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Sample records for characterization thermal behavior

  1. Synthesis, characterization and thermal behavior of rare earth amido sulfonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiz, Jose Marques; Nunes, Ronaldo Spezia; Matos, Jivaldo do Rosario

    2013-01-01

    Hydrated compounds prepared in aqueous solution by reaction between amidosulfonic acid [H 3 NSO 3 ] and suspensions of rare earth hydroxycarbonates [Ln 2 (OH) x (CO 3 ) y .zH 2 O] were characterized by elemental analysis (% Ln, % N and % H), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TG). The compounds presented the stoichiometry Ln(NH 2 SO 3 ) 3 .xH 2 O (where x = 1, 5, 2.0 or 3.0). The IR spectra showed absorptions characteristic of H 2 O molecules and NH 2 SO 3 groups. Degree of hydration, thermal decomposition steps and formation of stable intermediates of the type [Ln 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ] and (Ln 2 O 2 SO 4 ), besides formation of their oxides, was determined by thermogravimetry. (author)

  2. High-G Thermal Characterization Centrifuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — High-G testing of thermal components enables improved understanding of operating behavior under military-relevant environments. The High-G Thermal Characterization...

  3. Thulium oxide fuel characterization study: Part 2, Environmental behavior and mechanical, thermal and chemical stability enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.A.

    1970-12-01

    A study was performed of the correlation between fuel form stability and exposure environment of (temperature and atmosphere). 100% Tm 2 O 3 , 80% Tm 2 O 3 /20% Yb 2 O 3 and 100% Yb 2 O 3 wafers were subjected to air, dynamic vacuum and static vacuum at temperatures to 2000 0 C for times to 100 hours. Results showed the Tm 2 O 3 /Yb 2 O 3 cubic structure to be unaffected by elemental levels of iron, aluminum, magnesium and silicon and unaffected by the environmental conditions imposed on the wafers. A second task emphasized the optimization of the thermal, mechanical and chemical stability of Tm 2 O 3 fuel forms. Enhancement was sought through process variable optimization and the addition of metal oxides to Tm 2 O 3 . CaO, TiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 were added to form a grain boundary precipitate to control fines generation. The presence of 1% additive was inadequate to depress the melting point of Tm 2 O 3 or to change the cubic crystalline structure of Tm 2 O 3 /Yb 2 O 3 . Tm 2 O 3 /Yb 2 O 3 wafers containing CaO developed a grain boundary phase that improved the resistance to fines generation. The presence of Yb 2 O 3 did not appear to measurably influence behavior

  4. Synthesis, characterization, thermal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Bal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work explains the synthesis of a new azo-Schiff base compound, derived from condensation between N-ethylcarbazole-3-carbaldehyde and 1,3-diaminopropane, followed by azo coupling reaction with the diazonium salt of 2-amino-4-methyl phenol. The newly synthesized azo-Schiff base was further reacted with the acetate salts of Copper, Cobalt and Nickel to give three coordination compounds. All synthesized compounds have been characterized through spectral analysis. The coordination compounds have been examined for their thermal and catalytic features. Good and moderate yields were obtained for the oxidation of styrene and cyclohexene. Thermal features of the ligand and its complexes have been explained and the results obtained have supported the proposed structures.

  5. Rheological behavior, chemical and physical characterization of soybean and cottonseed methyl esters submitted to thermal oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adriano Sant' ana; Silva, Flavio Luiz Honorato da; Lima, Ezenildo Emanuel de; Carvalho, Maria Wilma N.C. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia; Dantas, Hemeval Jales; Farias, Paulo de Almeida [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (CTRN/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Recursos Naturais

    2008-07-01

    In this study the effect of antioxidant terc-butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) on the oxidative stability of soybean and cottonseed methyl esters subjected to thermal degradation at 100 deg C was studied. Soybean and cottonseed methyl esters specific mass, dynamic viscosity and rheological behavior were evaluated. According to results, antioxidant degraded samples specific mass and dynamic viscosity did not showed alterations, remaining statistically equal. Soybean and cottonseed methyl esters showed a Newtonian rheological behavior and degraded samples without adding BHA showed rheological behavior alterations. (author)

  6. Comparative physical-chemical characterization of encapsulated lipid-based isotretinoin products assessed by particle size distribution and thermal behavior analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Carla Aiolfi, E-mail: carlaaiolfi@usp.br [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Menaa, Farid [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg 97080 (Germany); Fluorotronics, Inc., 1425 Russ Bvld, San Diego Technology Incubator, San Diego, CA 92101 (United States); Menaa, Bouzid, E-mail: bouzid.menaa@gmail.com [Fluorotronics, Inc., 1425 Russ Bvld, San Diego Technology Incubator, San Diego, CA 92101 (United States); Quenca-Guillen, Joyce S. [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Matos, Jivaldo do Rosario [Department of Fundamental Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Mercuri, Lucildes Pita [Department of Exact and Earth Sciences, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Diadema, SP 09972-270 (Brazil); Braz, Andre Borges [Department of Engineering of Mines and Oil, Polytechnical School, University of Sao Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Rossetti, Fabia Cristina [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP 14015-120 (Brazil); Kedor-Hackmann, Erika Rosa Maria; Santoro, Maria Ines Rocha Miritello [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil)

    2010-06-10

    Isotretinoin is the drug of choice for the management of severe recalcitrant nodular acne. Nevertheless, some of its physical-chemical properties are still poorly known. Hence, the aim of our study consisted to comparatively evaluate the particle size distribution (PSD) and characterize the thermal behavior of the three encapsulated isotretinoin products in oil suspension (one reference and two generics) commercialized in Brazil. Here, we show that the PSD, estimated by laser diffraction and by polarized light microscopy, differed between the generics and the reference product. However, the thermal behavior of the three products, determined by thermogravimetry (TGA), differential thermal (DTA) analyses and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), displayed no significant changes and were more thermostable than the isotretinoin standard used as internal control. Thus, our study suggests that PSD analyses in isotretinoin lipid-based formulations should be routinely performed in order to improve their quality and bioavailability.

  7. Characterization of physicochemical and thermal properties and crystallization behavior of krabok (Irvingia Malayana ) and rambutan seed fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Ponprachanuvut, Punnee

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition, physicochemical and thermal properties and crystallization behavior of fats extracted from the seeds of krabok (Irvingia Malayana) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) trees grown in Thailand were studied and compared with cocoa butter (CB). The krabok seed fat, KSF, consisted of 46.9% lauric and 40.3% myristic acids. It exhibited the highest saponification value and slip melting point but the lowest iodine values. The three fats displayed different crystallization behavior at 25°C. KSF crystallized into a mixture of β' and pseudo-β' structures with a one-step crystallization curve and high solid fat content (SFC). The fat showed simple DSC crystallization and melting thermograms with one distinct peak. The rambutan seed fat, RSF, consisted of 42.5% arachidic and 33.1% oleic acids. Its crystallization behavior was more similar to CB than KSF, displaying a two-step crystallization curve with SFC lower than that of KSF. RSF solidified into a mixture of β' and pseudo-β' before transforming to β after 24 h. The large spherulitic microstructures were observed in both KSF and RSF. According to these results, the Thai KSF and RSF exhibited physicochemical, thermal characteristics and crystallization behavior that could be suitable for specific applications in several areas of the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and thermal behavior: Gd(NO3)3.6H2O to Gd2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghonge, Darshana K.; Sheelvantra, Smita S.; Kalekar, Bhupesh B.; Raje, Naina

    2015-01-01

    Gadolinium oxide finds its application in nuclear as well as medical industry. It has been prepared from the thermal decomposition of gadolinium nitrate hexahydrate. Surface area of the synthesized compound was measured as 19 m 2 /g. EDS data shows only the presence of gadolinium and oxygen in the synthesized compound with the Gd to O ratio as calculated for Gd 2 O 3 , suggests the formation of pure Gd 2 O 3 . XRD analysis confirms the formation of pure cubic phase Gd 2 O 3 . In the absence of any report on the thermal behavior of GdNH, present studies have been carried out to understand the decomposition mechanism using simultaneous TG - DTA - EGA measurements

  9. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The operating temperature is critical in achieving the right balance between performance, cost, and life for both Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors. The chemistries of advanced energy-storage devices - such as lithium-based batteries - are very sensitive to operating temperature. High temperatures degrade batteries faster while low temperatures decrease their power and capacity, affecting vehicle range, performance, and cost. Understanding heat generation in battery systems - from the individual cells within a module, to the inter-connects between the cells, and across the entire battery system - is imperative for designing effective thermal-management systems and battery packs. At NREL, we have developed unique capabilities to measure the thermal properties of cells and evaluate thermal performance of battery packs (air or liquid cooled). We also use our electro-thermal finite element models to analyze the thermal performance of battery systems in order to aid battery developers with improved thermal designs. NREL's tools are used to meet the weight, life, cost, and volume goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy for electric drive vehicles.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and thermal behavior of rare earth amido sulfonates; Sintese, caracterizacao e comportamento termico de amidossulfonatos de terras raras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luiz, Jose Marques; Nunes, Ronaldo Spezia, E-mail: jmluiz@feg.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Departamento de Fisica e Quimica; Matos, Jivaldo do Rosario [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2013-09-01

    Hydrated compounds prepared in aqueous solution by reaction between amidosulfonic acid [H{sub 3}NSO{sub 3}] and suspensions of rare earth hydroxycarbonates [Ln{sub 2}(OH){sub x}(CO{sub 3}){sub y}.zH{sub 2}O] were characterized by elemental analysis (% Ln, % N and % H), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TG). The compounds presented the stoichiometry Ln(NH{sub 2}SO{sub 3}){sub 3}.xH{sub 2}O (where x = 1, 5, 2.0 or 3.0). The IR spectra showed absorptions characteristic of H{sub 2}O molecules and NH{sub 2}SO{sub 3} groups. Degree of hydration, thermal decomposition steps and formation of stable intermediates of the type [Ln{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}] and (Ln{sub 2}O{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), besides formation of their oxides, was determined by thermogravimetry. (author)

  11. Characterization and thermal behavior of PrMO{sub 3} (M = Co or Ni) ceramic materials obtained from gelatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, F.M., E-mail: flavyma@hotmail.com [Federal University of Rio Grande of Norte, Laboratory of Catalysis and Refining – NUPRAR, Av. Senador Salgado Filho, 3000, CEP 59078-970, Natal-RN (Brazil); Melo, D.M.A. [Federal University of Rio Grande of Norte, Laboratory of Catalysis and Refining – NUPRAR, Av. Senador Salgado Filho, 3000, CEP 59078-970, Natal-RN (Brazil); Pimentel, P.M. [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Campus Angicos, CEP 59515-000, Angicos-RN (Brazil); Braga, R.M.; Melo, M.A.F.; Martinelli, A.E.; Costa, A.F. [Federal University of Rio Grande of Norte, Laboratory of Catalysis and Refining – NUPRAR, Av. Senador Salgado Filho, 3000, CEP 59078-970, Natal-RN (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: The micrograph in figure shows sample calcined at temperature 900 °C. The sample exhibits morphology with considerable porosity and the formation of agglomerated nanometric particles. Gelatin provides the system with a large amount of organic matter, which is then removed during calcinations, favoring the appearance of pores in the material. Highlights: ► Oxides with PrNiO{sub 3} and PrCoO{sub 3} were prepared by new method synthesis. ► The gelatin, through its carboxylate groups and amine, is an efficient director. ► The obtained materials have magnetic properties and application in catalysis. ► The decomposition kinetic study of bonding groups of gelatin with metallic ions that takes part in the synthesis of PrMO{sub 3}. -- Abstract: Metal oxides with perovskite-type structure have attracted considerable interest in recent years due to their magnetic and electrical properties, as well as their catalytic activity. In this study, oxides with PrNiO{sub 3} and PrCoO{sub 3} composition were prepared by using gelatin powder as a precursor agent for its use as a catalyst. The powders obtained were calcined at 700 °C and 900 °C and characterized using the X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis (thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis), infrared spectroscopy, temperature programed reduction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Thermogravimetric data using the non-isothermal kinetic models of Flynn and Wall and “Model-free Kinetics” were used to determine the activation energy to study the decomposition kinetics of the ligand groups with system's metallic ions that takes part in the synthesis of PrMO{sub 3} (M = Ni or Co).

  12. Thermal fatigue behavior of valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moinereau, D.; Scliffet, L.; Capion, J.C.; Genette, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that valves of pressurized water reactors are exposed to thermal shocks during transient operations. The numerous thermal shock tests performed on valves on the EDF test facilities have shown the sensibility of fillets and geometrical discontinuities to thermal fatigue: cracks can appear in those areas and grow through the valve body. Valves systems designated as level 1 must be designed to withstand fatigue up to the second isolation valve: the relevant rule is specified in the paragraph B 3500 of the French RCCM code. It is a simplified method which doesn't require finite element calculations. Many valve systems have been designed according to this rule and have been operated without accident. However, in one case, important cracks were found in the fillet of a check-valve after numerous thermal shocks. Calculation of the valve's behavior according to the RCCM code to estimate the fatigue damage resulting from thermal shocks led to a low damage factor, which doesn't agree with the experimental results. This was confirmed by new testings and showed the inadequacy of B 3500 rule for thermal transients. On this base a new rule is proposed to estimate fatigue damage resulting from thermal shocks. An experimental program has been realized to validate this rule. Axisymetrical analytical mock-ups with different geometries and one check-valve in austenitic stainless steel 316 L have been submitted to hot thermal shocks of 210 degrees C magnitude

  13. Thermal behavior of natural zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bish, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal behavior of natural zeolites impacts their application and identification and varies significantly from zeolite to zeolite. Zeolites evolve H 2 0 upon heating, but recent data show that distinct ''types'' of water (e.g., loosely bound or tightly bound zeolitic water) do not exist. Rather water is bound primarily to extra-framework cations with a continuum of energies, giving rise to pseudocontinuous loss of water accompanied by a dynamic interaction between remaining H 2 0 molecules and extra-framework cations. These interactions in the channels of zeolites give rise to dehydration dependent on the extra-framework cation, in addition to temperature and water vapor pressure. The dehydration reaction and the extra-framework cation also affect the thermal expansion/contraction. Most zeolites undergo dehydration-induced contractions that may be anisotropic, although minor thermal expansion can be seen with some zeolites. Such contractions can be partially or completely irreversible if they involve modifications of the tetrahedral framework and/or if rehydration is sluggish. Thermally induced structural modifications are also driven initially by dehydration and the concomitant contraction and migration of extra-framework cations. Contraction is accommodated by rotations of structural units and tetrahedral cation-oxygen linkages may break. Thermal reactions that involve breaking of tetrahedral cation-oxygen bonds markedly irreversible and may be kinetically limited, producing large differences between short- and long-term heating

  14. Synthesis, characterization and thermal behavior of antibacterial and antifungal active zinc complexes of bis (3(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-allylidene-1,2-diaminoethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montazerozohori, Morteza, E-mail: mmzohori@mail.yu.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75918-74831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zahedi, Saeedeh [Department of Chemistry, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75918-74831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naghiha, Asghar [Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Yasouj University, Yasouj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zohour, Mostafa Montazer [Genetics of Non-Communicable Disease Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    In this work, synthesis of a new series of zinc halide/pseudohalide complexes of a bidentate Schiff base ligand entitled as bis (3-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-allylidene)-1,2-diaminoethane(L) is described. The ligand and its zinc complexes were characterized by various techniques such as elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV–visible, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra, cyclic voltammetry, and conductometry. Accordingly ZnLX{sub 2} (X = Cl{sup −}, Br{sup −}, I{sup −}, SCN{sup −} and N{sub 3}{sup −}) was suggested as molecular formula of the complexes. Redox behaviors of ligand and its zinc complexes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry method. Furthermore, the ligand and its zinc halide/pseudohalide complexes were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activities against two gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Also in vitro antifungal activities of them against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were investigated. The results indicated that all compounds are antibacterial and antifungal active. Thermal behaviors of ligand and its zinc complexes were studied from room temperature to 1100 °C under argon atmosphere. It was found that the ligand and zinc iodide are decomposed completely via three and four steps respectively while other zinc complexes leave out the metal or organometallic compounds as final residuals after 3–4 decomposition steps at above temperature range. Moreover evaluation of some thermo-kinetic parameters such as activation energy (∆E{sup ⁎}), enthalpy (∆H{sup ⁎}), entropy (∆S{sup ⁎}) and Gibbs free energy change (∆G{sup ⁎}) of the thermal decomposition steps were performed based on the Coats–Redfern relation. - Highlights: • Some novel complexes of Zn(II) with a bidentate Schiff base ligand have been synthesized. • Redox behavior of ligand and zinc complexes was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. • The

  15. Synthesis, characterization and thermal behavior of antibacterial and antifungal active zinc complexes of bis (3(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-allylidene-1,2-diaminoethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montazerozohori, Morteza; Zahedi, Saeedeh; Naghiha, Asghar; Zohour, Mostafa Montazer

    2014-01-01

    In this work, synthesis of a new series of zinc halide/pseudohalide complexes of a bidentate Schiff base ligand entitled as bis (3-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-allylidene)-1,2-diaminoethane(L) is described. The ligand and its zinc complexes were characterized by various techniques such as elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV–visible, 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra, cyclic voltammetry, and conductometry. Accordingly ZnLX 2 (X = Cl − , Br − , I − , SCN − and N 3 − ) was suggested as molecular formula of the complexes. Redox behaviors of ligand and its zinc complexes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry method. Furthermore, the ligand and its zinc halide/pseudohalide complexes were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activities against two gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and two gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Also in vitro antifungal activities of them against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were investigated. The results indicated that all compounds are antibacterial and antifungal active. Thermal behaviors of ligand and its zinc complexes were studied from room temperature to 1100 °C under argon atmosphere. It was found that the ligand and zinc iodide are decomposed completely via three and four steps respectively while other zinc complexes leave out the metal or organometallic compounds as final residuals after 3–4 decomposition steps at above temperature range. Moreover evaluation of some thermo-kinetic parameters such as activation energy (∆E ⁎ ), enthalpy (∆H ⁎ ), entropy (∆S ⁎ ) and Gibbs free energy change (∆G ⁎ ) of the thermal decomposition steps were performed based on the Coats–Redfern relation. - Highlights: • Some novel complexes of Zn(II) with a bidentate Schiff base ligand have been synthesized. • Redox behavior of ligand and zinc complexes was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. • The ligand and its zinc complexes are antibacterial and

  16. Thermal expansion behavior in fabricated cellular structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oruganti, R.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Mazumder, J.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal expansion behavior of cellular structures is of interest in applications where undesirable deformation and failure are caused by thermal expansion mismatch. This report describes the role of processing-induced effects and metallurgical aspects of melt-processed cellular structures, such as a bi-material structure designed to contract on heating, as well as uni-material structures of regular and stochastic topology. This bi-material structure utilized the principle of internal geometric constraints to alter the expansion behavior of the internal ligaments to create overall contraction of the structure. Homogenization design method was used to design the structure, and fabrication was by direct metal deposition by laser melting of powder in another part of a joint effort. The degree of porosity and grain size in the fabricated structure are characterized and related to the laser deposition parameters. The structure was found to contract upon heating over a short range of temperature subsequent to which normal expansion ensued. Also examined in this report are uni-material cellular structures, in which internal constraints arise from residual stress variations caused by the fabrication process, and thereby alter their expansion characteristics. A simple analysis of thermal strain of this material supports the observed thermal expansion behavior

  17. Thermal behavior of asphalt cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudy, P.M.; Letoffe, J.M.; Martin, D.; Planche, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Asphalt cements are highly complex mixtures of hydrocarbon molecules whose thermal behavior is of prime importance for petroleum and road industry. From DSC, the determination of several thermal properties of asphalts is given, e.g. glass-transition temperature and crystallized fraction content.The dissolution of a pure n-paraffin C n H 2n+2 in an asphalt, as seen by DSC, should be a single peak. For 20 g of these glasses change with time and temperature. The formation of the crystallized phases is superposed to the enthalpic relaxation of the glasses, making a kinetic study very difficult. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Physicochemical characterization and thermal behavior of biodiesel and biodiesel–diesel blends derived from crude Moringa peregrina seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaheldeen, Mohammed; Aroua, M.K.; Mariod, A.A.; Cheng, Sit Foon; Abdelrahman, Malik A.; Atabani, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Properties of M. peregrina biodiesel are determined for the first time. • Biodiesel was produced easily by alkaline transesterification in one step. • The effect of diesel on the properties of biodiesel was examined. • M. peregrina is a potential crop for sustainable production of biodiesel. - Abstract: Moringaceae is a monogeneric family with a single genus i.e. Moringa. This family includes 13 species. All these species are known as medicinal, nutritional and water purification agents. This study reports, for the first time, on characterization of the biodiesel derived from crude Moringaperegrina seed oil and its blends with diesel. The crude oil was converted to biodiesel by the transesterification reaction, catalyzed by potassium hydroxide. High ester content (97.79%) was obtained. M. peregrina biodiesel exhibited high oxidative stability (24.48 h). Moreover, the major fuel properties of M. peregrina biodiesel conformed to the ASTM D6751 standards. However, kinematic viscosity (4.6758 mm 2 /s), density (876.2 kg/m 3 ) and flash point (156.5 °C) were found higher than that of diesel fuel. In addition, the calorific value of M. peregrina biodiesel (40.119 MJ/kg) was lower than the diesel fuel. The fuel properties of M. peregrina biodiesel were enhanced significantly by blending with diesel fuel. In conclusion, M. peregrina is a suitable feedstock for sustainable production of biodiesel only blended up to 20% with diesel fuel, considering the edibility of all other parts of this tree

  19. Calibrating thermal behavior of electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.

    2016-05-31

    A method includes determining a relationship between indirect thermal data for a processor and a measured temperature associated with the processor, during a calibration process, obtaining the indirect thermal data for the processor during actual operation of the processor, and determining an actual significant temperature associated with the processor during the actual operation using the indirect thermal data for the processor during actual operation of the processor and the relationship.

  20. Degradation Characterization of Thermal Interface Greases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paret, Paul P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blackman, Gregory [DuPont; Wong, Arnold [DuPont; Meth, Jeffery [DuPont

    2018-02-12

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are used in power electronics packaging to minimize thermal resistance between the heat generating component and the heat sink. Thermal greases are one such class. The conformability and thin bond line thickness (BLT) of these TIMs can potentially provide low thermal resistance throughout the operation lifetime of a component. However, their performance degrades over time due to pump-out and dry-out during thermal and power cycling. The reliability performance of greases through operational cycling needs to be quantified to develop new materials with superior properties. NREL, in collaboration with DuPont, has performed thermal and reliability characterization of several commercially available thermal greases. Initial bulk and contact thermal resistance of grease samples were measured, and then the thermal degradation that occurred due to pump-out and dry-out during temperature cycling was monitored. The thermal resistances of five different grease materials were evaluated using NREL's steady-state thermal resistance tester based on the ASTM test method D5470. Greases were then applied, utilizing a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm stencil, between invar and aluminum plates to compare the thermomechanical performance of the materials in a representative test fixture. Scanning Acoustic microscopy, thermal, and compositional analyses were performed periodically during thermal cycling from -40 degrees C to 125 degrees C. Completion of this characterization has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of thermal greases both for their initial bulk and contact thermal performance, as well as their degradation mechanisms under accelerated thermal cycling conditions.

  1. Degradation Characterization of Thermal Interface Greases: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoto, Douglas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Major, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paret, Paul P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blackman, G. S. [DuPont Experimental Station; Wong, A. [DuPont Experimental Station; Meth, J. S. [DuPont Experimental Station

    2017-08-03

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are used in power electronics packaging to minimize thermal resistance between the heat generating component and the heat sink. Thermal greases are one such class. The conformability and thin bond line thickness (BLT) of these TIMs can potentially provide low thermal resistance throughout the operation lifetime of a component. However, their performance degrades over time due to pump-out and dry-out during thermal and power cycling. The reliability performance of greases through operational cycling needs to be quantified to develop new materials with superior properties. NREL, in collaboration with DuPont, has performed thermal and reliability characterization of several commercially available thermal greases. Initial bulk and contact thermal resistance of grease samples were measured, and then the thermal degradation that occurred due to pump-out and dry-out during temperature cycling was monitored. The thermal resistances of five different grease materials were evaluated using NREL's steady-state thermal resistance tester based on the ASTM test method D5470. Greases were then applied, utilizing a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm stencil, between invar and aluminum plates to compare the thermomechanical performance of the materials in a representative test fixture. Scanning Acoustic microscopy, thermal, and compositional analyses were performed periodically during thermal cycling from -40 degrees Celcius to 125 degrees Celcius. Completion of this characterization has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of thermal greases both for their initial bulk and contact thermal performance, as well as their degradation mechanisms under accelerated thermal cycling conditions.

  2. Thermal behavior of halogenated imidebismaleimide resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, A.; Al-Halim, N.Z.

    1995-01-01

    Several new poly-halogenated malecimides, bismaleimides and therir copoly resins were synthessised thermally from their corresponding amic acids. The synthesis was accomplished by two way method (amic acid-polimide) instead of the well-known three way method (amic acid-imide-polyimide). Thermal characterization of monomers and their cured resins was achieved using differential thermal analysis (DTA), dynamic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and isothermal gravimetric analysis (IGA). The effect of halogen substituent, especially in the ortho postion, is clear in the imidization proces, while polymerization proceeds almost equally in all systems. Thermal properties of homo and copolymers were correlated with their chemical structures. (author). 15 refs., 4

  3. Synthesis, characterization, photoluminescence and thermally ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to identify the crystalline phase and determine the parti- cle size. ... Spectral characteristics of the TSL glow showed emission around 565, 599 and. 641 nm, indicating ... thesis and characterization of rare-earth-doped ZnAl2O4 ..... Other researchers have reported similar.

  4. Physicochemical characterization and thermal behavior of guanabana (Annona muricata) seed almond oil; Caracterizacion fisicoquimica y comportamiento termico del aceite de almendra de guanabana (Annona muricata, L)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis-Fuentes, J. A.; Amador-Hernandez, C.; Hernandez-Medel, M. R.; Duran-de-Bazua, M. C.

    2010-07-01

    In this work some physicochemical properties and the thermal behavior and stability of sour sop or guanabana (Annona muricata) seed almond oil were studied by means of chemical, DSC and TG analysis. The results showed that the almond has 2.5% ash, 17.9% crude fiber, 15.7% protein, 26.0% de carbohydrates and 37.7% oil (dry base). The composition of almond oil showed 68.5% unsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic and linoleic, and some palmitoleic acids, and 31.5% saturated, principally palmitic and stearic fatty acids; refraction index was 1.468 and saponification and iodine value were 168.2 and 87.0, respectively. DSC thermal analysis showed that oil crystallization initiates at -4.5 degree centigrade and ends at -79.0 degree centigrade with a crystallization enthalpy of 48.2 J/g; the oil melts in a temperature range from -42.4 to -16.9 degree centigrade, with a maximum peak at -15 degree centigrade and a fusion enthalpy of 80.5 J/g. The oil remained liquid at refrigeration temperatures with minimal SFC and free of crystals at temperatures over 10 degree centigrade. TG analysis showed that the thermal decomposition of the oil in a N{sub 2} atmosphere starts at 380 degree centigrade and ends at 442 degree centigrade, with a maximum decomposition rate at 412 degree centigrade. Under oxidizing conditions its decomposition begins at 206 degree centigrade and concludes at 567 degree centigrade. In accordance with this study, sour sop almond seed contains large amounts of an oil that possesses similar characteristics to those of salad and cooking oils. (Author) 28 refs.

  5. Thermal and sintering characterization of IGCC slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, A.; Iglesias, I.; Aineto, M.; Romero, M.; Rincon, J.M. [University of Castilla La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    IGCC slag is a vitreous residual product from the new induction gasification combined cycle gasification thermal power plants. In order to characterize this waste as secondary raw material for the production of glasses and glass-ceramics as construction materials, slag from the Puertollano, Ciudad Real, Spain power plants was thermally investigated. After controlled heating this waste gives rise to hematite, anorthite, and cristobalite crystallized materials.

  6. Molybdenum peroxo complex. Structure and thermal behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segawa, Koichi; Ooga, Katsumi; Kurusu, Yasuhiko

    1984-10-01

    The molybdenum peroxide (Mo-y) prepared by oxidation of molybdenum metal with hydrogen peroxide has been studied to determine its structure and thermal behavior. Temperature programmed decomposition has been used to study the thermal stability of Mo-y. Two distinct peaks, I and II, of decomposition processes are discernible in Mo-y. Peak I corresponds to the elimination of water of crystallization and peak II to the decomposition of a peroxide ion of Mo-y. IR and UV examinations support the results of the thermal analysis. The IR band at 931 cm/sup -1/ and the UV band at 381 nm show the same thermal behavior. Both bands are attributable to the peroxide ion of Mo-y. Spectroscopic studies show that Mo-y has the tetrahedral coordination derived from the single molybdenum complex, which has double bond oxygens attached to Mo atom and has a symmetric type of peroxide ion with one water of crystallization.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of ligational behavior of curcumin drug towards some transition metal ions: Chelation effect on their thermal stability and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S.

    2013-03-01

    Complexes of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with curcumin ligand as antitumor activity were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, conductometry, magnetic susceptibility, UV-Vis, IR, Raman, ESR, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis of powdered samples and thermal analysis, and screened for antimicrobial activity. The IR spectral data suggested that the ligand behaves as a monobasic bidentate ligand towards the central metal ion with an oxygen's donor atoms sequence of both sbnd OH and Cdbnd O groups under keto-enol structure. From the microanalytical data, the stoichiometry of the complexes 1:2 (metal:ligand) was found. The ligand and their metal complexes were screened for antibacterial activity against Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungicidal activity against Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans.

  8. Thermal characterization of metakaolin-based geopolymer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samal, Sneha Manjaree; Thanh, N.P.; Marvalová, B.; Petrikova, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 12 (2017), s. 2480-2484 ISSN 1047-4838 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : thermal * characterization * geopolymer Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.860, year: 2016

  9. Microscopic thermal characterization of HTR particle layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochais, D.; Le Meur, G.; Basini, V.; Domingues, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents thermal diffusivity measurements of HTR fuel particle pyrolytic carbon layers at room temperature. The photoreflectance microscopy (PM) technique is used to characterize particle layers at a microscopic scale. Nevertheless, buffer layer needs a particular analysis due to its porous structure. Indeed, measurements by PM on this material only permit to obtain the thermal diffusivity of the solid skeleton, whose homogeneous zones surface does not exceed 100 μm 2 . These characteristics make, on the one hand, delicate the use of PM, and on the other hand, require the use of a numerical homogenization technique. This model takes into account the properties of gas confined in the pores, to simulate the conduction heat flux traveling through the layer in relation with its microstructure and to estimate an effective thermal conductivity of the entire layer. This approach is validated by infrared microscopy measurement of the effective thermal diffusivity of the especially elaborated thicker buffer layer. Last, the first tests to characterize the silicon carbide layer are presented

  10. Synthesis, structural and electrical characterizations of thermally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis, structural and electrical characterizations of thermally evaporated Cu 2 SnS 3 thin films. ... The surface profilometer shows that the deposited films are rough. The XRD spectra identified the ... The electrical resistivity of the deposited Cu2SnS3 film is 2.55 x 10-3 Ωcm. The conductivity is in the order of 103 Ω-1cm-1.

  11. Experimental characterization of the thermal and solar behavior of constructed houses; Caracterizacion experimental del comportamiento termico y solar de viviendas construidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo, A.; Jurado, L.; Molina, J. C.; Druet, L.

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays, detailed simulation models are widely used to assess thermal performance of buildings, specially during the design stage. However it is usual to report significant differences in predicted thermal performance when confronted with measured data. Therefore the model should be calibrated. In this paper, the PSTAR framework (Subbarao, 1988) is used to calibrate a Energy Plus model of a single-family dwelling. PSTAR method yields a set of renormalization coefficients that offer quantitative interpretation of the predicted vs measured differences. Other experimental tests are used to gain additional insight on how the model should be twicked judiciously. Once calibrated, the model matches three important thermal parameters of the real buildings: heat loss coefficient, thermal mass and solar gains. (Author)

  12. Characterization of thermal destruction behavior of hybrid composites based on polyoxymethylene, ethylene-octene copolymer impact modifier and ZnO nanofiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meri, Remo Merijs; Zicans, Janis; Abele, Agnese; Ivanova, Tatjana; Kalnins, Martins [Riga Technical University, Faculty of Materials Science and Applied Chemistry, Institute of Polymer Materials, Paula Valdena street 3/7, Riga, LV-1048 (Latvia)

    2016-05-18

    Hybrid polymer nanocomposites, composed of polyoxymethylene (POM), ethylene octene copolymer (EOC) and plasma synthesized tetrapod shaped zinc oxide (ZnO), were prepared by using melt compounding. The content of EOC in the POM based composites was varied between 10 and 50 mass %, while the content of ZnO was constant (2 mass %). Thermal behaviour of POM based systems was studied by using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The influence of the elastomer content and/or ZnO addition on the thermal stability of POM based systems was evaluated. The influence of the α-octene content in the elastomer on the thermal decomposition behaviour of POM and its nanocomposites with ZnO was also evaluated. Results of thermogravimetric analysis showed that, by rising either the elastomer or ZnO content, thermal stability of the investigated POM composites was increased. The modifying effect of EOC17 in respect of thermal resistance was somewhat larger than that of EOC38 because of the smaller amount of tertiary carbon atoms in the macromolecular structure of the former elastomer. Improved thermal resistance of ZnO containing POM based composites was because of impermeable structure the inorganic nanofiller allowing decrease gas exchange rate and facilitating non-combustible gases, such as CO{sub 2}, stay in the zone of burning. Addition of ZnO have a potential to influence structure of the polymer blend matrix itself by improving its barrier characteristics.

  13. Pollutant content in marine debris and characterization by thermal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iñiguez, M.E.; Conesa, J.A.; Fullana, A.

    2017-01-01

    Marine debris (MDs) produces a wide variety of negative environmental, economic, safety, health and cultural impacts. Most marine litter has a very low decomposition rate (plastics), leading to a gradual accumulation in the coastal and marine environment. Characterization of the MDs has been done in terms of their pollutant content: PAHs, ClBzs, ClPhs, BrPhs, PCDD/Fs and PCBs. The results show that MDs is not a very contaminated waste. Also, thermal decomposition of MDs materials has been studied in a thermobalance at different atmospheres and heating rates. Below 400–500 K, the atmosphere does not affect the thermal degradation of the mentioned waste. However, at temperatures between 500 and 800 K the presence of oxygen accelerates the decomposition. Also, a kinetic model is proposed for the combustion of the MDs, and the decomposition is compared with that of their main constituents, i.e., polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), nylon and polyethylene-terephthalate (PET). - Highlights: • The analysis and characterization of waste from marine environment were performed. • Its pollutant content has been determined, considering PAHs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. • Thermal decomposition of MDs was studied at different atmospheres and heating rates. • Kinetic models for the combustion of the five main plastics of MDs were proposed. • Composition of the waste is calculated using thermal behavior of different plastics.

  14. Mechanical and Thermal Characterization of Silica Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Anthony Lamar

    Polymer nanocomposites are a class of materials containing nanoparticles with a large interfacial surface area. Only a small quantity of nanoparticles are needed to provide superior multifunctional properties; such as mechanical, thermal, electrical, and moisture absorption properties in polymers. Nanoparticles tend to agglomerate, so special techniques are required for homogeneous distribution. Nanosilica is now readily available as colloidal sols, for example; Nanopox RTM F400 (supplied by Evonik Nanoresins AG, Germany). The nanoparticles are first synthesized from aqueous sodium silicate solution, and then undergo a surface modification process with organosilane and matrix exchange. F400 contains 40%wt silica nanoparticles colloidally dispersed in a DGEBA epoxy resin. The mean particle diameter is about 20 nm with a narrow distribution range of about 5 to 35 nm. The objectives of this study are to develop a reproducible processing method for nanosilica enhanced resin systems used in the manufacturing of fiber reinforced composites that will be characterized for mechanical and thermal properties. Research has concluded that shows improvements in the properties of the matrix material when processed in loading variations of 0 to 25%wt silica nanoparticles. The loadings were also used to manufacture fiberglass reinforced nanocomposite laminates and also tested for mechanical and thermal properties.

  15. Oxidation and thermal behavior of Jatropha curcas biodiesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermal and oxidation behavior is also affected adversely by the container metal. The present paper is dealing with the study of oxidation and thermal behavior of JCB with respect to different metal contents. It was found that influence of metal was detrimental to thermal and oxidation stability. Even small concentrations ...

  16. Optical Thermal Characterization Enables High-Performance Electronics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    NREL developed a modeling and experimental strategy to characterize thermal performance of materials. The technique provides critical data on thermal properties with relevance for electronics packaging applications. Thermal contact resistance and bulk thermal conductivity were characterized for new high-performance materials such as thermoplastics, boron-nitride nanosheets, copper nanowires, and atomically bonded layers. The technique is an important tool for developing designs and materials that enable power electronics packaging with small footprint, high power density, and low cost for numerous applications.

  17. Fission gas behavior during fast thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of non-equilibrium fission in fuel elements undergoing fast thermal transients is analyzed. To facilitate the analysis, a new variable, the equilibrium variable (EV) is defined. This variable, together with bubble radius, completely specifies a bubble with respect to its size and equilibrium condition. The analysis is coded using a two-variable (radius and EV) multigroup numerical approximation that accepts as input the time-temperature history, the time-fission rate history, and the time-thermal gradient history of the fuel element. Studies were performed to test the code for convergence with respect to the time interval and the number of groups chosen. For a series of transient simulation studies, the measurements obtained at HEDL (microscopic examination of intragranular porosity in oxide fuel transient-tested in TREAT) are used. Two different transient histories were selected; the first, a high-temperature transient (HTT) with a peak at 2477 0 K and the second, a low-temperature transient (LTT) with a peak-temperature at 2000 0 K. The LTT was simulated for three different conditions: Bubbles were allowed to move via (a) only biased migration, (b) via random migration, and (c) via both mechanisms. The HTT was also run for both mechanisms. The agreement with HEDL microscopic observations was fair for bubbles smaller than 964 A in diameter, and poor for larger bubbles. Bubbles that grew during the heat-up part of the transient were frozen at a larger size during the cool down

  18. Progress in Characterizing Thermal Degradation of Ethylene-Propylene Rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Qian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Childers, Matthew I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Correa, Miguel [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shin, Yongsoon [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zwoster, Andy [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-26

    Ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) is one of the two most common nuclear cable insulation materials. A large fraction of EPR-insulated cables in use in the nuclear industry were manufactured by The Okonite Company. Okoguard® is the name of the medium voltage thermoset EPR manufactured by The Okonite Company. Okoguard® has been produced with silane-treated clay filler and the characteristic pink color since the 1970’s. EPR is complex material that undergoes simultaneous reactions during thermal aging including oxidative and thermal cleavage and oxidative and thermal crosslinking. This reaction complexity makes precise EPR service life prediction from accelerated aging using approaches designed for single discreet reactions such as the Arrhenius approach problematic. Performance data and activation energies for EPR aged at conditions closer to service conditions will improve EPR lifetime prediction. In this report pink Okoguard® EPR insulation material has been thermally aged at elevated temperatures. A variety of characterization techniques have been employed to track material changes with aging. It was noted that EPR aged significant departure in aging behavior seemed to occur at accelerated aging temperatures between 140°C and 150°C at around 20 days of exposure. This may be due to alternative degradation mechanisms being accessed at this higher temperature and reinforces the need to perform accelerated aging for Okoguard® EPR service life prediction at temperatures below 150°C.

  19. Structural characterization, vibrational spectroscopy accomplished with DFT calculation, thermal and dielectric behaviors in a new organic-inorganic tertrapropylammonium aquapentachlorostannate dihydrate compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajlaoui, Sondes, E-mail: hajlaouisondes@yahoo.fr [Unité de recherche de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000, Sfax (Tunisia); Chaabane, Iskandar [Unité de recherche de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000, Sfax (Tunisia); Lhoste, Jérôme; Bulou, Alain [LUNAM Université, Université du Maine, CNRS UMR 6283, Institut des Molécules et Matériaux du Mans (IMMM), Avenue Olivier Messiaen, 72085, Le Mans, Cedex 9 (France); Guidara, Kamel [Unité de recherche de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2016-09-15

    In this work a novel compound tertrapropylammonium aquapentachlorostannate dihydrate was synthesized and characterized by; single crystal X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetric and dielectric measurement. The crystal structure refinement at room temperature reveled that this later belongs to the monoclinic compound with P121/c1 space group with the following unit cell parameters a = 8.2699(3) Å, b = 12.4665(4) Å, c = 22.3341(7) Å and β = 92.94(0)°. The crystal arrangement can be described by stacked organic-inorganic layers in the c direction with two independent water molecules placed between each two layers. The detailed interpretations of the vibrational properties of the studied compound were performed using density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP/LanL2DZ basis set, and has enabled us to make the detailed assignments by comparative study of the experimental and calculated Raman and IR spectra. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement disclosed two anomalies in the temperature range 356–376 (T{sub 1}) K and at 393 K (T{sub 2}) characterized by the dehydration of the sample and probably a reconstruction of a new structure after T{sub 2} transition. The temperature dependences of dielectric permittivity show a relaxation process around T{sub 2} anomaly indicating the occurrence of the disorder at high temperature. The dependence of the exponent m(T) on temperature, extracted from the straight lines of log(ε″) with log (ω), suggests that the correlated barrier hopping is the appropriate model for the conduction mechanism. - Highlights: • The single-crystal X-ray diffraction has been performed. • The assignments of the vibration modes based on DFT were reported and discussed. • Differential scanning calorimetric reveals the presence of two endothermic peaks. • The electric permittivity was studied using the impedance measurements. • The CBH is the appropriate model for the conduction

  20. Chromium behavior during thermal treatment of MSW fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Donald W; Chan, Chris C Y; Marsh, Hilary

    2002-02-14

    Energy-from-waste incineration has been promoted as an environmentally responsible method for handling non-recyclable waste from households. Despite the benefits of energy production, elimination of organic residues and reduction of volume of waste to be landfilled, there is concern about fly ash disposal. Fly ash from an incinerator contains toxic species such as Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr which may leach into soil and ground water if landfilled. Thermal treatment of the fly ash from municipal solid waste has been tested and proposed as a treatment option for removal of metal species such as Pb, Cd and Zn, via thermal re-volatilization. However, Cr is an element that remains in the residue of the heat treated fly ash and appears to become more soluble. This Cr solubilization is of concern if it exceeds the regulatory limit for hazardous waste. Hence, this unexpected behavior of Cr was investigated. The initial work involved microscopic characterization of Cr in untreated and thermally-treated MSW fly ash. This was followed by determining leaching characteristics using standard protocol leaching tests and characterization leaching methods (sequential extraction). Finally, a mechanism explaining the increased solubilization was proposed and tested by reactions of synthetic chemicals.

  1. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  2. Study of ATES thermal behavior using a steady flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, C.; Hellstroem, G.; Tsang, C. F.; Claesson, J.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal behavior of a single well aquifer thermal energy storage system in which buoyancy flow is neglected is studied. A dimensionless formulation of the energy transport equations for the aquifer system is presented, and the key dimensionless parameters are discussed. A simple numerical model is used to generate graphs showing the thermal behavior of the system as a function of these parameters. Some comparisons with field experiments are given to illustrate the use of the dimensionless groups and graphs.

  3. synthesis, characterization, thermal behavior and antimicrobial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is used for joint and muscle pain than other pain killer and has been ... Benzoic acid and its salts are used to preserve food from growth of .... vibrating sample magnetometer, VSM EG&G model 155 at room temperature and the data were ..... effective antimicrobial agent with less effect on normal cell lines at low levels.

  4. Synthesis, characterization, thermal behavior and antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 30, No 2 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. ON THE THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF DIFFERENT TANNED BOVINE LEATHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARGANICI Cristian-Dragoş

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Leather is one of the most globally spread biomaterial which is obtained by the processing of different animal skins. It encompasses a wide palette of applications, from footwear and clothing to upholsteries and different types of furniture [1], [2], [3]. The main constituent of animal skins is collagen, a supramolecular fibrillar protein in the form of a triple helix. This form endows leather with elasticity, good mechanical properties and softness. A major disadvantage resides in the inapplicability of raw animal hides, due to their microbiological instability and decay through rotting. Microbiological stability is obtained through the tanning process, characterized by protein crosslinking and drying afterwards. After tanning the leather exhibits the required properties for the desired specific applications in terms of aspect, availability and sustainability [4], [5]. The study aims to elucidate the thermal decomposition process of chrome-free tanned bovine hide (wet-white using a new product based on titanium and aluminium salts compared with the same hide tanned by chromium salts (wet-blue. The thermal behavior was studied by dynamic thermogravimetry in nitrogen atmosphere, up to 700 oC. A comparative thermal decomposition study between the different tanned bovine leathers was undertaken.

  6. Learning Behavior Characterizations for Novelty Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyerson, Elliot; Lehman, Joel Anthony; Miikulainen, Risto

    2016-01-01

    Novelty search and related diversity-driven algorithms provide a promising approach to overcoming deception in complex domains. The behavior characterization (BC) is a critical choice in the application of such algorithms. The BC maps each evaluated individual to a behavior, i.e., some vector...

  7. Thermal fluid mixing behavior during medium break LOCA in evaluation of pressurized thermal shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Won; Bang, Young Seok; Seul, Kwang Won; Kim, Hho Jung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Thermal fluid mixing behavior during a postulated medium-size hot leg break loss of coolant accident is analyzed for the international comparative assessment study on pressurized thermal shock (PTS-ICAS) proposed by OECD-NEA. The applicability of RELAP5 code to analyze the thermal fluid mixing behavior is evaluated through a simple modeling relevant to the problem constraints. Based on the calculation result, the onset of thermal stratification is investigated using Theofanous`s empirical correlation. Sensitivity calculations using a fine node model and crossflow model are also performed to evaluate the modeling capability on multi-dimensional characteristics related to thermal fluid mixing. 6 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  8. Thermal fluid mixing behavior during medium break LOCA in evaluation of pressurized thermal shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jae Won; Bang, Young Seok; Seul, Kwang Won; Kim, Hho Jung

    1998-01-01

    Thermal fluid mixing behavior during a postulated medium-size hot leg break loss of coolant accident is analyzed for the international comparative assessment study on pressurized thermal shock (PTS-ICAS) proposed by OECD-NEA. the applicability of RELAP5 code to analyze the thermal fluid mixing behavior is evaluated through a simple modeling relevant to the problem constraints. Based on the calculation result, the onset of thermal stratification is investigated using Theofanous's empirical correlation. Sensitivity calculations using a fine node model and crossflow model are also performed to evaluate the modeling capability on multi-dimensional characteristics related to thermal fluid mixing

  9. The effect of Y2O3 addition on thermal shock behavior of magnesium aluminate spinel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pošarac Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of yttria additive on the thermal shock behavior of magnesium aluminate spinel has been investigated. As a starting material we used spinel (MgAl2O4 obtained by the modified glycine nitrate procedure (MGNP. Sintered products were characterized in terms of phase analysis, densities, thermal shock, monitoring the damaged surface area in the refractory specimen during thermal shock and ultrasonic determination of the Dynamic Young modulus of elasticity. It was found that a new phase between yttria and alumina is formed, which improved thermal shock properties of the spinel refractories. Also densification of samples is enhanced by yttria addition.

  10. Investigation of thermal fatigue behavior of thermal barrier coating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Dongming; Miller, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    In the present study, the mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation and propagation, and of coating failure under thermal loads that simulate those in diesel engines are investigated. Surface cracks initiate early and grow continuously under thermal low cycle fatigue (LCF) and high cycle fatigue (HCF) stresses. It is found that, in the absence of interfacial oxidation, the failure associated with LCF is closely related to coating sintering and creep at high temperatures. Significant LCF and HCF interactions have been observed in the thermal fatigue tests. The fatigue crack growth rate in the ceramic coating strongly depends on the characteristic HCF cycle number, N* HCF which is defined as the number of HCF cycles per LCF cycle. The crack growth rate is increased from 0.36 μm/LCF cycle for a pure LCF test to 2.8 μm/LCF cycle for a combined LCF and HCF test at N* HCF about 20 000. A surface wedging model has been proposed to account for the HCF crack growth in the coating systems. This mechanism predicts that the HCF damage effect increases with heat flux and thus with increasing surface temperature swing, thermal expansion coefficient and elastic modulus of the ceramic coating, as well as with the HCF interacting depth. Good correlation has been found between the analysis and experimental evidence. (orig.)

  11. Thermal characterization of semiconducting polymer bulk heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Roddel A.

    Polymer semiconductors are intriguing due to their potential use in flexible electronics. Poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)--a very common polymer in this field--is semicrystalline and it is known that crystalline P3HT has a higher hole mobility than amorphous P3HT. Quantifying each fraction in the bulk and thin film states is therefore crucial to understanding its performance in transistor and other applications. In polymer solar cells, it acts as an electron donor and is typically mixed with the nanoparticle-like molecule, phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)--an electron acceptor--in a thin film morphology termed a bulk heterojunction (BHJ). The structural hierarchy within the bulk heterojunction is complicated and its characterization, with a focus on P3HT morphology, is the topic of this dissertation. Calorimetry can play an important role in the elucidation of P3HT morphology with quantitative analysis of the crystalline and amorphous fractions present in the material. This was demonstrated by employing differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to obtain the enthalpy of fusion of 100% crystalline P3HT (42.9 J/g) using oligomeric P3HT measurements. The more sensitive temperature modulated DSC (TMDSC) was then used to examine the glass transition of P3HT and the crystalline, mobile amorphous and rigid amorphous phases were quantified. The presence of these phases can play a large role in understanding the charge transfer process in polymer semiconductors. BHJ thin films of 50 wt.% PCBM were then analyzed and a polymer crystallinity of 30% was found after thermal annealing from initially non-crystalline polymer material. With assistance from previously acquired small angle neutron scattering data, a thorough analysis of the entire BHJ morphology was accomplished. A surprisingly large rigid amorphous polymer phase is present in the BHJ which could be located at the P3HT/PCBM interface, affecting charge transfer. Finally, interlayer diffusion of PCBM was

  12. Dynamic Characterization of an Inflatable Concentrator for Solar Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Larry; Hamidzadeh, Hamid; Tinker, Michael L.; Rodriguez, Pedro I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An inflatable structural system that is a technology demonstrator for solar thermal propulsion and other applications is characterized for structural dynamic behavior both experimentally and computationally. The inflatable structure is a pressurized assembly developed for use in orbit to support a Fresnel lens or inflatable lenticular element for focusing sunlight into a solar thermal rocket engine. When the engine temperature reaches a pre-set level, the propellant is injected into the engine, absorbs heat from an exchanger, and is expanded through the nozzle to produce thrust. The inflatable structure is a passively adaptive system in that a regulator and relief valve are utilized to maintain pressure within design limits during the full range of orbital conditions. Modeling and test activities are complicated by the fact that the polyimide film material used for construction of the inflatable is nonlinear, with modulus varying as a function of frequency, temperature, and level of excitation. Modal vibration testing and finite element modeling are described in detail in this paper. The test database is used for validation and modification of the model. This work is highly significant because of the current interest in inflatable structures for space application, and because of the difficulty in accurately modeling such systems.

  13. Urban thermal landscape characterization and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Y; Fung, T; Tsou, J

    2014-01-01

    Urban warming is sensitive to the nature (thermal properties, including albedo, water content, heat capacity and thermal conductivity) and the placement (surface geometry or urban topography) of urban surface. In this research, the pattern and variation of urban surface temperature is regarded as one kind of landscape, urban thermal landscape, which is assumed as the presentation of local surface heating process upon urban landscape. The goal of this research is to develop a research framework incorporating geospatial statistics, thermal infrared remote sensing and landscape ecology to study the urban effect on local surface thermal landscape regarding both the pattern and process. This research chose Hong Kong as the case study. Within the study area, urban and rural area coexists upon a hilly topography. In order to probe the possibility of local surface warming mechanism discrepancy between urban and rural area, the sample points are grouped into urban and rural categories in according with the land use map taken into a linear regression model separately to examine the possible difference in local warming mechanism. Global regression analysis confirmed the relationship between environmental factors and surface temperature and the urban-rural distinctive mechanism of dominating diurnal surface warming is uncovered

  14. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  15. Single-hole in situ thermal probe for hydrothermal characterization at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danko, G.

    1993-01-01

    The REKA thermal probe method, which uses a single borehole to measure in situ rock thermophysical properties and provides for efficient and low-cost site characterization, is analyzed for its application to hydrothermal system characterization. It is demonstrated throughout the evaluation of several temperature fields obtained for different thermal zones that the REKA method can be applied to simultaneously determine (1) two independent thermophysical properties, i.e., heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity and (2) a set of heat transport parameters, which can be used to characterize the behavior of a hydrothermal system. Based on the direct physical meaning of these transport parameters, the components of the heat transport mechanism in a given time and location of the hydrothermal system can be described. This evaluation can be applied to characterizing and quantifying in situ rock dry-out and condensate shedding at the proposed repository site

  16. Fabrication, structural and optical characterizations of thermally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bi-layer of metallic Cu-Sn precursors was thermally evaporated sequentially on microscopic glass substrates at the controlled thickness of 100nm, 500nm and 1000nm and at different substrate temperatures of 270C, 1000C and 2000C. The bi-layer was subsequently sulphurized in a custom-built reactor for 1hour at ...

  17. Synthesis And Thermal Characterization Of Polypropylene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work investigates the heat transfer and specifically, thermal conductivity, diffusivity and specific heat in Aluminium composite materials. The composites were obtained by mixing polypropylene (PP) with oxidized Aluminium (Al) under various volume fractions. Two sizes of filler are used in the sample composite ...

  18. Thermal characterization of intumescent fire retardant paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, L; Bozzoli, F; Rainieri, S; Pagliarini, G; Bochicchio, G; Tessadri, B

    2014-01-01

    Intumescent coatings are now the dominant passive fire protection materials used in industrial and commercial buildings. The coatings, which usually are composed of inorganic components contained in a polymer matrix, are inert at low temperatures and at higher temperatures, they expand and degrade to provide a charred layer of low conductivity materials. The charred layer, which acts as thermal barrier, will prevent heat transfer to underlying substrate. The thermal properties of intumescent paints are often unknown and difficult to be estimated since they vary significantly during the expansion process; for this reason the fire resistance validation of a commercial coatings is based on expensive, large-scale methods where each commercial coating-beam configuration has to be tested one by one. Adopting, instead, approaches based on a thermal modelling of the intumescent paint coating could provide an helpful tool to make easier the test procedure and to support the design of fire resistant structures as well. The present investigation is focused on the assessment of a methodology intended to the restoration of the equivalent thermal conductivity of the intumescent layer produced under the action of a cone calorimetric apparatus. The estimation procedure is based on the inverse heat conduction problem approach, where the temperature values measured at some locations inside the layer during the expansion process are used as input known data. The results point out that the equivalent thermal conductivity reached by the intumescent material at the end of the expansion process significantly depends on the temperature while the initial thickness of the paint does not seem to have much effect

  19. Thermal characterization of intumescent fire retardant paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, L.; Bozzoli, F.; Bochicchio, G.; Tessadri, B.; Rainieri, S.; Pagliarini, G.

    2014-11-01

    Intumescent coatings are now the dominant passive fire protection materials used in industrial and commercial buildings. The coatings, which usually are composed of inorganic components contained in a polymer matrix, are inert at low temperatures and at higher temperatures, they expand and degrade to provide a charred layer of low conductivity materials. The charred layer, which acts as thermal barrier, will prevent heat transfer to underlying substrate. The thermal properties of intumescent paints are often unknown and difficult to be estimated since they vary significantly during the expansion process; for this reason the fire resistance validation of a commercial coatings is based on expensive, large-scale methods where each commercial coating-beam configuration has to be tested one by one. Adopting, instead, approaches based on a thermal modelling of the intumescent paint coating could provide an helpful tool to make easier the test procedure and to support the design of fire resistant structures as well. The present investigation is focused on the assessment of a methodology intended to the restoration of the equivalent thermal conductivity of the intumescent layer produced under the action of a cone calorimetric apparatus. The estimation procedure is based on the inverse heat conduction problem approach, where the temperature values measured at some locations inside the layer during the expansion process are used as input known data. The results point out that the equivalent thermal conductivity reached by the intumescent material at the end of the expansion process significantly depends on the temperature while the initial thickness of the paint does not seem to have much effect.

  20. Thermal Characterization of Edible Oils by Using Photopyroelectric Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Hernández, G.; Suaste-Gómez, E.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Mendoza-Alvarez, J. G.; Sánchez-Sinéncio, F.; Valcárcel, J. P.; García-Quiroz, A.

    2013-05-01

    Thermal properties of several edible oils such as olive, sesame, and grape seed oils were obtained by using the photopyroelectric technique. The inverse photopyroelectric configuration was used in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of the oil samples. The theoretical equation for the photopyroelectric signal in this configuration, as a function of the incident light modulation frequency, was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of these samples. Also, the back photopyroelectric configuration was used to obtain the thermal diffusivity of these oils; this thermal parameter was obtained by fitting the theoretical equation for this configuration, as a function of the sample thickness (called the thermal wave resonator cavity), to the experimental data. All measurements were done at room temperature. A complete thermal characterization of these edible oils was achieved by the relationship between the obtained thermal diffusivities and thermal effusivities with their thermal conductivities and volumetric heat capacities. The obtained results are in agreement with the thermal properties reported for the case of the olive oil.

  1. Power MOSFET Thermal Instability Operation Characterization Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shue, John L.; Leidecker, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are used extensively in flight hardware and ground support equipment. In the quest for faster switching times and lower "on resistance," the MOSFETs designed from 1998 to the present have achieved most of their intended goals. In the quest for lower on resistance and higher switching speeds, the designs now being produced allow the charge-carrier dominated region (once small and outside of the area of concern) to become important and inside the safe operating area (SOA). The charge-carrier dominated region allows more current to flow as the temperature increases. The higher temperatures produce more current resulting in the beginning of thermal runaway. Thermal runaway is a problem affecting a wide range of modern MOSFETs from more than one manufacturer. This report contains information on MOSFET failures, their causes and test results and information dissemination.

  2. Thermal Characterization of the Overload Carbon Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Kostić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In many applications, the electronic component is not continuously but only intermittently overloaded (e.g., inrush current, short circuit, or discharging interference. With this paper, we provide insight into carbon resistors that have to hold out a rarely occurring transient overload. Using simple electrical circuit, the resistor is overheating with higher current than declared, and dissipation is observed by a thermal camera.

  3. Effect of microscale gaseous thermal conduction on the thermal behavior of a buckled microbridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiaqi; Tang Zhenan; Li Jinfeng; Zhang Fengtian

    2008-01-01

    A microbridge is a basic micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) device and has great potential for application in microsensors and microactuators. The thermal behavior of a microbridge is important for designing a microbridge-based thermal microsensor or microactuator. To study the thermal behavior of a microbridge consisting of Si 3 N 4 and polysilicon with a 2 µm suspended gap between the substrate and the microbridge while the microbridge is heated by an electrical current fed through the polysilicon, a microbridge model is developed to correlate theoretically the input current and the temperature distribution under the buckling conditions, especially considering the effects of the microscale gaseous thermal conduction due to the microbridge buckling. The calculated results show that the buckling of the microbridge changes the microscale gaseous thermal conduction, and thus greatly affects the thermal behavior of the microbridge. We also evaluate the effects of initial buckling on the temperature distribution of the microbridge. The experimental results show that buckling should be taken into account if the buckling is large. Therefore, the variation in gaseous thermal conduction and the suspended gap height caused by the buckling should be considered in the design of such thermomechanical microsensors and microactuators, which requires more accurate thermal behavior

  4. Thermal behavior of horizontally mixed surfaces on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Mellon, Michael T.

    2007-11-01

    Current methods for deriving thermal inertia from spacecraft observations of planetary brightness temperature generally assume that surface properties are uniform for any given observation or co-located set of observations. As a result of this assumption and the nonlinear relationship between temperature and thermal inertia, sub-pixel horizontal heterogeneity may yield different apparent thermal inertia at different times of day or seasons. We examine the effects of horizontal heterogeneity on Mars by modeling the thermal behavior of various idealized mixed surfaces containing differing proportions of either dust, sand, duricrust, and rock or slope facets at different angles and azimuths. Latitudinal effects on mixed-surface thermal behavior are also investigated. We find large (several 100 J m -2 K -1 s -1/2) diurnal and seasonal variations in apparent thermal inertia even for small (˜10%) admixtures of materials with moderately contrasting thermal properties or slope angles. Together with similar results for layered surfaces [Mellon, M.T., Putzig, N.E., 2007. Lunar Planet. Sci. XXXVIII. Abstract 2184], this work shows that the effects of heterogeneity on the thermal behavior of the martian surface are substantial and may be expected to result in large variations in apparent thermal inertia as derived from spacecraft instruments. While our results caution against the over-interpretation of thermal inertia taken from median or average maps or derived from single temperature measurements, they also suggest the possibility of using a suite of apparent thermal inertia values derived from single observations over a range of times of day and seasons to constrain the heterogeneity of the martian surface.

  5. Characterization of thermal, hydraulic, and gas diffusion properties in variably saturated sand grades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deepagoda Thuduwe Kankanamge Kelum, Chamindu; Smits, Kathleen; Ramirez, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    porous media transport properties, key transport parameters such as thermal conductivity and gas diffusivity are particularly important to describe temperature-induced heat transport and diffusion-controlled gas transport processes, respectively. Despite many experimental and numerical studies focusing...... transport models (thermal conductivity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and gas diffusivity). An existing thermal conductivity model was improved to describe the distinct three-region behavior in observed thermal conductivity–water saturation relations. Applying widely used parametric models for saturated......Detailed characterization of partially saturated porous media is important for understanding and predicting vadose zone transport processes. While basic properties (e.g., particle- and pore-size distributions and soil-water retention) are, in general, essential prerequisites for characterizing most...

  6. In situ tests for investigating thermal and mechanical rock behaviors at an underground research tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sangki; Cho, Won-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of the thermal and mechanical behaviors expected to be happened around an underground high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository is important for a successful site selection, construction, operation, and closure of the repository. In this study, the thermal and mechanical behaviors of rock and rock mass were investigated from in situ borehole heater test and the studies for characterizing an excavation damaged zone (EDZ), which had been carried out at an underground research tunnel, KURT, constructed in granite for the validation of a HLW disposal concept. Thermal, mechanical, and hydraulic properties in EDZ could be predicted from various in situ and laboratory tests as well as numerical simulations. The complex thermo-mechanical coupling behavior of rock could be modeled using the rock properties. (author)

  7. Thermal characterization of tropical biomass feedstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Lugano; Yang Weihong; Blasiak, Wlodzimierz; John, Geoffrey R.; Mhilu, Cuthbert F.

    2011-01-01

    The processing of agricultural crops results in waste, which is a potential energy resource for alleviating commercial energy supply problems to agricultural-led economies like Tanzania. The energy content of the individual agricultural waste is largely dependent on its chemical composition (C, H and O) and it is negatively affected by the inclusion of inorganic elements and moisture. In this work, fifteen tropical agricultural wastes emanating from export crops for Tanzania were analyzed. The methods used to analyze involved performing proximate and ultimate analysis for determining the biomass composition. Thermal degradation characteristic was established to five selected wastes (coffee husks, sisal bole, cashew nut shells, palm stem, and bagasse) using a thermogravimetric analyzer type NETZSCH STA 409 PC Luxx at a heating rate of 10 K/min. On the basis of elemental composition, the palm fibre and cashew nut shells exhibited high energy content due to their higher H:C ratio with relatively low O:C ratio. Results of the thermal degradation characteristic study showed that the cashew nut shells were the most reactive feedstocks due to their highest overall mass loss and lowest burnout temperatures of 364 o C. Further, kinetic studies done to the five tropical biomass feedstocks under the pseudo single-component overall model established the activation energy for the bagasse, palm stem, and cashew nut shells to be 460 kJ/mole, 542 kJ/mole, and 293 kJ/mole, respectively. The respective activation energies for coffee husks and sisal bole were 370 kJ/mole and 239 kJ/mole. With the exception of the sisal bole, which exhibited zero order reaction mechanism, the remaining materials' reaction mechanism was of first order. These experimental findings form a basis for ranking these materials for energy generation and provide necessary input to equipment and process designers.

