due to the incinerator and other sources of atmospheric emissions that affect the monitoring area. No correlation was found between metal content and the distance of the incinerator plant. The pollution load index (PLI calculated for soil and moss indicated a low environmental pollution, while highest values in sites downwind of incinerator and in craft area indicate a moderate pollution.

  15. Identification and characterization of transcription networks in environmentally significant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, Charles E.; McCue, Lee Ann

    2005-11-30

    Understanding the regulation of gene expression, transcription regulation in particular, is one of the grand challenges of molecular biology. Transcription regulation is arguably the most important foundation of cellular function, since it exerts the most fundamental control of the abundance of virtually all of a cell's functional macromolecules. Nevertheless, this process, perhaps because of its difficulty, has been the subject of only a limited number of genomic level analyses. We have undertaken bioinformatics projects to address this issue by developing (1) a cross-species comparison method (i.e. phylogenetic footprinting) for the identification of transcription factor binding sites, (2) a Bayesian clustering method to identify regulons, (3) an improved scanning algorithm that uses a position weight matrix and several related species sequence data to locate transcription factor binding sites, and (4) a method to predict cognate binding sites for transcription factors of unknown specificity. These bioinformatics methods were developed using the model proteobacterium Escherichia coli, with further applications to the genomes of environmentally significant microbes (Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Shewanella oneidensis) in later years of the grant.

  16. Exploring the efficacy of an environmental health intervention in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Alma A; Grineski, Sara E

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the efficacy of an environmental health intervention in several poor colonias in Ciudad Juárez (Mexico). Parents of children with respiratory problems were given environment-friendly products intended to replace hazardous products used in the home, as well as information about environmental health. Parents were surveyed before and after to measure the effectiveness of the intervention and to gauge perceptions. There was a significant reduction in hazardous chemical use (eg, cleaning products and pesticides) and breathing problems. While the intervention focused on changing in-home behaviors, open-ended responses revealed that parents were most concerned about outdoor environmental conditions over which they had less control.

  17. Exposing Environmental Health Deception as a Government Whistleblower: Turning Critical Ethnography into Public Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the author's applied anthropological work with the Ingham County Health Department between 1998 and 2001. Government administrators were reflexively aware that nobody had ever stepped back to assess the area's overall environmental health and rank the issues according to some criteria, such as by the "most urgent…

  18. Environmental Health at School: Ignored Too Long. Panel and Facilitated Workshop. Full Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Dana; Rustem, Kim

    2015-01-01

    On November 9-11, 2015, Healthy Schools Network, with funding support from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, Education Facilities Clearinghouse, California Endowment, Mid-Atlantic Center for Children's Health and the Environment, and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, convened the first national facilitated workshop on environmental…

  19. Environmental Health at School: Ignored Too Long. Panel and Facilitated Workshop. Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Dana; Rustem, Kim

    2015-01-01

    On November 9-11, 2015, Healthy Schools Network, with funding support from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, Education Facilities Clearinghouse, The California Endowment, Mid-Atlantic Center for Children's Health and the Environment, and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, convened the first national facilitated workshop on…

  20. Association between Markers of Classroom Environmental Conditions and Teachers' Respiratory Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Luz; Rivera, Glory A.; Ramirez, Olivia F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have assessed health in schoolchildren. Less is known about the environmental and occupational health of teachers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of teachers was conducted in 24 randomly selected public elementary schools. Questionnaire included sociodemographic information, healthcare, school conditions, and health…

  1. The Highland Park Environmental Health Plan: Evaluation and Recommendations for Improving the Urban Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Dept. of Commerce, Lansing. Community Planning Div.

    The Highland Park environmental health plan includes the following components: Legal and administrative and programmatic relationships, planning studies, residential environment, disease vector control, water and sewage systems, sanitation, air pollution, food protection, industrial and radiological health, and solid waste facilities. (JR)

  2. Exposing Environmental Health Deception as a Government Whistleblower: Turning Critical Ethnography into Public Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the author's applied anthropological work with the Ingham County Health Department between 1998 and 2001. Government administrators were reflexively aware that nobody had ever stepped back to assess the area's overall environmental health and rank the issues according to some criteria, such as by the "most urgent problems",…

  3. Association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in indigenous populations of the Circumpolar North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Kavita; Bjerregaard, Peter; Chan, Hing Man

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1990s, research has been carried out to monitor environmental contaminants and their effects on human health in the Arctic. Although evidence shows that Arctic indigenous peoples are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and do worse on several dimensions of health compar...... of clinical endpoints in assessments; and assessment of the emerging contaminants of perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers....

