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Sample records for characterization seasonal occurrence

  1. Simulating multimodal seasonality in extreme daily precipitation occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye, Mari R.; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley J.; Stephenson, David B.; Kilsby, Christopher G.

    2016-06-01

    Floods pose multi-dimensional hazards to critical infrastructure and society and these hazards may increase under climate change. While flood conditions are dependent on catchment type and soil conditions, seasonal precipitation extremes also play an important role. The extreme precipitation events driving flood occurrence may arrive non-uniformly in time. In addition, their seasonal and inter-annual patterns may also cause sequences of several events and enhance likely flood responses. Spatial and temporal patterns of extreme daily precipitation occurrence are characterized across the UK. Extreme and very heavy daily precipitation is not uniformly distributed throughout the year, but exhibits spatial differences, arising from the relative proximity to the North Atlantic Ocean or North Sea. Periods of weeks or months are identified during which extreme daily precipitation occurrences are most likely to occur, with some regions of the UK displaying multimodal seasonality. A Generalized Additive Model is employed to simulate extreme daily precipitation occurrences over the UK from 1901 to 2010 and to allow robust statistical testing of temporal changes in the seasonal distribution. Simulations show that seasonality has the strongest correlation with intra-annual variations in extreme event occurrence, while Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Mean Sea Level Pressure (MSLP) have the strongest correlation with inter-annual variations. The north and west of the UK are dominated by MSLP in the mid-North Atlantic and the south and east are dominated by local SST. All regions now have a higher likelihood of autumnal extreme daily precipitation than earlier in the twentieth century. This equates to extreme daily precipitation occurring earlier in the autumn in the north and west, and later in the autumn in the south and east. The change in timing is accompanied by increases in the probability of extreme daily precipitation occurrences during the autumn, and in the number of

  2. Seasonal occurrence of rotavirus in sewage.

    OpenAIRE

    Hejkal, T W; Smith, E M; Gerba, C P

    1984-01-01

    A seasonal distribution was observed for rotaviruses in sewage by using indirect immunofluorescence. Levels were low from May through September and generally higher during winter and spring. In contrast, no seasonal pattern was observed for total enteroviruses. Limitations of the indirect immunofluorescence assay and enzyme immunoassay for environmental samples are discussed.

  3. SRKW seasonal occurence - Patterns of seasonal occurrence of Southern Resident Killer Whales

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of seasonal occurrence of Southern Resident Killer Whales (SRKW) throughout their range. Southern Resident Killer Whales are listed as a Distinct...

  4. Seasonal variations in the occurrence of geomagnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Taylor

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in the onset of magnetic storms are investigated. For the purposes of this study storms have been defined as events in which Dst falls below –50 nT for at least four consecutive hours. The storms have been classified as either storm sudden commencements (SSCs; storms initiated by a sudden commencement or as storm gradual commencements (SGCs; all other storms. It is found that the semi-annual variation of magnetic activity is reflected in the occurrence statistics of SGC events only, indicative that the solar wind origin is different for SSCs and SGCs. It is suggested that the heliospheric latitude model of seasonal magnetic activity is relatively ineffective in modulating the previously observed seasonal variations in the occurrence of magnetic storms.

  5. Seasonal occurrence and abundance of waterbirds in sandpits and fishponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Kameníková

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Censuses of waterfowl at four fishponds and sandpits in the surroundings of Třeboň were carried out regularly during one season and their occurrence was compared with that recorded by other studies and information in the database of the Třeboňsko Protected Landscape Area. Some waterfowl show a marked preference for fishponds during the breeding season. This can be due to many factors, presence of more food, extent of the littoral growth of vegetation, fish stock, depth of water etc. However, sandpits are attractive to waterbirds in winter, when they serve as over wintering sites, meeting places for migrating birds or refuges from hunters.

  6. Simple estimators of the intensity of seasonal occurrence

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    Rothman Kenneth J

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Edwards's method is a widely used approach for fitting a sine curve to a time-series of monthly frequencies. From this fitted curve, estimates of the seasonal intensity of occurrence (i.e., peak-to-low ratio of the fitted curve can be generated. Methods We discuss various approaches to the estimation of seasonal intensity assuming Edwards's periodic model, including maximum likelihood estimation (MLE, least squares, weighted least squares, and a new closed-form estimator based on a second-order moment statistic and non-transformed data. Through an extensive Monte Carlo simulation study, we compare the finite sample performance characteristics of the estimators discussed in this paper. Finally, all estimators and confidence interval procedures discussed are compared in a re-analysis of data on the seasonality of monocytic leukemia. Results We find that Edwards's estimator is substantially biased, particularly for small numbers of events and very large or small amounts of seasonality. For the common setting of rare events and moderate seasonality, the new estimator proposed in this paper yields less finite sample bias and better mean squared error than either the MLE or weighted least squares. For large studies and strong seasonality, MLE or weighted least squares appears to be the optimal analytic method among those considered. Conclusion Edwards's estimator of the seasonal relative risk can exhibit substantial finite sample bias. The alternative estimators considered in this paper should be preferred.

  7. Quiet time F2-layer disturbances: seasonal variations of the occurrence in the daytime sector

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    A. V. Mikhailov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier revealed seasonal/latitudinal variations of the occurrence for positive and negative F2-layer Q-disturbances have been interpreted in the framework of the present-day concept of the thermosphere-ionosphere interaction. The basic process is the solar-driven and storm-induced thermospheric circulation's interaction which varies with season and latitude. Such morphological features as clustering of negative Q-disturbances around winter solstice and the appearance of an additional occurrence of summer peak at lower latitudes, the equinoctial occurrence peaks for positive Q-disturbances and their merging to one summer peak at lower latitudes can be explained in the framework of this concept. Moreover, seasonal/latitudinal variations of the occurrence for usual storm-induced F2-layer disturbances, which exhibit quite different morphology, are also explained within this concept and this may be considered as its success. Although some types of F2-layer Q-disturbances are obviously related to the impact from below, the analyzed seasonal/latitudinal occurrence variations are shown to have their origin in the thermosphere itself.

  8. Quiet time F2-layer disturbances: seasonal variations of the occurrence in the daytime sector

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Mikhailov; Depueva, A. H.; Depuev, V. H.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier revealed seasonal/latitudinal variations of the occurrence for positive and negative F2-layer Q-disturbances have been interpreted in the framework of the present-day concept of the thermosphere-ionosphere interaction. The basic process is the solar-driven and storm-induced thermospheric circulation's interaction which varies with season and latitude. Such morphological features as clustering of negative Q-disturbances around winter solstice and the appearance of an additional oc...

  9. Seasonal occurrence of mesopelagic fish larvae on the onshore side of the Kuroshio off southern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Chiyuki; Hirota, Yuichi

    2013-11-01

    Information on the annual reproductive cycle of mesopelagic fishes has been limited in the western North Pacific, despite their ecological importance. The Kuroshio region is an important spawning ground for various mesopelagic fishes. To describe the reproductive seasonality, we examined the seasonal occurrence patterns of mesopelagic fish larvae at a fixed station (33°12'N, 133°48'E) on the continental slope in Tosa Bay which is strongly influenced by the Kuroshio, based on monthly samples collected from January 2001 to December 2004. In total, 2558 mesopelagic fish larvae were sampled, with a peak abundance during May to June. Larvae of the dominant families Myctophidae, Sternoptychidae, Gonostomatidae, Bathylagidae, and Phosichthyidae were represented by 26 species (or types) belonging to 18 genera. The 12 most abundant species accounted for 96.9% of the total catch. The seasonal occurrence patterns of these larvae were categorized into five groups in accordance with the physical properties of the water column: Winter (Notoscopelus japonicus and Lipolagus ochotensis); Spring (Symbolophorus evermanni and Maurolicus japonicus); Early summer (Myctophum asperum and Diaphus stubby type); Autumn (Lampanyctus sp. A, Cyclothone spp., and Sigmops gracile); and -round (Vinciguerria nimbaria, Diaphus slender type, and Diogenichthys atlanticus) groups. No significant difference was observed in the months of peak abundances of these larvae during the 4 years, suggesting that each species has a fixed seasonal pattern of reproduction. The various patterns of seasonal occurrence would result in seasonal habitat segregation of the larvae among species, potentially enabling the reduction of intraspecific competition for food resources in the oligotrophic waters of the Kuroshio.

  10. Seasonal-longitudinal variation of substorm occurrence frequency: Evidence for ionospheric control

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, H.; Hermann Lühr

    2007-01-01

    Based on 2760 well-defined substorm onsets in the northern hemisphere and 1432 in the southern hemisphere observed by the FUV (Far Ultraviolet) Imager on board IMAGE (Imager for Magnetosphere-to-Aurora Global Exploration) spacecraft, a statistical study is performed for both hemispheres. The main emphasis is put on a possible dependence of the substorm occurrence frequency on season and longitude (S/L). It was found that around December solstice UT noon-time and around June solstice UT nightt...

  11. Occurrence of Chilodonella hexasticha (Ciliophora, Protista on farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss throughout the season

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    Nikolić Vera P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An examination of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss for ectoparasites, on three not so distant fish farms with independent water supply in Eastern Serbia from March to November 1998, resulted in finding three ciliate (Chilodonella hexasticha, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Apiosoma piscicola var. minor, one trematode (Gyrodactylus sp. and one mould (Saprolegnia sp. species, making a total of five parasite species. The Chilodonella hexasticha was recorded only on one of the farms, being in the highest extensity in May. This appeared to be the most prominent occurrence in the independent pattern of infestation dynamics of other parasites (Apiosoma, Gyrodactylus, Saprolegnia recorded on that fish farm, as derived by Correspondence Analysis. The Friedman ANOVA test revealed a significant difference in extensity of occurrence of different parasites through the season, due to the significantly greater infestation with Gyrodactilus and significantly lower extensity of infestation with Saprolegnia.

  12. Occurrence and Population Dynamics of Chironomids in Early-Season Rice Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-yu; YANG Hong; LAI Feng-xiang; FU Qiang; HU Yang

    2011-01-01

    The chironomid is one of the world wide distributed insects and normally occurs in a great abundance among many kinds of water bodies.Currently,our knowledge about the chironomid in rice fields is limited to the species survey,and it is considered as a group insect at the family level,termed as a kind of the neutral insects.By using the specially designed emergence traps,the species richness and the occurrence of the chironomid in rice fields were studied throughout the early season in Fuyang City,Zhejiang Province,China.There were four species,namely,Tanytarsus formosanus,Chironomus sinicus,Polypedilum nubifer and Tanypus punctipennis of chironomids collected from rice fields.All of them are widely distributed species.T.formosanus and C.sinicus were the most dominant species in rice fields.The succession of chironomids in the early season could be divided into two phases,the early and the late phases.The abundance of the chironomid was higher in the early phase than that in the late phase.It was estimated that there were around 3 million individuals of chironomids emerged from 667 m2 rice field throughout the early season.It was also found that the sex ratio of T.formosanus was female-biased during the early phase,whereas male-biased during the late phase.In contrast,the sex ratio of C.sinicus was male-biased throughout the early season.

  13. A STUDY OF SEASONAL VARIATION OBSERVED IN OCCURRENCE OF IMMINENT ECLAMPSIA AND ECLAMPSIA AT TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Ashutosh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Eclampsia is an occurrence of seizures in women with pre-eclampsia. It is a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity in India. Their etiology is poorly understood even today. Seasonal variation is considered as one of the cause. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To see the frequency of occurrence of imminent eclampsia and eclampsia during rainy (June to August and winter (October to December season. MATERIALS AND METHOD This is a descriptive, retrospective, observational and analytical study on seasonal variations in admission of imminent eclampsia and eclampsia patients in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in KIMS, Karad, from 2012 to 2014. RESULT Among 9122 total number of admissions in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 7678 got delivered in our institute. In which 4150 deliveries occurred in rainy season in which imminent eclampsia were 55 (1.3%, eclampsia cases were 42 (1.01%. While 3528 cases delivered in winter in which imminent eclampsia were 28 (0.7% and eclampsia were 24 (0.68%. The study showed frequency of imminent eclampsia and eclampsia being more common in rainy season than that of winter season. CONCLUSION In our study, we observed the seasonal variation in occurrence of imminent eclampsia and eclampsia. Number of cases of both imminent eclampsia and eclampsia was more common in rainy season. Regular health checkup, availability of health facilities and prompt referral to tertiary hospital can decrease mortality and morbidity of patient.

  14. Distribution and seasonal occurrence of UV filters in rivers and wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpeghere, Kalu Ibe; Kim, Un-Jung; O, Sung-Hee; Kim, Hee-Young; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2016-01-15

    The occurrence and distribution of eight UV filters benzophenone (BP), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), 2-ethylhexyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate (OD-PABA), 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (EHS), isoamyl benzoate, and benzyl cinnamate in eleven sites among three rivers, five sewage treatment plants (STPs), and four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in different parts of Korea was investigated. The total concentrations of UV filters in the three sampled seasons were 62.9-412 ng L(-1) (river), 417-5055 ng L(-1) (STP influent), 108-2201 ng L(-1) (STP effluent), 122-4154 ng L(-1) (WWTP influent), and 120-849 ng L(-1) (WWTP effluent). The concentration of the target pollutants in the influent of the treatment systems was directly proportional to the resident population density. A seasonal increase of >27% was observed in the total concentration of the UV filters in the rivers and influents of the treatment plants (TPs) during summer. BP, BP-3, EHMC, 4-MBC, and EHS were the most dominant, showing a distinct distribution pattern that was dependent on the effectiveness of the treatment process and properties of each compound. The concentrations of the UV filters were higher in the TPs influents than in the rivers, and the most dominant UV filters in the rivers were those with low removal rate. Although biological treatment processes favored the removal of the UV filter compounds in the TPs, complete removal was not achieved before discharge into the rivers. PMID:26519573

  15. Climate variables as predictors for seasonal forecast of dengue occurrence in Chennai, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subash Kumar, D. D.; Andimuthu, R.

    2013-12-01

    Background Dengue is a recently emerging vector borne diseases in Chennai. As per the WHO report in 2011 dengue is one of eight climate sensitive disease of this century. Objective Therefore an attempt has been made to explore the influence of climate parameters on dengue occurrence and use for forecasting. Methodology Time series analysis has been applied to predict the number of dengue cases in Chennai, a metropolitan city which is the capital of Tamil Nadu, India. Cross correlation of the climate variables with dengue cases revealed that the most influential parameters were monthly relative humidity, minimum temperature at 4 months lag and rainfall at one month lag (Table 1). However due to intercorrelation of relative humidity and rainfall was high and therefore for predictive purpose the rainfall at one month lag was used for the model development. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models have been applied to forecast the occurrence of dengue. Results and Discussion The best fit model was ARIMA (1,0,1). It was seen that the monthly minimum temperature at four months lag (β= 3.612, p = 0.02) and rainfall at one month lag (β= 0.032, p = 0.017) were associated with dengue occurrence and they had a very significant effect. Mean Relative Humidity had a directly significant positive correlation at 99% confidence level, but the lagged effect was not prominent. The model predicted dengue cases showed significantly high correlation of 0.814(Figure 1) with the observed cases. The RMSE of the model was 18.564 and MAE was 12.114. The model is limited by the scarcity of the dataset. Inclusion of socioeconomic conditions and population offset are further needed to be incorporated for effective results. Conclusion Thus it could be claimed that the change in climatic parameters is definitely influential in increasing the number of dengue occurrence in Chennai. The climate variables therefore can be used for seasonal forecasting of dengue with rise in minimum

  16. Environmental impact of pharmaceuticals from Portuguese wastewaters: geographical and seasonal occurrence, removal and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André M P T; Silva, Liliana J G; Meisel, Leonor M; Lino, Celeste M; Pena, Angelina

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence, fate, geographical and seasonal influence and environmental risk assessment of eleven of the most consumed pharmaceuticals in Portugal were studied in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) influents and (WWI) and effluents (WWE). WWI and WWE samples, from two sampling campaigns (spring and summer), in 2013, were evaluated in 15 different WWTPs across the country, by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass detection (LC-MS-MS). Lipid regulators were the most frequently found in WWI and WWE (184.1 and 22.3mg/day/1000 inhab., respectively), followed by anti-inflammatories (1339.4 and 15.0mg/day/1000 inhab., respectively), and antibiotics (330.7 and 68.6 mg/day/1000 inhab., respectively). Anxiolytics were the least detected with 3.3 and 3.4 mg/day/1000 inhab. in WWI and WWE, respectively. The mass loads, both in WWI and WWE, were higher in summer than those found during the spring season, being remarkable the high values registered in a region where population triplicates in this time of the year. The mean removal efficiency achieved was of 94.5%, nonetheless, between the different therapeutic groups, as well as within each group, important variations in removal were observed, going from not eliminated to 100%. In the summer higher efficiencies were observed regarding lipid regulators and antibiotics. Furthermore, an important outcome was the evaluation, by means of risk quotients (RQs), of the potential ecotoxicological risk posed by the selected pharmaceuticals to different aquatic organisms, exposed to the effluents studied. Ciprofloxacin, bezafibrate, gemfibrozil, simvastatin and diclofenac showed RQs higher than one, being expected that these pharmaceuticals might pose a threat to the three trophic levels (algae, daphnids and fish) evaluated. These results highlight the importance of these monitoring studies, as required by the Directive 2013/39/EU, in order to minimize their aquatic environmental contamination

  17. Seasonal and longitudinal variations in the occurrence frequency of magnetospheric ionization ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seasonal effects in the occurrence frequency of conjugate echoes on top side sounder ionograms recorded at nine telemetry stations, located at various longitudes, are studied by using Alouette 2, Isis 1, and Isis 2 satellite data. The combined data from all telemetry stations (2.8 x 105 ionograms) show minimums in the percentage of ionograms containing conjugate echoes at the equinoxes (2 percent) and maximums in the percentage of ionograms containing conjugate echoes at the solstices (about 7 percent). However, data recorded at a single telemetry station may show a maximum at only one of the solstices depending upon the longitude of the station. A geometric model based on these results and on the observation that conjugate echoes are observed mainly during the nighttime hours is presented. According to this model, the conjugate ducts tend to be created when the angle between the geomagnetic axis and the normal to the plane of the ecliptic is maximum, that is, when the conjugate points of magnetic field lines are most asymmetric with respect to the sun-earth line. Magnetospheric currents flowing from one hemisphere to the other along geomagnetic field lines are suggested as the cause of the field-aligned ionization irregularities which produce the observed conjugate echoes on top side sounder ionograms. (U.S.)

  18. Host utilization and seasonal occurrence of Dermacentor species (Acari:Ixodidae) in Missouri, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollars, T M; Oliver, J H; Masters, E J; Kollars, P G; Durden, L A

    2000-08-01

    A total of 3,235 Dermacentor variabilis (Say) specimens were collected from birds, mammals, and by dragging vegetation, and 2,683 D. albipictus (Packard) ticks were collected from deer from 1993 to 1996. Peak seasonal occurrence of adult D. variabilis was from May through July with a precipitous decrease in August. Nymphal D. variabilis populations peaked in June. Peak activity of larvae was bimodal, with one activity peak during late summer (September) and a second peak in winter or early spring. The raccoon, Procyon lotor (L.), was the principal host of adults followed by the Virginia opossum, Didelphis virginiana Kerr. Rodents and the eastern cottontail rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen), were the primary hosts of nymphs. The marsh rice rat, Oryzomys palustris (Harlan), was the principal host of larvae followed by the pine vole, Microtus pinetorum (Le Conte), and white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque). All stages of D. albipictus were found only on white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann). Numbers of adult and nymphal D. albipictus peaked in November, whereas larvae peaked in September. PMID:11201355

  19. Seasonal occurrence of Calanus sinicus in the northern South China Sea: A case study in Daya Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaizhi; Yan, Yan; Yin, Jianqiang; Tan, Yehui; Huang, Liangmin

    2016-07-01

    Calanus sinicus is a calanoid copepod species that is distributed broadly in the continental shelf waters of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study aims to understand the seasonal variations of the distribution and abundance of C. sinicus in Daya Bay from the northern South China Sea (nSCS) and to explore its possible seasonal occurrence based on current and historical data. Monthly surveys of the species were conducted in Daya Bay, a subtropical bay in the nSCS, during the period between May 2013 and April 2014. C. sinicus was present from January to May, and disappeared after June. The spatial pattern of C. sinicus in the bay was characterized by its distribution into the southwestern part of the bay in January, bay-wide spread in February, patchiness in March and virtual retreat from the bay mouth in April. Reproduction occurred from January to April at a low rate. Adults were mostly abundant in January and declined to a minimum in April. The percentage of early developmental stages increased from 54.1% in January to 90.1% in April, as collected by a fine mesh size. Based on historical data from Daya Bay and from the coastal waters of the nSCS, C. sinicus was carried into the nSCS from the East China Sea by the China Coastal Current during the northeastern monsoon period and survived from December to October of the next year. The summer coastal upwelling may provide suitable refuges for the species in the nSCS by limiting the adverse effects caused by high temperatures. Our results confirm the viewpoint that C. sinicus could exist in the nSCS in summer and fall.