  8. Thermal Characterization of a Hall Effect Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    View Factor A = Area θ = Angle R = Distance xiii J = Radiosity q = Heat Transfer Rate W = Radiated Power U = Voltage C...summation rule. 1 1 N ij j F = =∑ (18) Radiosity (Ji) takes into account both radiation emitted and reflected from a surface. Analyzing radiation...exchanges between two surfaces is made easier with a few assumptions. Each surface is assumed isothermal and characterized by a uniform radiosity

  9. THERMAL AND SINTERING CHARACTERIZATION OF A IGCC SLAG

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Anselmo; Iglesias, Isabel; Aineto, Mónica; Romero, Maximina; Rincón López, Jesús María

    2002-01-01

    IGCC slag is a vitreous residual product from the new induction gasification combined cycle gasification thermal power plants. In order to characterize this waste as secondary new material for the production of new glasses and glass-ceramics as construction materials; this slag from the Puertollano, Ciudad Real, Spain power plants has been fully thermally investigated. After controlled heating this waste gives rise to hematite, anorthite, and cristobalite crystallized materials.

  10. Degradation Behavior of Thermal Stabilized Polyacrylonitrile Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEI Shuai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the temperature range of 300-800℃, 40%-50% of the mass lost during the processing of polyacrylonitrile based carbon fiber (PANCF. Understanding the degradation behavior will be valuable in understanding the formation mechanism of pseudo-graphite structure, and providing theoretic basis for producing high performance carbon fiber and increasing the carbonization yield. The simulation of the degradation progress was carried out on the thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA, the results show that there are two degradation steps for PAN fiber stabilized in air, and controlled by cyclization coefficient and oxygen content. The cyclization coefficient and oxygen content are effective to the density of carbon fiber by influencing the degradation behavior, which cause defects in the fiber. The higher cyclization coefficient leads to form less structural defects and higher density of the fiber; on the contrary, the higher oxygen content leads to form more structural defects and lower density of the fiber.

  11. New data on the thermal behavior of 14 Å tobermorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagioni, Cristian [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Pisa, Via Santa Maria 53, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Bonaccorsi, Elena [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Pisa, Via Santa Maria 53, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Merlino, Stefano [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Pisa, Via Santa Maria 53, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Bersani, Danilo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Parma, Viale G.P. Usberti 7/a, I-43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    The thermal behavior of two specimens of 14 Å tobermorite (plombièrite) was studied in situ at the GILDA beamline (ESRF, Grenoble, France). During dehydration, plombièrite shortens its basal spacing from 14 to 11 Å, through a progressive approaching of the complex structural modules characterizing its crystal structure. Upon heating, the 11 Å phase progressively contracts its c periodicity, with its d{sub 002} varying from 11.7 to 11.3 Å. At ca. 300 °C, a 9.6 Å phase appears; it is stable up to ca. 700 °C. Above this temperature, it expands its basal spacing up to 10.2 Å, before transforming into wollastonite. Moreover, one specimen was heated at 150 °C for 4 h and the heated product, identified as 11 Å tobermorite through X-ray powder diffraction, was used to collect micro-Raman spectra. The heated product shows single chains, in contrast with the 11 Å natural specimens studied up to now in which double wollastonite-like chains occur.

  12. New data on the thermal behavior of 14 Å tobermorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagioni, Cristian; Bonaccorsi, Elena; Merlino, Stefano; Bersani, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    The thermal behavior of two specimens of 14 Å tobermorite (plombièrite) was studied in situ at the GILDA beamline (ESRF, Grenoble, France). During dehydration, plombièrite shortens its basal spacing from 14 to 11 Å, through a progressive approaching of the complex structural modules characterizing its crystal structure. Upon heating, the 11 Å phase progressively contracts its c periodicity, with its d 002 varying from 11.7 to 11.3 Å. At ca. 300 °C, a 9.6 Å phase appears; it is stable up to ca. 700 °C. Above this temperature, it expands its basal spacing up to 10.2 Å, before transforming into wollastonite. Moreover, one specimen was heated at 150 °C for 4 h and the heated product, identified as 11 Å tobermorite through X-ray powder diffraction, was used to collect micro-Raman spectra. The heated product shows single chains, in contrast with the 11 Å natural specimens studied up to now in which double wollastonite-like chains occur

  13. Preparation, characterization, and thermal properties of microencapsulated phase change material for thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, Cemil; Sari, Ahmet; Karaipekli, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60240 Tokat (Turkey); Uzun, Orhan [Department of Physics, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60240 Tokat (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    This study is focused on the preparation, characterization, and determination of thermal properties of microencapsulated docosane with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as phase change material for thermal energy storage. Microencapsulation of docosane has been carried out by emulsion polymerization. The microencapsulated phase change material (MEPCM) was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Thermal properties and thermal stability of MEPCM were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). DSC analysis indicated that the docosane in the microcapsules melts at 41.0 C and crystallizes at 40.6 C. It has latent heats of 54.6 and -48.7 J/g for melting and crystallization, respectively. TGA showed that the MEPCM degraded in three distinguishable steps and had good chemical stability. Accelerated thermal cycling tests also indicated that the MEPCM had good thermal reliability. Based on all these results, it can be concluded that the microencapsulated docosane as MEPCMs have good potential for thermal energy storage purposes such as solar space heating applications. (author)

  14. Thermal characterization of tubular SiC/SiC composite structures for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duquesne, Loys

    2015-01-01

    Researches on the development on SiCf/SiC refractory composites for generation IV nuclear fuel cladding led the CEA to focus on the thermal behavior of these materials. In particular, knowledge of the thermal properties is essential for designing the components. Regarding the development of the 'sandwich' cladding concept, for which the complexity and the geometry differ from the conventionally used flat tubes, usual measurement methods are unsuitable. This study reports on the characterization and modeling of the thermal behavior of these structures. The first part deals with the identification of the global thermal parameters for the different layers of a 'sandwich' cladding. For this purpose, a flash method is used and an experimental device suitable for tubular geometries was developed. A new estimation method based on the combination of both collected signals in front and rear faces allows the identification of the thermal diffusivity of tubular composites using infrared thermography. The second part focuses on a virtual material approach, established to describe the thermal behavior of a 'sandwich' cladding, starting from the measured properties of the elementary components (fibers and matrix). They are then used as input data for the heat transfer modeling. Confrontations between experimental measurements and numerical results finally allow us to understand the importance of the various key parameters governing the heat transfer. (author) [fr

  15. BEHAVIOR OF THERMAL SPRAY COATINGS AGAINST HYDROGEN ATTACK

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Fabio; Latorre, Guillermo; Uribe, Iván

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of nickel and chrome alloys applied as thermal spray coatings to be used as protection against embrittlement by hydrogen is studied. Coatings were applied on a carbon steel substrate, under conditions that allow obtain different crystalline structures and porosity levels, in order to determine the effect of these variables on the hydrogen permeation kinetics and as a protection means against embrittlement caused this element. In order to establish behaviors as barriers and protec...

  16. Thermal behavior and ice-table depth within the north polar erg of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Mellon, Michael T.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Phillips, Roger J.; Davis, Brian J.; Ewer, Kenneth J.; Bowers, Lauren M.

    2014-02-01

    We fully resolve a long-standing thermal discrepancy concerning the north polar erg of Mars. Several recent studies have shown that the erg's thermal properties are consistent with normal basaltic sand overlying shallow ground ice or ice-cemented sand. Our findings bolster that conclusion by thoroughly characterizing the thermal behavior of the erg, demonstrating that other likely forms of physical heterogeneity play only a minor role, and obviating the need to invoke exotic materials. Thermal inertia as calculated from orbital temperature observations of the dunes has previously been found to be more consistent with dust-sized materials than with sand. Since theory and laboratory data show that dunes will only form out of sand-sized particles, exotic sand-sized agglomerations of dust have been invoked to explain the low values of thermal inertia. However, the polar dunes exhibit the same darker appearance and color as that of dunes found elsewhere on the planet that have thermal inertia consistent with normal sand-sized basaltic grains, whereas Martian dust deposits are generally lighter and redder. The alternative explanation for the discrepancy as a thermal effect of a shallow ice table is supported by our analysis of observations from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System and by forward modeling of physical heterogeneity. In addition, our results exclude a uniform composition of dark dust-sized materials, and they show that the thermal effects of the dune slopes and bright interdune materials evident in high-resolution images cannot account for the erg's thermal behavior.

  17. Thermal behavior and ice-table depth within the north polar erg of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Mellon, Michael T.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Phillips, Roger J.; Davis, Brian J.; Ewer, Kenneth J.; Bowers, Lauren M.

    2014-01-01

    We fully resolve a long-standing thermal discrepancy concerning the north polar erg of Mars. Several recent studies have shown that the erg’s thermal properties are consistent with normal basaltic sand overlying shallow ground ice or ice-cemented sand. Our findings bolster that conclusion by thoroughly characterizing the thermal behavior of the erg, demonstrating that other likely forms of physical heterogeneity play only a minor role, and obviating the need to invoke exotic materials. Thermal inertia as calculated from orbital temperature observations of the dunes has previously been found to be more consistent with dust-sized materials than with sand. Since theory and laboratory data show that dunes will only form out of sand-sized particles, exotic sand-sized agglomerations of dust have been invoked to explain the low values of thermal inertia. However, the polar dunes exhibit the same darker appearance and color as that of dunes found elsewhere on the planet that have thermal inertia consistent with normal sand-sized basaltic grains, whereas Martian dust deposits are generally lighter and redder. The alternative explanation for the discrepancy as a thermal effect of a shallow ice table is supported by our analysis of observations from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System and by forward modeling of physical heterogeneity. In addition, our results exclude a uniform composition of dark dust-sized materials, and they show that the thermal effects of the dune slopes and bright interdune materials evident in high-resolution images cannot account for the erg’s thermal behavior.

  18. Thermal characterization of oil palm fiber and eucalyptus in torrefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Kuo, Po-Chih; Liu, Shih-Hsien; Wu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Thermal behavior of biomass in torrefaction plays an important role in the operation of pretreatment. To understand the endothermic and/or exothermic characteristics of biomass in the course of torrefaction, an experimental system is conducted and two kinds of biomass (oil palm fiber and eucalyptus) are investigated. The results indicate that the thermal behavior is significantly influenced by the lignocellulosic composition in biomass and the torrefaction temperature. The thermal decomposition of hemicellulose is the dominant mechanism for oil palm fiber torrefied at 200 and 250 °C, whereas the thermal degradation of cellulose is crucial when the biomass is torrefied at 300 °C. Therefore, the heat of reaction of oil palm fiber increases with increasing torrefaction temperature. The torrefaction of eucalyptus is always endothermic, as a consequence of high cellulose contained in the biomass. It is less endothermic when the torrefaction temperature increases, presumably due to the char formation from cellulose thermal degradation and the exothermic lignin decomposition. As a whole, the values of the heat of reaction of the two samples are between −3.50 and 2.23 MJ/kg. The obtained results have provided a useful insight into the control of torrefaction operation and the design of torrefaction reactor. - Highlights: • Thermal behavior of oil palm fiber and eucalyptus in torrefaction is studied. • Thermal characteristic of biomass in torrefaction depends on lignocellulosic composition. • Heat of reaction of oil palm fiber increases with increasing torrefaction temperature. • Eucalyptus torrefaction is always endothermic because of high cellulose contained. • Torrefaction of eucalyptus is less endothermic when the torrefaction temperature increases

  19. Anisotropic Thermal Behavior of Silicone Polymer, DC 745

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Jillian Cathleen [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Torres, Joseph Angelo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Volz, Heather Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gallegos, Jennifer Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-02

    In material applications, it is important to understand how polymeric materials behave in the various environments they may encounter. One factor governing polymer behavior is processing history. Differences in fabrication will result in parts with varied or even unintended properties. In this work, the thermal expansion behavior of silicone DC 745 is studied. Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) is used to determine changes in sample dimension resulting from changes in temperature. This technique can measure thermal events such as the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), melting, glass transitions, cure shrinkage, and internal relaxations. Using a thermomechanical analyzer (Q400 TMA), it is determined that DC 745 expands anisotropically when heated. This means that the material has a different CTE depending upon which direction is being measured. In this study, TMA experiments were designed in order to confirm anisotropic thermal behavior in multiple DC 745 samples of various ages and lots. TMA parameters such as temperature ramp rate, preload force, and temperature range were optimized in order to ensure the most accurate and useful data. A better understanding of the thermal expansion of DC 745 will allow for more accurate modeling of systems using this material.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of thermally oxidized ZnO films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Synthesis and characterization of thermally oxidized ZnO films. A P RAMBU1,* and N IFTIMIE2 .... R. −. Δ. = = (1) where Ra is the sensor resistance in the air and Rg is the .... ple, Aida and coworkers (2006) reported that the total oxidation is ...

  1. Fatigue crack growth behavior under cyclic thermal transient stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Masahiro; Kano, Takashi; Yoshitoshi, Atsushi.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal fatigue tests were performed using straight pipe specimens subjected to cyclic thermal shocks of liquid sodium, and crack growth behaviors were estimated using striation patterns observed clearly on any crack surface. Crack growth rate under cyclic thermal strain reaches the maximum at one depth, and after that it decreases gradually with crack depth. The peak location of crack growth rate becomes deeper by superposition of constant primary stress. Parallel cracks co-existing in the neighborhood move the peak to shallower location and decrease the maximum crack growth rate. The equivalent stress intensity factor range calculated by Walker's formula is successfully applied to the case of negative stress ratio. Fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic thermal strain agreed well with that under the constant temperature equal to the maximum value in the thermal cycle. Simplified methods for calculating the stress intensity factor and the crack interference factor have been developed. Crack growth behavior under thermal fatigue could be well predicted using numerical analysis results. (author)

  2. Fatigue crack growth behavior under cyclic transient thermal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Masahiro; Kano, Takashi; Yoshitoshi, Atsushi.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal fatigue tests were performed using straight pipe specimens subjected to cyclic thermal shocks of liquid sodium, and crack growth behaviors were estimated using striation patterns observed clearly on any crack surface. Crack growth rate under cyclic thermal strain reaches the maximum at one depth, and after that it decreases gradually with crack depth. The peak location of crack growth rate becomes deeper by superposition of constant primary stress. Parallel cracks co-existing in the neighborhood move the peak to shallower location and decrease the maximum crack growth rate. The equivalent stress intensity factor range calculated by Walker's formula is successfully applied to the case of negative stress ratio. Fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic thermal strain agreed well with that under the constant temperature equal to the maximum value in the thermal cycle. Simplified methods for calculating the stress intensity factor and the crack interference factor have been developed. Crack growth behavior under thermal fatigue could be well predicted using numerical analysis results. (author)

  3. In-pile Thermal Conductivity Characterization with Time Resolved Raman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xinwei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hurley, David H. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2018-03-19

    The project is designed to achieve three objectives: (1) Develop a novel time resolved Raman technology for direct measurement of fuel and cladding thermal conductivity. (2) Validate and improve the technology development by measuring ceramic materials germane to the nuclear industry. (3) Conduct instrumentation development to integrate optical fiber into our sensing system for eventual in-pile measurement. We have developed three new techniques: time-domain differential Raman (TD-Raman), frequency-resolved Raman (FR-Raman), and energy transport state-resolved Raman (ET-Raman). The TD-Raman varies the laser heating time and does simultaneous Raman thermal probing, the FR-Raman probes the material’s thermal response under periodical laser heating of different frequencies, and the ET-Raman probes the thermal response under steady and pulsed laser heating. The measurement capacity of these techniques have been fully assessed and verified by measuring micro/nanoscale materials. All these techniques do not need the data of laser absorption and absolute material temperature rise, yet still be able to measure the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity with unprecedented accuracy. It is expected they will have broad applications for in-pile thermal characterization of nuclear materials based on pure optical heating and sensing.

  4. Use of Emanation Thermal Analysis in the characterization of nuclear waste forms and their alteration products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V; Malek, Z.; Banba, T.; Mitamura, H.; Vance, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    Emanation Thermal Analysis (ETA) was used for the characterization of thermal behavior of two nuclear waste glasses, basalt volcanic glass and perovskite ceramics before and after hydrolytic treatment. The release of radon, formed by the spontaneous α-decay of 228 Th and 224 Ra and incorporated into samples to a maximum depth of 100 nm from the surface due to the recoil, was measured during heating of the samples from 20 to 1200degC and subsequent cooling. Temperatures of the annealing of surface roughness, micro-cracks and other defects, produced by manufacture and/or by subsequent treatment of glass and ceramic samples, were determined using the ETA. Microstructure changes of glass corrosion accompanying their dehydration and thermal decomposition were characterized by the radon release rate changes. The effect of hydrolytic alteration on the thermal behavior of the nuclear waste glass was revealed by ETA in an early corrosion stage. In the alteration product of the perovskite ceramics the diffusion mobility of radon was assessed in the temperature range 1000-1200degC. The thermal stability of radiation-induced defects in perovskite ceramic powder bombarded by He + ions to doses of 10 14 and 10 16 ions/cm 2 was determined by means of ETA. (author)

  5. Forensic analysis methodology for thermal and chemical characterization of homemade explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarian, Ashot; Presser, Cary

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Identification of homemade explosives (HME) is critical for determining the origin of explosive precursor materials. • A novel laser-heating technique was used to obtain the thermal/chemical signatures of HME precursor materials. • Liquid-fuel saturation of the pores of a solid porous oxidizer affected the total specific heat release. • Material thermal signatures were dependent on sample mass and heating rate. • This laser-heating technique can be a useful diagnostic tool for characterizing the thermochemical behavior of HMEs. - Abstract: Forensic identification of homemade explosives is critical for determining the origin of the explosive materials and precursors, and formulation procedures. Normally, the forensic examination of the pre- and post-blast physical evidence lacks specificity for homemade-explosive identification. The focus of this investigation was to use a novel measurement technique, referred to as the laser-driven thermal reactor, to obtain the thermal/chemical signatures of homemade-explosive precursor materials. Specifically, nitromethane and ammonium nitrate were studied under a variety of operating conditions and protocols. Results indicated that liquid-fuel saturation of the internal pores of a solid particle oxidizer appear to be a limiting parameter for the total specific heat release during exothermic processes. Results also indicated that the thermal signatures of these materials are dependent on sample mass and heating rate, for which this dependency may not be detectable by other commercially available thermal analysis techniques. This study has demonstrated that the laser-driven thermal reactor can be a useful diagnostic tool for characterizing the thermal and chemical behavior of trace amounts of homemade-explosive materials

  6. Tribological and wear behavior of yttria stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings on mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, M.; Pervez, A.

    2012-01-01

    The perfection of the temperature confrontation of the engine essentials can be obtained by claim of a single ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC) or several composite layers. Engine elements protected by TBC can work safely in elevated temperature range above 1000 degree C. Continuous endeavor to increase thermal resistance of engine the elements requires, apart from laboratory investigations, also numerical study of the different engine parts. The high temperatures and stress concentrations can act as the local sources of damage initiation and defects propagation in the form of cracks. The current study focuses the development of Yttria stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coating by Thermal spray technique. Mild steel was used as a substrate and the coating was then characterized for tribological analysis followed by the optical analysis of wear tracks and found the TBC behavior more promising then steel. (author)

  7. Lanthanide phosphonates: Synthesis, thermal stability and magnetic characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amghouz, Z., E-mail: amghouz.uo@uniovi.es [Departamentos de Quimica Fisica y Analitica y Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidad de Oviedo - CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Garcia, J.R.; Garcia-Granda, S. [Departamentos de Quimica Fisica y Analitica y Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Universidad de Oviedo - CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Clearfield, A. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77842-3012 (United States); Rodriguez Fernandez, J.; Pedro, I. de [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Blanco, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Report of the complete series of lanthanide 1,4-phenylbis(phosphonate). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis under conventional hydrothermal synthesis or microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cation size is the key factor for the structural and particles size variations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal behaviour is characterized by unusual very high thermal stability. - Abstract: Series of novel organic-inorganic hybrids materials based on trivalent lanthanides (Ln = Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) and 1,4-phenylbis(phosphonate) obtained under hydrothermal conditions either by oven heat or microwave irradiation. The anhydrous compounds containing La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, and Ho, are isostructural. However, the compounds based on Y, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu are hydrated and their structures have not yet been solved. The series of compounds are characterized by PXRD, TEM, SEM-EDX and thermal analyses (TG-MS and DSC). TEM study show a variable particles size with a minimum mean-particle size of ca. 30 nm. These compounds exhibit unusual very high thermal stability. The size of particles and the thermal stability are depending on lanthanide(III) cation features. All the investigated materials show paramagnetic behaviour. The magnetic susceptibility data follow a Curie-Weiss laws with paramagnetic effective moments in good agreement with those expected for Ln{sup 3+} free ions.

  8. Hydrochemical characterization of recreational thermal regions in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrión, R.; Massa, E.

    2010-01-01

    The deep drilling in Uruguay yields thermal groundwater aquifer formations contained in Mesozoic and Permo-Carboniferous in the North Basin. This paper characterizes thermal environments from the standpoint of physical-chemical, used primarily recreational, noting also the presence of heavy metals of natural origin. We worked over 62 analytical results from various information sources between 1946 and 2007. Using appropriate software the results were entered selected based on reliability and study area, 11 wells, analyzed different diagrams to characterize the water. Based on the drilling location and classification hydrogeochemistry thermal, thermal environments proposes five sorted from North to South: Arapey, Salto, Guaviyú, Guichon and Paso Ullestie. The proposed thermal environments were differentiated by the constitution hydrochemistry of waters, from north to south evolve bicarbonate calcium bicarbonate to sodium chloride, and increase the presence of sulfates. Groundwater Arapey environments and Salto aquifers are contained in Jurassic-Cretaceous, while for the remaining three environments (Guaviyú, Guichon and Paso Ullestie), aquifers are geological formations Permo - Carboniferous. In the past, it was determined the presence of As, funded by pre-Early Paleozoic formations Guarani Aquifer System: Buena Vista and Yaguarí Resumen ampliado Introducción

  9. Thermal Behavior of Tacca leontopetaloides Starch-Based Biopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Shuhada Mohd Makhtar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch is used whenever there is a need for natural elastic properties combined with low cost of production. However, the hydrophilic properties in structural starch will decrease the thermal performance of formulated starch polymer. Therefore, the effect of glycerol, palm olein, and crude palm oil (CPO, as plasticizers, on the thermal behavior of Tacca leontopetaloides starch incorporated with natural rubber in biopolymer production was investigated in this paper. Four different formulations were performed and represented by TPE1, TPE2, TPE3, and TPE4. The compositions were produced by using two-roll mill compounding. The sheets obtained were cut into small sizes prior to thermal testing. The addition of glycerol shows higher enthalpy of diffusion in which made the material easily can be degraded, leaving to an amount of 6.6% of residue. Blending of CPO with starch (TPE3 had a higher thermal resistance towards high temperature up to 310°C and the thermal behavior of TPE2 only gave a moderate performance compared with other TPEs.

  10. A cryogenic thermal source for detector array characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David T.; Rostem, Karwan; Wollack, Edward J.; Berman, Leah; Colazo, Felipe; DeGeorge, Martin; Helson, Kyle; Sagliocca, Marco

    2017-10-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and validation of a cryogenically compatible quasioptical thermal source for characterization of detector arrays. The source is constructed using a graphite-loaded epoxy mixture that is molded into a tiled pyramidal structure. The mold is fabricated using a hardened steel template produced via a wire electron discharge machining process. The absorptive mixture is bonded to a copper backplate enabling thermalization of the entire structure and measurement of the source temperature. Measurements indicate that the reflectance of the source is <0.001 across a spectral band extending from 75 to 330 GHz.

  11. Dispersal, behavioral responses and thermal adaptation in Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Anders; Blackenhorn, Wolf U.; Pertoldi, Cino

    were obtained with flies held for several generations in a laboratory common garden setting, therefore we suggest that exposure to and avoidance of high temperatures under natural conditions has been an important selective agent causing the suggested adaptive differentiation between the populations.......Behavioral traits can have great impact on an organism’s ability to cope with or avoidance of thermal stress, and are therefore of evolutionary importance for thermal adaptation. We compared the morphology, heat resistance, locomotor (walking and flying) activity and flight performance of three...

  12. Thermal behaviors of liquid La-based bulk metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, D. W.; Wang, X. D., E-mail: wangxd@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: jiangjz@zju.edu.cn; Lou, H. B.; Cao, Q. P.; Jiang, J. Z., E-mail: wangxd@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: jiangjz@zju.edu.cn [International Center for New-Structured Materials (ICNSM), Laboratory of New-Structured Materials, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wang, L. W. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, D. X. [State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2014-12-14

    Thermal behaviors of liquid La-based bulk metallic glasses have been measured by using the dilatometer with a self-sealed sample cell. It is demonstrated that the strong glass forming liquid not only has the small thermal expansion coefficient but also shows the slow variation rate. Moreover, the strong glass former has relatively dense atomic packing and also small density change in the liquid state. The results suggest that the high glass forming ability of La-based metallic glasses would be closely related to the slow atomic rearrangements in liquid melts.

  13. Thermal stability of intermediate band behavior in Ti implanted Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olea, J.; Pastor, D.; Martil, I.; Gonzalez-Diaz, G. [Dpto. De Fisica Aplicada III (Electricidad y Electronica), Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    Ti implantation in Si with very high doses has been performed. Subsequent Pulsed Laser Melting (PLM) annealing produces good crystalline lattice with electrical transport properties that are well explained by the Intermediate Band (IB) theory. Thermal stability of this new material is analyzed by means of isochronal annealing in thermodynamic equilibrium conditions at increasing temperature. A progressive deactivation of the IB behavior is shown during thermal annealing, and structural and electrical measurements are reported in order to find out the origin of this result. (author)

  14. The diversity in thermal behavior of novel catanionic cholates: The dominant effect of quaternary ammonium centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihelj, Tea; Vojta, Danijela; Tomašić, Vlasta

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quaternary ammonium cholates characterized as crystal smectics at room temperature. • The domination of quaternary ammonium center seen through diverse thermal behavior. • Thermal changes of cholates keto–enol balance results with prevalence of one form. • Polynomial regression of isotropisation temperatures vs. dodecyl chain number. • Linear descending trend of isotropisation temperatures with higher headgroup number. - Abstract: The thermal behavior of novel catanionic compounds based on cholate anion was examined. The study explains the effect of the raising dodecyl chain number, as well as of the raising headgroup number in quaternary ammonium salts on their physico-chemical properties. The examined samples are crystal smectic phases at room temperature. Their rich and diverse thermal behavior is seen through polymorphic phase transitions, thermotropic mesomorphism of smectic nature and in some cases, kinetically managed crystallization that lasts in days. The changes of the cholates keto–enol isomer balance during thermal treatment are obtained. For both groups of samples temperatures of isotropisation and the thermodynamic parameters follow polynomial regression. Introduction of the new dodecyl chain leads to more ordered structure, while implementation the new headgroup leads to advanced polymer-like structure. The obtained results demonstrate an effort for getting and controlling the regularity of the physico-chemical and thermotropic properties for new compounds by systematic changing of cationic part of the molecule. These informations could provide in the future the easiest way for selection of potentially new and targeted applicable materials

  15. The diversity in thermal behavior of novel catanionic cholates: The dominant effect of quaternary ammonium centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihelj, Tea, E-mail: tmihelj@irb.hr [Department of Physical Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, POB 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Vojta, Danijela [Department of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, POB 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Tomašić, Vlasta [Department of Physical Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, POB 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quaternary ammonium cholates characterized as crystal smectics at room temperature. • The domination of quaternary ammonium center seen through diverse thermal behavior. • Thermal changes of cholates keto–enol balance results with prevalence of one form. • Polynomial regression of isotropisation temperatures vs. dodecyl chain number. • Linear descending trend of isotropisation temperatures with higher headgroup number. - Abstract: The thermal behavior of novel catanionic compounds based on cholate anion was examined. The study explains the effect of the raising dodecyl chain number, as well as of the raising headgroup number in quaternary ammonium salts on their physico-chemical properties. The examined samples are crystal smectic phases at room temperature. Their rich and diverse thermal behavior is seen through polymorphic phase transitions, thermotropic mesomorphism of smectic nature and in some cases, kinetically managed crystallization that lasts in days. The changes of the cholates keto–enol isomer balance during thermal treatment are obtained. For both groups of samples temperatures of isotropisation and the thermodynamic parameters follow polynomial regression. Introduction of the new dodecyl chain leads to more ordered structure, while implementation the new headgroup leads to advanced polymer-like structure. The obtained results demonstrate an effort for getting and controlling the regularity of the physico-chemical and thermotropic properties for new compounds by systematic changing of cationic part of the molecule. These informations could provide in the future the easiest way for selection of potentially new and targeted applicable materials.

  16. Characterization of the heat transfer properties of thermal interface materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullem, Travis Z.

    Physicists have studied the thermal conductivity of solids for decades. As a result of these efforts, thermal conduction in crystalline solids is well understood; there are detailed theories describing thermal conduction due to electrons and phonons. Phonon scattering and transmission at solid/solid interfaces, particularly above cryogenic temperatures, is not well understood and more work is needed in this area. The desire to solve engineering problems which require good thermal contact between mating surfaces has provided enhanced motivation for furthering the state of the art on this topic. Effective thermal management is an important design consideration in microelectronic systems. A common technique for removing excess heat from an electronic device is to attach a heatsink to the device; it is desirable to minimize the thermal resistance between the device and the heatsink. This can be accomplished by placing a thermal interface material (TIM) between the two surfaces. Due to the ever-increasing power densities found in electronic components, there is a desire to design better TIMs, which necessitates the ability to characterize TIM bondlines and to better understand the physics of heat conduction through TIM bondlines. A micro Fourier apparatus which employs Pt thin film thermometers of our design has been built and is capable of precisely quantifying the thermal resistance of thermal interface materials. In the present work several types of commercially available TIMs have been studied using this apparatus, including: greases, filled epoxies, and thermally conductive pads. In the case of filled epoxies, bondlines of various thicknesses, ranging from thirty microns to several hundred microns, have been measured. The microstructure of these bondlines has been investigated using optical microscopy and acoustic microscopy. Measured values of thermal conductivity are considered in terms of microstructural features such as percolation networks and filler particle

  17. Thermal Properties and Phonon Spectral Characterization of Synthetic Boron Phosphide for High Thermal Conductivity Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joon Sang; Wu, Huan; Hu, Yongjie

    2017-12-13

    Heat dissipation is an increasingly critical technological challenge in modern electronics and photonics as devices continue to shrink to the nanoscale. To address this challenge, high thermal conductivity materials that can efficiently dissipate heat from hot spots and improve device performance are urgently needed. Boron phosphide is a unique high thermal conductivity and refractory material with exceptional chemical inertness, hardness, and high thermal stability, which holds high promises for many practical applications. So far, however, challenges with boron phosphide synthesis and characterization have hampered the understanding of its fundamental properties and potential applications. Here, we describe a systematic thermal transport study based on a synergistic synthesis-experimental-modeling approach: we have chemically synthesized high-quality boron phosphide single crystals and measured their thermal conductivity as a record-high 460 W/mK at room temperature. Through nanoscale ballistic transport, we have, for the first time, mapped the phonon spectra of boron phosphide and experimentally measured its phonon mean free-path spectra with consideration of both natural and isotope-pure abundances. We have also measured the temperature- and size-dependent thermal conductivity and performed corresponding calculations by solving the three-dimensional and spectral-dependent phonon Boltzmann transport equation using the variance-reduced Monte Carlo method. The experimental results are in good agreement with that predicted by multiscale simulations and density functional theory, which together quantify the heat conduction through the phonon mode dependent scattering process. Our finding underscores the promise of boron phosphide as a high thermal conductivity material for a wide range of applications, including thermal management and energy regulation, and provides a detailed, microscopic-level understanding of the phonon spectra and thermal transport mechanisms of

  18. Characterization of Thermal and Mechanical Impact on Aluminum Honeycomb Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Christen M.

    2013-01-01

    This study supports NASA Kennedy Space Center's research in the area of intelligent thermal management systems and multifunctional thermal systems. This project addresses the evaluation of the mechanical and thermal properties of metallic cellular solid (MCS) materials; those that are lightweight; high strength, tunable, multifunctional and affordable. A portion of the work includes understanding the mechanical properties of honeycomb structured cellular solids upon impact testing under ambient, water-immersed, liquid nitrogen-cooled, and liquid nitrogen-immersed conditions. Additionally, this study will address characterization techniques of the aluminum honeycomb's ability to resist multiple high-rate loadings or impacts in varying environmental conditions, using various techniques for the quantitative and qualitative determination for commercial applicability.

  19. Thermal characterization of screen printed conductive pastes for RFID antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janeczek, Kamil, E-mail: kamil.janeczek@itr.org.pl [Tele and Radio Research Institute, 11 Ratuszowa Street, 03-450 Warsaw (Poland); Jakubowska, Malgorzata [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, 133 Wolczynska Street, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering, 8 Sankt Andrzej Bobola Street, 02-525 Warsaw (Poland); Mlozniak, Anna [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, 133 Wolczynska Street, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Koziol, Grazyna [Tele and Radio Research Institute, 11 Ratuszowa Street, 03-450 Warsaw (Poland)

    2012-09-01

    Thermal resistance is an essential aspect of electronic circuits designing. It leads to unexpected changes in electronic components during their work. In this study, new materials for screen printed RFID tag's antennas were characterized in terms of their resistance to thermal exposure. Polymer materials containing silver flakes, silver nanopowder, carbon nanotubes or conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS were elaborated and used for antenna printing on flexible materials. In order to verify their long term susceptibility to damages caused by the changing environmental conditions, the temperature cycling test was used in three different temperature ranges: +65 Degree-Sign C, -12 Degree-Sign C, -40 Degree-Sign C/+85 Degree-Sign C (3 h in each temp., dwell time 1 h). The highest durability to thermal exposure exhibited the paste with carbon nanotubes dispersed in poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA and the lowest one - the paste with conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS.

  20. Thermal characterization of screen printed conductive pastes for RFID antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janeczek, Kamil; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Młożniak, Anna; Kozioł, Grażyna

    2012-01-01

    Thermal resistance is an essential aspect of electronic circuits designing. It leads to unexpected changes in electronic components during their work. In this study, new materials for screen printed RFID tag's antennas were characterized in terms of their resistance to thermal exposure. Polymer materials containing silver flakes, silver nanopowder, carbon nanotubes or conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS were elaborated and used for antenna printing on flexible materials. In order to verify their long term susceptibility to damages caused by the changing environmental conditions, the temperature cycling test was used in three different temperature ranges: +65 °C, −12 °C, −40 °C/+85 °C (3 h in each temp., dwell time 1 h). The highest durability to thermal exposure exhibited the paste with carbon nanotubes dispersed in poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA and the lowest one – the paste with conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS.

  1. Thermal shock behavior of rare earth modified alumina ceramic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Junlong; Liu, Changxia [Ludong Univ., Yantai (China). School of Transportation

    2017-05-15

    Alumina matrix ceramic composites toughened by AlTiC master alloys, diopside and rare earths were fabricated by hot-pressing and their thermal shock behavior was investigated and compared with that of monolithic alumina. Results showed that the critical thermal shock temperature (ΔT) of monolithic alumina was 400 C. However, it decreased to 300 C for alumina incorporating only AlTiC master alloys, and increased with further addition of diopside and rare earths. Improvement of thermal shock resistance was obtained for alumina ceramic composites containing 9.5 wt.% AlTiC master alloys and 0.5 wt.% rare earth additions, which was mainly attributed to the formation of elongated grains in the composites.

  2. Characterization factors for thermal pollution in freshwater aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verones, Francesca; Hanafiah, Marlia Mohd; Pfister, Stephan; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Pelletier, Gregory J; Koehler, Annette

    2010-12-15

    To date the impact of thermal emissions has not been addressed in life cycle assessment despite the narrow thermal tolerance of most aquatic species. A method to derive characterization factors for the impact of cooling water discharges on aquatic ecosystems was developed which uses space and time explicit integration of fate and effects of water temperature changes. The fate factor is calculated with a 1-dimensional steady-state model and reflects the residence time of heat emissions in the river. The effect factor specifies the loss of species diversity per unit of temperature increase and is based on a species sensitivity distribution of temperature tolerance intervals for various aquatic species. As an example, time explicit characterization factors were calculated for the cooling water discharge of a nuclear power plant in Switzerland, quantifying the impact on aquatic ecosystems of the rivers Aare and Rhine. The relative importance of the impact of these cooling water discharges was compared with other impacts in life cycle assessment. We found that thermal emissions are relevant for aquatic ecosystems compared to other stressors, such as chemicals and nutrients. For the case of nuclear electricity investigated, thermal emissions contribute between 3% and over 90% to Ecosystem Quality damage.

  3. Macroscopic behavior of fast reactor fuel subjected to simulated thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Emerson, J.E.; Savoie, F.E.

    1983-06-01

    High-speed cinematography has been used to characterize the macroscopic behavior of irradiated and unirradiated fuel subjected to thermal transients prototypical of fast reactor transients. The results demonstrate that as the cladding melts, the fuel can disperse via spallation if the fuel contains in excess of approx. 16 μmoles/gm of fission gas. Once the cladding has melted, the macroscopic behavior (time to failure and dispersive nature) was strongly influenced by the presence of volatile fission products and the heating rate

  4. Lipophilic phytosterol derivatives: synthesis, thermal property and nanoemulsion behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panpipat, Worawan; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    Phytosterols and their esters have been reported as a cholesterol lowering agent in human. However, natural phytosterols have a low solubility in both water and fat resulting in a poor absorption in intestine. To improve the intestinal absorption and bioavailability of phytosterols, conversion...... of phytosterols into enzyme-liable lipophilic derivatives, such as fatty acid esters was one of the possible strategies. Differences in molecular structures of modified phytosterols may result in the differences in their thermal and micelling behaviors. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to improve...... the productive yield of a series of -sitosteryl fatty acid esters (C2-C18) and to investigate the thermal property and nano-emulsion behaviors of those compounds. This work reported a novel approach to synthesize phytosterol (-sitosterol as a model) fatty acid ester by employing Candida antarctica lipase...

  5. Thermal behavior of spatial structures under solar irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongbo; Liao, Xiangwei; Chen, Zhihua; Zhang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The temperature, particularly the non-uniform temperature under solar irradiation, is the main load for large-span steel structures. Due the shortage of in-site temperature test in previous studies, an in-site test was conducted on the large-span steel structures under solar irradiation, which was covered by glass roof and light roof, to gain insight into the temperature distribution of steel members under glass roof or light roof. A numerical method also was presented and verified to forecast the temperature of steel member under glass roof or light roof. Based on the on-site measurement and numerical analyses conducted, the following conclusions were obtained: 1) a remarkable temperature difference exists between the steel member under glass roof and that under light roof, 2) solar irradiation has a significant effect on the temperature distribution and thermal behavior of large-span spatial structures, 3) negative thermal load is the controlling factor for member stress, and the positive thermal load is the controlling factor for nodal displacement. - Highlights: • Temperature was measured for a steel structures under glass roof and light roof. • Temperature simulation method was presented and verified. • The thermal behavior of steel structures under glass or light roof was presented

  6. Thermal behavior of novel hybrid inorganic-organic phosphazene polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosscher, G; Wieringa, RH; Jekel, AP; vandeGrampel, JC

    The thermal behavior of the following systems have been investigated by TGA and XPS: the homopolymer of N3P3Cl4(CH3)(CH2C6H4CH=CH2) (1), copolymers of 1 with MMA and styrene, and copolymers of N3P3Cl4(i-C3H7) {C[OC(O)CH3]=CH2} (2) with MMA and styrene. Upon heating under TGA conditions the highest

  7. Ambazone-lipoic acid salt: Structural and thermal characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacso, Irina [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath street, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Racz, Csaba-Pal; Santa, Szabolcs [Babes-Bolyai' University, Faculty of Chemistry, 11 Arany Janos street, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Rus, Lucia [' Iuliu Hatieganu' University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, 6 Louis Pasteur street, 400349 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dadarlat, Dorin; Borodi, Gheorghe [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath street, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Bratu, Ioan, E-mail: ibratu@gmail.com [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath street, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2012-12-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salt of Ambazone with lipoic acid obtained by solvent-drop grinding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ambazone lipoate salt crystallizes in monoclinic system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FTIR data suggest the deprotonation of the lipoic acid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal behaviour different of ambazone salt as compared to the starting compounds. - Abstract: A suitable method for increasing the solubility, dissolution rate and consequently the bioavailability of poor soluble acidic or basic drugs is their salt formation. The aim of this study is to investigate the structural and thermal properties of the compound obtained by solvent drop grinding (SDG) method at room temperature, starting from the 1:1 molar ratios of ambazone (AMB) and {alpha}-lipoic acid (LA). The structural characterization was performed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermal behaviour of the obtained compound (AMB{center_dot}LA) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). The photopyroelectric calorimetry, in front detection configuration (FPPE), was applied to measure and compare the room temperature values of one dynamic thermal parameter (thermal effusivity) for starting and resulting compounds. Both structural and supporting calorimetric techniques pointed out a salt structure for AMB{center_dot}LA compound as compared to those of the starting materials.

  8. Behavioral characterization of mouse models of neuroferritinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capoccia

    Full Text Available Ferritin is the main intracellular protein of iron storage with a central role in the regulation of iron metabolism and detoxification. Nucleotide insertions in the last exon of the ferritin light chain cause a neurodegenerative disease known as Neuroferritinopathy, characterized by iron deposition in the brain, particularly in the cerebellum, basal ganglia and motor cortex. The disease progresses relentlessly, leading to dystonia, chorea, motor disability and neuropsychiatry features. The characterization of a good animal model is required to compare and contrast specific features with the human disease, in order to gain new insights on the consequences of chronic iron overload on brain function and behavior. To this aim we studied an animal model expressing the pathogenic human FTL mutant 498InsTC under the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK promoter. Transgenic (Tg mice showed strong accumulation of the mutated protein in the brain, which increased with age, and this was accompanied by brain accumulation of ferritin/iron bodies, the main pathologic hallmark of human neuroferritinopathy. Tg-mice were tested throughout development and aging at 2-, 8- and 18-months for motor coordination and balance (Beam Walking and Footprint tests. The Tg-mice showed a significant decrease in motor coordination at 8 and 18 months of age, with a shorter latency to fall and abnormal gait. Furthermore, one group of aged naïve subjects was challenged with two herbicides (Paraquat and Maneb known to cause oxidative damage. The treatment led to a paradoxical increase in behavioral activation in the transgenic mice, suggestive of altered functioning of the dopaminergic system. Overall, data indicate that mice carrying the pathogenic FTL498InsTC mutation show motor deficits with a developmental profile suggestive of a progressive pathology, as in the human disease. These mice could be a powerful tool to study the neurodegenerative mechanisms leading to the disease and help

  9. Behavioral characterization of mouse models of neuroferritinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoccia, Sara; Maccarinelli, Federica; Buffoli, Barbara; Rodella, Luigi F; Cremona, Ottavio; Arosio, Paolo; Cirulli, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Ferritin is the main intracellular protein of iron storage with a central role in the regulation of iron metabolism and detoxification. Nucleotide insertions in the last exon of the ferritin light chain cause a neurodegenerative disease known as Neuroferritinopathy, characterized by iron deposition in the brain, particularly in the cerebellum, basal ganglia and motor cortex. The disease progresses relentlessly, leading to dystonia, chorea, motor disability and neuropsychiatry features. The characterization of a good animal model is required to compare and contrast specific features with the human disease, in order to gain new insights on the consequences of chronic iron overload on brain function and behavior. To this aim we studied an animal model expressing the pathogenic human FTL mutant 498InsTC under the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) promoter. Transgenic (Tg) mice showed strong accumulation of the mutated protein in the brain, which increased with age, and this was accompanied by brain accumulation of ferritin/iron bodies, the main pathologic hallmark of human neuroferritinopathy. Tg-mice were tested throughout development and aging at 2-, 8- and 18-months for motor coordination and balance (Beam Walking and Footprint tests). The Tg-mice showed a significant decrease in motor coordination at 8 and 18 months of age, with a shorter latency to fall and abnormal gait. Furthermore, one group of aged naïve subjects was challenged with two herbicides (Paraquat and Maneb) known to cause oxidative damage. The treatment led to a paradoxical increase in behavioral activation in the transgenic mice, suggestive of altered functioning of the dopaminergic system. Overall, data indicate that mice carrying the pathogenic FTL498InsTC mutation show motor deficits with a developmental profile suggestive of a progressive pathology, as in the human disease. These mice could be a powerful tool to study the neurodegenerative mechanisms leading to the disease and help developing

  10. Thermal Fatigue Behavior of Air-Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coating with Bond Coat Species in Cyclic Thermal Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungyu Paik

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the bond coat species on the delamination or fracture behavior in thermal barrier coatings (TBCs was investigated using the yclic thermal fatigue and thermal-shock tests. The interface microstructures of each TBC showed a good condition without cracking or delamination after flame thermal fatigue (FTF for 1429 cycles. The TBC with the bond coat prepared by the air-plasma spray (APS method showed a good condition at the interface between the top and bond coats after cyclic furnace thermal fatigue (CFTF for 1429 cycles, whereas the TBCs with the bond coats prepared by the high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF and low-pressure plasma spray (LPPS methods showed a partial cracking (and/or delamination and a delamination after 780 cycles, respectively. The TBCs with the bond coats prepared by the APS, HVOF and LPPS methods were fully delaminated (>50% after 159, 36, and 46 cycles, respectively, during the thermal-shock tests. The TGO thickness in the TBCs was strongly dependent on the both exposure time and temperature difference tested. The hardness values were found to be increased only after the CFTF, and the TBC with the bond coat prepared by the APS showed the highest adhesive strength before and after the FTF.

  11. Thermal fatigue behavior of thermal barrier coatings by air plasma spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Sang; Kim, Eui Hyun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Hyuk [Korea Plant Service and Engineering Co. Ltd., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    Effects of top coat morphology and thickness on thermal fatigue behavior of Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) were investigated in this study. Thermal fatigue tests were conducted on three coating specimens with different top coat morphology and thickness, and then the test data were compared via microstructures, cycles to failure, and fracture surfaces. In the air plasma spray specimens (APS1, APS2), top coat were 200 and 300 {mu}m respectively. The thickness of top coat was about 700 {mu}m in the Perpendicular Cracked Specimen (PCS). Under thermal fatigue condition at 1,100 .deg. C, the cycles to top coat failure of APS1, APS2, and PCS were 350, 560 and 480 cycles, respectively. The cracks were initiated at the interface of top coat and Thermally Grown Oxide (TGO) and propagated into TGO or top coat as the number of thermal fatigue cycles increased. For the PCS specimen, additive cracks were initiated and propagated at the starting points of perpendicular cracks in the top coat. Also, the thickness of TGO and the decrease of aluminium concentration in bond coat do not affect the cycles to failure.

  12. Thermal Conductivity and Wear Behavior of HVOF-Sprayed Fe-Based Amorphous Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihua Yao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To protect aluminum parts in vehicle engines, metal-based thermal barrier coatings in the form of Fe59Cr12Nb5B20Si4 amorphous coatings were prepared by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF spraying under two different conditions. The microstructure, thermal transport behavior, and wear behavior of the coatings were characterized simultaneously. As a result, this alloy shows high process robustness during spraying. Both Fe-based coatings present dense, layered structure with porosities below 0.9%. Due to higher amorphous phase content, the coating H-1 exhibits a relatively low thermal conductivity, reaching 2.66 W/(m·K, two times lower than the reference stainless steel coating (5.85 W/(m·K, indicating a good thermal barrier property. Meanwhile, the thermal diffusivity of amorphous coatings display a limited increase with temperature up to 500 °C, which guarantees a steady and wide usage on aluminum alloy. Furthermore, the amorphous coating shows better wear resistance compared to high carbon martensitic GCr15 steel at different temperatures. The increased temperature accelerating the tribological reaction, leads to the friction coefficient and wear rate of coating increasing at 200 °C and decreasing at 400 °C.

  13. Coconut coir pith lignin: A physicochemical and thermal characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asoka Panamgama, L; Peramune, P R U S K

    2018-07-01

    The structural and thermal features of coconut coir pith lignin, isolated by three different extraction protocols incorporating two different energy supply sources, were characterized by different analytical tools. The three different chemical extraction protocols were alkaline - 7.5% (w/v) NaOH, organosolv - 85% (v/v) formic and acetic acids at 7:3 (v/v) ratio and polyethylene glycol (PEG): water ratio at 80:20wt%. The two sources of energy were thermal or microwave. Raw lignins were modified by epichlorohydrin to enhance reactivity, and the characteristics of raw and modified lignins were comparatively analysed. Using the thermal energy source, the alkaline and organosolv processes obtained the highest and lowest lignin yields of 26.4±1.5wt% and 3.4±0.2wt%, respectively, as shown by wet chemical analysis. Specific functional group analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) revealed that significantly different amounts of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups exist in alkaline, organosolv and PEG lignins. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) illustrated that the lowest degradation onset temperature was recorded for organosolv lignin, and the overall order was organosolvthermal). Irrespective of the extraction protocol, microwave energy provided the highest wt% loss rate, indicating the lowest thermal stability. The derivative temperature difference profiles from the microwave and thermal heating sources for different extraction protocols are discussed in detail. These findings show that lignin extraction from coir pith can be performed efficiently with several protocols and that those methods offer practical value to industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Improved thermal stability and wettability behavior of thermoplastic polyurethane / barium metaborate composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baştürka, Emre; Madakbaş, Seyfullah; Kahraman, Memet Vezir

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, it was targeted to the enhance thermal stability and wettability behavior of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) by adding barium metaborate. TPU-Barium metaborate composites were prepared by adding various proportions of barium metaborate to TPU. The chemical structures of the composites were characterised by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. All prepared composites have extremely high Tg and thermal stability as determined from DSC and TGA analysis. All composite materials have the Tg ranging from 15 to 35 °C. The surface morphologies of the composites were investigated by a scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of the samples were characterized with stress-strain test. Hydrophobicity of the samples was determined by the contact angle measurements. The obtained results proved that thermal, hydrophobic and mechanical properties were improved. (author)

  15. Improved thermal stability and wettability behavior of thermoplastic polyurethane / barium metaborate composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baştürka, Emre; Madakbaş, Seyfullah; Kahraman, Memet Vezir, E-mail: smadakbas@marmara.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Marmara University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, it was targeted to the enhance thermal stability and wettability behavior of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) by adding barium metaborate. TPU-Barium metaborate composites were prepared by adding various proportions of barium metaborate to TPU. The chemical structures of the composites were characterised by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. All prepared composites have extremely high Tg and thermal stability as determined from DSC and TGA analysis. All composite materials have the Tg ranging from 15 to 35 °C. The surface morphologies of the composites were investigated by a scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of the samples were characterized with stress-strain test. Hydrophobicity of the samples was determined by the contact angle measurements. The obtained results proved that thermal, hydrophobic and mechanical properties were improved. (author)

  16. Mechanical behavior of mullite green disks prepared by thermal consolidation with different starches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talou, M.H.; Tomba Martinez, A.G.; Camerucci, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical behavior of porous green disks obtained by thermal consolidation of mullite suspensions with cassava and potato starches was studied by diametral compression testing. Disks (thickness/diameter ≤ 0.25) were prepared by thermal treatment (70-80 °C, 2h) of mullite (75 vol%)/starch (25 vol%) of suspensions (40 vol%) pre-gelled at 55-60 °C, and dried (40 °C, 24 h). Samples were characterized by porosity measurements (50-55%) and microstructural analysis (SEM). Several mechanical parameters were determined: mechanical strength, Young's modulus, strain to fracture and yield stress. Typical crack patterns were analyzed and the fractographic analysis was performed by SEM. Mechanical results were related to the developed microstructures, the behavior of the starches in aqueous suspension, and the properties of the formed gels. For comparative purposes, mullite green disks obtained by burning out the starch (650 °C, 2h) were also mechanically evaluated. (author)

  17. Preliminary data evaluation for thermal insulation characterization testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeClue, J.F.; Moses, S.D.; Tollefson, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Thermal Insulation Characterization Testing is to provide physical data to support certain assumptions and calculational techniques used in the criticality safety calculations in Section 6 of the Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARPs) for drum-type packaging for Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Results of preliminary data evaluation regarding the fire-test condition reveal that realistic weight loss consideration and residual material characterization in developing calculational models for the hypothetical accident condition is necessary in order to prevent placement of unduly conservative restrictions on shipping requirements as a result of overly conservative modeling. This is particularly important for fast systems. Determination of the geometric arrangement of residual material is of secondary importance. Both the methodology used to determine the minimum thermal insulation mass remaining after the fire test and the treatment of the thermal insulation in the criticality safety calculational models requires additional evaluation. Specific testing to be conducted will provide experimental data with which to validate the mass estimates and calculational modeling techniques for extrapolation to generic drum-type containers

  18. Characterizing Interferences in an NOy Thermal Dissociation Inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, C.; Veres, P. R.; Brock, C. A.; Neuman, J. A.; Eilerman, S. J.; Zarzana, K. J.; Dube, W. P.; Wild, R. J.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Cohen, R. C.; Brown, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO and NO2) are emitted into the troposphere by various anthropogenic and natural sources, and contribute to increased levels of ambient ozone. Reactive nitrogen species (NOy), which include nitric acid, peroxy acetyl and organic nitrates, and other species, serve as reservoirs and sinks for NOx, thus influencing O3 production. Their detection is therefore critical to understanding ozone chemistry. However, accurate measurements of NOy have proven to be difficult to obtain, and measurements of total NOy sometimes do not agree with the sum of measurements of its individual components. In recent years, quartz thermal dissociation (TD) inlets have been used to thermally convert all NOy species to NO2, followed by detection by techniques such as laser induced fluorescence (LIF) or cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS). Here we discuss recent work in characterizing the NOy channel of our four-channel TD-CRDS instrument. In particular, we have examined the thermal conversion efficiency of several representative NOy species under a range of experimental conditions. We find that under certain conditions, the conversion efficiency is sensitive to inlet residence time and to the concentration of other trace gases found in ambient sampling, such as ozone. We also report the thermal dissociation curves of N2O5 and ammonium nitrate aerosol, and discuss the interferences observed when ammonia and ozone are co-sampled in the inlet.

  19. Thermal characterization of QSH crashes in RFX-mod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassina, Alessandro; Gobbin, Marco; Franz, Paolo; Marrelli, Lionello; Ruzzon, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    QSH (Quasi Single Helicity) states have gained a growing interest in RFP research since they show improved confinement and transport features with respect to standard discharges. However, ITBs associated with QSH states can be obtained only in a transient way, and in general with a shorter lifetime with respect to that of the QSH phase [1]. In this work the analysis has essentially the purpose of confirming, with TS data, the Te dynamics seen with the double filter, multichord SXR spectrometer in [1]: TS data allow a better spatial definition of temperature profile and a more reliable description of plasma edge. Te profile features in rising and crashing phases are determined via ensemble averaging, possible precursors of thermal crashes are identified, while q(r) behavior is studied identifying the thermal structures associated with rational surfaces. [4pt] [1] Ruzzon et al, 39th EPS Conference, P2.023

  20. A Rat Model of Full Thickness Thermal Injury Characterized by Thermal Hyperalgesia, Mechanical Allodynia, Pronociceptive Peptide Release and Tramadol Analgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    tramadol reduces acute, postoperative, neuropathic and cancer pain [9,10,12 14] and may have a lower propensity to induce addiction [15] with little to...opioid systems simultaneously, we next examined whether tramadol could attenuate burn evoked pain behaviors in our rat model of full thickness thermal...injury. Tramadol attenuated thermal hyperalgesia when administered one week following thermal injury, a time point when pain behaviors peak in this

  1. Simulation and test of the thermal behavior of pressure switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifang; Chen, Daner; Zhang, Yao; Dai, Tingting

    2018-04-01

    Little, lightweight, low-power microelectromechanical system (MEMS) pressure switches offer a good development prospect for small, ultra-long, simple atmosphere environments. In order to realize MEMS pressure switch, it is necessary to solve one of the key technologies such as thermal robust optimization. The finite element simulation software is used to analyze the thermal behavior of the pressure switch and the deformation law of the pressure switch film under different temperature. The thermal stress releasing schemes are studied by changing the structure of fixed form and changing the thickness of the substrate, respectively. Finally, the design of the glass substrate thickness of 2.5 mm is used to ensure that the maximum equivalent stress is reduced to a quarter of the original value, only 154 MPa when the structure is in extreme temperature (80∘C). The test results show that after the pressure switch is thermally optimized, the upper and lower electrodes can be reliably contacted to accommodate different operating temperature environments.

  2. Thermal interface material characterization for cryogenic electronic packaging solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, A.; McCusker, K.; Van Dyke, J.; Isler, B.; Christiansen, M.

    2017-12-01

    As applications of superconducting logic technologies continue to grow, the need for efficient and reliable cryogenic packaging becomes crucial to development and testing. A trade study of materials was done to develop a practical understanding of the properties of interface materials around 4 K. While literature exists for varying interface tests, discrepancies are found in the reported performance of different materials and in the ranges of applied force in which they are optimal. In considering applications extending from top cooling a silicon chip to clamping a heat sink, a range of forces from approximately 44 N to approximately 445 N was chosen for testing different interface materials. For each range of forces a single material was identified to optimize the thermal conductance of the joint. Of the tested interfaces, indium foil clamped at approximately 445 N showed the highest thermal conductance. Results are presented from these characterizations and useful methodologies for efficient testing are defined.

  3. High-precision thermal and electrical characterization of thermoelectric modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodner, Paul

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes an apparatus for performing high-precision electrical and thermal characterization of thermoelectric modules (TEMs). The apparatus is calibrated for operation between 20 °C and 80 °C and is normally used for measurements of heat currents in the range 0-10 W. Precision thermometry based on miniature thermistor probes enables an absolute temperature accuracy of better than 0.010 °C. The use of vacuum isolation, thermal guarding, and radiation shielding, augmented by a careful accounting of stray heat leaks and uncertainties, allows the heat current through the TEM under test to be determined with a precision of a few mW. The fractional precision of all measured parameters is approximately 0.1%.

  4. Thermal behavior in the transition region between nucleate and film boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adiutori, E.F.

    1991-01-01

    The prediction of post Critical Heat Flux (CHF) behavior is complicated by the highly nonlinear thermal behavior of boiling interfaces--ie by the nonlinear nature of the boiling curve. Nonlinearity in the boiling curve can and does cause thermal instability, resulting in temperature discontinuities. Thus the prediction of post CHF behavior requires the analysis of thermal stability. This in turn requires an accurate description of thermal behavior in transition boiling. This paper determines thermal behavior in transition boiling by analysis of literature data. It also describes design features which improve post CHF performance and are reported in the literature

  5. Thermal shock behavior of toughened gadolinium zirconate/YSZ double-ceramic-layered thermal barrier coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Xinghua; Zhao, Huayu; Zhou, Xiaming; Liu, Chenguang; Wang, Liang; Shao, Fang; Yang, Kai; Tao, Shunyan; Ding, Chuanxian

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 /YSZ DCL thermal barrier coating was designed and fabricated. • The Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 top ceramic layer was toughened by addition of nanostructured 3YSZ. • Remarkable improvement in thermal shock resistance of the DCL coating was achieved. - Abstract: Double-ceramic-layered (DCL) thermal barrier coating system comprising of toughened Gadolinium zirconate (Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 , GZ) as the top ceramic layer and 4.5 mol% Y 2 O 3 partially-stabilized ZrO 2 (4.5YSZ) as the bottom ceramic layer was fabricated by plasma spraying and thermal shock behavior of the DCL coating was investigated. The GZ top ceramic layer was toughened by addition of nanostructured 3 mol% Y 2 O 3 partially-stabilized ZrO 2 (3YSZ) to improve fracture toughness of the matrix. The thermal shock resistance of the DCL coating was enhanced significantly compared to that of single-ceramic-layered (SCL) GZ-3YSZ composite coating, which is believed to be primarily attributed to the two factors: (i) the increase in fracture toughness of the top ceramic layer by incorporating nanostructured YSZ particles and (ii) the improvement in strain tolerance through the utilization of 4.5YSZ as the bottom ceramic layer. In addition, the failure mechanisms are mainly attributed to the still low fracture toughness of the top ceramic layer and oxidation of the bond-coat

  6. Streamlined Modeling for Characterizing Spacecraft Anomalous Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, B.; Swann, D.

    2011-09-01

    Anomalous behavior of on-orbit spacecraft can often be detected using passive, remote sensors which measure electro-optical signatures that vary in time and spectral content. Analysts responsible for assessing spacecraft operational status and detecting detrimental anomalies using non-resolved imaging sensors are often presented with various sensing and identification issues. Modeling and measuring spacecraft self emission and reflected radiant intensity when the radiation patterns exhibit a time varying reflective glint superimposed on an underlying diffuse signal contribute to assessment of spacecraft behavior in two ways: (1) providing information on body component orientation and attitude; and, (2) detecting changes in surface material properties due to the space environment. Simple convex and cube-shaped spacecraft, designed to operate without protruding solar panel appendages, may require an enhanced level of preflight characterization to support interpretation of the various physical effects observed during on-orbit monitoring. This paper describes selected portions of the signature database generated using streamlined signature modeling and simulations of basic geometry shapes apparent to non-imaging sensors. With this database, summarization of key observable features for such shapes as spheres, cylinders, flat plates, cones, and cubes in specific spectral bands that include the visible, mid wave, and long wave infrared provide the analyst with input to the decision process algorithms contained in the overall sensing and identification architectures. The models typically utilize baseline materials such as Kapton, paints, aluminum surface end plates, and radiators, along with solar cell representations covering the cylindrical and side portions of the spacecraft. Multiple space and ground-based sensors are assumed to be located at key locations to describe the comprehensive multi-viewing aspect scenarios that can result in significant specular reflection

  7. Fiber Bragg Gratings for High-Temperature Thermal Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinson-Bagby, Kelly L.; Fielder, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors were used as a characterization tool to study the SAFE-100 thermal simulator at the Nasa Marshal Space Flight Center. The motivation for this work was to support Nasa space nuclear power initiatives through the development of advanced fiber optic sensors for space-based nuclear power applications. Distributed high temperature measurements, up to 1150 deg. C, were made with FBG temperature sensors. Additionally, FBG strain measurements were taken at elevated temperatures to provide a strain profile of the core during operation. This paper will discuss the contribution of these measurements to meet the goals of Nasa Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Research Center. (authors)

  8. Thermal hydraulic behavior evaluation of tank A-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes a new evaluation conducted to help understand the thermal-hydraulic behavior of tank A-101. Prior analysis of temperature data indicated that the dome space and upper waste layer was slowly increasing in temperature increases are due to increasing ambient temperatures and termination of forced ventilation. However, this analysis also indicates that other dome cooling processes are slowly decreasing, or some slow increase in heating is occurring at the waste surface. Dome temperatures are not decreasing at the rate expected as a forced ventilation termination effects are accounted for

  9. Thermal hydraulic behavior of SCWR sliding pressure startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Shengwei; Zhou Chong; Xu Zhihong; Yang Yanhua

    2011-01-01

    The modification to ATHLET-SC code is introduced in this paper, which realizes the simulation of trans-critical transients using two-phase model. With the modified code, the thermal-hydraulic dynamic behavior of the mixed SCWR core during the startup process is simulated. The startup process is similar to the design of SCLWR-H sliding pressure startup. The results show that maximum temperature of cladding-surface does not exceed 650℃ in the whole startup process, and the sudden change of water properties in the trans-critical transients will not cause harmful influence to the heat transfer of the fuel cladding. (authors)

  10. Second law characterization of stratified thermal storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraidenraich, N [Departamento de Energia Nuclear-UFPE (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    It is well known that fluid stratification in thermal storage tanks improves the overall performance of solar thermal systems, when compared with systems operating with uniform fluid temperature. From the point of view of the first law of thermodynamics, no difference exists between storage tanks with the same mass and average temperature, even if they have different stratified thermal structures. Nevertheless, the useful thermal energy that can be obtained from them might differ significantly. In this work, we derive an expression able to characterize the stratified configuration of thermal fluid. Using results obtained by thermodynamics of irreversible processes, the procedure adopted consists in calculating the maximum work available from the tank's thermal layer is able to develop. We arrive, then, at a dimensionless expression, the stratification parameter (SP), which depends on the mass fraction and absolute temperature of each thermal layer as well as the thermal fluid average temperature. Numerical examples for different types of tank stratification are given and it is verified that the expression obtained is sensitive to small differences in the reservoir thermal configuration. For example a thermal storage with temperatures equal to 74 Celsius degrees, 64 Celsius degrees and 54 Celsius degrees, with its mass equally distributed along the tank yields, for the parameter SP, a figure equal to 0.000294. On the other hand a storage tank with the same average temperature but with different layer's temperatures 76 Celsius degrees, 64 and 52 Celsius degrees, also with uniform mass distribution, yields for SP a value equal to quantitative evaluation of the stratification structure of thermal reservoirs. [Spanish] Es bien conocido que la estratificacion fluida en tanques de almacenamiento termico mejora el rendimiento total de los sistemas termicos solares en comparacion con sistemas que operan con temperatura uniforme del fluido. Desde el punto de vista

  11. Thermal characterization of magnetically aligned carbonyl iron/agar composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Bleis, D; Vales-Pinzón, C; Freile-Pelegrín, Y; Alvarado-Gil, J J

    2014-01-01

    Composites of magnetic particles into polymeric matrices have received increasing research interest due to their capacity to respond to external magnetic or electromagnetic fields. In this study, agar from Gelidium robustum has been chosen as natural biocompatible polymer to build the matrix of the magnetic carbonyl iron particles (CIP) for their uses in biomedical fields. Heat transfer behavior of the CIP-agar composites containing different concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% w/w) of magnetically aligned and non-aligned CIP in the agar matrix was studied using photothermal radiometry (PTR) in the back-propagation emission configuration. The morphology of the CIP-agar composites with aligned and non-aligned CIP under magnetic field was also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results revealed a dominant effect of CIP concentration over the alignment patterns induced by the magnetic field, which agrees with the behavior of the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity. Agar served as a perfect matrix to be used with CIP, and CIP-agar composites magnetically aligned at 20% CIP concentration can be considered as promising 'smart' material for hyperthermia treatments in the biomedical field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of the Ljubljana TRIGA thermal column neutron radiographic facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, T.; Rant, J.; Kristof, E.; Glumac, B.