  4. Health Impacts of Climate and Environmental Change: Awareness and Challenges to Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furu, Peter; Duong, Van Khanh

    2013-01-01

    rise, storms, floods and increase in temperature. Generally, respondents had observed considerable changes in health patterns in recent years however, without linking these clearly to climate change or climate factors but rather to a change in environmental determinants of health such as food, water...

  5. Environmental Noise Pollution in the United States: Developing an Effective Public Health Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Monica S.; Swinburn, Tracy K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tens of millions of Americans suffer from a range of adverse health outcomes due to noise exposure, including heart disease and hearing loss. Reducing environmental noise pollution is achievable and consistent with national prevention goals, yet there is no national plan to reduce environmental noise pollution. Objectives: We aimed to describe some of the most serious health effects associated with noise, summarize exposures from several highly prevalent noise sources based on published estimates as well as extrapolations made using these estimates, and lay out proven mechanisms and strategies to reduce noise by incorporating scientific insight and technological innovations into existing public health infrastructure. Discussion: We estimated that 104 million individuals had annual LEQ(24) levels > 70 dBA (equivalent to a continuous average exposure level of >70 dBA over 24 hr) in 2013 and were at risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Tens of millions more may be at risk of heart disease, and other noise-related health effects. Direct regulation, altering the informational environment, and altering the built environment are the least costly, most logistically feasible, and most effective noise reduction interventions. Conclusion: Significant public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce environmental noise levels and exposures into the federal public health agenda. Citation: Hammer MS, Swinburn TK, Neitzel RL. 2014. Environmental noise pollution in the United States: developing an effective public health response. Environ Health Perspect 122:115–119; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307272 PMID:24311120

  6. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) at the University of California, Davis (UC Davis), conducted November 16 through 20, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the LEHR. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation, and is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations at the LEHR and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE National Laboratory or a support contractor. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Environmental Survey Interim Report for the LEHR at UC Davis. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the LEHR Survey. 75 refs., 26 figs., 23 tabs.

  7. Urban environmental health applications of remote sensing, summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, M.; Goldstein, J.; Hsi, B. P.; Olsen, C. B.

    1975-01-01

    Health and its association with the physical environment was studied based on the hypothesis that there is a relationship between the man-made physical environment and health status of a population. The statistical technique of regression analysis was employed to show the degree of association and aspects of physical environment which accounted for the greater variation in health status. Mortality, venereal disease, tuberculosis, hepatitis, meningitis, shigella/salmonella, hypertension and cardiac arrest/myocardial infarction were examined. The statistical techniques were used to measure association and variation, not necessarily cause and effect. Conclusions drawn show that the association still exists in the decade of the 1970's and that it can be successfully monitored with the methodology of remote sensing.

  8. Will considerations of environmental sustainability revitalise the policy links between the urban environment and health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores when and how considerations of population health have influenced the creation, planning and management of cities. Cities--now the dominant human habitat--must be planned and managed sustainably in a world that is manifestly experiencing increasing environmental and social strains. Early industrialisation entailed crowding, squalor and industrial environmental blight; the two great associated public health hazards were infectious diseases and air pollution. These hazards have been largely controlled in rich countries. Today's main urban health hazards are obesity (with its life-shortening health consequences) and the huge contribution of cities to climate change with the resultant risks to population health. These and other health issues in urban environments need to be understood and addressed at the community or population level. This is an ecological challenge, crucial to attaining real sustainability.

  9. Environmental health in China: progress towards clean air and safe water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L; Zhu, Tong; Liang, Song; Ezzati, Majid; Remais, Justin V

    2010-03-27

    Environmental risk factors, especially air and water pollution, are a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households, resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and sanitation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions is high. At the same time, China is rapidly industrialising with associated increases in energy use and industrial waste. Although economic growth from industrialisation has improved health and quality of life indicators, it has also increased the release of chemical toxins into the environment and the rate of environmental disasters, with severe effects on health. Air quality in China's cities is among the worst in the world, and industrial water pollution has become a widespread health hazard. Moreover, emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases from energy use are rapidly increasing. Global climate change will inevitably intensify China's environmental health troubles, with potentially catastrophic outcomes from major shifts in temperature and precipitation. Facing the overlap of traditional, modern, and emerging environmental dilemmas, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement. The country has the opportunity to address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment.

  10. Health of students in modern environmental conditions and innovative technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losik T. N.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown the row of the phenomena which negatively influence not only on a health man but also on his professional capacity: detraining of an organism through the lack of motive activity, tense emotional state of man in the process of his everyday work, negative influencing of environment and innovative technologies. The analysis of publications which examine influence of environment and innovative technologies on the state of health of man is presented. The system of organism is certain, feel like negative influence of environment and innovative technologies. It is set that an environment is indissolubly related to the man, which is the active object of nature.