  20. Seasonal dynamic of the occurrence of the gregarines infection of Harpalus rufipes (Coleoptera, Carabidae in agroecosystem

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    D. Y. Reshetnyak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Relationships in the “parasite-host” system are closely interrelated and occur at all levels from the molecular to behavioral and population ones. There are two models of realization of these relations. The first case is when the parasites are uniformly distributed in the host population. High extensiveness of invasion is accompanied by its low intensity. The second case is when a part of host population is infected with parasites, but the negative impact is manifested to the maximum extent. Invasion of the ground beetle Harpalus rufipes (De Geer, 1774, dwelling in sweet corn agroecosystems located in the vicinity of Dnipropetrovsk near Doslidnoe village, by several gregarines species is investigated in this study. H. rufipes is an abundant, ubiquitous species, living in extremely wide range of terrestrial ecosystems, with especially high populations inhabiting anthropogenically transformed environments. H. rufipes has a wide range of feeding. This species is distributed in the Central and Eastern Europe, and introduced to North America. Gregarines were found in the intestines of 20 individuals of H. rufipes from 190 (10.5%: Gregarina ovata Dufour, 1828, G. steini Berndt, 1902, G. amarae (Hammerschmidt, 1839 Frantzius, 1848, Clitellocephalus ophoni (Tuzet and Ormieres, 1956 Clopton, 2002, Torogregarina sphinx Clopton, 1998, Gigaductus macrospora Filipponi, 1948 and G. elongatus (Moriggi, 1943 Filipponi, 1948. There is high level of infestation of C. ophoni and G. steini. At the same time, not more than three species of the gregarines were localized in the beetle body. Seasonal dynamic of occurrence of the gregarines is as follows. Maximal indices of occurrence are found at the end of August (22.2% and minimal ones at the end of June (4.8%. The highest total number of gregarines (383 ind. is recorded at the end of August, the lowest one is fixed at the beginning of September (33 ind.. Indices of gregarine species dominance are as follows

  1. Hosts, seasonal occurrence and life cycle of Rhipicentor nuttalli (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, L J; Horak, I G; Kok, D J; Van Zyl, W

    2002-09-01

    stages to harden before they can attach to a host, the life cycle took approximately 214 days to complete in the laboratory. The length of this period, considered in conjunction with the times of maximum seasonal occurrence of the immature stages, indicates that the life cycle probably takes a year to complete in the field. PMID:12356163

  2. Species composition, seasonal occurrence, habitat preference and altitudinal distribution of malaria and other disease vectors in eastern Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Ahrens, Bodo; Kuch, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Background It is increasingly recognized that climate change can alter the geographical distribution of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) with shifts of disease vectors to higher altitudes and latitudes. In particular, an increasing risk of malaria and dengue fever epidemics in tropical highlands and temperate regions has been predicted in different climate change scenarios. The aim of this paper is to expand the current knowledge on the seasonal occurrence and altitudinal distribution of malaria ...

  3. Occurrence of Triatoma costalimai (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in different environments and climatic seasons: a field study in the Brazilian savanna

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    Fernanda Machiner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi-infected specimens of Triatoma costalimai have been detected in domiciliary units of Central Brazil, thereby maintaining the potential risk of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and natural infection of T. costalimai in different environments (gallery forest, dry forest and peridomicile and climatic seasons (wet and dry, in the municipality of Mambaí, State of Goiás, Brazil. METHODS: Triatomines were captured in October 2010 and in June 2011, employing two different methods (manual capture and mouse-baited adhesive traps. The insects were later separated by sex and nymphal stage, counted and examined parasitologically by abdominal compression and microscopic analysis of feces. RESULTS: Triatoma costalimai was found in three environments and in the two seasons studied. Overall, capture success of 900 traps and 60 blocks of rocks inspected was 5.8% and 11.7%, respectively. The occurrence of T. costalimai was higher among rocks in the peridomicile, where 97% of the 131 specimens were captured. The proportion of nymphs (98% was much higher than that of adults, which were only detected in peridomicile. Most (95% insects were captured during the wet season, with predominance of early-stage nymphs. None of the 43 specimens examined were infected by trypanosomatids. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate a greater occurrence of T. costalimai in peridomiciliary environments and during the wet season in Mambaí, Goiás, highlighting the synanthropic behavior of this triatomine species in one area of the Brazilian savanna and the importance of entomological surveillance.

  4. Monitoring Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) with baited bottom board traps: occurrence and seasonal abundance in honey bee colonies in Kenya.

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    Torto, Baldwyn; Fombong, Ayuka T; Arbogast, Richard T; Teal, Peter E A

    2010-12-01

    The population dynamics of the honey bee pest Aethina tumida Murray (small hive beetle) have been studied in the United States with flight and Langstroth hive bottom board traps baited with pollen dough inoculated with a yeast Kodamaea ohmeri associated with the beetle. However, little is known about the population dynamics of the beetle in its native host range. Similarly baited Langstroth hive bottom board traps were used to monitor the occurrence and seasonal abundance of the beetle in honey bee colonies at two beekeeping locations in Kenya. Trap captures indicated that the beetle was present in honey bee colonies in low numbers all year round, but it was most abundant during the rainy season, with over 80% trapped during this period. The survival of larvae was tested in field releases under dry and wet soil conditions, and predators of larvae were identified. The actvity and survival of the beetle were strongly influenced by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors. Larval survival was higher during wet (28%) than dry (1.1%) conditions, with pupation occurring mostly at 0-15 cm and 11-20 cm, respectively, beneath the surface soil during these periods. The ant Pheidole megacephala was identified as a key predator of larvae at this site, and more active during the dry than wet seasons. These observations imply that intensive trapping during the rainy season could reduce the population of beetles infesting hives in subsequent seasons especially in places where the beetle is a serious pest. PMID:22182536

  5. Seasonal fluctuations in the occurrence of Cladocera in the Mandovi-Zuari estuarine waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.; Devassy, V.P.

    .78). Evadne tergestina Claus and Penilia avirostris Dana were the 2 major species representing cladoceran population, the former being dominant (85.88%). Both the species were characterisEd. by seasonality in distribution. Distribution patterns of each species...

  6. Breed and season influence on milk quality parameters and in mastitis occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego B. Nóbrega

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to evaluate the performance of Jersey and Holstein cows under different rainfall conditions (dry and rainy seasons by monitoring aspects related to subclinical mastitis (somatic cell count, microbiological isolation, type of isolated pathogen, milk quality (lactose, protein, fat, total solids and production (mean milk production of both breeds. The study was carried out in a dairy farm located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Eight visitations were done to the farm, four in a period of high rainfall and four in a period of low rainfall. Milk samples were collected from 79 Holstein cows and 37 Jersey cows for electronic somatic cell count and determination of the main milk components (protein, fat, total solids, lactose. Milk fat, protein, total solids and production were influenced by breed and the season, with similar tendencies for both breeds in both seasons. Somatic cell count (SCC showed similar results for both breeds. Holstein cows with intramammary infections (IMI presented a higher increase in SCC when compared to Jersey cows (P<0.001. In the dry season, 53 animals had IMI in at least one month during the study, which 32 were Holstein and 21 were Jersey cows. In the rainy season, 65 animals had intramammary infection, being 43 Holstein and 22 Jersey cows. The frequency of IMI cases was larger in the rainy season than in the dry season. Jersey cows had a lower chance of showing IMI signs and symptoms than Holstein cows in the rainy season (odds ratio=0.52. The larger number of IMI cases in the rainy season may have led to a lower milk lactose rate for both breeds, thus milk lactose rate can be considered an indicator of IMI status. There was prevalence of contagious pathogens overall in the study. The applied model showed that environmental pathogens were more frequently isolated from the breed Jersey, regardless of the study season. There seems to be differences in the immune response of Jersey and

  7. Occurrence and seasonality of Somotricus unifasciatus (Dejean, 1831 associated with raising Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Moscarelli Pinto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the occurrence and population fluctuation of Somotricus unifasciatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae, an exotic predatory species. The insects were collected once per week for 12 months, using traps, at the aviary of the Conjunto Agrotécnico Visconde da Graça (CAVG, in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. During the study, 1158 specimens of S. unifasciatus were captured. The highest occurrence period was in February (472, when the monthly average temperature was 24.7ºC, while the lowest occurrence periods were in July (01, April (0 and June (0. The population density of the coleopteron varied throughout the year, with the largest capture averages obtained during months with higher average temperatures (December, January, February and March.

  8. Seasonal occurrence and molecular diversity of clostridia species spores along cheesemaking streams of 5 commercial dairy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, Jorge; González, Marcela J; Olivera, Jorge A; Burgueño, Juan A; Juliano, Pablo; Fox, Edward M; Reginensi, Stella M

    2016-05-01

    Five commercial dairy plants were monitored over a 17-mo period to determine the seasonal occurrence of Clostridium spores in streams from the cheesemaking process. Every 2 mo, samples of raw milk (RM), separated cream (SC), pasteurized and standardized vat milk (PSVM), PSVM + lysozyme (PSVM+L), and manufactured cheese aged for 60 to 90 d were processed for analysis. Molecular diversity of the main species identified was determined using repetitive element palindromic PCR. The mean anaerobic spore counts (μ ± SE) were 3.16±0.054, 3.00±0.054, 2.89±0.059, and 2.03±0.054 log10 most probable number/L for RM, PSVM, PSVM+L, and SC, respectively. Although spore counts did not differ between dairy plants, seasonal variation was observed; spore counts of RM, PSVM, and PSVM+L were higher during winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) months, but no seasonal variation was seen in SC counts. The most frequently isolated species was Clostridium tyrobutyricum, ranging from 50 to 58.3% of isolates from milk and cream samples. Clostridium sporogenes was the second most common species identified (16.7-21.1%); Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium butyricum were also found, although at lower prevalence (7.9-13.2%). Analysis of the C. tyrobutyricum and C. sporogenes population structure through repetitive element palindromic PCR indicated a high diversity, with unique isolates found in each positive sample. The occurrence of Clostridia spores in incoming streams to cheesemaking was most prominent in the winter and summer seasons, with higher prevalence of C. tyrobutyricum in the months of June and August. PMID:26923043

  9. Seasonal occurrence of anoxygenic photosynthesis in Tillari and Selaulim reservoirs, Western India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kurian, S.; Roy, R.; Repeta, D.J.; Gauns, M.; Shenoy, D.M.; Suresh, T.; Sarkar, A.; Narenkar, G.; Johnson, C.G.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    conditions prevailed in the water column below the thermocline, the occurrence of photo-autotrophic bacteria was restricted only to mid-depths (maximal concentration of BChl e isomers was detected at 0.2% of the surface incident light). This shows...

  10. Massive occurrence of heterotrophic filaments in acidified lakes: Seasonal dynamics and composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Jaroslav; Nedoma, Jiří; Šimek, Karel; Rackova, P.; Kopáček, Jiří

    Messina: Istituto per l Ambiente Marino Costiero, 2002 - (Giuliano, L.; Yakimov, M.). s. L61 [Symposium on Aquatic Microbial Ecology SAME-8 /8./. 25.10.2002-30.10.2002, Taormina] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : heterotrophic filaments * acidified lakes * seasonal dynamics Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  11. Effect of thermal environment on the temporal, spatial and seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omonijo, Akinyemi Gabriel; Matzarakis, Andreas; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Adeofun, Clement Olabinjo

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the temporal and spatial dynamics, as well as the seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria, to better understand the role of the thermal environment in the occurrence of the childhood killer disease measles, which ranks among the top ten leading causes of child deaths worldwide. The linkages between measles and atmospheric environmental factors were examined by correlating human-biometeorological parameters in the study area with reported clinical cases of measles for the period 1998-2008. We also applied stepwise regression analysis in order to determine the human-biometeorological parameters that lead to statistical changes in reported clinical cases of measles. We found that high reported cases of measles are associated with the least populated areas, where rearing and cohabitation of livestock/domestic animals within human communities are common. There was a significant correlation ( P < 0.01) between monthly cases of measles and human-biometeorological parameters except wind speed and vapour pressure. High transmission of measles occurred in the months of January to May during the dry season when human thermal comfort indices are very high. This highlights the importance of the thermal environment in disease demographics since it accounted for more than 40% variation in measles transmission within the study period.

  12. Characterization of Mars' seasonal caps using neutron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Feldman, W.C.; Titus, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    Mars' seasonal caps are characterized during Mars years 26 and 27 (April 2002 to January 2006) using data acquired by the 2001 Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer. Time-dependent maps of the column abundance of seasonal CO 2 surface ice poleward of 60?? latitude in both hemispheres are determined from spatially deconvolved, epithermal neutron counting data. Sources of systematic error are analyzed, including spatial blurring by the spectrometer's broad footprint and the seasonal variations in the abundance of noncondensable gas at high southern latitudes, which are found to be consistent with results reported by Sprague et al. (2004, 2007). Corrections for spatial blurring are found to be important during the recession, when the column abundance of seasonal CO2 ice has the largest latitude gradient. The measured distribution and inventory of seasonal CO2 ice is compared to simulations by a general circulation model (GCM) calibrated using Viking lander pressure data, cap edge functions determined by thermal emission spectroscopy, and other nuclear spectroscopy data sets. On the basis of the amount of CO2 cycled through the caps during years 26 and 27, the gross polar energy balance has not changed significantly since Viking. The distribution of seasonal CO2 ice is longitudinally asymmetric: in the north, deposition rates of CO2 ice are elevated in Acidalia, which is exposed to katabatic winds from Chasma Borealis; in the south, CO2 deposition is highest near the residual cap. During southern recession, CO 2 ice is present longer than calculated by the GCM, which has implications for the local polar energy balance. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. The seasonal occurrence and abundance of gelatinous macrozooplankton in Izmit Bay (the northeastern Marmara Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Isinibilir, Melek

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In this study, temporal distributions of four gelatinous zooplankton, the scyphozoan Aurelia aurita and the ctenophores Mnemiopsis leidyi, Beroe ovata and Pleurobrachia pileus, were evaluated using data obtained from 17 cruises to Izmit Bay carried out from July 2001 to November 2002. Mnemiopsis leidyi was always present in all seasons. The appearance of Beroe ovata resulted in a sharp decrease of M. leidyi biomass. Beroe ovata was found only in summer-autumn periods in Izmit Bay, wi...

  14. Seasonal Hypoxia Occurrence At Terengganu Estuary, Malaysia And its Potential Formation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. L.; Tangang, F.; Wahap, M. H.; YAng, S.

    2016-07-01

    Hypoxia is commonly defined as oxygen depletion when the dissolved oxygen (DO) levels fall below 2 mg L-1. In this paper, physical factors contributed to hypoxic condition in the diurnal tide, Terengganu Estuary has been experimentally and analytically studies. Hourly profiles on DO, current speed and nutrient were measured during the wet and dry seasons for continuous period approximately 30 hours, which cover both high and low tide at two fixed stations, located at the river mouth and 9.50 km upstream from the river mouth, respectively. It was observed that the entire estuary was free from hypoxia during the wet season. However, hypoxia was developed at the river mouth during the dry season with lowest reading of the DO level was 0.78 mg L-1. It was demonstrated that the combination of high contamination of nutrient, low current speed, the geometrical formation and water stratification are recognized as important role in formatting the hypoxia at the Terengganu river mouth.

  15. Seasonal occurrence of antibiotics and a beta agonist in an agriculturally-intensive watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the occurrence of 12 veterinary antibiotics and a beta agonist over spatial and temporal scales in Shell Creek, an intensively agricultural watershed in Nebraska, using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS). Twelve pharmaceuticals were detected with concentrations ranging from 0.0003 ng/L to 68 ng/L. The antibiotics measured at the highest time-weighted average concentrations were lincomycin (68 ng/L) and monensin (49 ng/L), and both compounds were detected at increased concentrations in summer months. Analysis of variance indicates that mean concentrations of detected pharmaceuticals have no significant (p > 0.01) spatial variation. However, significant temporal differences (p < 0.01) were observed. This study demonstrates the utility of passive samplers such as POCIS for monitoring ambient levels of pharmaceuticals in surface waters. - Highlights: • Passive samplers were used to evaluate veterinary pharmaceuticals in an agricultural watershed. • Monensin and lincomycin were detected at the highest TWA concentrations. • Significantly higher concentrations were detected in summer months. • Pulses of antibiotics correspond with rainfall-runoff events. - The spatial and temporal differences in the occurrence of thirteen veterinary pharmaceuticals was evaluated in an intensively agricultural watershed

  16. Phytoplankton of two rivers in the eastern Amazon: characterization of biodiversity and new occurrences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elane Domênica de Souza Cunha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During the various hydrological periods in 2011, we studied the phytoplankton along an 87-km stretch of the Araguari and Falsino rivers, which are located in the eastern Brazilian Amazon, in the state of Amapá, Brazil, the most ecologically preserved state in the country. In the study area, the aquatic ecosystem is under pressure from human activities such as, mining, hydroelectric power generation and urbanization, which contrast with the surrounding areas that are designated for biodiversity conservation. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition, frequency and richness of algae species and also to identify spatial-temporal patterns of taxa distribution. During the study period, we identified 185 taxa (136 species in 49 genera. The division Chlorophyta (class: Zygnematophyceae presented the greatest number of taxa, whereas the division Rhodophyta accounted for only 1% of the taxa recorded. Most of the species identified (69% were classified as sporadic in occurrence. The few taxa that were classified as common belonged mainly to the group Bacillariophyta. Species richness was greatest richness in the lentic stretches (in a reservoir and in November (during the dry season. Of the 185 taxa identified, 174 are new records for the state of Amapá.

  17. Occurrence and seasonal variation of heavy metals in the oyster Saccostrea iridescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez-Osuna, F.; Marmolejo-Rivas, C. (National Autonomous Univ. of Mexico, Mazatlan Sinaloa (Mexico))

    1990-01-01

    The oyster Saccrostrea iridescens is a marine species which is geographically distributed from the Gulf of California to the North of Peru. In Mexico and particularly in The Pacific coast, this mollusc is widely utilized for human consumption, having consequently, an important commercial values, though no heavy metal data are available to establish natural background levels. In the present study the analysis of the concentration of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cu, Co, Cr, Zn and Cd) in soft tissues of S. iridescens of the Mexican northwest coast (a rural uncontaminated site), during a period of ten months, allows the authors to suggest the relative importance that the seasonal variation and size (age) of bivalve have in the accumulation of these elements. Additional, the observed levels have been compared with those in other areas.