    1995-01-01

    An extensive characterization of the neutron beam of the existing neutron radiographic facility in the thermal column of the Ljubljana Triga Mark II research reactor is in progress. Neutron beam characteristics are needed to determine the effect of various neutron and gamma radiation on the neutron radiographic image. Commercially available medical scintillator converter screens based on Gd dioxy sulphite as well as Gd metal neutron converters are used to record neutron radiographic image. Thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluxes were measured using Au and In activation detectors and cadmium ratio is determined. Neutron beam flux profiles are measured by film densitometry and by Au activation detector wires. By exposing films shielded by boral or lead plates individual contributions of thermal, epithermal neutrons and gamma radiation are estimated by densitometric measurements. By recording images of neutron image quality indicators BPI (Beam Purity Indicator) and SI (Sensitivity Indicator) produced by Riso, standard neutron radiography image characteristic are established. In gamma dosimetric measurements thermoluminescent detectors (CaF 2 Mn) are used. (author)

  13. Thermal characterization of commercially pure titanium for dental applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enori Gemelli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal characterization of commercially pure titanium was carried out in dry air to investigate the oxidation kinetics, the oxide structures and their properties. Oxidation kinetics were performed by thermogravimetry in isothermal conditions between 300 and 750 °C for 48 hours and the oxide structures were studied by differential thermal analyses and X ray diffraction between room temperature and 1000 °C. The oxidation kinetic increases with temperature and is very fast in the initial period of oxidation, decreasing rapidly with time, especially up to 600 °C. Kinetic laws varied between the inverse logarithmic for the lower temperatures (300 and 400 °C and the parabolic for the higher temperatures (650, 700 and 750 °C. Evidences from X ray diffraction and differential thermal analyses showed that crystallization of the passive oxide film, formed at room temperature, into anatase occurs at about 276 °C. The crystallized oxide structure is composed of anatase between 276 and 457 °C, anatase and rutile sublayers between 457 and 718 °C, and a pure layer of rutile after 718 °C. Rockwell-C adhesion tests reveled that the oxide films formed up to 600 °C have a good adhesion. Vickers indentations on the oxidized surfaces showed that the hardness of the oxide film, measured at 600 and 650 °C, is approximately 9500 MPa. At these temperatures the surface roughness varied between 0.90 and 1.30 mm.

  14. Physicochemical Characterization and Thermal Decomposition of Garin Maiganga Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyakuma Bemgba Bevan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined physicochemical and thermal characteristics of the newly discovered Garin Maiganga (GMG coal from Nigeria. The physicochemical characterization comprised of elemental, proximate, calorific value, and classification (rank analyses. Thermal analysis was examined using combined Thermogravimetric (TG and Derivative Thermogravimetric analyses (DTG. Hence, the coal was heated from 30°C to 1000°C at 20°C/min under inert conditions to examine its thermal degradation behaviour and temperature profile characteristics (TPC. The results indicated that the GMG coal fuel properties consist of low Ash, Nitrogen, and Sulphur content. Moisture content was > 5%, Volatile Matter > 50%, Fixed Carbon > 22%, and Heating Value (HHV 23.74 MJ/kg. Based on its fuel properties, the GMG coal can be classified as a Sub-Bituminous B, non-agglomerating low rank coal (LRC. The GMG coal TPCs – onset, peak, and offset temperatures – were 382.70°C, 454.60°C, and 527.80°C, respectively. The DTG profile revealed four (4 endothermic peaks corresponding to loss of moisture (drying, volatile matter (devolatization, and coke formation. The residual mass Rm was 50.16%, which indicates that higher temperatures above 1000°C are required for the complete pyrolytic decomposition of the GMG coal. In conclusion, the results indicate that the GMG coal is potentially suitable for future utilization in electric power generation and the manufacture of cement and steel.

  15. Correlation between thermal behavior of clays and their chemical and mineralogical composition: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Yanti, Evi; Pratiwi, I.

    2018-02-01

    Clay's abundance has been widely used as industrial raw materials, especially ceramic and tile industries. Utilization of these minerals needs a thermal process for producing ceramic products. Two studies conducted by Septawander et al. and Chin C et al., showed the relationship between thermal behavior of clays and their chemical and mineralogical composition. Clays are characterized by XRD analysis and thermal analysis, ranging from 1100°C to 1200°C room temperature. Specimen of raw materials of clay which is used for the thermal treatment is taken from different geological conditions and formation. In raw material, Quartz is almost present in all samples. Halloysite, montmorillonite, and feldspar are present in Tanjung Morawa raw clay. KC and MC similar kaolinite and illite are present in the samples. The research illustrates the interrelationships of clay minerals and chemical composition with their heat behavior. As the temperature of combustion increases, the sample reduces a significant weight. The minerals which have undergone a transformation phase became mullite, cristobalite or illite and quartz. Under SEM analysis, the microstructures of the samples showed irregularity in shape; changes occurred due the increase of heat.

  16. Quantification and analysis of color stability based on thermal transient behavior in white LED lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisa Khan, M

    2017-09-20

    We present measurement and analysis of color stability over time for two categories of white LED lamps based on their thermal management scheme, which also affects their transient lumen depreciation. We previously reported that lumen depreciation in LED lamps can be minimized by properly designing the heat sink configuration that allows lamps to reach a thermal equilibrium condition quickly. Although it is well known that lumen depreciation degrades color stability of white light since color coordinates vary with total lumen power by definition, quantification and characterization of color shifts based on thermal transient behavior have not been previously reported in literature for LED lamps. Here we provide experimental data and analysis of transient color shifts for two categories of household LED lamps (from a total of six lamps in two categories) and demonstrate that reaching thermal equilibrium more quickly provides better stability for color rendering, color temperature, and less deviation of color coordinates from the Planckian blackbody locus line, which are all very important characterization parameters of color for white light. We report for the first time that a lamp's color degradation from the turn-on time primarily depends on thermal transient behavior of the semiconductor LED chip, which experiences a wavelength shift as well as a decrease in its dominant wavelength peak value with time, which in turn degrades the phosphor conversion. For the first time, we also provide a comprehensive quantitative analysis that differentiates color degradation due to the heat rise in GaN/GaInN LED chips and subsequently the boards these chips are mounted on-from that caused by phosphor heating in a white LED module. Finally, we briefly discuss why there are some inevitable trade-offs between omnidirectionality and color and luminous output stability in current household LED lamps and what will help eliminate these trade-offs in future lamp designs.

  17. Thermal characterization of ZnS:SiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegert, Karl Simon; Schlockermann, Carl; Merkelbach, Philipp; Volker, Hanno; Wuttig, Matthias [RWTH Aachen University, I. Physikalisches Institut (IA), Aachen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Phase change materials such as Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} or GeTe offer unique physical characteristics. Their strong changes in optical and electrical properties during their amorphous-crystalline phase transitions make them especially interesting for data storage applications. The large contrast in reflectance between the amorphous and the fcc-phase of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} is already technologically exploited in rewritable optical storage discs. As the switching between the amorphous and the crystalline state is induced by temperature, thermal characterization of the phase change material and all other surrounding materials is needed for further improvement of data storage devices. This work focuses on thin films of ZnS:SiO{sub 2}, a material, which is used for protective layers on top of the active phase change layer in optical storage media. We have created several samples of different thicknesses by sputter deposition and characterized them using AFM and XRR. Small gold wires were created on top of the sample by photo-lithography and were used to measure the cross-plane thermal conductivity with an AC-measurement technique.

  18. Synthesis and thermal behavior of double copper and potassium pyrophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciopec, Mihaela; Muntean, Cornelia; Negrea, Adina; Lupa, Lavinia; Negrea, Petru; Barvinschi, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the synthesis and thermal behavior of double copper and potassium pyrophosphate, which can be used as a PK fertilizer containing copper as micronutrient. In order to find the conditions for the synthesis of this compound from copper sulphate and potassium pyrophosphate, various Cu 2+ :P 2 O 7 4- molar ratios (0:1-2:1), various molar concentrations of the solutions (0.075; 0.1; 0.15 and 0.2 mol L -1 ) and various temperatures (25, 50, 75 and 100 o C) have been used. The solid product synthesized in optimum conditions for the separation of micronutrient copper from the reaction mass (Cu 2+ :P 2 O 7 4- molar ratio 1:1, concentration 0.1 mol L -1 ) was subjected to a complex study: chemical analysis, thermal analysis, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. During heating up to 1000 o C, K 2 Cu 3 (P 2 O 7 ) 2 .3H 2 O loses the crystallization water; several transformations of the phosphates also take place: the decomposition of pyrophosphates to ortho-phosphates; the transformation of ortho-phosphates; the polymerization of a fraction of ortho-phosphates to amorphous phosphates with longer chains; the reorganization of ortho-phosphates and poly-phosphates to pyrophosphates and their crystallization. The decomposition mechanism was confirmed when using the X-ray diffraction patterns of the compound, thermally treated at several temperatures.

  19. Synthesis and thermal behavior of polyacrylonitrile/vinylidene chloride copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Fleming

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylonitrile fiber encompasses a broad range of products based on acrylonitrile (AN which is readily copolymerized with a wide range of ethylenic unsaturated monomers giving rise to polymers with different characteristics and applications. Such products can be designed for cost-effective, flame and heat resistant solutions for the textile industry, aircraft and automotive markets. In the present work acrylonitrile was copolymerized with vinylidene chloride (VDC by conventional suspension polymerization process via redox system, with an initial content of 10%/mass of the VDC monomer. The copolymer average molecular weight was obtained by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC and by intrinsic viscosity analysis. To control the polymerization process continuously, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chloride content in the PAN AN/VDC copolymer structure was accomplished by using X-ray fluorescence and potentiometric titration techniques. A good correlation was found between these two techniques, leading to a straightforward verification of VDC in the polymer structure. The thermal behavior of PAN AN/VDC copolymer was performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA. The results showed that VDC monomers exhibited a nearly stoichiometric reaction with acrylonitrile, copolymerizing about 90% of its initial mass. VDC changed significantly the polyacrylonitrile thermal behavior, decreasing the polymer degradation temperature by about 40-50°C.

  20. Influence of humidity on the thermal behavior of aluminum nanopowders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ying; Song Wulin; Xie Changsheng; Zeng Dawen; Wang Aihua; Hu Mulin

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) nanopowders have increasingly gained attention because of their potential incorporation in explosive and propellant mixtures. This paper reports on a qualitative study on influence of humidity on the thermal behavior of Al nanopowders and the oxidation of aluminum nanoparticles containing a passivating oxide coating. The thermal behaviors were identified by DSC-TG, and Al nanopowders were examined using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) to understand the stability of the oxide coating in aluminum nanoparticles. It was found that the diameter of Al nanoparticles was in range of 10-100 nm. The original Al nanoparticles were covered by a 3 nm thick compact amorphous oxide layer. After stored for 8 weeks, the oxide layer grew up to 5 nm thick, and the oxidation diffused to the interior of Al nanoparticles. The results indicate that the reactivity of Al nanopowders is deeply influenced by the environment, especially the humidity. The higher relative humidity would accelerate the aging of the Al nanopowders. The DSC-TG results show the oxidation of Al nanoparticles occurs at least in two steps

  1. Thermal behaviors of mechanically activated pyrites by thermogravimetry (TG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Huiping; Chen Qiyuan; Yin Zhoulan; Zhang Pingmin

    2003-01-01

    The thermal decompositions of mechanically activated and non-activated pyrites were studied by thermogravimetry (TG) at the heating rate of 10 K min -1 in argon. Results indicate that the initial temperature of thermal decomposition (T di ) in TG curves for mechanically activated pyrites decreases gradually with increasing the grinding time. The specific granulometric surface area (S G ), the structural disorder of mechanically activated pyrites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction laser particle size analyzer, and X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. The results show that the S G of mechanically activated pyrites remains almost constant after a certain grinding time, and lattice distortions (ε) rise but the crystallite sizes (D) decrease with increasing the grinding time. All these results imply that the decrease of T di in TG curves of mechanically activated pyrites is mainly caused by the increase of lattice distortions ε and the decrease of the crystallite sizes D of mechanically activated pyrite with increasing the grinding time. The differences in the reactivity between non-activated and mechanically activated pyrites were observed using characterization of the products obtained from 1 h treatment of non-activated and mechanically activated pyrites at 713 K under inert atmosphere and characterization of non-activated and mechanically activated pyrites exposed to ambient air for a certain period

  2. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the nuclear fuel thermal behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulore, A., E-mail: antoine.boulore@cea.fr [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), DEN, Fuel Research Department, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Struzik, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), DEN, Fuel Research Department, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Gaudier, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), DEN, Systems and Structure Modeling Department, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A complete quantitative method for uncertainty propagation and sensitivity analysis is applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal conductivity of UO{sub 2} is modeled as a random variable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first source of uncertainty is the linear heat rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second source of uncertainty is the thermal conductivity of the fuel. - Abstract: In the global framework of nuclear fuel behavior simulation, the response of the models describing the physical phenomena occurring during the irradiation in reactor is mainly conditioned by the confidence in the calculated temperature of the fuel. Amongst all parameters influencing the temperature calculation in our fuel rod simulation code (METEOR V2), several sources of uncertainty have been identified as being the most sensitive: thermal conductivity of UO{sub 2}, radial distribution of power in the fuel pellet, local linear heat rate in the fuel rod, geometry of the pellet and thermal transfer in the gap. Expert judgment and inverse methods have been used to model the uncertainty of these parameters using theoretical distributions and correlation matrices. Propagation of these uncertainties in the METEOR V2 code using the URANIE framework and a Monte-Carlo technique has been performed in different experimental irradiations of UO{sub 2} fuel. At every time step of the simulated experiments, we get a temperature statistical distribution which results from the initial distributions of the uncertain parameters. We then can estimate confidence intervals of the calculated temperature. In order to quantify the sensitivity of the calculated temperature to each of the uncertain input parameters and data, we have also performed a sensitivity analysis using the Sobol' indices at first order.

  3. Deuterium permeation behavior of HTUPS4 steel with thermal oxidation layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Feng; Zhao, Si-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Chun; Wang, Jing; An, Zhong-Qing; Lu, Tao; Liu, Hao-Dong; Ding, Fang; Zhou, Hai-Shan; Luo, Guang-Nan

    2016-01-01

    The permeation behavior of creep-resistant, Al 2 O 3 -forming HTUPS austenitic stainless steels was studied using a gas driven permeation (GDP) device. The steel samples were first thermal oxidized at air condition, followed by GDP experiments. The permeability and diffusion coefficients of oxidized samples and bare 316L steels were derived and compared. In order to characterize the oxide layer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was performed. An oxide layer with a thickness of 200 nm which mainly consists of Al 2 O 3 was detected.

  4. X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and thermal characterization of partially hydrolyzed guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2012-05-01

    Guar gum was hydrolyzed using cellulase from Aspergillus niger at 5.6 pH and 50°C temperature. Hydrolyzed guar gum sample was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, dilute solution viscometry and rotational viscometry. Viscometry analysis of native guar gum showed a molecular weight of 889742.06, whereas, after enzymatic hydrolysis, the resultant product had a molecular weight of 7936.5. IR spectral analysis suggests that after enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum there was no major transformation of functional group. Thermal analysis revealed no major change in thermal behavior of hydrolyzed guar gum. It was shown that partial hydrolysis of guar gum could be achieved by inexpensive and food grade cellulase (Aspergillus niger) having commercial importance and utilization as a functional soluble dietary fiber for food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterizing the thermal effects of High Energy Arc Faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putorti, Anthony; Bareham, Scott; Praydis, Joseph Jr. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Melly, Nicholas B. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-15

    International and domestic operating experience involving High Energy Arc Faults (HEAF) in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) electrical power systems have demonstrated the potential to cause extensive damage to electrical components and distribution systems along with damage to adjacent equipment and cables. An international study by the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) gOECD Fire Project. Topical Report No. 1: Analysis of High Energy Arcing Fault (HEAF) Fire Events h published June 25, 2013 [1], illustrates that HEAF events have the potential to be major risk contributors with significant safety consequences and substantial economic loss. In an effort to better understand and characterize the threats posed by HEAF related phenomena, an international project has been chartered; the Joint Analysis of Arc Faults (Joan of ARC) OECD International Testing Program for High Energy Arc Faults. One of the major challenges of this research is how to properly measure and characterize the risk and influence of these events. Methods are being developed to characterize relevant parameters such as; temperature, heat flux, and heat release rate of fires resulting from HEAF events. Full scale experiments are being performed at low (≤ 1000 V) and medium (≤ 35 kV) voltages in electrical components. This paper introduces the methods being developed to measure thermal effects and discusses preliminary results of full scale HEAF experiments.

  6. Thermal Behavior and Free-Radical-Scavenging Activity of Phytic Acid Alone and Incorporated in Cosmetic Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Máximo Daneluti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytic acid is a natural compound widely used as depigmenting agent in cosmetic emulsions. Few studies are available in the literature covering the stability and the antioxidating property of this substance, used alone or into emulsions. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to investigate the thermal behavior and antioxidant properties of phytic acid alone and into cosmetic emulsions. The thermal behavior of this substance was evaluated by thermogravimetry (TG/derivative thermogravimetry (DTG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and the free-radical-scavenging activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. TG/DTG and DSC curves allowed evaluation of the thermal behavior of phytic acid. These results showed that the substance presented four stages of mass loss. Thermal decomposition of the material initiated at 150 °C. Thermal behavior of the cosmetic emulsions detected that the addition of phytic acid decreased the thermal stability of the system. DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity showed that phytic acid incorporated into emulsion had no antioxidant capacity compared to BHT. In summary, we concluded that the thermoanalytical techniques (TG and DSC were efficient and reliable in the characterization of phytic acid alone and incorporated into cosmetic emulsions.

  7. Effect of Surface Impulsive Thermal Loads on Fatigue Behavior of Constant Volume Propulsion Engine Combustor Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Dongming

    2004-01-01

    .... In this study, a simulated engine test rig has been established to evaluate thermal fatigue behavior of a candidate engine combustor material, Haynes 188, under superimposed CO2 laser surface impulsive thermal loads (30 to 100 Hz...

  8. Thermal and magnetic behavior of Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers covered with Fe3O4 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, S.; Arias, N.P.; Giraldo, O.; Rosales-Rivera, A.; Moscoso, O.

    2012-01-01

    Several Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers, which have been previously treated with an alkaline solution, were coated with magnetite particles. The coating of the fibers was achieved by an in-situ co-precipitation method with Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ in NaOH or NH 4 OH. The fibers were evaluated by chemical analysis using atomic absorption (A.A.) technique, structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal stability with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in nitrogen at temperature range between 23 °C and 800 °C and magnetic behavior using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) applying a magnetic field between -27 KOe and 27 KOe at room temperature. We found that the thermal stability and magnetization depend of the synthesis method used to cover the Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers. In addition, an improved magnetic response was observed when NaOH solution is used to generate the magnetite coating on the fiber surface.

  9. An experimental study of thermal characterization of parabolic trough receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Dongqiang; Li, Qiang; Wang, Zhifeng; Li, Jian; Li, Jianbin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new test stand of heat loss has been developed at IEECAS. ► A correlation between heat loss and absorber temperature is presented, 270 W/m 400 °C. ► The ratio of end loss in total heat loss increases with decreasing the temperature. ► The emittance test stand using a high vacuum system and vacuum gauge is built. ► Emittance first decreases, then rapidly increases with increasing the temperature. - Abstract: The receiver is a key component of the parabolic trough solar station. The receiver requires the most challenging technology and has a decisive influence on the thermal and economic performance of a power plant. The Institute of Electrical Engineering Chinese Academy Sciences (IEECAS) and Himin Solar Co., Ltd. (HSC) cooperated to develop solar receivers for the first 50 MW parabolic trough project in Inner Mongolia, China. This paper examines overall heat loss, end loss and thermal emittance of the coating of a newly designed receiver in order to evaluate its thermal characterization. A series of heat loss tests are conducted in a newly developed test stand following the steady state equilibrium method. The tests provide a correlation between heat loss and the absorber temperature. This paper presents a new testing method to accurately test the coating emittance. The method uses a receiver with a high vacuum system and a vacuum gauge to maintain continuous exhaust and high vacuum throughout the heat loss testing. A heat loss comparison between the receiver and other existing receivers provides a reference that enabled further optimization. Theoretical and experimental analysis examines the effects of end loss both with and without a heat insulator and a coil heater. The emittance curves of different coatings are acquired and the reasons for initial emittance decrease and then remarkable increase versus temperature are analyzed

  10. Micromechanical String Resonators: Analytical Tool for Thermal Characterization of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Sanjukta; Schmid, Silvan; Larsen, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Resonant microstrings show promise as a new analytical tool for thermal characterization of polymers with only few nanograms of sample. The detection of the glass transition temperature (Tg) of an amorphous poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA) and a semicrystalline poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is investigated....... The polymers are spray coated on one side of the resonating microstrings. The resonance frequency and quality factor (Q) are measured simultaneously as a function of temperature. Change in the resonance frequency reflects a change in static tensile stress, which yields information about the Young’s modulus...... of the polymer, and a change in Q reflects the change in damping of the polymer-coated string. The frequency response of the microstring is validated with an analytical model. From the frequency independent tensile stress change, static Tg values of 40.6 and 57.6 °C were measured for PDLLA and PLLA, respectively...

  11. Thermal characterization of European ant communities along thermal gradients and its implications for community resilience to temperature variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier eArnan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists are increasingly concerned about how climate change will affect biodiversity yet have mostly addressed the issue at the species level. Here, we present a novel framework that accounts for the full range and complementarity of thermal responses present in a community; it may help reveal how biological communities will respond to climatic (i.e., thermal variability. First, we characterized the thermal niches of 147 ant species from 342 communities found along broad temperature gradients in western Europe. Within each community, species’ mean thermal breadth and the difference among species’ thermal optima (thermal complementarity were considered to define community thermal niche breadth—our proxy for community thermal resilience. The greater the range of thermal responses and their complementarity within a community, the greater the likelihood that the community could cope with novel conditions. Second, we used simulations to calculate how robust community thermal resilience was to random species extinctions. Community resilience was considered to be robust when random species extinctions largely failed to constrict initial community thermal breadth. Our results indicate that community thermal resilience was negatively and positively correlated with mean temperature and temperature seasonality, respectively. The pattern was reversed for robustness. While species richness did not directly affect community resilience to thermal variability, it did have a strong indirect effect because it determined community resilience robustness. Consequently, communities in warm, aseasonal regions are the most vulnerable to temperature variability, despite their greater number of species and resultant greater resilience robustness.

  12. Synthesis and thermal characterization of xylan-graft-polyacrylonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü, Cüneyt H; Öztekin, N Simge; Atıcı, Oya Galioğlu

    2012-10-01

    In this study emulsion polymerization of acrylonitrile using xylan from agricultural waste material (corn cob) and cerium ammonium nitrate was investigated in terms of catalyst acid. Stock ceric solutions were prepared using either nitric or perchloric acid as catalyst. Optimum conditions were determined using different parameters such as reaction time, temperature, and component concentrations. Nitric acid catalyzed reactions resulted in maximum conversion ratio (96%) at 50°C, 1 h where ceric ion, acrylonitrile, xylan, and catalyst concentrations were 21.7 mmol l(-1), 0.5 mol l(-1), 0.2% (w/v), and 0.1 mol l(-1), respectively. However, 83% conversion was obtained with perchloric acid catalysis at 27 °C, 1 h where concentrations were 5.4 mmol l(-1), 0.8 mol l(-1), 0.5% (w/v), and 0.2 mol l(-1), respectively. Copolymer synthesis using perchloric acid was realized at milder conditions than using nitric acid. Thermal analyses of obtained polymers were conducted to characterize copolymers. Results showed that calculated activation energy, maximum degradation temperature, and heat of thermal decomposition changed relying mainly on molecular weight. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microstructural characterization of thermally-aged duplex stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, A.; Hamaoka, T.; Nishida, K.; Dohi, K.; Soneda, N.

    2011-01-01

    The embrittlement of duplex stainless steels is of concern for the long term operation of light water reactors. The objectives of this work was to characterize solute atom distribution in ferrite phase of thermally aged duplex stainless steels by using atom tomography probe and to measure the hardness of ferrite phase by using nano-indentation technique. This series of slides highlights 4 main conclusions. First, phase separation quickly evolves and then slows down during the thermal ageing. Secondly, precipitates are formed after ageing for 1000 hr at 400 C and 2000 hr at 350 C. The clusters become larger with time at 400 C. Chemical composition of the clusters do not change very much with cluster size and ageing time at 400 C. Thirdly, no cluster formation is observed in the materials aged at 450 C. It is likely that precipitation occurs faster than phase separation at lower temperatures. Fourthly, hardness changes are well described by combining the contributions of phase separation and G phase formation. 'Variation' is a good parameter to describe hardness change due to phase separation. Contribution of G-phase needs to be considered separately

  14. Evaluation of airborne thermal, magnetic, and electromagnetic characterization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josten, N.E.

    1992-03-01

    The identification of Buried Structures (IBS) or Aerial Surveillance Project was initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development to demonstrate airborne methods for locating and identifying buried waste and ordnance at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Two technologies were demonstrated: (a) a thermal infrared imaging system built by Martin Marietta Missile Systems and (b) a magnetic and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical surveying system operated by EBASCO Environmental. The thermal system detects small differences in ground temperature caused by uneven heating and cooling of the ground by the sun. Waste materials on the ground can be detected when the temperature of the waste is different than the background temperature. The geophysical system uses conventional magnetic and EM sensors. These sensors detect disturbances caused by magnetic or conductive waste and naturally occurring magnetic or conductive features of subsurface soils and rock. Both systems are deployed by helicopter. Data were collected at four INEL sites. Tests at the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area (NODA) were made to evaluate capabilities for detecting ordnance on the ground surface. Tests at the Cold Simulated Waste Demonstration Pit were made to evaluate capabilities for detecting buried waste at a controlled site, where the location and depth of buried materials are known. Tests at the Subsurface Disposal Area and Stationary Low-Power Reactor-1 burial area were made to evaluate capabilities for characterizing hazardous waste at sites that are typical of DOE buried waste sites nationwide

  15. Evaluation of airborne thermal, magnetic, and electromagnetic characterization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josten, N.E.

    1992-03-01

    The identification of Buried Structures (IBS) or Aerial Surveillance Project was initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development to demonstrate airborne methods for locating and identifying buried waste and ordnance at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Two technologies were demonstrated: (a) a thermal infrared imaging system built by Martin Marietta Missile Systems and (b) a magnetic and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical surveying system operated by EBASCO Environmental. The thermal system detects small differences in ground temperature caused by uneven heating and cooling of the ground by the sun. Waste materials on the ground can be detected when the temperature of the waste is different than the background temperature. The geophysical system uses conventional magnetic and EM sensors. These sensors detect disturbances caused by magnetic or conductive waste and naturally occurring magnetic or conductive features of subsurface soils and rock. Both systems are deployed by helicopter. Data were collected at four INEL sites. Tests at the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area (NODA) were made to evaluate capabilities for detecting ordnance on the ground surface. Tests at the Cold Simulated Waste Demonstration Pit were made to evaluate capabilities for detecting buried waste at a controlled site, where the location and depth of buried materials are known. Tests at the Subsurface Disposal Area and Stationary Low-Power Reactor-1 burial area were made to evaluate capabilities for characterizing hazardous waste at sites that are typical of DOE buried waste sites nationwide.

  16. Pollutant content in marine debris and characterization by thermal decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, M E; Conesa, J A; Fullana, A

    2017-04-15

    Marine debris (MDs) produces a wide variety of negative environmental, economic, safety, health and cultural impacts. Most marine litter has a very low decomposition rate (plastics), leading to a gradual accumulation in the coastal and marine environment. Characterization of the MDs has been done in terms of their pollutant content: PAHs, ClBzs, ClPhs, BrPhs, PCDD/Fs and PCBs. The results show that MDs is not a very contaminated waste. Also, thermal decomposition of MDs materials has been studied in a thermobalance at different atmospheres and heating rates. Below 400-500K, the atmosphere does not affect the thermal degradation of the mentioned waste. However, at temperatures between 500 and 800K the presence of oxygen accelerates the decomposition. Also, a kinetic model is proposed for the combustion of the MDs, and the decomposition is compared with that of their main constituents, i.e., polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), nylon and polyethylene-terephthalate (PET). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Noise Characterization and Performance of MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Sriharsha; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wu, Aisheng; Wenny, Brian; Chiang, Kwofu; Chen, Na; Wang, Zhipeng; Li, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a premier Earth-observing sensor of the early 21st century, flying onboard the Terra (T) and Aqua (A) spacecraft. Both instruments far exceeded their six-year design life and continue to operate satisfactorily for more than 15 and 13 years, respectively. The MODIS instrument is designed to make observations at nearly a 100% duty cycle covering the entire Earth in less than two days. The MODIS sensor characteristics include a spectral coverage from 0.41micrometers to 14.4 micrometers, of which those wavelengths ranging from 3.7 micrometers to 14.4 micrometers cover the thermal infrared region which is interspaced in 16 thermal emissive bands (TEBs). Each of the TEB contains ten detectors which record samples at a spatial resolution of 1 km. In order to ensure a high level of accuracy for the TEB-measured top-of-atmosphere radiances, an onboard blackbody (BB) is used as the calibration source. This paper reports the noise characterization and performance of the TEB on various counts. First, the stability of the onboard BB is evaluated to understand the effectiveness of the calibration source. Next, key noise metrics such as the noise equivalent temperature difference and the noise equivalent dn difference (NEdN) for the various TEBs are determined from multiple temperature sources. These sources include the nominally controlled BB temperature of 290 K for T-MODIS and 285 K for A-MODIS, as well as a BB warm up-cool down cycle that is performed over a temperature range from roughly 270 to 315 K. The space-view port that measures the background signal serves as a viable cold temperature source for measuring noise. In addition, a well characterized Earth-view target, the Dome Concordia site located in the Antarctic plateau, is used for characterizing the stability of the sensor, indirectly providing a measure of the NEdN. Based on this rigorous characterization, a list of the noisy and inoperable detectors for

  18. Thermal behavior of the duct applied functionally graded material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Sun; Yoon, Dong Young; Im, Jong Bin [Hankuk Aviation Univ., Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    In Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), the high temperature results from friction among the air, combustion of fuel in engine and combustion gas of a nozzle. The high temperature may cause serious damages in UAV structure. The Functionally Graded Material(FGM) is chosen as a material of the engine duct structure. Thermal stress analysis of FGM is performed in this paper. FGM is composed of two constituent materials that are mixed up according to the specific volume fraction distribution in order to withstand high temperature. Therefore, hoop stress, axial stress and shear stress of duct with 2 layers, 4 layers and 8 layers FGM are compared and analyzed respectively. In addition, the creep behavior of FGM used in duct structure of an engine is analyzed for better understanding of FGM characteristics.

  19. Preparation and characterization of macrocapsules containing microencapsulated PCMs (phase change materials) for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Pengju; Lu, Lixin; Qiu, Xiaolin; Tang, Yali; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This paper was aimed to prepare, characterize and determine the comprehensive evaluation of promising composite macrocapsules containing microencapsulated PCMs (phase change materials) with calcium alginate gels as the matrix material. Macrocapsules containing microcapsules were fabricated by piercing-solidifying incuber method. Two kinds of microcapsules with n-tetradecane as core material, UF (urea-formaldehyde) and PMMA (poly(methyl methacrylate)) respectively as shell materials were prepared initially. For application concerns, thermal durability and mechanical property of macrocapsules were investigated by TGA (thermal gravimetric analysis) and Texture Analyser for the first time, respectively. The results showed excellent thermal stability and the compressive resistance of macrocapsules was sufficient for common application. The morphology and chemical structure of the prepared microcapsules and macrocapsules were characterized by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and FT-IR (fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy method. Phase change behaviors and thermal durability of microcapsules and macrocapsules were investigated by DSC (differential scanning calorimetry). In order to improve latent heat of composite microcapsules, the core-shell weight ratio of tetradecane/UF shell microcapsules was chosen as 5.5:1 which obtained the phase change enthalpy of 194.1 J g −1 determined by DSC. In conclusion, these properties make it a feasible composite in applications of textile, building and cold-chain transportation. - Highlights: • We improved the phase change enthalpy with a higher core-shell ratio. • Urea-formaldehyde was firstly used as a shell material in the composite. • Mechanical and thermal durability property of the macrocapsules was firstly investigated in our work.

  20. INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF MULTILAYERED FIRE RESISTANT STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. GUOBYS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior under real fire conditions of new generation multilayered fire resistant structure (fire door, dimensions H × W × D: 2090 × 980 × 52 mm combining high strength and fire safety. This fire door consists of two steel sheets (thickness 1.5 and 0.7 mm with stone wool ( = 33 kg/m3, k = 0.037 W/mK, E = 5000 N/m2,  = 0.2 insulating layer in between. One surface of the structure was heated in fire furnace for specified period of time of 60 min. Temperature and deformation of opposite surface were measured from outside at selected measuring points during fire resistance test. Results are presented as temperature-time and thermal deformation-time graphs. Experimental results were compared with numerical temperature field simulation results obtained from SolidWorks®Simulation software. Numerical results were found to be in good agreement with experimental data. The percent differences between door temperatures from simulation and fire resistance test don’t exceed 8%. This shows that thermal behaviour of such multilayered structures can be investigated numerically, thus avoiding costly and time-consuming fire resistance tests. It is established that investigated structure should be installed in a way that places thicker steel sheet closer to the potential heat source than thinner one. It is also obtained that stone wool layer of higher density should be used to improve fire resistance of the structure.

  1. Characterization of the thermalness of a fissile system with a two-group diffusion theory parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredehoft, B.B.; Busch, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    In tabulating critical data, the hydrogen-to-fissile atom ratio (H/X) is commonly used to characterize the amount of moderation in a system. Though adequate in many cases, H/X does not account for the moderating contribution of other light nuclei contained in common uranium-moderator mixtures. This ratio also does not account for enrichment of the system, which affects the resonance absorption characteristics and, therefore, the moderating behavior of that system. To alleviate these problems, a two-energy-group diffusion theory analogy to the six-factor formula was applied to define a new parameter p/(η 2 · f 2 ), which describes the moderation characteristics or the 'thermalness' of a fissioning system and includes the effects of enrichment and the presence of moderators other than hydrogen. From an analysis of several low-enriched uranium systems with different moderators, it was found that the values of p/(η 2 · f 2 ) corresponding to minimum critical mass and volume tend to center in a narrower range than do the values of H/X for the same systems. Also, the thermalness parameter does not vary with the addition of a reflector and is applicable to systems with other than hydrogenous moderators. Based on these results, the thermalness parameter p/(η 2 · f 2 ) provides an effective means of characterizing moderated systems relative to optimum conditions

  2. Influence of user behavior on unsatisfactory indoor thermal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Biao; Long, Enshen; Meng, Xi; Zhang, Yuanze; Hou, Dongqi; Du, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The methodology of numerical simulation of 3D heat-flux visualization is proposed. • A full-scale model of prototype office for each influential factor was set up. • The simulation results were compared with the indoor occupant comfort levels. • The contrast of average temperature increase due to user behavior was presented. - Abstract: In areas of China that have hot summers and cold winters, the overall performance of HVAC systems in the poorly-insulated existing office buildings is generally not satisfactory, especially in extreme weather conditions. The reasons for the unsatisfactory indoor thermal environment were deduced, and to validate the findings, a methodology of numerical simulation for 3D heat-flux visualization was proposed. A full-scale model of a prototype office room was created, with representative working conditions for the characteristics of particular building. The results of the heat-flux visualization and temperature distribution showed that the overall effect was resulted from merged reasons, and that significance ranking of each reason varied when the outside environmental conditions changed. The simulation results were compared with the indoor occupant comfort levels of the volunteers who worked in the target room. Models of possible influential factors such as the outdoor temperature, opening or closing windows, and the effect of window shading devices (WSD) were set up. The influence of user behavior on indoor temperature in opening window, or not using WSD was proven to be significant in causing unfavorable indoor conditions. According to the visualized evaluation and analysis of the various factors, corresponding methods for both improving indoor thermal conditions and saving energy are proposed

  3. Thermal expansion behavior of fluor-chlorapatite crystalline solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, G.; Harlov, D.; Gottschalk, M.; Hudacek, W.; Wildermuth, S.

    2009-04-01

    Apatite Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH,CO3) occurs widely as an accessory mineral in many igneous and metamorphic rocks and in nature displays a wide range of F-Cl-OH-CO3 mixtures (e.g., O'Reilly and Griffin, 2000) that have been used to interpret the role of fluids, e.g. Cl, F, and OH activities, during metamorphic and igneous processes (e.g., Harlov and Förster, 2002). It is important, therefore, to understand the thermodynamic behavior of these solid solutions, including their thermal expansion properties. Fluorapatite - chlorapatite samples were synthesized at the GFZ-Potsdam (Hovis, Harlov, Hahn and Steigert, 2007) using an adaptation of the molten flux method of Cherniak (2000). Dry CaF2 and CaCl2 (0.1 mole total) were mixed with Ca3(PO4)2 (0.03 moles), placed in a Pt crucible, equilibrated for 15 hours at 1375 °C, cooled to 1220 °C at 3 °C/hour, removed from the oven and cooled in air. Crystals were separated from the flux by boiling the quenched product in water. F:Cl fractions for each sample were determined via Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction data. Chemical homogeneity was confirmed by Rietveld refinement and high-contrast back-scattered electron imaging. Room-temperature unit-cell volumes were determined at the GFZ-Potsdam through Rietveld analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data and also at Lafayette College by standard unit-cell refinement techniques (Holland and Redfern, 1997) using NBS/NIST 640a Si as an internal standard. High-temperature unit-cell dimensions were calculated from X-ray powder diffraction data collected at Cambridge University from room temperature to 1000 °C on a Bruker D8 X-ray diffractometer. NBS Si again was utilized as an internal standard; high-temperature Si peak positions were taken from Parrish (1953). Results indicate that despite the considerable size difference between fluorine and chlorine ions, reflected by substantially different unit-cell sizes at room temperature, the coefficient of thermal expansion across

  4. Thermodynamic model of a thermal storage air conditioning system with dynamic behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, E; Wen, SY; Shi, L; da Silva, AK

    2013-12-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict transient behavior of a thermal storage system, using phase change materials (PCMs), for a novel electric vehicle climate conditioning application. The main objectives of the paper are to consider the system's dynamic behavior, such as a dynamic air flow rate into the vehicle's cabin, and to characterize the transient heat transfer process between the thermal storage unit and the vehicle's cabin, while still maintaining accurate solution to the complex phase change heat transfer. The system studied consists of a heat transfer fluid circulating between either of the on-board hot and cold thermal storage units, which we refer to as thermal batteries, and a liquid-air heat exchanger that provides heat exchange with the incoming air to the vehicle cabin. Each thermal battery is a shell-and-tube configuration where a heat transfer fluid flows through parallel tubes, which are surrounded by PCM within a larger shell. The system model incorporates computationally inexpensive semianalytic solution to the conjugated laminar forced convection and phase change problem within the battery and accounts for airside heat exchange using the Number of Transfer Units (NTUs) method for the liquid-air heat exchanger. Using this approach, we are able to obtain an accurate solution to the complex heat transfer problem within the battery while also incorporating the impact of the airside heat transfer on the overall system performance. The implemented model was benchmarked against a numerical study for a melting process and against full system experimental data for solidification using paraffin wax as the PCM. Through modeling, we demonstrate the importance of capturing the airside heat exchange impact on system performance, and we investigate system response to dynamic operating conditions, e.g., air recirculation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermal behavior and compatibility analysis of the new chemical entity LPSF/FZ4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Salvana Priscylla Manso; Ramos da Silva, Keyla Emanuelle; Rocha de Medeiros, Giovanna Christinne; Rolim, Larissa Araujo; Ferreira de Oliveira, Jamerson; Carmo Alves de Lima, Maria do; Galdino, Suely Lins; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Neto, Pedro Jose Rolim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We determined the thermal behavior of isolated LPSF/FZ4. • We used the isothermal and non-isothermal methods. • We reported the time of the stability of LPSF/FZ4 was measured in 4 months. • We also performed a compatibility study associated with excipients. • We reported the possible interactions of the prototype with lactose. - Abstract: In this study, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry were employed to determine the thermal behavior of LPSF/FZ4 isolated and associated with excipients (amide, β-cyclodextrin, cellulose, lactose, stearate of magnesium, aerosil, sodium lauryl sulfate, polysorbate and polyvinylpyrrolidone). Thus, the purity of the prototype calculated was 98%. Isothermal and non-isothermal methods were used to determine the kinetic parameters of decomposition, finding a first-reaction order and activation energy (A e ) of 98.22 kJ mol −1 . Also, the time of the stability of LPSF/FZ4 was measured in 4 months. The compatibility study showed possible interactions of the prototype with lactose due to a change in its heat of fusion, a reduction of more than 40 °C in its stability and a reduction of approximately 30% in A e of its decomposition reaction. The study demonstrated the importance of using thermal analytical methods to characterize new drugs to enable the development and quality control of pharmaceutical products

  6. Thermal behavior and compatibility analysis of the new chemical entity LPSF/FZ4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Salvana Priscylla Manso [Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (Brazil); Ramos da Silva, Keyla Emanuelle, E-mail: ramos.keyla@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (Brazil); Instituto de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Amazonas (Brazil); Rocha de Medeiros, Giovanna Christinne; Rolim, Larissa Araujo; Ferreira de Oliveira, Jamerson [Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (Brazil); Carmo Alves de Lima, Maria do; Galdino, Suely Lins; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha [Departamento de Antibióticos, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (Brazil); Neto, Pedro Jose Rolim [Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (Brazil)

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: • We determined the thermal behavior of isolated LPSF/FZ4. • We used the isothermal and non-isothermal methods. • We reported the time of the stability of LPSF/FZ4 was measured in 4 months. • We also performed a compatibility study associated with excipients. • We reported the possible interactions of the prototype with lactose. - Abstract: In this study, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry were employed to determine the thermal behavior of LPSF/FZ4 isolated and associated with excipients (amide, β-cyclodextrin, cellulose, lactose, stearate of magnesium, aerosil, sodium lauryl sulfate, polysorbate and polyvinylpyrrolidone). Thus, the purity of the prototype calculated was 98%. Isothermal and non-isothermal methods were used to determine the kinetic parameters of decomposition, finding a first-reaction order and activation energy (A{sub e}) of 98.22 kJ mol{sup −1}. Also, the time of the stability of LPSF/FZ4 was measured in 4 months. The compatibility study showed possible interactions of the prototype with lactose due to a change in its heat of fusion, a reduction of more than 40 °C in its stability and a reduction of approximately 30% in A{sub e} of its decomposition reaction. The study demonstrated the importance of using thermal analytical methods to characterize new drugs to enable the development and quality control of pharmaceutical products.

  7. Diurnal Thermal Behavior of Pavements, Vegetation, and Water Pond in a Hot-Humid City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshan Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the diurnal thermal behavior of several urban surfaces and landscape components, including pavements, vegetation, and a water pond. The field experiment was conducted in a university campus of Guangzhou, South China, which is characterized by a hot and humid summer. The temperature of ground surface and grass leaves and the air temperature and humidity from 0.1 to 1.5 m heights were measured for a period of 24 h under hot summer conditions. The results showed that the concrete and granite slab pavements elevated the temperature of the air above them throughout the day. In contrast, the trees and the pond lowered the air temperature near ground during the daytime but produced a slight warming effect during the nighttime. The influence of vegetation on air temperature and humidity is affected by the configurations of greenery. Compared to the open lawn, the grass shaded by trees was more effective in cooling and the mixture of shrub and grass created a stronger cooling effect during the nighttime. The knowledge of thermal behavior of various urban surfaces and landscape components is an important tool for planners and designers. If utilized properly, it can lead to climatic rehabilitation in urban areas and an improvement of the outdoor thermal environment.

  8. Thermal Behavior of Cylindrical Buckling Restrained Braces at Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Talebi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary focus of this investigation was to analyze sequentially coupled nonlinear thermal stress, using a three-dimensional model. It was meant to shed light on the behavior of Buckling Restraint Brace (BRB elements with circular cross section, at elevated temperature. Such bracing systems were comprised of a cylindrical steel core encased in a strong concrete-filled steel hollow casing. A debonding agent was rubbed on the core’s surface to avoid shear stress transition to the restraining system. The numerical model was verified by the analytical solutions developed by the other researchers. Performance of BRB system under seismic loading at ambient temperature has been well documented. However, its performance in case of fire has yet to be explored. This study showed that the failure of brace may be attributed to material strength reduction and high compressive forces, both due to temperature rise. Furthermore, limiting temperatures in the linear behavior of steel casing and concrete in BRB element for both numerical and analytical simulations were about 196°C and 225°C, respectively. Finally it is concluded that the performance of BRB at elevated temperatures was the same as that seen at room temperature; that is, the steel core yields prior to the restraining system.

  9. Thermal behavior of cylindrical buckling restrained braces at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Elnaz; Tahir, Mahmood Md; Zahmatkesh, Farshad; Yasreen, Airil; Mirza, Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    The primary focus of this investigation was to analyze sequentially coupled nonlinear thermal stress, using a three-dimensional model. It was meant to shed light on the behavior of Buckling Restraint Brace (BRB) elements with circular cross section, at elevated temperature. Such bracing systems were comprised of a cylindrical steel core encased in a strong concrete-filled steel hollow casing. A debonding agent was rubbed on the core's surface to avoid shear stress transition to the restraining system. The numerical model was verified by the analytical solutions developed by the other researchers. Performance of BRB system under seismic loading at ambient temperature has been well documented. However, its performance in case of fire has yet to be explored. This study showed that the failure of brace may be attributed to material strength reduction and high compressive forces, both due to temperature rise. Furthermore, limiting temperatures in the linear behavior of steel casing and concrete in BRB element for both numerical and analytical simulations were about 196°C and 225°C, respectively. Finally it is concluded that the performance of BRB at elevated temperatures was the same as that seen at room temperature; that is, the steel core yields prior to the restraining system.

  10. Wetting and motion behaviors of water droplet on graphene under thermal-electric coupling field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhong-Qiang; Dong, Xin; Ye, Hong-Fei; Cheng, Guang-Gui; Ding, Jian-Ning; Ling, Zhi-Yong

    2015-02-01

    Wetting dynamics and motion behaviors of a water droplet on graphene are characterized under the electric-thermal coupling field using classical molecular dynamics simulation method. The water droplet on graphene can be driven by the temperature gradient, while the moving direction is dependent on the electric field intensity. Concretely, the water droplet on graphene moves from the low temperature region to the high temperature region for the relatively weak electric field intensity. The motion acceleration increases with the electric field intensity on graphene, whereas the moving direction switches when the electric field intensity increases up to a threshold. The essence is the change from hydrophilic to hydrophobic for the water droplet on graphene at a threshold of the electric field intensity. Moreover, the driven force of the water droplet caused by the overall oscillation of graphene has important influence on the motion behaviors. The results are helpful to control the wettability of graphene and further develop the graphene-based fluidic nanodevices.

  11. Frequency and Thermal Behavior of Acoustic Absorption in ɛ-GaSe Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhafarova, S. Z.

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents results of measuring acoustic absorption in ɛ-GaSe crystals. The absorption of a longitudinal wave which propagates normal to the crystal layers, quadratically depends on frequency. However, it does not depend on temperature, i.e. it displays an Akhiezer behavior although its absolute value considerably exceeds the expected. The analysis of the frequency and thermal behavior of absorption of piezoelectric waves propagating along the layers, includes the deduction of contribution made by the interaction between waves and charge carriers. This analysis shows the linear dependence between the lattice absorption of these waves and the frequency. The linear frequency and weak temperature dependences of the acoustic absorption characterize the additional ultra-Akhiezer absorption in glasses. In our case, it can be caused by various polytypes forming in GaSe crystals which differ merely in a mutual arrangement of layers.

  12. Comprehensive thermal and structural characterization of antimony-phosphate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, S. Y.; Sahar, M. R.; Ghoshal, S. K.

    For the first time, we prepare new ternary glass systems of composition (95-x)Sb2O3-xP2O5-5MgO, where x = 45, 40, 35 mol%; (85-x)Sb2O3-xP2O5-15MgO, where x = 55, 35, 25 mol%; (75-x)Sb2O3-xP2O5-25MgO, where x = 45, 35, 25 mol%; and 60Sb2O3-(40-x)P2O5-xMgO, where x = 10, 20 mol% via melt-quenching method. Synthesized glasses are characterized using XRD, FESEM, EDX, and TG/DTA measurements. The influence of varying modifier concentrations on their thermal properties is evaluated. The XRD patterns confirmed the amorphous nature of samples. SEM images demonstrated interesting phase formation with ribbons-like texture. Five crystalline phases are evidenced in the ternary diagram which are antimony phosphate and antimony orthophosphate as major phases as well as magnesium phosphate, magnesium cyclo-tetraphosphate and cervantite as minor phases. EDX spectra detected the right elemental traces. Detailed thermal analysis of these glasses revealed their high-molecular polymer character for Sb2O3 content greater than 50 mol%. Three different glass transition temperatures are achieved around 276, 380-381 and 422-470 °C depending on the composition. Furthermore, the solidus and liquidus temperature are found to decrease with increasing Sb2O3 and increases for MgO contents till 15 mol% and then decrease, where the lowest recorded solidus temperature is 426 °C. This observation may open up new research avenues for antimony based ternary glasses and an exploitation of the derived results for optoelectronics applications, photonic devices and non-linear optical devices.

  13. Thermal characterization of partially hydrolyzed cassava (Manihot esculenta starch granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Lacerda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cassava starch, partially hydrolyzed by fungal á-amylase, was characterized using thermal analysis, light microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Thermal degradation was initiated at lower degradation temperatures after enzymatic treatment and the DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed almost similar range of gelatinization temperature, but the enthalpies of gelatinization were quite increased for the partially hydrolyzed starch granules. The results suggested that the partial degradation of the starch granules was concentrated in the amorphous regions.Amilases fúngicas são comumente empregadas a amidos com o intuito de otimizar o rendimento de leveduras, modificar a textura de produtos panificados e prolongar a vida de prateleira do produto final. A hidrólise parcial enzimática pode auxiliar no entendimento da estrutura do amido ganular. Amido de mandioca parcialmente hidrolisado por á-amilase fúngica foi investigado utilizando-se técnicas termoanalíticas, microscopia ótica e difratometria por raios X. A degradação térmica iniciou-se a temperaturas menores após o tratamento enzimático e a análise por DSC mostrou uma próxima faixa de temperatura de gelatinização, porém, a entalpia necessária para o evento foi maior para os grânulos parcialmente hidrolisados. Os resultados sugerem que a degradação parcial do amido granular foi concentrada em regiões amorfas.

  14. Characterization of Co–Cr–Mo alloys after a thermal treatment for high wear resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagna, C.; Spriano, S.; Faga, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    The cobalt–chromium–molybdenum alloys are characterized by a high resistance to wear and corrosion, as well as good mechanical properties, allowing their use in the substitution of hip and knee joints. Five alloys were used as substrates for a coating deposition by a thermal treatment in molten salts, as reported elsewhere, in order to form a tantalum‐rich coating on the sample surface, able to improve the biocompatibility and wear resistance of the materials. However, the temperature (970 °C), reached during this process, is considered critical for the phase transformation of the Co-based alloys. The aim of this work is the evaluation of the temperature effects on the structure, microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of the considered substrates, after the removal of the coating by polishing. The substrates are characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersion spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and profilometry. The mechanical behavior is evaluated by the macro- and micro-hardness and bending tests, whereas the tribological properties are analyzed through a ball on disc test. A comparison between the as-received alloys and thermal treated substrates is reported. The biocompatibility feature is not reported in this work. The substrate crystalline structure changed during the heat treatment, inducing the formation of the hexagonal cobalt phase and the decrement of the cubic one. This crystallographic modification does not seem to influence the tribological behavior of the substrates. On the contrary, it affects the strength and ductility of the substrates. - Highlights: ► Effect of a thermal treatment on different CoCrMo alloys suitable for hip and knee joint substitution. ► The temperature induced an increment in the amount of hexagonal phase and a change in the grain size. ► The increment of the hexagonal phase decreases the hardness of the substrates but not the tribological properties.

  15. In-situ characterization of wildland fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret Butler; D. Jimenez; J. Forthofer; Paul Sopko; K. Shannon; Jim Reardon

    2010-01-01

    A system consisting of two enclosures has been developed to characterize wildand fire behavior: The first enclosure is a sensor/data logger combination that measures and records convective/radiant energy released by the fire. The second is a digital video camera housed in a fire proof enclosure that records visual images of fire behavior. Together this system provides...

  16. Synthesis, characterization and photo behavior of new poly(amide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and the interaction between clay and polymeric chains on the properties of nanocomposites films were investigated by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and water uptake measurements. KEY WORDS: Nanocomposite, Poly(amide-imide), Silicate particle, Polycondensation, Thermal behavior.

  17. Understanding thermally activated plastic deformation behavior of Zircaloy-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Alomari, A.; Murty, K. L.

    2018-06-01

    Understanding micromechanics of plastic deformation of existing materials is essential for improving their properties further and/or developing advanced materials for much more severe load bearing applications. The objective of the present work was to understand micromechanics of plastic deformation of Zircaloy-4, a zirconium-based alloy used as fuel cladding and channel (in BWRs) material in nuclear reactors. The Zircaloy-4 in recrystallized (at 973 K for 4 h) condition was subjected to uniaxial tensile testing at a constant cross-head velocity at temperatures in the range 293 K-1073 K and repeated stress relaxation tests at 293 K, 573 K, and 773 K. The minimum in the total elongation was indicative of dynamic strain aging phenomenon in this alloy in the intermediate temperature regime. The yield stress of the alloy was separated into effective and athermal components and the transition from thermally activated dislocation glide to athermal regime took place at around 673 K with the athermal stress estimated to be 115 MPa. The activation volume was found to be in the range of 40 b3 to 160 b3. The activation volume values and the data analyses using the solid-solution models in literature indicated dislocation-solute interaction to be a potential deformation mechanism in thermally activated regime. The activation energy calculated at 573 K was very close to that found for diffusivity of oxygen in α-Zr that was suggestive of dislocations-oxygen interaction during plastic deformation. This type of information may be helpful in alloy design in selecting different elements to control the deformation behavior of the material and impart desired mechanical properties in those materials for specific applications.

  18. Thermal behavior analysis of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ho Jin; Park, Jong Mang; Lee, Yoon Sang; Kim, Chang Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    According to the non-proliferation policy under the reduced enrichment for research and test reactors (RERTR) program, low enriched uranium(LEU) fuel such as uranium silicide dispersion fuels are being used in research reactors. Because of a lower enrichment higher uranium density fuels are required for some high performance research reactors. Some uranium alloys with a high uranium density such as U-Mo alloys have been considered as one of the most promising candidates for a dispersion fuel due to the good irradiation performance. An international qualification program to replace the uranium silicide dispersion fuel with U-Mo dispersion fuel is being carried out under the RERTR program. Although U-Mo powders are conventionally supplied by the mechanical comminuting of as-cast U-Mo alloys, KAERI developed a centrifugal atomization method in order to simplify the preparation process and improve the properties. The centrifugally atomized powders have a rapidly solidified gamma uranium structure and a spherical shape. During the in-reactor operation of a dispersion fuel, interdiffusion or chemical reactions between the fuel particles and the matrix occurr. Intermetallic compounds in the form of UAlx are formed as a result of the diffusional reaction. Because the intermetallic compounds are less dense than the combined reactants, the volume of the fuel element increases after the reaction. In addition to the effect on the swelling performance, the reaction layers between the U-Mo and the Al matrix induces a degradation of the thermal properties of the U-Mo/Al dispersion fuels. It is important to investigate the thermal behavior of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel according to reaction between the fuel particles and the matrix with the burnup and linear power. In this study, a finite element analysis was used for the calculation of the temperature distribution of the U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel with a burnup and linear power. Kinetics data of the reaction layers such as the growth

  19. Thermal behavior analysis of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Ho Jin; Park, Jong Mang; Lee, Yoon Sang; Kim, Chang Kyu

    2004-01-01

    According to the non-proliferation policy under the reduced enrichment for research and test reactors (RERTR) program, low enriched uranium(LEU) fuel such as uranium silicide dispersion fuels are being used in research reactors. Because of a lower enrichment higher uranium density fuels are required for some high performance research reactors. Some uranium alloys with a high uranium density such as U-Mo alloys have been considered as one of the most promising candidates for a dispersion fuel due to the good irradiation performance. An international qualification program to replace the uranium silicide dispersion fuel with U-Mo dispersion fuel is being carried out under the RERTR program. Although U-Mo powders are conventionally supplied by the mechanical comminuting of as-cast U-Mo alloys, KAERI developed a centrifugal atomization method in order to simplify the preparation process and improve the properties. The centrifugally atomized powders have a rapidly solidified gamma uranium structure and a spherical shape. During the in-reactor operation of a dispersion fuel, interdiffusion or chemical reactions between the fuel particles and the matrix occurr. Intermetallic compounds in the form of UAlx are formed as a result of the diffusional reaction. Because the intermetallic compounds are less dense than the combined reactants, the volume of the fuel element increases after the reaction. In addition to the effect on the swelling performance, the reaction layers between the U-Mo and the Al matrix induces a degradation of the thermal properties of the U-Mo/Al dispersion fuels. It is important to investigate the thermal behavior of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel according to reaction between the fuel particles and the matrix with the burnup and linear power. In this study, a finite element analysis was used for the calculation of the temperature distribution of the U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel with a burnup and linear power. Kinetics data of the reaction layers such as the growth

  20. Thermodynamic model of a thermal storage air conditioning system with dynamic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, Evan; Wen, Shaoyi; Shi, Li; Silva, Alexandre K. da

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed an automotive thermal storage air conditioning system model. • The thermal storage unit utilizes phase change materials. • We use semi-analytic solution to the coupled phase change and forced convection. • We model the airside heat exchange using the NTU method. • The system model can incorporate dynamic inputs, e.g. variable inlet airflow. - Abstract: A thermodynamic model was developed to predict transient behavior of a thermal storage system, using phase change materials (PCMs), for a novel electric vehicle climate conditioning application. The main objectives of the paper are to consider the system’s dynamic behavior, such as a dynamic air flow rate into the vehicle’s cabin, and to characterize the transient heat transfer process between the thermal storage unit and the vehicle’s cabin, while still maintaining accurate solution to the complex phase change heat transfer. The system studied consists of a heat transfer fluid circulating between either of the on-board hot and cold thermal storage units, which we refer to as thermal batteries, and a liquid–air heat exchanger that provides heat exchange with the incoming air to the vehicle cabin. Each thermal battery is a shell-and-tube configuration where a heat transfer fluid flows through parallel tubes, which are surrounded by PCM within a larger shell. The system model incorporates computationally inexpensive semi-analytic solution to the conjugated laminar forced convection and phase change problem within the battery and accounts for airside heat exchange using the Number of Transfer Units (NTUs) method for the liquid–air heat exchanger. Using this approach, we are able to obtain an accurate solution to the complex heat transfer problem within the battery while also incorporating the impact of the airside heat transfer on the overall system performance. The implemented model was benchmarked against a numerical study for a melting process and against full system

  1. Diurnal thermal behavior of selected urban objects using remote sensing measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Ben-Dor, E. [The Remote Sensing and GIS Laboratory, Department of Geography and Human Environment, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Saaroni, H. [Unit for Applied Climatology and Environmental Aspects, Department of Geography and Human Environment, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2004-07-01

    This research analyzes and summarizes some thermal behavior of various urban surfaces in time and space using high-resolution video thermal radiometer situated at a height of 103 m, in the city of Tel-Aviv. The physical properties of the various urban elements, their color, the sky view factor, street geometry, traffic loads, and anthropogenic activity are important among the factors that determine the radiant surface temperature in the urban environment. During daytime, asphalt paved roads and rooftops were found to be the warmest urban elements in our study area. In contrast, exterior walls and trees hold the highest surface temperatures at night. Open spaced surfaces that are exposed to direct solar radiation during daytime and to heat loss at night were characterized by the highest diurnal temperature range. The radiometric stationary experiment revealed the temperature differences between diverse urban coverage to be at most 10 {sup o}C; such maximum temperature differences were measured in the early noon hours. The minimal temperatures were observed just before sunrise, when the temperature contrasts (4-5 {sup o}C) were smaller than in the early noon hours. The daytime hours between 9-10 a.m. and 5-8 p.m. turned out to be problematic for remote sensing of the urban environment, because the thermal differences between different objects were found to be insignificant. A remote survey aiming to study the urban environment should be conducted twice: in the early morning hours before sunrise (5 a.m.) and in the early noon hours (12-1 p.m.). The knowledge of thermal behavior of various urban components is an important tool for designers and decision-makers. If utilized properly, it can lead to climatic rehabilitation in urban areas and a reduction of the UHI. (author)

  2. Spectral characterization of surface emissivities in the thermal infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niclòs, Raquel; Mira, Maria; Valor, Enric; Caselles, Diego; García-Santos, Vicente; Caselles, Vicente; Sánchez, Juan M.