  11. A GIS-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INFORMATION SOURCE FOR MALAYSIAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Tiu Chung

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a GIS-based system for collection and targeted distribution of latest alerts and real-time environmental factors to the Malaysian population. We call it the Environmental Health Management System (EHMS. This GIS-based system is designed to facilitate and encourage research into environmental health quality issues by providing a comprehensive tracking and monitoring tool. This GIS-based system is embedded with Google Maps API and Geocoding API services to visualize the location and environmental health reports from the aggregated online newspaper and social media news feeds. We introduce the design and implementation of EHMS, including the web frontend, backend, ontology, database, data acquisition, classification engine, and the standard news feeds.

  12. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  13. Knowledge assistant: A sensor fusion framework for robotic environmental characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, J.T.; Rivera, J.J.; Tucker, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    A prototype sensor fusion framework called the {open_quotes}Knowledge Assistant{close_quotes} has been developed and tested on a gantry robot at Sandia National Laboratories. This Knowledge Assistant guides the robot operator during the planning, execution, and post analysis stages of the characterization process. During the planning stage, the Knowledge Assistant suggests robot paths and speeds based on knowledge of sensors available and their physical characteristics. During execution, the Knowledge Assistant coordinates the collection of data through a data acquisition {open_quotes}specialist.{close_quotes} During execution and post analysis, the Knowledge Assistant sends raw data to other {open_quotes}specialists,{close_quotes} which include statistical pattern recognition software, a neural network, and model-based search software. After the specialists return their results, the Knowledge Assistant consolidates the information and returns a report to the robot control system where the sensed objects and their attributes (e.g. estimated dimensions, weight, material composition, etc.) are displayed in the world model. This paper highlights the major components of this system.

  14. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  15. Environmental Perceptions and Health before and after Relocation to a Green Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Piers; Spengler, John; Vallarino, Jose; Santanam, Suresh; Satish, Usha; Allen, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Green buildings are designed to have low environmental impacts and improved occupant health and well-being. Improvements to the built environment including ventilation, lighting, and materials have resulted in improved indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in green buildings, but the evidence around occupant health is currently centered around environmental perceptions and self-reported health. To investigate the objective impact of green buildings on health, we tracked IEQ, self-reported health, and heart rate in 30 participants from green and conventional buildings for two weeks. 24 participants were then selected to be relocated to the Syracuse Center of Excellence, a LEED platinum building, for six workdays. While they were there, ventilation, CO2, and volatile organic compound (VOC) levels were changed on different days to match the IEQ of conventional, green, and green+ (green with increased ventilation) buildings. Participants reported improved air quality, odors, thermal comfort, ergonomics, noise and lighting and fewer health symptoms in green buildings prior to relocation. After relocation, participants consistently reported fewer symptoms during the green building conditions compared to the conventional one, yet symptom counts were more closely associated with environmental perceptions than with measured IEQ. On average, participants had 4.7 times the odds of reporting a lack of air movement, 1.4 more symptoms (p-value = 0.019) and a 2 bpm higher heart rate (p-value green and conventional buildings is driven by both environmental perceptions and physiological pathways.

  16. Interdisciplinarity and participatory approaches to environmental health: reflections from a workshop on social, economic and behavioural factors in the genesis and health impact of environmental hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huby, Meg; Adams, Rupert

    2009-04-01

    This paper reviews a workshop discussion postulated on the notion that social, economic and behavioural factors are responsible for the creation of environmental hazards and benefits that, in turn, can affect human health, with concomitant effects on future social well-being. The workshop case study centred on environmental health investigations, public engagement and partnership work undertaken following the death of two neighbouring children in Cheshire. Discussion included questions of causality and generalisability. It revealed how the attribution of responsibility for environmental damage to health is fraught with difficulties. It may often militate against an informed and open debate among interested parties, with concomitant implications for reducing the danger from environmental hazards. To improve communication, vocabulary needs to be free from jargon and acronyms, and differences in conceptual approach between different disciplines need to be better understood. The definition of the 'community' is itself far from clear-cut, yet questions of how to involve this community in intervention processes are important ones. The workshop identified a clear need for better, more considered forms of communication with communities and the public if fears are to be allayed, but recognised the additional costs that this would incur.