  18. Occurrence of seasonal variation in incident unprovoked venous thromboembolism in the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anette Luther; Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Dethlefsen, Claus;

    excluded subjects with a previous diagnosis of cancer or with any discharge diagnosis until three months before an incident VTE diagnosis. Daily data including information on gender, age and comorbid diseases are analysed. A Poisson regression model adjusting for gender, age- and Charlson comorbidity index...... groups is fitted to data. Seasonal variation is modelled with a single cycle sinusoidal curve interacting with comorbidity groups. Secular trend is modelled with a restricted cubic spline. The relative risk is estimated by the peak-to-trough ratio with bootstrap bias-correcting 95% confidence intervals...... both remaining groups. Stratification on gender showed no significant difference in relative risk for any comorbidity groups. For subjects without comorbid diseases the relative risk tended to increase with age....

  19. Seasonal occurrence of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) around Kelvin Seamount in the Sargasso Sea in relation to oceanographic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sarah N. P.; Whitehead, Hal

    2014-09-01

    Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are widely distributed in all oceans, but they are clumped geographically, generally in areas associated with high primary and secondary productivity. The warm, clear waters of the Sargasso Sea are traditionally thought to be low in productivity, however recent surveys have found large numbers of sperm whales there. The New England Seamount Chain bisects the north-western portion of the Sargasso Sea, and might influence the mesoscale eddies associated with the Gulf Stream; creating areas of higher productivity within the Sargasso Sea. We investigated the seasonal occurrence of sperm whales over Kelvin Seamount (part of the New England Seamount Chain) and how it is influenced by oceanographic variables. An autonomous recording device was deployed over Kelvin Seamount from May to June 2006 and November 2006 to June 2007. A total of 6505 hourly two-minute recordings were examined for the presence of sperm whale echolocation clicks. Sperm whales were more prevalent around Kelvin in the spring (April to June: mean=51% of recordings contained clicks) compared to the winter (November to March: mean=16% of recordings contained clicks). Sperm whale prevalence at Kelvin was related to chlorophyll-a concentration four weeks previous, eddy kinetic energy and month. The mesoscale activity associated with the Gulf Stream and the Gulf Stream's interaction with the New England Seamount Chain likely play an important role in sperm whale occurrence in this area, by increasing productivity and perhaps concentration of cephalopod species.

  20. Occurrence and seasonality of internal parasite infection in elephants, Loxodonta africana, in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Baines

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known from studies in a wide range of wild and domestic animals, including elephants, that parasites can affect growth, reproduction and health. A total of 458 faecal samples from wild elephants were analysed using a combination of flotation and sedimentation methods. Coccidian oocysts (prevalence 51%, and nematode (77% and trematode (24% eggs were found. Species were not identified, though trematode egg morphology was consistent with that of the intestinal fluke Protofasciola robusta. The following factors were found to have a significant effect on parasite infection: month, year, sex, age, and group size and composition. There was some evidence of peak transmission of coccidia and nematodes during the rainy season, confirmed for coccidia in a parallel study of seven sympatric domesticated elephants over a three month period. Nematode eggs were more common in larger groups and nematode egg counts were significantly higher in elephants living in maternal groups (mean 1116 eggs per gram, standard deviation, sd 685 than in all-male groups (529, sd 468. Fluke egg prevalence increased with increasing elephant age. Preservation of samples in formalin progressively decreased the probability of detecting all types of parasite over a storage time of 1–15 months. Possible reasons for associations between other factors and infection levels are discussed.

  1. Occurrence and seasonality of internal parasite infection in elephants, Loxodonta africana, in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Lydia; Morgan, Eric R; Ofthile, Mphoeng; Evans, Kate

    2015-04-01

    It is known from studies in a wide range of wild and domestic animals, including elephants, that parasites can affect growth, reproduction and health. A total of 458 faecal samples from wild elephants were analysed using a combination of flotation and sedimentation methods. Coccidian oocysts (prevalence 51%), and nematode (77%) and trematode (24%) eggs were found. Species were not identified, though trematode egg morphology was consistent with that of the intestinal fluke Protofasciola robusta. The following factors were found to have a significant effect on parasite infection: month, year, sex, age, and group size and composition. There was some evidence of peak transmission of coccidia and nematodes during the rainy season, confirmed for coccidia in a parallel study of seven sympatric domesticated elephants over a three month period. Nematode eggs were more common in larger groups and nematode egg counts were significantly higher in elephants living in maternal groups (mean 1116 eggs per gram, standard deviation, sd 685) than in all-male groups (529, sd 468). Fluke egg prevalence increased with increasing elephant age. Preservation of samples in formalin progressively decreased the probability of detecting all types of parasite over a storage time of 1-15 months. Possible reasons for associations between other factors and infection levels are discussed. PMID:25830107

  2. Seasonal occurrence of key arthropod pests and associated natural enemies in Alabama Satsuma citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadamiro, Henry Y; Xiao, Yingfang; Hargroder, Terry; Nesbitt, Monte; Umeh, Vincent; Childers, Carl C

    2008-04-01

    Six Alabama Satsuma mandarin orchards (four conventionally sprayed and two unsprayed) were surveyed during 2005 and 2006 to determine the population dynamics of arthropod pests and their natural enemies. Twenty-eight arthropod pest species were encountered; the major foliage pests were citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead); purple scale, Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman); Glover scale, L. gloveri (Packard); and citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor). Two distinct population peaks were recorded for citrus whitefly at most locations. The most important direct sources of citrus whitefly mortality were parasitism by Encarsia lahorensis (Howard) and infection by the pathogenic fungus, Aschersonia aleyrodis Webber. In general, all stages of both scale insects (purple scale and Glover scale) were present in the orchards year-round, indicative of overlapping generations; however, the highest densities were recorded during the early season. Citrus whitefly, purple scale, and Glover scale were more abundant on leaves collected from the interior of the tree canopy than in the exterior canopy. Citrus red mite densities were highest in the spring, with populations declining at the start of the summer, and were more abundant in the exterior canopy than in the interior canopy. The most important natural enemies of citrus red mite were predatory mites belonging to several families, of which Typhlodromalus peregrinus Muma (Phytoseiidae) was the predominant species. Major differences were recorded in the relative abundance of different arthropod pest species in the orchards: citrus whitefly, purple scale, and Glover scale predominated in the unsprayed orchards, whereas citrus red mite infestations were more severe in the sprayed orchards. The results are discussed in relation to the possible effect of orchard management practices on abundance of the major pests. PMID:18419929

  3. Genetic structure, population demography and seasonal occurrence of blacktip shark Carcharhinus limbatus in Bimini, the Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, K S; Kessel, S T; Guttridge, T L; Hansell, A C; Bester-van der Merwe, A E; Feldheim, K A; Gruber, S H; Chapman, D D

    2015-12-01

    A longline survey was conducted from 2004 to 2014 to investigate the demographic population structure and seasonal abundance of the blacktip shark Carcharhinus limbatus in the Bimini Islands, the Bahamas. All individuals sampled (n = 242) were sub-adult or adults [70·1-145·1 cm pre-caudal length (LPC) range] with no neonates or YOY recorded in Bimini. Carcharhinus limbatus abundance peaked in September, coincident with the largest ratio of female to male sharks and a peak in fresh mating wounds on females. Mitochondrial control region (mtCR) DNA sequences were obtained from C. limbatus at Bimini to test whether Bimini C. limbatus are most closely related to geographically proximate populations sampled on the south-eastern coast of the U.S.A., the closest known nursery areas for this species. Nine mtCR haplotypes were observed in 32 individuals sampled at Bimini [haplotype diversity (h) = 0·821, nucleotide diversity (π) = 0·0015]. Four haplotypes observed from Bimini matched those previously found in the northern Yucatan (Mexico)-Belize and two matched a haplotype previously found in the U.S.A. Four haplotypes were novel but were closely related to the northern Yucatan-Belizean haplotypes. Pair-wise ΦST analysis showed that Bimini was significantly differentiated from all of the populations previously sampled (U.S.A. Atlantic, U.S.A. Gulf of Mexico, northern Yucatan, Belize and Brazil). This indicates that C. limbatus sampled from Bimini are unlikely from the described, proximate U.S.A. nurseries. PMID:26709212

  4. Occurrence and diet of killer whales in northern Norway: seasonal patterns relative to the distribution and abundance of Norwegian spring-spawning herring

    OpenAIRE

    Similä, Tiu; Holst, Jens Christian; Christensen, Ivar

    1996-01-01

    Our objectives were to investigate the seasonal occurrence of photoidentified killer whale pods in relation to the distribution of Norwegian spring-spawning herring and whether or not pod-specific differences in the occurrence or diet of killer whales could be demonstrated. In a 4-year study, the killer whales occurred in different areas during the summer and the fall–winter, and these areas coincided with the distribution areas of herring. Killer whales were encountered most freq...

  5. Seasonal occurrence of anoxygenic photosynthesis in Tillari and Selaulim reservoirs, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kurian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton and bacterial pigment compositions were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS in two freshwater reservoirs (Tillari Dam and Selaulim Dam, which are located at the foothills of the Western Ghats in India. These reservoirs experience anoxia in the hypolimnion during summer. Water samples were collected from both reservoirs during anoxic periods while one of them (Tillari Reservoir was also sampled in winter, when convective mixing results in well-oxygenated conditions throughout the water column. During the period of anoxia (summer, bacteriochlorophyll (BChl e isomers and isorenieratene, characteristic of brown sulfur bacteria, were dominant in the anoxic (sulfidic layer of the Tillari Reservoir under low light intensities. The winter observations showed the dominance of small cells of Chlorophyll b-containing green algae and cyanobacteria, with minor presence of fucoxanthin-containing diatoms and peridinin-containing dinoflagellates. Using total BChl e concentration observed in June, the standing stock of brown sulfur bacteria carbon in the anoxic compartment of Tillari Reservoir was estimated to be 2.27 gC m−2, which is much higher than the similar estimate for carbon derived from oxygenic photosynthesis (0.82 gC m−2. The Selaulim Reservoir also displayed similar characteristics with the presence of BChl e isomers and isorenieratene in the anoxic hypolimnion during summer. Although sulfidic conditions prevailed in the water column below the thermocline, the occurrence of photo-autotrophic bacteria was restricted only to mid-depths (maximal concentration of BChl e isomers was detected at 0.2% of the surface incident light. This shows that the vertical distribution of photo-autotrophic sulfur bacteria is primarily controlled by light penetration in the water column where the presence of H2

  6. Seasonal occurrence of anoxygenic photosynthesis in Tillari and Selaulim reservoirs, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kurian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton and bacterial pigment compositions were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry (LCMS in two freshwater reservoirs (Tillari Dam and Selaulim Dam, which are located at the foothills of the Western Ghats in India. These reservoirs experience anoxia in the hypolimnion during summer. Water samples were collected from both reservoirs during anoxic periods while one of them (Tillari Reservoir was also sampled in winter, when convective mixing results in well-oxygenated conditions throughout the water column. During the periods of anoxia (summer, bacteriochlorophyll (BChl e isomers and isoreneiratene, characteristic of brown sulfur bacteria, were dominant in the anoxic (sulfidic layer of the Tillari Reservoir under low light intensities. The winter observations showed the dominance of small cells of Chlorophyll-b containing green algae and cyanobacteria, with minor presence of fucoxanthin-containing diatoms and peridinin-containing dinoflagellates. Using total BChl-e concentration observed in June, the standing stock of brown sulfur bacteria carbon in the Tillari Reservoir was computed to be 2.4 gC m−2, which is much higher than the similar estimate for carbon derived from oxygenic photosynthesis (0.82 gC m−2. These results highlight the importance of anoxygenic photosynthetic biomass in tropical freshwater systems. The Selaulim Reservoir also displayed similar characteristics with the presence of BChl-e isomers and isorenieratene in the anoxic hypolimnion during summer. Although sulfidic conditions prevailed in the water column below the thermocline, the occurrence of photoautotrophic bacteria was restricted only to mid-depths (maximal concentration of BChl-e isomers was noted at 0.2 % of the surface incident light. This shows that the vertical distribution of photoautotrophic sulfur bacteria is primarily

  7. Environmental factors that determine the occurrence and seasonal dynamics of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa YAMAMOTO

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the seasonal dynamics of two populations of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Ralfs ex Bornet & Flahault var. flos-aquae and four populations of A. flos-aquae var. klebahnii Elenkin in eutrophic water bodies over 1 year from February 2006 to January 2007. The growth of A. flos-aquae var. flos-aquae was promoted at high temperatures even if in one case the biomass development was very low when other co-occurring cyanoprokaryotes (Anabaena spp. and Microcystis spp. were abundant. In contrast, the highest density of the other population of A. flos-aquae var. flos-aquae was observed in August when the population density of M. aeruginosa (Kützing Kützing reached an annual peak. A. flos-aquae var. flos-aquae usually bloomed in summer but could also tolerate low temperatures in the winter, and was present in relatively high densities. The populations of A. flos-aquae var. klebahnii observed in this study can be divided into three groups based on preferred temperature; three populations increased in winter, and the other increased in summer. Large biomasses of the low-temperature-adapted A. flos-aquae were observed mainly during winter when population densities of co-occurring cyanoprokaryotes (Anabaena spp., Microcystis spp. and Planktothrix raciborskii (Woloszynska Anagnostidis & Komárek were relatively low or almost absent. The increase in or existence of cooccurring cyanoprokaryotes during the summer resulted in a decrease of the A. flos-aquae population density. It was revealed that high temperatures (20-25 °C are suitable for maintaining A. flos-aquae var. klebahnii strains isolated from the study ponds, implying that low-temperature-adapted A. flos-aquae can grow over a wide range of water temperatures. The high-temperatureadapted A. flos-aquae var. klebahnii co-existed with M. aeruginosa during summer; however, its peak population density was significantly lower than those in previous years when M. aeruginosa was absent

  8. Spatial synchronies in the seasonal occurrence of larvae of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and mussels (Mytilus edulis/galloprovincialis) in European coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippart, Catharina J. M.; Amaral, Ana; Asmus, Ragnhild; van Bleijswijk, Judith; Bremner, Julie; Buchholz, Fred; Cabanellas-Reboredo, Miguel; Catarino, Diana; Cattrijsse, André; Charles, François; Comtet, Thierry; Cunha, Alexandra; Deudero, Salud; Duchêne, Jean-Claude; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Gentil, Franck; Gittenberger, Arjan; Guizien, Katell; Gonçalves, João M.; Guarnieri, Giuseppe; Hendriks, Iris; Hussel, Birgit; Vieira, Raquel Pinheiro; Reijnen, Bastian T.; Sampaio, Iris; Serrao, Ester; Pinto, Isabel Sousa; Thiebaut, Eric; Viard, Frédérique; Zuur, Alain F.

    2012-08-01

    Reproductive cycles of marine invertebrates with complex life histories are considered to be synchronized by water temperature and feeding conditions, which vary with season and latitude. This study analyses seasonal variation in the occurrence of oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and mussel (Mytilus edulis/galloprovincialis) larvae across European coastal waters at a synoptic scale (1000s of km) using standardised methods for sampling and molecular analyses. We tested a series of hypotheses to explain the observed seasonal patterns of occurrence of bivalve larvae at 12 European stations (located between 37°N and 60°N and 27°W and 18°E). These hypotheses included a model that stated that there was no synchronisation in seasonality of larval presence at all between the locations (null hypothesis), a model that assumed that there was one common seasonality pattern for all stations within Europe, and various models that supposed that the variation in seasonality could be grouped according to specific spatial scales (i.e., latitude, large marine ecosystems and ecoregions), taxonomic groups, or several combinations of these factors. For oysters, the best models explaining the presence/absence of larvae in European coastal waters were (1) the model that assumed one common seasonal pattern, and (2) the one that, in addition to this common pattern, assumed an enhanced probability of occurrence from south to north. The third best model for oysters, with less empirical support than the first two, stated that oysters reproduced later in the south than in the north. For mussels, the best models explaining the seasonality in occurrence of larvae were (1) the model that assumed four underlying trends related to large marine ecosystems, and (2) the one that assumed one common seasonal pattern for larvae occurrence throughout Europe. Such synchronies in larval occurrences suggest that environmental conditions relevant to bivalve larval survival are more or less similar at large

  9. Drugs of abuse and benzodiazepines in the Madrid Region (Central Spain): seasonal variation in river waters, occurrence in tap water and potential environmental and human risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, A; Rodríguez-Gil, J L; González-Alonso, S; Mastroianni, N; López de Alda, M; Barceló, D; Valcárcel, Y

    2014-09-01

    This work analyzes the seasonal variation (winter and summer) of ten drugs of abuse, six metabolites and three benzodiazepines in surface waters from the Jarama and Manzanares Rivers in the Madrid Region, the most densely populated area in Spain. The occurrence of these compounds in tap water in this region is also investigated and a preliminary human health risk characterization performed for those substances found in tap water. Finally, a screening level risk assessment that combines the measured environmental concentrations (MECs) with dose-response data to estimate Hazard Quotients (HQs) for the compounds studied is also presented. The results of this study show the presence of fourteen out of the nineteen compounds analyzed in winter and twelve of them in summer. The most ubiquitous compounds, with a frequency of detection of 100% in both seasons, were the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE), the amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) ephedrine (EPH), the opioid methadone (METH), the METH metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), and the three benzodiazepines investigated, namely alprazolam (ALP), diazepam (DIA) and lorazepam (LOR). The highest concentrations observed corresponded to EPH (1020ngL(-1) in winter and 250ngL(-1) in summer). The only compounds not detected in both seasons were heroin (HER) and its metabolite 6-acetylmorphine (6ACM), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (O-H-LSD), and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). In terms of overall concentration, all sampling points presented higher concentrations in winter than in summer. Statistical analyses performed to gather evidence concerning occasional seasonal differences in the concentrations of individual substances between summer and winter showed statistically significantly higher concentrations (pmetabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) were present in at least one of the sampling sites in a concentration leading

  10. Occurrence, distribution and seasonal variation of organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in urban surface water in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yali; Gao, Lihong; Li, Wenhui; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence, spatial distribution and seasonal variation of 14 organophosphate esters (OPEs) were investigated in urban surface water (river and lake water) from July 2013 to June 2014 in Beijing, China. Sewage influent and effluent samples, as well as rainwater and road runoff samples were also analyzed as the potential sources of OPEs in surface water. Tris(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) were the most abundant OPEs with the average concentrations of 291 ng L(-1) and 219 ng L(-1), respectively. Relatively high concentrations of OPEs were detected in rivers located at southern and eastern urban of Beijing, which was probably attributed to the treated and untreated sewage discharge. Besides, higher levels of OPEs were observed in urban surface water in the summer, and the wet deposition (rainfall) was confirmed to be an important factor for this observation. Risk assessment showed low or medium risk of OPEs for the organisms (algae, crustacean and fish). PMID:26618261

  11. Occurrence and Seasonal Variations of Lipophilic Marine Toxins in Commercial Clam Species along the Coast of Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Zhi Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have examined lipophilic marine toxins (LMTs in shellfish and toxic algae worldwide, but the occurrence and seasonal variations of LMTs in commercial clams (including Mactra veneriformis, Ruditapes philippinarum, Meretrix meretrix, and Cyclina sinensis at their major culturing area in Jiangsu, China, remain largely unexplored. In this study, a new solid phase extraction (SPE in combination with an ultra-fast liquid chromatography and triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UFLC-TQ-MS method was developed to determine the presence of 10 typical LMTs (okadaic acid (OA, yessotoxins (YTXs, azaspiracids (AZA1-3, pectenotoxins (PTX2, gymnodimine (GYM, dinophysistoxins (DTX1&2, and spirolides (SPX1 in the aforementioned four clam matrices. After confirmation of its sensitivity and precision, this method was used to evaluate the amounts of LMTs in clam samples harvested in five aquaculture zones of the Jiangsu coastal area. Monthly variations of GYM, PTX2, OA, and DTX1&2 in 400 clam samples from the sample areas were determined from January 2014 through August 2015. Peak values were observed during May and August. This is the first systematic report of LMTs detected in clam samples harvested in Jiangsu. Follow-up research and the implementation of protective measures are needed to ensure the safety of clams harvested in this area.