    2015-04-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing trends to hyperspectral sensors on board satellites in the last decades, e.g., the current EOS-MODIS and EOS-ASTER and future missions like HyspIRI, ECOSTRESS, THIRSTY and MISTIGRI. This study aims to characterize spectrally the emissive properties of several surfaces, mostly soils. A spectrometer ranging from 2 to 16 μm, D&P Model 102, has been used to measure samples with singular spectral features, e.g. a sandy soil rich in gypsum sampled in White Sands (New Mexico, USA), salt samples, powdered quartz, and powdered calcite. These samples were chosen for their role in the assessment of thermal emissivity of soils, e.g., the calcite and quartz contents are key variables for modeling TIR emissivities of bare soils, along with soil moisture and organic matter. Additionally, the existence of large areas in the world with abundance of these materials, some of them used for calibration/validation activities of satellite sensors and products, makes the chosen samples interesting. White Sands is the world's largest gypsum dune field encompassing 400 km^2; the salt samples characterize the Salar of Uyuni (Bolivia), the largest salt flat in the world (up to 10,000 km^2), as well as the Jordanian and Israeli salt evaporation ponds at the south end of the Dead Sea, or the evaporation lagoons in Aigües-Mortes (France); and quartz is omnipresent in most of the arid regions of the world such as the Algodones Dunes or Kelso Dunes (California, USA), with areas around 700 km2 and 120 km^2, respectively. Measurements of target leaving radiance, hemispherical radiance reflected by a diffuse reflectance panel, and the radiance from a black body at different temperatures were taken to obtain thermal spectra with the D&P spectrometer. The good consistency observed between our measurements and laboratory spectra of similar samples (ASTER and MODIS spectral libraries) indicated the validity of the measurement protocol. Further, our study showed the

  3. Characterization of Thermal Parameters for Improving Pyranometer and Pyrgeometer Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Ji, Qiang; Rapshun, David; Shu, Peter K.

    2000-01-01

    Since the introduction of thermopile, pyranometers (solar, e.g., 0.3-3.0 micrometers) and pyrgeometers (terrestrial, e.g., 4-50 micrometers) have become instruments commonly used for measuring the broadband hemispherical irradiances at the surface in a long-term, monitoring mode for decades. These commercially available radiometers have been manufactured in several countries such as from the United States, Asia, and Europe, and are generally reliable and economical. These worldwide distributions of surface measurements become even more important in the era of Earth remote sensing in studying climate change. However, recent studies from field campaigns have pointed out that erroneous factors (e.g., temperature gradients between the filter dome and detector, emissivity of the thermopile) are responsible for the unacceptable level of uncertainty (e.g., 20 W m(exp -2)). Using a newly developed instrument of Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWTP), we have characterized the brightness temperature fields of pyranometers and pyrgeometers under various sky conditions. The QWIP is based on the superlattice (GaAs/AlGaAs) technology and has a noise equivalent temperature (NEAT) less than 0.1 K. The quality of pyranometer and pyrgeometer measure- ments can be improved largely by applying proper knowledge of the thermal parameters affecting the operation of the thermopile systems. Data correction procedure and algorithm will be presented and discussed.

  4. Characterization of a photovoltaic-thermal module for Fresnel linear concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemisana, D.; Ibanez, M.; Rosell, J.I.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A combined domed Fresnel lens - CPC PVT system is designed and characterized. → Electrical and thermal experiments have been performed. → CFD analysis has been used to determine thermal characteristic dimensionless numbers. - Abstract: An advanced solar unit is designed to match the needs of building integration and concentrating photovoltaic/thermal generation. The unit proposed accurately combines three elements: a domed linear Fresnel lens as primary concentrator, a compound parabolic reflector as secondary concentrator and a photovoltaic-thermal module. In this work the photovoltaic-thermal generator is built, analysed and characterized. Models for the electrical and thermal behaviour of the module are developed and validated experimentally. Applying a thermal resistances approach the results from both models are combined. Finally, efficiency electrical and thermal curves are derived from theoretical analysis showing good agreement with experimental measurements.

  5. Comparative analysis of thermal behavior in hollow nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Beatriz M. dos; Alvim, Antonio C.M.

    2017-01-01

    The increase in energy demand in Brazil and in the world is a real problem and several solutions are being considered to mitigate it. Maximization of energy generation, within the safety standards of fuel resources already known, is one of them. In this respect, nuclear energy is a crucial technology to sustain energy demand on several countries. Performances of a solid cylindrical and an annular rod have been verified and compared; where it has been proven that the annular rod can reach a higher nominal power in relation to the solid one. In this paper, the temperature profiles of two distinct nuclear fuel pellets, one of them annular and the other in the shape of a hollow biconcave disc (like the cross section of a red blood cell), were compared to analyze the efficiency and safety of both. The finite differences method allowed the evaluation of the thermal behavior of these pellets, where one specific physical condition was analyzed, regarding convection and conduction at the lateral edges. The results show that the temperature profile of the hollow biconcave disc pellet is lower, about 70 deg C below, when compared to the temperature profile of the annular pellet, considering the same simulation parameters for both pellets. (author)

  6. Comparative analysis of thermal behavior in hollow nuclear fuel pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Beatriz M. dos; Alvim, Antonio C.M., E-mail: bmachado@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: aalvim@gmail.com [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    The increase in energy demand in Brazil and in the world is a real problem and several solutions are being considered to mitigate it. Maximization of energy generation, within the safety standards of fuel resources already known, is one of them. In this respect, nuclear energy is a crucial technology to sustain energy demand on several countries. Performances of a solid cylindrical and an annular rod have been verified and compared; where it has been proven that the annular rod can reach a higher nominal power in relation to the solid one. In this paper, the temperature profiles of two distinct nuclear fuel pellets, one of them annular and the other in the shape of a hollow biconcave disc (like the cross section of a red blood cell), were compared to analyze the efficiency and safety of both. The finite differences method allowed the evaluation of the thermal behavior of these pellets, where one specific physical condition was analyzed, regarding convection and conduction at the lateral edges. The results show that the temperature profile of the hollow biconcave disc pellet is lower, about 70 deg C below, when compared to the temperature profile of the annular pellet, considering the same simulation parameters for both pellets. (author)

  7. Study of Lactic Acid Thermal Behavior Using Thermoanalytical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Komesu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Actually, there is a growing interest in the biotechnological production of lactic acid by fermentation aiming to substitute fossil fuel routes. The development of an efficient method for its separation and purification from fermentation broth is very important to assure the economic viability of production. Due to its high reactivity and tendency to decompose at high temperatures, the study of lactic acid thermal behavior is essential for its separation processes and potential application. In the present study, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analyses showed endothermic peaks related to the process of evaporation. Data of thermogravimetry (TG/DTG were correlated to Arrhenius and Kissinger equations to provide the evaporation kinetic parameters and used to determine the vaporization enthalpy. Activation energies were 51.08 and 48.37 kJ·mol−1 and frequency values were 859.97 and 968.81 s−1 obtained by Arrhenius and Kissinger equations, respectively. Thermogravimetry, coupled with mass spectroscopy (TG-MS, provided useful information about decomposition products when lactic acid was heated at 573 K for approximately 30 min.

  8. Thermal desorption spectroscopy for investigating hydrogen isotope behavior in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Tirui; Yang Hongguang; Zhan Qin; Han Zhibo; He Changshui

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of hydrogen isotope generated in fusion reactor materials is the key issue for safety and economic operation of fusion reactors and becomes an interesting field. In order to investigate the mechanism of hydrogen isotope such as diffusion, release and retention, a high-sensitivity thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) in combination with a quadruple mass spectrometer (QMS) was developed. A major technical breakthrough in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), low hydrogen background, linear heating and sensitivity calibration of TDS system was made. UHV of l × 10 -7 Pa and low hydrogen background of l × 10 -9 Pa were obtained by combining turbo molecule pump and sputter ion pump. Specimens can be linearly heated up to 1173 K at the rate of 1 to 50 K/min under the MCGS PID software. Sensitivity calibration of the TDS system was accomplished using a special deuterium leak in the detector mode of QMS second electron multiplier. The desorption sensitivity coefficient and the minimum detection limit of deuterium desorption rate are 6.22 × l0 24 s -l · and l.24 × l0 -10 s -1 , respectively. The measurement was also routinely conducted on a specimen of standard, deuterium-containing Zr-4 alloy maintained in the laboratory, so as to validate the TDS method. (authors)

  9. Structural, vibrational and thermal characterization of phase transformation in L-histidinium bromide monohydrate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, G.M. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Sul e Sudeste do Pará, ICEN, Marabá, PA 68505-080 (Brazil); Carvalho, J.O. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil); Instituto Federal do Tocantins, Araguaína, TO, 77.826-170 (Brazil); Silva, M.C.D.; Façanha Filho, P.F. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil); Santos, A.O. dos, E-mail: adenilson1@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, CCSST, Imperatriz, MA, 65900-410 (Brazil)

    2015-09-01

    L-Histidinium bromide monohydrate (LHBr) single crystal is a nonlinear optical material. In this work the high temperature phase transformation and the thermal stability of single crystals of LHBr was investigated by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed the LHBr phase transformation of orthorhombic (P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}) to monoclinic system (P 1 2 1) at 120 °C, with the lattice parameters a = 12.162(1) Å, b = 16.821(2) Å, c = 19.477(2) Å and β = 108.56(2)°. These techniques are complementary and confirm the structural phase transformation due to loss water of crystallization. - Highlights: • -histidinium bromide single crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. • X-ray diffraction characterize the high-temperature phase transformation. • The structural phase transformation occur due to loss of water of crystallization. • The LHBr thermal expansion coefficients exhibit an anisotropic behavior.

  10. Development of a test device to characterize thermal protective performance of fabrics against hot steam and thermal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yun; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Steam burns severely threaten the life of firefighters in the course of their fire-ground activities. The aim of this paper was to characterize thermal protective performance of flame-retardant fabrics exposed to hot steam and low-level thermal radiation. An improved testing apparatus based on ASTM F2731-11 was developed in order to simulate the routine fire-ground conditions by controlling steam pressure, flow rate and temperature of steam box. The thermal protective performance of single-layer and multi-layer fabric system with/without an air gap was studied based on the calibrated tester. It was indicated that the new testing apparatus effectively evaluated thermal properties of fabric in hot steam and thermal radiation. Hot steam significantly exacerbated the skin burn injuries while the condensed water on the skin’s surface contributed to cool down the skin tissues during the cooling. Also, the absorbed thermal energy during the exposure and the cooling was mainly determined by the fabric’s configuration, the air gap size, the exposure time and the existence of hot steam. The research provides a effective method to characterize the thermal protection of fabric in complex conditions, which will help in optimization of thermal protection performance of clothing and reduction of steam burn. (paper)

  11. Modeling and Experimental Study on Characterization of Micromachined Thermal Gas Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Su

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Micromachined thermal gas inertial sensors based on heat convection are novel devices that compared with conventional micromachined inertial sensors offer the advantages of simple structures, easy fabrication, high shock resistance and good reliability by virtue of using a gaseous medium instead of a mechanical proof mass as key moving and sensing elements. This paper presents an analytical modeling for a micromachined thermal gas gyroscope integrated with signal conditioning. A simplified spring-damping model is utilized to characterize the behavior of the sensor. The model relies on the use of the fluid mechanics and heat transfer fundamentals and is validated using experimental data obtained from a test-device and simulation. Furthermore, the nonideal issues of the sensor are addressed from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. The nonlinear behavior demonstrated in experimental measurements is analyzed based on the model. It is concluded that the sources of nonlinearity are mainly attributable to the variable stiffness of the sensor system and the structural asymmetry due to nonideal fabrication.

  12. Characterization of thermally sprayed coatings for high-temperature wear-protection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.C.

    1980-03-01

    Under normal high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) operating conditions, faying surfaces of metallic components under high contact pressure are prone to friction, wear, and self-welding damage. Component design calls for coatings for the protection of the mating surfaces. Anticipated operating temperatures up to 850 to 950 0 C (1562 to 1742 0 F) and a 40-y design life require coatings with excellent thermal stability and adequate wear and spallation resistance, and they must be compatible with the HTGR coolant helium environment. Plasma and detonation-gun (D-gun) deposited chromium carbide-base and stabilized zirconia coatings are under consideration for wear protection of reactor components such as the thermal barrier, heat exchangers, control rods, and turbomachinery. Programs are under way to address the structural integrity, helium compatibility, and tribological behavior of relevant sprayed coatings. In this paper, the need for protection of critical metallic components and the criteria for selection of coatings are discussed. The technical background to coating development and the experience with the steam cycle HTGR (HTGR-SC) are commented upon. Coating characterization techniques employed at General Atomic Company (GA) are presented, and the progress of the experimental programs is briefly reviewed. In characterizing the coatings for HTGR applications, it is concluded that a systems approach to establish correlation between coating process parameters and coating microstructural and tribological properties for design consideration is required

  13. Intrathecal huperzine A increases thermal escape latency and decreases flinching behavior in the formalin test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Paula; Schachter, Steven; Yaksh, Tony

    2010-02-05

    Huperzine A (HupA) is an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese club moss Huperzia serrata and has been used for improving memory, cognitive and behavioral function in patients with Alzheimer's disease in China. It has NMDA antagonist and anticholinesterase activity and has shown anticonvulsant and antinociceptive effects in preliminary studies when administered intraperitoneally to mice. To better characterize the antinociceptive effects of HupA at the spinal level, Holtzman rats were implanted with intrathecal catheters to measure thermal escape latency using Hargreaves thermal escape testing system and flinching behavior using the formalin test. Intrathecal (IT) administration of HupA showed a dose-dependent increase in thermal escape latency with an ED50 of 0.57 microg. Atropine reversed the increase in thermal escape latency produced by 10 microg HupA, indicating an antinociceptive mechanism through muscarinic cholinergic receptors. The formalin test showed that HupA decreased flinching behavior in a dose-dependent manner. Atropine also reversed the decrease in flinching behavior caused by 10 microg HupA. A dose-dependent increase of side effects including scratching, biting, and chewing tails was observed, although antinociceptive effects were observed in doses that did not produce any adverse effects. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of thermal aging of duplex stainless steel by SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Y.; Kamimura, A.; Aoki, K.; Nakayasu, F.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal aging is a growing concern for long-term-aged duplex stainless steel piping in nuclear power plants. Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) was used for the detection of thermal aging of SUS329 rolled duplex stainless steel and SCS16 cast duplex stainless steel. It was found that the SQUID output signal pattern in the presence of AC magnetic field applied to the specimen was sensitive to the changes in electromagnetic properties due to thermal aging

  15. Design, fabrication and thermal characterization of a magnetocaloric microcooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.; Ghirlanda, S.; Adams, C.; Bethala, B.; Sambandam, S.N.; Bhansali, S. [BioMEMS and Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., ENB118, Tampa, FL 33620, (United States)

    2006-12-11

    Magnetocaloric cooling is an alternative, high-efficiency cooling technology. In this paper, we present the design and fabrication of a micromachined magnetocaloric cooler and demonstrate its ability to work in a small magnetic field (<1.2 T) with a cooling test. The cooler was built by fabricating Si microfluidic channels, and it was integrated with a Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}) magnetocaloric refrigeration element. The magnetic properties of the Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}) material were characterized to calculate the magnetic entropy change at different ambient temperatures. Three different methods to integrate the channel layer and the magnetocaloric element were evaluated to test sealing and cooling performance. The cooling tests were performed by providing a magnetic field using an electromagnet. A test jig was constructed between the poles of an electromagnet to maintain a steady temperature during the test. Cooling tests were performed on the magnetocaloric element at ambient temperatures ranging from 258 to 280 K using a magnetic field of 1.2 T. Experimental results showed a maximum temperature change of 7 K on the magnetocaloric element alone at an ambient temperature of 258 K. Cooling tests of the fully integrated coolers were also performed. A solution of anti-freeze fluid (propylene glycol) and water was used as the coolant. The temperature of the working fluid decreased by 4.6 and 9 K for the glass and Si intermediate layers, respectively, confirming that the thermal conductivity of the materials is also an important factor in cooler performance. (Author)

  16. The effects of dune slopes and material heterogeneity on the thermal behavior of dune fields in Mars' Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, P. M.; Putzig, N. E.; Van Kooten, S.; Fenton, L. K.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed the effects of slopes on the thermal properties of three dune fields in Mars' southern hemisphere. Although slope has important thermal effects, it is not the main driver of observed apparent thermal inertia (ATI) for these dunes. Comparing the ATI seasonal behavior as derived from Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data with that modeled for compositional heterogeneities, we found that TES results correlate best with models of duricrust overlying and/or horizontally mixing with fines. We measured slopes and aspects in digital terrain models created from High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images of dunes within Proctor, Kaiser, and Wirtz craters. Using the MARSTHERM web toolset, we incorporated the slopes and aspects together with TES albedo, TES thermal inertia, surface pressure, and TES dust opacity, into models of seasonal ATI. Models that incorporate sub-pixel slopes show seasonal day and night ATI values that differ from the TES results by 0-300 J m-2 K-1 s-½. In addition, the models' day-night differences are opposite in sign from those of the TES results, indicating that factors other than slope are involved. We therefore compared the TES data to model results for a broad range of horizontally mixed and two-layered surfaces to seek other possible controls on the observed data, finding that a surface layer of higher thermal inertia is a likely contributor. However, it is clear from this study that the overall composition and morphology of the dune fields are more complex than currently available models allow. Future work will combine slopes with other model parameters such as multi-layered surfaces and lateral changes in layer thickness. Coupling these improvements with broader seasonal coverage from the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) at more thermally favorable times of day would allow more accurate characterization of dune thermal behavior.

  17. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    Continuous downscaling of Si complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology and progress in high-power electronics demand more efficient heat removal techniques to handle the increasing power density and rising temperature of hot spots. For this reason, it is important to investigate thermal properties of materials at nanometer scale and identify materials with the extremely large or extremely low thermal conductivity for applications as heat spreaders or heat insulators in the next generation of integrated circuits. The thin films used in microelectronic and photonic devices need to have high thermal conductivity in order to transfer the dissipated power to heat sinks more effectively. On the other hand, thermoelectric devices call for materials or structures with low thermal conductivity because the performance of thermoelectric devices is determined by the figure of merit Z=S2sigma/K, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, K and sigma are the thermal and electrical conductivity, respectively. Nanostructured superlattices can have drastically reduced thermal conductivity as compared to their bulk counterparts making them promising candidates for high-efficiency thermoelectric materials. Other applications calling for thin films with low thermal conductivity value are high-temperature coatings for engines. Thus, materials with both high thermal conductivity and low thermal conductivity are technologically important. The increasing temperature of the hot spots in state-of-the-art chips stimulates the search for innovative methods for heat removal. One promising approach is to incorporate materials, which have high thermal conductivity into the chip design. Two suitable candidates for such applications are diamond and graphene. Another approach is to integrate the high-efficiency thermoelectric elements for on-spot cooling. In addition, there is strong motivation for improved thermal interface materials (TIMs) for heat transfer from the heat-generating chip

  18. Thermal analysis methods in the characterization of photocatalytic titania precursors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pulišová, Petra; Večerníková, Eva; Maříková, Monika; Balek, V.; Boháček, Jaroslav; Šubrt, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 2 (2012), s. 489-492 ISSN 1388-6150 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0577 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : differential thermal analysis * thermogravimetry * emanation thermal analysis * titanium dioxide * photocatalyst Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.982, year: 2012

  19. Thermal characterization of (U, Dy)O2 pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelloni, M; Bianchi, L; Pablovich, M.E; Kaufmann, F; Kempf, R

    2012-01-01

    The thermal diffusivity of (U,Dy)O 2 pellets were determined in the temperature range 250 K to 1600 K measured by the laser flash method. The dependence of thermal with temperature and dysprosium content was studied and found in good agreement with physical models available (author)

  20. Synthesis and characterization of thermally stable oligomer-metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermal stabilities of the oligomer-metal complexes were compared by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal (DTA) analyses. According to TG, oligomer-metal complexes were stable against to temperature and thermooxidative decomposition. The weight losses of oligomer-metal complexes were found to be 5 ...

  1. Synthesis and Photophysical Characterizations of Thermal -Stable Naphthalene Benzimidazoles

    OpenAIRE

    Erten Ela, Şule; Özçelik, Serdar; Eren, Ersin

    2011-01-01

    Microwave-assisted synthesis, photophysical and electrochemical properties of thermal-stable naphthalene benzimidazoles and naphthalimides are studied in this paper. Microwave-assisted synthesis of naphthalene benzimidazoles provide higher yields than the conventional thermal synthesis. Comparative photophysical properties of naphthalene benzimidazoles and naphthalimides are revealed that conjugation of electron-donating group onto naphthalimide moiety increases fluorescence ...

  2. Characterizing spontaneous irregular behavior in coupled map lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobyns, York; Atmanspacher, Harald

    2005-01-01

    Two-dimensional coupled map lattices display, in a specific parameter range, a stable phase (quasi-) periodic in both space and time. With small changes to the model parameters, this stable phase develops spontaneous eruptions of non-periodic behavior. Although this behavior itself appears irregular, it can be characterized in a systematic fashion. In particular, parameter-independent features of the spontaneous eruptions may allow useful empirical characterizations of other phenomena that are intrinsically hard to predict and reproduce. Specific features of the distributions of lifetimes and emergence rates of irregular states display such parameter-independent properties

  3. Characterizing spontaneous irregular behavior in coupled map lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobyns, York [PEAR, Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 (United States); Atmanspacher, Harald [Institut fuer Grenzgebiete der Psychologie und Psychohygiene Wilhelmstrasse 3a, Freiburg 79098 (Germany)]. E-mail: haa@igpp.de

    2005-04-01

    Two-dimensional coupled map lattices display, in a specific parameter range, a stable phase (quasi-) periodic in both space and time. With small changes to the model parameters, this stable phase develops spontaneous eruptions of non-periodic behavior. Although this behavior itself appears irregular, it can be characterized in a systematic fashion. In particular, parameter-independent features of the spontaneous eruptions may allow useful empirical characterizations of other phenomena that are intrinsically hard to predict and reproduce. Specific features of the distributions of lifetimes and emergence rates of irregular states display such parameter-independent properties.

  4. Effects of thermal aging on the mechanical behavior of F82H weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamo, A.; Castaing, A.; Fontes, A.; Wident, P.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work is to characterize the mechanical behavior of F82H weldments, which were produced by tungsten inert gas (TIG) and electron beam (EB) processes. Tensile and impact properties were determined for both types of welds in the as-received condition and after thermal aging for 10 000 h at 400 deg. C and 550 deg. C. The mechanical properties of TIG welds and their evolution during aging is quite similar in the base metal (BM). The main difference was given by the impact energy level (upper shelf energy (USE)) of TIG joints, which is about 60% of the BM. EB welds were delivered without post-weld heat treatment. Very scattered results were obtained, particularly for impact properties

  5. Microstructure Evolution and Impedance Spectroscopy Characterization of Thermal Barrier Coating Exposed to Gas Thermal-shock Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Wen-long

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Gas thermal-shock experiment of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs was carried out in air up to 1250℃ in order to simulate the thermal cycling process of the engine blades during the start heating and shut down cooling. The growth of thermal growth oxide (TGO layer and microstructure evolution of YSZ layer during thermal cycling process were investigated systematically by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy testing and SEM. The results show that the thickness of TGO layer increases when increasing the frequency of thermal cycling, and the impedance response of middle frequencies is more and more remarkable. Meanwhile, initiation and growth of micro-cracks occur in YSZ layer during the gas thermal-shock experiment. The corresponding impedance characterization of YSZ layer after 100 cycles is similar to the as-sprayed sample, indicating that micro-cracks in short time could heal since the YSZ micro-cracks sinter at high temperature. But after 300 cycles, the impedance spectroscopy of YSZ layer is quite different to the as-sprayed sample, with the corresponding impedance of particle-gap of YSZ more and more remarkable with the increase of the thermal-shock times, indicating that non-healing micro-cracks form in the YSZ layer, which may be the main reason to induce the failure of YSZ layer.

  6. Characterization and modeling of thermal diffusion and aggregation in nanofluids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Goodson, Kenneth E. (Stanford University, Stanford, CA)

    2010-05-01

    Fluids with higher thermal conductivities are sought for fluidic cooling systems in applications including microprocessors and high-power lasers. By adding high thermal conductivity nanoscale metal and metal oxide particles to a fluid the thermal conductivity of the fluid is enhanced. While particle aggregates play a central role in recent models for the thermal conductivity of nanofluids, the effect of particle diffusion in a temperature field on the aggregation and transport has yet to be studied in depth. The present work separates the effects of particle aggregation and diffusion using parallel plate experiments, infrared microscopy, light scattering, Monte Carlo simulations, and rate equations for particle and heat transport in a well dispersed nanofluid. Experimental data show non-uniform temporal increases in thermal conductivity above effective medium theory and can be well described through simulation of the combination of particle aggregation and diffusion. The simulation shows large concentration distributions due to thermal diffusion causing variations in aggregation, thermal conductivity and viscosity. Static light scattering shows aggregates form more quickly at higher concentrations and temperatures, which explains the increased enhancement with temperature reported by other research groups. The permanent aggregates in the nanofluid are found to have a fractal dimension of 2.4 and the aggregate formations that grow over time are found to have a fractal dimension of 1.8, which is consistent with diffusion limited aggregation. Calculations show as aggregates grow the viscosity increases at a faster rate than thermal conductivity making the highly aggregated nanofluids unfavorable, especially at the low fractal dimension of 1.8. An optimum nanoparticle diameter for these particular fluid properties is calculated to be 130 nm to optimize the fluid stability by reducing settling, thermal diffusion and aggregation.

  7. Synthesis, Characterization and Thermal Diffusivity of Holmium and Praseodymium Zirconates

    OpenAIRE

    Stopyra M.; Niemiec D.; Moskal G.

    2016-01-01

    A2B2O7 oxides with pyrochlore or defected fluorite structure are among the most promising candidates for insulation layer material in thermal barrier coatings. The present paper presents the procedure of synthesis of holmium zirconate Ho2Zr2O7 and praseodymium zirconate Pr2Zr2O7 via Polymerized-Complex Method (PCM). Thermal analysis of precursor revealed that after calcination at relatively low temperature (700°C) fine-crystalline, single-phase material is obtained. Thermal diffusivity was me...

  8. Thermal and Electrical Characterization of Alumina Substrate for Microelectronic Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Ibrahim, A.; Alias, R.; Shapee, S. M.; Ambak, Z.; Zakaria, S. Z.; Yahya, M. R.; Mat, A. F. A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of sintering temperature on thermal and electrical properties of alumina material as substrate for microelectronic devices. Alumina materials in the form of green sheet with 1 mm thickness were sintered at 1100 deg. C, 1300 deg. C and 1500 deg. C for about 20 hours using heating and cooling rates of 2 deg. C/min. The densities were measured using densitometer and the microstructures of the samples were analyzed using SEM micrographs. Meanwhile thermal and electrical properties of the samples were measured using flash method and impedance analyzer respectively. It was found that thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the substrate increases as sintering temperature increases. It was found also that the dielectric constant of alumina substrate increases as the sintering temperature increases.

  9. Thermal and Electrical Characterization of Alumina Substrate for Microelectronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Ibrahim, A.; Alias, R.; Shapee, S. M.; Ambak, Z.; Zakaria, S. Z.; Yahya, M. R.; Mat, A. F. A.

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports the effect of sintering temperature on thermal and electrical properties of alumina material as substrate for microelectronic devices. Alumina materials in the form of green sheet with 1 mm thickness were sintered at 1100° C, 1300° C and 1500° C for about 20 hours using heating and cooling rates of 2° C/min. The densities were measured using densitometer and the microstructures of the samples were analyzed using SEM micrographs. Meanwhile thermal and electrical properties of the samples were measured using flash method and impedance analyzer respectively. It was found that thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the substrate increases as sintering temperature increases. It was found also that the dielectric constant of alumina substrate increases as the sintering temperature increases.

  10. Tensile-property characterization of thermally aged cast stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, W.F.; Toben, P.T.; Soppet, W.K.; Chopra, O.K.

    1994-02-01

    The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties of cast stainless steels during service in light water reactors has been evaluated. Tensile data for several experimental and commercial heats of cast stainless steels are presented. Thermal aging increases the tensile strength of these steels. The high-C Mo-bearing CF-8M steels are more susceptible to thermal aging than the Mo-free CF-3 or CF-8 steels. A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting the change in tensile flow and yield stresses and engineering stress-vs.-strain curve of cast stainless steel as a function of time and temperature of service. The tensile properties of aged cast stainless steel are estimated from known material information, i.e., chemical composition and the initial tensile strength of the steel. The correlations described in this report may be used for assessing thermal embrittlement of cast stainless steel components

  11. Thermal Expansion Behavior of Hot-Pressed Engineered Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced engineered matrix composites (EMCs) require that the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the engineered matrix (EM) matches those of the fiber reinforcements as closely as possible in order to reduce thermal compatibility strains during heating and cooling of the composites. The present paper proposes a general concept for designing suitable matrices for long fiber reinforced composites using a rule of mixtures (ROM) approach to minimize the global differences in the thermal expansion mismatches between the fibers and the engineered matrix. Proof-of-concept studies were conducted to demonstrate the validity of the concept.

  12. Resilient behavior characterization of geomaterials for pavement design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available in the laboratory on the subgrade samples to obtain MR and CBR data to develop the empirical models. The results suggest that constitutive models obtained directly from laboratory test data would be more appropriate to characterize the resilient behavior of subgrade...

  13. Characterization and modeling of the thermal mechanics of lithium-ion battery cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Ki-Yong; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal swelling shape is different than Li-ion intercalation swelling shape. • Nonuniform temperature and gap creation leads to a convex shape at free conditions. • Important parameters of thermal mechanics are estimated through experiments. • A coupled thermal-structural analysis accurately predicts thermal swelling shape. • Nonuniform temperature still plays a critical role at pack conditions. - Abstract: The thermal mechanics of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is explored with a focus on thermal swelling. Experiments show for the first time that the swelling shape of prismatic battery cells due to temperature variations is significantly different from that due to Li-ion intercalation in unconstrained conditions. In contrast to uniform and orthotropic Li-ion intercalation swelling in a direction perpendicular to electrodes, the nonuniform temperature distribution in the jellyroll and the gaps/voids between electrodes result in distinguishable different swelling shapes. A unique coupled thermal-structural analysis with a simple, but efficient 3-D finite numerical model is proposed to investigate the impact of temperature variations on the thermal behaviors of battery cells. Anisotropic heat conduction and temperature dependency of the coefficient of thermal expansion are taken into account and found to have an impact on temperature distribution and thermal expansion. Experimental validation of the proposed model clearly demonstrates that the coupled thermal-structural analysis with the proposed model can predict accurately the thermal swelling at unconstrained conditions. The solution at pack (constrained) conditions shows that the nonuniform temperature distribution of the jellyroll still plays a critical role for the thermal swelling shape, although the gaps/voids do not occur because of the constraints from spacers in the pack, suggesting that the estimation of core temperature is important. Such an accurate model, able to estimate cell

  14. Oxidation and thermal shock behavior of thermal barrier coated 18/10CrNi alloy with coating modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guergen, Selim [Vocational School of Transportation, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan); Diltemiz, Seyid Fehmi [Turkish Air Force1st Air Supply and Maintenance Center Command, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan); Kushan, Melih Cemal [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkmenistan)

    2017-01-15

    In this study, substrates of 18/10CrNi alloy plates were initially sprayed with a Ni-21Cr-10Al-1Y bond coat and then with an yttria stabilized zirconia top coat by plasma spraying. Subsequently, plasma-sprayed Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were treated with two different modification methods, namely, vacuum heat treatment and laser glazing. The effects of modifications on the oxidation and thermal shock behavior of the coatings were evaluated. The effect of coat thickness on the bond strength of the coats was also investigated. Results showed enhancement of the oxidation resistance and thermal shock resistance of TBCs following modifications. Although vacuum heat treatment and laser glazing exhibited comparable results as per oxidation resistance, the former generated the best improvement in the thermal shock resistance of the TBCs. Bond strength also decreased as coat thickness increased.

  15. Damage Characterization of EBC-SiCSiC Ceramic Matrix Composites Under Imposed Thermal Gradient Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Matthew P.; Morscher, Gregory N.; Zhu, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    Due to their high temperature capabilities, Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) components are being developed for use in hot-section aerospace engine applications. Harsh engine environments have led to the development of Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBCs) for silicon-based CMCs to further increase thermal and environmental capabilities. This study aims at understanding the damage mechanisms associated with these materials under simulated operating conditions. A high heat-flux laser testing rig capable of imposing large through-thickness thermal gradients by means of controlled laser beam heating and back-side air cooling is used. Tests are performed on uncoated composites, as well as CMC substrates that have been coated with state-of-the-art ceramic EBC systems. Results show that the use of the EBCs may help increase temperature capability and creep resistance by reducing the effects of stressed oxidation and environmental degradation. Also, the ability of electrical resistance (ER) and acoustic emission (AE) measurements to monitor material condition and damage state during high temperature testing is shown; suggesting their usefulness as a valuable health monitoring technique. Micromechanics models are used to describe the localized stress state of the composite system, which is utilized along with ER modeling concepts to develop an electromechanical model capable of characterizing material behavior.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and thermal analysis of polyimide-cobalt ferrite nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazuera, David; Perales, Oscar; Suarez, Marcelo; Singh, Surinder

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: · Polyimide-cobalt ferrite nanocomposites were successfully produced. · Produced nanocomposites are suitable for use at temperatures below 80 deg. C. · Magnetic properties of nanocomposites were no sensitive to particle agglomeration. · Good distribution of clustered nanoparticles was achieved in produced composites. - Abstract: Cobalt ferrite nanocrystals were synthesized under size-controlled conditions in aqueous phase and incorporated into a polyimide matrix at various volumetric loads. Synthesized 20 nm cobalt ferrite single crystals, which exhibited a room-temperature coercivity of 2.9 kOe, were dispersed in polyimide precursor using two techniques: homogenizer and ball milling. These suspensions were then cured to develop the polyimide structure in the resulting nanocomposites. Produced films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry, which confirmed the formation of the desired phases. As expected, the saturation magnetization in the nanocomposites varied according to the polyimide/ferrite weight ratio, while coercivity remained at the value corresponding to pure cobalt ferrite nanocrystals. Thermal degradation, thermal stability and dynamic mechanical analyses tests were also carried out to assess the effect of the concentration of the ferrite disperse phase on the thermo-mechanical behavior of the corresponding nanocomposites as well as the used dispersion techniques.

  17. Symmetrical N-acylsubstituted dihydrazones containing bithiophene core - Photophysical, electrochemical and thermal characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarczyk-Jedryka, Anna; Filapek, Michal; Malecki, Grzegorz; Kula, Slawomir; Janeczek, Henryk; Boharewicz, Bartosz; Iwan, Agnieszka; Schab-Balcerzak, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    Four symmetrical N-acylsubstituted dihydrazones containing bithiophene core were synthesized from condensation of 2,2‧-bithiophene-5,5‧-dicarboxyaldehyde with benzoic, isonicotinoyl, 2-thiophenic and 2-furoic hydrazide. The obtained compounds were characterized through the data from 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), infrared spectroscopy (IR), elemental analysis, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurements. Additionally, the electronic properties including orbital energies and resulting energy gaps were calculated by density functional theory (DFT). Their thermal behavior was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). They were thermal sable up to 320 °C. The prepared N-acylsubstituted dihydrazones emitted light with λem in the range of 499-530 nm in solution, whereas, in solid state as blend with PMMA blue emission was observed. They undergo quasi-reversible and irreversible electrochemical reduction and oxidation processes, respectively. Additionally, the selected compounds were tested preliminary as component of active layer in organic photovoltaic cells. The highest value of power conversion efficiency, equal to 1.68% under simulated 100 mW/cm2 AM 1.5G irradiation was found for device with the architecture ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM:FBTH (1:2:2)/Al.

  18. Highly crystalline zinc incorporated hydroxyapatite nanorods' synthesis, characterization, thermal, biocompatibility, and antibacterial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udhayakumar, Gayathri; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan; Santhosh, Shanthi Bhupathi

    2017-10-01

    Highly crystalline zinc incorporated hydroxyapatite (Zn-HAp) nanorods have been synthesized using microwave irradiation method. To improve bioactivity and crystallinity of pure HAp, zinc was incorporated into it. As-synthesized samples were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and the thermal and crystallinity behavior of Zn-HAp nanoparticle were studied by thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Antibacterial activity of the as-synthesized nanorods was evaluated against two prokaryotic strains ( Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus). The FT-IR studies show the presence of hydroxide and phosphate functional groups. HRTEM and FESEM images showed highly crystalline rod-shaped nanoparticles with the diameter of about 50-60 nm. EDAX revealed the presence of Ca, Zn, P, and O in the prepared samples. The crystallinity and thermal stability were further confirmed by TGA-DSC analysis. The biocompatibility evaluation results promoted that the Zn-HAp nanorods are biologically active apatites and potentially promising bone-substitute biomaterials for orthopaedic application.

  19. Electrical and thermal behavior of unsaturated soils: experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouveau, Marie; Grandjean, Gilles; Leroy, Philippe; Philippe, Mickael; Hedri, Estelle; Boukcim, Hassan

    2016-05-01

    When soil is affected by a heat source, some of its properties are modified, and in particular, the electrical resistivity due to changes in water content. As a result, these changes affect the thermal properties of soil, i.e., its thermal conductivity and diffusivity. We experimentally examine the changes in electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity for four soils with different grain size distributions and clay content over a wide range of temperatures, from 20 to 100 °C. This temperature range corresponds to the thermal conditions in the vicinity of a buried high voltage cable or a geothermal system. Experiments were conducted at the field scale, at a geothermal test facility, and in the laboratory using geophysical devices and probing systems. The results show that the electrical resistivity decreases and the thermal conductivity increases with temperature up to a critical temperature depending on soil types. At this critical temperature, the air volume in the pore space increases with temperature, and the resulting electrical resistivity also increases. For higher temperatures , the thermal conductivity increases sharply with temperature up to a second temperature limit. Beyond it, the thermal conductivity drops drastically. This limit corresponds to the temperature at which most of the water evaporates from the soil pore space. Once the evaporation is completed, the thermal conductivity stabilizes. To explain these experimental results, we modeled the electrical resistivity variations with temperature and water content in the temperature range 20 - 100°C, showing that two critical temperatures influence the main processes occurring during heating at temperatures below 100 °C.

  20. Cellulose nanowhiskers from coconut husk fibers: effect of preparation conditions on their thermal and morphological behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellulose nanowhiskers were prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis from coconut husk fibers which had previously been submitted to a delignification process. The effects of preparation conditions on the thermal and morphological behavior of the nanocrystals were investigated. Cellulose nanowhisker sus...

  1. Towards a characterization of behavior-disease models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Perra

    Full Text Available The last decade saw the advent of increasingly realistic epidemic models that leverage on the availability of highly detailed census and human mobility data. Data-driven models aim at a granularity down to the level of households or single individuals. However, relatively little systematic work has been done to provide coupled behavior-disease models able to close the feedback loop between behavioral changes triggered in the population by an individual's perception of the disease spread and the actual disease spread itself. While models lacking this coupling can be extremely successful in mild epidemics, they obviously will be of limited use in situations where social disruption or behavioral alterations are induced in the population by knowledge of the disease. Here we propose a characterization of a set of prototypical mechanisms for self-initiated social distancing induced by local and non-local prevalence-based information available to individuals in the population. We characterize the effects of these mechanisms in the framework of a compartmental scheme that enlarges the basic SIR model by considering separate behavioral classes within the population. The transition of individuals in/out of behavioral classes is coupled with the spreading of the disease and provides a rich phase space with multiple epidemic peaks and tipping points. The class of models presented here can be used in the case of data-driven computational approaches to analyze scenarios of social adaptation and behavioral change.

  2. Thermal Stress Limit Rafting Migration of Seahorses: Prediction Based on Physiological and Behavioral Responses to Thermal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, G.; Li, C.; Lin, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Marine fish species escape from harmful environment by migration. Seahorses, with upright posture and low mobility, could migrate from unfavorable environment by rafting with their prehensile tail. The present study was designed to examine the tolerance of lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus to thermal stress and evaluate the effects of temperature on seahorse migration. The results figured that seahorses' tolerance to thermal stress was time dependent. Acute thermal stress (30°C) increased breathing rate and HSP genes expression significantly, but didn't affect seahorse feeding behavior. Chronic thermal treatment lead to persistent high expression of HSP genes, higher breathing rate, and decreasing feeding, and final higher mortality, suggesting that seahorse cannot adapt to thermal stress by acclimation. No significant negative effects were found in seahorse reproduction in response to chronic thermal stress. Given that seahorses make much slower migration by rafting on sea surface compared to other fishes, we suggest that thermal stress might limit seahorse migration range. and the influence might be magnified by global warming in future.

  3. A Simplified Tool for Predicting the Thermal Behavior and the Energy Saving Potential of Ventilated Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the studies of ventilated windows mainly rely on complex fluid and thermal simulation software, which require extensive information, data and are very time consuming. The aim of this paper is to develop a simplified tool to assess the thermal behavior and energy performance of ventilat...

  4. A Change Impact Analysis to Characterize Evolving Program Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungta, Neha Shyam; Person, Suzette; Branchaud, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Change impact analysis techniques estimate the potential effects of changes made to software. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE) is an intraprocedural technique for characterizing the impact of software changes on program behaviors. DiSE first estimates the impact of the changes on the source code using program slicing techniques, and then uses the impact sets to guide symbolic execution to generate path conditions that characterize impacted program behaviors. DiSE, however, cannot reason about the flow of impact between methods and will fail to generate path conditions for certain impacted program behaviors. In this work, we present iDiSE, an extension to DiSE that performs an interprocedural analysis. iDiSE combines static and dynamic calling context information to efficiently generate impacted program behaviors across calling contexts. Information about impacted program behaviors is useful for testing, verification, and debugging of evolving programs. We present a case-study of our implementation of the iDiSE algorithm to demonstrate its efficiency at computing impacted program behaviors. Traditional notions of coverage are insufficient for characterizing the testing efforts used to validate evolving program behaviors because they do not take into account the impact of changes to the code. In this work we present novel definitions of impacted coverage metrics that are useful for evaluating the testing effort required to test evolving programs. We then describe how the notions of impacted coverage can be used to configure techniques such as DiSE and iDiSE in order to support regression testing related tasks. We also discuss how DiSE and iDiSE can be configured for debugging finding the root cause of errors introduced by changes made to the code. In our empirical evaluation we demonstrate that the configurations of DiSE and iDiSE can be used to support various software maintenance tasks

  5. Effect of Layer-Graded Bond Coats on Edge Stress Concentration and Oxidation Behavior of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Ghosn, Louis J.; Miller, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) durability is closely related to design, processing and microstructure of the coating Z, tn systems. Two important issues that must be considered during the design of a thermal barrier coating are thermal expansion and modulus mismatch between the substrate and the ceramic layer, and substrate oxidation. In many cases, both of these issues may be best addressed through the selection of an appropriate bond coat system. In this study, a low thermal expansion and layer-graded bond coat system, that consists of plasma-sprayed FeCoNiCrAl and FeCrAlY coatings, and a high velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) sprayed FeCrAlY coating, is developed to minimize the thermal stresses and provide oxidation resistance. The thermal expansion and oxidation behavior of the coating system are also characterized, and the strain isolation effect of the bond coat system is analyzed using the finite element method (FEM). Experiments and finite element results show that the layer-graded bond coat system possesses lower interfacial stresses. better strain isolation and excellent oxidation resistance. thus significantly improving the coating performance and durability.

  6. Study on mixing behavior in a tee piping and numerical analyses for evaluation of thermal striping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamide, H.; Igarashi, M.; Kawashima, S.; Kimura, N.; Hayashi, K.

    2009-01-01

    Water experiments were carried out for thermal hydraulic aspects of thermal striping in a mixing tee, which has main to branch diameter ratio of 3. Detailed temperature and velocity fields were measured by a movable thermocouple tree and particle image velocimetry. Flow patterns in the tee were classified into three groups; wall jet, deflecting jet, and impinging jet, which had their own temperature fluctuation profiles, depending on a momentum ratio between the main and branch pipes. Non-dimensional power spectrum density (PSD) of temperature fluctuation showed a unique profile, when the momentum ratio was identical. Numerical simulation based on finite difference method showed alternative vortex development, like Karman vortex series, behind the jet from the branch pipe in the wall jet case. The prominent frequency of the temperature fluctuation in the calculation was 0.2 of St number based on the branch pipe diameter and in good agreement with the experimental results. Mixing behavior in the tee was characterized by the relatively large vortex structures defined by the diameters and the velocities in the pipes

  7. Synthesis and photophysical characterizations of thermal-stable naphthalene benzimidazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten-Ela, Sule; Ozcelik, Serdar; Eren, Esin

    2011-07-01

    Microwave-assisted synthesis, photophysical and electrochemical properties of thermal-stable naphthalene benzimidazoles and naphthalimides are studied in this paper. Microwave-assisted synthesis of naphthalene benzimidazoles provide higher yields than the conventional thermal synthesis. Comparative photophysical properties of naphthalene benzimidazoles and naphthalimides are revealed that conjugation of electron-donating group onto naphthalimide moiety increases fluorescence quantum yields. Fluorophore-solvent interactions are also investigated using Lippert-Mataga equation for naphthalimides and naphthalene benzimidazoles. Thermal stabilities of naphthalene benzimidazoles are better than naphthalimides due to increased aromaticity. The experimental E(LUMO) levels of naphthalene benzimidazoles are found to be between 3.15 and 3.28 eV. Therefore, naphthalene benzimidazole derivatives consisting of anchoring groups are promising materials in organic dye sensitized solar cells. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  8. Experimental characterization of semiconductor-based thermal neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedogni, R., E-mail: roberto.bedogni@lnf.infn.it [IFNF—LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Bortot, D.; Pola, A.; Introini, M.V.; Lorenzoli, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); INFN—Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gómez-Ros, J.M. [IFNF—LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sacco, D. [IFNF—LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); INAIL—DIT, Via di Fontana Candida 1, 00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Esposito, A.; Gentile, A.; Buonomo, B. [IFNF—LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Palomba, M.; Grossi, A. [ENEA Triga RC-1C.R. Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, 00060 S. Maria di Galeria, Roma (Italy)

    2015-04-21

    In the framework of NESCOFI@BTF and NEURAPID projects, active thermal neutron detectors were manufactured by depositing appropriate thickness of {sup 6}LiF on commercially available windowless p–i–n diodes. Detectors with different radiator thickness, ranging from 5 to 62 μm, were manufactured by evaporation-based deposition technique and exposed to known values of thermal neutron fluence in two thermal neutron facilities exhibiting different irradiation geometries. The following properties of the detector response were investigated and presented in this work: thickness dependence, impact of parasitic effects (photons and epithermal neutrons), linearity, isotropy, and radiation damage following exposure to large fluence (in the order of 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2})

  9. Environmental characterization to assess potential impacts of thermal discharge to the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Page, T.L.; Greager, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to assess the potential impact of the N-Reactor thermal plume on fish from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. Discharge water temperatures were measured over a range of river flows and reactor operating conditions. Data were mathematically modeled to define spatial and thermal characteristics of the plume. Four species of Columbia River fish were exposed to thermal conditions expected in the plume. Exposed fish were subjected to predators and disease organisms to test for secondary effects from thermal stress. Spatial and temporal distribution of anadromous fish in the river near N-Reactor were also evaluated to define location relative to the plume. Potential thermal exposures were insufficient to kill or injure fish during operation of N-Reactor. These studies demonstrate that characterization of hydrological conditions and thermal tolerance can adequately assess potential impacts of a thermal discharge to fish

  10. Thermal Performance and Reliability Characterization of Bonded Interface Materials (BIMs): Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoto, D.; Paret, P.; Mihalic, M.; Narumanchi, S.; Bar-Cohen, A.; Matin, K.

    2014-08-01

    Thermal interface materials are an important enabler for low thermal resistance and reliable electronics packaging for a wide array of applications. There is a trend towards bonded interface materials (BIMs) because of their potential for low thermal resistivity (< 1 mm2K/W). However, BIMs induce thermomechanical stresses in the package and can be prone to failures and integrity risks. Deteriorated interfaces can result in high thermal resistance in the package and degradation and/or failure of the electronics. DARPA's Thermal Management Technologies program has addressed this challenge, supporting the development of mechanically-compliant, low resistivity nano-thermal interface (NTI) materials. In this work, we describe the testing procedure and report the results of NREL's thermal performance and reliability characterization of an initial sample of four different NTI-BIMs.

  11. Thermal shock fatigue behavior of TiC/Al2O3 composite ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI Tingzhi; LIU Ning; ZHANG Qingan; YOU Xianqing

    2008-01-01

    The thermal shock fatigue behaviors of pure hot-pressed alumina and 30 wt. % TiC/Al2O3 composites were studied. The effect of TiC and Al2O3 starting particle size on the mechanical properties of the composites was discussed. Indentation-quench test was conducted to evaluate the effect of thermal fatigue temperature difference (ΔT) and number of thermal cycles (N) on fatigue crack growth (Δα). The mechanical properties and thermal fatigue resistance of TiC/Al2O3 composites are remarkably improved by the addition of TiC. The thermal shock fatigue of monolithic alumina and TiC/Al2O3 composites is due to a "true" cycling effect (thermal fatigue). Crack deflection and bridging are the predominant reasons for the improvement of thermal shock fatigue resistance of the composites.

  12. Thermal shock resistance behavior of a functionally graded ceramic: Effects of finite cooling rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihe Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a semi-analytical model to explore the effects of cooling rate on the thermal shock resistance behavior of a functionally graded ceramic (FGC plate with a periodic array of edge cracks. The FGC is assumed to be a thermally heterogeneous material with constant elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio. The cooling rate applied at the FGC surface is modeled using a linear ramp function. An integral equation method and a closed form asymptotic temperature solution are employed to compute the thermal stress intensity factor (TSIF. The thermal shock residual strength and critical thermal shock of the FGC plate are obtained using the SIF criterion. Thermal shock simulations for an Al2O3/Si3N4 FGC indicate that a finite cooling rate leads to a significantly higher critical thermal shock than that under the sudden cooling condition. The residual strength, however, is relatively insensitive to the cooling rate.

  13. High throughput integrated thermal characterization with non-contact optical calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Sichao; Huo, Ruiqing; Su, Ming

    2017-10-01

    Commonly used thermal analysis tools such as calorimeter and thermal conductivity meter are separated instruments and limited by low throughput, where only one sample is examined each time. This work reports an infrared based optical calorimetry with its theoretical foundation, which is able to provide an integrated solution to characterize thermal properties of materials with high throughput. By taking time domain temperature information of spatially distributed samples, this method allows a single device (infrared camera) to determine the thermal properties of both phase change systems (melting temperature and latent heat of fusion) and non-phase change systems (thermal conductivity and heat capacity). This method further allows these thermal properties of multiple samples to be determined rapidly, remotely, and simultaneously. In this proof-of-concept experiment, the thermal properties of a panel of 16 samples including melting temperatures, latent heats of fusion, heat capacities, and thermal conductivities have been determined in 2 min with high accuracy. Given the high thermal, spatial, and temporal resolutions of the advanced infrared camera, this method has the potential to revolutionize the thermal characterization of materials by providing an integrated solution with high throughput, high sensitivity, and short analysis time.

  14. Thermal stability and degradation behavior of novel wholly aromatic azo polyamide-hydrazides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghamdia, R.F.; Fahmib, M.M.; Mohamed, N.A.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal stability and degradation behavior of a series of novel wholly aromatic azo polyamide-hydrazides have been investigated in nitrogen and in air atmospheres using differential scanning ealorimetry, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The influences of controlled structural variations and molecular weight on the thermal stability and degradation behavior of this series of polymers have also been studied. The structural differences were achieved by varying the content of para- and meta substituted phenylene rings incorporated within this series. The polymers were prepared by a low temperature solution polycondensation reaction of p aminosalicylic acid hydrazide and an equimolar amount of 4,4-azo dibenzoyl chloride [4,4 ADBC] or 3,3-azo dibenzoyl chloride [3,3ADBC] or mixtures of various molar ratios of 4,4ADBC and 3,3ADBC in anhydrous N,N- dimethyl acetamide [DMAc] containing lithium chloride as a solvent at -10 degree C. The results clearly reveal that these polymers are characterized by high thermal stability. Their weight loss occurred in three distinctive steps. The first was small and assigned to the evaporation of absorbed moisture. The second was appreciable and was attributed to the cyclo dehydration reaction of the hydrazide groups into 1,3,4-oxadiazole rings by losing water, combined with elimination of azo groups by losing molecular nitrogen. This is not a true degradation but rather a thermo-chemical transformation reaction of the azo polyamide-hydrasdes into the corresponding polyamide-l,3,4-oxadiazoles. The third was relatively severe and sharp, particularly in air, and corresponded to the decomposition of the resulting polyamide-l, 3,4-oxadiazoles. In both degradation atmospheres, the improved resistance to high temperatures was always associated with increased content of para- phenylene moieties of the investigated polymer. Further, with exception of 160-200 degree C temperature range, where the lower molecular weight

  15. Characterization of cold sensitivity and thermal preference using an operant orofacial assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caudle Robert M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A hallmark of many orofacial pain disorders is cold sensitivity, but relative to heat-related pain, mechanisms of cold perception and the development of cold allodynia are not clearly understood. Molecular mediators of cold sensation such as TRPM8 have been recently identified and characterized using in vitro studies. In this study we characterized operant behavior with respect to individually presented cold stimuli (24, 10, 2, and -4°C and in a thermal preference task where rats chose between -4 and 48°C stimulation. We also evaluated the effects of menthol, a TRPM8 agonist, on operant responses to cold stimulation (24, 10, and -4°C. Male and female rats were trained to drink sweetened milk while pressing their shaved faces against a thermode. This presents a conflict paradigm between milk reward and thermal stimulation. Results We demonstrated that the cold stimulus response function was modest compared to heat. There was a significant effect of temperature on facial (stimulus contacts, the ratio of licking contacts to stimulus contacts, and the stimulus duration/contact ratio. Males and females differed only in their facial contacts at 10°C. In the preference task, males preferred 48°C to -4°C, despite the fact that 48°C and -4°C were equally painful as based on their reward/stimulus and duration/contact ratios. We were able to induce hypersensitivity to cold using menthol at 10°C, but not at 24 or -4°C. Conclusion Our results indicate a strong role for an affective component in processing of cold stimuli, more so than for heat, which is in concordance with human psychophysical findings. The induction of allodynia with menthol provides a model for cold allodynia. This study provides the basis for future studies involving orofacial pain and analgesics, and is translatable to the human experience.

  16. Synthesis, Characterization and Thermal Diffusivity of Holmium and Praseodymium Zirconates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stopyra M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A2B2O7 oxides with pyrochlore or defected fluorite structure are among the most promising candidates for insulation layer material in thermal barrier coatings. The present paper presents the procedure of synthesis of holmium zirconate Ho2Zr2O7 and praseodymium zirconate Pr2Zr2O7 via Polymerized-Complex Method (PCM. Thermal analysis of precursor revealed that after calcination at relatively low temperature (700°C fine-crystalline, single-phase material is obtained. Thermal diffusivity was measured in temperature range 25-200°C, Ho2Zr2O7 exhibits lower thermal diffusivity than Pr2Zr2O7. Additionally, PrHoZr2O7 was synthesized. The powder in as-calcined condition is single-phase, but during the sintering decomposition of solid solution took place and Ho-rich phase precipitated. This material exhibited the best insulating properties among the tested ones.

  17. Structural characterization and thermal behaviour of biological hydroxyapatite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohutová, A.; Honcová, P.; Svoboda, L.; Bezdička, Petr; Maříková, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2012), s. 163-170 ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : hydroxyapatite * hard tissues * X-ray powder diffraction * scanning electron microscope * thermal analysis * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.982, year: 2012

  18. Thermal characterization of montmorillonite clays saturated with various cations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balek, V.; Beneš, M.; Šubrt, Jan; Pérez, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 1 (2008), s. 191-197 ISSN 1388-6150 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC523 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : collapse of interlayer space * dehydration * emanation thermal analysis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.630, year: 2008

  19. Thermal behavior variations in coating thickness using pulse phase thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjit, Shrestha; Chung, Yoonjae; Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a study on the use of pulsed phase thermography in the measurement of thermal barrier coating thickness with a numerical simulation. A multilayer heat transfer model was used to analyze the surface temperature response acquired from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging. The test sample comprised four layers: the metal substrate, bond coat, thermally grown oxide and the top coat. The finite element software, ANSYS, was used to model and predict the temperature distribution in the test sample under an imposed heat flux on the exterior of the TBC. The phase image was computed with the use of the software MATLAB and Thermofit Pro using a Fourier transform. The relationship between the coating thickness and the corresponding phase angle was then established with the coating thickness being expressed as a function of the phase angle. The method is successfully applied to measure the coating thickness that varied from 0.25 mm to 1.5 mm.

  20. Acoustic and Thermal Vibrational Behavior of Rare Earth Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, H. B.; Kancono, W.; Sidek, H. A. A.

    2007-01-01

    The ultrasonic wave velocity and the thermal expansion of the rare earth glasses have been measured as functions of temperature and pressure to test predictions of the soft potential model for the acoustic and thermal properties. The longitudinal ultrasonic wave velocities increase under pressure. The hydrostatic pressure derivative of the bulk modulus is positive: these glasses show a normal elastic response as compressed. However, the pressure derivative of the shear modulus is negative and small, indicating weak softening of shear modes under pressure. The results found are used to determine the Gruneisen parameters. This is to obtain the acoustic mode contribution to thermal expansion. After subtraction of the relaxation and anharmonic contributions, the temperature dependence of the shear wave ultrasound velocity follows a linear law as predicted by the Soft Potential Model

  1. Thermal environment characterization for the bovine cattle ranching in the Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Andres Molina Benavides

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of climate on animal behavior has been demonstrated for many years. Climatic variables such as temperature (T, ° C, relative humidity (RH, %, solar radiation (SR, W / m2 and wind speed (WS, m / s, outside their normal range, can displace ruminants of their comfort zone, which can results in negative impact on their productivity and reproduction behavior. In order to characterize the thermal environment of bovine cattle ranching in the Valle del Cauca department, two biometeorological indexes (heat load index for dairy cows and meat cattle were performed to develop an animal - environment relationship. The indexes were applied to the most representative Valle del Cauca department climatic ranges (T = 20-35; RH = 60-100; WS = 0-10, finding that for dairy cows under the mentioned conditions of T> 23, RH> 80 and 0 WS, starting to show signals of heat stress, while for beef cattle starts with T> 25, RH> 60 and WS <1.5. In conclusion, these indexes are useful tools to determine the degree of heat stress that may occur on farms during certain times of day for certain months of the year, helping to plan actions to control its effect in cattle and subsequently, mitigate the impacts on their productive and reproductive performance.

  2. Modelling of Thermal Behavior of Borehole Heat Exchangers of Geothermal Heat Pump Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gornov V.F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports results of comparing the accuracy of the software package “INSOLAR.GSHP.12”, modeling non-steady thermal behavior of geothermal heat pump heating systems (GHCS and of the similar model “conventional” using finite difference methods for solving spatial non-steady problems of heat conductivity. The software package is based on the method of formulating mathematical models of thermal behavior of ground low-grade heat collection systems developed by INSOLAR group of companies. Equations of mathematical model of spatial non-steady thermal behavior of ground mass of low-grade heat collection system obtained by the developed method have been solved analytically that significantly reduced computing time spent by the software complex “INSOLAR.GSHP.12” for calculations. The method allows to turn aside difficulties associated with information uncertainty of mathematical models of the ground thermal behavior and approximation of external factors affecting the ground. Use of experimentally obtained information about the ground natural thermal behavior in the software package allows to partially take into account the whole complex of factors (such as availability of groundwater, their velocity and thermal behavior, structure and arrangement of ground layers, the Earth’s thermal background, precipitation, phase transformations of moisture in the pore space, and more, significantly influencing the formation of thermal behavior of the ground mass of a low-grade geothermal heat collection system. Numerical experiments presented in the article confirmed the high convergence of the results obtained through the software package “INSOLAR.GSHP.12” with solutions obtained by conventional finite-difference methods.

  3. Thermal-stress fatigue behavior of twenty-six superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizon, P. T.; Spera, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    The comparative thermal-stress fatigue resistances of 26 nickeland cobalt-base alloys were determined by fluidized bed tests. Cycles to cracking differed by almost three orders of magnitude for these materials, with directional solidification and surface protection showing definite benefit. The alloy-coating combination with the highest thermal-stress fatigue resistance was directionally solidified NASA TAZ-8A with an RT-SP coating. Its oxidation resistance was also excellent, showing approximately a 1/2 percent weight loss after 14,000 fluidized bed cycles.

  4. Description of the behavior of an aquifer by using continuous radon monitoring in a thermal spa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainz, Carlos; Rábago, Daniel; Fuente, Ismael; Celaya, Santiago; Quindós, Luis Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) levels in air and water have been analyzed continuously for almost a year in Las Caldas de Besaya thermal spa, north Spain. Radon is a naturally occurring noble gas from the decay of radium ( 226 Ra) both constituents of radioactive uranium 238 series. It has been recognized as a lung carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Furthermore the Royal Decree R.D 1439/2010 of November, 2010 establishes the obligation to study occupational activities where workers and, where appropriate, members of the public are exposed to inhalation of radon in workplaces such as spas. Together with radon measures several physico-chemical parameters were obtained such as pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity and air and water temperature. The devices used for the study of the temporal evolution of radon concentration have been the RTM 2100, the Radon Scout and gamma spectrometry was complementarily used to determine the transfer factor of the silicone tubes in the experimental device. Radon concentrations obtained in water and air of the spa are high, with an average of 660 Bq/l and 2900 Bq/m 3 respectively, where water is the main source of radon in the air. Radiation dose for workers and public was estimated from these levels of radon. The data showed that the thermal processes can control the behavior of radon which can be also influenced by various physical and chemical parameters such as pH and redox potential. - Highlights: • Radon in water is the major source of indoor air radon concentration in thermal facilities. • Radon in water has been used to characterize the origin of water used for treatments in a spa. • Preliminary dose assessment from radon exposure has been performed.

  5. Description of the behavior of an aquifer by using continuous radon monitoring in a thermal spa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainz, Carlos, E-mail: sainzc@unican.es; Rábago, Daniel; Fuente, Ismael; Celaya, Santiago; Quindós, Luis Santiago

    2016-02-01

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) levels in air and water have been analyzed continuously for almost a year in Las Caldas de Besaya thermal spa, north Spain. Radon is a naturally occurring noble gas from the decay of radium ({sup 226}Ra) both constituents of radioactive uranium 238 series. It has been recognized as a lung carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Furthermore the Royal Decree R.D 1439/2010 of November, 2010 establishes the obligation to study occupational activities where workers and, where appropriate, members of the public are exposed to inhalation of radon in workplaces such as spas. Together with radon measures several physico-chemical parameters were obtained such as pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity and air and water temperature. The devices used for the study of the temporal evolution of radon concentration have been the RTM 2100, the Radon Scout and gamma spectrometry was complementarily used to determine the transfer factor of the silicone tubes in the experimental device. Radon concentrations obtained in water and air of the spa are high, with an average of 660 Bq/l and 2900 Bq/m{sup 3} respectively, where water is the main source of radon in the air. Radiation dose for workers and public was estimated from these levels of radon. The data showed that the thermal processes can control the behavior of radon which can be also influenced by various physical and chemical parameters such as pH and redox potential. - Highlights: • Radon in water is the major source of indoor air radon concentration in thermal facilities. • Radon in water has been used to characterize the origin of water used for treatments in a spa. • Preliminary dose assessment from radon exposure has been performed.

  6. Field Synergy Analysis and Optimization of the Thermal Behavior of Lithium Ion Battery Packs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a three dimensional (3D modeling has been built for a lithium ion battery pack using the field synergy principle to obtain a better thermal distribution. In the model, the thermal behavior of the battery pack was studied by reducing the maximum temperature, improving the temperature uniformity and considering the difference between the maximum and maximum temperature of the battery pack. The method is further verified by simulation results based on different environmental temperatures and discharge rates. The thermal behavior model demonstrates that the design and cooling policy of the battery pack is crucial for optimizing the air-outlet patterns of electric vehicle power cabins.

  7. Probabilistic Characterization of Adversary Behavior in Cyber Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, C A; Powers, S S; Faissol, D M

    2009-10-08

    The objective of this SMS effort is to provide a probabilistic characterization of adversary behavior in cyber security. This includes both quantitative (data analysis) and qualitative (literature review) components. A set of real LLNL email data was obtained for this study, consisting of several years worth of unfiltered traffic sent to a selection of addresses at ciac.org. The email data was subjected to three interrelated analyses: a textual study of the header data and subject matter, an examination of threats present in message attachments, and a characterization of the maliciousness of embedded URLs.