  17. Sick Schools 2009: America's Continuing Environmental Health Crisis for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    Everybody knows that healthy school buildings contribute to student learning, reduce health and operating costs, and ultimately, increase school quality and competitiveness. However, 55 million of the nation's children attend public and private K-12 schools where poor air quality, hazardous chemicals and other unhealthy conditions make students…

  18. Environmental Public Health Policy for Asbestos in Schools: Unintended Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, Jacqueline Karnell

    This book explores the history of asbestos in schools and buildings and how this issue shaped the development of public health policy. It provides insight into past policy including how and why action was taken and who caused it to be taken; it also offers guidance for the scientific and regulatory communities in the future. While explaining…

  19. Environmental and Environmental-Health Implications of the USGS SAFRR California Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.; San Juan, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The California Tsunami Scenario models the impacts of a hypothetical yet plausible tsunami caused by an earthquake offshore from the Alaskan Peninsula. Here, we interpret plausible tsunami-related contamination, environmental impacts, potential for human exposures to contaminants and hazardous materials, and implications for remediation and recovery. Inundation-related damages to major ports, boat yards, and many marinas could release complex debris, crude oil, various fuel types, other petroleum products, some liquid bulk cargo and dry bulk cargo, and diverse other pollutants into nearby coastal marine environments and onshore in the inundation zone. Tsunami-induced erosion of contaminated harbor bottom sediments could re-expose previously sequestered metal and organic pollutants (e.g., organotin, DDT). Inundation-related damage to many older buildings could produce complex debris containing lead paint, asbestos, pesticides, and other legacy contaminants. Intermingled household debris and externally derived debris and sediments would be left in flooded buildings. Post tsunami, mold would likely develop in inundated houses, buildings, and debris piles. Tsunamigenic fires in spilled oil, debris, cargo, vehicles, vegetation, and residential, commercial, or industrial buildings and their contents would produce potentially toxic gases and smoke, airborne ash, and residual ash/debris containing caustic alkali solids, metal toxicants, asbestos, and various organic toxicants. Inundation of and damage to wastewater treatment plants in many coastal cities could release raw sewage containing fecal solids, pathogens, and waste chemicals, as well as chemicals used to treat wastewaters. Tsunami-related physical damages, debris, and contamination could have short- and longer-term impacts on the environment and the health of coastal marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Marine habitats in intertidal zones, marshes, sloughs, and lagoons could be damaged by erosion or sedimentation

  20. Access to human, animal, and environmental journals is still limited for the One Health community*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Carol E.; Alpi, Kristine M.; Pike, Caitlin A.; Whitman, Elisabeth E.; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Objective “One Health” is an interdisciplinary approach to evaluating and managing the health and well-being of humans, animals, and the environments they share that relies on knowledge from the domains of human health, animal health, and the environmental sciences. The authors' objective was to evaluate the extent of open access (OA) to journal articles in a sample of literature from these domains. We hypothesized that OA to articles in human health or environmental journals was greater than access to animal health literature. Methods A One Health seminar series provided fifteen topics. One librarian translated each topic into a search strategy and searched four databases for articles from 2011 to 2012. Two independent investigators assigned each article to human health, the environment, animal health, all, other, or combined categories. Article and journal-level OA were determined. Each journal was also assigned a subject category and its indexing evaluated. Results Searches retrieved 2,651 unique articles from 1,138 journals; 1,919 (72%) articles came from 406 journals that contributed more than 1 article. Seventy-seven (7%) journals dealt with all 3 One Health domains; the remaining journals represented human health 487 (43%), environment 172 (15%), animal health 141 (12%), and other/combined categories 261 (23%). The proportion of OA journals in animal health (40%) differed significantly from journals categorized as human (28%), environment (28%), and more than 1 category (29%). The proportion of OA for articles by subject categories ranged from 25%–34%; only the difference between human (34%) and environment (25%) was significant. Conclusions OA to human health literature is more comparable to animal health than hypothesized. Environmental journals had less OA than anticipated. PMID:27076796

  1. Community-based occupational/environmental health studies: The challenges and the dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Rajan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational/environmental health studies present phenomenal operational challenges to execute as per protocols due to their peculiarities and idiosyncrasies. Unlike in infectious diseases, where there is genuine desire for disease eradication by the affected communities, in environmental/occupational health studies, the dynamics are totally different, with vested interest groups working hard to maintain status quo. There are dimensions of economic dependence, politics, fear, suspicion, pressure tactics, intense lobbying, etc, that make community-based studies related to occupational/environmental health aspects very difficult. It′s not that the communities affected due to occupation/environment are not concerned about their health, but their participation is very tentative in nature; in the face of slightest risk, they would rather want to play it safe and withdraw, for their economics is at stake-not to forget vested interest groups who could go to any extent to sabotage any good work in favor of affected communities.

  2. Environmental audit of the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report documents the results of the environmental audit conducted at the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Environmental Restoration (LEHR-ER) Project at University of California-Davis (UCD), Davis, California. The scope of the audit at the LEHR-ER was comprehensive, addressing environmental activities in the technical areas of air; surface water/drinking water; groundwater and soils/sediment/biota; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; inactive waste sites; radiation; quality assurance; and environmental management. Specifically assessed was the compliance of LEHR-ER operations and activities with Federal, state, and local regulations; DOE Orders; and best management practices (BMPs).