  12. Occurrence and Seasonal Variations of Lipophilic Marine Toxins in Commercial Clam Species along the Coast of Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Zhi; Cheng, Ying; Li, Na; Wen, Hong-Mei; Liu, Rui; Shan, Chen-Xiao; Chai, Chuan; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have examined lipophilic marine toxins (LMTs) in shellfish and toxic algae worldwide, but the occurrence and seasonal variations of LMTs in commercial clams (including Mactra veneriformis, Ruditapes philippinarum, Meretrix meretrix, and Cyclina sinensis) at their major culturing area in Jiangsu, China, remain largely unexplored. In this study, a new solid phase extraction (SPE) in combination with an ultra-fast liquid chromatography and triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UFLC-TQ-MS) method was developed to determine the presence of 10 typical LMTs (okadaic acid (OA), yessotoxins (YTXs), azaspiracids (AZA1-3), pectenotoxins (PTX2), gymnodimine (GYM), dinophysistoxins (DTX1&2), and spirolides (SPX1)) in the aforementioned four clam matrices. After confirmation of its sensitivity and precision, this method was used to evaluate the amounts of LMTs in clam samples harvested in five aquaculture zones of the Jiangsu coastal area. Monthly variations of GYM, PTX2, OA, and DTX1&2 in 400 clam samples from the sample areas were determined from January 2014 through August 2015. Peak values were observed during May and August. This is the first systematic report of LMTs detected in clam samples harvested in Jiangsu. Follow-up research and the implementation of protective measures are needed to ensure the safety of clams harvested in this area. PMID:26712791

  13. An interdisciplinary approach to characterize flash flood occurrence frequency for mountainous Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Theresa Marie Modrick

    2011-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation is a prototype synthesis of hydrologic, meteorological, and geomorphologic principles and modeling toward the characterization of flash flood occurrence frequency in the southern California mountainous region. Globally, flash flooding has the highest fatality rate per person affected among natural disasters and occurs over small spatial (

  14. Predicting the Occurrence of Stalking in Relationships Characterized by Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Heather C.

    2007-01-01

    A high correlation has been found between domestic violence and stalking. However, very few studies have examined what factors predict the occurrence of stalking in relationships characterized by domestic violence. Using in-depth interviews with victims of domestic violence whose cases have gone through the criminal justice system, this article…

  15. Occurrence and ultrastructural characterization of bacteria in association with and isolated from Azolla caroliniana.

    OpenAIRE

    Nierzwicki-Bauer, S A; Aulfinger, H

    1991-01-01

    The occurrence and ultrastructure of bacteria in leaf cavities of symbiotic Azolla caroliniana were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Bacteria were observed in all leaf cavities of Azolla cultures. Five ultrastructurally distinct types of bacteria were observed in each individual leaf cavity. Features used to characterize the bacteria included morphology, cell wall structure, and cytoplasmic organization. At least one gram-positive and as many as four gram-negative types of bacter...

  16. The seasonal risk for deliberate self-harm. Determined by place of birth, but occurrence determined by place of residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Daniel Joseph; Hallmayer, Joachim Franz

    2008-01-01

    Groups at seasonal risk for deliberate self-harm (DSH) vary according to their geographic location. It is unknown, however, if seasonal risk factors for DSH are associated with place of birth or place of residence as these are confounded in all studies to date. In order to disaggregate place of birth from place of residence we examined general and seasonal risk factors for DSH in three different population birth groups living in Western Australia: Australian Aborigines, Australian born non-Aborigines, and UK migrants. We found Aborigines are at much higher general risk for DSH than non-Aborigines, but are not at seasonal risk, whereas non-Aboriginal Australians and UK migrants are. For UK migrants, this is only found for females. For all groups at seasonal risk this peaks during the austral (southern hemisphere) spring/summer. Furthermore, non-Aboriginal Australians and UK migrants show a consistent pattern of increased case fatality with increasing age. In contrast, case fatality does not increase with age among Australian Aborigines. Overall, despite living in the same environment, the three birth groups show different patterns of seasonal risk for DSH. In particular, the sex difference found between UK migrants and non-Aboriginal Australian birth groups suggests that predisposition toward seasonal risk for DSH is established early in life, but when present this is expressed according to local conditions. PMID:19069611

  17. Seasonal variation in the occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in a wastewater treatment plant in Xiamen, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Qian; Lv, Min; Hu, Anyi; Yang, Xiaoyong; Yu, Chang-Ping, E-mail: cpyu@iue.ac.cn

    2014-07-30

    Highlights: • The occurrence and removal of 50 PPCPs in a WWTP were investigated over one year. • 39 PPCPs were detected in the influent, 14 PPCPs could be removed >50% in WWTP. • Most PPCPs showed higher concentrations in cold seasons in the influent and effluent. • Temperature and HRT may contribute to the seasonal variation of PPCP removal. - Abstract: The occurrence and seasonal variation of 50 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Xiamen, China was investigated over a period of one year. Among the targets, 39 PPCPs were detected in the influent. The highest concentration was observed for acetaminophen, with the average concentration in the influent of 2963.5 ng/L. The seasonal variation of PPCPs in the influent was observed. For most pharmaceuticals, highest concentrations were in March 2013, followed by December 2012, while the concentrations were lower in August 2012 and May 2013. Among the detected PPCPs, 14 targets could be removed more than 50% in the WWTP. The activated sludge treatment process contributed to most of PPCP removal, while the adsorption to the particles in the primary treatment and the transformation under UV radiation in the disinfection treatment also contributed to the PPCP removal. Among the detected PPCPs in the influent, 36 PPCPs could be detected in the final effluent of the WWTP. Significantly higher concentrations of PPCPs were observed in effluent samples collected in March 2013 compared to other seasons, suggesting higher concentrations of PPCPs could be discharged into the surrounding seawater during this period.

  18. Occurrence of benthic microbial nitrogen fixation coupled to sulfate reduction in the seasonally hypoxic Eckernförde Bay, Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertics, V. J.; Löscher, C. R.; Salonen, I.; Dale, A. W.; Gier, J.; Schmitz, R. A.; Treude, T.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the worldwide occurrence of marine hypoxic regions, benthic nitrogen (N) cycling within these areas is poorly understood and it is generally assumed that these areas represent zones of intense fixed N loss from the marine system. Sulfate reduction can be an important process for organic...... oxidation. The objective of this study was to evaluate if N2 fixation, possibly by SRB, plays a role in N cycling within the seasonally hypoxic sediments from the Eckernförde Bay, Baltic Sea. Monthly samplings were performed over the course of one year to measure nitrogenase activity (NA) and sulfate......-fixing community was examined via molecular tools. Integrated rates of N2 fixation (approximated from NA) and sulfate reduction showed a similar seasonality pattern, with highest rates occurring in August (approx. 22 and 880 nmol cm-3 d-1 of N and SO42−, respectively) and October (approx. 22 and 1300 nmol cm...

  19. Seasonal dynamics of mosquito occurrence in the Lower Dyje River Basin at the Czech-Slovak-Austrian border

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebesta, Oldřich; Gelbič, Ivan; Peško, Juraj

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 1 (2013), s. 125-138. ISSN 1125-0003 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Czech Republic * South Moravia * Aedes vexans * Culex modestus * seasonal dynamics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.865, year: 2013

  20. Significance of the normalized seasonality of wind field and its rationality for characterizing the monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The significance of the normalized seasonality of wind field is theoretically studied and the intrinsic relationship between its critical value and the definition of the monsoon region is revealed. As a result, the rationality which the monsoon region is characterized by the significant normalized seasonality is proved. Based on this, by use of the NECP/NCAR reanalysis data during 1958-1997, the spatial structure of the significant normalized seasonality of wind field is investigated, and the significant baroclinity of the seasonal variation of the atmospheric general circulation in the vertical direction is verified. Moreover, in the tropics there exists an anti-symmetric distribution between the significant seasonality in the eastern hemisphere and that in the western hemisphere, and the monsoon is linked closely to some important systems such as the subtropical highs, the night jet and the west wind channels.

  1. On the Seasonal Occurrence and Abundance of the Zika Virus Vector Mosquito Aedes Aegypti in the Contiguous United States

    OpenAIRE

    Monaghan, Andrew J.; Morin, Cory W.; Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Wilhelmi, Olga; Hayden, Mary; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Reiskind, Michael; Alun L Lloyd; Smith, Kirk; Schmidt, Chris A.; Scalf, Paige E.; Ernst, Kacey

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An ongoing Zika virus pandemic in Latin America and the Caribbean has raised concerns that travel-related introduction of Zika virus could initiate local transmission in the United States (U.S.) by its primary vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Methods: We employed meteorologically driven models for 2006-2015 to simulate the potential seasonal abundance of adult Aedes aegypti for fifty cities within or near the margins of its known U.S. range. Mosquito abundance results were an...

  2. Characterization, Microbial Community Structure, and Pathogen Occurrence in Urban Faucet Biofilms in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huirong Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition and microbial community structure of the drinking water system biofilms were investigated using microstructure analysis and 454 pyrosequencing technique in Xiamen city, southeast of China. SEM (scanning electron microscope results showed different features of biofilm morphology in different fields of PVC pipe. Extracellular matrix material and sparse populations of bacteria (mainly rod-shaped and coccoid were observed. CLSM (confocal laser scanning microscope revealed different distributions of attached cells, extracellular proteins, α-polysaccharides, and β-polysaccharides. The biofilms had complex bacterial compositions. Differences in bacteria diversity and composition from different tap materials and ages were observed. Proteobacteria was the common and predominant group in all biofilms samples. Some potential pathogens (Legionellales, Enterobacteriales, Chromatiales, and Pseudomonadales and corrosive microorganisms were also found in the biofilms. This study provides the information of characterization and visualization of the drinking water biofilms matrix, as well as the microbial community structure and opportunistic pathogens occurrence.

  3. Use of a gray level co-occurrence matrix to characterize duplex stainless steel phases microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zortea

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Duplex stainless steels are widely used in industry. This is due to their higher strength compared to austenitic steels and to their higher toughness than ferritic steels. They also have good weldability and high resistance to stress corrosion cracking.These steels are characterized by two-phase microstructures composed by almost the same level of ferrite and austenite.Duplex steel 2205 samples evaluated are: as received, cold rolled (33% and heat-treated at 800°C for 10 hours.A metallographic etching with 10% oxalic acid has been carried out to highlight the phases morphology. Some photos have been taken by SEM microscope and submitted to image analysis. The analysis carried out is based on the determination of co-occurrence matrix and on the following interpretation of appropriate indicators. Through these indicators is possible to estimate the features of images objectively.

  4. Dynamic ankle stability and ankle sprain occurrence in elite ball team athletes : a one season prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Does, Henrike van der; Dallinga, Joan; Benjaminse, Anne; Brink, Michel; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen

    2013-01-01

    To compare the dynamic stability index (DSI) measured at baseline between elite ball team athletes with and without an ankle sprain during the season. Methods Forty-four elite male (age:22.5±3.6yr,height:193.7±8.0cm,mass:87.1±10.9kg) and eighteen female (age:21.3±2.9yr,height:175.5±7.2cm,mass:68.7±1

  5. Widespread occurrence and seasonal variation of pharmaceuticals in surface waters and municipal wastewater treatment plants in central Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm-Lehto, Petra C; Ahkola, Heidi S J; Knuutinen, Juha S; Herve, Sirpa H

    2016-04-01

    The presence of five selected pharmaceuticals, consisting of four anti-inflammatory drugs, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, and an antiepileptic drug carbamazepine, was determined at four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and in the receiving waterway in central Finland. The samples were taken from influents and effluents of the WWTPs and from surface water of six locations along the water way, including northern Lake Päijänne. In addition, seasonal variation in the area was determined by comparing the concentrations in the winter and summer. The samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The concentrations in the influents and effluents ranged from hundreds of nanogram per liter to microgram per liter while ranged from tens of nanogram per liter in northern parts of the waterway to hundreds of nanogram per liter in northern Lake Päijänne near the city area. In addition, the concentrations were higher in the winter compared to summer time in surface water due to decreased temperature and solar irradiation. On the other hand, higher concentrations of ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen were found in summer at the WWTPs, possibly due to seasonal variations in consumption. In conclusion, there are considerable amounts of pharmaceuticals not only in influents and effluents of the WWTPs but also in lake water along the waterway and in northern Lake Päijänne. PMID:26769590

  6. Occurrence of natural radionuclides and fallout cesium-137 in dry-season agricultural land of South Western Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactivity of the Opa river - irrigated farmlands in the south western Nigeria was determined using an HpGe based, low-level passive gamma-counting system. With the exception of two isotopes, the main radionuclides analysed in the sample were the progenies of 238U and 232Th. The other two isotopes were the naturally occurring 40K and the anthropogenic 137Cs. The result obtained showed elevated levels of radioactivity from all detected radionuclides compared to the published data for this area. Enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides is attributed to the use of phosphatic fertilizers for dry season vegetable cultivation along this river banks. The presence of the fission product 137Cs could be traced to the fallouts occasioned by the various French nuclear tests in the Sahara desert, and probably, some effect of the more recent nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986. (author)

  7. On the Seasonal Occurrence and Abundance of the Zika Virus Vector Mosquito Aedes Aegypti in the Contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Andrew J.; Morin, Cory W.; Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Wilhelmi, Olga; Hayden, Mary; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Reiskind, Michael; Lloyd, Alun L.; Smith, Kirk; Schmidt, Chris A.; Scalf, Paige E.; Ernst, Kacey

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An ongoing Zika virus pandemic in Latin America and the Caribbean has raised concerns that travel-related introduction of Zika virus could initiate local transmission in the United States (U.S.) by its primary vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Methods: We employed meteorologically driven models for 2006-2015 to simulate the potential seasonal abundance of adult Aedes aegypti for fifty cities within or near the margins of its known U.S. range. Mosquito abundance results were analyzed alongside travel and socioeconomic factors that are proxies of viral introduction and vulnerability to human-vector contact.     Results: Meteorological conditions are largely unsuitable for Aedes aegypti over the U.S. during winter months (December-March), except in southern Florida and south Texas where comparatively warm conditions can sustain low-to-moderate potential mosquito abundance. Meteorological conditions are suitable for Aedes aegypti across all fifty cities during peak summer months (July-September), though the mosquito has not been documented in all cities. Simulations indicate the highest mosquito abundance occurs in the Southeast and south Texas where locally acquired cases of Aedes-transmitted viruses have been reported previously. Cities in southern Florida and south Texas are at the nexus of high seasonal suitability for Aedes aegypti and strong potential for travel-related virus introduction. Higher poverty rates in cities along the U.S.-Mexico border may correlate with factors that increase human exposure to Aedes aegypti.     Discussion: Our results can inform baseline risk for local Zika virus transmission in the U.S. and the optimal timing of vector control activities, and underscore the need for enhanced surveillance for Aedes mosquitoes and Aedes-transmitted viruses. PMID:27066299

  8. Seasonal occurrence of Gyrodactylus derjavini (Monogenea) on brown trout, Salmo trutta, and Atlantic salmon, S. salar, in the Sandvikselva river, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, T A

    1997-12-01

    Seasonal variation in prevalence and intensity of the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus derjavini on brown trout parr, Salmo trutta, and Atlantic salmon parr, S. salar, and occurrence of G. derjavini on ascending sea trout, S. trutta m. trutta, in the Sandvikselva river, southeastern Norway, was recorded. In general, both prevalence and intensity increased and decreased correspondingly with the rise and fall in water temperature. However, both prevalence and intensity decreased in warm periods when reproduction and transmission should be high, possibly from host-induced parasite mortality. Sea trout became infected with G. derjavini soon after they entered the river; prevalence tended to increase as the sea trout migrated upstream to the spawning grounds. It is hypothesized that transmission of G. derjavini to sea trout occurred via the river substratum. PMID:9406773

  9. The life cycle and seasonal changes in the occurrence of Pomphorhynchus laevis (Palaeacanthocephala, Pomphorhynchidae in a small isolated lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudiňák V.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In a small isolated lake in Slovakia, the fish acanthocephalan Pomphorhynchus laevis using Gammarus balcanicus and the minnow Phoxinus phoxinus, respectively, as its intermediate and final hosts, represented a dominant helminth species. Its prevalence and intensity of infection in fish showed no significant variation during a year fluctuating above the mean values of 89 % and 6.6 worms per fish. The mean prevalence of P. laevis larvae in Gammarus was 41.4 % with a maximum in the late summer and autumn ; individual crustaceans were infected by 1-9 larvae. There was one generation of P. laevis per year. Following up an annual cycle, an occurrence of new infections of Gammarus culminated in October and in the next May for Phoxinus. The sex ratios of both the adults and larvae of acanthocephalans were near unity but favoured slightly males in spring and autumn. The distribution of P. laevis in minnows and crustaceans was highly aggregated and fitted with the negative binomial model. The spatial distribution analysis of parasites along the fish alimentary tract showed a clear preference of P. laevis for its proximal half, with the maximum numbers in the site of the first intestinal loop. Immature worms of both sexes predominated in the proximal region and moved slightly down the alimentary tract during their growth and maturation.

  10. Seasonal and spatial patterns of marine bird and mammal occurrences recorded on offshore support vessel transects on the Grand Banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montevecchi, W.A.; Burke, C.M.; Davoren, G.K.; Wiese, F.K. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NF (Canada). Biopsychology Programme

    2003-07-01

    A series of surveys have been conducted since 1999 on communities of seabirds and marine mammals living on the Grand Banks of eastern Canada. The objective has been to gain information on their dynamic diversity, distribution and abundance. This has been accomplished by integrating oceanographic data from vessels traveling between the Hibernia and Terra Nova offshore platforms. The most common seabirds observed were shearwaters, storm-petrels, kittiwakes and murres. Most seabirds were recorded during summer and during migration. For both marine mammals and seabirds, there were marked seasonal changes in oceanography and species diversity, distributions and abundance. Dovekies and murres, who are most vulnerable to oil pollution, were most numerous between November and April. Oiled Dovekies were observed at Hibernia and by vessel crews. Humpback whales were often found feeding at Hibernia. They were the most common mammals during summer and fall, followed by Minke whales, porpoises and dolphins. Concentrations of birds were observed along the Labrador Current, approximately half-way between St. John's and Hibernia. Seabird densities also increased within a 500 metre radius of offshore platforms because of light attraction, food availability, and refuge. It was suggested that the surveys continue in order to keep assessing the changing relationships of seabirds and marine mammals.

  11. Community Structure and Seasonal Occurrence of Avian Fauna in Wetthigan Wildlife Sanctuary Magway Division, Myanmar (June, 2002 to July, 2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetthigan Wildlife sanctuary is a small wetland in the dryzone area of Myanmar. It was established under the Department of Agricultural and Forest Notification No.275, since 1939; although there is no conservation management at present. The study period lasted for June, 2002 to July, 2003. A total of 130 bird species and their habitat requirements have been recorded from the seasonal survey. Biological observation on the flora and fauna in the sanctuary is being studied and classified as far as possible. The physical and chemical aspects are being studied in Monsoon, Winter and Summer. And then the impact of human activities were also have been investigated around the sanctuary during the study period. In Myanmar the most publics are lack of proper awareness on importance of conservation of wildlife that is the main threat to birds and habitat. Therefore, during the study period, the Environmental Education Programme have been presented at five primary schools in the study area. Finally, discussion and recommendations for the conservation of the avian community of the Wetthigan Wildlife Sancturary have been made based on the results of the present studies.