  8. Anisotropic thermal expansion behaviors of copper matrix in β-eucryptite/copper composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lidong; Xue Zongwei; Qiao Yingjie; Fei, W.D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The thermal expansion behaviors of Cu matrix were studied by in situ XRD. ► The expansion of Cu{1 1 1} plane is linear, that of Cu{2 0 0} is nonlinear. ► The anisotropic thermal expansion of Cu is related to the twinning of Cu matrix. ► The twinning of Cu matrix makes the CTE of the composite increasing. - Abstract: A β-eucryptite/copper composite was fabricated by spark plasma sintering process. The thermal expansion behaviors of Cu matrix of the composite were studied by in situ X-ray diffraction during heating process. The results show that Cu matrix exhibits anisotropic thermal expansion behaviors for different crystallographic directions, the expansion of Cu{1 1 1} plane is linear in the temperature range from 20 °C to 300 °C and the expansion of Cu{2 0 0} is nonlinear with a inflection at about 180 °C. The microstructures of Cu matrix before and after thermal expansion testing were investigated using transmission electronic microscope. The anisotropic thermal expansion behavior is related to the deformation twinning formed in the matrix during heating process. At the same time, the deformation twinning of Cu matrix makes the average coefficient of thermal expansion of the composite increase.

  9. Effect of cuprous oxide with different sizes on thermal and combustion behaviors of unsaturated polyester resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yanbei; Hu, Weizhao; Gui, Zhou; Hu, Yuan

    2017-07-15

    Cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O) as an effective catalyst has been applied to enhance the fire safety of unsaturated polyester resin (UPR), but the particle size influence on combustion behaviors has not been previously reported. Herein, the UPR/Cu 2 O composites (metal oxide particles with average particle-size of 10, 100, and 200nm) were successfully synthesized by thermosetting process. The effects of Cu 2 O with different sizes on thermostability and combustion behaviors of UPR were characterized by TGA, MCC, TG-IR, FTIR, and SSTF. The results revel that the addition of Cu 2 O contributes to sufficient decomposition of oxygen-containing compounds, which is beneficial to the release of nontoxic compounds. The smallest-sized Cu 2 O performs the excellent catalytic decomposition effect and promotes the complete combustion of UPR, which benefits the enhancement of fire safety. While the other additives retard pyrolysis process and yield more char residue, and thus the flame retardancy of UPR composites was improved. Therefore, catalysis plays a major role for smaller-sized particles during thermal decomposition of matrix, while flame retarded effect became gradual distinctly for the larger-sized additives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Design of a Thermal Precipitator for the Characterization of Smoke Particles from Common Spacecraft Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    A thermal precipitator (TP) was designed to collect smoke aerosol particles for microscopic analysis in fire characterization research. Information on particle morphology, size and agglomerate structure obtained from these tests supplements additional aerosol data collected. Modeling of the thermal precipitator throughout the design process was performed with the COMSOL Multiphysics finite element software package, including the Eulerian flow field and thermal gradients in the fluid. The COMSOL Particle Tracing Module was subsequently used to determine particle deposition. Modeling provided optimized design parameters such as geometry, flow rate and temperatures. The thermal precipitator was built and testing verified the performance of the first iteration of the device. The thermal precipitator was successfully operated and provided quality particle samples for microscopic analysis, which furthered the body of knowledge on smoke particulates. This information is a key element of smoke characterization and will be useful for future spacecraft fire detection research.

  11. Tree Canopy Characterization for EO-1 Reflective and Thermal Infrared Validation Studies: Rochester, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Smith, James A.

    2002-01-01

    The tree canopy characterization presented herein provided ground and tree canopy data for different types of tree canopies in support of EO-1 reflective and thermal infrared validation studies. These characterization efforts during August and September of 2001 included stem and trunk location surveys, tree structure geometry measurements, meteorology, and leaf area index (LAI) measurements. Measurements were also collected on thermal and reflective spectral properties of leaves, tree bark, leaf litter, soil, and grass. The data presented in this report were used to generate synthetic reflective and thermal infrared scenes and images that were used for the EO-1 Validation Program. The data also were used to evaluate whether the EO-1 ALI reflective channels can be combined with the Landsat-7 ETM+ thermal infrared channel to estimate canopy temperature, and also test the effects of separating the thermal and reflective measurements in time resulting from satellite formation flying.

  12. Thermal behavior of the Medicina 32-meter radio telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, Tonino; Buffa, Franco; Morsiani, Marco; Pernechele, Claudio; Poppi, Sergio

    2010-07-01

    We studied the thermal effects on the 32 m diameter radio-telescope managed by the Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA), Medicina, Bologna, Italy. The preliminary results show that thermal gradients deteriorate the pointing performance of the antenna. Data has been collected by using: a) two inclinometers mounted near the elevation bearing and on the central part of the alidade structure; b) a non contact laser alignment optical system capable of measuring the secondary mirror position; c) twenty thermal sensors mounted on the alidade trusses. Two series of measurements were made, the first series was performed by placing the antenna in stow position, the second series was performed while tracking a circumpolar astronomical source. When the antenna was in stow position we observed a strong correlation between the inclinometer measurements and the differential temperature. The latter was measured with the sensors located on the South and North sides of the alidade, thus indicating that the inclinometers track well the thermal deformation of the alidade. When the antenna pointed at the source we measured: pointing errors, the inclination of the alidade, the temperature of the alidade components and the subreflector position. The pointing errors measured on-source were 15-20 arcsec greater than those measured with the inclinometer.

  13. Thermal stability, swelling behavior and CO 2 absorption properties of Nanoscale Ionic Materials (NIMs)

    KAUST Repository

    Andrew Lin, Kun-Yi; Park, Youngjune; Petit, Camille; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa

    2014-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Nanoscale Ionic Materials (NIMs) consist of a nanoscale core, a corona of charged brushes tethered on the surface of the core, and a canopy of the oppositely charged species linked to the corona. Unlike conventional polymeric nanocomposites, NIMs can display liquid-like behavior in the absence of solvents, have a negligible vapor pressure and exhibit unique solvation properties. These features enable NIMs to be a promising CO2 capture material. To optimize NIMs for CO2 capture, their structure-property relationships were examined by investigating the roles of the canopy and the core in their thermal stability, and thermally- and CO2-induced swelling behaviors. NIMs with different canopy sizes and core fractions were synthesized and their thermal stability as well as thermally- and CO2-induced swelling behaviors were determined using thermogravimetry, and ATR FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies. It was found that the ionic bonds between the canopy and the corona, as well as covalent bonds between the corona and the core significantly improved the thermal stability compared to pure polymer and polymer/nanofiller mixtures. A smaller canopy size and a larger core fraction led to a greater enhancement in thermal stability. This thermal stability enhancement was responsible for the long-term thermal stability of NIMs over 100 temperature swing cycles. Owing to their ordered structure, NIMs swelled less when heated or when they adsorbed CO2 compared to their corresponding polymers. This journal is

  14. Thermal stability, swelling behavior and CO 2 absorption properties of Nanoscale Ionic Materials (NIMs)

    KAUST Repository

    Andrew Lin, Kun-Yi

    2014-11-11

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Nanoscale Ionic Materials (NIMs) consist of a nanoscale core, a corona of charged brushes tethered on the surface of the core, and a canopy of the oppositely charged species linked to the corona. Unlike conventional polymeric nanocomposites, NIMs can display liquid-like behavior in the absence of solvents, have a negligible vapor pressure and exhibit unique solvation properties. These features enable NIMs to be a promising CO2 capture material. To optimize NIMs for CO2 capture, their structure-property relationships were examined by investigating the roles of the canopy and the core in their thermal stability, and thermally- and CO2-induced swelling behaviors. NIMs with different canopy sizes and core fractions were synthesized and their thermal stability as well as thermally- and CO2-induced swelling behaviors were determined using thermogravimetry, and ATR FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies. It was found that the ionic bonds between the canopy and the corona, as well as covalent bonds between the corona and the core significantly improved the thermal stability compared to pure polymer and polymer/nanofiller mixtures. A smaller canopy size and a larger core fraction led to a greater enhancement in thermal stability. This thermal stability enhancement was responsible for the long-term thermal stability of NIMs over 100 temperature swing cycles. Owing to their ordered structure, NIMs swelled less when heated or when they adsorbed CO2 compared to their corresponding polymers. This journal is

  15. Effect of Thermal Cycling on the Tensile Behavior of CF/AL Fiber Metal Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farhan Noor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work was to estimate the effect of thermal cycling on the tensile behavior of CARALL composites. Fiber metal laminates (FMLs, based on 2D woven carbon fabric and 2024-T3 Alclad aluminum alloy sheet, was manufactured by pressure molding technique followed by hand layup method. Before fabrication, aluminum sheets were anodized with phosphoric acid to produce micro porous alumina layer on surface. This micro-porous layer is beneficial to produce strong bonding between metal and fiber surfaces in FMLs. The effect of thermal cycling (-65 to +70ºC on the tensile behavior of Cf/Al based FML was studied. Tensile strength was increased after 10 thermal cycles, but it was slightly decreased to some extent after 30, and 50 thermal cycles. Tensile modulus also shown the similar behavior as that of tensile strength.

  16. Preparation and Thermal Characterization of Annealed Gold Coated Porous Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afarin Bahrami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous silicon (PSi layers were formed on a p-type Si wafer. Six samples were anodised electrically with a 30 mA/cm2 fixed current density for different etching times. The samples were coated with a 50–60 nm gold layer and annealed at different temperatures under Ar flow. The morphology of the layers, before and after annealing, formed by this method was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS measurements were carried out to measure the thermal diffusivity (TD of the PSi and Au/PSi samples. For the Au/PSi samples, the thermal diffusivity was measured before and after annealing to study the effect of annealing. Also to study the aging effect, a comparison was made between freshly annealed samples and samples 30 days after annealing.

  17. Mapping Thermal Habitat of Ectotherms Based on Behavioral Thermoregulation in a Controlled Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, T.; Skidmore, A.; Liu, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Thermal environment is especially important to ectotherm because a lot of physiological functions rely on the body temperature such as thermoregulation. The so-called behavioural thermoregulation function made use of the heterogeneity of the thermal properties within an individual's habitat to sustain the animal's physiological processes. This function links the spatial utilization and distribution of individual ectotherm with the thermal properties of habitat (thermal habitat). In this study we modelled the relationship between the two by a spatial explicit model that simulates the movements of a lizard in a controlled environment. The model incorporates a lizard's transient body temperatures with a cellular automaton algorithm as a way to link the physiology knowledge of the animal with the spatial utilization of its microhabitat. On a larger spatial scale, 'thermal roughness' of the habitat was defined and used to predict the habitat occupancy of the target species. The results showed the habitat occupancy can be modelled by the cellular automaton based algorithm at a smaller scale, and can be modelled by the thermal roughness index at a larger scale.

  18. Thermal transport characterization of hexagonal boron nitride nanoribbons using molecular dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asir Intisar Khan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to similar atomic bonding and electronic structure to graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN has broad application prospects such as the design of next generation energy efficient nano-electronic devices. Practical design and efficient performance of these devices based on h-BN nanostructures would require proper thermal characterization of h-BN nanostructures. Hence, in this study we have performed equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD simulation using an optimized Tersoff-type interatomic potential to model the thermal transport of nanometer sized zigzag hexagonal boron nitride nanoribbons (h-BNNRs. We have investigated the thermal conductivity of h-BNNRs as a function of temperature, length and width. Thermal conductivity of h-BNNRs shows strong temperature dependence. With increasing width, thermal conductivity increases while an opposite pattern is observed with the increase in length. Our study on h-BNNRs shows considerably lower thermal conductivity compared to GNRs. To elucidate these aspects, we have calculated phonon density of states for both h-BNNRs and GNRs. Moreover, using EMD we have explored the impact of different vacancies, namely, point vacancy, edge vacancy and bi-vacancy on the thermal conductivity of h-BNNRs. With varying percentages of vacancies, significant reduction in thermal conductivity is observed and it is found that, edge and point vacancies are comparatively more destructive than bi-vacancies. Such study would contribute further into the growing interest for accurate thermal transport characterization of low dimensional nanostructures.

  19. Deposition and characterization of plasma sprayed Ni-5A1/ magnesia stabilized zirconia based functionally graded thermal barrier coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M N; Khalid, F A

    2014-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are employed to protect hot section components in industrial and aerospace gas turbine engines. Conventional TBCs frequently fail due to high residual stresses and difference between coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the substrate and coatings. Functionally graded thermal barrier coatings (FG-TBCs) with gradual variation in composition have been proposed to minimize the problem. In this work, a five layered functionally graded thermal barrier coating system was deposited by atmospheric plasma spray (APS) technique on Nimonic 90 substrates using Ni-5Al as bond coat (BC) and magnesia stabilized zirconia as top coat (TC). The coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD and optical profilometer. Microhardness and coefficient of thermal expansion of the five layers deposited as individual coatings were also measured. The deposited coating system was oxidized at 800°C. SEM analysis showed that five layers were successfully deposited by APS to produce a FG-TBC. The results also showed that roughness (Ra) of the individual layers decreased with an increase in TC content in the coatings. It was found that microhardness and CTE values gradually changed from bond coat to cermet layers to top coat. The oxidized coated sample revealed parabolic behavior and changes in the surface morphology and composition of coating

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization, and thermal properties of alumino silicate azide sodalite, Na8[AlSiO4]6(N3)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhade, A. V.; Wakchaure, S. G.; Dholi, A. G.; Kshirsagar, T. A.

    2017-07-01

    First time we report the synthesis, structural characterization and thermal behavior of an unusual N3 - containing alumino-silicate sodalite mineral. Azide sodalite, Na8[AlSiO4]6(N3)2 has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions at 433 K in steel lined Teflon autoclave. The structural and microstructural properties of azide sodalite mineral was characterized by various methods including FT-IR, XRD, SEM, TGA, and MAS NMR. Crystal structure have been refined by Rietveld method in P\\bar 43n space group, indicating that the N3 - sodalite has cubic in lattice. High temperature study was carried out to see the effect of thermal expansion on cell dimension ( a o) of azide sodalite. Thermal behavior of sodalite was also assessed by thermogravimetric method.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and thermal decomposition of [Pd2 (C2-dmba (µ-SO4 (SO22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caires Antonio Carlos Fávero

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The bridged sulphate complex [Pd2 (C²,dmba (µ-SO4 (SO22] has been obtained by reacting a saturated solution of SO2 in methanol and the cyclometallated compound [Pd(C²,N-dmba(µ-N3] 2; (dmba = N,N-dimethylbenzylamine, at room temperature for 24 h. Reaction product was characterized by elemental analysis, NMR comprising 13C{¹H} and ¹H nuclei and I.R. spectrum's measurements. Thermal behavior has been investigated and residual products identified by X-ray powder diffraction.

  2. Buckling Behavior of Cold-Formed Studs with Thermal Perforations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garifullin Marsel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that the optimal structural scheme for low-rise buildings that meets all regulatory requirements is a frame system. In this connection, thin-walled cold-formed steel (CFS profiles seem to be the best material for constructing light steel framed (LSF walls. The framework of LSF walls is usually constructed from CFS C-shaped profiles. To increase the thermal effectiveness of a wall, CFS profiles usually have thermal perforations and thus are called thermoprofiles. However, these openings have a negative impact on bearing capacity of profiles and require accurate evaluation. In this article a relatively new reticular-stretched thermoprofile with diamond-shaped openings is considered. The article deals with the buckling analysis of perforated CFS C-sections subjected to compression.

  3. Solidification behavior and thermal conductivity of bulk sodium acetate trihydrate composites with thickening agents and graphite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Furbo, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Sodium acetate trihydrate is a promising phase change material for long term storage of solar thermal energy if supercooling is actively utilized. Well performing thermal energy storages need to be able to charge and discharge energy at a high rate. The relatively low thermal conductivity....... Investigations of the solidification behavior, the formation of cavities and thermal conductivity of composites based on sodium acetate trihydrate crystalizing with or without supercooling are presented in this paper. The thermal conductivity was measured with an ISOMET hot disc surface measurement probe....... Samples that crystalized without supercooling tended to form solid crystals near the heat transfer surface and cavities away from the heat transfer surface. The measured thermal conductivity was up to 0.7 W/m K in solid sodium acetate trihydrate. Samples that crystalized from supercooled state formed...

  4. A-thermal elastic behavior of silicate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, Mohammed Kamel; Degioanni, Simon; Martinet, Christine; Le Brusq, Jacques; Champagnon, Bernard; Vouagner, Dominique

    2016-02-24

    Depending on the composition of silicate glasses, their elastic moduli can increase or decrease as function of the temperature. Studying the Brillouin frequency shift of these glasses versus temperature allows the a-thermal composition corresponding to an intermediate glass to be determined. In an intermediate glass, the elastic moduli are independent of the temperature over a large temperature range. For sodium alumino-silicate glasses, the a-thermal composition is close to the albite glass (NaAlSi3O8). The structural origin of this property is studied by in situ high temperature Raman scattering. The structure of the intermediate albite glass and of silica are compared at different temperatures between room temperature and 600 °C. When the temperature increases, it is shown that the high frequency shift of the main band at 440 cm(-1) in silica is a consequence of the cristobalite-like alpha-beta transformation of 6-membered rings. This effect is stronger in silica than bond elongation (anharmonic effects). As a consequence, the elastic moduli of silica increase as the temperature increases. In the albite glass, the substitution of 25% of Si(4+) ions by Al(3+) and Na(+) ions decreases the proportion of SiO2 6-membered rings responsible for the silica anomaly. The effects of the silica anomaly balance the anharmonicity in albite glass and give rise to an intermediate a-thermal glass. Different networks, formers or modifiers, can be added to produce different a-thermal glasses with useful mechanical or chemical properties.

  5. Thermal fluctuations and critical behavior in a magnetized, anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R. D.; Mahajan, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal fluctuations in a magnetized, anisotropic plasma are studied by applying standard methods, based on the Einstein rule, to the known thermodynamic potential of the system. It is found in particular that magnetic fluctuations become critical when the anisotropy p ∥ −p ⊥ changes sign. By examining the critical region, additional insight on the equations of state for near-critical anisotropic plasma is obtained

  6. SO2 oxidation catalyst model systems characterized by thermal methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatem, G; Eriksen, Kim Michael; Gaune-Escard, M

    2002-01-01

    The molten salts M2S2O7 and MHSO4, the binary molten salt Systems M2S2O7-MHSO4 and the molten salt-gas systems M2S2O7 V2O5 and M2S2O7-M2SO4 V2O5 (M = Na, K, Rb, Cs) in O-2, SO2 and At atmospheres have been investigated by thermal methods like calorimetry, Differential Enthalpic Analysis (DEA) and...... to the mechanism Of SO2 oxidation by V2O5 based industrial catalysts....

  7. Non-destructive characterization using pulsed fast-thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womble, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    Explosives, illicit drugs, and other contraband materials contain various chemical elements in quantities and ratios that differentiate them from each other and from innocuous substances. Furthermore, the major chemical elements in coal can provide information about various parameters of importance to the coal industry. In both examples, the non-destructive identification of chemical elements can be performed using pulsed fast-thermal neutrons that, through nuclear reactions, excite the nuclei of the various elements. This technique is being currently developed for the dismantling of nuclear weapons classified as trainers, and for the on-line coal bulk analysis. (orig.)

  8. Characterization of Time-Dependent Behavior of Ramming Paste Used in an Aluminum Electrolysis Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orangi, Sakineh; Picard, Donald; Alamdari, Houshang; Ziegler, Donald; Fafard, Mario

    2015-12-01

    A new methodology was proposed for the characterization of time-dependent behavior of materials in order to develop a constitutive model. The material used for the characterization was ramming paste, a porous material used in an aluminum electrolysis cell, which is baked in place under varying loads induced by the thermal expansion of other components of the cell. In order to develop a constitutive model representing the paste mechanical behavior, it was necessary to get some insight into its behavior using samples which had been baked at different temperatures ranging from 200 to 1000 °C. Creep stages, effect of testing temperature on the creep, creep-recovery, as well as nonlinear creep were observed for designing a constitutive law. Uniaxial creep-recovery tests were carried out at two temperatures on the baked paste: ambient and higher. Results showed that the shape of creep curves was similar to a typical creep; recovery happened and the creep was shown to be nonlinear. Those experimental observations and the identification of nonlinear parameters of developed constitutive model demonstrated that the baked paste experiences nonlinear viscoelastic-viscoplastic behavior at different temperatures.

  9. Use of emanation thermal analysis to characterize thermal reactivity of brannerite mineral

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balek, V.; Vance, E.R.; Zeleňák, V.; Málek, Z.; Šubrt, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2007), s. 93-98 ISSN 1388-6150 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LA 292; GA MŠk(CZ) ME 879 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : brannerite * emanation thermal analysis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.483, year: 2007

  10. Synthesis and characterization of JBW structure and its thermal transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, Eman Z.; Kosa, Samia A.; Abd El Maksod, Islam Hamdy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, JBW zeolite prepared from Egyptian kaolin was investigated by means of XRD, IR, SEM, EDX and ion exchange of some heavy metals. Adsorption isotherms were used to investigate the structure and properties of the prepared zeolite. XRD analysis showed that the JBW was a pure crystalline phase with orthorhombic crystal symmetry. Thermal treatment showed that the JBW transformed into the It-Carn phase at 1000 °C through an intermediate crystalline alumino silicate phase. SEM images showed that the JBW crystallised in a cylindrical shape. However, spherical agglomerates were observed at lower magnifications. The ion exchange isotherms with Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Co 2+ were found to follow a Freundlich isotherm. In addition, it shows higher affinity towards Cu 2+ than other ions. - Graphical abstract: JBW zeolite structure was prepared from Egyptian kaolin and characterised. XRD analysis showed that the JBW was a pure crystalline phase with orthorhombic crystal symmetry. Thermal treatment showed that the JBW transformed into the It-Carn phase at 1000 °C through an intermediate crystalline alumino silicate phase. Highlights: ► Egyptian kaolin was successfully used to prepare pure phase of JBW Structure. ► JBW is stable till 2+ , Ni 2+ , and Co 2+ followed up Freundlich isotherm. ► Selectivity towards Cu 2+ is much higher than Co 2+ or Ni 2+ .

  11. Thermal and structural characterization of synthetic and natural nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronia, Ancuta M; Baies, Radu; Anghel, Elena M; Marinescu, Cornelia A; Tanasescu, Speranta

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the thermal stability on heating and to obtain the processing parameters of synthetic and bone-derived hydroxyapatite over temperatures between room temperature and 1400°C by thermal analysis (thermogravimetry (TG)/differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-mechanical analysis-TMA). Structural and surface modifications related to samples origin and calcination temperature were investigated by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and BET method. FTIR spectra indicated that the organic constituents and carbonate are no longer present in the natural sample calcined at 800°C. Raman spectra highlighted the decomposition products of the hydroxyapatite. The calcination treatment modifies the processes kinetics of the synthetic samples, being able to isolate lattice water desorption processes of decarbonization and the dehydroxylation processes. Shrinkage of calcined synthetic sample increases by 10% compared to uncalcined synthetic powder. From the TMA correlated with TG analysis and heat capacity data it can be concluded that sintering temperature of the synthetic samples should be chosen in the temperature range of the onset of dehydroxylation and the temperature at which oxyapatite decomposition begins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling of Thermal Behavior of Raw Natural Gas Air Coolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbinin, S. V.; Prakhova, M. Yu; Krasnov, A. N.; Khoroshavina, E. A.

    2018-05-01

    When gas is being prepared for a long-range transportation, it passes through air cooling units (ACUs) after compressing; there, hot gas passing through finned tubes is cooled with air streams. ACU's mode of operation shall ensure a certain value of gas temperature at the ACU's outlet. At that, when cooling raw gas, temperature distribution along all the tubes shall be known to prevent local hydrate formation. The paper proposes a mathematical model allowing one to obtain a thermal field distribution inside the ACU and study influence of various factors onto it.

  13. Thermal characterization of organic matter along a (hypothetical) coalification gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Ornella; Provenzano, Maria Rosaria; Zaccone, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    Geochemical transformations of organic carbon (C) in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are important starting points for genesis of peats, brown coals and other coal precursors. The humification process plays a key role in biogeochemical transformations of organic C and, as a result, in the first stages of coal precursors formation. Thermal analysis was used by Schnitzer and other scientists since 1950-1960s, in order to investigate the stability of several organic materials of industrial value including peat and coal. What soil scientists found was the general occurrence of two exothermic peaks (exotherm 1 and 2) due to decomposition and combustion reactions of organic compounds having different thermal stability and, consequently, different degree of humification. Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) was carried out on different samples reproducing a "hypothetical" coalification gradient as follows: peat (IHSS Pahokee peat standard), fulvic acid (FA), a peat humic acid (HA), leonardite (IHSS Gascoyne standard) and charcoal. An aliquot of about 20 mg of each sample was heated in a ceramic crucible from 50 to 850˚ C at 30˚ C min-1, at a gas flow rate of 30 mL min-1 using a PerkinElmer TGA4000 thermobalance. Samples were analysed both under nitrogen and under synthetic air. All analyses were carried out in triplicate and the average coefficient of variation was bio-transformation of organic materials. Finally, the temperature at which half of the exothermic mass loss has occurred (TG-T50) was also calculated. Preliminary results obtained from TG analysis under air showed that WL2/WL1 ratio was lower for the FA sample and higher for leonardite and charcoal, following the order FAthermal degradation was obtained, with HF and HA showing a lower WL2/WL1 ratio (HF

  14. Main factors of thermal fatigue failure induced by thermal striping and total simulation of thermal hydraulic and structural behaviors (research report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Naoto; Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    1999-01-01

    At incomplete mixing area of high temperature and low temperature fluids near the surface of structures, temperature fluctuation of fluid gives thermal fatigue damage to wall structures. This phenomenon is called thermal striping, which becomes sometimes a critical problem in LMFR plants. Since thermal striping phenomenon is characterized by the complex thermohydraulic and thermomechanical coupled problem, conventional evaluation procedures require mock-up experiments. In order to replace them by simulation-base methods, the authors have developed numerical simulation codes and applied them to analyze a tee junction of the PHENIX secondary circuit due to thermal striping phenomenon, in the framework of the IAEA coordinated research program (CRP). Through this analysis, thermohydraulic and thermomechanical mechanism of thermal striping phenomenon was clarified, and main factors on structural integrity was extracted in each stage of thermal striping phenomenon. Furthermore, simulation base evaluation methods were proposed taking above factors of structural integrity into account. Finally, R and D problems were investigated for future development of design evaluation methods. (author)

  15. HVI Ballistic Limit Characterization of Fused Silica Thermal Panes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Bohl, W. D.; Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Deighton, K. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fused silica window systems are used heavily on crewed reentry vehicles, and they are currently being used on the next generation of US crewed spacecraft, Orion. These systems improve crew situational awareness and comfort, as well as, insulating the reentry critical components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Additionally, these materials are highly exposed to space environment hazards like solid particle impacts. This paper discusses impact studies up to 10 km/s on a fused silica window system proposed for the Orion spacecraft. A ballistic limit equation that describes the threshold of perforation of a fuse silica pane over a broad range of impact velocities, obliquities and projectile materials is discussed here.

  16. Numerical model for the thermal behavior of thermocline storage tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehtiwesh, Ismael A. S.; Sousa, Antonio C. M.

    2018-03-01

    Energy storage is a critical factor in the advancement of solar thermal power systems for the sustained delivery of electricity. In addition, the incorporation of thermal energy storage into the operation of concentrated solar power systems (CSPs) offers the potential of delivering electricity without fossil-fuel backup even during peak demand, independent of weather conditions and daylight. Despite this potential, some areas of the design and performance of thermocline systems still require further attention for future incorporation in commercial CSPs, particularly, their operation and control. Therefore, the present study aims to develop a simple but efficient numerical model to allow the comprehensive analysis of thermocline storage systems aiming better understanding of their dynamic temperature response. The validation results, despite the simplifying assumptions of the numerical model, agree well with the experiments for the time evolution of the thermocline region. Three different cases are considered to test the versatility of the numerical model; for the particular type of a storage tank with top round impingement inlet, a simple analytical model was developed to take into consideration the increased turbulence level in the mixing region. The numerical predictions for the three cases are in general good agreement against the experimental results.

  17. Kinetic study and thermal decomposition behavior of viscoelastic memory foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido, María A.; Font, Rafael; Conesa, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermal degradation has been studied under three different atmospheres. • Pyrolysis and combustion kinetic models have been proposed. • Evolved products under different atmospheres have been analyzed by TG-FTIR and TG-MS. - Abstract: A systematic investigation of the thermal decomposition of viscoelastic memory foam (VMF) was performed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to obtain the kinetic parameters, and thermogravimetric analysis coupled to Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrometry (TGA-FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis coupled to Mass Spectrometry (TGA-MS) to obtain detailed information of evolved products on pyrolysis and oxidative degradations. Two consecutive nth-order reactions were employed to correlate the experimental data from dynamic and isothermal runs performed at three different heating rates (5, 10 and 20 K/min) under an inert atmosphere. On the other hand, for the kinetic study of the oxidative decomposition, the data from combustion (synthetic air) and poor oxygen combustion (N_2:O_2 = 9:1) runs, at three heating rates and under dynamic and isothermal conditions, were correlated simultaneously. A kinetic model consisting of three consecutive reactions presented a really good correlation in all runs. TGA-FTIR analysis showed that the main gases released during the pyrolysis of VMF were determined as ether and aliphatic hydrocarbons, whereas in combustion apart from the previous gases, aldehydes, amines and CO_2 have also been detected as the main gases. These results were confirmed by the TGA-MS.

  18. Thermal and structural characterization of synthetic and natural nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofronia, Ancuta M.; Baies, Radu; Anghel, Elena M.; Marinescu, Cornelia A.; Tanasescu, Speranta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the thermal stability on heating and to obtain the processing parameters of synthetic and bone-derived hydroxyapatite over temperatures between room temperature and 1400 °C by thermal analysis (thermogravimetry (TG)/differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-mechanical analysis—TMA). Structural and surface modifications related to samples origin and calcination temperature were investigated by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and BET method. FTIR spectra indicated that the organic constituents and carbonate are no longer present in the natural sample calcined at 800 °C. Raman spectra highlighted the decomposition products of the hydroxyapatite. The calcination treatment modifies the processes kinetics of the synthetic samples, being able to isolate lattice water desorption processes of decarbonization and the dehydroxylation processes. Shrinkage of calcined synthetic sample increases by 10% compared to uncalcined synthetic powder. From the TMA correlated with TG analysis and heat capacity data it can be concluded that sintering temperature of the synthetic samples should be chosen in the temperature range of the onset of dehydroxylation and the temperature at which oxyapatite decomposition begins. - Highlights: • Specific surface area of HA powder was reduced from 19.2 to 9.5 m 2 /g by calcination. • Raman spectra indicate the presence of B-type CO 3 group in HA synthetic samples. • The onset temperature of HA densification and dehydroxylation processes correspond. • Calcination of HA influences reactions kinetics with consequences on densification. • Shrinkage of calcined HA sample increases by 10% with respect to uncalcined sample

  19. Thermal and structural characterization of synthetic and natural nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofronia, Ancuta M. [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Baies, Radu [National Research Institute for Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, 300224 Timisoara (Romania); Anghel, Elena M. [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Marinescu, Cornelia A., E-mail: alcorina@chimfiz.icf.ro [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Tanasescu, Speranta [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the thermal stability on heating and to obtain the processing parameters of synthetic and bone-derived hydroxyapatite over temperatures between room temperature and 1400 °C by thermal analysis (thermogravimetry (TG)/differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-mechanical analysis—TMA). Structural and surface modifications related to samples origin and calcination temperature were investigated by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and BET method. FTIR spectra indicated that the organic constituents and carbonate are no longer present in the natural sample calcined at 800 °C. Raman spectra highlighted the decomposition products of the hydroxyapatite. The calcination treatment modifies the processes kinetics of the synthetic samples, being able to isolate lattice water desorption processes of decarbonization and the dehydroxylation processes. Shrinkage of calcined synthetic sample increases by 10% compared to uncalcined synthetic powder. From the TMA correlated with TG analysis and heat capacity data it can be concluded that sintering temperature of the synthetic samples should be chosen in the temperature range of the onset of dehydroxylation and the temperature at which oxyapatite decomposition begins. - Highlights: • Specific surface area of HA powder was reduced from 19.2 to 9.5 m{sup 2}/g by calcination. • Raman spectra indicate the presence of B-type CO{sub 3} group in HA synthetic samples. • The onset temperature of HA densification and dehydroxylation processes correspond. • Calcination of HA influences reactions kinetics with consequences on densification. • Shrinkage of calcined HA sample increases by 10% with respect to uncalcined sample.

  20. Thermal characterization of radiation processed contact lens material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, L.; Choughule, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) were used to characterize radiation processed contact lens gel material of 2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate(HEMA). DSC revealed two types of water in the gels. DSC and TGA in combination were used to quantitate the percentage of different types of the water in the gel material. Temperature expansion coefficients values indicate more dimensions stability in the radiation processed lenses of similar water contents. (author)

  1. Study of the behavior of thermal shield support system for the French CPO series plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellet, S.; Roux, P.; Bhandari, D.R.; Schwirian, R.E.; Yu, C.; Matarazzo, J.C.; Singleton, N.R.

    1996-01-01

    Degradation/failure of thermal shield support system in PWRs has been observed in the US as well as in foreign plants. In almost all the cases, remedial actions were put in place at very high economic costs to the utilities only after the failures had occurred. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive study to predict the long term behavior of a thermal shield support system due to flow-induced vibratory loads and thermal transients. Excellent agreement from the system finite model between the measured plant test data on the barrel/thermal shield beam and shell mode frequencies and the flexure strains confirms the basic structural behavior and physics of the flow induced vibrations. Loads and stresses on the support bolts and the flexures were determined to predict the fatigue life of the components

  2. Role of statistics in characterizing nuclear waste package behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.M.

    1984-11-01

    The characterization of nuclear waste package behavior is primarily based on the outcome of laboratory tests, where components of a proposed waste package are either individually or simultaneously subjected to simulated repository conditions. At each step of a testing method, both controllable and uncontrollable factors contribute to the overall uncertainty in the final outcome of the test. If not dealt with correctly, these sources of uncertainty could obscure or distort important information that might otherwise be gleaned from the test data. This could result in misleading or erroneous conclusions about the behavior characteristic being studied. It could also preclude estimation of the individual contributions of the major sources of uncertainty to the overall uncertainty. Statistically designed experiments and sampling plans, followed by correctly applied statistical analysis and estimation methods will yield the most information possible for the time and resources spent on experimentation, and they can eliminate the above concerns. Conclusions reached on the basis of such information will be sound and defensible. This presentation is intended to emphasize the importance of correctly applied, theoretically sound statistical methodology in characterizing nuclear waste package behavior. 8 references, 1 table

  3. Role of statistics in characterizing nuclear waste package behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    The characterization of nuclear waste package behavior is primarily based on the outcome of laboratory tests, where components of a proposed waste package are either individually or simultaneously subjected to simulated repository conditions. At each step of a testing method, both controllable and uncontrollable factors contribute to the overall uncertainty in the final outcome of the test. If not dealt with correctly, these sources of uncertainty could obscure or distort important information that might otherwise be gleaned form the test data. This could result in misleading or erroneous conclusions about the behavior characteristic being studied. It could also preclude estimation of the individual contributions of the major sources of uncertainty to the overall uncertainty. Statistically designed experiments and sampling plans, followed by correctly applied statistical analysis and estimation methods will yield the most information possible for the time and resources spent on experimentation, and they can eliminate the above concerns. Conclusions reached on the basis of such information will be sound and defensible. This presentation is intended to emphasize the importance of correctly applied, theoretically sound statistical methodology in characterizing nuclear waste package behavior

  4. Electro-thermal characterization of Lithium Iron Phosphate cell with equivalent circuit modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, L.H.; Ye, Y.; Tay, A.A.O.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We modeled the electrical and thermal behavior of the Li-ion battery. • We validated the simulation results with experimental studies. • We studied the thermal response of the battery pack using UDDS and US06 test. • Active cooling system is needed to prolong life cycle of cell. - Abstract: Prediction of the battery performance is important in the development of the electric vehicles battery pack. A battery model that is capable to reproduce I–V characteristic, thermal response and predicting the state of charge of the battery will benefit the development of cell and reduce time to market for electric vehicles. In this work, an equivalent circuit model coupled with the thermal model is used to analyze the electrical and thermal behavior of Lithium Iron Phosphate pouch cell under various operating conditions. The battery model is comprised three RC blocks, one series resistor and one voltage source. The parameters of the battery model are extracted from pulse discharge curve under different temperatures. The simulations results of the battery model under constant current discharge and pulse charge and discharge show a good agreement with experimental data. The validated battery model is then extended to investigate the dynamic behavior of the electric vehicle battery pack using UDDS and US06 test cycle. The simulation results show that an active thermal management system is required to prolong the calendar life and ensure safety of the battery pack

  5. Characterization of Physical and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Neopentyl Glycol

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Dahryn; Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar; Branton, Alice; Nayak, Gopal

    2015-01-01

    Neopentyl glycol (NPG) has been extensively used as solid-solid phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage applications. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, spectral and thermal properties of NPG. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated NPG were characterized by X-...

  6. A reference device for evaluating the thermal behavior of installed multilayered wall containing a phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliolico, S.L.; Sassi, G.; Cascone, Y.; Bongiovanni, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal analysis of installed wallboards embedding phase change material layer. • Simple devices and real conditions for thermal analysis toward a standardization. • Scanning calorimetric measurements as initial condition for data regression. • Bias correction of calorimetric measurements data by installation factors. • Practical approach to identify a reliable thermal curve for capacitive wallboards. - Abstract: Thermal inertia of lightweight building envelopes can be improved including phase change materials in multilayered wallboards. The thermal modeling of buildings for design purposes needs a robust description of the thermal properties of installed phase change materials. A standard method would improve the thermal characterization of commercial products. The aim of the study is to develop a simple methodology to obtain reliable thermal data for phase change materials integrated in multilayered wallboards. The methodology modifies differential scanning calorimetry measurements on phase change material by installation factors to obtain the apparent specific heat vs. temperature for the wallboard layer embedding phase change material. Simple cubic cells were realized as reference devices to simulate a confined environment. A dynamic model of heat transfer was developed to simulate the thermal behavior of devices. Installation factors were calculated by regression of the monitored temperatures inside and outside the devices operating under real environmental conditions. The apparent specific heat of phase change material, measured by differential scanning calorimetry at different rates, resulted in a spread of curves vs. temperature. Mean curves were used as initial condition for regression. The mean calculation method did not significantly affect the installed resulted curve. A unique curve of apparent specific heat vs. temperature best fit data measured over a wide range of experimental devices and conditions. Good regression

  7. Behavior of mixed-oxide fuel subjected to multiple thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Neimark, L.A.; Poeppel, R.B.; Hofman, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The microstructural behavior of irradiated mixed-oxide fuel subjected to multiple, mild thermal transients was investigated using direct electrical heating. The results demonstrate that significant intergranular porosity, accompanied by large-scale (>90%) release of the retained fission gas, developed as a result of the cyclic heating. Microstructural examination of the fuel indicated that thermal-shock-induced cracking of the fuel contributed significantly to the increased swelling and gas release. 29 refs., 12 figs

  8. Behavior of mixed-oxide fuel subjected to multiple thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.R.; Hofman, G.L.; Neimark, L.A.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1983-11-01

    The microstructural behavior of irradiated mixed-oxide fuel subjected to multiple, mild thermal transients was investigated using direct electrical heating. The results demonstrate that significant intergranular porosity, accompanied by large-scale (>90%) release of the retained fission gas, developed as a result of the cyclic heating. Microstructural examination of the fuel indicated that thermal-shock-induced cracking of the fuel contributed significantly to the increased swelling and gas release

  9. Preparation and thermal properties characterization of carbonate salt/carbon nanomaterial composite phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Y.B.; Lin, C.H.; He, Y.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanocomposite phase change materials were prepared and characterized. • Larger specific surface area is more efficient to enhance specific heat. • Columnar structure is more efficient to enhance thermal conductivity. • Thermal conductivity enhancement is the key. • Single walled carbon nanotube is the optimal nanomaterial additive. - Abstract: To enhance the performance of high temperature salt phase change material, four kinds of carbon nanomaterials with different microstructures were mixed into binary carbonate eutectic salts to prepare carbonate salt/nanomaterial composite phase change material. The microstructures of the nanomaterial and composite phase change material were characterized by scanning electron microscope. The thermal properties such as melting point, melting enthalpy, specific heat, thermal conductivity and total thermal energy storage capacity were characterized. The results show that the nanomaterial microstructure has great effects on composite phase change material thermal properties. The sheet structure Graphene is the best additive to enhance specific heat, which could be enhanced up to 18.57%. The single walled carbon nanotube with columnar structure is the best additive to enhance thermal conductivity, which could be enhanced up to 56.98%. Melting point increases but melting enthalpy decreases with nanomaterial specific surface area increase. Although the additives decrease the melting enthalpy of composite phase change material, they also enhance the specific heat. As a combined result, the additives have little effects on thermal energy storage capacity. So, for phase change material performance enhancement, more emphasis should be placed on thermal conductivity enhancement and single walled carbon nanotube is the optimal nanomaterial additive

  10. Study on thermal-hydraulic behavior in supersonic steam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yutaka; Fukuichi, Akira; Kawamoto, Yujiro; Iwaki, Chikako; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Mori, Michitsugu; Ohmori, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Supersonic steam injector is the one of the most possible devices aiming at simplifying system and improving the safety and the credibility for next-generation nuclear reactor systems. The supersonic steam injector has dual functions of a passive jet pump without rotating machine and a compact and high efficiency heat exchanger, because it is operated by the direct contact condensation between supersonic steam and subcooled water jet. It is necessary to clarify the flow behavior in the supersonic steam injector which is governed by the complicated turbulent flow with a great shear stress of supersonic steam. However, in previous study, there is little study about the turbulent heat transfer and flow behavior under such a great shear stress at the gas-liquid interface. In the present study, turbulent flow behavior including the effect of the interface between water jet and supersonic steam is developed based on the eddy viscosity model. Radial velocity distributions and the turbulent heat transfer are calculated with the model. The calculation results are compared with the experimental results done with the transparent steam injector. (author)

  11. Crystal structure and thermal behavior of KB3O6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubnova, R.S.; Fundamenskij, V.S.; Filatov, S.K.; Polyakova, I.G.

    2004-01-01

    The structure of potassium triborate prepared in metastable state by crystallization from melt at ∼ 800 deg C was studied by the method of X-ray diffraction analysis. It was ascertained that KB 3 O 6 belongs to monoclinic crystal system, space group P2 1 /c, a = 9.319(1), b = 6.648(1), c = 21.094(2) A, β = 94.38(1) deg, Z = 12. The compound is referred to a new structural type. Anion of the structure is a single boron-oxygen frame formed by three independent rigid triborate rings of [B 3 O 5 ] - , each of them consisting of two BO 3 triangles and BO 4 tetrahedron. Phase transformations during KB 3 O 6 heating up to 800 deg C, as well as thermal expansion in the range of 20-650 deg C, were studied [ru

  12. Characterization of ITER tungsten qualification mock-ups exposed to high cyclic thermal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintsuk, Gerald, E-mail: g.pintsuk@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Bednarek, Maja; Gavila, Pierre [Fusion for Energy, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Gerzoskovitz, Stefan [Plansee SE, Innovation Services, 6600 Reutte (Austria); Linke, Jochen [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Lorenzetto, Patrick; Riccardi, Bruno [Fusion for Energy, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Escourbiac, Frederic [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Mechanical deformation of CuCrZr in case a thermal barrier layer has been formed due to impurity content in the cooling water. • Crack formation at the W/Cu interface starting at the block edge. • Porosity formation in the pure Cu interlayer. • Microstructural changes in tungsten down to the W/Cu interface, which indicates also high temperatures for the pure Cu interlayer. • Macrocrack formation in tungsten which is assumed to be ductile at the initiation point and brittle when proceeding toward the cooling tube. - Abstract: High heat flux tested small-scale tungsten monoblock mock-ups (5000 cycles at 10 MW/m{sup 2} and up to 1000 cycles at 20 MW/m{sup 2}) manufactured by Plansee and Ansaldo were characterized by metallographic means. Therein, the macrocrack formation and propagation in tungsten, its recrystallization behavior and the surface response to different heat load facilities were investigated. Furthermore, debonding at the W/Cu interface, void formation in the soft copper interlayer and microcrack formation at the inner surface of the CuCrZr cooling tube were found.

  13. Thermal fatigue behavior of US and Russian grades of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.; Youchison, D.L.; Dombrowski, D.E.; Guiniatouline, R.N.; Kupriynov, I.B.

    1996-01-01

    A novel technique has been used to test the relative low cycle thermal fatigue resistance of different grades of US and Russian beryllium which is proposed as plasma facing armor for fusion reactor first wall, limiter, and divertor components. The 30 KW electron beam test system at Sandia National Laboratories was used to sweep the beam spot along one direction at 1 Hz. This produces a localized temperature ''spike'' of 750 degrees C for each pass of the beam. Large thermal stress in excess of the yield strength are generated due to very high spot heat flux, 250 MW/m 2 . Cyclic plastic strains on the order of 0.6% produced visible cracking on the heated surface in less than 3000 cycles. An in-vacuo fiber optic borescope was used to visually inspect the beryllium surfaces for crack initiation. Grades of US beryllium tested included: S-65C, S-65H, S-200F, S-300F-H, Sr-200, I-400, extruded high purity. HIP'd sperical powder, porous beryllium (94% and 98% dense), Be/30% BeO, Be/60% BeO, and TiBe 12 . Russian grades included: TGP-56, TShGT, DShG-200, and TShG-56. Both the number of cycles to crack initiation, and the depth of crack propagation, were measured. The most fatigue resistant grades were S-65C, DShG-200, TShGT, and TShG-56. Rolled sheet Be(SR-200) showed excellent crack propagation resistance in the plane of rolling, despite early formation of delamination cracks. Only one sample showed no evidence of surface melting, Extruded (T). Metallographic and chemical analyses are provided. Good agreement was found between the measured depth of cracks and a 2-D elastic-plastic finite element stress analysis

  14. Thermal activation and characterization of clay Brasgel aiming your application as adsorbent in removal of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, P.N.M.; Sousa, A.B.; Sousa, A.K.F.; Rodrigues, M.G.F.; Laborde, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    The clays exhibit interesting properties in adsorption of heavy metals in wastewater. This property can be modified by thermal activation. In this work, the characterization of clay Brasgel before and after thermal activation (200 deg C 300 deg C 400 deg C and 500 deg C) is performed by cation exchange capacity (CEC), X-ray Spectroscopy for Energy Dispersion (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Differential Thermal Analysis and Gravimetric (DTA / TG). The main differences between natural and activated clays are the structural changes observed by XRD and DTA / TG. (author)

  15. Thermal activation and characterization of chocolate clay for using as adsorbent in nickel removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, W.C.T.; Brito, A.L.F.; Laborde, H.M.; Rodrigues, M.G.F.; Ferreira, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    Clays present interesting properties as adsorbing material for the removal of heavy metals from effluents. This property is clearly modified by thermal activation. In this work, the characterization of chocolate clay before and after thermal activation (from 300 to 500 deg C) is realized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (DTA/TG), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). The main differences between the activated and natural clays are structural modifications of the clay, as shown by XRD and DTA/TG, but also a modification of its cation exchange capacity as shown by the methylene blue method. (author)

  16. Polarization characterization of PZT disks and of embedded PZT plates by thermal wave methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eydam, Agnes; Suchaneck, Gunnar; Gerlach, Gerald; Esslinger, Sophia; Schönecker, Andreas; Neumeister, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the thermal wave method was applied to characterize PZT disks and embedded PZT plates with regard to the polarization magnitude and spatial homogeneity. The samples were exposed to periodic heating by means of a laser beam and the pyroelectric response was determined. Thermal relaxation times (single time constants or distributions of time constants) describe the heat losses of the PZT samples to the environment. The resulting pyroelectric current spectrum was fitted to the superposition of thermal relaxation processes. The pyroelectric coefficient gives insight in the polarization distribution. For PZT disks, the polarization distribution in the surface region showed a characteristic decrease towards the electrodes

  17. Characterizations and thermal stability improvement of phase-change memory device containing Ce-doped GeSbTe films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yu-Jen; Tsai, Min-Chuan; Wang, Chiung-Hsin; Hsieh, Tsung-Eong, E-mail: tehsieh@mail.nctu.edu.tw

    2012-02-29

    Phase-transition temperature of GeSbTe (GST) chalcogenide film was drastically increased from 159 to 236 Degree-Sign C by cerium (Ce) doping (up to 8.6 at.%) without altering the resistivity property of GST. Grain refinement via the solid-solution mechanism and the amplification of p-type semiconducting behavior in Ce-doped GST were observed. They were correlated with the enhancement of thermal stability and data retention property of GST as revealed by exothermal and isothermal analyses. Phase-change memory (PCM) device characterized at various temperatures revealed an effective thermal stability improvement on the threshold voltage of PCM device by Ce doping. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ce doping increased phase-change temperature of GST from 159 to 236 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No suppression of resistivity level in amorphous Ce-doped GST. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resistance ratio of amorphous and crystalline Ce-doped GST was preserved at 10{sup 5}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p-type semiconducting behavior of GST was enhanced by Ce-doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ce-doping improved the thermal stability of threshold voltage of GST PCM device.

  18. Thermal and kinetic behaviors of biomass and plastic wastes in co-pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çepelioğullar, Özge; Pütün, Ayşe E.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Co-pyrolysis of biomass together with the plastic wastes in thermogravimetric analyzer. • Investigations into thermal and kinetic behaviors at high temperature regions. • Determination of the kinetic parameters. - Abstract: In this study, co-pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of biomass-plastic blends were investigated. Cotton stalk, hazelnut shell, sunflower residue, and arid land plant Euphorbia rigida, were blended in definite ratio (1:1, w/w) with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Experiments were conducted with a heating rate of 10 °C min −1 from room temperature to 800 °C in the presence of N 2 atmosphere with a flow rate of 100 cm 3 min −1 . After thermal decomposition in TGA, a kinetic analysis was performed to fit thermogravimetric data and a detailed discussion of co-pyrolysis mechanism was achieved. Experimental results demonstrated that the structural differences between biomass and plastics directly affect their thermal decomposition behaviors. Biomass pyrolysis generally based on three main steps while plastic material’s pyrolysis mechanism resulted in two steps for PET and three steps for PVC. Also, the required activation energies needed to achieve the thermal degradation for plastic were found higher than the biomass materials. In addition, it can be concluded that the evaluation of plastic materials together with biomass created significant changes not only for the thermal behaviors but also for the kinetic behaviors

  19. Characterization of sampling behavior for multielements in NIST SRM 2703

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Donghui; Sun Hongchao; Ni Bangfa; Tian Weizhi; Wang Pingsheng; Liu CunXiong; Zhang Guiying; Xiao Caijin; Zhang Haiqing; Zhao Changjun; Zhang Yuanxun

    2011-01-01

    Sampling behavior of multielements for NIST SRM 2703, a marine sediment, was studied with sample sizes from 1 mg down to ng level by a combination of INAA, PIXE and SRXRF. On 1 mg sample size level, sampling behavior for multielements in NIST SRM 2703 and its parent SRM 2702 were comparatively characterized by using INAA combining with Ingamells model. Results showed that sampling uncertainties for 12 elements of both materials were found to be better than 1%, and those of four other elements in SRM 2703 better than in SRM 2702. At sample sizes not able to be accurately weighed (<1 mg), PIXE and SRXRF were used and the effective sample sizes estimated. Sampling uncertainties for nine elements were found to be better than 1% at sample sizes of tenth mg level, and those for six elements better than 10% on ng levels. (author)

  20. Transient thermal-mechanical behavior of cracked glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy laminates at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Y.; Ueda, S.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the transient thermal-mechanical response of cracked G-10CR glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy laminates with temperature-dependent properties. The glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy laminates are suddenly cooled on the surfaces. A generalized plane strain finite element model is used to study the influence of warp angle and crack formation on the thermal shock behavior of two-layer woven laminates at low temperatures. Numerical calculations are carried out, and the transient temperature distribution and the thermal-mechanical stresses are shown graphically

  1. Characterization of behavioral and endocrine effects of LSD on zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Leah; Utterback, Eli; Stewart, Adam; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Chung, Kyung Min; Suciu, Christopher; Wong, Keith; Elegante, Marco; Elkhayat, Salem; Tan, Julia; Gilder, Thomas; Wu, Nadine; Dileo, John; Cachat, Jonathan; Kalueff, Allan V

    2010-12-25

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogenic drug that strongly affects animal and human behavior. Although adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are emerging as a promising neurobehavioral model, the effects of LSD on zebrafish have not been investigated previously. Several behavioral paradigms (the novel tank, observation cylinder, light-dark box, open field, T-maze, social preference and shoaling tests), as well as modern video-tracking tools and whole-body cortisol assay were used to characterize the effects of acute LSD in zebrafish. While lower doses (5-100 microg/L) did not affect zebrafish behavior, 250 microg/L LSD increased top dwelling and reduced freezing in the novel tank and observation cylinder tests, also affecting spatiotemporal patterns of activity (as assessed by 3D reconstruction of zebrafish traces and ethograms). LSD evoked mild thigmotaxis in the open field test, increased light behavior in the light-dark test, reduced the number of arm entries and freezing in the T-maze and social preference test, without affecting social preference. In contrast, LSD affected zebrafish shoaling (increasing the inter-fish distance in a group), and elevated whole-body cortisol levels. Overall, our findings show sensitivity of zebrafish to LSD action, and support the use of zebrafish models to study hallucinogenic drugs of abuse. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermal, spectroscopic, and ab initio structural characterization of carprofen polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Giovanna; Gozzo, Fabia; Capsoni, Doretta; Bini, Marcella; Macchi, Piero; Simoncic, Petra; Berbenni, Vittorio; Milanese, Chiara; Girella, Alessandro; Ferrari, Stefania; Marini, Amedeo

    2011-06-01

    Commercial and recrystallized polycrystalline samples of carprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, were studied by thermal, spectroscopic, and structural techniques. Our investigations demonstrated that recrystallized sample, stable at room temperature (RT), is a single polymorphic form of carprofen (polymorph I) that undergoes an isostructural polymorphic transformation by heating (polymorph II). Polymorph II remains then metastable at ambient conditions. Commercial sample is instead a mixture of polymorphs I and II. The thermodynamic relationships between the two polymorphs were determined through the construction of an energy/temperature diagram. The ab initio structural determination performed on synchrotron X-Ray powder diffraction patterns recorded at RT on both polymorphs allowed us to elucidate, for the first time, their crystal structure. Both crystallize in the monoclinic space group type P2(1) /c, and the unit cell similarity index and the volumetric isostructurality index indicate that the temperature-induced polymorphic transformation I → II is isostructural. Polymorphs I and II are conformational polymorphs, sharing a very similar hydrogen bond network, but with different conformation of the propanoic skeleton, which produces two different packing. The small conformational change agrees with the low value of transition enthalpy obtained by differential scanning calorimetry measurements and the small internal energy computed with density functional methods. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. In situ thermal properties characterization using frequential methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, O.; Defer, D.; Antczak, E.; Chauchois, A.; Duthoit, B. [Laboratoire dArtois de Mecanique Thermique Instrumentation (LAMTI), FSA Universite dArtois, Technoparc Futura, 62400 Bethune (France)

    2008-07-01

    In numerous fields, especially that of geothermal energy, we need to know about the thermal behaviour of the soil now that the monitoring of renewable forms of energy is an ecological, economic and scientific issue. Thus heat from the soil is widely used for air-conditioning systems in buildings both in Canada and in the Scandinavian countries, and it is spreading. The effectiveness of this technique is based on the soils calorific potential and its thermophysical properties which will define the quality of the exchanges between the soil and a heat transfer fluid. This article puts forward a method to be used for the in situ thermophysical characterisation of a soil. It is based upon measuring the heat exchanges on the surface of the soil and on measuring a temperature a few centimetres below the surface. The system is light, inexpensive, well-suited to the taking of measurements in situ without the sensors used introducing any disturbance into the heat exchanges. Whereas the majority of methods require excitation, the one presented here is passive and exploits natural signals. Based upon a few hours of recording, the natural signals allow us to identify the soils thermophysical properties continuously. The identification is based upon frequency methods the quality of which can be seen when the thermophysical properties are injected into a model with finite elements by means of a comparison of the temperatures modelled and those actually measured on site. (author)

  4. Porous Materials from Thermally Activated Kaolinite: Preparation, Characterization and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, porous alumina/silica materials were prepared by selective leaching of silicon/aluminum constituents from thermal-activated kaolinite in inorganic acid or alkali liquor. The correlations between the characteristics of the prepared porous materials and the dissolution properties of activated kaolinite were also investigated. The results show that the specific surface area (SSA of porous alumina/silica increases with silica/alumina dissolution, but without marked change of the BJH pore size. Furthermore, change in pore volume is more dependent on activation temperature. The porous alumina and silica obtained from alkali leaching of kaolinite activated at 1150 °C for 15 min and acid leaching of kaolinite activated at 850 °C for 15 min are mesoporous, with SSAs, BJH pore sizes and pore volumes of 55.8 m2/g and 280.3 m2/g, 6.06 nm and 3.06 nm, 0.1455 mL/g and 0.1945 mL/g, respectively. According to the adsorption tests, porous alumina has superior adsorption capacities for Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+ compared with porous silica and activated carbon. The maximum capacities of porous alumina for Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+ are 134 mg/g, 183 mg/g and 195 mg/g, respectively, at 30 °C.

  5. Comparative evaluation of thermal decomposition behavior and thermal stability of powdered ammonium nitrate under different atmosphere conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Man; Chen, Xianfeng; Wang, Yujie; Yuan, Bihe; Niu, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Liao, Ruoyu; Zhang, Zumin

    2017-09-05

    In order to analyze the thermal decomposition characteristics of ammonium nitrate (AN), its thermal behavior and stability under different conditions are studied, including different atmospheres, heating rates and gas flow rates. The evolved decomposition gases of AN in air and nitrogen are analyzed with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Thermal stability of AN at different heating rates and gas flow rates are studied by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, paired comparison method and safety parameter evaluation. Experimental results show that the major evolved decomposition gases in air are H 2 O, NH 3 , N 2 O, NO, NO 2 and HNO 3 , while in nitrogen, H 2 O, NH 3 , NO and HNO 3 are major components. Compared with nitrogen atmosphere, lower initial and end temperatures, higher heat flux and broader reaction temperature range are obtained in air. Meanwhile, higher air gas flow rate tends to achieve lower reaction temperature and to reduce thermal stability of AN. Self-accelerating decomposition temperature of AN in air is much lower than that in nitrogen. It is considered that thermostability of AN is influenced by atmosphere, heating rate and gas flow rate, thus changes of boundary conditions will influence its thermostability, which is helpful to its safe production, storage, transportation and utilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quality characteristics and thermal behavior of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L.) oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.L.F.; Chisté, R.C.; Polachini, T.C.; Sardella, L.A.C.Z.; Aranha, C.P.M.; Ribeiro, A.P.B.; Nicoletti, V.R.

    2017-01-01

    This work reports a complete characterization of buriti oil. Physicochemical properties were determined according to AOCS methodologies and thermophysical properties were measured using a controlled stress rheometer and a digital electronic density meter. β-carotene and tocopherol contents were obtained using HPLC systems. Fatty acids and acylglycerol classes were determined using GC and HPSEC systems, respectively, while triacylglycerol composition was estimated using the software PrOleos. Thermal behavior (crystallization and melting) was analyzed using a DSC. The results attested high levels of total carotenoids with β-carotene as the major one; total tocopherols contained α- and β-tocopherols which accounted for 91% of the total; and monounsaturated fatty acids were mainly represented by oleic acid. The results showed close agreement between density and viscosity of buriti and olive oils. The crystallization and melting peaks occurred at -43.06 °C and -2.73 °C, respectively. These properties enable Buriti oil to be recommended as an excellent alternative for enriching foods with bioactive compounds. [es

  7. A new zinc(II supramolecular square: Synthesis, crystal structure, thermal behavior and luminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiu-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new square-shaped Zn(II complex, namely, [Zn4(L4(phen4]•6H2O (1 (L = 2-hydroxynicotinate and phen = 1,10- phenanthroline, has been synthesized under hydrothermal condition. The crystal of 1 belongs to triclinic, space group P -1 with a = 10.773(2 Å, b = 12.641(3 Å, c = 13.573(3 Å, α = 107.44(3º, β = 102.66(3º, γ = 93.89(3°, C72H56N12O18Zn4, Mr = 1638.77, V = 1702.8(6 Å3 , Z = 1, Dc = 1.598 g/cm3 , S = 1.045, μ(MoKα = 1.475 mm-1 , F(000 = 836, R = 0.0472 and wR = 0.0919. In 1, four L ligands bridge four Zn(II atoms to form a square-shaped structure, where four phen ligands are respectively located on four corners of the square. The π-π stacking interactions extend the adjacent squares into a 1D supramolecular chain. The thermal behavior of 1 has been characterized. Moreover, its solid state luminescence property has been studied at room temperature.

  8. Quality characteristics and thermal behavior of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L.F. Freitas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a complete characterization of buriti oil. Physicochemical properties were determined according to AOCS methodologies and thermophysical properties were measured using a controlled stress rheometer and a digital electronic density meter. β-carotene and tocopherol contents were obtained using HPLC systems. Fatty acids and acylglycerol classes were determined using GC and HPSEC systems, respectively, while triacylglycerol composition was estimated using the software PrOleos. Thermal behavior (crystallization and melting was analyzed using a DSC. The results attested high levels of total carotenoids with β-carotene as the major one; total tocopherols contained α- and β-tocopherols which accounted for 91% of the total; and monounsaturated fatty acids were mainly represented by oleic acid. The results showed close agreement between density and viscosity of buriti and olive oils. The crystallization and melting peaks occurred at -43.06 °C and -2.73 °C, respectively. These properties enable Buriti oil to be recommended as an excellent alternative for enriching foods with bioactive compounds.

  9. Restraint behavior of concrete under extreme thermal and hygral conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwesinger, P.; Dommnich, F.