  3. Environmental threats to children's health in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, William A; Ruchirawat, Kuhnying Mathuros; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Berger, Martha; Carpenter, David; Damstra, Terri; de Garbino, Jenny Pronczuk; Koh, David; Landrigan, Philip J; Makalinao, Irma; Sly, Peter D; Xu, Y; Zheng, B S

    2003-08-01

    The Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions contain half of the world's children and are among the most rapidly industrializing regions of the globe. Environmental threats to children's health are widespread and are multiplying as nations in the area undergo industrial development and pass through the epidemiologic transition. These environmental hazards range from traditional threats such as bacterial contamination of drinking water and wood smoke in poorly ventilated dwellings to more recently introduced chemical threats such as asbestos construction materials; arsenic in groundwater; methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India; untreated manufacturing wastes released to landfills; chlorinated hydrocarbon and organophosphorous pesticides; and atmospheric lead emissions from the combustion of leaded gasoline. To address these problems, pediatricians, environmental health scientists, and public health workers throughout Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific have begun to build local and national research and prevention programs in children's environmental health. Successes have been achieved as a result of these efforts: A cost-effective system for producing safe drinking water at the village level has been devised in India; many nations have launched aggressive antismoking campaigns; and Thailand, the Philippines, India, and Pakistan have all begun to reduce their use of lead in gasoline, with resultant declines in children's blood lead levels. The International Conference on Environmental Threats to the Health of Children, held in Bangkok, Thailand, in March 2002, brought together more than 300 representatives from 35 countries and organizations to increase awareness on environmental health hazards affecting children in these regions and throughout the world. The conference, a direct result of the Environmental Threats to the Health of Children meeting held in Manila in April 2000, provided participants with the latest scientific data on children's vulnerability to

  4. Personal and household hygiene, environmental contamination, and health in undergraduate residence halls in New York City, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Miko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While several studies have documented the importance of hand washing in the university setting, the added role of environmental hygiene remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the personal and environmental hygiene habits of college students, define the determinants of hygiene in this population, and assess the relationship between reported hygiene behaviors, environmental contamination, and health status. METHODS: 501 undergraduate students completed a previously validated survey assessing baseline demographics, hygiene habits, determinants of hygiene, and health status. Sixty survey respondents had microbiological samples taken from eight standardized surfaces in their dormitory environment. Bacterial contamination was assessed using standard quantitative bacterial culture techniques. Additional culturing for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and coliforms was performed using selective agar. RESULTS: While the vast majority of study participants (n = 461, 92% believed that hand washing was important for infection prevention, there was a large amount of variation in reported personal hygiene practices. More women than men reported consistent hand washing before preparing food (p = .002 and after using the toilet (p = .001. Environmental hygiene showed similar variability although 73.3% (n = 367 of subjects reported dormitory cleaning at least once per month. Contamination of certain surfaces was common, with at least one third of all bookshelves, desks, refrigerator handles, toilet handles, and bathroom door handles positive for >10 CFU of bacteria per 4 cm(2 area. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected in three participants' rooms (5% and coliforms were present in six students' rooms (10%. Surface contamination with any bacteria did not vary by frequency of cleaning or frequency of illness (p>.05. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that surface contamination, while prevalent, is unrelated to

  5. Personal and Household Hygiene, Environmental Contamination, and Health in Undergraduate Residence Halls in New York City, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxall, Katharine; Conway, Laurie; Kelly, Nicole; Stare, Dianne; Tropiano, Christina; Gilman, Allan; Seward, Samuel L.; Larson, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Background While several studies have documented the importance of hand washing in the university setting, the added role of environmental hygiene remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the personal and environmental hygiene habits of college students, define the determinants of hygiene in this population, and assess the relationship between reported hygiene behaviors, environmental contamination, and health status. Methods 501 undergraduate students completed a previously validated survey assessing baseline demographics, hygiene habits, determinants of hygiene, and health status. Sixty survey respondents had microbiological samples taken from eight standardized surfaces in their dormitory environment. Bacterial contamination was assessed using standard quantitative bacterial culture techniques. Additional culturing for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and coliforms was performed using selective agar. Results While the vast majority of study participants (n = 461, 92%) believed that hand washing was important for infection prevention, there was a large amount of variation in reported personal hygiene practices. More women than men reported consistent hand washing before preparing food (p = .002) and after using the toilet (p = .001). Environmental hygiene showed similar variability although 73.3% (n = 367) of subjects reported dormitory cleaning at least once per month. Contamination of certain surfaces was common, with at least one third of all bookshelves, desks, refrigerator handles, toilet handles, and bathroom door handles positive for >10 CFU of bacteria per 4 cm2 area. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected in three participants' rooms (5%) and coliforms were present in six students' rooms (10%). Surface contamination with any bacteria did not vary by frequency of cleaning or frequency of illness (p>.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that surface contamination, while prevalent, is unrelated to