  12. Threecornered alfalfa hopper (Hemiptera: Membracidae): seasonal occurrence, girdle distribution, and response to insecticide treatment on peanut in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Khalidur; Bridges, William C; Chapin, Jay W; Thomas, James S

    2007-08-01

    A survey of threecornered alfalfa hopper, Spissistilus festinus (Say) (Hemiptera: Membracidae), damage in 60 South Carolina peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., fields showed that 89 and 58% of plants had feeding girdles during 2003 and 2004, respectively. Use of a foliar insecticide for other target pests reduced hopper damage. Hopper damage was not affected by sampling distance from the field edge; therefore, injury was adequately assessed at 10 m from field borders. In-furrow insecticide choice, planting date, soil texture, previous crop, or tillage did not measurably affect girdling. Subsequent field experiments demonstrated a cultivar effect on threecornered alfalfa hopper injury, with the standard runner-type cultivar ('Georgia Green') more susceptible than the standard Virginia-type ('NC-V11'). More than 50% of stem girdling occurred on the basal quarter (first five internodes) of the plant. Most feeding occurred on secondary branches of main and lateral stems. Weekly sampling of seven grower fields showed that adult hoppers colonize peanut during June and produce two generations on peanut. Only low levels of plant girding were observed in June, but plant girdling increased gradually through late July, when girdling markedly increased contemporary with peak populations of first generation nymphs and adults. A second increase in plant girdling, observed in early September, coincided with the second generation of nymphs on peanut. Foliar treatments at 45- 60 d after planting (DAP) were most effective in suppressing injury. Granular chlorpyrifos treatment also suppressed hopper injury. There was no yield response to insecticide treatments at the hopper injury levels in these tests (up to six girdles per plant). Although the economic injury level (EIL) for this pest has not been defined, our data indicate that a critical interval for monitoring hopper activity is the first 3 wk of July, before the occurrence of significant injury. Where growers have a consistent risk of

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF MARAJÓ CHEESE, CREAM TYPE, IN TWO SEASONS:PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Nazaré Costa Seixas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Marajó cheese is an artisanal product derived from buffalo milk produced in Marajó Island-PA. The objectives of this research were to characterize through physicochemical and microbiological the Marajó cheese cream type and the effect of the season. The pH, the percentage of fat in dry matter and content of sodium chloride were attributes that proximate composition showed significant difference at 5% probability by Tukey test between the two seasons. Statistical difference was not found in the percentage of titratable acidity, moisture, fat, ash, total solids extract, proteins and water activity. As for microbiological characteristics, in general, there was an improvement in the results in the dry season as to coliformes and Staphylococcus aureus. However, the result of Escherichia coli has proved to be better in the rainy season, with all samples meeting the standard of legislation. On the count of aerobic mesophilic there was no difference between the periods of the year. The pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella sp. were not detected in the Marajó cheese, cream type, within the four seasons of the year. The variability occurred in pH, %NaCl, GES and, between seasons, demonstrates the need for greater control of production aimed at standardizing and maintaining the identity of the product. Regarding the microbiological, standards were established in accordance with the current legislation.

  14. Falls in institutions for older adults: characterization of fall occurrences and associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rosa Soares Lavareda Baixinho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Falls are the main accident for older adults, with consequences on functionality. Older adults impose restrictions or have restrictions imposed on their activities for fear of new falls. This prospective longitudinal study was conducted with 104 institutionalized older adults during six months with the following goals: to determine the prevalence of falls, to characterize the falls according to place, time, resulting injuries, supervision of the older adult, action performed at the time of the fall, and to relate the occurrence of the fall to the risk of falling, medical diagnoses, number of medications in use, type of medication, degree of dependency, age, and gender. The prevalence of falls was 37.5%, and they happened mostly in the bedroom, while walking after getting up from the bed. Those under risk in the Morse Fall Scale (p=0.034 and on sedatives (p=0.007 face a higher prevalence of falls. This study enables the possibility of making suggestions for practice, training and investigation.

  15. Characterizing emotional dysfunction in borderline personality, major depression, and their co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; Weiss, Nicole H; Tull, Matthew T; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri; Gratz, Kim L

    2015-10-01

    This research aimed to characterize patterns of emotional reactivity and dysregulation in borderline personality, depression, and their co-occurrence. In study 1, 488 young adult women from the community were categorized into four groups based on self-reported major depressive disorder (MDD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms (Low BPD/Low MDD; Low BPD/High MDD; High BPD/Low MDD; High BPD/High MDD). Immediate and prolonged subjective emotional reactivity to a laboratory stressor were assessed, and participants completed self-report and behavioral measures of emotion dysregulation. Study 2 extended these findings, examining emotional reactivity and dysregulation in a clinical population of 176 substance dependent patients with diagnoses of BPD and MDD and including a biological index of emotional reactivity. Results revealed greater prolonged fear reactivity in the High BPD/High MDD (vs. Low BPD/Low MDD) group in study 1, and greater prolonged anxiety and negative affect reactivity in both High BPD groups (vs. Low BPD/Low MDD and Low BPD/High MDD groups) in study 2 (but no differences in cortisol reactivity). Results also demonstrated greater subjective (but not behavioral) emotion dysregulation in the High BPD/High MDD (vs. Low BPD/Low MDD) group in study 1 and both High BPD groups (vs. both Low BPD groups) in study 2. Finally, the High BPD/High MDD group reported greater difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors compared with all other groups in study 1 and the Low BPD groups in study 2. Findings suggest that BPD pathology (but not MDD pathology alone) is characterized by greater prolonged emotional (especially anxiety/fear-related) reactivity and heightened emotion dysregulation. PMID:26343484

  16. Characterizing the Occurrence and Transport of Brackish Groundwater in Southwest Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    worland, S.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Bangladesh is host to the largest and the most active delta system in the world. The morphology of the southern part of the country is characterized by low lying deltaic plains partitioned by the distributary networks of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river systems. Much of the tidal mangrove forest ecosystem of the lower delta has been converted into poldered islands that sustain shrimp farming and rice production. The polder inhabitants depend on shallow groundwater as a primary source for drinking water and sanitation. Understanding the origin and hydrologic controls on the distribution of the brackish water and freshwater on the polder is a necessary step to ensuring a sustainable and potable freshwater source for drinking and irrigation. Preliminary sampling from shallow tube wells on Polder 32 in southwest Bangladesh suggests sporadic lateral apportioning of fresh water in the primarily brackish aquifer. This research characterizes the occurrence, transport and fate of the brackish groundwater through a combination of 3H and 14C dating, geochemical signatures, subsurface mapping using inversions from electromagnetic induction, and a 1D finite difference model and a 2D finite element model. The geochemical analysis and radiometric dating suggest that the salt water originates from paleo-brackish estuarine water deposited ~5000 years ago along with the sediments that compose the shallow aquifer. Inversions of electromagnetic survey data show potential freshwater recharge areas where the clay cap pinches out. The finite difference model demonstrates that recharge from the distributary channels is unlikely due to the low transmissivity of the clay channel beds. The finite element model gives reasonable estimates of the flushing rates of the connate brackish water beneath the polder. Inversion of electromagnetic data from a two hundred meter transect taken on Polder 32 Head gradient and groundwater flow vectors for fixed head boundary conditions across Polder

  17. Investigating the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the arctic: their atmospheric behaviour and interaction with the seasonal snow pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    POPs in the Arctic are the focus of international concern due to their occurrence and accumulation in Arctic food webs. This paper presents an overview of the major pathways into the Arctic and details contemporary studies that have focused on the occurrence and transfer of POPs between the major Arctic compartments, highlighting areas where there is a lack of quantitative information. The behaviour of these chemicals in the Arctic atmosphere is scrutinised with respect to long-term trends and seasonal behaviour. Subtle differences between the PCBs and OC pesticides are demonstrated and related to sources outside of the Arctic as well as environmental processes within the Arctic. Unlike temperate regions, contaminant fate is strongly affected by the presence of snow and ice. A description of the high Arctic snow pack is given and the physical characteristics that determine chemical fate, namely the specific surface area of snow and wind driven ventilation, are discussed. Using a well-characterised fresh snow event observed at Alert (Canadian high Arctic) [Atmos. Environ. 36(2002) 2767] the flux of γ-HCH out of the snow is predicted following snow ageing. Under conditions of wind (10 m/s) it is estimated that ∼75% of the chemical may be re-emitted to the atmosphere within 24 h following snowfall, compared with just ∼5% under conditions of no wind. The implications of this are raised and areas of further research suggested. - The fluxes and fate of POPs in snowpacks are key to their behaviour in polar systems

  18. Seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in the water resources of Granada city metropolitan areas (South of Spain): Pollution of raw drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Espinar, Juan Antonio; Navas, Natalia; Chica-Olmo, Mario; Cantarero-Malagón, Samuel; Chica-Rivas, Lucía

    2015-12-01

    This piece of research deals with the monitoring of a group of emerging contaminants (ECs) in the metropolitan area of Granada, a city representative of the South of Spain, in order to evaluate the environmental management of the wastewater system. With that aim, the spatial and seasonal occurrence and distribution of a group of ECs in groundwater, surface and irrigation water resources from the aquifer "Vega de Granada" (VG) have been investigated for the first time. A set of the most prescribed drugs in Spain (ibuprofen, loratadine, pantoprazole and paracetamol), a pesticide widely used in agriculture (atrazine) and a typical anthropogenic contaminant (caffeine) were included in the study. Water samples were taken from the metropolitan area of the city of Granada inside of the zone of the aquifer, from the downstream of two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and from the two main irrigation channels where surface and wastewater are mixed before distribution for irrigation purposes in the crops of the study area. A total of 153 water samples were analyzed through liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) throughout the study that took place over a period of two years, from July 2011 to July 2013. Results demonstrated the occurrence of four of the six target pollutants. Ibuprofen was detected several times, always in both channels with concentration ranges from 5.3 to 20.8 μg/L. The occurrence of paracetamol was detected in rivers and channels up to 34.3 μg/L. Caffeine was detected in all the water resources up to 39.3 μg/L. Pantoprazole was detected twice in the surface water source near to a WWPT ranging from 0.02 to 0.05 μg/L. The pesticide atrazine and the drug loratadine were not detected in any of the water samples analyzed. These results show evidence of poor environmental management of the wastewater concerning the water quality of the aquifer studied. The groundwater sources seem to receive a very continuous input of wastewater

  19. Occurrence of foodborne pathogens and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in cheese produced on farm-dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Asa; Fabricius, Ane; Guss, Bengt; Sylvén, Susanne; Lindqvist, Roland

    2010-12-15

    The objective of this study was to address knowledge gaps identified in an earlier risk assessment of Staphylococcus aureus and raw milk cheese. A survey of fresh and short-time ripened cheeses produced on farm-dairies in Sweden was conducted to investigate the occurrence and levels of S. aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, to characterize S. aureus isolates with special emphasis on enterotoxin genes, antibiotic resistance, bio-typing and genetic variation, and to collect information related to production practices. In general, the hygienic quality of farm-dairy cheeses appeared to be of an acceptable microbiological quality, e.g. L. monocytogenes and staphylococcal enterotoxin were not detected in cheese samples. However, E. coli and enterotoxigenic S. aureus were frequently found in raw milk cheeses and sometimes at levels that are of concern, especially in fresh cheese. Interestingly, levels in raw milk fresh cheese were significantly lower when starter cultures were used. Up to five S. aureus colonies per cheese, if possible, were characterized and about 70% of isolates carried one or more enterotoxin genes, most common were sec and sea. The Ovine biotype (73%) was most common among isolates from goat milk cheese and the Human biotype (60%) from cow milk cheese. Of all isolates, 39% showed decreased susceptibility to penicillin, but the proportion of isolates from cows' cheese (66%) compared to isolates from goats' cheese (27%) was significantly higher. S. aureus isolates with different properties were detected in cheese from the same farm and, sometimes even the same cheese. Isolates with the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-pattern were detected on geographically distant dairies. This indicates that multiple sources and routes of contamination are important. To improve the safety of these products efforts to raise awareness of the importance of hygiene barriers and raw milk quality as well as improved process control can be

  20. Using codispersion analysis to characterize spatial patterns in species co-occurrences

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Hannah; Case, Bradley; Ellison, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Visualizing and quantifying spatial patterns of co-occurrence (i.e., of two or more species, or of species and underlying environmental variables) can suggest hypotheses about processes that structure species assemblages and their relevant spatial scales. Statistical models of spatial co-occurrence generally assume that underlying spatial processes are isotropic and stationary but many ecologically realistic spatial processes are anisotropic and non-stationary. Here, we introduce codispersion...

  1. Seasonal characterization of microwave emissions from snow-covered first-year sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harouche, Isabelle P.-F.; Barber, David G.

    2001-12-01

    Brightness temperature TB data were collected with a surface-based radiometer operating on both vertical and horizontal polarizations at frequencies of 19, 37, and 85 GHz. Both microwave emissions and thermophysical data were collected as part of the Collaborative-Interdisciplinary Cryospheric Experiment between 15 May and 25 June 2000, in the Canadian High Arctic. Each season was characterized by a running variance of the time series in the microwave emissions. The seasonal analysis was conducted through observed changes in the physical characteristics of the sea ice and the overlying snow pack. Results from a k-means clustering analysis show that variability in the microwave response can be categorized into phenomenological states that were described by Livingstone et al. [IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 1987; 25(2): 174-187] as winter, early melt, melt onset and advanced melt. We describe the average thermophysical conditions associated with each one of these ablation states and interpret the relative contributions of each to the observed microwave response. Emissivities were calculated and used as part of a descriptive analysis of the seasonal variation of TB. Our results confirm other findings that the strength and pattern of the relationship are frequency dependent and relative to snow and ice dielectric properties. Useful information on the thermodynamic state of the snow-sea-ice system can be derived from passive microwave data, since the microwave emissions respond to the general seasonal changes associated with the transition from winter to a melt ponded sea ice surface.

  2. Seasonal occurrence, removal, mass loading and environmental risk assessment of 55 pharmaceuticals and personal care products in a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Central Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Myrsini; Kosma, Christina; Lambropoulou, Dimitra

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive study, which contains the seasonal occurrence, removal, mass loading and environmental risk assessment of 55 multi-class pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), took place in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of Volos, Greece. A one year monitoring study was performed and the samples were collected from the influent and the effluent of the WWTP. Solid phase extraction was used for the pre-concentration of the samples followed by an LC-DAD-ESI/MS analysis. Positive samples were further confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The maximum concentrations of the PPCPs varied between 21 ng/L and 15,320 ng/L in the influents and between 18 ng/L and 9965 ng/L in the effluents. The most commonly detected PPCPs were the diuretic furosemide, the beta-blockers atenolol and metoprolol, the analgesics paracetamol, nimesulide, salicylic acid and diclofenac and the psychomotor stimulant caffeine. The removal efficiencies ranged between negative and high removal rates, demonstrating that the WWTP is not able to efficiently remove the complex mixture of PPCPs. The estimated mass loads ranged between 5.1 and 3513 mg/day/1000 inhabitants for WWTP influent and between 4.1 to 2141 mg/day/1000 inhabitants for WWTP effluent. Finally, environmental risk assessment has been regarded a necessary part of the general research. According to the results produced from the calculation of the risk quotient on three trophic levels, the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and the antibiotics, trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin, identified to be of high potential environmental risk for acute toxicity, while diclofenac also for chronic toxicity. PMID:26613513

  3. The CACAO Method for Smoothing, Gap Filling, and Characterizing Seasonal Anomalies in Satellite Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Aleixandre; Baret, F.; Weiss, M.; Kandasamy, S.; Vermote, E.

    2013-01-01

    Consistent, continuous, and long time series of global biophysical variables derived from satellite data are required for global change research. A novel climatology fitting approach called CACAO (Consistent Adjustment of the Climatology to Actual Observations) is proposed to reduce noise and fill gaps in time series by scaling and shifting the seasonal climatological patterns to the actual observations. The shift and scale CACAO parameters adjusted for each season allow quantifying shifts in the timing of seasonal phenology and inter-annual variations in magnitude as compared to the average climatology. CACAO was assessed first over simulated daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) time series with varying fractions of missing data and noise. Then, performances were analyzed over actual satellite LAI products derived from AVHRR Long-Term Data Record for the 1981-2000 period over the BELMANIP2 globally representative sample of sites. Comparison with two widely used temporal filtering methods-the asymmetric Gaussian (AG) model and the Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter as implemented in TIMESAT-revealed that CACAO achieved better performances for smoothing AVHRR time series characterized by high level of noise and frequent missing observations. The resulting smoothed time series captures well the vegetation dynamics and shows no gaps as compared to the 50-60% of still missing data after AG or SG reconstructions. Results of simulation experiments as well as confrontation with actual AVHRR time series indicate that the proposed CACAO method is more robust to noise and missing data than AG and SG methods for phenology extraction.

  4. Seasonal characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a significant environmental problem, especially in fast-growing cities. The amount of waste generated increases each year and this makes it difficult to create solutions which due to the increase in waste generation year after year and having to identify a solution that will have minimum impact on the environment. To determine the most sustainable waste management strategy for Chihuahua, it is first necessary to identify the nature and composition of the city's urban waste. The MSW composition varied considerably depending on many factors, the time of year is one of them. Therefore, as part of our attempt to implement an integral waste management system in the city of Chihuahua, we conducted a study of the characteristics of MSW composition for the different seasons. This paper analyzes and compares the findings of the study of the characterization and the generation of solid waste from households at three different socio-economic levels in the city over three periods (April and August, 2006 and January, 2007). The average weight of waste generated in Chihuahua, taking into account all three seasons, was 0.592 kg capita-1 day-1. Our results show that the lowest income groups generated the least amount of waste. We also found that less waste was generated during the winter season. The breakdown for the composition of the waste shows that organic waste accounts for the largest proportion (45%), followed by paper (17%) and others (16%).

  5. Seasonal characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2009-07-01

    Management of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a significant environmental problem, especially in fast-growing cities. The amount of waste generated increases each year and this makes it difficult to create solutions which due to the increase in waste generation year after year and having to identify a solution that will have minimum impact on the environment. To determine the most sustainable waste management strategy for Chihuahua, it is first necessary to identify the nature and composition of the city's urban waste. The MSW composition varied considerably depending on many factors, the time of year is one of them. Therefore, as part of our attempt to implement an integral waste management system in the city of Chihuahua, we conducted a study of the characteristics of MSW composition for the different seasons. This paper analyzes and compares the findings of the study of the characterization and the generation of solid waste from households at three different socio-economic levels in the city over three periods (April and August, 2006 and January, 2007). The average weight of waste generated in Chihuahua, taking into account all three seasons, was 0.592 kg capita(-1) day(-1). Our results show that the lowest income groups generated the least amount of waste. We also found that less waste was generated during the winter season. The breakdown for the composition of the waste shows that organic waste accounts for the largest proportion (45%), followed by paper (17%) and others (16%). PMID:19303762

  6. Multicomponent seismic methods for characterizing gas hydrate occurrences and systems in deep-water Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.; Lee, Myung W.; Collett, Timothy S.; Hardage, Bob A.

    2011-01-01

    In-situ characterization and quantification of natural gas hydrate occurrences remain critical research directions, whether for energy resource, drilling hazard, or climate-related studies. Marine multicomponent seismic data provide the full seismic wavefield including partial redundancy, and provide a promising set of approaches for gas hydrate characterization. Numerous authors have demonstrated the possibilities of multicomponent data at study sites around the world. We expand on this work by investigating the utility of very densely spaced (10’s of meters) multicomponent receivers (ocean-bottom cables, OBC, or ocean-bottom seismometers, OBS) for gas hydrate studies in the Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere. Advanced processing techniques provide high-resolution compressional-wave (PP) and converted shearwave (PS) reflection images of shallow stratigraphy, as well as P-wave and S-wave velocity estimates at each receiver position. Reflection impedance estimates can help constrain velocity and density, and thus gas hydrate saturation. Further constraint on velocity can be determined through identification of the critical angle and associated phase reversal in both PP and PS wideangle data. We demonstrate these concepts with examples from OBC data from the northeast Green Canyon area and numerically simulated OBS data that are based on properties of known gas hydrate occurrences in the southeast (deeper water) Green Canyon area. These multicomponent data capabilities can provide a wealth of characterization and quantification information that is difficult to obtain with other geophysical methods.

  7. Chemical characterization and source apportionment of PM2.5 in Beijing: seasonal perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Jing, J.; Tao, J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Wang, G.; Cao, J.; Lee, C. S. L.; Zhu, L.; Chen, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Shen, Z.