    1989-01-01

    Stresses due to temperature may be a considerable part of the whole loading of the structure especially in reactor vessels, chimneys and other structures. During using of this structures the heating cycle consisting of heating and cooling may be repeated for several times. On the other hand the initial load, the preloading time, the heating rate and the moisture of concrete can differ in respect of the design or utilization of the structure. The effect of this environmental factors on the restraint behavior of concrete is presented in this paper

  10. Characterization of thermal plasmas by laser light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.C.; Lassahn, G.D.; Reynolds, L.D.; Fincke, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Characterization of an atmospheric pressure free-burning arc discharge and a plasma jet by lineshape analysis of scattered laser light is described. Unlike emission spectroscopy, this technique provides direct measurement of plasma gas temperature, electron temperature and electron density without the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Plasma gas velocity can also be determined from the Doppler shift of the scattered laser light. Radial gas temperature, electron temperature and electron density profiles are presented for an atmospheric pressure argon free-burning arc discharge. These results show a significant departure from LTE in the arc column, contradicting results obtained from emission spectroscopy. Radial gas temperature and gas velocity profiles in the exit plane of a subsonic atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet are also presented. In this case, the results show the plasma jet is close to LTE in the center, but not in the fringes. The velocity profile is parabolic

  11. Characterization and luminescent properties of thermally annealed olivines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin-Garcia, Maria; Correcher, Virgilio; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Heredia-Barbero, Alejandro; Roman-Lopez, Jesus; Ortega-Gutierrez, Fernando; Negron-Mendoza, Alicia; Ramos-Bernal, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Olivine is an iron-magnesium solid solution silicate (Mg,Fe) 2 SiO 4 and it is probably one of the most abundant mineral phase in the Solar System, it is present in the primitive carbonaceous meteorites (i.e Allende), and in ordinary chondritic meteorite, comets or terrestrial planets. The olivine grains in those bodies have been exposed to different radiation sources like UV, electrons, cosmic radiation, etc. Here, we explore the effect of ionizing and non ionizing radiation on the luminescence emission of the two well-characterised olivine samples from Mexico and Spain by means of cathodoluminescence and thermoluminescence. The analyses by X-ray dispersive energies in the scanning electron microscopy show differences between the samples in the amount of iron and magnesium and also show traces of rare elements. Olivine exhibits spectral cathodoluminescence emissions of low intensity, explained for the quenching of the luminescence of the iron, and sharp signals assigned as impurities. Cathodoluminescence and thermoluminescence glow curves of the natural, and UV induced olivine samples were obtained. Our results show that thermal treatments at 1100 °C change the mineral molecular structure and the luminescence properties of this mineral phase. These results confirm an active participation of physical factors influencing the luminescent properties of olivine. -- Highlights: ► Luminescent properties of two olivines samples (Mexican and Spanish) were explored. ► EDS show different iron and magnesium content and traces of rare elements on both. ► Olivine exhibits spectral CL emissions of low intensity due to the quenching of iron. ► Treatments at 1100 °C change the mineral structure and its response to UV radiation

  12. Novel dynamic thermal characterization of multifunctional concretes with microencapsulated phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisello, Anna Laura; Fabiani, Claudia; D'Alessandro, Antonella; Cabeza, Luisa F.; Ubertini, Filippo; Cotana, Franco

    2017-04-01

    Concrete is widely applied in the construction sector for its reliable mechanical performance, its easiness of use and low costs. It also appears promising for enhancing the thermal-energy behavior of buildings thanks to its capability to be doped with multifunctional fillers. In fact, key studies acknowledged the benefits of thermally insulated concretes for applications in ceilings and walls. At the same time, thermal capacity also represents a key property to be optimized, especially for lightweight constructions. In this view, Thermal-Energy Storage (TES) systems have been recently integrated into building envelopes for increasing thermal inertia. More in detail, numerical experimental investigations showed how Phase Change materials (PCMs), as an acknowledged passive TES strategy, can be effectively included in building envelope, with promising results in terms of thermal buffer potentiality. In particular, this work builds upon previous papers aimed at developing the new PCM-filled concretes for structural applications and optimized thermalenergy efficiency, and it is focused on the development of a new experimental method for testing such composite materials in thermal-energy dynamic conditions simulated in laboratory by exposing samples to environmentally controlled microclimate while measuring thermal conductivity and diffusivity by means of transient plane source techniques. The key findings show how the new composites are able to increasingly delay the thermal wave with increasing the PCM concentration and how the thermal conductivity varies during the course of the phase change, in both melting and solidification processes. The new analysis produces useful findings in proposing an effective method for testing composite materials with adaptive thermal performance, much needed by the scientific community willing to study building envelopes dynamics.

  13. Experimental thermal behavior of a power plant reheater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, M. Manuela Prieto; Garcia, F. Javier Fernandez; Ramon, Ines Suarez [Departamento de Energia, Universidad de Oviedo, Campus de Viesques, 33204 Gijon, Asturias (Spain); Roces, Hilario Sanchez [Central Termica de Soto de Ribera, Soto de Ribera, Asturias (Spain)

    2006-04-15

    The process conditions of power plant components subjected to high pressures and temperatures are essential to determine their remaining life, availability and efficiency. It is, therefore, expedient to pay special attention to critical components, such as superheater and reheater heat exchangers, headers, and main and reheated steam lines. In this paper, on-line and off-line variables of a power plant reheater that has presented problems of thickness losses and repetitive tube fissures are studied. The fissures are associated with the effect of a thermal-mechanical mechanism. Off-line measurements were taken of the following variables: pressure, temperature, velocity and composition of the gases. On-line instrumentation was completed by the installation of specific thermocouples to ascertain the temperatures in the tubes outlet. Various angles for the fuel inlet of the burners and variations in the number and location of the working burners were also assayed. As a consequence of this analysis, it can be deduced that there are important differences in the outlet temperature of the reheater tubes that decrease for lower powers. Finally, it is pointed that a non-uniform distribution of the steam flow in the reheater might be the cause of the problem. (author)

  14. Loss-of-Fluid Test findings in pressurized water reactor core's thermal-hydraulic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core's thermal-hydraulic behavior findings from experiments performed at the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The potential impact of these findings on the safety and economics of PWR's generation of electricity is also discussed. Reviews of eight important findings in the core's physical behavior and in experimental methods are presented with supporting evidence

  15. Thermal shock behavior of platinum aluminide bond coat/electron beam-physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenhua, E-mail: zhxuciac@163.com [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Dai, Jianwei [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China); Niu, Jing [Shenyang Liming Aero-engine (Group) Corporation Ltd., Institute of Metallurgical Technology, Technical Center, Shengyang 110043 (China); Li, Na; Huang, Guanghong; He, Limin [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Department 5, P.O. Box 81-5, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2014-12-25

    Highlights: • TBCs of (Ni, Pt)Al bond coat with grit blasting process and YSZ ceramic coating. • Grain boundary ridges are the sites for spallation damage initiation in TBCs. • Ridges removed, cavities formation appeared and the damage initiation deteriorated. • Damage initiation and progression at interface lead to a buckling failure. - Abstract: Thermal barrier coating systems (TBCs) including of chemical vapor deposited (Ni, Pt)Al bond coat with grit blasting process and electron beam physical vapor deposited Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized-ZrO{sub 2} (YSZ) ceramic coating were investigated. The phase structures, surface and cross-sectional morphologies, thermal shock behaviors and residual stresses of the coatings were studied in detail. Grain boundary ridges still remain on the surface of bond coat prior to the deposition of the ceramic coating, which are shown to be the major sites for spallation damage initiation in TBCs. When these ridges are mostly removed, they appear some of cavities formation and then the damage initiation mode is deteriorated. Damage initiation and progression occurs at the bond coat to thermally grown oxide (TGO) interface leading to a buckling failure behavior. A buckle failure once started may be arrested when it runs into a region of high bond coat to TGO interface toughness. Thus, complete failure requires further loss in toughness of the bond coat to TGO interface during cooling. The suppressed cavities formation, the removed ridges at the grain boundaries, the relative high TGO to bond coat interface toughness, the uniform growth behavior of TGO thickening and the lower of the residual stress are the primary factors for prolonging the lifetime of TBCs.

  16. Thermal behavior of hazardous and radioactive metals under incineration conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Y.C.; Kang, K.H.; Yang, H.C.; Park, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    The behavior of heavy metals and their effects on air pollution at temperatures up to 900 C under incineration conditions were observed. Pure metals and their oxide compounds, except arsenic, were very stable in the tested range of temperatures. However, the chlorides of some metals were evaporated or decomposed to result in gas emission to the environment at lower temperatures, while other chloride compounds were converted into their stable oxide forms. Evaporation of such compounds were analyzed using an equation of maximum evaporation flux based on the kinetic theory with a fitted parameter, α, the fraction of impinging gas molecules to the condensing surface. Values of α, were obtained in the range of 10 -6 to 10 -9 . Such volatile metal compounds and arsenic must be carefully controlled

  17. Thermal spraying of polyethylene-based polymers: Processing and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterson, David Mark

    This research explores the development of a flame-spray process map as it relates to polymers. This work provides a more complete understanding of the thermal history of the coating material from injection, to deposition and finally to cooling. This was accomplished through precise control of the processing conditions during deposition. Mass flow meters were used to monitor air and fuel flows as they were systematically changed, while temperatures were simultaneously monitored along the length of the flame. A process model was then implemented that incorporated this information along with measured particle velocities, particle size distribution, the polymer's melting temperature and its enthalpy of melting. This computational model was then used to develop a process map that described particle softening, melting and decomposition phenomena as a function of particle size and standoff distance. It demonstrated that changes in particle size caused significant variations in particle states achieved in-flight. A series of experiments were used to determine the range of spray parameters within which a cohesive coating without visible signs of degradation could be sprayed. These results provided additional information that complimented the computational processing map. The boundaries established by these results were the basis for a Statistical Design of Experiments that tested the effects that subtle processing changes had on coating properties. A series of processing maps were developed that combined the computational and the experimental results to describe the manner in which processing parameters interact to determine the degree of melting, polymer degradation and coating porosity. Strong interactions between standoff distance and traverse rate can cause the polymer to degrade and form pores in the coating. A clear picture of the manner in which particle size and standoff distance interact to determine particle melting was provided by combining the computational

  18. Synthesis and characterization of ferrous phosphate (vivianite) and its behavior in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz F, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of materials that can be useful in Environmental Chemistry is very important because their characteristics are exposed and its behavior in chemical phenomena as the sorption in aqueous media is understand to use it in the human being benefit. With the object of using, in a future, the octa hydrated ferrous phosphate (vivianite) as a potential candidate for matrix confinement in contention walls for the storage of radioactive waste of long half life, it was synthesized and it characterized physico chemically and their properties of surface of this compound were evaluated. Presently work was carried out the synthesis and structural characterization of the iron phosphate II by infrared spectroscopy with having Fourier transform, high vacuum scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, the BET multipoint surface area and Moessbauer spectroscopy; as well as, the determination between aqueous media of the isoelectric point and the density of sites of surface of the compound. The octa hydrated ferrous phosphate was obtained pure. The results indicate that the product corresponds to the prospective mineral, the vivianite. The thermal gravimetric analysis demonstrated that the ferrous phosphate is a stable salt after the lost of water. The isoelectric point is since an important parameter because allows to know the behavior of the surface of the material in aqueous systems, in this case the isoelectric point, of the octa hydrated ferrous phosphate, in distilled water is of pH 4.20 and in solution of potassium nitrate 0.5 M is of pH = 3.75. This indicates that the material has an amphoteric surface depending on the pH. On the other hand, the density of active sites of surface obtained by titrations acid-base is of 20 sites by nm 2 . (Author)

  19. Rheological and Thermal Behavior of Polypropylene-Kaolin Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, S.T.; Nor Azura Abdul Rahim; Lan, D.N.U

    2014-01-01

    Kaolins effect on rheological behaviour of polypropylene-kaolin composites was investigated. The research found that not only the kaolin content influence the rheological behaviour but also the compounding using internal mixer and twin screw extruder. In details, viscosity and shear stress increased with addition of kaolin content. These characteristics also exhibited higher in polypropylene-kaolin composite suspensions compounded using twin screw extruder than using internal mixer. Chain scission was assumed to occur and affect the melt properties. Further justification characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) showed that the effect of kaolin and loading content were more evident on the onset melting temperature and crystallinity. Besides, due to the different cooling operation in both processes, the effect of compounding on melting characteristic was conspicuous. (author)

  20. Investigation of bioactivity, biocompatibility and thermal behavior of sol–gel silica glass containing a high PEG percentage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Renella, R.A.; Papale, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Vecchio Ciprioti, S. [Department of Basic and Applied Science for Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, Via del Castro Laurenziano 7, Building RM017, I-00161 Rome (Italy)

    2016-04-01

    SiO{sub 2}/PEG organic–inorganic hybrid materials, which contain 60 or 70 weight percentage of PEG, were synthesized by the sol–gel technique. The materials were characterized and subjected to various tests to assess their application in the biomedical field. The evaluation of their morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirms the homogeneity of the samples on the nanometer scale. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) indicated that the two components of the hybrids (SiO{sub 2} and PEG) are linked by hydrogen bonds. This feature makes them class I hybrids. Simultaneous thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) was used to investigate their thermal behavior and to establish the best temperatures for their pre-treatment. The fundamental properties that a material must have to be used in the biomedical field are biocompatibility and bioactivity. The formation of a hydroxyapatite layer was observed on the hybrid surface by SEM/EDX and FTIR after soaking in simulated body fluid. This indicates that the materials are able to bond to bone tissue. Moreover, the biocompatibility of SiO{sub 2}/PEG hybrids was assessed by performing WST-8 cytotoxicity tests on fibroblast cell NIH 3T3 after 24 h of exposure. The cytotoxicity tests highlight that the cell viability is affected by the polymer percentage. The results showed that the synthesized materials were bioactive and biocompatible. Therefore, the results obtained are encouraging for the use of the obtained hybrids in dental or orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • SiO{sub 2}/PEG hybrid biomaterials synthesized by sol–gel method at high PEG percentage • Chemical, thermal and morphological characterization of hybrid materials • Biological characterizations with WST-8 cytotoxicity tests • Bioactivity characterizations of hybrid materials with high PEG percentage.

  1. Thermal behavior of aerosol particles from biomass burning during the BBOP campaign using transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, K.; Ishimoto, H.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Kleinman, L. I.; Chand, D.; Hubbe, J. M.; Buseck, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol samples were collected from wildland and agricultural biomass fires in North America during the 2013 Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP). We show in-situ shape and size changes and variations in the compositions of individual particles before and after heating using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The responses of aerosol particles to heating are important for measurements of their chemical, physical, and optical properties, classification, and determination of origin. However, the thermal behavior of organic aerosol particles is largely unknown. We provide a method to analyze such thermal behavior through heating from room temperature to >600°C by using a heating holder within TEM. The results indicate that individual tar balls (TB; spherical organic material) from biomass burning retained, on average, up to 30% of their volume when heated to 600°C. Chemical analysis reveals that K and Na remained in the residues, whereas S and O were lost. In contrast to bulk sample measurements of carbonaceous particles using thermal/optical carbon analyzers, our single-particle results imply that many individual organic particles consist of multiple types of organic matter having different thermal stabilities. Our results also suggest that because of their thermal stability, some organic particles may not be detectable by using aerosol mass spectrometry or thermal/optical carbon analyzers. This result can lead to an underestimate of the abundance of TBs and other organic particles, and therefore biomass burning may have a greater influence than is currently recognized in regional and global climate models.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS OF THERMALLY MODIFIED WOOD AND THEIR REDUCTION BY CHEMICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Peters

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment is a suitable method for improving the quality of wood types like spruce, beech or poplar, and thus to open up new fields of application that used to be limited to tropical woods or woods treated with timber preservatives. These thermally treated woods are characterized by a typical odor caused by degradation products of miscellaneous wood components. The characterization and removal of those odorous substances were investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Headspace gas chromatography (GC in combination with solid-phase microextraction (SPME was used for a qualitative analysis of volatile wood emissions, and the detectable volatiles were compared before and after solvent extraction. Wood solvent extractives were investigated by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and then evaluated in terms of changes in composition caused by the thermal treatment process.

  3. Characterization of second generation biomass under thermal conversion and the fate of nitrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giuntoli, J.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the characterization of several biomass materials under thermal conversion conditions using small--scale equipment. The fuels are tested under the conditions of slow and fast heating rate pyrolysis and combustion, with the main goal of investigating the chemistry of

  4. Electrical and thermal characterization of single and multi-finger InP DHBTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midili, Virginio; Nodjiadjim, V.; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the characterization of single and multi-finger Indium Phosphide Double Heterojunction Bipolar transistors (InP DHBTs). It is used as the starting point for technology optimization. Safe Operating Area (SOA) and small signal AC parameters are investigated along with thermal ch...

  5. Estimation of apparent kinetic parameters of polymer pyrolysis with complex thermal degradation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srimachai, Taranee; Anantawaraskul, Siripon

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Thermal degradation behavior during polymer pyrolysis can typically be described using three apparent kinetic parameters (i.e., pre-exponential factor, activation energy, and reaction order). Several efficient techniques have been developed to estimate these apparent kinetic parameters for simple thermal degradation behavior (i.e., single apparent pyrolysis reaction). Unfortunately, these techniques cannot be directly extended to the case of polymer pyrolysis with complex thermal degradation behavior (i.e., multiple concurrent reactions forming single or multiple DTG peaks). In this work, we proposed a deconvolution method to determine the number of apparent reactions and estimate three apparent kinetic parameters and contribution of each reaction for polymer pyrolysis with complex thermal degradation behavior. The proposed technique was validated with the model and experimental pyrolysis data of several polymer blends with known compositions. The results showed that (1) the number of reaction and (2) three apparent kinetic parameters and contribution of each reaction can be estimated reasonably. The simulated DTG curves with estimated parameters also agree well with experimental DTG curves. (author)

  6. Investigation of Thermal Behavior for Natural Fibres Reinforced Epoxy using Thermogravimetric and Differential Scanning Calorimetric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzi F.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented the research works on the investigation of the thermal behavior of the natural fibres; i.e. pineapple leaf fibre, kenaf fibre and mengkuang fibres reinforced epoxy. The thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetric analysis were used to measure the thermal behavior of the treated and untreated pineapple, kenaf and mengkuang fibres reinforced epoxy. The samples for both analysis were subjected to maximum temperature 600°C at the heating rate of 10°C/min. The results showed that the treated fibres show higher maximum peak temperature as compared to the untreated fibres. Additionally, the glass transition temperature showed a lower value for all treated fibre. It can be concluded that investigation of thermal properties of these natural fibres could improve the utilization of natural fibre composites in various applications i.e. sports applications.

  7. Synthesis and Thermal Characterization of Hydroxyapatite Powders Obtained by Sol-Gel Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Flores, Y.; Camacho, N.; Rojas-Trigos, J. B.; Suárez, M.

    The development of bioactive materials presents an interesting and an extremely relevant problem to solve, in the development of customized cranial and maxillofacial prosthesis, bioactive coating, and cements, for example. In such areas, one of the more employed materials is the synthetic hydroxyapatite, due to its proved biocompatibility with the human body; however, there are few studies about the thermal affinity with the biological surroundings, and most of them are centered in the thermal stability of the hydroxyapatite instead of its transient thermal response. In the present paper, the synthesis and physical-chemical characterization of hydroxyapatite samples, obtained by the sol-gel technique employing ultrasonic mixing, are reported. Employing X-ray diffraction patterns, XEDS and FTIR spectra, the crystal symmetry, chemical elements, and the present functional groups of the studied samples were determined and found to correspond to those reported in the literature, with a stoichiometry close to the ideal for biological applications. Additionally, by means of the photoacoustic detection and infrared photothermal radiometry (IPTR) techniques, the thermal response of the samples was obtained. Analyzing the photoacoustic data, the synthetized samples show photoacoustic opaqueness, responding in the thermally thick regime in the measurement range, and their thermal effusivity was also determined, having values of 1.47 folds the thermal effusivity of the mandibular human bone. Finally, from the IPTR measurements, the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of the samples were also determined, having good agreement with the reported values for synthetic hydroxyapatite. The structural and thermophysical properties of the here reported samples show that the synthesized samples have good thermal affinity with the mandibular human bone tissue, and are suitable for biomedical applications.

  8. Open Photoacoustic Cell Configuration Applied to the Thermal Characterization of Liquid CdS Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Nastaran; Mahmood Mat Yunus, W.; Kharazmi, Alireza; Saion, Elias; Behzad, Kasra

    2014-01-01

    CdS nanofluids were prepared by the gamma-radiation method at different radiation doses. The samples were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The open cell photoacoustic technique was used to measure the thermal effusivity of the CdS nanocomposites. In this technique a He-Ne laser was used as the excitation source and was operated at 632.8 nm with an output power of 70 mW. The precision and accuracy of this technique were initially established by measuring the thermal effusivity of distilled water and ethylene glycol. The thermal-effusivity values of these two samples were found to be close to the values reported in the literature. The thermal effusivity of CdS nanofluids decreased from (0.453 to 0.268) with increased dosage of gamma radiation.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of conducting composites of polyaniline and carbon black with high thermal stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio R. Simões

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a detailed chemical route to prepare thermally stable polyaniline (PANI/carbon black (CB composites is described. The syntheses were performed by chemical polymerization of aniline over CB particles, using different PANI/CB mass ratios. The thermal and electrical properties were characterized. Composites with mass ratio up to 65:35 (PANI:CB showed excellent thermal stability maintaining their conducting properties when thermally treated at 230 °C for two hours, which is adequate to process these materials. Moreover, the results showed an important reduction in the surface area of the composites which have a good relationship with the improvement of the rheological properties in melt processing.

  10. Numerical investigation of thermal behaviors in lithium-ion battery stack discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rui; Chen, Jixin; Xun, Jingzhi; Jiao, Kui; Du, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermal behaviors of a Li-ion battery stack have been investigated by modeling. • Parametric studies have been performed focusing on three different cooling materials. • Effects of discharge rate, ambient temperature and Reynolds number are examined. • General guidelines are proposed for the thermal management of a Li-ion battery stack. - Abstract: Thermal management is critically important to maintain the performance and prolong the lifetime of a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery. In this paper, a two-dimensional and transient model has been developed for the thermal management of a 20-flat-plate-battery stack, followed by comprehensive numerical simulations to study the influences of ambient temperature, Reynolds number, and discharge rate on the temperature distribution in the stack with different cooling materials. The simulation results indicate that liquid cooling is generally more effective in reducing temperature compared to phase-change material, while the latter can lead to more homogeneous temperature distribution. Fast and deep discharge should be avoided, which generally yields high temperature beyond the acceptable range regardless of cooling materials. At low or even subzero ambient temperatures, air cooling is preferred over liquid cooling because heat needs to be retained rather than removed. Such difference becomes small when the ambient temperature increases to a mild level. The effects of Reynolds number are apparent in liquid cooling but negligible in air cooling. Choosing appropriate cooling material and strategy is particularly important in low ambient temperature and fast discharge cases. These findings improve the understanding of battery stack thermal behaviors and provide the general guidelines for thermal management system. The present model can also be used in developing control system to optimize battery stack thermal behaviors

  11. Thermal behavior of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-bis-[trimethoxysilylpropyl]amine) networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos Figueroa, L A; Salgado Delgado, R; García Hernandez, E; Vargas Galarza, Z; Rubio Rosas, E; Salgado Rodriguez, R

    2013-01-01

    Poly(HEMA-BisSi) networks were prepared by using acid-catalyzed sol-gel of bis-[trimethoxysilylpropyl]amine (BisSi) and free radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). The thermal properties of the poly(HEMA-BisSi) networks were investigated with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The thermal behavior of these networks was also compared with homopolymers (The networks formed in both PHEMA and PBisSi gels were identified). The glass transition temperature (T g ) of PHEMA homopolymer was found as 103.74 °C. The thermal degradation of the poly(HEMA-BisSi) networks with different silica contents (e.g. 10, 15 and 25 wt%) were evaluated with use of DTG. It was observed that the thermal degradation temperature of poly(HEMA-BisSi) networks changed much with the BisSi content.

  12. Phase Behavior, Thermal Stability and Rheological Properties of PPEK/PC Blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Phase behavior, thermal stability and rheological properties of the blends of poly(phthalazinone ether ketone) (PPEK)with bisphenol-A polycarbonate (PC) prepared by solution coprecipitation were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Frourier-Transform IR spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and capillary rheometer. The DSC results indicated that PPEK/PC blends are almost immiscible in full compositions. FT-IR investigation showed that there were no apparent specific interactions between the constituent polymers. The blends keep excellent thermal stability and the addition of PC degrades the thermal stability of blends to some degree. The thermal degradation processes of the blends are much similar to that of PC. The studies on rheological properties of blends show that blending PPEK with PC is beneficial to reducing the melt viscosity and improving the appearance of PPEK.

  13. Heavy metals behavior during thermal plasma vitrification of incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueira, N.; Vandensteendam, C.; Baronnet, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the developed world, incineration of wastes is widely and increasingly practiced. Worldwide, a total of approximately 100 millions of tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) material is incinerated annually. Incineration of one ton of MSW leads to the formation of 30 to 50 kg of fly ash, depending on the type of incinerator. The waste disposal of these dusts already causes great problems today; they are of low bulk density, they contain high concentrations of hazardous water-soluble heavy metal compounds, organohalogen compounds (dioxines, furanes), sulfur, and chlorinated compounds. Thermal processes, based mainly on electrical arc processes, show great promise: the residues are melted at high temperature and converted in a relatively inert glass. A few tens of plants, essentially in Japan and Taiwan, have been in industrial operation for a few years. To be authorized to be dumped in a common landfill, the glassy product has to satisfy the leaching test procedure to ensure long-term durability. But to satisfy the regulation to be reused, for example as a nonhazardous standard material in road building, the glassy product would probably include contents in some heavy metals lower than critical limits. So today, there are two alternatives: the first one is to improve the heavy toxic metals evaporation to get a 'light' glassy product and to recycle separately the said separated metals; the second is on the contrary to improve the incorporation of a maximum of heavy metals into the vitreous silicate matrix. Whatever, it is highly required to control, in situ and in real time, volatility of these metals during ash melting under electrical arc. The objective of this work was to reach basic data about metals volatility under the plasma column of an electrical arc transferred on the melt: an experiment has been designed to examine the effects of processing conditions, such as melt temperature, melt composition, and furnace atmosphere, upon volatilization and glassy slag

  14. Risperidone – Solid-state characterization and pharmaceutical compatibility using thermal and non-thermal techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Josiane Souza Pereira; Veronez, Isabela Pianna; Rodrigues, Larissa Lopes [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Trevisan, Marcello G. [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); National Institute of Bioanalytics Science and Technology – INCTBio, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, 13084-653, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Garcia, Jerusa Simone, E-mail: jerusa.garcia@unifal-mg.edu.br [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: • DSC was used to characterize Risperidone and study its compatibility with excipients. • FT-IR associated with PCA was used to complement DSC data. • LC analyzes confirmed the DSC and FT-IR/PCA results. • Risperidone was incompatible with three among five excipients evaluated. - Abstract: A full solid-state characterization of risperidone was conducted using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine its physicochemical properties and polymorphism. The primary aim of this work was to study the compatibility of risperidone with pharmaceutical excipients using DSC to obtain and compare the curves of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the excipients with their 1:1 (w/w) binary mixtures. These same binary mixtures were turned to room temperature and analyzed by FT-IR combined with principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate solid-state incompatibilities. The chemical incompatibilities of these samples were verified using a stability-indicating liquid chromatography (LC) method to assay for the API and evaluate the formation of degradation products. All of these methods showed incompatibilities between risperidone and the excipients magnesium stearate, lactose and cellulose microcrystalline.

  15. Thermal-hydraulic behavior on break simulation of steam generator U-tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seul, Kwang Won; Bang, Young Seok; Lee, Sukho; Kim, Hho Jung

    1995-01-01

    The thermal-hydraulic behavior depending on the break simulation in a steam generator U-tube was investigated and identified the code predictability on plant responses during SGTR accident. The calculated results were compared and assessed with LSTF SB-SG-06 test data. The RELAP5/MOD3.1 code well predicted the sequence of events and the significant phenomena, such as the asymmetric loop behavior, the RCS cooldown and heat transfer by the natural circulation, and system depressurization, even though there were some differences from the experimental data. The break flowrate was found to be sensitive to the break model and affected the system behavior

  16. Thermal behavior of biflorin by beans TG and a DSC photovisual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. S. Aragão

    Full Text Available This work proposes thermal characterization, of the biflorine, orto-quinon of Capraria biflora L., through the TG and DSC photovisual data. The thermogravimetric results showed that the decomposition reaction biflorine occurs three steps under air atmosphere, The DSC of biflorin presented five peaks relating to phase transitions. The DSC photovisual system demonstrated changes in biflorin.

  17. Experimental data showing the thermal behavior of a flat roof with phase change material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuç, Ayça; Başaran, Tahsin; Yesügey, S Cengiz

    2015-12-01

    The selection and configuration of building materials for optimal energy efficiency in a building require some assumptions and models for the thermal behavior of the utilized materials. Although the models for many materials can be considered acceptable for simulation and calculation purposes, the work for modeling the real time behavior of phase change materials is still under development. The data given in this article shows the thermal behavior of a flat roof element with a phase change material (PCM) layer. The temperature and energy given to and taken from the building element are reported. In addition the solid-liquid behavior of the PCM is tracked through images. The resulting thermal behavior of the phase change material is discussed and simulated in [1] A. Tokuç, T. Başaran, S.C. Yesügey, An experimental and numerical investigation on the use of phase change materials in building elements: the case of a flat roof in Istanbul, Build. Energy, vol. 102, 2015, pp. 91-104.

  18. Experimental data showing the thermal behavior of a flat roof with phase change material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayça Tokuç

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The selection and configuration of building materials for optimal energy efficiency in a building require some assumptions and models for the thermal behavior of the utilized materials. Although the models for many materials can be considered acceptable for simulation and calculation purposes, the work for modeling the real time behavior of phase change materials is still under development. The data given in this article shows the thermal behavior of a flat roof element with a phase change material (PCM layer. The temperature and energy given to and taken from the building element are reported. In addition the solid–liquid behavior of the PCM is tracked through images. The resulting thermal behavior of the phase change material is discussed and simulated in [1] A. Tokuç, T. Başaran, S.C. Yesügey, An experimental and numerical investigation on the use of phase change materials in building elements: the case of a flat roof in Istanbul, Build. Energy, vol. 102, 2015, pp. 91–104.

  19. Preparation and characterization of molten salt based nanothermic fluids with enhanced thermal properties for solar thermal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madathil, Pramod Kandoth; Balagi, Nagaraj; Saha, Priyanka; Bharali, Jitalaxmi; Rao, Peddy V.C.; Choudary, Nettem V.; Ramesh, Kanaparthi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Prepared and characterized inorganic ternary molten salt based nanothermic fluids. • MoS_2 and CuO nanoparticles incorporated ternary molten salts have been prepared. • Thermal properties enhanced by the addition of MoS_2 and CuO nanoparticles. • The amount of nanoparticles has been optimized. - Abstract: In the current energy scenario, solar energy is attracting considerable attention as a renewable energy source with ample research and commercial opportunities. The novel and efficient technologies in the solar energy are directed to develop methods for solar energy capture, storage and utilization. High temperature thermal energy storage systems can deal with a wide range of temperatures and therefore they are highly recommended for concentrated solar power (CSP) applications. In the present study, a systematic investigation has been carried out to identify the suitable inorganic nanoparticles and their addition in the molten salt has been optimized. In order to enhance the thermo-physical properties such as thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of molten salt based HTFs, we report the utilization of MoS_2 and CuO nanoparticles. The enhancement in the above mentioned thermo-physical properties has been demonstrated for optimized compositions and the morphologies of nanoparticle-incorporated molten salts have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nanoparticle addition to molten salts is an efficient method to prepare thermally stable molten salt based heat transfer fluids which can be used in CSP plants. It is also observed that the sedimentation of nanoparticles in molten salt is negligible compared to that in organic heat transfer fluids.

  20. Effect of moving distance of temperature distribution on thermal ratchetting behavior of a FBR reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, Masahiro; Douzaki, Kouji; Takahashi, Yukio; Ooka, Yuji; Osaki, Toshio; Take, Kouji.

    1992-01-01

    It should be considered in a FBR reactor vessel design that thermal ratchetting might be caused by moving axial thermal gradient, in other words, moving sodium level. The behavior and the mechanism of ratchetting have almost become clear by studies for the past several years. A simplified evaluation method for ratchetting behavior has been proposed. However, the evaluation method has been shown to be excessively conservative by testing results. In this paper, the effect of moving distance of axial temperature distributions, which is one of main factors to be considered in precise estimation of ratchetting behavior, is studied by inelastic analyses. Based on the study, it is proposed to introduce a strain reducing factor taking account of residual stresses in the region of moving axial temperature distribution to the original evaluation method. The new method has been validated by comparing the prediction with results of both testing and the original method. (author)

  1. Using thermal and spectroscopic data to investigate the thermal behavior of epinephrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannach, Gilbert; Cervini, Priscila [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos - IQSC/USP, C.P. 780, CEP 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Cavalheiro, Eder Tadeu Gomes, E-mail: cavalheiro@iqsc.usp.br [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos - IQSC/USP, C.P. 780, CEP 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Ionashiro, Massao [Instituto de Quimica, UNESP, C.P. 355, CEP 14801-970, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2010-02-20

    Epinephrine is a neurotransmitter of the catecholamine class that acts in the mammalian central nervous system. The TG-DTA curves of epinephrine showed that the anhydrous compound starts decomposition at 165 {sup o}C, under the conditions used in this work. The reflectance FTIR spectra and X-ray powder diffraction patterns of epinephrine before and after heating up to 210 {sup o}C, as well as the TG-FTIR spectra of sample heated between 30 and 600 {sup o}C, were obtained and reveled that after heating, structural changes occurred in the sample. At temperatures higher than 205 {sup o}C the thermal decomposition took place with elimination of methylamine in agreement with the first mass loss observed in the TG curve in both air and N{sub 2} atmospheres (TG = 17.0%, calcd. = 17.0%). The melting was observed at 205 {sup o}C (DTA) or 203 {sup o}C (DSC) but this process occurred overlapped with decomposition characteristic of an incongruent melting process.

  2. Behavioral and neurochemical characterization of new mouse model of hyperphenylalaninemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Pascucci

    Full Text Available Hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA refers to all clinical conditions characterized by increased amounts of phenylalanine (PHE in blood and other tissues. According to their blood PHE concentrations under a free diet, hyperphenylalaninemic patients are commonly classified into phenotypic subtypes: classical phenylketonuria (PKU (PHE > 1200 µM/L, mild PKU (PHE 600-1200 µM/L and persistent HPA (PHE 120-600 µM/L (normal blood PHE < 120 µM/L. The current treatment for hyperphenylalaninemic patients is aimed to keep blood PHE levels within the safe range of 120-360 µM/L through a PHE-restricted diet, difficult to achieve. If untreated, classical PKU presents variable neurological and mental impairment. However, even mildly elevated blood PHE levels, due to a bad compliance to dietary treatment, produce cognitive deficits involving the prefrontal cortical areas, extremely sensible to PHE-induced disturbances. The development of animal models of different degrees of HPA is a useful tool for identifying the metabolic mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits induced by PHE. In this paper we analyzed the behavioral and biochemical phenotypes of different forms of HPA (control, mild-HPA, mild-PKU and classic-PKU, developed on the base of plasma PHE concentrations. Our results demonstrated that mice with different forms of HPA present different phenotypes, characterized by increasing severity of behavioral symptoms and brain aminergic deficits moving from mild HPA to classical PKU forms. In addition, our data identify preFrontal cortex and amygdala as the most affected brain areas and confirm the highest susceptibility of brain serotonin metabolism to mildly elevated blood PHE.

  3. Effect of biomimetic non-smooth unit morphology on thermal fatigue behavior of H13 hot-work tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chao; Zhou, Hong; Cong, Dalong; Wang, Chuanwei; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Zhihui; Ren, Luquan

    2012-06-01

    The thermal fatigue behavior of hot-work tool steel processed by a biomimetic coupled laser remelting process gets a remarkable improvement compared to untreated sample. The 'dowel pin effect', the 'dam effect' and the 'fence effect' of non-smooth units are the main reason of the conspicuous improvement of the thermal fatigue behavior. In order to get a further enhancement of the 'dowel pin effect', the 'dam effect' and the 'fence effect', this study investigated the effect of different unit morphologies (including 'prolate', 'U' and 'V' morphology) and the same unit morphology in different sizes on the thermal fatigue behavior of H13 hot-work tool steel. The results showed that the 'U' morphology unit had the optimum thermal fatigue behavior, then the 'V' morphology which was better than the 'prolate' morphology unit; when the unit morphology was identical, the thermal fatigue behavior of the sample with large unit sizes was better than that of the small sizes.

  4. Thermal analysis and microstructural characterization of Mg-Al-Zn system alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, M.; Tański, T.; Sitek, W.

    2015-11-01

    The influence of Zn amount and solidification rate on the characteristic temperature of the evaluation of magnesium dendrites during solidification at different cooling rates (0.6-2.5°C) were examined by thermal derivative analysis (TDA). The dendrite coherency point (DCP) is presented with a novel approach based on second derivative cooling curve. Solidification behavior was examined via one thermocouple thermal analysis method. Microstructural assessments were described by optical light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. These studies showed that utilization of d2T/dt2 vs. the time curve methodology provides for analysis of the dendrite coherency point

  5. N Reactor thermal plume characterization during Pu-only mode of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, R.M.; Thompson, F.L.; Whelan, G.

    1983-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) performed field and modeling studies -from March 1982 through June 1983 to characterize the thermal plume from the N Reactor heated water outfall while the N Reactor operated in the Pu-only mode. Part 1 of this report deals with the field studies conducted to characterize the N Reactor thermal plume while in the Pu-only mode of operation. It includes a description of the study area, a description of field tasks and procedures, and data collection results and discussion. Part 2 describes the computer simulation of the thermal plume under different flow conditions and the calibration of the model used. It includes a description of the computer model and the assumptions on which it is based, a presentation of the input data used in this application, and a discussion of modeling results. Because the field studies were restricted by the NPOES permit variance to the spring months when high Columbia River flows prevail the mathematical modeling of the N Reactor thermal plume while the reactor operates in the Pu-only mode is instrumental in characterizing the plume during low Columbia River flows.

  6. Cracking behavior of thermally aged and irradiated CF-8 cast austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y., E-mail: Yiren_Chen@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Alexandreanu, B.; Chen, W.-Y.; Natesan, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Li, Z.; Yang, Y. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Rao, A.S. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    To assess the combined effect of thermal aging and neutron irradiation on the cracking behavior of CF-8 cast austenitic stainless steel, crack growth rate (CGR) and fracture toughness J-R curve tests were carried out on compact-tension specimens in high-purity water with low dissolved oxygen. Both unaged and thermally aged specimens were irradiated at ∼320 °C to 0.08 dpa. Thermal aging at 400 °C for 10,000 h apparently had no effect on the corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking behavior in the test environment. The cracking susceptibility of CF-8 was not elevated significantly by neutron irradiation at 0.08 dpa. Transgranular cleavage-like cracking was the main fracture mode during the CGR tests, and a brittle morphology of delta ferrite was often seen on the fracture surfaces at the end of CGR tests. The fracture toughness J-R curve tests showed that both thermal aging and neutron irradiation can induce significant embrittlement. The loss of fracture toughness due to neutron irradiation was more pronounced in the unaged than aged specimens. After neutron irradiation, the fracture toughness values of the unaged and aged specimens were reduced to a similar level. G-phase precipitates were observed in the aged and irradiated specimens with or without prior aging. The similar microstructural changes resulting from thermal aging and irradiation suggest a common microstructural mechanism of inducing embrittlement in CF-8.

  7. Passenger thermal comfort and behavior: a field investigation in commercial aircraft cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, W; Wu, T; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y

    2017-01-01

    Passengers' behavioral adjustments warrant greater attention in thermal comfort research in aircraft cabins. Thus, a field investigation on 10 commercial aircrafts was conducted. Environment measurements were made and a questionnaire survey was performed. In the questionnaire, passengers were asked to evaluate their thermal comfort and record their adjustments regarding the usage of blankets and ventilation nozzles. The results indicate that behavioral adjustments in the cabin and the use of blankets or nozzle adjustments were employed by 2/3 of the passengers. However, the thermal comfort evaluations by these passengers were not as good as the evaluations by passengers who did not perform any adjustments. Possible causes such as differences in metabolic rate, clothing insulation and radiation asymmetry are discussed. The individual difference seems to be the most probable contributor, suggesting possibly that passengers who made adjustments had a narrower acceptance threshold or a higher expectancy regarding the cabin environment. Local thermal comfort was closely related to the adjustments and significantly influenced overall thermal comfort. Frequent flying was associated with lower ratings for the cabin environment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Analysis of the thermal behavior of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Salvatore; D’Alessandro, Vincenzo; Costagliola, Maurizio; Sasso, Grazia; Rinaldi, Niccolò

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The thermal behavior of advanced multifinger AlGaN/GaN HEMTs grown on SiC is analyzed. ► The study is performed through accurate FEM simulations and DC/dynamic measurements. ► The FEM analysis is supported by an in-house tool devised for a smart mesh generation. ► Illustrative technology/layout guidelines to minimize the thermal issues are provided. - Abstract: The thermal behavior of state-of-the-art multifinger AlGaN/GaN HEMTs grown on SiC is thoroughly analyzed under steady-state and dynamic conditions. Accurate 3-D FEM simulations – based on a novel in-house tool devised to automatically build the device mesh – are performed using a commercial software to explore the influence of various layout and technological solutions on the temperature field. An in-house routine is employed to determine the Foster/Cauer networks suited to describe the dynamic heat propagation through the device structure. To conclude, various experimental techniques are employed to assess the thermal resistance and to allow the monitoring of the thermal impedance versus time of the transistors under test.

  9. Effect of Thermal Environment on the Mechanical Behaviors of Building Marble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijian Su

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature and thermal environment can influence the mechanical properties of building materials worked in the civil engineering, for example, concrete, building rock, and steel. This paper examines standard cylindrical building marble specimens (Φ50 × 100 mm that were treated with high temperatures in two different thermal environments: vacuum (VE and airiness (AE. Uniaxial compression tests were also carried out on those specimens after heat treatment to study the effect that the thermal environment has on mechanical behaviors. With an increase in temperature, the mechanical behavior of marble in this study indicates a critical temperature of 600°C. Both the peak stress and elasticity modulus were larger for the VE than they were for the AE. The thermal environment has an obvious influence on the mechanical properties, especially at temperatures of 450∼750°C. The failure mode of marble specimens under uniaxial compression is mainly affected by the thermal environment at 600°C.

  10. Swelling behavior of several bituminous coals and their thermally treated coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Heng-fu; Cao, Mei-xia; Wang, Zhi-cai [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The swelling behavior in different solvents of 4 bituminous coals with different ranks and their residues from extraction by CS{sub 2}/NMP mixed solvent (l:1 in volume) were measured. The change in swelling property of the four coals thermally treated at different temperature was observed. The results show that the swelling ratio decreases with increasing rank of coal. For lower rank bituminous coals the swelling ratios in polar solvent are higher than those in non-polar solvent, and this difference decreases with increasing rank. The cross-linking densities of the four residues decrease, and the swelling ratios increase compared with those of raw coals. The swelling ratios of the four thermally treated coals under 150{sup o}C in CS{sub 2} increase, suggesting the decrease in crosslinking density of them. When the thermal treatment temperature increases to 240{sup o}C, the swelling rations of the other three coals in NMP and CS{sub 2} increase again except gas coal, demonstrating the further decrease in crosslinking density. This result is coincident with the extraction yield change in the mixed solvent of the thermally treated coal. For example, the extraction yield of lean coal treated at 240{sup o}C increases from 6.9% to 17.3%. FT-IR results show the removal of oxygen group of the thermally treated coals. This may explain the increase in swelling ratio and extraction yield in the mixed solvent of coal after thermal treatment. The cross-linking density of the thermally treated coal decreases because of the break of hydrogen bonds due to removal of C = 0 and -OH oxygen groups during the thermal treatment, resulting in the increases of swelling ratio and extraction yield in the mixed solvent of thermally treated coal compared with those of raw coal. 15 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Characterization of PTO and Idle Behavior for Utility Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Adam W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Konan, Arnaud M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Eric S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    This report presents the results of analyses performed on utility vehicle data composed primarily of aerial lift bucket trucks sampled from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to characterize power takeoff (PTO) and idle operating behavior for utility trucks. Two major data sources were examined in this study: a 75-vehicle sample of Odyne electric PTO (ePTO)-equipped vehicles drawn from multiple fleets spread across the United States and 10 conventional PTO-equipped Pacific Gas and Electric fleet vehicles operating in California. Novel data mining approaches were developed to identify PTO and idle operating states for each of the datasets using telematics and controller area network/onboard diagnostics data channels. These methods were applied to the individual datasets and aggregated to develop utilization curves and distributions describing PTO and idle behavior in both absolute and relative operating terms. This report also includes background information on the source vehicles, development of the analysis methodology, and conclusions regarding the study's findings.

  12. Use of Distributed Temperature Sensing Technology to Characterize Fire Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Cram

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the potential of a fiber optic cable connected to distributed temperature sensing (DTS technology to withstand wildland fire conditions and quantify fire behavior parameters. We used a custom-made ‘fire cable’ consisting of three optical fibers coated with three different materials—acrylate, copper and polyimide. The 150-m cable was deployed in grasslands and burned in three prescribed fires. The DTS system recorded fire cable output every three seconds and integrated temperatures every 50.6 cm. Results indicated the fire cable was physically capable of withstanding repeated rugged use. Fiber coating materials withstood temperatures up to 422 °C. Changes in fiber attenuation following fire were near zero (−0.81 to 0.12 dB/km indicating essentially no change in light gain or loss as a function of distance or fire intensity over the length of the fire cable. Results indicated fire cable and DTS technology have potential to quantify fire environment parameters such as heat duration and rate of spread but additional experimentation and analysis are required to determine efficacy and response times. This study adds understanding of DTS and fire cable technology as a potential new method for characterizing fire behavior parameters at greater temporal and spatial scales.

  13. Creep Aging Behavior Characterization of 2219 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the creep behaviors of 2219 aluminum alloy at different temperatures and stress levels, a RWS-50 Electronic Creep Testing Machine (Zhuhai SUST Electrical Equipment Company, Zhuhai, China was used for creep experiment at temperatures of 353~458 k and experimental stresses of 130~170 MPa. It was discovered that this alloy displayed classical creep curve characteristics in its creep behaviors within the experimental parameters, and its creep value increased with temperature and stress. Based on the creep equation of hyperbolic sine function, regression analysis was conducted of experimental data to calculate stress exponent, creep activation energy, and other related variables, and a 2219 aluminum alloy creep constitutive equation was established. Results of further analysis of the creep mechanism of the alloy at different temperatures indicated that the creep mechanism of 2219 aluminum alloy differed at different temperatures; and creek characteristics were presented in three stages at different temperatures, i.e., the grain boundary sliding creep mechanism at a low temperature stage (T < 373 K, the dislocation glide creep mechanism at a medium temperature stage (373 K ≤ T < 418 K, and the dislocation climb creep mechanism at a high temperature stage (T ≥ 418 K. By comparative analysis of the fitting results and experiment data, they were found to be in agreement with the experimental data, revealing that the established creep constitutive equation is suitable for different temperatures and stresses.

  14. Structural properties, deformation behavior and thermal stability of martensitic Ti-Nb alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boenisch, Matthias

    2016-06-10

    Ti-Nb alloys are characterized by a diverse metallurgy which allows obtaining a wide palette of microstructural configurations and physical properties via careful selection of chemical composition, heat treatment and mechanical processing routes. The present work aims to expand the current state of knowledge about martensite forming Ti-Nb alloys by studying 15 binary Ti-c{sub Nb}Nb (9 wt.% ≤ c{sub Nb} ≤ 44.5 wt.%) alloy formulations in terms of their structural and mechanical properties, as well as their thermal stability. The crystal structures of the martensitic phases, α{sup '} and α'', and the influence of the Nb content on the lattice (Bain) strain and on the volume change related to the β → α{sup '}/α'' martensitic transformations are analyzed on the basis of Rietveld-refinements. The magnitude of the shuffle component of the β → α{sup '}/α'' martensitic transformations is quantified in relation to the chemical composition. The largest transformation lattice strains are operative in Nb-lean alloys. Depending on the composition, both a volume dilatation and contraction are encountered and the volume change may influence whether hexagonal martensite α{sup '} or orthorhombic martensite α'' forms from β upon quenching. The mechanical properties and the deformation behavior of martensitic Ti-Nb alloys are studied by complementary methods including monotonic and cyclic uniaxial compression, nanoindentation, microhardness and impulse excitation technique. The results show that the Nb content strongly influences the mechanical properties of martensitic Ti-Nb alloys. The elastic moduli, hardness and strength are minimal in the vicinity of the limiting compositions bounding the interval in which orthorhombic martensite α'' forms by quenching. Uniaxial cyclic compressive testing demonstrates that the elastic properties of strained samples are different than those of unstrained ones

  15. Thermal and Chemical Characterization of Non-Metallic Materials Using Coupled Thermogravimetric Analysis and Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is widely employed in the thermal characterization of non-metallic materials, yielding valuable information on decomposition characteristics of a sample over a wide temperature range. However, a potential wealth of chemical information is lost during the process, with the evolving gases generated during thermal decomposition escaping through the exhaust line. Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a powerful analytical technique for determining many chemical constituents while in any material state, in this application, the gas phase. By linking these two techniques, evolving gases generated during the TGA process are directed into an appropriately equipped infrared spectrometer for chemical speciation. Consequently, both thermal decomposition and chemical characterization of a material may be obtained in a single sample run. In practice, a heated transfer line is employed to connect the two instruments while a purge gas stream directs the evolving gases into the FT-IR. The purge gas can be either high purity air or an inert gas such as nitrogen to allow oxidative and pyrolytic processes to be examined, respectively. The FT-IR data is collected realtime, allowing continuous monitoring of chemical compositional changes over the course of thermal decomposition. Using this coupled technique, an array of diverse materials has been examined, including composites, plastics, rubber, fiberglass epoxy resins, polycarbonates, silicones, lubricants and fluorocarbon materials. The benefit of combining these two methodologies is of particular importance in the aerospace community, where newly developing materials have little available data with which to refer. By providing both thermal and chemical data simultaneously, a more definitive and comprehensive characterization of the material is possible. Additionally, this procedure has been found to be a viable screening technique for certain materials, with the generated data useful in

  16. Thermal Characterization of Lauric-Stearic Acid/Expanded Graphite Eutectic Mixture as Phase Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Zhang, Peng; Meng, Zhaonan; Li, Ming

    2015-04-01

    The eutectic mixture of lauric acid (LA) and stearic acid (SA) is a desirable phase change material (PCM) due to the constant melting temperature and large latent heat. However, its poor thermal conductivity has hampered its broad utilization. In the present study, pure LA, SA and the mixtures with various mass fractions of LA-SA were used as the basic PCMs, and 10 wt% expanded graphite (EG) was added to enhance the thermal conductivities. The phase change behaviors, microstructural analysis, thermal conductivities and thermal stabilities of the mixtures of PCMs were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), transient plane source (TPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The results show that the LA-SA binary mixture of mixture ratio of 76.3 wt%: 23.7 wt% forms an eutectic mixture, which melts at 38.99 °C and has a latent heat of 159.94 J/g. The melted fatty acids are well absorbed by the porous network of EG and they have a good thermal stability. Furthermore, poor thermal conductivities can be well enhanced by the addition of EG.

  17. Physico-chemical characterization of slag waste coming from GICC thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, A.; Aineto, M.; Iglesias, I. [Laboratory of Applied Mineralogy, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real Madrid (Spain); Romero, M.; Rincon, J.Ma. [The Glass-Ceramics Laboratory, Insituto Eduardo Torroja de Ciencias de la Construccion, CSIC, c/Serrano Galvache s/n, 28033, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-09-01

    The new gas installations of combined cycle (GICC) thermal power plants for production of electricity are more efficient than conventional thermal power plants, but they produce a high quantity of wastes in the form of slags and fly ashes. Nowadays, these by-products are stored within the production plants with, until now, no applications of recycling in other industrial processes. In order to evaluate the capability of these products for recycling in glass and ceramics inductory, an investigation for the full characterization has been made by usual physico-chemical methods such as: chemical analysis, mineralogical analysis by XRD, granulometry, BET, DTA/TG, heating microscopy and SEM/EDX.

  18. Thermal release behavior of helium from copper irradiated by He+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, T.; Tokura, S.; Yamanaka, S.; Miyake, M.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal release behavior of helium from copper irradiated by 20 keV He + ions with a dose of 2x10 15 to 3x10 17 ions/cm 2 has been studied. The shape of the thermal release curves and thew number of helium release peaks strongly depend on the irradiation dose. Results from SEM surface observastion after post-irradiation heating suggested that helium release caused various surface damages such as blistering, flaking, and hole formation. Helium release resulting in small holes was analyzed and helium bubble growth mechanisms are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Thermal degradation and isothermal crystalline behavior of poly(trimethylene terephthalate)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Liu; Shu Guang Bian; Min Xiao; Shuan Jin Wang; Yue Zhong Meng

    2009-01-01

    Poly(trimethylene terephthalate)(PTT)is an excellent fiber material.Its thermal degradation and isothermal crystalline behaviors were in this study investigated using thermogravimetric analysis(TGA),thermogravimetric analysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(TGA-FTIR)analysis,differential scanning calorimetry(DSC)and X-ray diffraction(XRD).The thermal degradation mechanism of PTT follows Mclafferty rearrangement principle.The PTT with intrinsicviscosity(IV)of 0.74 dL/g has a maximum crystallinity of about 55%at 190℃,as demonstrated by DSC and XRD measurements consistently.

  20. Behavior of deep flaws in a thick-wall cylinder under thermal shock loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheverton, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Behavior of inner-surface flaws in thick-walled vessels was studied in a 991-mm OD x 152 mm wall x 1220 mm length cylinder with toughness properties similar to those for HSST Plate. The initial temperature of 93 0 C and a thermal shock medium of liquid nitrogen (-197 0 C) were employed. The initial flaw selected was a sharp, 16 mm deep, long (1220 mm) axial crack. Crack arrest methodology was shown to be valid for deep flaws under severe thermal shock

  1. Characterization of the internal background for thermal and fast neutron detection with CLLB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolf, Richard S., E-mail: richard.woolf@nrl.navy.mil; Phlips, Bernard F.; Wulf, Eric A.

    2016-12-01

    We report on a set of experiments conducted to determine what effects, if any, the internal background in the CLLB scintillation detector has on the thermal neutron detection performance. We conducted source measurements using an unmoderated and moderated {sup 252}Cf neutron/γ-ray source and long (48-h), unshielded and shielded, background measurements to characterize the internal background with and without a source present. These measurements allowed us to determine the 2-d event selections needed to isolate the thermal neutron peak observed in pulse shape vs. energy space and apply those selections to our background measurements. Our results indicate that the thermal neutron detection capabilities of the CLLB are marginally affected by the presence of internal background. An unmoderated 113-µCi {sup 252}Cf source at 15 cm from the detector yields a thermal neutron rate of 8×10{sup −2}/s cm{sup 3}, while moderating the source with 5 cm of polyethylene yields a thermal neutron rate of 5.5×10{sup −1}/s cm{sup 3}. The measured background rate for events that fall within the selected thermal neutron region is 1.2×10{sup −3}/s cm{sup 3}. Lastly, the potential for CLLB for detecting fast neutrons was investigated.

  2. Thermal property characterization of fine fibers by the 3-omega technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Changhu; Jensen, Colby; Munro, Troy; White, Benjamin; Ban, Heng; Chirtoc, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    The 3 omega method is one of few reliable measurement techniques for thermal characterization of micro to nanoscale suspended wires or fibers and has been applied for measurements of carbon nanotubes and silicon nanowires. However, the models described in the past were either complicated for analysis or simplified from a more complete solution. In addition, the past models cannot be implemented directly when using a more reliable measurement configuration with a Wheatstone bridge. In this work, a simpler, explicit model, is developed to describe the heat transfer process through a suspended wire for measurement of its thermal properties. Generic trends and values of the 3ω harmonic voltage amplitude and phase responses clearly indicate the frequency limits for thermal conductivity and heat capacity determination and ideal conditions for thermal diffusivity estimation. Based on a sensitivity analysis, these limits are confirmed and appropriate frequency ranges for thermal conductivity and diffusivity are recommended. Radiation influence on the measurement results is quantified and correlated to a dimensionless radiation parameter. Two methods are presented to determine sample thermal properties independent of lateral heat losses and validated by numerical experiments using COMSOL. Uncertainty analysis was also derived by Taylor series expansion with calculated parameter sensitivities. - Highlights: • An improved model for suspended wire 3 omega measurement. • Quantification on the radiation induced measurement error. • Numerical simulation validating the improved model. • Sensitivity analysis to find measurement range minimizing uncertainty

  3. Synthesis, characterization and thermal properties of paraffin microcapsules modified with nano-Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xiang; Luo, Ruilian; Peng, Feifei; Fang, Yutang; Akiyama, Tomohiro; Wang, Shuangfeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel MEPCM modified with nano-Al 2 O 3 was prepared via emulsion polymerization. • The paraffin microcapsules presented a well-defined microstructure. • The composite achieved high encapsulation efficiency. • The thermal conductivity of MEPCM was enhanced due to the nano-Al 2 O 3 particles. - Abstract: A sort of new microencapsulated phase change materials (MEPCM) based on paraffin wax core and poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methyl acrylate) shell with nano alumina (nano-Al 2 O 3 ) inlay was synthesized through emulsion polymerization. Various techniques were used to characterize the as-prepared products so as to investigate the effect of nano-Al 2 O 3 on morphology and thermal performance, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and thermal conductivity measurement. The results showed that the products achieved the best performance with 16% (monomer mass) nano-Al 2 O 3 added under the optimal preparation conditions. The DSC results indicated that the phase change temperature of the composite exhibited appropriate phase change temperature and achieved high encapsulation efficiency. The thermal conductivity of the paraffin microcapsules is also significantly improved owing to the presence of high thermal conductive nano-Al 2 O 3 . This synthetic technique can be a perspective way to prepare the MEPCM with enhanced thermal transfer and phase change properties for potential applications to energy-saving building materials

  4. Experimental characterization of HOTNES: A new thermal neutron facility with large homogeneity area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedogni, R., E-mail: roberto.bedogni@lnf.infn.it [INFN–LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Sperduti, A. [INFN–LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi n. 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Pietropaolo, A.; Pillon, M. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi n. 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Pola, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); INFN–Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gómez-Ros, J.M. [INFN–LNF, via E. Fermi n. 40, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-01-21

    A new thermal neutron irradiation facility, called HOTNES (HOmogeneous Thermal NEutron Source), was established in the framework of a collaboration between INFN-LNF and ENEA-Frascati. HOTNES is a polyethylene assembly, with about 70 cmx70 cm square section and 100 cm height, including a large, cylindrical cavity with diameter 30 cm and height 70 cm. The facility is supplied by a {sup 241}Am-B source located at the bottom of this cavity. The facility was designed in such a way that the iso-thermal-fluence surfaces, characterizing the irradiation volume, coincide with planes parallel to the cavity bottom. The thermal fluence rate across a given isofluence plane is as uniform as 1% on a disk with 30 cm diameter. Thermal fluence rate values from about 700 cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} to 1000 cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} can be achieved. The facility design, previously optimized by Monte Carlo simulation, was experimentally verified. The following techniques were used: gold activation foils to assess the thermal fluence rate, semiconductor-based active detector for mapping the irradiation volume, and Bonner Sphere Spectrometer to determine the complete neutron spectrum. HOTNES is expected to be attractive for the scientific community involved in neutron metrology, neutron dosimetry and neutron detector testing.

  5. Thermal fatigue behavior of C/C composites modified by SiC-MoSi2-CrSi2 coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Yanhui; Fu Qiangang; Li Hejun; Li Kezhi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The low-density C/C composites were modified by SiC-MoSi 2 -CrSi 2 multiphase coating by pack cementation. → The thermal fatigue behavior of the modified C/C composites was studied after undergoing thermal cycling for 20 times under the different environments. → The decrease of the flexural strength of the modified C/C composites during thermal cycle in air was primarily attributed to the partial oxidation of the modified C/C samples. - Abstract: Carbon/carbon (C/C) composites were modified by SiC-MoSi 2 -CrSi 2 multiphase coating by pack cementation, and their thermal fatigue behavior under thermal cycling in Ar and air environments was investigated. The modified C/C composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results of tests show that, after 20-time thermal cycles between 1773 K and room temperature in Ar environment, the flexural strength of modified C/C samples decreased lightly and the percentage of remaining strength was 94.92%. While, after thermal cycling between 1773 K and room temperature in air for 20 times, the weight loss of modified C/C samples was 5.1%, and the flexural strength of the modified C/C samples reduced obviously and the percentage of remaining strength was only 75.22%. The fracture mode of modified C/C samples changed from a brittle behavior to a pseudo-plastic one as the service environment transformed from Ar to air. The decrease of the flexural strength during thermal cycle in air was primarily attributed to the partial oxidation of modified C/C samples.

  6. Thermal stability of the French nuclear waste glass - long term behavior modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlhac, X.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal stability of the French nuclear waste glass was investigated experimentally and by modeling to predict its long-term evolution at low temperature. The crystallization mechanisms were analyzed by studying devitrification in the supercooled liquid. Three main crystalline phases were characterized (CaMoO 4 , CeCO 2 , ZnCr 2 O 4 ). Their crystallisation was TO 4.24 wt%, due to the low concentration of the constituent elements. The nucleation and growth curves showed that platinoid elements catalysed nucleation but did not affect growth, which was governed by volume diffusion. The criteria of classic nucleation theory were applied to determine the thermodynamic and diffusional activation energies. Viscosity measurements illustrate the analogy between the activation energy of viscous flow and diffusion, indicating control of crystallization by viscous flow phenomena. The combined action of nucleation and growth was assessed by TTT plots, revealing a crystallization equilibrium line that enables the crystallized fractions to be predicted over the long term. The authors show that hetero-genetics catalyze the transformation without modifying the maximum crystallized fraction. A kinetic model was developed to describe devitrification in the glass based on the nucleation and growth curves alone. The authors show that the low-temperature growth exhibits scale behavior (between time and temperature) similar to thermo-rheological simplicity. The analogy between the resulting activation energy and that of the viscosity was used to model growth on the basis of viscosity. After validation with a simplified (BaO 2 SiO 2 ) glass, the model was applied to the containment glass. The result indicated that the glass remained completely vitreous after a cooling scenario with the one measured at the glass core. Under isothermal conditions, several million years would be required to reach the maximum theoretical crystallization fraction. (author)

  7. A metric for characterizing the effectiveness of thermal mass in building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talyor, Robert A.; Miner, Mark

    2014-01-01

    which products could best improve the thermal behavior of the structure

  8. Effects of Covalent Functionalization of MWCNTs on the Thermal Properties and Non-Isothermal Crystallization Behaviors of PPS Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myounguk Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a PPS/MWCNTs composite was prepared with poly(phenylene sulfide (PPS, as well as pristine and covalent functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs via melt-blending techniques. Moreover, the dispersion of the MWCNTs on the PPS matrix was improved by covalent functionalization as can be seen from a Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM images. The thermal properties of the PPS/MWCNTs composites were characterized using a thermal conductivity analyzer, and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. To analyze the crystallization behavior of polymers under conditions similar with those in industry, the non-isothermal crystallization behaviors of the PPS/MWCNTs composites were confirmed using various kinetic equations, such as the modified Avrami equation and Avrami-Ozawa combined equation. The crystallization rate of PPS/1 wt % pristine MWCNTs composite (PPSP1 was faster because of the intrinsic nucleation effect of the MWCNTs. However, the crystallization rates of the composites containing covalently-functionalized MWCNTs were slower than PPSP1 because of the destruction of the MWCNTs graphitic structure via covalent functionalization. Furthermore, the activation energies calculated by Kissinger’s method were consistently decreased by covalent functionalization.

  9. Derivatization, characterization, and tribological behavior of an amine-terminated polymer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, S.L.; Yang, S.R.; Zhao, Y.P.

    2004-01-01

    The derivatization, characterization, and micro-tribological behavior of an amine-terminated polymer surface were investigated. Thus, the heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA) derivatized film was characterized by means of contact-angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the HFBA-derivatized film was generated on the PEI surface in the presence of a chemical amide bond. The tribological properties were characterized as well. The polymer PEI film had relative high adhesion, friction, and poor anti-wear ability, while the HFBA-derivatized polymer film possessed a very low adhesive force of only about 5.5 nN (a pyramidal Si 3 N 4 tip with radius of curvature about 50 nm was used to measure the adhesion), which was more than an order of magnitude lower than that of the silicon substrate surface. Besides, the HFBA-derivatized film registered good friction-reducing ability and thermal stability. Thus, a good alternative method was presented to improve the tribological properties of polymer film by chemisorbing molecules with low surface energy. This makes it feasible for the derivatized polymer film to find promising application in resolving the tribological problems of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS)

  10. Preparation, flame retardancy and thermal behavior of a novel UV-curable coating containing phosphorus and nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Weiyi; Song Lei; Lv Pin; Jie Ganxin; Wang Xin; Lv Xiaoqi; Hu Yuan

    2010-01-01

    A novel phosphorus monomer, 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol acryloyloxyethyl phosphate (DPHA), has been synthesized through phosphorus oxychloride reacting with neopentyl glycol and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA). Its structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR) and 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 31 P NMR). A series of UV-curable resins were manufactured by blending DPHA with triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA) at different weight ratio. The fire performance was examined by Microscale Combustion Calorimetry (MCC). The results obtained from MCC indicated that the addition of DPHA to TGICA decreased the peak heat release rate (PHRR), heat release capacity (HRC) and total heat of combustion (THC). The char residues of the composites were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermal decomposition behavior of DPHA/TGICA composites was characterized by using thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TGA-IR). The test results indicated that when the weight ratio of DPHA: TGICA = 1/1, the onset temperature of the composite was highest and the largest char residue at 700 deg. C was observed. The change of chemical structure during the thermal degradation process was monitored by real-time FTIR analysis. TGA-IR results indicated that the evolved products were CO, CO 2 , water, NH 3 , carbonyl, phosphorus oxides and aromatic compounds according to the temperature of onset formation.