  6. The cost of hypertension-related ill-health attributable to environmental noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Anne-Helen; Frost, Gillian A; Tan, Emma; Tsuchiya, Aki; Mason, Howard M

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension (HT) is associated with environmental noise exposure and is a risk factor for a range of health outcomes. The study aims were to identify key HT related health outcomes and to quantify and monetize the impact on health outcomes attributable to environmental noise-related HT. A reiterative literature review identified key HT related health outcomes and their quantitative links with HT. The health impact of increases in environmental noise above recommended daytime noise levels (55 dB[A]) were quantified in terms of quality adjusted life years and then monetized. A case study evaluated the cost of environmental noise, using published data on health risks and the number of people exposed to various bands of environmental noise levels in the United Kingdom (UK). Three health outcomes were selected based on the strength of evidence linking them with HT and their current impact on society: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke and dementia. In the UK population, an additional 542 cases of HT-related AMI, 788 cases of stroke and 1169 cases of dementia were expected per year due to daytime noise levels ≥55 dB(A). The cost of these additional cases was valued at around £1.09 billion, with dementia accounting for 44%. The methodology is dependent on the availability and quality of published data and the resulting valuations reflect these limitations. The estimated intangible cost provides an insight into the scale of the health impacts and conversely the benefits that the implementation of policies to manage environmental noise may confer.

  7. The cost of hypertension-related ill-health attributable to environmental noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Helen Harding

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension (HT is associated with environmental noise exposure and is a risk factor for a range of health outcomes. The study aims were to identify key HT related health outcomes and to quantify and monetize the impact on health outcomes attributable to environmental noise-related HT. A reiterative literature review identified key HT related health outcomes and their quantitative links with HT. The health impact of increases in environmental noise above recommended daytime noise levels (55 dB[A] were quantified in terms of quality adjusted life years and then monetized. A case study evaluated the cost of environmental noise, using published data on health risks and the number of people exposed to various bands of environmental noise levels in the United Kingdom (UK. Three health outcomes were selected based on the strength of evidence linking them with HT and their current impact on society: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI, stroke and dementia. In the UK population, an additional 542 cases of HT-related AMI, 788 cases of stroke and 1169 cases of dementia were expected per year due to daytime noise levels ≥55 dB(A. The cost of these additional cases was valued at around £1.09 billion, with dementia accounting for 44%. The methodology is dependent on the availability and quality of published data and the resulting valuations reflect these limitations. The estimated intangible cost provides an insight into the scale of the health impacts and conversely the benefits that the implementation of policies to manage environmental noise may confer.

  8. Environmental characterization of two potential locations at Hanford for a new production reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, E.C.; Becker, C.D.; Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.; Imhoff, K.L.; McCallum, R.F.; Myers, D.A.; Page, T.L.; Price, K.R.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Rice D.G.; Schreiber D.L.; Skumatz L.A.; Sommer D.J.; Tawil J.J.; Wallace R.W.; Watson D.G.

    1984-09-01

    This report describes various environmental aspects of two areas on the Hanford Site that are potential locations for a New Production Reactor (NPR). The area known as the Skagit Hanford Site is considered the primary or reference site. The second area, termed the Firehouse Site, is considered the alternate site. The report encompasses an environmental characterization of these two potential NPR locations. Eight subject areas are covered: geography and demography; ecology; meteorology; hydrology; geology; cultural resources assessment; economic and social effects of station construction and operation; and environmental monitoring. 80 refs., 68 figs., 109 tabs.

  9. Paraho environmental data. Part I. Process characterization. Par II. Air quality. Part III. Water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heistand, R.N.; Atwood, R.A.; Richardson, K.L.

    1980-06-01

    From 1973 to 1978, Development Engineering, Inc. (DEI), a subsidiary of Paraho Development Corporation, demostrated the Paraho technology for surface oil shale retorting at Anvil Points, Colorado. A considerable amount of environmentally-related research was also conducted. This body of data represents the most comprehensive environmental data base relating to surface retorting that is currently available. In order to make this information available, the DOE Office of Environment has undertaken to compile, assemble, and publish this environmental data. The compilation has been prepared by DEI. This report includes the process characterization, air quality, and water quality categories.