    2013-07-01

    In this study, 121 daily PM2.5 (aerosol particle with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) samples were collected from an urban site in Beijing in four months between April 2009 and January 2010 representing the four seasons. The samples were determined for various compositions, including elements, ions, and organic/elemental carbon. Various approaches, such as chemical mass balance, positive matrix factorization (PMF), trajectory clustering, and potential source contribution function (PSCF), were employed for characterizing aerosol speciation, identifying likely sources, and apportioning contributions from each likely source. Our results have shown distinctive seasonality for various aerosol speciations associated with PM2.5 in Beijing. Soil dust waxes in the spring and wanes in the summer. Regarding the secondary aerosol components, inorganic and organic species may behave in different manners. The former preferentially forms in the hot and humid summer via photochemical reactions, although their precursor gases, such as SO2 and NOx, are emitted much more in winter. The latter seems to favorably form in the cold and dry winter. Synoptic meteorological and climate conditions can overwhelm the emission pattern in the formation of secondary aerosols. The PMF model identified six main sources: soil dust, coal combustion, biomass burning, traffic and waste incineration emission, industrial pollution, and secondary inorganic aerosol. Each of these sources has an annual mean contribution of 16, 14, 13, 3, 28, and 26%, respectively, to PM2.5. However, the relative contributions of these identified sources significantly vary with changing seasons. The results of trajectory clustering and the PSCF method demonstrated that regional sources could be crucial contributors to PM pollution in Beijing. In conclusion, we have unraveled some complex aspects of the pollution sources and formation processes of PM2.5 in Beijing. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic study

  8. Occurrence and point source characterization of perfluoroalkyl acids in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Alfredo C; van der Voet, Juergen

    2015-06-01

    The occurrence and levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) emitted from specific pollution sources into the aquatic environment in Switzerland were studied using digested sewage sludges from 45 wastewater treatment plants in catchments containing a wide range of potential industrial emitters. Concentrations of individual PFAAs show a high spatial and temporal variability, which infers different contributions from industrial technologies and activities. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was generally the predominant PFAA with concentrations varying between 4 and 2440μgkg(-1) (median 75μgkg(-1)). Elevated emissions were especially observed in catchments capturing discharges from metal plating industries (median 82μgkg(-1)), aqueous firefighting foams (median 215μgkg(-1)) and landfill leachates (median 107μgkg(-1)). Some elevated perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) levels could be attributed to emissions from textile finishing industries with concentrations up to 233μgkg(-1) in sewage sludge. Assuming sorption to sludge for PFOS and PFCAs of 15% and 2%, respectively, concentrations in wastewater effluents up to the low μgL(-1) level were estimated. Even if wastewater may be expected to be diluted between 10 and 100 times by the receiving waters, elevated concentrations may be reached at specific locations. Although sewage sludge is a minor compartment for PFAAs in WWTPs, these investigations are helpful for the identification of hot-spots from industrial emitters as well as to estimate monthly average concentrations in wastewater. PMID:25176581

  9. Occurrence and characterization of Staphylococcus bacteria isolated from poultry in Western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Agnieszka; Stepień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Pyzik, Ewelina; Adaszek, Łukasz; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Winiarczyk, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    In the pathology of poultry, infections caused by Staphylococcus spp. are taking on increasing significance. Although the Staphylococcus species most frequently isolated from these animals is Staphylococcus aureus, the literature data indicate that other species, both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative, can also cause infections in birds. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of occurrence of Staphylococcus infections in various poultry species in Western Poland and to test the susceptibility of isolated strains to selected antibiotics. The results obtained showed a relatively high rate of Staphylococcus infection in the poultry. From 2805 samples tested 302 strains (10.8%) of Staphylococcus were isolated. As many as 25 Staphylococcus species were distinguished among the strains isolated. S. cohnii (23.50%), S. aureus (15.89%) and S. lentus (13.90%) accounted for the highest percentages. Over half of the isolated staphylococci exhibited resistance to five of the antibiotics applied, with the highest percentage of resistant strains, 65%, noted for enrofloxacin. PMID:27169153

  10. Occurrence and Characterization of Cronobacter spp. in Dehydrated Rice Powder from Chinese Supermarket.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. are emerging food-borne pathogens and have been identified as causative agents of meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis in infants. Dehydrated rice is popular with a wide range of people and it is frequently used as a substitute for infant milk powder to baby older than four months. The occurrence of Cronobacter spp. was investigated in 1,012 samples of dehydrated rice powder collected from 14 manufacturers in China during 2010 to 2012. The isolates were identified using fusA allele sequencing and subtyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Seventy-six samples (7.5% contained Cronobacter spp. The prevalence among manufacturers ranged from 0-28.8%. The 76 isolates included 4 species [Cronobacter sakazakii (52 isolates Cronobacter malonaticus (14 isolates, Cronobacter dublinensis (7 isolates, and Cronobacter muytjensii (3 isolates]. Twenty-three unique fusA alleles and sixty-six PFGE-patterns were detected. All isolated strains were observed to be sensitive or to show intermediate susceptibility to eight tested antimicrobial agents. The study revealed serious contamination of dehydrated rice powder by Cronobacter spp., with prevalence varying among manufacturers in China. Identified Cronobacter species, fusA alleles, and subtypes were diverse.

  11. Occurrence, molecular characterization and antibiogram of water quality indicator bacteria in river water serving a water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    be employed in microbial source tracking. - Highlights: → We evaluated influent river water and well water for water quality indicator bacteria. → We characterized water quality indicator bacteria by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. → We evaluated antibiotic resistance profiles of water quality indicator bacteria. → Number of coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci varied in relation to season. → Number of E. coli bacteria correlated with the color of influent river water.

  12. Occurrence, molecular characterization and antibiogram of water quality indicator bacteria in river water serving a water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeke, Benedict C., E-mail: bokeke@aum.edu [Department of Biology, Auburn University at Montgomery, P.O. Box 244023, Montgomery, AL 36124 (United States); Thomson, M. Sue [Department of Biology, Auburn University at Montgomery, P.O. Box 244023, Montgomery, AL 36124 (United States); Moss, Elica M. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, Alabama A and M University, AL 35762 (United States)

    2011-11-01

    pattern can be employed in microbial source tracking. - Highlights: {yields} We evaluated influent river water and well water for water quality indicator bacteria. {yields} We characterized water quality indicator bacteria by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. {yields} We evaluated antibiotic resistance profiles of water quality indicator bacteria. {yields} Number of coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci varied in relation to season. {yields} Number of E. coli bacteria correlated with the color of influent river water.

  13. Occurrence, Characterization and Synthesis of Hanford and SRS Tank Heel Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-range objective of this study was to develop chemically assisted technologies for removing heels from tanks. In FY 01, the first two steps toward this objective were taken: (1) catalogue the occurrence and nature of tank heels and assess which materials are available for study and (2) develop methods for synthesizing non-radioactive surrogate heel materials for use in testing potential removal technologies. The chief finding of Task 1 was the existence of ''heels'', depending on the definition used. Hard materials that would be almost impossible to remove by sluicing are all but absent from the records of both Savannah River and Hanford. Historical usage suggests that the term ''heel'' may also apply to chunky, granular, or semi-solid pasty accumulations. These materials are documented and may also be difficult to remove by conventional sluicing technologies. Such heels may be comprised of normal sludge components, dominantly iron and aluminum hydroxides, or they may result from added materials which were not part of the normal fuel reprocessing operations: Portland cement, diatomaceous earth, sand and soil and spent zeolite ion exchange ''resins''. The occurrence and chemistry of the most notable ''heel'', that of the zeolite mass in Tank 19F at Savannah River, is reviewed in some detail. Secondly, no clear correlation was found between high tank temperatures and difficulties encountered in removing materials from a tank at a later date; nor did the sludges from these tanks give any indication of being particularly solid. Experimental studies to develop synthetic heel materials were caned out using a number of different approaches. For normal sludge materials settling, even when assisted by a centrifuge, it proved ineffective. The same result was obtained from drying sludge samples. Even exposing sludges to a molten salt melt at 233 C, only produced a fine powder, rather than a resilient ceramic which resisted disaggregation. A cohesive material, however

  14. Numerical and experimental characterization of knock occurrence in a turbo-charged spark-ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An index of knock intensity has been based on the cylinder pressure oscillations. • This index allows to set the knock limited spark at different engine operating points. • The influence of the transducer position on the measurement of the pressure oscillations is investigated. - Abstract: In this paper, knock intensity is deeply studied through experimental tests carried out on a turbo-charged spark-ignition engine. The experimental methodology is based on the analysis of the pressure signals detected within the engine combustion chamber. In order to evaluate knock intensity, fast Fourier transform (FFT) and bandpass filtering techniques have been used to process the cylinder pressure values acquired in five hundred consecutive cycles. Resonance frequencies have been found at about 8.0 kHz, 13.5 kHz and 18.5 kHz. The maximum amplitude of pressure oscillations (MAPO) has been calculated for every engine cycle. In order to discriminate between knocking cycles and free knock cycles, MAPO values are compared to threshold values. These values have been determined following a statistical approach described in the paper. An index of knock intensity, that takes into account both the extent of knocking events and the cycle- to-cycle variation has been introduced. Thus, at different engine operating points, the knock limited spark advance can be found. At the end, a numerical analysis of the combustion process has been carried out in order to find a relationship between the knock occurrence and the combustion chamber geometry. A 3-D computational model, based on AVL FIRE v2011 code, has been utilized. The 3-D model is able to predict the auto-ignition zones. By matching these zones and the map of mixture distribution, it is possible to predict the location of the most dangerous areas within the combustion chamber. Furthermore, comparisons of calculated and measured data provide sound information about the importance of pressure transducer position in

  15. Intestinal microsporidiosis in renal transplant recipients: Prevalence, predictors of occurrence and genetic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Ghoshal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intestinal microsporidiosis, which occurs in immunocompromised states such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, has rarely been studied in patients with renal transplantation (RT on immunosuppressive therapy. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and twenty-four consecutive RT recipients on immunosuppressive treatment and 170 healthy subjects were evaluated for intestinal microsporidiosis and other parasites by modified trichrome staining, wet mount using normal saline, iodine and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Clinical, demographic and laboratory parameters associated with occurrence of intestinal microsporidiosis were studied using univariate and multivariate analysis. The species of microsporidia were studied using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. Patients were treated with albendazole (400 mg twice daily for 2 weeks. Results: Of 324 RT recipients initially screened, 52 were excluded from final analysis due to incomplete data. Patients with RT [n = 272, age 42 ± 12.54 years, 222 (81.6% male] more often had microsporidiosis than healthy subjects by modified trichrome stain and PCR [n = 170, age 33.8 ± 6.7 years, 123 (72.3% male] [16/272 (5.8% vs. 0/170 (0%, P < 0.001]. Patients with intestinal microsporidiosis were younger (33.9 ± 8.3 years vs. 42.3 ± 12.6 years; P = 0.009, had diarrhoea more often (13/16, 81% vs. 123/256, 48%; P = 0.02, which was longer in duration (60, 32.5-105 days vs. 12, 6.2-18 days; P < 0.001 and had associated giardiasis (2/16, 12.5% vs. 2/256, 0.8%; P = 0.018. Younger age, presence of diarrhoea and associated giardiasis were significant on multivariate analysis. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was detected in 15/16 (93% patients with intestinal microsporidiosis. Conclusion: Intestinal microsporidiosis occurs frequently in patients with RT on immunosuppressive treatment, particularly among younger patients with longer diarrhoea duration and associated giardiasis. E. bieneusi is the major

  16. Use of a gray level co-occurrence matrix to characterize duplex stainless steel phases microstructure

    OpenAIRE

    L. Zortea; F. R. Renzetti

    2011-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels are widely used in industry. This is due to their higher strength compared to austenitic steels and to their higher toughness than ferritic steels. They also have good weldability and high resistance to stress corrosion cracking.These steels are characterized by two-phase microstructures composed by almost the same level of ferrite and austenite.Duplex steel 2205 samples evaluated are: as received, cold rolled (33%) and heat-treated at 800°C for 10 hours.A metallograph...

  17. Defect occurrence, detection, location and characterization; essential variables of the LBB concept application to primary piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications of the Leak Before Break (LBB) concept involve the knowledge of flaw presence and characteristics. In Service Inspection is given the responsibility of detecting flaws of a determined importance to locate them precisely and to classify them in broad families. Often LBB concepts application imply the knowledge of flaw characteristics such as through wall depth; length at the inner diameter (ID) or outer diameter (OD) surface; orientation or tilt and skew angles; branching; surface roughness; opening or width; crack tip aspect. Besides detection and characterization, LBB evaluations consider important the fact that a crack could be in the weld material or in the base material or in the heat affected zone. Cracks in tee junctions, in homogenous simple welds and in elbows are not considered in the same way. Essential variables of a flaw or defect are illustrated, and examples of flaws found in primary piping as reported by plant operators or service vendors are given. If such flaw variables are important in the applications of LBB concepts, essential is then the knowledge of the performance achievable by NDE techniques, during an ISI, in detecting such flaws, in locating them and in correctly evaluating their characteristics

  18. Defect occurrence, detection, location and characterization; essential variables of the LBB concept application to primary piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutzen, S.; Koble, T.D.; Lemaitre, P. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Applications of the Leak Before Break (LBB) concept involve the knowledge of flaw presence and characteristics. In Service Inspection is given the responsibility of detecting flaws of a determined importance to locate them precisely and to classify them in broad families. Often LBB concepts application imply the knowledge of flaw characteristics such as through wall depth; length at the inner diameter (ID) or outer diameter (OD) surface; orientation or tilt and skew angles; branching; surface roughness; opening or width; crack tip aspect. Besides detection and characterization, LBB evaluations consider important the fact that a crack could be in the weld material or in the base material or in the heat affected zone. Cracks in tee junctions, in homogenous simple welds and in elbows are not considered in the same way. Essential variables of a flaw or defect are illustrated, and examples of flaws found in primary piping as reported by plant operators or service vendors are given. If such flaw variables are important in the applications of LBB concepts, essential is then the knowledge of the performance achievable by NDE techniques, during an ISI, in detecting such flaws, in locating them and in correctly evaluating their characteristics.

  19. The ambient aerosol characterization during the prescribed bushfire season in Brisbane 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milic, A; Miljevic, B; Alroe, J; Mallet, M; Canonaco, F; Prevot, A S H; Ristovski, Z D

    2016-08-01

    Prescribed burnings are conducted in Queensland each year from August until November aiming to decrease the impact of bushfire hazards and maintain the health of vegetation. This study reports chemical characteristics of the ambient aerosol, with a focus on source apportionment of the organic aerosol (OA) fraction, during the prescribed biomass burning (BB) season in Brisbane 2013. All measurements were conducted within the International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health (ILAQH) located in Brisbane's Central Business District. Chemical composition, degree of ageing and the influence of BB emission on the air quality of central Brisbane were characterized using a compact Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (cToF-AMS). AMS loadings were dominated by OA (64%), followed by, sulfate (17%), ammonium (14%) and nitrates (5%). Source apportionment was applied on the AMS OA mass spectra via the multilinear engine solver (ME-2) implementation within the recently developed Source Finder (SoFi) interface. Six factors were extracted including hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), cooking-related OA (COA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA), semivolatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA), and nitrogen-enriched OA (NOA). The aerosol fraction that was attributed to BB factor was 9%, on average over the sampling period. The high proportion of oxygenated OA (72%), typically representing aged emissions, could possess a fraction of oxygenated species transfored from BB components on their way to the sampling site. PMID:27101459

  20. Regional hydrogeochemical groundwater characterization and Natural Arsenic occurrence in Upper Valtellina Valley (Central Italian Alps, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena Reyes, Fredy; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Basiricò, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the research is the characterization of the alpine Upper Valtellina Valley (central Italian Alps, 800 km2) aquifers by means of hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, As speciation, isotopic and whole-rock analyses. In particular, the main focus of the study was the understanding of the processes responsible for As release and mobilization into the groundwater. Historical chemical data from springs, wells, lakes, rivers and public fountains were collected from the Lombardy Region Health Agency (ASL) and implemented into a geodatabase. The available groundwater chemistry analyses (3050) from five municipalities (Bormio, Livigno, Valdidentro, Valdisotto and Valfurva) cover a relatively long time span between 1996 and 2011. Moreover, samples across the entire study area and covering one full hydrologic year 2012-2013 were collected during four different campaigns (June 2012, October 2012, May 2013, and September 2013) and analyzed . During these campaigns, water samples have been collected from both cold springs and thermal springs. The hydrogeochemistry of aquifers and superficial waters through the hydrologic year, and the long-term regional As distribution and time variability were analyzed. Although the studied springs belong to different catchments with different hydrochemical and lithological conditions, they present some typical characteristics: (1) the water types are dominated by dissolution of the main ions Ca - Mg and SO4-HCO3; (2) the Cl concentration is always very low, and poorly correlated with other ions; (3) the circulation time obtained from isotopic data ranges between 5 and 10 years for thermal springs and it is lower than 2 years for cold springs; (4) the average yearly temperatures (about 12°C for cold springs, and between 18°C and 42° for thermal springs) are nearly constant through the year; (5) dominant oxidizing environments have been observed for most of the cold springs and also for the thermal springs; (6) anthropogenic

  1. Seasonal fluctuation in the population of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and co-occurrence with other Coccinellids in the Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Sevilha Harterreiten-Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773, was first recorded in Brazil in 2002 in Paraná state and subsequently observed in Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul and Minas Gerais. This species can spread to new areas and become dominant in the local community, reducing the density and diversity of native species, mainly Coccinellidae. The objective of this work was to record for the first time the occurrence of H. axyridis in the Federal District and its co-occurrence with other Coccinellidae species. The individuals were collected directly from plants at an organic farm in Taguatinga and in experimental fields of Embrapa Hortaliças, located in the Federal District, from August 2008 to January 2010. We collected 881 Coccinelids, and of these, 110 belong to the species H. axyridis. These were found exclusively on the following plants of the succinea group: maize, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, kale, cucumber, cotton, tomato and coriander. We also observed its co-occurrence with the following lady beetle species: Cycloneda sanguine (Linnaeus, 1763, Hippodamia convergens (Guerin-Meneville 1842, Eriopis connexa (German, 1824, Scymnus sp., Nephaspis sp., Azya luteipes (Mulsant, 1850, Hyperaspis festiva (Mulsant, 1850, Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant, 1866, Psyllobora sp. and Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer, 1775. So far, we have not found any negative interactions between H. axyridis and these species. This is the northernmost H. axyridis record in Brazil. Moreover, the region was previously considered to have a low probability of occurrence for this species. Therefore, this record confirms that H. axyridis presents great adaptive plasticity to new habitats.

  2. Characterization of the inter-annual, seasonal, and diurnal variations of condensation particle concentrations at Neumayer, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, R; A. Minikin; Wagenbach, D.; Dreiling, V.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous condensation particle (CP) observations were conducted from 1984 through 2009 at Neumayer Station under stringent contamination control. During this period, the CP concentration (median 258 cm−3) showed no significant long term trend but exhibited a pronounced seasonality characterized by a stepwise increase starting in September and reaching its annual maximum of around 103 cm−3 in March. Minimum values below 10&...

  3. SEASONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF DUST DAYS,MASS CONCENTRATION AND DRY DEPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS OVER QINGDAO, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renjian Zhang; Mingxing Wang; Lifang Sheng; Yutaka Kanai; Atsuyuki Ohta

    2004-01-01

    The seasonal characterization of dust days, mass concentration and dry deposition of atmospheric aerosols were investigated using the historical data of dust days observed over Qingdao during the period from 1961 to 2001and ground-based aerosol sampling data collected in the period from May 2001 to November 2002. In Qingdao most of the dust days occurred in spring and in winter and no dust days existed in summer. The seasonal variation of the uplifting dust day over Qingdao was in phase with that analyzed over North China. The mean mass concentration of the total values and phase of the seasonal oscillation for fine particles were very similar to those for coarse particles except for the month March, during which the concentration of the coarse particles was about 4 times as high as that of the fine particles. Comparison between seasonal variation of mass concentration of aerosols and dust days indicated that high frequency of uplifting dust day was accompanied by high TSP mass concentration. The TSP mass concentration measured by the low-volume instrument was about 30% lower than that measured by high-volume instrument, though the two data sets are highly correlated (correlation coefficient=0.89). The dry deposition flux during the observation period from as that over Beijing.