  11. Preparation, flame retardancy and thermal behavior of a novel UV-curable coating containing phosphorus and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing Weiyi [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren' ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Song Lei [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lv Pin; Jie Ganxin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Adaptability for Industrial Products, China National Electric Apparatus Research Institute, Guangzhou 510300 (China); Wang Xin; Lv Xiaoqi [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, 166 Ren' ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2010-10-01

    A novel phosphorus monomer, 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol acryloyloxyethyl phosphate (DPHA), has been synthesized through phosphorus oxychloride reacting with neopentyl glycol and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA). Its structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR) and {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P NMR). A series of UV-curable resins were manufactured by blending DPHA with triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA) at different weight ratio. The fire performance was examined by Microscale Combustion Calorimetry (MCC). The results obtained from MCC indicated that the addition of DPHA to TGICA decreased the peak heat release rate (PHRR), heat release capacity (HRC) and total heat of combustion (THC). The char residues of the composites were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermal decomposition behavior of DPHA/TGICA composites was characterized by using thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TGA-IR). The test results indicated that when the weight ratio of DPHA: TGICA = 1/1, the onset temperature of the composite was highest and the largest char residue at 700 deg. C was observed. The change of chemical structure during the thermal degradation process was monitored by real-time FTIR analysis. TGA-IR results indicated that the evolved products were CO, CO{sub 2}, water, NH{sub 3}, carbonyl, phosphorus oxides and aromatic compounds according to the temperature of onset formation.

  12. Influence of different temperatures on the thermal fatigue behavior and thermal stability of hot-work tool steel processed by a biomimetic couple laser technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chao; Zhou, Hong; Zhou, Ying; Gao, Ming; Tong, Xin; Cong, Dalong; Wang, Chuanwei; Chang, Fang; Ren, Luquan

    2014-04-01

    Three kinds of biomimetic non-smooth shapes (spot-shape, striation-shape and reticulation-shape) were fabricated on the surface of H13 hot-work tool steel by laser. We investigated the thermal fatigue behavior of biomimetic non-smooth samples with three kinds of shapes at different thermal cycle temperature. Moreover, the evolution of microstructure, as well as the variations of hardness of laser affected area and matrix were studied and compared. The results showed that biomimetic non-smooth samples had better thermal fatigue behavior compared to the untreated samples at different thermal cycle temperatures. For a given maximal temperature, the biomimetic non-smooth sample with reticulation-shape had the optimum thermal fatigue behavior, than with striation-shape which was better than that with the spot-shape. The microstructure observations indicated that at different thermal cycle temperatures the coarsening degrees of microstructures of laser affected area were different and the microstructures of laser affected area were still finer than that of the untreated samples. Although the resistance to thermal cycling softening of laser affected area was lower than that of the untreated sample, laser affected area had higher microhardness than the untreated sample at different thermal cycle temperature.

  13. Flexural behavior and design of steel-plate composite (SC) walls for accident thermal loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Peter N., E-mail: boothpn@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Varma, Amit H., E-mail: ahvarma@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Sener, Kadir C., E-mail: ksener@purdue.edu [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Malushte, Sanjeev R. [Bechtel Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Modular steel-plate composite (SC) safety-related nuclear power plant structures must be designed to resist accident thermal and mechanical loads. The design accident thermal load represents the condition where high pressure and temperature steam is released as result of a mechanical failure and applied against the surfaces of power plant structural walls. The effect of heating and pressure can have both short and long term effects on the mechanical integrity of SC structures including degradation and cracking of concrete infill, residual stresses, and out-of-plane deformations. The purpose of this research is to study the effects of thermal and mechanical loads on the out-of-plane flexural response of SC walls and to develop simplified equations that can be used to predict behavior. Four experimental beam tests are reported that represent full-scale cross-sections of SC walls subjected to combinations of mechanical and thermal loads. The study determined that thermal loads reduce the out-of-plane flexural stiffness of SC walls. For the ambient condition, the flexural stiffness closely matches a conventional elastic cracked-transformed model, and at elevated temperatures, the stiffness is reduced to a fully-cracked flexural stiffness that only takes into account the stiffness of the steel faceplates. A method is presented for estimating the thermal curvature, ϕ{sub th}, and thermal moment, M{sub th}, resulting from unequal heating of opposing faces of an SC wall. Based on the tests in this study, the application of accident thermal loads did not result in a reduction of the flexural strength of the SC section.

  14. Standard guide for characterization of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes for thermal treatment

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This guide identifies methods to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes before a waste is processed at high temperatures, for example, vitrification into a homogeneous glass ,glass-ceramic, or ceramic waste form. This includes waste forms produced by ex-situ vitrification (ESV), in-situ vitrification (ISV), slagging, plasma-arc, hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) and/or cold-pressing and sintering technologies. Note that this guide does not specifically address high temperature waste treatment by incineration but several of the analyses described in this guide may be useful diagnostic methods to determine incinerator off-gas composition and concentrations. The characterization of the waste(s) recommended in this guide can be used to (1) choose and develop the appropriate thermal treatment methodology, (2) determine if waste pretreatment is needed prior to thermal treatment, (3) aid in development of thermal treatment process control, (4) develop surrogate wa...

  15. Calorimetric thermal-vacuum performance characterization of the BAe 80K space cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotsubo, V.Y.; Johnson, D.L.; Ross, R.G. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper on a comprehensive characterization program which is underway at JPL to generate test data on long-life, miniature Stirling-cycle cryocoolers for space application. The key focus of this paper is on the thermal performance of the British Aerospace (BAe) 80K split-Stirling-cycle cryocooler as measured in a unique calorimetric thermal-vacuum test chamber that accurately simulates the heat-transfer interfaces of space. Two separate cooling fluid loops provide precis individual control of the compressor and displacer heatsink temperatures. In addition, heatflow transducers enable calorimetric measurements of the heat rejected separately by the compressor and displacer. Cooler thermal performance has been mapped for coldtip temperatures ranging from below 45 K to above 150 K, for heat-sink temperatures ranging from 280 K to 320 K, and for a wide variety of operational variables including compressor-displacer phase, compressor-displacer stoke, drive frequency, and piston-displacer dc offset

  16. Zinc acetylacetonate hydrate adducted with nitrogen donor ligands: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Sanjaya; Shivashankar, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We report synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and thermal analysis of zinc acetylacetonate complex adducted by nitrogen donor ligands, such as pyridine, bipyridine, and phenanthroline. The pyridine adducted complex crystallizes to monoclinic crystal structure, whereas other two adducted complexes have orthorhombic structure. Addition of nitrogen donor ligands enhances the thermal property of these complexes as that with parent metal-organic complex. Zinc acetylacetonate adducted with pyridine shows much higher volatility (106 °C), decomposition temperature (202 °C) as that with zinc acetylacetonate (136 °C, 220 °C), and other adducted complexes. All the adducted complexes are thermally stable, highly volatile and are considered to be suitable precursors for metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The formation of these complexes is confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The complexes are widely used as starting precursor materials for the synthesis of ZnO nanostructures by microwave irradiation assisted coating process.

  17. Biodegradable starch-based films containing saturated fatty acids: thermal, infrared and raman spectroscopic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo M. Nobrega

    Full Text Available Biodegradable films of thermoplastic starch and poly (butylene adipate co-terephthalate (PBAT containing fatty acids were characterized thermally and with infrared and Raman spectroscopies. The symmetrical character of the benzene ring in PBAT provided a means to illustrate the difference between these spectroscopic techniques, because a band appeared in the Raman spectrum but not in the infrared. The thermal analysis showed three degradation stages related to fatty acids, starch and PBAT. The incorporation of saturated fatty acids with different molecular mass (caproic, lauric and stearic did not change the nature of the chemical bonds among the components in the blends of starch, PBAT and glycerol, according to the thermal analysis, infrared and Raman spectroscopies.

  18. Synthesis, spectroscopic, biological activity and thermal characterization of ceftazidime with transition metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Mamdouh S.; Ali, Alaa E.; Elasala, Gehan S.; Kolkaila, Sherif A.

    2018-03-01

    Synthesis, physicochemical characterization and thermal analysis of ceftazidime complexes with transition metals (Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II)) were discussed. It's obtained that ceftazidime act as bidentate ligand. From magnetic measurement and spectral data, octahedral structures were proposed for all complexes except for cobalt, nickel and mercury had tetrahedral structural. Hyper chemistry program confirmed binding sites of ceftazidime. Ceftazidime complexes show higher activity than ceftazidime for some strains. From TG and DTA curves the thermal decomposition mechanisms of ceftazidime and their metal complexes were suggested. The thermal decomposition of the complexes ended with the formation of metal oxides as a final product except in case of Hg complex.

  19. Ultrathin conformal devices for precise and continuous thermal characterization of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, R. Chad; Bonifas, Andrew P.; Behnaz, Alex; Zhang, Yihui; Yu, Ki Jun; Cheng, Huanyu; Shi, Mingxing; Bian, Zuguang; Liu, Zhuangjian; Kim, Yun-Soung; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Park, Jae Suk; Song, Jizhou; Li, Yuhang; Huang, Yonggang; Gorbach, Alexander M.; Rogers, John A.

    2013-10-01

    Precision thermometry of the skin can, together with other measurements, provide clinically relevant information about cardiovascular health, cognitive state, malignancy and many other important aspects of human physiology. Here, we introduce an ultrathin, compliant skin-like sensor/actuator technology that can pliably laminate onto the epidermis to provide continuous, accurate thermal characterizations that are unavailable with other methods. Examples include non-invasive spatial mapping of skin temperature with millikelvin precision, and simultaneous quantitative assessment of tissue thermal conductivity. Such devices can also be implemented in ways that reveal the time-dynamic influence of blood flow and perfusion on these properties. Experimental and theoretical studies establish the underlying principles of operation, and define engineering guidelines for device design. Evaluation of subtle variations in skin temperature associated with mental activity, physical stimulation and vasoconstriction/dilation along with accurate determination of skin hydration through measurements of thermal conductivity represent some important operational examples.

  20. Application of thermally stimulated current measurement to the polymorphic characterization of drug substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Y.; Hirayama, T.; Terada, K.

    2005-01-01

    The thermal stimulated current measurement was used as an innovative analytical equipment to evaluate the polymorphic properties of terfenadine and Compound A, being developed by Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, Limited. At first, terfenadine, which is known to have polymorphs, was used as a model sample for thermally stimulated current (TSC) analyses. The TSC curves of amorphous and two polymorphs were distinctly different from each other. Therefore, it was considered that TSC measurement could be a useful technique to evaluate the crystalline properties of drug substances. The polymorphs of compound A were difficult to distinguish the characteristics of polymorphs from conventional powder X-ray diffractometry and also differential scanning calorimetry. Forms A and B of compound A were clearly differentiated by the thermal stimulated current properties that were adequate to characterize each form. Thus, it was shown that TSC was extremely useful and powerful tool for identification of complicated polymorphs, which were not distinguished by conventional methods

  1. Thermal behavior of latent thermal energy storage unit using two phase change materials: Effects of HTF inlet temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouzi Benmoussa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a numerical study of the thermal behavior of shell-and-tube latent thermal energy storage (LTES unit using two phase change materials (PCMs. The heat transfer fluid (HTF flow through the inner tube and transfer the heat to PCMs. First, a mathematical model is developed based on the enthalpy formulation and solved through the governing equations. Second, the effects of HTF inlet temperature on the unsteady temperature evolution of PCMs, the total energy stored evolution as well as the total melting time is studied. Numerical results show that for all HTF inlet temperature, melting rate of PCM1 is the fastest and that of PCM2 is the slowest; increasing the HTF inlet temperature considerably increases the temperature evolution of PCMs. The maximum energy stored is observed in PCM2 with high melting temperature and high specific heat; heat storage capacity is large for high HTF inlet temperature. When the HTF inlet temperature increases from 338 K to 353 K, decreasing degree of melting time of PCM2 is the biggest from 1870 s to 490 s, which reduces about 73.8%; decreasing degree of melting time of PCM1 is the smallest from 530 s to 270 s, which reduces about 49.1%.

  2. Transient thermal-mechanical coupling behavior analysis of mechanical seals during start-up operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, B. C.; Meng, X. K.; Shen, M. X.; Peng, X. D.

    2016-05-01

    A transient thermal-mechanical coupling model for a contacting mechanical seal during start-up has been developed. It takes into consideration the coupling relationship among thermal-mechanical deformation, film thickness, temperature and heat generation. The finite element method and multi-iteration technology are applied to solve the temperature distribution and thermal-mechanical deformation as well as their evolution behavior. Results show that the seal gap transforms from negative coning to positive coning and the contact area of the mechanical seal gradually decreases during start-up. The location of the maximum temperature and maximum contact pressure move from the outer diameter to inside diameter. The heat generation and the friction torque increase sharply at first and then decrease. Meanwhile, the contact force decreases and the fluid film force and leakage rate increase.

  3. Analysis of thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets using magnetic domain observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takezawa, Masaaki; Ikeda, Soichiro; Morimoto, Yuji; Kabashima, Hisayuki

    2016-01-01

    We used magnetic domain observation to statistically observe the thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets at elevated temperatures up to 150 °C. Simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred adjacent grains occurred at 90 °C because of the magnetic interaction among the grains beyond grain boundaries in the Dysprosium (Dy)-free low-coercivity magnet. Conversely, simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred grains did not occur in the Dy-added high-coercivity magnets, and the demagnetizing ratio steadily increased with temperature. Furthermore, the addition of Dy induced high thermal stability by eliminating the simultaneous thermal demagnetization, which was caused by the magnetic interaction among the grains.

  4. Analysis of thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets using magnetic domain observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takezawa, Masaaki, E-mail: take@ele.kyutech.ac.jp; Ikeda, Soichiro; Morimoto, Yuji [Department of Applied Science for Integrated System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1-1 Sensui-cho, Tobata-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8550 (Japan); Kabashima, Hisayuki [Mazda Motor Corporation,3-1, Shinchi, Fuchu-cho, Aki-gun Hiroshima 730-8670 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    We used magnetic domain observation to statistically observe the thermal demagnetization behavior of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets at elevated temperatures up to 150 °C. Simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred adjacent grains occurred at 90 °C because of the magnetic interaction among the grains beyond grain boundaries in the Dysprosium (Dy)-free low-coercivity magnet. Conversely, simultaneous magnetization reversal in a hundred grains did not occur in the Dy-added high-coercivity magnets, and the demagnetizing ratio steadily increased with temperature. Furthermore, the addition of Dy induced high thermal stability by eliminating the simultaneous thermal demagnetization, which was caused by the magnetic interaction among the grains.

  5. Experimental and theoretic investigations of thermal behavior of a seasonal water pit heat storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Huang, Junpeng; Chatzidiakos, Angelos

    Seasonal heat storages are considered essential for district heating systems because they offer flexibility for the system to integrate different fluctuating renewable energy sources. Water pit thermal storages (PTES) have been successfully implemented in solar district heating plants in Denmark....... Thermal behavior of a 75,000 m3 water pit heat storage in Marstal solar heating plant was investigated experimentally and numerically. Temperatures at different levels of the water pit storage and temperatures at different depths of the ground around the storage were monitored and analyzed. A simulation...... model of the water pit storage is built to investigate development of temperatures in and around the storage. The calculated temperatures are compared to the monitored temperatures with an aim to validate the simulation model. Thermal stratification in the water pit heat storage and its interaction...

  6. Thermal characterizations analysis of high-power ThinGaN cool-white light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raypah, Muna E.; Devarajan, Mutharasu; Ahmed, Anas A.; Sulaiman, Fauziah

    2018-03-01

    Analysis of thermal properties plays an important role in the thermal management of high-power (HP) lighting-emitting diodes (LEDs). Thermal resistance, thermal capacitance, and thermal time constant are essential parameters for the optimal design of the LED device and system, particularly for dynamic performance study. In this paper, thermal characterization and thermal time constant of ThinGaN HP LEDs are investigated. Three HP cool-white ThinGaN LEDs from different manufacturers are used in this study. A forward-voltage method using thermal transient tester (T3Ster) system is employed to determine the LEDs' thermal parameters at various operating conditions. The junction temperature transient response is described by a multi-exponential function model to extract thermal time constants. The transient response curve is divided into three layers and expressed by three exponential functions. Each layer is associated with a particular thermal time constant, thermal resistance, and thermal capacitance. It is found that the thermal time constant of LED package is on the order of 22 to 100 ms. Comparison between the experimental results is carried out to show the design effects on thermal performance of the LED package.

  7. Characterize and Model Final Waste Formulations and Offgas Solids from Thermal Treatment Processes - FY-98 Final Report for LDRD 2349

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessinger, Glen Frank; Nelson, Lee Orville; Grandy, Jon Drue; Zuck, Larry Douglas; Kong, Peter Chuen Sun; Anderson, Gail

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of LDRD #2349, Characterize and Model Final Waste Formulations and Offgas Solids from Thermal Treatment Processes, was to develop a set of tools that would allow the user to, based on the chemical composition of a waste stream to be immobilized, predict the durability (leach behavior) of the final waste form and the phase assemblages present in the final waste form. The objectives of the project were: • investigation, testing and selection of thermochemical code • development of auxiliary thermochemical database • synthesis of materials for leach testing • collection of leach data • using leach data for leach model development • thermochemical modeling The progress toward completion of these objectives and a discussion of work that needs to be completed to arrive at a logical finishing point for this project will be presented.

  8. Thermal and mineralogical characterization of drill cuttings from north capixaba: initial studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialho, P.F.; Goncalves, G. dos R.; Calmon, J.L.; Tristao, F.A.; Nunes, E.; Cunha, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    The drilling of oil wells generates various wastes among which are the cuttings and drilling fluids. The management of these wastes have been a problem for the oil and gas industry because of the amount generated and its contaminants, which can be organic and inorganic. This paper presents initial studies of thermal and mineralogical characterization of the drill cuttings from oil wells and gas in Southeast Brazilian, state of Espirito Santo with aim of reuse them as raw material in building materials. Characterizations were performed physical, thermal and mineralogical by particle size distribution, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that there are potential replacements of natural raw materials or drill cuttings in the production of building materials. (author)

  9. Thermal and dynamic range characterization of a photonics-based RF amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noque, D. F.; Borges, R. M.; Muniz, A. L. M.; Bogoni, A.; Cerqueira S., Arismar, Jr.

    2018-05-01

    This work reports a thermal and dynamic range characterization of an ultra-wideband photonics-based RF amplifier for microwave and mm-waves future 5G optical-wireless networks. The proposed technology applies the four-wave mixing nonlinear effect to provide RF amplification in analog and digital radio-over-fiber systems. The experimental analysis from 300 kHz to 50 GHz takes into account different figures of merit, such as RF gain, spurious-free dynamic range and RF output power stability as a function of temperature. The thermal characterization from -10 to +70 °C demonstrates a 27 dB flat photonics-assisted RF gain over the entire frequency range under real operational conditions of a base station for illustrating the feasibility of the photonics-assisted RF amplifier for 5G networks.

  10. Thermal Gradient Cyclic Behavior of a Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating System on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal barrier and environmental barrier coatings (TBCs and EBCs) will play a crucial role in future advanced gas turbine engines because of their ability to significantly extend the temperature capability of the ceramic matrix composite (CMC) engine components in harsh combustion environments. In order to develop high performance, robust coating systems for effective thermal and environmental protection of the engine components, appropriate test approaches for evaluating the critical coating properties must be established. In this paper, a laser high-heat-flux, thermal gradient approach for testing the coatings will be described. Thermal cyclic behavior of plasma-sprayed coating systems, consisting of ZrO2-8wt%Y2O3 thermal barrier and NASA Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) Program developed mullite+BSAS/Si type environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites, was investigated under thermal gradients using the laser heat-flux rig in conjunction with the furnace thermal cyclic tests in water-vapor environments. The coating sintering and interface damage were assessed by monitoring the real-time thermal conductivity changes during the laser heat-flux tests and by examining the microstructural changes after the tests. The coating failure mechanisms are discussed based on the cyclic test results and are correlated to the sintering, creep, and thermal stress behavior under simulated engine temperature and heat flux conditions.

  11. Thermal Behavior of the Reactor Vessel Penetration Under External Vessel Cooling During a Severe Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Rae-Joon; Kim, Jong-Tae; Min, Byung-Tae; Lee, Ki-Young; Kim, Sang-Baik

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies on the thermal behavior of reactor vessel penetration have been performed under external vessel cooling during a severe accident in the Korean next-generation reactor APR1400. Two types of tests, SUS-EXT and SUS-DRY with and without external vessel cooling, respectively, have been performed using sustained heating by an induction heater. Three tests have been carried out varying the cooling conditions at the vessel outer surface in the SUS-EXT tests. The experimental results have been thermally estimated using the LILAC computer code. The experimental results indicate that the inner surface of the vessel was ablated by the 45-mm thickness in the SUS-DRY test. Despite the total ablation of the welding material, the penetration was not ejected outside the vessel, which could be attributed to the thermal expansion of the penetration. Unlike the SUS-DRY test, the thickness of the ablation was ∼15 to 20 mm at most, so the welding was preserved in the SUS-EXT tests. It is concluded from the experimental results that the external vessel cooling highly affected the ablation configuration and the thermal behaviors of the vessel and the penetration. An increase in coolant mass flow rate from 0.047 to 0.152 kg/s had effects on the thermal behavior of the lower head vessel and penetration in the SUS-EXT tests. The LILAC analytical results on temperature distribution and ablation depth in the lower head vessel and penetration were very similar to the experimental results

  12. Modeling non-harmonic behavior of materials from experimental inelastic neutron scattering and thermal expansion measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Dipanshu; Aref, Amjad; Dargush, Gary; Delaire, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Based on thermodynamic principles, we derive expressions quantifying the non-harmonic vibrational behavior of materials, which are rigorous yet easily evaluated from experimentally available data for the thermal expansion coefficient and the phonon density of states. These experimentally-derived quantities are valuable to benchmark first-principles theoretical predictions of harmonic and non-harmonic thermal behaviors using perturbation theory, ab initio molecular-dynamics, or Monte-Carlo simulations. We illustrate this analysis by computing the harmonic, dilational, and anharmonic contributions to the entropy, internal energy, and free energy of elemental aluminum and the ordered compound \\text{FeSi} over a wide range of temperature. Results agree well with previous data in the literature and provide an efficient approach to estimate anharmonic effects in materials.

  13. Thermal and mechanical behavior of metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M. (Editor); Moeller, Helen H. (Editor); Johnson, W. S. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The present conference discusses local stresses in metal-matrix composites (MMCs) subjected to thermal and mechanical loads, the computational simulation of high-temperature MMCs' cyclic behavior, an analysis of a ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) flexure specimen, and a plasticity analysis of fibrous composite laminates under thermomechanical loads. Also discussed are a comparison of methods for determining the fiber-matrix interface frictional stresses of CMCs, the monotonic and cyclic behavior of an SiC/calcium aluminosilicate CMC, the mechanical and thermal properties of an SiC particle-reinforced Al alloy MMC, the temperature-dependent tensile and shear response of a graphite-reinforced 6061 Al-alloy MMC, the fiber/matrix interface bonding strength of MMCs, and fatigue crack growth in an Al2O3 short fiber-reinforced Al-2Mg matrix MMC.

  14. Surface Structures and Thermal Desorption Behaviors of Cyclopentanethiol Self-Assembled Monolayers on Au(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hun Gu; Kim, You Young; Park, Tae Sun; Noh, Jae Geun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joon B. [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Ito, Eisuke; Hara, Masahiko [RIKEN-HYU Collaboration Center, Saitama (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    The surface structures, adsorption conditions, and thermal desorption behaviors of cyclopentanethiol (CPT) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au(111) were investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). STM imaging revealed that although the adsorption of CPT on Au(111) at room temperature generates disordered SAMs, CPT molecules at 50 .deg. C formed well-ordered SAMs with a (2√3 x √5)R41{sup .}deg. packing structure. XPS measurements showed that CPT SAMs at room temperature were formed via chemical reactions between the sulfur atoms and gold surfaces. TDS measurements showed two dominant TD peaks for the decomposed fragments (C{sub 5}H{sub 9} {sup +}, m/e = 69) generated via C-S bond cleavage and the parent molecular species (C{sub 5}H{sub 9}SH{sup +}, m/e = 102) derived from a recombination of the chemisorbed thiolates and hydrogen atoms near 440 K. Interestingly, dimerization of sulfur atoms in n-alkanethiol SAMs usually occurs during thermal desorption and the same reaction did not happen for CPT SAMs, which may be due to the steric hindrance of cyclic rings of the CPT molecules. In this study, we demonstrated that the alicyclic ring of organic thiols strongly affected the surface structure and thermal desorption behavior of SAMs, thus providing a good method for controlling chemical and physical properties of organic thiol SAMs.

  15. Surface Structures and Thermal Desorption Behaviors of Cyclopentanethiol Self-Assembled Monolayers on Au(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hun Gu; Kim, You Young; Park, Tae Sun; Noh, Jae Geun; Park, Joon B.; Ito, Eisuke; Hara, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    The surface structures, adsorption conditions, and thermal desorption behaviors of cyclopentanethiol (CPT) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au(111) were investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). STM imaging revealed that although the adsorption of CPT on Au(111) at room temperature generates disordered SAMs, CPT molecules at 50 .deg. C formed well-ordered SAMs with a (2√3 x √5)R41".deg. packing structure. XPS measurements showed that CPT SAMs at room temperature were formed via chemical reactions between the sulfur atoms and gold surfaces. TDS measurements showed two dominant TD peaks for the decomposed fragments (C_5H_9 "+, m/e = 69) generated via C-S bond cleavage and the parent molecular species (C_5H_9SH"+, m/e = 102) derived from a recombination of the chemisorbed thiolates and hydrogen atoms near 440 K. Interestingly, dimerization of sulfur atoms in n-alkanethiol SAMs usually occurs during thermal desorption and the same reaction did not happen for CPT SAMs, which may be due to the steric hindrance of cyclic rings of the CPT molecules. In this study, we demonstrated that the alicyclic ring of organic thiols strongly affected the surface structure and thermal desorption behavior of SAMs, thus providing a good method for controlling chemical and physical properties of organic thiol SAMs

  16. Thermal and Irradiation Creep Behavior of a Titanium Aluminide in Advanced Nuclear Plant Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Per; Chen, Jiachao; Hoffelner, Wolfgang

    2009-12-01

    Titanium aluminides are well-accepted elevated temperature materials. In conventional applications, their poor oxidation resistance limits the maximum operating temperature. Advanced reactors operate in nonoxidizing environments. This could enlarge the applicability of these materials to higher temperatures. The behavior of a cast gamma-alpha-2 TiAl was investigated under thermal and irradiation conditions. Irradiation creep was studied in beam using helium implantation. Dog-bone samples of dimensions 10 × 2 × 0.2 mm3 were investigated in a temperature range of 300 °C to 500 °C under irradiation, and significant creep strains were detected. At temperatures above 500 °C, thermal creep becomes the predominant mechanism. Thermal creep was investigated at temperatures up to 900 °C without irradiation with samples of the same geometry. The results are compared with other materials considered for advanced fission applications. These are a ferritic oxide-dispersion-strengthened material (PM2000) and the nickel-base superalloy IN617. A better thermal creep behavior than IN617 was found in the entire temperature range. Up to 900 °C, the expected 104 hour stress rupture properties exceeded even those of the ODS alloy. The irradiation creep performance of the titanium aluminide was comparable with the ODS steels. For IN617, no irradiation creep experiments were performed due to the expected low irradiation resistance (swelling, helium embrittlement) of nickel-base alloys.

  17. Crack propagation behavior of TiN coatings by laser thermal shock experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Youngkue; Jeon, Seol; Jeon, Min-seok; Shin, Hyun-Gyoo; Chun, Ho Hwan; Lee, Youn-seoung; Lee, Heesoo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The crack propagation behavior of TiN coating after laser thermal shock experiment was observed by using FIB and TEM. ► Intercolumnar cracks between TiN columnar grains were predominant cracking mode after laser thermal shock. ► Cracks were propagated from the coating surface to the substrate at low laser pulse energy and cracks were originated at coating-substrate interface at high laser pulse energy. ► The cracks from the interface spread out transversely through the weak region of the columnar grains by repetitive laser shock. - Abstract: The crack propagation behavior of TiN coatings, deposited onto 304 stainless steel substrates by arc ion plating technique, related to a laser thermal shock experiment has been investigated using focused ion beam (FIB) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The ablated regions of TiN coatings by laser ablation system have been investigated under various conditions of pulse energies and number of laser pulses. The intercolumnar cracks were predominant cracking mode following laser thermal shock tests and the cracks initiated at coating surface and propagated in a direction perpendicular to the substrate under low loads conditions. Over and above those cracks, the cracks originated from coating-substrate interface began to appear with increasing laser pulse energy. The cracks from the interface also spread out transversely through the weak region of the columnar grains by repetitive laser shock.

  18. Experimental Characterization of a Composite Morphing Radiator Prototype in a Relevant Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagne, Christopher L.; Chong, Jorge B.; Whitcomb, John D.; Hartl, Darren J.; Erickson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    For future long duration space missions, crewed vehicles will require advanced thermal control systems to maintain a desired internal environment temperature in spite of a large range of internal and external heat loads. Current radiators are only able to achieve turndown ratios (i.e. the ratio between the radiator's maximum and minimum heat rejection rates) of approximately 3:1. Upcoming missions will require radiators capable of 12:1 turndown ratios. A radiator with the ability to alter shape could significantly increase turndown capacity. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) offer promising qualities for this endeavor, namely their temperature-dependent phase change and capacity for work. In 2015, the first ever morphing radiator prototype was constructed in which SMA actuators passively altered the radiator shape in response to a thermal load. This work describes a follow-on endeavor to demonstrate a similar concept using highly thermally conductive composite materials. Numerous versions of this new concept were tested in a thermal vacuum environment and successfully demonstrated morphing behavior and variable heat rejection, achieving a turndown ratio of 4.84:1. A summary of these thermal experiments and their results are provided herein.

  19. Thermal shock behavior of nano-sized SiC particulate reinforced AlON composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, X.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Ru, H.Q., E-mail: ruhq@smm.neu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Chen, D.L., E-mail: dchen@ryerson.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Zhang, N.; Liang, B. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials Manufacturing Technology of Liaoning Province, Shenyang University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110044 (China)

    2012-03-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of nano-SiC particles enhances residual strength and critical temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Young's modulus decreases with increasing quenching temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Linear relationship between residual strength and thermal shock times is obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rougher fracture surfaces in the SiC-AlON composites are observed. - Abstract: Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) has been considered as a potential ceramic material for high-performance structural and advanced refractory applications. Thermal shock resistance is a major concern and an important performance index of high-temperature ceramics. While silicon carbide (SiC) particles have been proven to improve mechanical properties of AlON ceramic, the high-temperature thermal shock behavior was unknown. The aim of this investigation was to identify the thermal shock resistance and underlying mechanisms of AlON ceramic and 8 wt% SiC-AlON composites over a temperature range between 175 Degree-Sign C and 275 Degree-Sign C. The residual strength and Young's modulus after thermal shock decreased with increasing quenching temperature and thermal shock times due to large temperature gradients and thermal stresses caused by abrupt water-quenching. A linear relationship between the residual strength and thermal shock times was observed in both pure AlON and SiC-AlON composites. The addition of nano-sized SiC particles increased both residual strength and critical temperature from 200 Degree-Sign C in the monolithic AlON to 225 Degree-Sign C in the SiC-AlON composites due to the toughening effect, the lower coefficient of thermal expansion and higher thermal conductivity of SiC. The enhancement of the thermal shock resistance in the SiC-AlON composites was directly related to the change of fracture mode from intergranular cracking along with cleavage-type fracture in the AlON to a rougher fracture surface with ridge

  20. Comparison of thermal behavior of different PWR fuel rod simulators for LOCA experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casal, V.; Malang, S.; Rust, K.

    1982-10-01

    For experimental investigations of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) of a PWR electrical heater rods are applied as thermal fuel rod simulators. To substitute heater rods from the SEMISCALE program by INTERATOM-KfK heater rods in a current experimental program at the Instituut for Energiteknikk-(OECD-Halden), the thermodynamic behavior of different heater rods during a LOCA were compared. The results show, that SEMISCALE-heater rods can be replaced by those fabricated by INTERATOM. (orig.) [de

  1. CFD analysis of thermal-hydraulic behavior in SCWR typical flow channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, H.Y.; Cheng, X.; Yang, Y.H.

    2008-01-01

    Investigations on thermal-hydraulic behavior in SCWR fuel assembly have obtained a significant attention in the international SCWR community. However, there is still a lack of understanding and ability to predict the heat transfer behavior of supercritical water. In this paper, CFD analysis is carried out to study the flow and heat transfer behavior of supercritical water in sub-channels of both square and triangular rod bundles. Effect of various parameters, e.g. thermal boundary conditions and pitch-to-diameter ratio on the thermal-hydraulic behavior is investigated. Two boundary conditions, i.e., constant heat flux at the outer surface of cladding and constant heat density in the fuel pin are applied. The results show that the structure of the secondary flow mainly depends on the rod bundle configuration as well as the pitch-to-diameter ratio, whereas, the amplitude of the secondary flow is affected by the thermal boundary conditions, as well. The secondary flow is much stronger in a square lattice than that in a triangular lattice. The turbulence behavior is similar in both square and triangular lattices. The dependence of the amplitude of the turbulent velocity fluctuation across the gap on Reynolds number becomes prominent in both lattices as the pitch-to-diameter ratio increases. The effect of thermal boundary conditions on turbulent velocity fluctuation is negligibly small. For both lattices with small pitch-to-diameter ratios (P/D < 1.3), the mixing coefficient is about 0.022. Both secondary flow and turbulent mixing show unusual behavior in the vicinity of the pseudo-critical point. Further investigation is needed. A strong circumferential non-uniformity of wall temperature and heat transfer is observed in tight lattices at constant heat flux boundary conditions, especially in square lattices. In the case with constant heat density of fuel pin, the circumferential conductive heat transfer significantly reduces the non-uniformity of circumferential

  2. Three-dimensional FE analysis of the thermal-mechanical behaviors in the nuclear fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yijie; Cui Yi; Huo Yongzhong; Ding Shurong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We establish three-dimensional finite element models for nuclear fuel rods. → The thermal-mechanical behaviors at the initial stage of burnup are obtained. → Several parameters on the in-pile performances are investigated. → The parameters have remarkable effects on the in-pile behaviors. → This study lays a foundation for optimal design and irradiation safety. - Abstract: In order to implement numerical simulation of the thermal-mechanical behaviors in the nuclear fuel rods, a three-dimensional finite element model is established. The thermal-mechanical behaviors at the initial stage of burnup in both the pellet and the cladding are obtained. Comparison of the obtained numerical results with those from experiments validates the developed finite element model. The effects of the constraint conditions, several operation and structural parameters on the thermal-mechanical performances of the fuel rod are investigated. The research results indicate that: (1) with increasing the heat generation rates from 0.15 to 0.6 W/mm 3 , the maximum temperature within the pellet increases by 99.3% and the maximum radial displacement at the outer surface of the pellet increases by 94.3%. And the maximum Mises stresses in the cladding all increase; while the maximum values of the first principal stresses within the pellet decrease as a whole; (2) with increasing the heat transfer coefficients between the cladding and the coolant, the internal temperatures reduce and the temperature gradient remains similar; when the heat transfer coefficient is lower than a critical value, the temperature change is sensitive to the heat transfer coefficient. The maximum temperature increases only 7.13% when h changes from 0.5 W/mm 2 K to 0.01 W/mm 2 K, while increases up to 54.7% when h decreases from 0.01 W/mm 2 K to 0.005 W/mm 2 K; (3) the initial gap sizes between the pellet and the cladding significantly affect the thermal-mechanical behaviors in the fuel rod; when the

  3. Characterization of a thermoelectric cooler based thermal management system under different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, M.K.; Ewing, D.; Ching, C.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a thermoelectric cooler (TEC) based thermal management system for an electronic packaging design that operates under a range of ambient conditions and system loads is examined using a standard model for the TEC and a thermal resistance network for the other components. Experiments were performed and it was found that the model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental results. An operating envelope is developed to characterize the TEC based thermal management system for peak and off peak operating conditions. Parametric studies were performed to analyze the effect of the number of TEC module(s) in the system, geometric factor of the thermo-elements and the cold to hot side thermal resistances on the system performance. The results showed that there is a tradeoff between the extent of off peak heat fluxes and ambient temperatures when the system can be operated at a low power penalty region and the maximum capacity of the system. - Highlights: ► A model was developed for thermal management systems using thermoelectric coolers. ► Model predictions were in good agreement with experimental results. ► An operating envelope was developed for peak and off peak conditions. ► The effect of the number of thermoelectric coolers on the system was determined.

  4. Characterization of a dielectric microdroplet thermal interface material with dispersed nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, A.; Sahli, F.; Richards, R.; Richards, C.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the fabrication and characterization of a dielectric microdroplet thermal interface material (TIM). Glycerin droplets, 1 μL, were tested as TIMs in this study. Copper nanoparticles having a diameter of 25 nm were dispersed in glycerin at different volume fractions to enhance its thermal conductivity. An increase of 57.5% in the thermal conductivity of glycerin was measured at a volume fraction of 15%. A minimum thermal interface resistance of 30.37 mm 2 K/W was measured for the glycerin microdroplets at a deformed droplet height of 10.2 μm. Good agreement between experimental measurements and the predictions of a model based on Maxwell’s equation of rules of mixtures was obtained. The effect of nanoparticles' size on the effective thermal conductivity of glycerin was studied. Nanoparticles with diameters of 60–80 and 300 nm were dispersed in glycerin at a volume fraction of 5%, and their results were compared to those of the 25 nm particles.

  5. Thermal characterization of polymer matrix composites containing microencapsulated paraffin in solid or liquid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari-Bey, Sana; Fois, Magali; Krupa, Igor; Ibos, Laurent; Benyoucef, Boumédiène

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal characterization of PCL/Micronal composites. • Melting enthalpy and heat capacity measured by DSC. • Interest: have measured thermal properties at different temperatures. • Thermophysical properties measurement temperatures chosen outside phase changes. • Characteristics useful to model composites heat transfer for LHTES applications. - Abstract: This work focuses on the study of heat transfer mechanisms in composites materials which may be used for Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage applications. These composites contain phase change material (PCM) which can absorb and release energy during thermal cycling. PCM’s used here are paraffins microencapsulated in poly(methylmethacrylate); microencapsulation avoids the flow of paraffin when it is in the liquid state. Samples with different paraffin weight fractions and particles shape and distribution were studied in this work. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry were used to determine morphology and perform measurements of phase changes temperatures, enthalpies and heat capacity respectively. Further, a periodic method (DICO) allowed measuring thermal conductivity (λ) and diffusivity (a) of the composites at temperatures below and above of the paraffin phase change from crystalline solid to isotropic liquid

  6. Thermal dynamic behavior during selective laser melting of K418 superalloy: numerical simulation and experimental verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Xiang, Yu; Wei, Zhengying; Wei, Pei; Lu, Bingheng; Zhang, Lijuan; Du, Jun

    2018-04-01

    During selective laser melting (SLM) of K418 powder, the influence of the process parameters, such as laser power P and scanning speed v, on the dynamic thermal behavior and morphology of the melted tracks was investigated numerically. A 3D finite difference method was established to predict the dynamic thermal behavior and flow mechanism of K418 powder irradiated by a Gaussian laser beam. A three-dimensional randomly packed powder bed composed of spherical particles was established by discrete element method. The powder particle information including particle size distribution and packing density were taken into account. The volume shrinkage and temperature-dependent thermophysical parameters such as thermal conductivity, specific heat, and other physical properties were also considered. The volume of fluid method was applied to reconstruct the free surface of the molten pool during SLM. The geometrical features, continuity boundaries, and irregularities of the molten pool were proved to be largely determined by the laser energy density. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experiments, which prove to be reasonable and effective. The results provide us some in-depth insight into the complex physical behavior during SLM and guide the optimization of process parameters.

  7. Spectroscopic and thermal characterization of bovine enamel and dentine using the photoacoustic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolf, Sandro Fernando

    2003-01-01

    The optical and thermal properties of dental tissues determine the nature and extent of the tissue response through the processes of absorption, transmission, reflection and scattering of the laser light and the heat produced by the absorption of that light. The spectroscopic characterization of bovine dentine and enamel, and the determination of the thermal diffusivity were the aim of this study. The photoacoustic spectra from these tissues were obtained in the Near-Infrared range 900 - 2500 nm, which is the clinical range for odontological application of most lasers. Photoacoustic spectra were taken from block, slices and powder of enamel and dentine. Also photoacoustic spectra were registered before and after 2, 5 and 10 h of topical fluoride (2.26%) application. Using the same technique spectra were taken from dentine and enamel after irradiation with Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, Ho:YLF and CO 2 . It is evident from the results that the presence of O-H in the composition of hydroxyapatite and the water present in the teeth tissue make the obtention of spectrum from components other than O-H bond a very difficult task. In this way, only bands assigned to overtones and combinations of O-H stretch were observed. The thermal diffusivity of the bovine dentine was also measured using the photoacoustic technique. The thermal diffusivity is the physical quantity which measures the rate of heat diffusion throughout the sample. For higher values of the thermal diffusivity the heat diffusion and temperature rise will be faster. As there is many studies devoted to the processes of heat transfer throughout dental tissues using bovine teeth, it is important the determination of its thermal diffusivity. The measured value was found to be a = 2.0 (±0.1).1O -3 cm 2 /s for the both direction, perpendicular and parallel to the dentinal tubules. These a lues indicate that there is no difference between the thermal diffusivities for the both directions. (author)

  8. Internal photoemission study on charge trapping behavior in rapid thermal oxides on strained-Si/SiGe heterolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bera, M.K.; Mahata, C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chakraborty, A.K.; Armstrong, B.M.; Gamble, H.S.; Maiti, C.K.

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study on the nature of defects and their relationship to charge trapping with enhanced photosensitivity has been investigated through magnetic resonance and internal photoemission (IPE) experiments for rapid thermal grown oxides (RTO) on strained-Si/Si 0.8 Ge 0.2 and on co-processed bulk-Si (1 0 0) substrates. Both the band and defect-related electronic states were characterized through EPR, IPE, C-V and I-V measurements under UV-illumination. Surface chemical characterization of as-grown ultrathin oxides (5-7 nm) has been performed using high-resolution XPS. Enhancement in Ge-segregation with increasing oxidation temperature is reported. Comparative studies on interface properties and leakage current behavior of rapid thermal oxides have also been studied through fabricating metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor structures. A degraded electrical property with increasing oxidation temperature is reported. Constant voltage stressing (CVS) in the range of 5.5-7 V was used to study the breakdown characteristics of different samples. We observe a distinguishably different time-to-breakdown (t bd ) phenomenon for bulk-Si and strained-Si/SiGe samples. Whereas the oxide on bulk-Si shows a typical breakdown behavior, the RTO grown oxide on strained-Si/SiGe samples showed a quasi-or soft-breakdown with lower t bd value. It may be pointed out that quasi-breakdown may be a stronger reliability limiting factor for strained-Si/SiGe devices in the oxide thickness range studied

  9. From kinetic to collective behavior in thermal transport on semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas, C. de; Lopeandia, A. F.; Alvarez, F. X.; Cantarero, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a model which deepens into the role that normal scattering has on the thermal conductivity in semiconductor bulk, micro, and nanoscale samples. Thermal conductivity as a function of the temperature undergoes a smooth transition from a kinetic to a collective regime that depends on the importance of normal scattering events. We demonstrate that in this transition, the key point to fit experimental data is changing the way to perform the average on the scattering rates. We apply the model to bulk Si with different isotopic compositions obtaining an accurate fit. Then we calculate the thermal conductivity of Si thin films and nanowires by only introducing the effective size as additional parameter. The model provides a better prediction of the thermal conductivity behavior valid for all temperatures and sizes above 30 nm with a single expression. Avoiding the introduction of confinement or quantum effects, the model permits to establish the limit of classical theories in the study of the thermal conductivity in nanoscopic systems

  10. From kinetic to collective behavior in thermal transport on semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, C. de; Lopeandia, A. F.; Alvarez, F. X., E-mail: xavier.alvarez@uab.cat [Department of Physics, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Cantarero, A. [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, P. O. Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2014-04-28

    We present a model which deepens into the role that normal scattering has on the thermal conductivity in semiconductor bulk, micro, and nanoscale samples. Thermal conductivity as a function of the temperature undergoes a smooth transition from a kinetic to a collective regime that depends on the importance of normal scattering events. We demonstrate that in this transition, the key point to fit experimental data is changing the way to perform the average on the scattering rates. We apply the model to bulk Si with different isotopic compositions obtaining an accurate fit. Then we calculate the thermal conductivity of Si thin films and nanowires by only introducing the effective size as additional parameter. The model provides a better prediction of the thermal conductivity behavior valid for all temperatures and sizes above 30 nm with a single expression. Avoiding the introduction of confinement or quantum effects, the model permits to establish the limit of classical theories in the study of the thermal conductivity in nanoscopic systems.

  11. From kinetic to collective behavior in thermal transport on semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tomas, C.; Cantarero, A.; Lopeandia, A. F.; Alvarez, F. X.

    2014-04-01

    We present a model which deepens into the role that normal scattering has on the thermal conductivity in semiconductor bulk, micro, and nanoscale samples. Thermal conductivity as a function of the temperature undergoes a smooth transition from a kinetic to a collective regime that depends on the importance of normal scattering events. We demonstrate that in this transition, the key point to fit experimental data is changing the way to perform the average on the scattering rates. We apply the model to bulk Si with different isotopic compositions obtaining an accurate fit. Then we calculate the thermal conductivity of Si thin films and nanowires by only introducing the effective size as additional parameter. The model provides a better prediction of the thermal conductivity behavior valid for all temperatures and sizes above 30 nm with a single expression. Avoiding the introduction of confinement or quantum effects, the model permits to establish the limit of classical theories in the study of the thermal conductivity in nanoscopic systems.

  12. MyrrhaFoam: A CFD model for the study of the thermal hydraulic behavior of MYRRHA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koloszar, Lilla; Buckingham, Sophia; Planquart, Philippe [von Karman Institute, Chaussée de Waterloo 72, B-1640 Rhode-St-Genèse (Belgium); Keijers, Steven [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Development of a modeling approach for simulating the thermal hydraulics of heavy liquid metal nuclear reactors. • Detailed description of the modeling of each component through the MYRRHA reactor. • Detailed analysis of the flow field of the MYRRHA reactor under operating condition. • Assessment of the thermal load on the structures as well as the thermal stratification in the upper and the lower plenum. - Abstract: Numerical analysis of the thermohydraulic behavior of the innovative flexible fast spectrum research reactor, MYRRHA, under design by the Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK• CEN) is a very challenging task. The primary coolant of the reactor is Lead Bismuth Eutectic, LBE, which is an opaque heavy liquid metal with low Prandtl number. The simulation tool needs to involve many complex physical phenomena to be able to predict accurately the flow and thermal field in the pool type reactor. In the past few years, within the frame of a collaboration between SCK• CEN and the von Karman Institute, a new platform, MyrrhaFoam, was developed based on the open source simulation environment, OpenFOAM. The current tool can deal with incompressible buoyancy corrected steady/unsteady single phase flows. It takes into account conjugate heat transfer in the solid parts which is mandatory due to the expected high temperature gradients between the different parts of the reactor. The temperature dependent properties of LBE are also considered. MyrrhaFoam is supplemented with the most relevant thermal turbulence models for low Prandtl number liquids up to date.

  13. Development and characterization of amorphous acrylate networks for use as switchable adhesives inspired from shapememory behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhera, Nishant

    Several types of insects and animals such as spiders and geckos are inherently able to climb along vertical walls and ceilings. This remarkable switchable adhesive behavior has been attributed to the fibrillar structures on their feet, with size ranging from few nanometers to a few micrometers depending on the species. Several studies have attempted to create synthetic micro-patterned surfaces trying to imitate this adhesive behavior seen in nature. The experimental procedures are scattered, with sole purpose of trying to increase adhesion, thereby making direct comparison between studies very difficult. There is a lack of fundamental understanding on adhesion of patterned surfaces. The influence of critical parameters like material modulus, glass transition temperature, viscoelastic effects, temperature and water absorption on adhesion is not fully explored and characterized. These parameters are expected to have a decisive influence on adhesion behavior of the polymer. Previous studies have utilized conventional "off-the-shelf" materials like epoxy, polyurethanes etc. It is however, impossible to change the material modulus, glass transition temperature etc. of these polymer systems without changing the base constituents itself, thereby explaining the gaps in the current research landscape. The purpose of this study was to use acrylate shape-memory polymers (SMPs) for their ability to be tailored to specific mechanical properties by control of polymer chemistry, without changing the base constituents. Polymer networks with tailorable glass transition, material modulus, water absorption etc. were developed and adhesion studies were performed to investigate the influence of temperature, viscoelastic effects, material modulus on the adhesion behavior of flat acrylate polymer surfaces. The knowledge base gained from these studies was utilized to better understand the fundamental mechanisms associated with adhesion behavior of patterned acrylate surfaces. Thermally

  14. Characterization and tribocorrosion behavior of sputtered NiTi coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, XiaoMin; Gao, Lizhen [Taiyuan University of Technology (China). College of Environmental Science and Engineering; Wang, Hefeng [Taiyuan University of Technology (China). College of Mechanics; Liu, Erqiang [Taiyuan University of Technology (China). Inst. of Applied Mechanics and Biomedical Engineering

    2016-02-15

    In this study, NiTi coatings were deposited onto AISI 316L stainless steel substrates by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and properties of the coatings were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and nano-indentation. The tribocorrosion resistance and corrosion behavior of the stainless steel substrates and NiTi coatings were investigated in Hanks' solution. The experimental results indicated the NiTi coatings show higher corrosion polarization resistance and a more stable corrosion potential in the Hanks' solution than the uncoated stainless steel substrate. The NiTi coatings also exhibited excellent wear resistance and chemical stability in sliding tests with an Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ball in the Hanks' solution. The tested samples showed different wear mechanisms in the sliding tests. Compared to the SS substrates, the NiTi coatings were more compatible with the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ball.

  15. Evaluation of Thermal and Thermo-mechanical Behavior of Full-scale Energy Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kyle D.

    This study focuses on the thermo-mechanical and thermal behavior of full-scale energy foundations installed as part of two buildings recently constructed in Colorado. The soil stratigraphy at each of the sites differed, but both foundations were expected to function as primarily end-bearing elements with a tip socketed into rock. The heat exchanger configurations were also different amongst the foundations at both sites, permitting evaluation of the role of heat exchange. A common thread for both energy foundation case histories was the monitoring of the temperature and axial strain within the foundations during heat exchange operations. The first case study involves an evaluation of the long-term thermo-mechanical response of two full-scale energy foundations installed at the new Denver Housing Authority (DHA) Senior Living Facility at 1099 Osage St. in Denver, Colorado. Due to the construction schedule for this project, the thermal properties of the foundations and surrounding subsurface could not be assessed using thermal response tests. However, instrumentation was incorporated into the foundations to assess their long-term heat exchange response as well as the thermo-mechanical strains, stresses, and displacements that occurred during construction and operation of the ground-source heat pump system. The temperature changes within the foundations during heating and cooling operations over a period of approximately 600 days ranged from 9 to 32 °C, respectively. The thermal axial stresses in the foundations were calculated from the measured strains, and ranged from 3.1 MPa during heating to --1.0 MPa during cooling. These values are within reasonable limits for reinforced concrete structures. The maximum thermal axial stress was observed near the toe of both foundations, which is consistent with trends expected for end-bearing toe boundary conditions. The greatest thermal axial strains were observed near the top of the foundations (upward expansion during

  16. Young’s modulus evaluation and thermal shock behavior of a porous SiC/cordierite composite material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pošarac-Marković M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous SiC/Cordierite Composite Material with graphite content (10% was synthesized. Evaluation of Young modulus of elasticity and thermal shock behavior of these samples was presented. Thermal shock behavior was monitored using water quench test, and non destructive methods such are UPVT and image analysis were also used for accompaniment the level of destruction of the samples during water quench test. Based on the level of destruction graphical modeling of critical number of cycles was given. This approach was implemented on discussion of the influence of the graphite content on thermal stability behavior of the samples. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45012

  17. New composites graphite/salt for high temperature thermal energy storage: From elaboration to development of thermal characterization methods for orthotropic conductive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acem, Zoubir

    2007-01-01

    This PhD is carried out within the framework of DISTOR (European) and HTPSTOCK (French) projects, which have for objective to conceive and study new graphite/salt composites dedicated to high temperature energy storage (>200 deg. C). She is split into two distinct part. The first one focused mainly on works linked with elaboration and thermal characterisation of these new composites. The different composites ways of elaboration (Dispersion, uniaxial compression, isostatic) associated to the different kind of graphite (Natural expanded graphite (ENG), synthetic graphite) investigated during the PhD are presented. The results of the thermal characterization campaign of these composites are also presented and permit to highlight the impact of graphite in the thermal behaviour of studied materials. Based on these results, modelling studies of the evolution of the thermal conductivity have been undertaken to deepen the understanding of the effect of graphite (quantity, size of particles) on the effective conductivity composites. The second one describes the thermal characterization devices and associated thermo-kinetics models which had to be developed and adapted to the specificities of newly developed materials. This concerns mainly the materials prepared by compression, which present orthotropic properties and are difficult to reproduce. So, the characterization of this kind of material is very difficult and tedious. That is why we are committed to develop and adapt existing methods of characterization to allow the complete thermal characterisation of an orthotropic conductive material from a single experimentation on a single sample. (author) [fr

  18. Evaporation Behavior and Characterization of Eutectic Solvent and Ibuprofen Eutectic Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Tuntarawongsa, Sarun; Charoensuksai, Purin

    2016-10-01

    Liquid eutectic system of menthol and camphor has been reported as solvent and co-solvent for some drug delivery systems. However, surprisingly, the phase diagram of menthol-camphor eutectic has not been reported previously. The evaporation behavior, physicochemical, and thermal properties of this liquid eutectic and ibuprofen eutectic solution were characterized in this study. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis indicated that a eutectic point of this system was near to 1:1 menthol/camphor and its eutectic temperature was -1°C. The solubility of ibuprofen in this eutectic was 282.11 ± 6.67 mg mL(-1) and increased the drug aqueous solubility fourfold. The shift of wave number from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated the hydrogen bonding of each compound in eutectic mixture. The weight loss from thermogravimetric analysis of menthol and camphor related to the evaporation and sublimation, respectively. Menthol demonstrated a lower apparent sublimation rate than camphor, and the evaporation rate of eutectic solvent was lower than the sublimation rate of camphor but higher than the evaporation of menthol. The evaporation rate of the ibuprofen eutectic solution was lower than that of the eutectic solvent because ibuprofen did not sublimate. This eutectic solvent prolonged the ibuprofen release with diffusion control. Thus, the beneficial information for thermal behavior and related properties of eutectic solvent comprising menthol-camphor and ibuprofen eutectic solution was attained successfully. The rather low evaporation of eutectic mixture will be beneficial for investigation and tracking the mechanism of transformation from nanoemulsion into nanosuspension in the further study using eutectic as oil phase.

  19. 3-D CFD modeling and experimental testing of thermal behavior of a Li-Ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gümüşsu, Emre; Ekici, Özgür; Köksal, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermally fully predictive 3-D CFD model is developed for Li-Ion batteries. • Complete flow field around the battery and conduction inside the battery are solved. • Macro-scale thermophysical properties and the entropic term are investigated. • Discharge rate and usage history of the battery are systematically investigated. • Reliability of the model was tested through experimental measurements. - Abstract: In this study, a 3-D computational fluid dynamics model was developed for investigating the thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries under natural convection. The model solves the complete flow field around the battery as well as conduction inside the battery using the well-known heat generation model of Bernardi et al. (1985). The model is thermally fully predictive so it requires only electrical performance parameters of the battery to calculate its temperature during discharging. Using the model, detailed investigation of the effects of the variation of the macro-scale thermophysical properties and the entropic term of the heat generation model was carried out. Results show that specific heat is a critical property that has a significant impact on the simulation results whereas thermal conductivity has relatively minor importance. Moreover, the experimental data can be successfully predicted without taking the entropic term into account in the calculation of the heat generation. The difference between the experimental and predicted battery surface temperature was less than 3 °C for all discharge rates and regardless of the usage history of the battery. The developed model has the potential to be used for the investigation of the thermal behavior of Li-Ion batteries in different packaging configurations under natural and forced convection.

  20. An assessment of thermal behavior of the DUPIC fuel bundle by subchannel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jee Won.

    1997-12-01

    Thermal behavior of the standard DUPIC fuel has been assessed. The DUPIC fuel bundle has been modeled for a subchannel analysis using the ASSERT-IV code which was developed by AECL. From the calculated mixture enthalpy, equilibrium quality and void fraction distributions of the DUPIC fuel bundle, it is found that net buoyancy effect is pronounced in the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle when compared with the standard CANDU fuel bundle. It is also found that the central region of the DUPIC fuel bundle can be cooled more efficiently than that of the standard fuel bundle. Based upon the subchannel modeling used in this study, the location of minimum CHFR in the DUPIC fuel bundle has been found to be very similar to that of the standard fuel. From the calculated mixture enthalpy distribution at the exit of the fuel channel, it is found that the mixture enthalpy and void fraction can be highest in the peripheral region of the DUPIC fuel bundle. On the other hand, the enthalpy and the void fraction was found to be highest in the central region of the standard CANDU fuel bundle at the exit of the fuel channel. Since the transverse interchange model between subchannels is important for the behavior of these variables, it is needed to put more effort in validating the transverse interchange model. For the purpose of investigating influence of thermal-hydraulic parameter variations of the DUPIC fuel bundle, four different values of the channel flow rates were used in the subchannel analysis. The effect of the channel flow reduction on thermal-hydraulic parameters have been presented. This study shows that the subchannel analysis is very useful in assessing thermal behavior of the fuel bundles in CANDU reactors. (author). 12 refs., 3 tabs., 17 figs

  1. A study of the thermal behavior of terrestrial tridymite by continuous X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelik, Eugene A.; Reeber, Robert R.

    1990-06-01

    Phase transition behavior of two types of terrestrial tridymite; crystals from Topaz Mountain in the Thomas Range of northwestern Utah and Smith Peak in Plumas County, California; were investigated. The Topaz Mtn. samples were characterized at room temperature using optical, X-ray diffraction (Debye-Scherrer, rotation, and Laue), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. Least-squares refinement of the powder data yielded an orthorhombic cell with a = 17.072 Å, b = 9.923 Å, and c = 16.291 Å. The tridymite is designated PO-2 (nomenclature of Nukui and Nakazawa 1980). This material is complexly twinned and has severe stacking disorder parallel to [001]. Additional X-ray experiments were performed on one Plumas County crystal and four Topaz Mtn. crystals during heating from room temperature to a minimum of 320° C with one run attaining a maximum temperature of 532° C. Crystal to crystal behavior was somewhat variable suggesting kinetic barriers to transition controlled by the detailed structural state of each crystal. The Laue results indicated that the transition behavior of these multiple twinned tridymites could be conveniently divided into two classes: discontinuous and continuous. The discontinuous diffraction effects were generally associated with major structural transitions. Continuous diffraction effects involved gradual structural distortions of the tridymite framework that occurred over discrete ranges of temperature. Upon cooling, many of the minor effects were not reversible while the major transitions were reversible with some temperature hysteresis. Comparison of initial and final diffraction patterns indicated that the starting and ending structures were very similar but not identical. From the five experiments, three distinct patterns emerged based on the major transitions observed: Type I behavior (Topaz Mtn.) characterized by three major changes at 175 187° C, 283 302° C, and 348 352° C, Type II behavior (Plumas Co.) characterized

  2. Human, Social, Cultural Behavior (HSCB) Modeling Workshop I: Characterizing the Capability Needs for HSCB Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The expectations correspond to different roles individuals perform SocialConstructionis Social constructionism is a school of thought Peter L...HUMAN, SOCIAL , CULTURAL BEHAVIOR (HSCB) MODELING WORKSHOP I: CHARACTERIZING THE CAPABILITY NEEDS FOR HSCB MODELING FINAL REPORT... Social , Cultural Behavior (HSCB) Modeling Workshop I: Characterizing the Capability Needs for HSCB Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  3. Thermodynamic nonequilibrium phase change behavior and thermal properties of biological solutions for cryobiology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bumsoo; Bischof, John C

    2004-04-01

    Understanding the phase change behavior of biomaterials during freezing/thawing including their thermal properties at low temperatures is essential to design and improve cryobiology applications such as cryopreservation and cryosurgery. However, knowledge of phase change behavior and thermal properties of various biomaterials is still incomplete, especially at cryogenic temperatures (solutions--either water-NaCl or phosphate buffered saline (PBS)--with various chemical additives were investigated. The chemical additives studied are glycerol and raffinose as CPAs, an AFP (Type III, molecular weight = 6500), and NaCl as a cryosurgical adjuvant. The phase change behavior was investigated using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a cryomicroscope. The specific and latent heat of these solutions were also measured with the DSC. The saline solutions have two distinct phase changes--water/ice and eutectic phase changes. During freezing, eutectic solidification of both water-NaCl and PBS are significantly supercooled below their thermodynamic equilibrium eutectic temperatures. However, their melting temperatures are close to thermodynamic equilibrium during thawing. These eutectic phase changes disappear when even a small amount (0.1 M glycerol) of CPA was added, but they are still observed after the addition of an AFP. The specific heats of these solutions are close to that of ice at very low temperatures (< or = -100 degrees C) regardless of the additives, but they increase between -100 degrees C and -30 degrees C with the addition of CPAs. The amount of latent heat, which is evaluated with sample weight, generally decreases with the addition of the additives, but can be normalized to approximately 300 J/g based on the weight of water which participates in the phase change. This illustrates that thermal properties, especially latent heat, of a biomaterial should be evaluated based on the understanding of its phase change behavior. The results of the present

  4. Design and Characterization of High-strength Bond Coats for Improved Thermal Barrier Coating Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, David John

    High pressure turbine blades in gas turbine engines rely on thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems for protection from the harsh combustion environment. These coating systems consist of a ceramic topcoat for thermal protection, a thermally grown oxide (TGO) for oxidation passivation, and an intermetallic bond coat to provide compatibility between the substrate and ceramic over-layers while supplying aluminum to sustain Al2O 3 scale growth. As turbine engines are pushed to higher operating temperatures in pursuit of better thermal efficiency, the strength of industry-standard bond coats limits the lifetime of these coating systems. Bond coat creep deformation during thermal cycling leads to a failure mechanism termed rumpling. The interlayer thermal expansion differences, combined with TGO-imposed growth stresses, lead to the development of periodic undulations in the bond coat. The ceramic topcoat has low out-of-plane compliance and thus detaches and spalls from the substrate, resulting in a loss of thermal protection and subsequent degradation of mechanical properties. New creep resistant Ni3Al bond coats were designed with improved high-temperature strength to inhibit this type of premature failure at elevated temperatures. These coatings resist rumpling deformation while maintaining compatibility with the other layers in the system. Characterization methods are developed to quantify rumpling and assess the TGO-bond coat interface toughness of experimental systems. Cyclic oxidation experiments at 1163 °C show that the Ni3Al bond coats do not experience rumpling but have faster oxide growth rates and are quicker to spall TGO than the (Pt,Ni)Al benchmark. However, the Ni 3Al coatings outperformed the benchmark by over threefold in TBC system life due to a higher resistance to rumpling (mechanical degradation) while maintaining adequate oxidation passivation. The Ni3Al coatings eventually grow spinel NiAl2O4 on top of the protective Al2O3 layer, which leads to the

  5. Mineralogical characterization of Greda clays and monitoring of their phase transformations on thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez Panduro, E.; Bravo Cabrejos, J.