  10. Geopressured geothermal resource of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast: a technology characterization and environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usibelli, A.; Deibler, P.; Sathaye, J.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal resource: (1) the technological requirements for well drilling, completion, and energy conversion, and, (2) the environmental impacts of resource exploitation are examined. The information comes from the literature on geopressured geothermal research and from interviews and discussions with experts. The technology characterization section emphasizes those areas in which uncertainty exists and in which further research and development is needed. The environmental assessment section discusses all anticipated environmental impacts and focuses on the two largest potential problems: (a) subsidence and (b) brine disposal.

  11. Environmental Noise Annoyance and Mental Health in Adults: Findings from the Cross-Sectional German Health Update (GEDA Study 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friederike Hammersen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The health implications of environmental noise, especially cardiovascular effects, have been studied intensively. Research on associations between noise and mental health, however, has shown contradictory results. The present study examined associations between individual levels of noise annoyance due to noise from various sources in the living environment and mental health of adults in Germany. It evaluated whether these associations persisted after adjusting for potential covariates. Data were obtained from the cross-sectional “German Health Update” study 2012 (GEDA 2012, a national health interview survey among adults in Germany conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (n = 19,294. Noise annoyance questions referred to overall noise and that from road traffic, neighbours, and air traffic. Mental health was measured with the five-item Mental Health Inventory. Bivariate analysis showed associations between high levels of noise annoyance and impaired mental health for all noise sources except air traffic. After adjusting for covariates (sociodemographic factors, chronic disease, and social support, both men and women who reported high overall noise annoyance showed more than doubled odds of impaired mental health compared to those who were not annoyed. The odds of impaired mental health in the highest noise annoyance category from road traffic and neighbours were also significantly increased. These findings indicate that high noise annoyance is associated with impaired mental health and that this association can vary with the source of environmental noise. Further research on covariates of this association is necessary. Particularly, longitudinal data are required to establish the direction of associations and to address questions of causality.

  12. A Review of Programs That Targeted Environmental Determinants of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Rowley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Effective interventions to improve population and individual health require environmental change as well as strategies that target individual behaviours and clinical factors. This is the basis of implementing an ecological approach to health programs and health promotion. For Aboriginal People and Torres Strait Islanders, colonisation has made the physical and social environment particularly detrimental for health. Methods and Results: We conducted a literature review to identify Aboriginal health interventions that targeted environmental determinants of health, identifying 21 different health programs. Program activities that targeted environmental determinants of health included: Caring for Country; changes to food supply and/or policy; infrastructure for physical activity; housing construction and maintenance; anti-smoking policies; increased workforce capacity; continuous quality improvement of clinical systems; petrol substitution; and income management. Targets were categorised according to Miller’s Living Systems Theory. Researchers using an Indigenous community based perspective more often identified interpersonal and community-level targets than were identified using a Western academic perspective. Conclusions: Although there are relatively few papers describing interventions that target environmental determinants of health, many of these addressed such determinants at multiple levels, consistent to some degree with an ecological approach. Interpretation of program targets sometimes differed between academic and community-based perspectives, and was limited by the type of data reported in the journal articles, highlighting the need for local Indigenous knowledge for accurate program evaluation. Implications: While an ecological approach to Indigenous health is increasingly evident in the health research literature, the design and evaluation of such programs requires a wide breadth of expertise, including local Indigenous

  13. Child Labor and Environmental Health: Government Obligations and Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Amon, Joseph J.; Jane Buchanan; Jane Cohen; Juliane Kippenberg

    2012-01-01

    The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. 174 countries around the world have signed or ratified the convention, which requires countries to adopt laws and implement programs to prohibit and eliminate child labor that poses harms to health or safety. Nonetheless, child labor continues to be common in the agriculture and mining sectors, where safety and envi...

  14. Health and environmental effects document for batteries: 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    An evaluation is presented of the ecological and health effects of the near-term electric storage batteries (lead/acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron) as related to electric and hybrid vehicle applications. The storage battery technology is considered in its totality, and emissions are estimated for the complete cycle. For estimating quantities of various emissions, the market penetration is assumed to be 3 x 10/sup 6/ Pb/acid battery-powered vehicles and 8 x 10/sup 6/ each of the Ni/Zn and Ni/Fe battery-powered vehicles on the road by the year 2000. Ecological effects are assessed using the Estimated Permissible Concentration (EPC) approach. Pb, S, Cu, Ni, Cd, Zn, and Sb appear to be the most hazardous emission constituents and exceed EPC values for protection of ecology in one or more of the battery-related industries. More definitive, quantitative estimates of damage to the biota and to the ecosystem are not feasible because of paucity of relevant information. Health effects as a result of increased levels of lead, arsenic, and cadmium in the environment and risks of exposure to arsine, stibine, and antimony trioxide released during charging are assessed. Health effects among the occupationally exposed are also assessed using the toxicological models. Acute and chronic effects of exposure to stibine, arsine, and antimony trioxide are described.