  4. Environmental occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the onsite and offsite releases of radioactive and regulated materials. The specific agencies notified of the releases depended on the type, amount, and location of the individual occurrences. The more significant of these off-normal environmental occurrences are summarized in this section

  5. Environmental occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the onsite and offsite releases of radioactive and regulated materials. The specific agencies notified of the releases depended on the type, amount, and location of the individual occurrences. The more significant of these off-normal environmental occurrences are summarized in this section.

  6. Breeding, characterization and application of a new early season indica rice variety Zhefu 910

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new early season indica rice variety, Zhefu 910, was officially registered by the Municipal Crop Variety Registration Committee of Xiangtan, Hunan Province in 1999, and the Provincial Crop Variety Registration Committee of Zhejiang Province in 2000, respectively. It was bred by pedigree selection of a cross between an early season indica variety Zhefu 219 and a late season indica rice variety Chang-si-ruan-zhan. The F, dried seeds of this cross were treated with 60Co γ-rays at a dose of 300 Gy before germination. In regional yield trials Zhefu 910 gained yield increase of 5.5% - 6.4% (significant at 5% probability) and 6.9%-9.8% over control in 1997 and 1998, respectively. Biochemical analysis revealed that the crude protein content of brown rice of Zhefu 910 was as high as 13.2%. Therefore, Zhefu 910 could be also regarded as a high protein content rice variety. The main characteristics of Zhefu 910 and its cultivation techniques are described in this paper

  7. Seasonal Fluctuation of the Population and Characterization of Bacillus spp. Isolated from the Coastal Soils of Digha, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Afrin Azmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal fluctuation of the population of Bacillus spp. in the coastal soils of Digha, West Bengal, India, was determined and it has been found that, during summer, monsoon, and winter season, the Bacillus population density varied in the range of 0.01–0.236 × 106, 0.11–0.202 × 106, and 0.098–0.155 × 106, respectively. Two-way ANOVA, agglomerative hierarchial cluster (AHC analysis, and principal component analysis (PCA were performed to determine the diversity of Bacillus spp. in both spatial and temporal aspects. During summer season, the population of Bacillus spp. reached a comparatively higher density than monsoon or winter. Spatial variation was also exhibited among the Bacillus spp. in different coastal villages. A total of 25 strains of Bacillus spp. (DSB1–DSB25 were isolated from the coastal soils of different village areas of Digha, during the study period. The isolates were characterized morphologically, physiologically, and biochemically. Colony morphology of each of the isolates was thoroughly studied. Biochemical tests along with fermentation tests, NaCl, pH, and temperature tolerance tests were done. The antibiotic sensitivity of the isolated Bacillus spp. against different standard antibiotics was also assessed. The study revealed that the coastal soils of Digha area were rich in different strains of Bacillus spp. showing significant differences in the morphophysiological and biochemical properties.

  8. Characterization of regional influenza seasonality patterns in China and implications for vaccination strategies: spatio-temporal modeling of surveillance data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Yu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The complexity of influenza seasonal patterns in the inter-tropical zone impedes the establishment of effective routine immunization programs. China is a climatologically and economically diverse country, which has yet to establish a national influenza vaccination program. Here we characterize the diversity of influenza seasonality in China and make recommendations to guide future vaccination programs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compiled weekly reports of laboratory-confirmed influenza A and B infections from sentinel hospitals in cities representing 30 Chinese provinces, 2005-2011, and data on population demographics, mobility patterns, socio-economic, and climate factors. We applied linear regression models with harmonic terms to estimate influenza seasonal characteristics, including the amplitude of annual and semi-annual periodicities, their ratio, and peak timing. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling and hierarchical clustering were used to identify predictors of influenza seasonal characteristics and define epidemiologically-relevant regions. The annual periodicity of influenza A epidemics increased with latitude (mean amplitude of annual cycle standardized by mean incidence, 140% [95% CI 128%-151%] in the north versus 37% [95% CI 27%-47%] in the south, p0.6 in provinces located within 27.4°N-31.3°N, slope of latitudinal gradient with latitude -0.016 [95% CI -0.025 to -0.008], p<0.001. In contrast, influenza B activity predominated in colder months throughout most of China. Climate factors were the strongest predictors of influenza seasonality, including minimum temperature, hours of sunshine, and maximum rainfall. Our main study limitations include a short surveillance period and sparse influenza sampling in some of the southern provinces. CONCLUSIONS: Regional-specific influenza vaccination strategies would be optimal in China; in particular, annual campaigns should be initiated 4-6 months apart in Northern and Southern China

  9. Characterization of Bacterial Community Structure in a Drinking Water Distribution System during an Occurrence of Red Water▿

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dong; Li, Zheng; Yu, Jianwei; Cao, Nan; Liu, Ruyin; Yang, Min

    2010-01-01

    The role of bacteria in the occasional emergence of red water, which has been documented worldwide, has yet to be determined. To better understand the mechanisms that drive occurrences of red water, the bacterial community composition and the relative abundance of several functional bacterial groups in a water distribution system of Beijing during a large-scale red water event were determined using several molecular methods. Individual clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene were constructed for...

  10. Biochar characterization for its environmental and agricultural utilization. Occurrence, distribution and fate of labile organic carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Rombola', Alessandro Girolamo

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the potential risks associated to the application of biochar in soil as well the stability of biochar were investigated. The study was focused on the potential risks arising from the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in biochar. An analytical method was developed for the determination of the 16 USEPA-PAHs in the original biochar and soil containing biochar. The method was successfully validated with a certified reference material for the soil matrix and comp...

  11. Characterization of blood biochemical markers during aging in the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus: impact of gender and season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchal Julia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hematologic and biochemical data are needed to characterize the health status of animal populations over time to determine the habitat quality and captivity conditions. Blood components and the chemical entities that they transport change predominantly with sex and age. The aim of this study was to utilize blood chemistry monitoring to establish the reference levels in a small prosimian primate, the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus. Method In the captive colony, mouse lemurs may live 10–12 years, and three age groups for both males and females were studied: young (1–3 years, middle-aged (4–5 years and old (6–10 years. Blood biochemical markers were measured using the VetScan Comprehensive Diagnostic Profile. Because many life history traits of this primate are highly dependent on the photoperiod (body mass and reproduction, the effect of season was also assessed. Results The main effect of age was observed in blood markers of renal functions such as creatinine, which was higher among females. Additionally, blood urea nitrogen significantly increased with age and is potentially linked to chronic renal insufficiency, which has been described in captive mouse lemurs. The results demonstrated significant effects related to season, especially in blood protein levels and glucose rates; these effects were observed regardless of gender or age and were likely due to seasonal variations in food intake, which is very marked in this species. Conclusion These results were highly similar with those obtained in other primate species and can serve as references for future research of the Grey Mouse Lemur.

  12. Towards automated characterization of horizontal and vertical forest structure using multi-seasonal airborne laser scanning

    OpenAIRE

    Leiterer, Reik; Schaepman, Michael E; Morsdorf, Felix

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to characterize the vertical layering of forests in space and time based on vertical echo distributions from airborne laser scanning. We further demonstrate successful scaling from local to regional areas, including assessment of transferability, robustness and operational use of the method.

  13. Influenza virus surveillance in Argentina during the 2012 season: antigenic characterization, genetic analysis and antiviral susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, E; Daniels, R S; Pontoriero, A; Russo, M; Avaro, M; Czech, A; Campos, A; Periolo, N; Gregory, V; McCauley, J W; Baumeister, E G

    2016-03-01

    The activity and circulation of influenza viruses in Argentina was studied during 2012 as part of the Argentinean Surveillance for Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses, in the context of Global Influenza Surveillance. The antigenicity and molecular characteristics of haemagglutinins (HA) of circulating influenza A and B viruses were analysed to assess the emergence of virus variants. Susceptibility to oseltamivir and zanamivir was evaluated by enzymatic assay and results were backed-up by sequencing of the neuraminidase (NA) genes. During the 2012 season, influenza virus circulation in Argentina was detected from weeks 24 to 51. The HA sequences of the studied A(H1N1)pdm09 subtype viruses segregated in a different genetic group compared to those identified during the 2009 pandemic, although they were still closely related antigenically to the vaccine virus A/California/07/2009. The HA sequences of the A(H3N2) viruses analysed fell into the A/Victoria/208/2009 clade, genetic group 3C. A mixed circulation of virus variants belonging to B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages was detected, with B/Victoria being dominant. All viruses tested were sensitive to oseltamivir and zanamivir except one. This isolate, an A(H1N1)pdm09 virus possessing the substitution NA-N295S, showed highly reduced inhibition by oseltamivir and reduced inhibition by zanamivir. Virological and epidemiological surveillance remains critical for detection of evolving influenza viruses. PMID:26345289

  14. Data-driven behavioural characterization of dry-season groundwater-level variation in Maharashtra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Rahul; Sohoni, Milind

    2015-06-01

    This paper looks at the crucial issue of dry-season groundwater-availability in the state of Maharashtra, India. We look at the two key hydro-climatological measurements which are used to implement groundwater policy in the state, viz., water levels in 5000 + observation wells across the state and aggregate rainfall data. We see that there is substantial variation in groundwater levels within and across the years in most wells. We argue that for a large number of these observation well locations, aggregate rainfall data is inadequate to model or to predict groundwater levels. For this, we use a novel random rainfall coefficient model for the purpose of modelling the effect of rainfall in a composite setting where extraction and changing land-use data is unknown. The observed high variance of this coefficient points to significant variations in groundwater levels, which may only be explained by unmeasured anthropogenic factors. Next, we see that the uncertainty in actual groundwater levels along with scarcity are two distinct features of groundwater availability and will elicit different behaviours from the typical user. Finally, we recommend that quantitative groundwater assessment protocols of the state should move to incorporating data from which extraction and land-use may be modelled. We believe this is one of the first studies where large spatio-temporal scale data gathered by state agencies have been analysed for scientific adequacy.

  15. Data-driven behavioural characterization of dry-season groundwater-level variation in Maharashtra, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Gokhale; Milind Sohoni

    2015-06-01

    This paper looks at the crucial issue of dry-season groundwater-availability in the state of Maharashtra, India. We look at the two key hydro-climatological measurements which are used to implement ground-water policy in the state, viz., water levels in 5000+ observation wells across the state and aggregate rainfall data. We see that there is substantial variation in groundwater levels within and across the years in most wells. We argue that for a large number of these observation well locations, aggregate rainfall data is inadequate to model or to predict groundwater levels. For this, we use a novel random rainfall coefficient model for the purpose of modelling the effect of rainfall in a composite setting where extraction and changing land-use data is unknown. The observed high variance of this coefficient points to significant variations in groundwater levels, which may only be explained by unmeasured anthropogenic factors. Next, we see that the uncertainty in actual groundwater levels along with scarcity are two distinct features of groundwater availability and will elicit different behaviours from the typical user. Finally, we recommend that quantitative groundwater assessment protocols of the state should move to incorporating data from which extraction and land-use may be modelled. We believe this is one of the first studies where large spatio-temporal scale data gathered by state agencies have been analysed for scientific adequacy.

  16. Characterization of long-term and seasonal variations of black carbon (BC concentrations at Neumayer, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Weller

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Continuous black carbon (BC observations were conducted from 1999 through 2009 by an Aethalometer (AE10 and from 2006 through 2011 by a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP at Neumayer Station (NM under stringent contamination control. Considering the respective observation period, BC concentrations measured by the MAAP were somewhat higher (median ± standard deviation: 2.1 ± 2.0 ng m−3 compared to the AE10 results (1.6 ± 2.1 ng m−3. Neither for the AE10 nor for the MAAP data set a significant long-term trend could be detected. Consistently a pronounced seasonality was observed with both instruments showing a primary annual maximum between October and November and a minimum in April with a maximum/minimum ratio of 4.5/1.6 = 3.8 and 2.7/0.64 = 4.2 for the MAAP and AE10 data, respectively. Occasionally a secondary summer maximum in January/February was visible. With the aim to assess the impact of BC on optical properties of the aerosol at NM, we evaluated the BC data along with particle scattering coefficients measured by an integrating nephelometer. We found the mean single scattering albedo of ω550 = 0.992 ± 0.0090 (median: 0.994 at a wavelength of 550 nm with a range of values from 0.95 to 1.0.

  17. Prospective surveillance and molecular characterization of seasonal influenza in a university cohort in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Kaur Virk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Southeast Asia is believed to be a potential locus for the emergence of novel influenza strains, and therefore accurate sentinel surveillance in the region is critical. Limited information exists on sentinel surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI in young adults in Singapore in a University campus setting. The objective of the present study was to determine the proportion of ILI caused by influenza A and B viruses in a university cohort in Singapore. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a prospective surveillance study from May through October 2007, at the National University of Singapore (NUS. Basic demographic information and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from students and staff with ILI. Reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR and viral isolation were employed to detect influenza viruses. Sequencing of hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of some representative isolates was also performed. Overall proportions of influenza A and B virus infections were 47/266 (18% and 9/266 (3% respectively. The predominant subtype was A/H3N2 (55% and the rest were A/H1N1 (45%. The overall sensitivity difference for detection of influenza A viruses using RT-PCR and viral isolation was 53%. Phylogenetic analyses of HA and NA gene sequences of Singapore strains showed identities higher than 98% within both the genes. The strains were more similar to strains included in the WHO vaccine recommendation for the following year (2008. Genetic markers of oseltamivir resistance were not detected in any of the sequenced Singapore isolates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HA and NA gene sequences of Singapore strains were similar to vaccine strains for the upcoming influenza season. No drug resistance was found. Sentinel surveillance on university campuses should make use of molecular methods to better detect emerging and re-emerging influenza viral threats.

  18. Characterizing and predicting species distributions across environments and scales: Argentine ant occurrences in the eye of the beholder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, S.B.; Holway, D.A.; Fisher, R.N.; Jetz, W.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Species distribution models (SDMs) or, more specifically, ecological niche models (ENMs) are a useful and rapidly proliferating tool in ecology and global change biology. ENMs attempt to capture associations between a species and its environment and are often used to draw biological inferences, to predict potential occurrences in unoccupied regions and to forecast future distributions under environmental change. The accuracy of ENMs, however, hinges critically on the quality of occurrence data. ENMs often use haphazardly collected data rather than data collected across the full spectrum of existing environmental conditions. Moreover, it remains unclear how processes affecting ENM predictions operate at different spatial scales. The scale (i.e. grain size) of analysis may be dictated more by the sampling regime than by biologically meaningful processes. The aim of our study is to jointly quantify how issues relating to region and scale affect ENM predictions using an economically important and ecologically damaging invasive species, the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). Location: California, USA. Methods: We analysed the relationship between sampling sufficiency, regional differences in environmental parameter space and cell size of analysis and resampling environmental layers using two independently collected sets of presence/absence data. Differences in variable importance were determined using model averaging and logistic regression. Model accuracy was measured with area under the curve (AUC) and Cohen's kappa. Results: We first demonstrate that insufficient sampling of environmental parameter space can cause large errors in predicted distributions and biological interpretation. Models performed best when they were parametrized with data that sufficiently sampled environmental parameter space. Second, we show that altering the spatial grain of analysis changes the relative importance of different environmental variables. These changes apparently result

  19. Survey of food-grade silica dioxide nanomaterial occurrence, characterization, human gut impacts and fate across its lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Faust, James J; Schoepf, Jared; Hristovski, Kiril; Capco, David G; Herckes, Pierre; Westerhoff, Paul

    2016-09-15

    There is increasing recognition of the importance of transformations in nanomaterials across their lifecycle, yet few quantitative examples exist. We examined food-grade silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanomaterials from its source (bulk material providers), occurrence in food products, impacts on human gastrointestinal tract during consumption, and fate at wastewater treatment plants. Based upon XRD, XPS and TEM analysis, pure SiO2 present in multiple food-grade stock SiO2 exhibited consistent morphologies as agglomerates, ranging in size from below 100nm to >500nm, with all primary particle size in the range of 9-26nm and were most likely amorphous SiO2 based upon high resolution TEM. Ten of 14 targeted foods purchased in the USA contained SiO2 of the same morphology and size as the pristine bulk food-grade SiO2, at levels of 2 to 200mg Si per serving size. A dissolution study of pristine SiO2 showed up to 7% of the dissolution of the silica, but the un-dissolved SiO2 maintained the same morphology as the pristine SiO2. Across a realistic exposure range, pristine SiO2 exhibited adverse dose-response relationships on a cell model (microvilli) of the human gastro-intestinal tract, association onto microvilli and evidence that SiO2 lead to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also observed accumulation of amorphous nano-SiO2 on bioflocs in tests using lab-cultured activated sludge and sewage sludges from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Nano-scale SiO2 of the same size and morphology as pristine food-grade SiO2 was observed in raw sewage at a WWTP, but we identified non-agglomerated individual SiO2 particles with an average diameter of 21.5±4.7nm in treated effluent from the WWTP. This study demonstrates an approach to track nanomaterials from source-to-sink and establishes a baseline occurrence of nano-scale SiO2 in foods and WWTPs. PMID:26874640

  20. Characterization and cryopreservation of semen from endangered markhor goats (Capra falconeri heptneri) with evaluation of reproductive seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezjian, Marisa; Abou-Madi, Noha; Kollias, George V; Parks, John E; Cheong, Soon Hon; Beltaire, Katherine A

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the reproductive seasonality of four captive markhor goats (Capra falconeri heptneri), to characterize semen collected by electroejaculation, and to compare extenders and processing techniques for semen cryopreservation. Over the course of 1 yr, mean monthly scrotal circumference, serum testosterone, and fecal testosterone were measured and found to be inversely associated with day length. Maximum scrotal circumference (25.2 +/- 0.9 cm), serum testosterone (521.0 +/- 103.4 ng/dl), and fecal testosterone (382.5 +/- 90.3 ng/g) occurred in November, when day length was short (9.7 +/- 0.1 hr). Once a month for 3 mo (December, January, and February), bucks were anesthetized for electroejaculation and semen evaluation. Semen samples were divided into six aliquots for extension and cryopreservation in soy-based Bioxcell or Tris-based extender with 5 or 15% egg yolk, with and without centrifugation. Samples were then thawed for repeat evaluation 1-3 mo later. Postthaw evaluation revealed no significant differences between centrifuged and noncentrifuged samples. Sperm in Tris 5% and 15% egg yolk displayed higher total motility at 0, 3, and 6 hr postthaw and higher progressive motility postthaw compared with sperm in Bioxcell (P < 0.05). Sperm in Bioxcell displayed higher viability than sperm in both Tris-egg yolk extenders (P < 0.01), more intact acrosomes than sperm in Tris-15% egg yolk (P < 0.05), and a tendency for more intact acrosomes than sperm in Tris-5% egg yolk (P < 0.10). Sperm in Tris-5% egg yolk tended to have a higher percentage of morphologically normal sperm compared with Bioxcell (P < 0.10). This study provides evidence that markhor goats exhibit seasonality in scrotal circumference and testosterone levels and that centrifugation may be eliminated from the processing of markhor semen. PMID:24063096

  1. Environmental characterization of the reproductive season of migratory fish of the Sinú river (Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Kerguelén-Durango

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize some abiotic factors during the reproductive season of migratory fish (bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae, dorada Brycon sinuensis, bagre blanco Sorubim cuspicaudus and barbul Pimelodus blochii in the Sinú River. Materials and methods. From April to October, 2008, in Carrizola (Tierralta, 36.31 km from the Urrá hydroelectric plant factors such as flow=Qriver, daily flow difference =ΔQriver, velocity=Vriver, temperature=Triver, electrical conductivity=CE, total dissolved solids=STD, turbidity=Turb, cloudiness=Nub, rainfall=Pluv and solar brightness=Bs were measured daily three times/day (07:00 h, 12:00 h, 17:00 h. Also, on the same schedule, ichthyoplankton was collected as an indicator of reproductive activity, assessed by reproductive frequency (Fr=number of days with presence of ichthyoplankton/number of days in the period evaluated X 100 and larval density (Dl=larval/m3. Results. The daily values of Qriver ranged between 278.7 and 838.5 m3/s, ΔQriver between 0.0 and 100.7 m3/s, Vriver between 1.40 and 1.53 m/s, Pluv between 0.0 and 88.2 mm, Triver between 27.0 and 28.7°C, STD between 73.0 and 302.3 mg/L, Turb between 9.7 and 679.7 NTU, CE between 81.0 and 361.7 mS/cm, Bs between 0.0 and 11.2 hours, Nub between 2.0 and 7.3 octaves. The Fr was 30.4%, with April (40.0% and May (74.2% as the higher activity reproductive months, while the Dl in the season was 4.9 larvae/m3, with the larvae group other species (2.9 larvae/m3 and bocachico (1.8 larvae/m3 as the most abundant. Conclusions. Most reproductive activity was recorded early in the season (April and May and parameters such as Qriver, Triver, Vriver, Pluv, STD and Nub may be considered final factors associated with migratory fish reproduction.