    2010-01-01

    The mineralogical characterization of two clay samples from the Central Andean Region of Peru, denominated White Greda and Red Greda, is reported. These clays contain the clay minerals mica and illite respectively. Both clays were treated thermally in an oxidising atmosphere under controlled conditions up to 1,100 deg. C with the purpose of obtaining information about structural changes that may be useful for pottery manufacture. X-ray fluorescence was used for the elemental characterization of the samples and X-ray diffractometry was used to determine the collapse and formation of the mineral phases present in the samples caused by thermal treatment. At temperatures above 1,000 deg. C it is observed the formation of spinel in the case of White Greda and of hematite, corundum and cristobalite in the case of Red Greda. Room temperature transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy allowed the monitoring of the variation of the hyperfine parameters with the thermal treatment temperature; In the case of the evolution of the quadruple splitting of the paramagnetic Fe 3+ sites with temperature, in both clays, the analyses reproduced results such as the 'camel back' curve shape, found by other workers (Wagner and Wagner, Hyperfine Interact 154:35-82, 2004; Wagner and Kyek, Hyperfine Interact 154:5-33, 2004).

  6. Mineralogical characterization of Greda clays and monitoring of their phase transformations on thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panduro, E. Chavez; Cabrejos, J. Bravo

    2010-01-01

    The mineralogical characterization of two clay samples from the Central Andean Region of Peru, denominated White Greda and Red Greda, is reported. These clays contain the clay minerals mica and illite respectively. Both clays were treated thermally in an oxidising atmosphere under controlled conditions up to 1,100°C with the purpose of obtaining information about structural changes that may be useful for pottery manufacture. X-ray fluorescence was used for the elemental characterization of the samples and X-ray diffractometry was used to determine the collapse and formation of the mineral phases present in the samples caused by thermal treatment. At temperatures above 1,000°C it is observed the formation of spinel in the case of White Greda and of hematite, corundum and cristobalite in the case of Red Greda. Room temperature transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy allowed the monitoring of the variation of the hyperfine parameters with the thermal treatment temperature; In the case of the evolution of the quadruple splitting of the paramagnetic Fe3 + sites with temperature, in both clays, the analyses reproduced results such as the “camel back” curve shape, found by other workers (Wagner and Wagner, Hyperfine Interact 154:35-82, 2004; Wagner and Kyek, Hyperfine Interact 154:5-33, 2004).

  7. Mineralogical characterization of Greda clays and monitoring of their phase transformations on thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez Panduro, E., E-mail: 04130127@unmsm.edu.pe; Bravo Cabrejos, J., E-mail: jbravoc@unmsm.edu.pe [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas (Peru)

    2010-01-15

    The mineralogical characterization of two clay samples from the Central Andean Region of Peru, denominated White Greda and Red Greda, is reported. These clays contain the clay minerals mica and illite respectively. Both clays were treated thermally in an oxidising atmosphere under controlled conditions up to 1,100 deg. C with the purpose of obtaining information about structural changes that may be useful for pottery manufacture. X-ray fluorescence was used for the elemental characterization of the samples and X-ray diffractometry was used to determine the collapse and formation of the mineral phases present in the samples caused by thermal treatment. At temperatures above 1,000 deg. C it is observed the formation of spinel in the case of White Greda and of hematite, corundum and cristobalite in the case of Red Greda. Room temperature transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy allowed the monitoring of the variation of the hyperfine parameters with the thermal treatment temperature; In the case of the evolution of the quadruple splitting of the paramagnetic Fe{sup 3+} sites with temperature, in both clays, the analyses reproduced results such as the 'camel back' curve shape, found by other workers (Wagner and Wagner, Hyperfine Interact 154:35-82, 2004; Wagner and Kyek, Hyperfine Interact 154:5-33, 2004).

  8. A numerical study on thermal behavior of a D-type water-cooled steam boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghari, M.; Hosseini, S.; Shokouhmand, H.; Sharifi, H.; Izadpanah, S.

    2012-01-01

    To achieve a precise assessment on thermal performance of a D-type water-cooled natural gas-fired boiler the present paper was aimed at determining temperature distribution of water and flue gas flows in its different heat exchange equipment. Using the zonal method to predict thermal radiation treatment in the boiler furnace and a numerical iterative approach, in which heat and fluid flow relations associated with different heat surfaces in the boiler convective zone were employed to estimate heat transfer characteristics, enabled this numerical study to obtain results in good agreement with experimental data measured in the utility site during steady state operation. A constant flow rate for a natural gas fuel of specified chemical composition was assumed to be mixed with a given excess ratio of air flow at a full boiler load. Significant results attributed to distribution of heat flux on different furnace walls and that of flue gas and water/steam temperature in different convective stages including superheater, evaporating risers and downcomers modules, and economizer were obtained. Besides the rate of heat absorption in every stage and other essential parameters in the boiler design too, inherent thermal characteristics like radiative and convective heat transfer coefficients as well as overall heat transfer conductance and effectiveness of convective stages considered as cross-flow heat exchangers were eventually presented for the given operating condition. - Highlights: ► Detailed distribution of heat flux on all of the boiler furnace walls was obtained. ► Flue gas and water thermal behaviors in different heating sections were evaluated. ► A good agreement was made between numerical results and experimental data. ► Contribution of the boiler furnace to the total thermal absorption was 39%. ► Contribution of the boiler tube banks to the total thermal absorption was 61%.

  9. Cold-season solar input and ambivalent thermal behavior brought by climber greenwalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jim, C.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Most greenwall studies focus on cooling and energy conservation in the warm season, and tropical cold-season has received little attention. This field-experimental study in humid-subtropical Hong Kong evaluated winter thermal behavior of climber greenwalls. Orientation and weather factors regulated solar-irradiation regimes with critical impact on vegetation thermal responses. Temperature differentiation occurred mainly on sunny day, with subdued variations on cloudy and rainy days. The south greenwall on sunny day received the highest solar-energy input, bringing divergent surface temperature in three climber species. The daytime descending cooling sequence was: Control-air > Pyrostegia venusta > Bauhinia corymbosa > Ficus pumila > Control-surface. Heat-sink effect related to foliage-thickness and moisture-content influenced climber thermal responses. Exceeding a solar-irradiance threshold of 500 Wm"−"2 was a prerequisite for notable solar-warming and transpiration-cooling, bringing well-differentiated climber-surface temperature. Cooling of vegetation-surface and Anterior-ambient-air was contrasted by warming behind the greenwall. Posterior-airgap with trapped stagnant air and Posterior-concrete-surface were warmed consistently above control concrete-surface on sunny and cloudy days. This winter passive warming mechanism denotes a new dimension in thermal benefits operating behind the greenwall. The thermal-gradient can transmit heat into indoor space, with benefits on human comfort, health and energy conservation. - Highlights: • Cold-season thermal regimes and benefits of climber greenwalls in tropics was studied. • Greenwall plots were installed as a field-experiment to evaluated six related factors. • Descending cooling sequence: Pyrostegia venusta > Bauhinia corymbosa > Ficus pumila. • Solar radiation intensity and foliage heat-sink effect determined climber cooling. • Posterior airgap and Posterior concrete-surface were warmed to provide indoor

  10. Thermal behavior studies in building using artificial neural network for non air conditioned terrace house in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainazlan Md Zain; Mohd Nasir Taib; Shahrizam Mohd Shah Baki

    2006-01-01

    Strategies to improve energy efficiency in buildings have continuously being improved and becoming more effective as new knowledge on the building behavior and technology continue to develop. Nevertheless, effort to explore for further improvement must continuously undertake to seek more energy efficient and cost effective systems. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is currently one of the most popular mechanisms to forecast any form of behavior and phenomena. Building thermal behavior can be studied and potential for energy utilization improvement without compromising thermal comfort can be explored using ANN. This paper explores the possibility of monitoring, predicting and forecasting the thermal behavior inside a building space and the optimization of building design. Typical result of experimental data and simulated data is presented. The sample house used adopted various thermal comfort strategies like cross ventilation and space air flow consideration

  11. Thermal behavior and mechanical properties of physically crosslinked PVA/Gelatin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yurong; Geever, Luke M; Kennedy, James E; Higginbotham, Clement L; Cahill, Paul A; McGuinness, Garrett B

    2010-02-01

    Poly (vinyl alcohol)/Gelatin hydrogels are under active investigation as potential vascular cell culture biomaterials, tissue models and vascular implants. The PVA/Gelatin hydrogels are physically crosslinked by the freeze-thaw technique, which is followed by a coagulation bath treatment. In this study, the thermal behavior of the gels was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Rheological measurement and uniaxial tensile tests revealed key mechanical properties. The role of polymer fraction in relation to these mechanical properties is explored. Gelatin has no significant effect on the thermal behavior of PVA, which indicates that no substantial change occurs in the PVA crystallite due to the presence of gelatin. The glass transition temperature, melting temperature, degree of crystallinity, polymer fraction, storage modulus (G') and ultimate strength of one freeze-thaw cycle (1FT) hydrogels are inferior to those of 3FT hydrogels. With coagulation, both 1FT and 3FT hydrogels shifted to a lower value of T(g), melting temperature and polymer fraction are further increased and the degree of crystallinity is depressed. The mechanical properties of 1FT, but not 3FT, were strengthened with coagulation treatment. This study gives a detailed investigation of the microstructure formation of PVA/Gelatin hydrogel in each stage of physical treatments which helps us to explain the role of physical treatments in tuning their physical properties for biomechanical applications. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal hydraulic behavior of sub-assembly local blockage in China experiment fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhimin

    2000-01-01

    The geometrical parameter ratio of pitch to diameter of China Experiment Fast Reactor (CEFR) subassembly is 1,167. To address the thermal hydraulic behavior of subassembly local blockage which may be caused by deformation of cladding due to severe swelling and thermal stresses and by space swirl loosening etc., the porous numerical model and SIMPLE-P code used to solve Navier-Stokes and energy equations in porous medium was developed, and the bundle experiment with 19 pins with 24 subchannels blocked in the sodium coolant was carried on in China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The comparison of code predictions against experiments (including non-blockage and ten blockage conditions) seems well. The thermal hydraulic behavior of fuel subassembly with 61 fuel pins blockage of CEFR is calculated with SIMPLE-P code. The results indicate that the maximum temperature is 815 deg. C when the blockage area is about 37% (54 central subchannels are blocked). In this case the cladding won't be damaged and no sodium coolant boiling takes place. (author)

  13. Composition, phase behavior and thermal stability of natural edible fat from rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Fuentes, Julio A; Camey-Ortíz, Guadalupe; Hernández-Medel, María del Rosario; Pérez-Mendoza, Francisco; Durán-de-Bazúa, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the chemical composition, the main physicochemical properties, phase behavior and thermal stability of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) seed fat were studied. These results showed that the almond-like decorticated seed represents 6.1% of the wet weight fruit and is: 1.22% ash, 7.80% protein, 11.6% crude fiber, 46% carbohydrates, and 33.4% fat (d.b.). The main fatty acids in the drupe fat were 40.3% oleic, 34.5% arachidic, 6.1% palmitic, 7.1% stearic, 6.3% gondoic, and 2.9% behenic; the refraction, saponification and iodine values were 1.468, 186, and 47.0, respectively. The phase behavior analysis showed relatively simple crystallization and melting profiles: crystallization showed three well-differentiated groups of triglycerides around maximum peaks at +30.8, +15.6 and -18.1 degrees C; the fat-melting curve had a range between -14.5 and +51.8 degrees C with a fusion enthalpy of 124.3 J/g. The thermal stability analyzed in an inert atmosphere of N(2) and in a normal oxidizing atmosphere, showed that in the latter, fat decomposition begins at 237.3 degrees C and concludes at 529 degrees C, with three stages of decomposition. According to these results, rambutan seed fat has physicochemical and thermal characteristics that may become interesting for specific applications in several segments of the food industry.

  14. Mefenamic acid conjugates based on a hydrophilic biopolymer hydroxypropylcellulose: novel prodrug design, characterization and thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.A.; Kausar, R.; Amin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Macromolecular prodrugs (MPDs) of mefenamic acid were designed onto a cellulose ether derivative hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as ester conjugates. Fabrication of HPC-mefenamic acid conjugates was achieved by using p-toluenesulfonyl chloride as carboxylic acid (a functional group in drug) activator at 80 degree C for 24 h under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction was preceded under homogeneous reaction conditions as HPC was dissolved before use in DMAc solvent. Imidazole was used as a base. Easy workup reactions resulted in good yields (55-65%) and degree of substitution (DS) of drug (0.37-0.99) onto HPC. The DS was calculated by acid-base titration after saponification and UV/Vis spectrophotometry after hydrolysis. DS by both of the methods was found in good agreement with each other. Aqueous and organic soluble novel prodrugs of mefenamic acid were purified and characterized by different spectroscopic and thermal analysis techniques. The initial, maximum and final degradation temperatures of HPC, mefenamic acid and HPC-mefenamic acid conjugates were drawn from thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative TG curves and compared to access relative thermal stability. The TG analysis has indicated that samples obtained were thermally more stable especially with increased stability of mefenamic acid in HPC-mefenamic acid conjugates. These novel MPDs of mefenamic acid (i.e., HPC-mefenamic acid conjugates) may have potential applications in pharmaceutically viable drug design due to wide range of solubility and extra thermal stability imparted after MPD formation. (author)

  15. Fabrication and characterization of self-folding thermoplastic sheets using unbalanced thermal shrinkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Christian; Mehrnezhad, Ali; YekrangSafakar, Ashkan; Park, Kidong

    2017-06-14

    Self-folding or micro-origami technologies are actively investigated as a novel manufacturing process to fabricate three-dimensional macro/micro-structures. In this paper, we present a simple process to produce a self-folding structure with a biaxially oriented polystyrene sheet (BOPS) or Shrinky Dinks. A BOPS sheet is known to shrink to one-third of its original size in plane, when it is heated above 160 °C. A grid pattern is engraved on one side of the BOPS film with a laser engraver to decrease the thermal shrinkage of the engraved side. The thermal shrinkage of the non-engraved side remains the same and this unbalanced thermal shrinkage causes folding of the structure as the structure shrinks at high temperature. We investigated the self-folding mechanism and characterized how the grid geometry, the grid size, and the power of the laser engraver affect the bending curvature. The developed fabrication process to locally modulate thermomechanical properties of the material by engraving the grid pattern and the demonstrated design methodology to harness the unbalanced thermal shrinkage can be applied to develop complicated self-folding macro/micro structures.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Fibre Reinforced Silica Aerogel Blankets for Thermal Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chakraborty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS as the source of silica, fibre reinforced silica aerogels were synthesized via fast ambient pressure drying using methanol (MeOH, trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS, ammonium fluoride (NH4F, and hexane. The molar ratio of TEOS/MeOH/(COOH2/NH4F was kept constant at 1 : 38 : 3.73 × 10−5 : 0.023 and the gel was allowed to form inside the highly porous meta-aramid fibrous batting. The wet gel surface was chemically modified (silylation process using various concentrations of TMCS in hexane in the range of 1 to 20% by volume. The fibre reinforced silica aerogel blanket was obtained subsequently through atmospheric pressure drying. The aerogel blanket samples were characterized by density, thermal conductivity, hydrophobicity (contact angle, and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The radiant heat resistance of the aerogel blankets was examined and compared with nonaerogel blankets. It has been observed that, compared to the ordinary nonaerogel blankets, the aerogel blankets showed a 58% increase in the estimated burn injury time and thus ensure a much better protection from heat and fire hazards. The effect of varying the concentration of TMCS on the estimated protection time has been examined. The improved thermal stability and the superior thermal insulation of the flexible aerogel blankets lead to applications being used for occupations that involve exposure to hazards of thermal radiation.

  17. Fuel Thermo-physical Characterization Project: Evaluation of Models to Calculate Thermal Diffusivity of Layered Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkes, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Amanda J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gardner, Levi D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Andrew M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huber, Tanja K. [Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Breitkreutz, Harald [Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany)

    2015-02-11

    The Office of Material Management and Minimization Fuel Thermo-physical Characterization Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is tasked with using PNNL facilities and processes to receive irradiated low enriched uranium-molybdenum fuel plate samples and perform analyses in support of the Office of Material Management and Minimization Reactor Conversion Program. This work is in support of the Fuel Development Pillar that is managed by Idaho National Laboratory. A key portion of the scope associated with this project was to measure the thermal properties of fuel segments harvested from plates that were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor. Thermal diffusivity of samples prepared from the fuel segments was measured using laser flash analysis. Two models, one developed by PNNL and the other developed by the Technische Universität München (TUM), were evaluated to extract the thermal diffusivity of the uranium-molybdenum alloy from measurements made on the irradiated, layered composites. The experimental data of the “TC” irradiated fuel segment was evaluated using both models considering a three-layer and five-layer system. Both models are in acceptable agreement with one another and indicate that the zirconium diffusion barrier has a minimal impact on the overall thermal diffusivity of the monolithic U-Mo fuel.

  18. Qualitative thermal characterization and cooling of lithium batteries for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, A.; D'Annibale, F.; Boccardi, G.; Celata, G. P.; Menale, C.; Bubbico, R.; Vellucci, F.

    2014-04-01

    The paper deals with the cooling of batteries. The first step was the thermal characterization of a single cell of the module, which consists in the detection of the thermal field by means of thermographic tests during electric charging and discharging. The purpose was to identify possible critical hot points and to evaluate the cooling demand during the normal operation of an electric car. After that, a study on the optimal configuration to obtain the flattening of the temperature profile and to avoid hot points was executed. An experimental plant for cooling capacity evaluation of the batteries, using air as cooling fluid, was realized in our laboratory in ENEA Casaccia. The plant is designed to allow testing at different flow rate and temperatures of the cooling air, useful for the assessment of operative thermal limits in different working conditions. Another experimental facility was built to evaluate the thermal behaviour changes with water as cooling fluid. Experimental tests were carried out on the LiFePO4 batteries, under different electric working conditions using the two loops. In the future, different type of batteries will be tested and the influence of various parameters on the heat transfer will be assessed for possible optimal operative solutions.

  19. Qualitative thermal characterization and cooling of lithium batteries for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, A; D'Annibale, F; Boccardi, G; Celata, G P; La Sapienza (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (University of Roma La Sapienza (Italy))" >Menale, C; La Sapienza (Italy))" data-affiliation=" (University of Roma La Sapienza (Italy))" >Bubbico, R; Vellucci, F

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the cooling of batteries. The first step was the thermal characterization of a single cell of the module, which consists in the detection of the thermal field by means of thermographic tests during electric charging and discharging. The purpose was to identify possible critical hot points and to evaluate the cooling demand during the normal operation of an electric car. After that, a study on the optimal configuration to obtain the flattening of the temperature profile and to avoid hot points was executed. An experimental plant for cooling capacity evaluation of the batteries, using air as cooling fluid, was realized in our laboratory in ENEA Casaccia. The plant is designed to allow testing at different flow rate and temperatures of the cooling air, useful for the assessment of operative thermal limits in different working conditions. Another experimental facility was built to evaluate the thermal behaviour changes with water as cooling fluid. Experimental tests were carried out on the LiFePO4 batteries, under different electric working conditions using the two loops. In the future, different type of batteries will be tested and the influence of various parameters on the heat transfer will be assessed for possible optimal operative solutions.

  20. Characterization behavior of some polymeric composite ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zahhar, A.A; Ahdel-Aziz, H.M.; Siyam, T.

    2005-01-01

    Polymeric composite resins were prepared by template polymerization process in aqueous solution. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and The X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) were performed to evaluate the physico chemical properties of the different polymeric composite resins. The TGA and DTA clarify high thermal stability of prepared polymeric composite resins. XRD of prepared polymeric composite shows that there is crystalline structure of some resins while other are amorphous one

  1. Thermal transport in dimerized harmonic lattices: Exact solution, crossover behavior, and extended reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chih-Chun; Kouachi, Said; Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Dubi, Yonatan; Zwolak, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We present a method for calculating analytically the thermal conductance of a classical harmonic lattice with both alternating masses and nearest-neighbor couplings when placed between individual Langevin reservoirs at different temperatures. The method utilizes recent advances in analytic diagonalization techniques for certain classes of tridiagonal matrices. It recovers the results from a previous method that was applicable for alternating on-site parameters only, and extends the applicability to realistic systems in which masses and couplings alternate simultaneously. With this analytic result in hand, we show that the thermal conductance is highly sensitive to the modulation of the couplings. This is due to the existence of topologically induced edge modes at the lattice-reservoir interface and is also a reflection of the symmetries of the lattice. We make a connection to a recent work that demonstrates thermal transport is analogous to chemical reaction rates in solution given by Kramers' theory [Velizhanin et al., Sci. Rep. 5, 17506 (2015)], 10.1038/srep17506. In particular, we show that the turnover behavior in the presence of edge modes prevents calculations based on single-site reservoirs from coming close to the natural—or intrinsic—conductance of the lattice. Obtaining the correct value of the intrinsic conductance through simulation of even a small lattice where ballistic effects are important requires quite large extended reservoir regions. Our results thus offer a route for both the design and proper simulation of thermal conductance of nanoscale devices.

  2. Thermal performance behavior of a domestic hot water solar storage tank during consumption operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghan, A.A.; Barzegar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Transient thermal performance behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar water heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the discharge/consumption mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially stratified during its previous heat storing/charging operation. During the discharging period, the city cold water is fed at the bottom of the tank and hot water is extracted from its top outlet port for consumption. Meanwhile, the collector loop is assumed to be active. The conservation equations in the axis-symmetric cylindrical co-ordinate have been used and discretised by employing the finite volume method. The low Reynolds number (LRN) k - ω model is utilized for treating turbulence in the fluid. The influence of the tank Grashof number, the incoming cold fluid Reynolds number and the size of the inlet port of the heat storage tank on the transient thermal characteristics of the tank is investigated and discussed. It is found that for higher values of Grashof number, the pre-established thermal stratification is well preserved during the discharging operation mode. It is also noticed that in order to have a tank with a proper thermal performance and or have least mixing inside the tank during the consumption period, the tank inflow Reynolds number and or its inflow port diameter should be kept below certain values. In these cases, the storage tank is enabling to provide proper amount of hot water with a proper temperature for consumption purposes.

  3. Numerical study on the thermal behavior of graphene nanoplatelets/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenkai; Zhai, Xian; Ma, Pengfei; Fan, Taotao; Li, Xiaotuo

    2018-06-01

    A three-dimensional computational model was developed using the finite element method (FEM) to evaluate the thermal behavior of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs)/epoxy composites based on continuum mechanics. The model was validated with experimental data. The effects of the ratio of radius to thickness (Rrt) of GNPs, the interfacial thermal conductivity between GNPs and the matrix (Cgm), the contact thermal conductivity between GNPs (Cgg) and the agglomeration degree of GNPs on the thermal conductivity of composites (Kc) were quantified using this model. The results show that a larger Rrt is beneficial to Kc. GNPs could increase Kc only when the Cgm is greater than a critical value. A percolation phenomenon will occur when Cgg is larger than 1.0E8 W/(m2k) in randomly distributed GNPs/epoxy composites. The percolation effects become more obvious with the increase of Cgg and the volume fraction of GNPs. The agglomeration of GNPs has negative effects on the Kc. The higher the agglomeration degree of GNPs is, the lower Kc is. This is attributed to less beneficial interfacial areas, more inefficient contact areas, smaller Rrt and less effective connection/contact between GNPs.

  4. Thermal and magnetic behavior of Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers covered with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, S. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Arias, N.P. [Laboratorio de Materiales Nanoestructurados y Funcionales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Electronica y Computacion, Facultad de Ingenieria y Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Giraldo, O., E-mail: ohggiraldo@hotmail.com [Laboratorio de Materiales Nanoestructurados y Funcionales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Rosales-Rivera, A.; Moscoso, O. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia)

    2012-08-15

    Several Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers, which have been previously treated with an alkaline solution, were coated with magnetite particles. The coating of the fibers was achieved by an in-situ co-precipitation method with Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}in NaOH or NH{sub 4}OH. The fibers were evaluated by chemical analysis using atomic absorption (A.A.) technique, structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal stability with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in nitrogen at temperature range between 23 Degree-Sign C and 800 Degree-Sign C and magnetic behavior using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) applying a magnetic field between -27 KOe and 27 KOe at room temperature. We found that the thermal stability and magnetization depend of the synthesis method used to cover the Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers. In addition, an improved magnetic response was observed when NaOH solution is used to generate the magnetite coating on the fiber surface.

  5. Nanocomposites of cellulose/iron oxide: influence of synthesis conditions on their morphological behavior and thermal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Mingguo; Zhu Jiefang; Li Shuming; Jia Ning; Sun Runcang

    2012-01-01

    Nanocomposites of cellulose/iron oxide have been successfully prepared by hydrothermal method using cellulose solution and Fe(NO 3 ) 3 ·9H 2 O at 180 °C. The cellulose solution was obtained by the dissolution of microcrystalline cellulose in NaOH/urea aqueous solution, which is a good system to dissolve cellulose and favors the synthesis of iron oxide without needing any template or other reagents. The phases, microstructure, and morphologies of nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS). The effects of the heating time, heating temperature, cellulose concentration, and ferric nitrate concentration on the morphological behavior of products were investigated. The experimental results indicated that the cellulose concentration played an important role in both the phase and shape of iron oxide in nanocomposites. Moreover, the nanocomposites synthesized by using different cellulose concentrations displayed different thermal stabilities. - Highlights: ► Nanocomposites of cellulose/iron oxide have been prepared by hydrothermal method. ► The cellulose concentration played an important role in the phase of iron oxide. ► The cellulose concentration played an important role in the shape of iron oxide. ► The samples displayed different thermal stabilities.

  6. Preparation, characterization and thermal properties of PMMA/n-heptadecane microcapsules as novel solid-liquid microPCM for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Ahmet; Alkan, Cemil; Karaipekli, Ali

    2010-01-01

    This study is focused on the preparation, characterization and thermal properties of microencapsulated n-heptadecane with polymethylmethacrylate shell. The PMMA/heptadecane microcapsules were synthesized as novel solid-liquid microencapsulated phase change material (microPCMs) by emulsion polymerization method. The chemical and thermal characterization of the microPCMs were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The diameters of microPCMs were found in the narrow range (0.14-0.40 μm) under the stirring speed of 2000 rpm. The spherical surfaces of microPCMs were smooth and compact. The DSC results show that microPCMs have good energy storage capacity. Thermal cycling test showed that the microPCMs have good thermal reliability with respect to the changes in their thermal properties after repeated 5000 thermal cycling. TGA analyses also indicated that the microPCMs degraded in three steps and have good thermal stability. Based on all results, it can be considered that the PMMA/heptadecane microcapsules as novel solid-liquid microPCMs have good energy storage potential.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and thermal stability of solid solutions Zr (Y, Fe, MoO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Legorreta-García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of Fe3+, Mo4+ and Y3+ fully stabilized zirconia by the nitrate/urea combustion route and thermal stability in air was investigated. The solid solution obtained was characterized by X ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and used the BET method for determining specific surface. The ceramic powders obtained were calcined at 1473 K in air atmosphere in order to determine their thermal stability. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM results showed a homogeneous grain surface, measuring several tens of micrometers across. The crystallographic study revealed that by this method it was successfully achieved zirconia doped with Fe3+, Mo4+ and Y3+ ions in the zirconia tetragonal monophase, even after calcinations.

  8. Apparatus and test method for characterizing the temperature regulating properties of thermal functional porous polymeric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Shan; Zhang, De-Pin

    2017-05-01

    In order to evaluate the temperature regulating properties of thermal functional porous polymeric materials such as fabrics treated with phase change material microcapsules, a new apparatus was developed. The apparatus and the test method can measure the heat flux, temperature, and displacement signals during the dynamic contact and then quickly give an evaluation for the temperature regulating properties by simulating the dynamic heat transfer and temperature regulating process when the materials contact the body skin. A series of indices including the psychosensory intensity, regulating capability index, and relative regulating index were defined to characterize the temperature regulating properties. The measurement principle, the evaluation criteria and grading method, the experimental setup and the test results discussion, and the gage capability analysis of the apparatus are presented. The new apparatus provides a method for the objective measurement and evaluation of the temperature regulating properties of thermal functional porous polymeric materials.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and thermal stability of solid solutions Zr (Y, Fe, Mo)O {sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legorreta-Garcia, F.; Esperanza Hernandez-Cruz, L.; Villanueva-Ibanez, M.; Flores-Gonzalez, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    The synthesis of Fe{sup 3}+, Mo{sup 4+} and Y{sup 3+} fully stabilized zirconia by the nitrate/urea combustion route and thermal stability in air was investigated. The solid solution obtained was characterized by X ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and used the BET method for determining specific surface. The ceramic powders obtained were calcined at 1473 K in air atmosphere in order to determine their thermal stability. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed a homogeneous grain surface, measuring several tens of micrometers across. The crystallographic study revealed that by this method it was successfully achieved zirconia doped with Fe{sup 3+}, Mo{sup 4+} and Y{sup 3+} ions in the zirconia tetragonal monophase, even after calcinations. (Author)

  10. Thermal characterization of indirectly heated axi-symmetric solid cathode electron beam gun for melting application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, B.; Gupta, S.; Malik, P.; Mishra, K.K.; Jha, M.N.; Kandaswamy, E.; Martin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Electron beam melting gun with indirectly heated axi-symmetric solid cathode was designed, fabricated and characterized experimentally. The thermal simulation and optical analysis of the electron gun was carried out to estimate the power required to achieve the emission temperature of the solid cathode, to obtain the temperature distribution in the assembly and the beam transportation. On the basis of the thermal simulation and electron optics, the electron gun design was finalised. The electron gun assembly was fabricated and installed in the vacuum chamber for carrying out the experiment to find the actual temperature distribution. Thermocouple and two colour pyrometer were used to measure the temperature at various locations in the electron gun. The attenuation effect of the viewing port glass of the vacuum chamber was compensated in the final reading of the temperature measured by the pyrometer. The temperature of solid cathode obtained by the experiment was found to be 2800K which is the emission temperature of solid cathode. (author)

  11. GAPCON-THERMAL-2: a computer program for calculating the thermal behavior of an oxide fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, C.E.; Hann, C.R.; Lanning, D.D.; Panisko, F.E.; Parchen, L.J.

    1975-11-01

    A description is presented of the computer code GAPCON THERMAL-2, a light water reactor (LWR) fuel thermal performance prediction code. GAPCON-THERMAL-2, is intended to be used as a calculational tool for reactor fuel steady-state thermal performance and to provide input for accident analyses. Some models used in the code provide best estimate as well as conservative predictions. Each of the individual models in the code is based on the best available data

  12. Preparation and characterization of sepiolite-based phase change material nanocomposites for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konuklu, Yeliz; Ersoy, Orkun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sepiolite-based phase change material nanocomposites were prepared. • An easy direct impregnation process was used. • This paper is one of the first study about sepiolite-based phase change material nanocomposites. • Influence of PCM type on thermal properties of nanocomposites was reported. - Abstract: This paper is one of the first study about the preparation and characterization of sepiolite-based phase change material nanocomposites for thermal energy storage applications. Sepiolite is an important natural fibrous raw material. Nanoscale fibrous tubular structure of sepiolite becomes important in nanocomposite preparation. In this study, sepiolite/paraffin and sepiolite/decanoic acid nanocomposites were manufactured by the direct impregnation method. By the preparation of nanocomposites, PCM move in tubular channels of sepiolite, phase changing occurs in these tubes and surface area increases like as in microencapsulation. The structure and properties of nanocomposites PCMs (CPCM) have been characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The SEM results prove the successful preparation of phase change material/sepiolite nanocomposites and point out that the fibers of sepiolite is modified with phase change materials in the nanocomposite. The phase change enthalpies of melting and freezing were about 62.08 J/g and −62.05 J/g for sepiolite/paraffin nanocomposites and 35.69 J/g and −34.55 J/g for sepiolite/decanoic acid nanocomposites, respectively. The results show that PCM/sepiolite nanocomposites were prepared successfully and their properties are very suitable for thermal energy storage applications.

  13. Geographic divergence in upper thermal limits across insect life stages: does behavior matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Heidi J; Higgins, Jessica K; Buckley, Lauren B; Kingsolver, Joel G

    2016-05-01

    Insects with complex life cycles vary in size, mobility, and thermal ecology across life stages. We examine how differences in the capacity for thermoregulatory behavior influence geographic differences in physiological heat tolerance among egg and adult Colias butterflies. Colias adults exhibit differences in morphology (wing melanin and thoracic setal length) along spatial gradients, whereas eggs are morphologically indistinguishable. Here we compare Colias eriphyle eggs and adults from two elevations and Colias meadii from a high elevation. Hatching success and egg development time of C. eriphyle eggs did not differ significantly with the elevation of origin. Egg survival declined in response to heat-shock temperatures above 38-40 °C and egg development time was shortest at intermediate heat-shock temperatures of 33-38 °C. Laboratory experiments with adults showed survival in response to heat shock was significantly greater for Colias from higher than from lower elevation sites. Common-garden experiments at the low-elevation field site showed that C. meadii adults initiated heat-avoidance and over-heating behaviors significantly earlier in the day than C. eriphyle. Our study demonstrates the importance of examining thermal tolerances across life stages. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that thermoregulatory behavior inhibits the geographic divergence of physiological traits in mobile stages, and suggest that sessile stages may evolve similar heat tolerances in different environments due to microclimatic variability or evolutionary constraints.

  14. Study of thermal hydraulic behavior of supercritical water flowing through fuel rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakre, Sachin; Lakshmanan, S.P.; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Pandey, Manmohan

    2009-01-01

    Investigations on thermal-hydraulic behavior in Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) fuel assembly have obtained a significant attention in the international SCWR community because of its potential to obtain high thermal efficiency and compact design. Present work deals with CFD analysis to study the flow and heat transfer behavior of supercritical water in 4 metre long 7-pin fuel bundle using commercial CFD package ANSYS CFX for single phase steady state conditions. Considering the symmetric conditions, 1/12th part of the fuel rod bundle is taken as a domain of analysis. RNG K-epsilon model with scalable wall functions is used for modeling the turbulence behavior. Constant heat flux boundary condition is applied at the fuel rod surface. IAPWS equations of state are used to compute thermo-physical properties of supercritical water. Sharp variations in its thermo-physical properties (specific heat, density) are observed near the pseudo-critical temperature causing sharp change in heat transfer coefficient. The pseudo-critical point initially appears in the gaps among heated fuel rods, and then spreads radially outward reaching the adiabatic wall as the flow goes downstream. The enthalpy gain in the centre of the channel is much higher than that in the wall region. Non-uniformity in the circumferential distribution of surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient is observed which is in agreement with published literature. Heat transfer coefficient is high on the rod surface near the tight region and decreases as the distance between rod surfaces increases. (author)

  15. Xenon thermal behavior in sintered titanium nitride, foreseen inert matrix for GFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bes, R.

    2010-11-01

    This work concerns the generation IV future nuclear reactors such as gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) for which refractory materials as titanium nitride (TiN) are needed to surround fuel and act as a fission product diffusion barrier. This study is about Xe thermal behavior in sintered titanium nitride. Microstructure effects on Xe behavior have been studied. In this purpose, several syntheses have been performed using different sintering temperatures and initial powder compositions. Xenon species have been introduced into samples by ionic implantation. Then, samples were annealed in temperature range from 1300 C to 1600 C, these temperatures being the accidental awaited temperature. A transport of xenon towards sample surface has been observed. Transport rate seems to be slow down when increasing sintering temperature. The composition of initial powder and the crystallographic orientation of each considered grain also influence xenon thermal behavior. Xenon release has been correlated with material oxidation during annealing. Xenon bubbles were observed. Their size is proportional with xenon concentration and increases with annealing temperature. Several mechanisms which could explain Xe intragranular mobility in TiN are proposed. In addition with experiments, very low Xe solubility in TiN has been confirmed by ab initio calculations. So, bi-vacancies were found to be the most favoured Xe incorporation sites in this material. (author)

  16. Effects of pulse current stimulation on the thermal fatigue crack propagation behavior of CHWD steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.Q.; Zhao, Y.G.; Gao, Z.M.; Han, L.G.

    2008-01-01

    The fatigue crack propagating behaviors of cast hot working die (CHWD) steel untreated and treated by an electric current in the intermediate stage of thermal fatigue were investigated in the present study. The circle/elliptical heating affected zone (HAZ) was formed ahead of the notch tip on the fatigued specimens after pulse electric current stimulation. Both SEM observation and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that pulse electric current stimulation refined grains/subgrains in the HAZs. With the prolonging of discharging duration, the grains/subgrains decreased in size and the dislocation density and microhardness increased gradually. The grain refinement and dislocation density increase played an important role in the material strengthening, which inevitably enhanced the propagation resistance and delayed the propagation of thermal fatigue cracks. Therefore, the pulse electric current stimulation was an effective method to improve the service lifetime of die material

  17. Analysis of thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior near an emplacement drift at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2002-01-01

    A coupled thermal, hydrologic and mechanical (THM) analysis is conducted to evaluate the impact of coupled THM processes on the performance of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The analysis considers changes in rock mass porosity, permeability, and capillary pressure caused by rock deformations during drift excavation, as well as those caused by thermo-mechanically induced rock deformations after emplacement of the heat-generating waste. The analysis consists of a detailed calibration of coupled hydraulic-mechanical rock mass properties against field experiments, followed by a prediction of the coupled thermal, hydrologic, and mechanical behavior around a potential repository drift. For the particular problem studied and parameters used, the analysis indicates that the stress-induced permeability changes will be within one order of magnitude and that these permeability changes do not significantly impact the overall flow pattern around the repository drift

  18. Thermal buckling behavior of defective CNTs under pre-load: A molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehralian, Fahimeh; Tadi Beni, Yaghoub; Kiani, Yaser

    2017-05-01

    Current study is concentrated on the extraordinary properties of defective carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The role of vacancy defects in thermal buckling response of precompressed CNTs is explored via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Defective CNTs are initially compressed at a certain ratio of their critical buckling strain and then undergo a uniform temperature rise. Comprehensive study is implemented on both armchair and zigzag CNTs with different vacancy defects including monovacancy, symmetric bivacancy and asymmetric bivacancy. The results reveal that defects have a pronounced impact on the buckling behavior of CNTs; interestingly, defective CNTs under compressive pre-load show higher resistance to thermal buckling than pristine ones. In the following, the buckling response of defective CNTs is shown to be dependent on the vacancy defects, location of defects and chirality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Numerical Model and Experimental Analysis of the Thermal Behavior of Electric Radiant Heating Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ferrarini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric radiant heating panels are frequently selected during the design phase of residential and industrial heating systems, especially for retrofit of existing buildings, as an alternative to other common heating systems, such as radiators or air conditioners. The possibility of saving living and working space and the ease of installation are the main advantages of electric radiant solutions. This paper investigates the thermal performance of a typical electric radiant panel. A climatic room was equipped with temperature sensors and heat flow meters to perform a steady state experimental analysis. For the dynamic behavior, a mathematical model was created and compared to a thermographic measurement procedure. The results showed for the steady state an efficiency of energy transformation close to one, while in a transient thermal regime the time constant to reach the steady state condition was slightly faster than the typical ones of hydronic systems.

  20. Characterization of coal blends for effective utilization in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh Raaj, S.; Arumugam, S.; Muthukrishnan, M.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Anantharaman, N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This work will assist utilities to decide on the choice of coals for blending. • Conventional and advanced analytical techniques were used for characterization. • Fuel ratio, burnout profile, ash chemistry and carbon burnout are key factors. • Basic properties were additive while carbon burnout was non additive for the blends. - Abstract: This paper deals with the characterization of coal blends using various conventional and advanced analytical techniques. There has been an increasing trend in utilizing imported coals for power generation in India and utilities are resorting to blended coal firing for various reasons, both financially as well as technically. Characterization studies were carried out on 2 combinations of Indian and imported coal blends. Conventional characterization such as proximate and ultimate analysis and determination of calorific value were carried out for the raw coals and blends as per ASTM standards. Following this thermal and mineral analysis of the samples were carried out using thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA), X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) and computer controlled scanning electron microscope (CCSEM). Combustion experiments were also conducted using drop tube furnace (DTF) to determine the burnout of the raw coals and blends. The selection of technically suitable coal combination for blending, based on these characterization studies, has been detailed.

  1. Simulation of Missing Pellet Surface thermal behavior with 3D dynamic gap element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Chan; Yang, Yong Sik; Koo, Yang Hyun; Kang, Chang Hak; Lee Sung Uk; Yang, Dong Yol

    2014-01-01

    Most of the fuel performance codes that are able to simulate a multidimensional analysis are used to calculate the radial temperature distribution and perform a multidimensional mechanical analysis based on a one-dimensional (1D) temperature result. The FRAPCON-FRAPTRAN code system incorporates a 1D thermal module and two-dimensional (2D) mechanical module when FEM option is activated. In this method, the multidimensional gap conductance model is not required because one-dimensional thermal analysis is carried out. On the other hand, a gap conductance model for a multi-dimension should be developed in the code to perform a multidimensional thermal analysis. ALCYONE developed by CEA introduces an equivalent heat convection coefficient that represents the multidimensional gap conductance. However, the code does not employ dynamic gap conductance which is a function of gap thickness and gap characteristics in direct. The BISON code, which has been developed by INL (Idaho National Laboratory), employed a thermo-mechanical contact method that is specifically designed for tightly-coupled implicit solutions that employ Jacobian-free solution methods. Owing to tightly-coupled implicit solutions, the BISON code solves gap conductance and gap thickness simultaneously with given boundary conditions. In this paper, 3D dynamic gap element has been proposed to resolve convergence issue and nonlinear characteristic of multidimensional gap conductance. To evaluate 3D dynamic gap element module, 3D thermomechanical module using FORTRAN77 has been implemented incorporating 3D dynamic gap element. To demonstrate effect of 3D dynamic gap element, thermal behavior of missing pellet surface (MPS) has been simulated by the developed module. LWR fuel performance codes should incorporate thermo-mechanical loop to solve gap conductance problem, iteratively. However, gap conductance in multidimensional model is difficult issue owing to its nonlinearity and convergence characteristics. In

  2. Effect of human behavior on economizer efficacy and thermal comfort in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, TIghe Glennon

    California has set a zero net-energy conservation goal for the residential sector that is to be achieved by 2020 (California Energy Commission 2011). To reduce energy consumption in the building sector, modern buildings should fundamentally incorporate sustainable performance standards, involving renewable systems, climate-specific strategies, and consideration of a variety of users. Building occupants must operate in concert with the buildings they inhabit in order to maximize the potential of the building, its systems, and their own comfort. In climates with significant diurnal temperature swings, environmental controls designed to capitalize on this should be considered to reduce cooling-related loads. One specific strategy is the air-side economizer, which uses daily outdoor temperature swings to reduce indoor temperature swings. Traditionally a similar effect could be achieved by using thermal mass to buffer indoor temperature swings through thermal lag. Economizers reduce the amount of thermal mass typically required by naturally ventilated buildings. Fans are used to force cool nighttime air deep into the building, allowing lower mass buildings to take advantage of nighttime cooling. Economizers connect to a thermostat, and when the outdoor temperature dips below a programmed set-point the economizer draws cool air from outside, flushing out the warmed interior air. This type of system can be simulated with reasonable accuracy by energy modeling programs; however, because the system is occupant-driven (as opposed to a truly passive mass-driven system) any unpredictable occupant behavior can reduce its effectiveness and create misleading simulation results. This unpredictably has helped prevent the spread of economizers in the residential market. This study investigated to what extent human behavior affected the performance of economizer-based HVAC systems, based on physical observations, environmental data collections, and energy simulations of a residential

  3. Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Gradient Cyclic Behavior of Refractory Silicate Coatings on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Plasma-sprayed mullite and BSAS coatings have been developed to protect SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites from high temperature environmental attack. In this study, thermal conductivity and thermal barrier functions of these coating systems are evaluated using a laser high-heat-flux test rig. The effects of water vapor on coating thermal conductivity and durability are studied by using alternating furnace and laser thermal gradient cyclic tests. The influence of laser high thermal-gradient cycling on coating failure modes is also investigated.

  4. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal (ECT) Models for Battery Crush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Pesaran, Ahmad; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbicki, Tom

    2016-06-14

    Vehicle crashes can lead to crushing of the battery, damaging lithium ion battery cells and causing local shorts, heat generation, and thermal runaway. Simulating all the physics and geometries at the same time is challenging and takes a lot of effort; thus, simplifications are needed. We developed a material model for simultaneously modeling the mechanical-electrochemical-thermal behavior, which predicted the electrical short, voltage drop, and thermal runaway behaviors followed by a mechanical abuse-induced short. The effect of short resistance on the battery cell performance was studied.

  5. Thermal behavior and failure mechanism of lithium ion cells during overcharge under adiabatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Jiana; Chen, Haodong; Wang, Qingsong; Huang, Peifeng; Sun, Jinhua; Lo, Siuming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The modified adiabatic method is used to measure the heat generation under overcharge. • Side reactions contribute 80% heat to thermal runaway in the cases with cycling rate below 1.0 C. • The inflection and maximum voltages increase linearly with the increasing current rates. • The decomposed products of cathode materials are soluble with that of SiO_x. • Lithium plating on anode is due to changes of distance between the cathode and anode. - Abstract: Cells in battery packs are easily overcharged when battery management system (BMS) is out of order, causing thermal runaway. However, the traditional calorimetry could not estimate dynamic overcharging heat release. In this study, commercial LiCoO_2 + Li(Ni_0_._5Co_0_._2Mn_0_._3)O_2/C + SiO_x cells are employed to investigate the dynamic thermal behaviors during overcharge under adiabatic condition by combining a multi-channel battery cycler with an accelerating rate calorimeter. The results indicate that overcharging with galvanostatic - potentiostatic - galvanostatic regime is more dangerous than that with galvanostatic way. Side reactions contribute 80% heat to thermal runaway in cases below 1.0 C charging rate. To prevent the thermal runaway, the effective methods should be taken within 2 min to cool down the batteries as soon as the cells pass inflection point voltage. Hereinto, the inflection and maximum voltages increase linearly with the increasing current rates. By scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer, the decomposed products of cathode materials are suspected to be soluble with SiOx. The overcharge induced decomposition reaction of Li(Ni_0_._5Co_0_._2Mn_0_._3)O_2 is also proposed. These results can provide support for the safety designs of lithium ion batteries and BMS.

  6. On some mechanisms of the effect of thermal prehistory on the behavior of silicon parameters under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejmash, V.B.; Sagan, T.R.; Tsmots', V.M.; Shakhovtsov, V.I.; Shindich, V.L.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of preliminary thermal treatment (TT) in 400-1200 degC temperature range on the behavior of Si monocrystal parameters under subsequent γ-, electron and neutron irradiation is investigated. Five mechanisms of Si thermal prehistory effect on its properties are proposed: 1) decomposition of solid solutions of impurities interacting with radiation defects (RD); 2) formation of electrically active thermal defects (TD) in concentrations wich are sufficient for a significant alteration of RD charged state; 3) origination of TD, which can efficiency as aresult of the redistribution of impurities under thermal treatment; 5) formation of clusters of electrically active TD, resulting in the disturbance of electric homogeneity of Si crystal

  7. Effect of Thermal Cycling on the Tensile Behavior of Polymer Composites Reinforced by Basalt and Carbon Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, S. Mohammad Reza; Najafi, Moslem; Eslami-Farsani, Reza

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of thermal cycling on the tensile behavior of three types of polymer-matrix composites — a phenolic resin reinforced with woven basalt fibers, woven carbon fibers, and hybrid basalt and carbon fibers — in an ambient environment. For this purpose, tensile tests were performed on specimens previously subjected to a certain number of thermal cycles. The ultimate tensile strength of the specimen reinforced with woven basalt fibers had by 5% after thermal cycling, but the strength of the specimen with woven carbon fibers had reduced to a value by 11% higher than that before thermal cycling.

  8. Salty solutions: their effects on thermal set points in behavioral repertoires of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitulli, W F; Aker, R; Howard, S W; Jones, W M; Kimball, M W; Quinn, J M

    1994-08-01

    Salt (sodium chloride) has been linked to increased blood pressure and a rise in core body temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate the role played by salt in altering behavioral thermoregulation in albino rats. Different doses of sodium chloride were administered (ip) prior to fixed-interval 2-min. schedules of microwave reinforcement in rats tested in a cold Skinner Box. Three Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with 5-sec. exposures of MW reinforcement in a repeated-measures reversal design. Friedman's non-parametric test showed significant differences among sodium chloride doses and physiologically normal saline. Post hoc sign tests showed that all doses of NaCl suppressed operant behavior for heat except 60 mg/kg. The hypothesis that sodium chloride lowers hypothalamic set point for heat was partially supported.

  9. Thermal behavior and transformation kinetics of titanium dioxide nanocrystallites prepared by coupling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.C.; Wang, Y.T.; Shih, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Coupling agents have been widely used to retard the sintering of silver paste and minimize co-firing defects due to densification mismatch between silver and dielectrics. The thermal-decomposition and crystallization behavior of the coupling agent is a subject of great concern. To elucidate what is responsible for the oxidation, Ti organometallic compounds were calcined at different temperatures (350, 400, 500, 600 o C) for 2 h and the crystallization behavior was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The activation energy for crystallization of coupling agents was studied by using isothermal methods. According to the quantitative XRD method, the values calculated by the Johnson-Mehi-Avrami equation are 134.9 kJ mol -1 . The growth morphology parameters are 1.061, 0.915, 1.016 respectively. Combining the results of DTA, XRD and TEM, it is found that formation of nanocrystallized titania accompanies the combustion of organometallic compounds.

  10. Thermal behavior and transformation kinetics of titanium dioxide nanocrystallites prepared by coupling agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.C. [School of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shi-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Wang, Y.T. [Department of Medical Research and Education, Chen Hsin General Hospital, 45 Cheng-Hsin Street, Pai-Tou, Taipei 11220, Taiwan (China); Shih, C.J., E-mail: cjshih@kmu.edu.t [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetics Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shi-Chuan1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China)

    2010-02-04

    Coupling agents have been widely used to retard the sintering of silver paste and minimize co-firing defects due to densification mismatch between silver and dielectrics. The thermal-decomposition and crystallization behavior of the coupling agent is a subject of great concern. To elucidate what is responsible for the oxidation, Ti organometallic compounds were calcined at different temperatures (350, 400, 500, 600 {sup o}C) for 2 h and the crystallization behavior was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The activation energy for crystallization of coupling agents was studied by using isothermal methods. According to the quantitative XRD method, the values calculated by the Johnson-Mehi-Avrami equation are 134.9 kJ mol{sup -1}. The growth morphology parameters are 1.061, 0.915, 1.016 respectively. Combining the results of DTA, XRD and TEM, it is found that formation of nanocrystallized titania accompanies the combustion of organometallic compounds.

  11. Adaptive Thermal Comfort in Japanese Houses during the Summer Season: Behavioral Adaptation and the Effect of Humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hom B. Rijal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify effect of humidity on the room temperatures reported to be comfortable, an occupant thermal comfort and behavior survey was conducted for five summers in the living rooms and bedrooms of residences in the Kanto region of Japan. We have collected 13,525 thermal comfort votes from over 239 residents of 120 homes, together with corresponding measurements of room temperature and humidity of the air. The residents were generally well-satisfied with the thermal environment of their houses, with or without the use of air-conditioning, and thus were well-adapted to their thermal conditions. The humidity was found to have very little direct effect on the comfort temperature. However, the comfort temperature was strongly related to the reported skin moisture. Behavioral adaptation such as window opening and fan use increase air movement and improve thermal comfort.

  12. Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and Its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilina Purbasari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo has been widely used in Indonesia for construction, handicrafts, furniture and other uses. However, the use of bamboo as a biomass for renewable energy source has not been extensively explored. This paper describes the thermal and ash characterization of three bamboo species found in Indonesia, i.e. Gigantochloa apus, Gigantochloa levis and Gigantochloa atroviolacea. Characterization of bamboo properties as a solid fuel includes proximate and ultimate analyses, calorific value measurement and thermogravimetric analysis. Ash characterization includes oxide composition analysis and phase analysis by X-Ray diffraction. The selected bamboo species have calorific value comparable with wood with low nitrogen and sulphur contents, indicating that they can be used as renewable energy sources. Bamboo ash contains high silicon so that bamboo ash has potential to be used further as building materials or engineering purposes. Ash composition analysis also indicates high alkali that can cause ash sintering and slag formation in combustion process. This implies that the combustion of bamboo requires the use of additives to reduce the risk of ash sintering and slag formation. Article History: Received May 15, 2016; Received in revised form July 2nd, 2016; Accepted July 14th, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Purbasari, A., Samadhi, T.W. & Bindar, Y. (2016 Thermal and Ash Characterization of Indonesian Bamboo and its Potential for Solid Fuel and Waste Valorization. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 95-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.96-100 

  13. Copolymerization of 4-Acetylphenyl Methacrylate with Ethyl Methacrylate: Synthesis, Characterization, Monomer Reactivity Ratios, and Thermal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Barim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methacrylates have high glass transition temperature (Tg values and high thermal stability. A new methacrylate copolymer, poly(4-acetylphenyl methacrylate-co-ethyl methacrylate (APMA-co-EMA, was synthesized. The thermal behaviors of copolymers were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. They behaved as new single polymers with single Tg’s and the thermal stability of the copolymers increased with increasing 4-acetylphenyl methacrylate (APMA fraction, leading to the manufacture of copolymers with desired Tg values. Structure and composition of copolymers for a wide range of monomer feed ratios were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopic techniques. Copolymerization reactions were continued up to 40% conversions. The monomer reactivity ratios for copolymer system were determined by the Kelen-Tüdös (ra(APMA=0.81; rb(EMA=0.61 and extended Kelen-Tüdös (ra=0.77; rb=0.54 methods and a nonlinear least squares (ra=0.74; rb=0.49 method.

  14. Statistical Characterization of 18650-Format Lithium-Ion Cell Thermal Runaway Energy Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William Q.; Rickman, Steven; Darst, John; Finegan, Donal; Bayles, Gary; Darcy, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Effective thermal management systems, designed to handle the impacts of thermal runaway (TR) and to prevent cell-to-cell propagation, are key to safe operation of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery assemblies. Critical factors for optimizing these systems include the total energy released during a single cell TR event and the fraction of the total energy that is released through the cell casing vs. through the ejecta material. A unique calorimeter was utilized to examine the TR behavior of a statistically significant number of 18650-format Li-ion cells with varying manufacturers, chemistries, and capacities. The calorimeter was designed to contain the TR energy in a format conducive to discerning the fractions of energy released through the cell casing vs. through the ejecta material. Other benefits of this calorimeter included the ability to rapidly test of large quantities of cells and the intentional minimization of secondary combustion effects. High energy (270 Wh/kg) and moderate energy (200 Wh/kg) 18650 cells were tested. Some of the cells had an imbedded short circuit (ISC) device installed to aid in the examination of TR mechanisms under more realistic conditions. Other variations included cells with bottom vent (BV) features and cells with thin casings (0.22 1/4m). After combining the data gathered with the calorimeter, a statistical approach was used to examine the probability of certain TR behavior, and the associated energy distributions, as a function of capacity, venting features, cell casing thickness and temperature.

  15. Effect of carbon nanospheres on shape stabilization and thermal behavior of phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrali, Mohammad; Tahan Latibari, Sara; Mehrali, Mehdi; Mahlia, Teuku Meurah Indra; Cornelis Metselaar, Hendrik Simon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Introducing novel form-stable PCM of stearic acid (SA)/carbon nanospheres (CNSs). • The highest stabilized SA content is 83 wt% in the SA/CNS composites. • Increasing thermal conductivity of composite phase change material with high amount of latent heat. - Abstract: Stearic acid (SA) is one of the main phase change materials (PCMs) for medium temperature thermal energy storage systems. In order to stabilize the shape and enhance the thermal conductivity of SA, the effects of adding carbon nanospheres (CNSs) as a carbon nanofiller were examined experimentally. The maximum mass fraction of SA retained in CNSs was found as 80 wt% without the leakage of SA in a melted state, even when it was heated over the melting point of SA. The dropping point test shows that there was clearly no liquid leakage through the phase change process at the operating temperature range of the composite PCMs. The thermal stability and thermal properties of composite PCMs were investigated with a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), respectively. The thermal conductivity of the SA/CNS composite was determined by the laser flash method. The thermal conductivity at 35 °C increased about 105% for the highest loading of CNS (50 wt%). The thermal cycling test proved that form-stable composite PCMs had good thermal reliability and chemical durability after 1000 cycles of melting and freezing, which is advantageous for latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES)

  16. Generalized 1D photopyroelectric technique for optical and thermal characterization of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balderas-López, J A

    2012-01-01

    The analytical solution for the one-dimensional heat diffusion problem for a three-layer system, in the Beer–Lambert model for light absorption, is used for the implementation of a photopyroelectric (PPE) methodology for thermal and optical characterization of pigments in liquid solution, even for those ones potentially harmful to the pyroelectric sensor, taking the liquid sample's thickness as the only variable. Exponential decay of the PPE amplitude followed by a constant PPE phase for solutions at low pigment concentration, and exponential decay of the PPE amplitude but a linear decrease of the PPE phase for the concentrated ones are theoretically shown, allowing measurements of the optical absorption coefficient (at the wavelength used for the analysis) and the thermal diffusivity for the liquid sample, respectively. This PPE methodology was tested by measuring the thermal diffusivity of a concentrated solution of methylene blue in distilled water and the optical absorption coefficient, at two wavelengths (658 and 785 nm), of water solutions of copper sulfate at various concentrations. These optical parameters were used for measuring the molar absorption coefficient of this last pigment in water solution at these two wavelengths. This last optical property was also measured using a commercial spectrometer, finding very good agreement with the corresponding ones using this PPE technique. (paper)

  17. Characterization of an Isolated Kidney's Vasculature for Use in Bio-Thermal Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Allison H.; Parker, Dennis L.; Moellmer, Jeff; Roemer, Robert B.; Clifford, Sarah

    2007-05-01

    Accurate bio-thermal modeling requires site-specific modeling of discrete vascular anatomy. Presented herewith are several steps that have been developed to describe the vessel network of isolated canine and bovine kidneys. These perfused, isolated kidneys provide an environment to repeatedly test and improve acquisition methods to visualize the vascular anatomy, as well as providing a method to experimentally validate discrete vasculature thermal models. The organs are preserved using a previously developed methodology that keeps the vasculature intact, allowing for the organ to be perfused. It also allows for the repeated fixation and re-hydration of the same organ, permitting the comparison of various methods and models. The organ extraction, alcohol preservation, and perfusion of the organ are described. The vessel locations were obtained through a high-resolution time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) technique. Sequential improvements of both the experimental setup used for this acquisition, as well as MR sequence development are presented. The improvements in MR acquisition and experimental setup improved the number of vessels seen in both the raw data and segmented images by 50%. An automatic vessel centerline extraction algorithm describes both vessel location and genealogy. Centerline descriptions also allows for vessel diameter and flow rate determination, providing valuable input parameters for the discrete vascular thermal model. Characterized vessels networks of both canine and bovine kidneys are presented. While these tools have been developed in an ex vivo environment, all steps can be applied to in vivo applications.

  18. Preparation, characterization, and thermal stability of B2O3-ZrO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Debora Simbolon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of the borate-based compound with ZrOCl2 to form B2O3-ZrO2 has been conducted. The compound was characterized by FT-IR spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction, acidity and thermal stability test. The results showed that the FT-IR main vibration spectrum of B2O3-ZrO2 compound has appeared at wave number 401.2 cm-1 for Zr-O bonding vibration, 617.2 cm-1 for B-O-B bonding vibration and 910.4 cm-1 for B-O bonding vibration. The XRD diffraction pattern shows B2O3-ZrO2 compound has an amorphous structure. The FT-IR spectrum after saturated with ammonia and potentiometric titration indicates that the compound of B2O3-ZrO2 has acidic properties with a strong level of acidity. Thermal stability test shows that the B2O3-ZrO2 compounds have high stability on temperature with increasing crystallinity after the compound was heated at 700 °C. Keywords: B2O3-ZrO2, impregnation, thermal stability.

  19. New copper(II) complexes with dopamine hydrochloride and vanillymandelic acid: Spectroscopic and thermal characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; Nour El-Dien, F. A.; El-Nahas, R. G.

    2011-10-01

    The dopamine derivatives participate in the regulation of wide variety of physiological functions in the human body and in medication life. Increase and/or decrease in the concentration of dopamine in human body reflect an indication for diseases such as Schizophrenia and/or Parkinson diseases. The Cu(II) chelates with coupled products of dopamine hydrochloride (DO.HCl) and vanillymandelic acid (VMA) with 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) are prepared and characterized. Different physico-chemical techniques namely IR, magnetic and UV-vis spectra are used to investigate the structure of these chelates. Cu(II) forms 1:1 (Cu:DO) and 1:2 (Cu:VMA) chelates. DO behave as a uninegative tridentate ligand in binding to the Cu(II) ion while VMA behaves as a uninegative bidentate ligand. IR spectra show that the DO is coordinated to the Cu(II) ion in a tridentate manner with ONO donor sites of the phenolic- OH, -NH and carbonyl- O, while VMA is coordinated with OO donor sites of the phenolic- OH and -NH. Magnetic moment measurements reveal the presence of Cu(II) chelates in octahedral and square planar geometries with DO and VMA, respectively. The thermal decomposition of Cu(II) complexes is studied using thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques. The activation thermodynamic parameters, such as, energy of activation, enthalpy, entropy and free energy change of the complexes are evaluated and the relative thermal stability of the complexes are discussed.

  20. Phase change Materials (PCM) microcapsules with different shell compositions: Preparation, characterization and thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayes-Garcia, L.; Ventola, L.; Cordobilla, R.; Benages, R.; Calvet, T.; Cuevas-Diarte, M.A. [Departament de Cristal.lografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques s/n, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    In this study, phase change materials (Rubitherm registered RT 27) microcapsules were successfully obtained by two different methods. The main difference between them remains on the shell composition, as they are composed of different coacervates (Sterilized Gelatine/Arabic Gum for the SG/AG method and Agar-Agar/Arabic Gum for the AA/AG method). Microcapsules were thermally characterized by thermo-optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Using scanning electron microscopy, their spherical morphology (sphericity factor of 0.94-0.95) and their particle size distribution were determined, obtaining an average diameter of 12 {mu}m for the SG/AG method and lower values for the AA/AG method, where nanocapsules were also observed (average diameter of 4.3 {mu}m for the microcapsules and 104 nm for the nanocapsules). The thermal stability determination was carried out by Thermogravimetric analyses (TG) and the results show a high decomposition temperature, although the process takes places in four steps for the two mentioned methods. Moreover, the microcapsules obtained by the AA/AG method decompose in a more gradual way, as in the TG results a double step, instead of one, is appreciable. On the whole, the prepared microencapsulated PCM are totally capable of developing their role in thermal energy storage. (author)

  1. In vitro characterization of hydroxyapatite layers deposited by APS and HVOF thermal spraying methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Alexandru Roşu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys are successfully used in medicine as implants due to their high mechanical properties and good biocompatibility. To improve implant osseointegration of titanium alloys, they are covered with hydroxyapatite because of its bioactive properties. Coating the implants with hydroxyapatite by thermal spraying, due to the temperatures developed during the deposition process, the structure can be degraded, leading to formation of secondary phases, such as TCP, TT CP, CaO. The paper presents the experimental results of hydroxyapatite layers deposition by two thermal spraying methods: Atmospheric Plasma Spraying (APS and High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF. The microstructure of the deposited layers is characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis and electronic microscopy. The bioactivity of the hydroxyapatite layers was investigated in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF by immersing the covered samples deposited by the two thermal spraying methods. In both cases the coatings did not present defects as cracks or microcracks. X-ray diffraction performed on hydroxyapatite deposited layers shows that the structure was strongly influenced by plasma jet temperature, the structure