  15. 40 CFR 720.50 - Submission of test data and other data concerning the health and environmental effects of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concerning the health and environmental effects of a substance. 720.50 Section 720.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT PREMANUFACTURE... concerning the health and environmental effects of the new chemical substance that are known to or...

  16. Using a partnership barometer to evaluate environmental public health tracking activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkedal, Marni Y V; Malecki, Kristen M; Werner, Mark A; Anderson, Henry A

    2008-01-01

    High-quality environmental health surveillance is challenged by a system in which environmental and health agencies often function with insufficient coordination to routinely address critical issues. The Environmental Public Health Tracking program is working to build a more cohesive system with the capacity for integrated data and information. This work requires a significant amount of effort dedicated to establishing strong partnerships between agencies. Such a task requires skills and activities that differ significantly from the more technical skills needed to physically link data and information from environmental and health resources. Although the work to link people is different from linking data, it is of primary importance because the development of strong partnerships almost invariably provides the necessary foundation for the future integration of data and expertise. As such, the development of partnerships between environmental and health agencies needs to be recognized as a priority product. One approach for moving partnerships into the fore is the creation of assessment tools, or "partnership barometers," that objectively quantify the collaborative process for monitoring progress between and within partners over time. Such measurement would provide a realistic indicator of progress toward tangible products but more importantly emphasizes the importance of building sustainable relationships.

  17. Site Environmental Report for 2006. Volume I, Environment, Health, and Safety Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-09-30

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.1 The Site Environmental Report for 2006 summarizes Berkeley Lab’s environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2006. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as “Berkeley Lab,” “the Laboratory,” “Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,” and “LBNL.”) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of the Laboratory, a discussion of the Laboratory’s environmental management system, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  18. Medical tourism in the Caribbean region: a call to consider environmental health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R; Crooks, V A

    2013-03-01

    Medical tourism, which is the intentional travel by private-paying patients across international borders for medical treatment, is a sector that has been targeted for growth in many Caribbean countries. The international development of this industry has raised a core set of proposed health equity benefits and drawbacks for host countries. These benefits centre on the potential investment in health infrastructure and opportunities for health labour force development while drawbacks focus on the potential for reduced access to healthcare for locals and inefficient use of limited public resources to support the growth of the medical tourism industry. The development of the medical tourism sector in Caribbean countries raises additional health equity questions that have received little attention in existing international debates, specifically in regard to environmental health equity. In this viewpoint, we introduce questions of environmental health equity that clearly emerge in relation to the developing Caribbean medical tourism sector These questions acknowledge that the growth of this sector will have impacts on the social and physical environments, resources, and waste management infrastructure in countries. We contend that in addition to addressing the wider health equity concerns that have been consistently raised in existing debates surrounding the growth of medical tourism, planning for growth in this sector in the Caribbean must take environmental health equity into account in order to ensure that local populations, environments, and ecosystems are not harmed by facilities catering to international patients.

  19. Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for presentation on Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions. The abstract is attached.

  20. Linking Asthma Exacerbation and Air Pollution Data: A Step Toward Public Health and Environmental Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Fazlay; Finley, Richard; Marshall, Gailen; Brackin, Bruce; Li, Hui; Williams, Worth; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Luvall, Jeffrey; Rickman, Doug; Crosson, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that reducing exposure to triggers such as air pollutants can reduce symptoms and the need for medication in asthma patients. However, systems that track asthma are generally not integrated with those that track environmental hazards related to asthma. Tlvs lack of integration hinders public health awareness and responsiveness to these environmental triggers. The current study is a collaboration between health and environmental professionals to utilize NASA-derived environmental data to develop a decision support system (DSS) for asthma prediction, surveillance, and intervention. The investigators link asthma morbidity data from the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) and Mississippi Department of Health (MDH) with air quality data from the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) and remote sensing data from NASA. Daily ambient environmental hazard data for PM2.5 and ozone are obtained from the MDEQ air quality monitoring locations and are combined with remotely sensed data from NASA to develop a state-wide spatial and time series profile of environmental air quality. These data are then used to study the correlation of these measures of air quality variation with the asthma exacerbation incidence throughout the state over time. The goal is to utilize these readily available measures to allow real-time risk assessment for asthma exacerbations. GeoMedStat, a DSS previously developed for biosurveillance, will integrate these measures to monitor, analyze and report the real-time risk assessment for asthma exacerbation throughout the state.