  2. Occurrence and histological characterization marsupia of Diplodon expansus (Küster, 1856 (Mollusca, Bivalve, Hyriidae in Piraquara River, Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aparecida Nogueira Meyer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In limnic bivalve individuals from the family Hyriidae, the gills have, besides the functions of gas exchange and feeding, an important function in the reproductive cycle. The gills undergo changes, resulting in a specialized structure, the marsupium, where the development of larva named glochidia occurs. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and morphological characteristics of marsupia of Diplodon expansus. Six bimonthly samples were carried out between May 2007 and May 2008, in Piraquara River, with capture of 180 specimens larger than 25mm. The total length of the shells was measured to determine the frequencies of size classes. Having predetermined morphological characteristics as a basis, the marsupia were classified into stage I and II. Tissue fragments of marsupia and visceral mass underwent a routine histological approach and they were embedded in paraffin. Nine length classes were recorded, with a 3 mm interval, and the modal class ranged from 50 to 53 mm. Marsupia in stages I and II were observed in 86% of females. Histological observations indicate that marsupia are permanent structures in mature females and that the population of D. expansus has a continuous reproductive strategy, with peaks of glochidia release.

  3. Purification and characterization of the staphylococcal slime-associated antigen and its occurrence among Staphylococcus epidermis clinical isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Baldassarri, L.; Donnelli, G; Gelosia, A; Voglino, M C; Simpson, A. W.; Christensen, G D

    1996-01-01

    The Staphylococcus epidermidis slime-associated antigen (SAA) was purified and characterized. N-Acetyl-glucosamine accounted for 70% of the dry weight of SAA, which was immunolocalized on the ruthenium red-positive material produced by slime-positive strains. A total of 59% of slime-producing S. epidermidis clinical isolates expressed SAA, while the phenotype slime- SAA+ was never recovered.

  4. Characterization of Street Dust Nearby the Holy Mosques in Ramadan and Hajj Seasons, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Hameed A. A

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Street dust is estimated as a main contributor of particualte matter (PM. Resuspension of street dust affects air quality and human health. The present study aims to evaluate concentrations of heavy metals (iron-Fe, lead-Pb, cadmium-Cd, and nickel-Ni, cations (Li+, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+, anions (F-, Cl-, Br-, NO2-, NO3-, PO43- and SO4- and microoganisms (bacteria and fungi associated dust particles ≤ 45 µm. The dust samples were collected by sweeping an arera ~ 1 m2 along both sides of the major streets surrounding Al-Haram mosque, in Makkah, and the Prophet,s mosque in Al Madina Al Manwarrah, Saudi Arabia. The heavy metals and soluble ions were analysed using atomic absortion spectrometer and ion chromatograpgy, respectively. Nutrient agar and Malt extract agar media were used for counting bacteria and fungi associated dust, respectively. The dust size fraction of 1.7 µm constitued the highest percentage (10-25% among various particles sizes ≤ 45 µm. Fe was found in the highest heavy metal concentration, and lead (Pb achived high pollution index ≥ 3. The soluble ion profile (% was: NO3-, SO42-, Na+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO2-, K+, F-, Mg2+, NH4+, Br-, PO43- and Li+. The demolition/ constrcution activities were main contributor of street dust. Bacterial and fungal concentrations ranged between 104-106 and 104-105 CFU/g, respectively, with the highest bio-pollution in the northern street dust at Al-Haram mosque. Bacillus and Aspergillus were the common bacterial and fungal genera, repectively. Microorganisms did not show any significant linear relationships with dust chemical composition. Characterization of street dust allows identifying its sources and consequently developing an appropriate abatement strategy.

  5. Characterization of the inter-annual, seasonal, and diurnal variations of condensation particle concentrations at Neumayer, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Weller

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous condensation particle (CP observations were conducted from 1984 through 2009 at Neumayer Station under stringent contamination control. During this period, the CP concentration (median 258 cm−3 showed no significant long term trend but exhibited a pronounced seasonality characterized by a stepwise increase starting in September and reaching its annual maximum of around 103 cm−3 in March. Minimum values below 102 cm−3 were observed during June/July. Dedicated time series analyses in the time and frequency domain revealed no significant correlations between inter-annual CP concentration variations and atmospheric circulation indices like Southern Annular Mode (SAM or Southern Ocean Index (SOI. The impact of the Pinatubo volcanic eruption and strong El Niño events did not affect CP concentrations. From thermodenuder experiments we deduced that the portion of volatile (at 125 °C and semi-volatile (at 250 °C particles which could be both associated with biogenic sulfur aerosol, was maximum during austral summer, while during winter non-volatile sea salt particles dominated. During September through April we could frequently detect nucleation events which occurred preferentially in the afternoon. Over the year, roughly 20 % of the particles could be assigned to the nucleation mode between 3 nm and 7 nm particle diameter.

  6. Renibacterium salmoninarum bar forms: characterization, occurrence, and evidence of a host response to a R. salmoninarum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanich, J D

    2004-04-01

    Unique-staining Renibacterium salmoninarum (Rs) cells, termed bar forms, first observed in a coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum), in 1983, could not be cultured, making their characterization difficult and significance obscure. They can be detected only by the fluorescent-antibody technique (FAT) and their numbers estimated only by a quantitative FAT (QFAT). Data collected over a 10-year period showed that bar forms were observed only in vivo and appeared associated with a host response. Bar forms were observed in 10 salmonid species from five countries and in fish from < 1 g to spawning adults. They were observed in 50.1% of kidney smears prepared from 10,061 Rs positive chinook, O. tshawytscha (Walbaum), coho, and Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Bar forms were shown to be Rs cells based on absorption studies, their reaction with an Rs-specific FAT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and a transition from 'typical' Rs cells to bar forms in naturally and experimentally infected fish. Bar forms were determined to be non-virulent, damaged or dead Rs cells, based on fluorescence and electron microscopy observations, the inability to culture them, and mortality data. Bar forms appeared to represent visual markers of recovery from an Rs infection. PMID:15049888

  7. Strategies to overcome seasonal anestrus in water buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Nelcio Antonio Tonizza; Soares, Julia Gleyci; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio

    2016-07-01

    Reproductive seasonality in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is characterized by behavioral, endocrine, and reproductive changes that occur over distinct periods of the year. During the nonbreeding season (spring and summer), the greater light-dark ratio (long days) suppresses estrus behavior and the occurrence of ovulation. Anestrous buffaloes have insufficient pulsatile of LH to support the final stages of follicular development, and subsequently, estrus behavior and ovulation do not occur, limiting reproductive efficiency, especially in artificial insemination (AI) programs. A number of therapeutic strategies designed to synchronize follicular wave emergence and ovulation have allowed for the use of AI throughout the year, overcoming seasonal anestrus in buffalo. These therapies also improve reproductive performance by increasing the service rate and pregnancy per AI in buffalo herds, regardless of reproductive seasonality. PMID:27157389

  8. Occurrence of antibiotic resistance and characterization of resistant genes and integrons in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from integrated fish farms south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hao-Chang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotics are still widely applied in animal husbandry to prevent diseases and used as feed additives to promote animal growth. This could result in antibiotic resistance to bacteria and antibiotic residues in animals. In this paper, Enterobacteriaceae isolated from four integrated fish farms in Zhongshan, South China were tested for antibiotic resistance, tetracycline resistance genes, sulfonamide resistance genes, and class 1 integrons. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were carried out to test antibiotic susceptibility and resistance genes, respectively. Relatively high antibiotic resistance frequencies were found, especially for ampicillin (80%), tetracycline (52%), and trimethoprim (50%). Out of 203 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 98.5% were resistant to one or more antibiotics tested. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) was found highest in animal manures with a MAR index of 0.56. Tetracycline resistance genes (tet(A), tet(C)) and sulfonamide resistance genes (sul2) were detected in more than 50% of the isolates. The intI1 gene was found in 170 isolates (83.7%). Both classic and non-classic class 1 integrons were found. Four genes, aadA5, aadA22, dfr2, and dfrA17, were detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report for molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from integrated fish farms in China and the first time that gene cassette array dfrA17-aadA5 has been detected in such fish farms. Results of this study indicated that fish farms may be a reservoir of highly diverse and abundant antibiotic resistant genes and gene cassettes. Integrons may play a key role in multiple antibiotic resistances posing potential health risks to the general public and aquaculture.

  9. Characterizing spatial and seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes above a tropical mixed mangrove forest canopy, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhra Chanda; Anirban Akhand; Sudip Manna; Sachinandan Dutta; Sugata Hazra; Indrani Das; V K Dadhwal

    2013-04-01

    The above canopy carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes were measured by micrometeorological gradient technique at three distant stations, within the world’s largest mangrove ecosystem of Sundarban (Indian part), between April 2011 and March 2012. Quadrat analysis revealed that all the three study sites are characterized by a strong heterogeneity in the mangrove vegetation cover. At day time the forest was a sink for CO2, but its magnitude varied significantly from −0.39 to −1.33 mg m−2 s−1. The station named Jharkhali showed maximum annual fluxes followed by Henry Island and Bonnie Camp. Day time fluxes were higher during March and October, while in August and January the magnitudes were comparatively lower. The seasonal variation followed the same trend in all the sites. The spatial variation of CO2 flux above the canopy was mainly explained by the canopy density and photosynthetic efficiency of the mangrove species. The CO2 sink strength of the mangrove cover in different stations varied in the same way with the CO2 uptake potential of the species diversity in the respective sites. The relationship between the magnitude of day time CO2 uptake by the canopy and photosynthetic photon flux was defined by a non-linear exponential curve (2 ranging from 0.51 to 0.60). Water vapour fluxes varied between 1.4 and 69.5 mg m−2 s−1. There were significant differences in magnitude between day and night time water vapour fluxes, but no spatial variation was observed.

  10. Characterization of the seasonal transatlantic mineral dust route to improve the understanding of the possible impact on climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ami, Yuval

    Mineral dust aerosol is the second aerosol constituent (by mass), after marine sea-salt aerosol, in the Earth's atmosphere. Suspended dust participates in a range of processes, related to the energy, hydrological and nutrients cycles. Although it is important, there are still many basic open questions in this field related to the processes of emission, transport, and deposition. Focusing on the largest source of mineral dust, North Africa, and on the main transport route over the tropical and sub-tropical North Atlantic Ocean, this study aims to investigate the properties of dust plumes and how they change in space and time. In this work we reveal a new annual partition for characterization of the oceanic dust, composed of two heavy loading periods, called hereafter, the northern-route and southern-route period, and one clean, light-loading period, characterized by unusually low average optical depth of dust. The newly proposed dusty seasons differ in their statistical characteristics: the southern route period lasts from the end of November until the end of March. It is characterized by a steady southern position, low frequency of dust events, low background values and high variance in dust loading. The northern-route period lasts from the end of March to mid October, and is associated with a steady drift of the route northward, reaching a location which is ˜1,500 km north of the southern route. During the northern-route period, there is a higher frequency of dust events, higher background and smaller variance in dust loading. The annual periodicity in Atlantic dust transport is tightly linked to the spatial distribution and patterns of activity of North African dust sources. Our results emphasize the dominance of one key dust source, the Bodele depression in Chad, which has the potential to modulate the Atlantic dust loading. In addition we show that the dust plumes average height, over the ocean, is characterized by a bi-modal distribution, which is more

  11. Infanticide in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus): Occurrence and the effect of familiarity on female infanticide

    OpenAIRE

    Ylönen, H.; Koskela, E; Mappes, T.

    1997-01-01

    We studied infanticide in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus), in a species whose social organization is characterized by strict female territoriality during the breeding season. One possible origin of female territoriality could be to protect the nest site and pups from potentially infanticidal conspecifics. However, direct evidence of the occurrence of infanticide, and thus of its possible role in territorial behaviour of the bank vole females, is totally lacking. Observations in the la...

  12. Interannual variability of seasonal rainfall over the Cape south coast of South Africa and synoptic type association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Christien J.; Landman, Willem A.

    2016-07-01

    The link between interannual variability of seasonal rainfall over the Cape south coast of South Africa and different synoptic types as well as selected teleconnections is explored. Synoptic circulation over the region is classified into different synoptic types by employing a clustering technique, the self-organizing map (SOM), on daily circulation data for the 33-year period from 1979 to 2011. Daily rainfall data are used to investigate interannual variability of seasonal rainfall within the context of the identified synoptic types. The anomalous frequency of occurrence of the different synoptic types for wet and for dry seasons differs significantly within the SOM space, except for austral spring. The main rainfall-producing synoptic types are to a large extent consistent for wet and dry seasons. The main rainfall-producing synoptic types have a notable larger contribution to seasonal rainfall totals during wet seasons than during dry seasons, consistent with a higher frequency of occurrence of the main rainfall-producing synoptic types during wet seasons compared to dry seasons. Dry seasons are characterized by a smaller contribution to seasonal rainfall totals by all the different synoptic types, but with the largest negative anomalies associated with low frequencies of the main rainfall-producing synoptic types. The frequencies of occurrence of specific configurations of ridging high pressure systems, cut-off lows and tropical-temperate troughs associated with rainfall are positively linked to interannual variability of seasonal rainfall. It is also shown that the distribution of synoptic types within the SOM space is linked to the Southern Annular Mode and El Niño Southern Oscillation, implying some predictability of intraseasonal variability at the seasonal time scale.

  13. Fluctuation of birch (Betula L. pollen seasons in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Puc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Birch pollen grains are one of the most important groups of atmospheric biological particles that induce allergic processes. The fluctuation pattern of birch pollen seasons in selected cities of Poland is presented. Measurements were performed by the volumetric method (Burkard and Lanzoni 2000 pollen samplers. The distributions of the data were not normal (Shapiro–Wilk test and statistical error risk was estimated at a significance level of α = 0.05. Pollen season was defined as the period in which 95% of the annual total catch occurred. The linear trend for the selected features of the pollen season, skewness, kurtosis and coefficient of variation (V% were also analyzed. During the 12–14 years of study, the beginnings of birch pollen seasons were observed 7–14 days earlier, the ends were noted 5–10 days earlier, and the days with maximum values occurred 7–14 days earlier compared to the long-term data. The left-skewed distribution of the pollen season starts in most sampling sites confirms the short-lasting occurrence of pollen in the air. The threat of birch pollen allergens was high during the pollen seasons. If vegetation is highly diverse, flowering and pollen release are extended in time, spread over different weeks and occur at different times of the day. Flowering time and pollen release are affected by insolation, convection currents, wind, and turbulence. Therefore, pollen seasons are characterized by great inter-annual variability.

  14. Observations on seasonal changes in the occurrence and maturation of five helminth species in the pimelodid catfish, Rhamdia guatemalensis, in the cenote (= sinkhole) Ixin-há, Yucatán, Mexico

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Mendoza-Franco, E.; Vivas-Rodríguez, C.; Vargas-Vázquez, J.; González-Solís, D.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 2 (2002), s. 121-140. ISSN 1211-376X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : fish helminths * seasonality * maturation cycles Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  15. Experimental designs characterizing seasonal variations and solvent effects on the quantities of coumarin and related metabolites from Mikania laevigata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passari, Livia Maria Zambrozi Garcia; Scarminio, Ieda Spacino; Bruns, Roy Edward

    2014-04-22

    Statistical design mixtures of acetone, chloroform, dichloromethane and ethanol were used to study the effects of different solvents and their mixtures on the quantities of coumarin and related metabolites extracted from Mikania laevigata samples harvested in each of the four seasons. RP-HPLC-DAD and both positive and negative modes of UPLC-MS analyses were used to determine relative quantities of coumarin, o-coumaric acid and melilotic acids in each season for all the mixture design extracts. The existence and measurement of the relative abundances of melilotic acid in Mikania laevigata have not been reported previously. Highest coumarin concentrations were encountered in the summer whereas its o-coumaric acid precursor and melilotic acid were most abundant in the spring. O-coumaric and melilotic acids concentrations were strongly correlated during the year. Also solvent effects were seen to be significant. Ethanol and 1:1 binary mixtures of ethanol and acetone extracted the largest quantities of coumarin whereas ethanolic binary and ternary mixtures with chloroform and dichloromethane provided the best yields of o-coumaric and melilotic acids. Statistical mixture models indicated that synergic binary interactions, especially those involving ethanol with acetone or chloroform, are important in the Mikania extraction process. PMID:24703218

  16. Integrating seasonal optical and thermal infrared spectra to characterize urban impervious surfaces with extreme spectral complexity: a Shanghai case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yao, Xinfeng; Ji, Minhe

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent rapid advancement in remote sensing technology, accurate mapping of the urban landscape in China still faces a great challenge due to unusually high spectral complexity in many big cities. Much of this complication comes from severe spectral confusion of impervious surfaces with polluted water bodies and bright bare soils. This paper proposes a two-step land cover decomposition method, which combines optical and thermal spectra from different seasons to cope with the issue of urban spectral complexity. First, a linear spectral mixture analysis was employed to generate fraction images for three preliminary endmembers (high albedo, low albedo, and vegetation). Seasonal change analysis on land surface temperature induced from thermal infrared spectra and coarse component fractions obtained from the first step was then used to reduce the confusion between impervious surfaces and nonimpervious materials. This method was tested with two-date Landsat multispectral data in Shanghai, one of China's megacities. The results showed that the method was capable of consistently estimating impervious surfaces in highly complex urban environments with an accuracy of R2 greater than 0.70 and both root mean square error and mean average error less than 0.20 for all test sites. This strategy seemed very promising for landscape mapping of complex urban areas.

  17. Characterizing relationships among fecal indicator bacteria, microbial source tracking markers, and associated waterborne pathogen occurrence in stream water and sediments in a mixed land use watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, J Kenneth; Snyder, Blake J; Oladeinde, Adelumola; Spidle, David; Berrang, Mark E; Meinersmann, Richard J; Oakley, Brian; Sidle, Roy C; Sullivan, Kathleen; Molina, Marirosa

    2016-09-15

    Bed sediments of streams and rivers may store high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens. Due to resuspension events, these contaminants can be mobilized into the water column and affect overall water quality. Other bacterial indicators such as microbial source tracking (MST) markers, developed to determine potential sources of fecal contamination, can also be resuspended from bed sediments. The primary objective of this study was to predict occurrence of waterborne pathogens in water and streambed sediments using a simple statistical model that includes traditionally measured FIB, environmental parameters and source allocation, using MST markers as predictor variables. Synoptic sampling events were conducted during baseflow conditions downstream from agricultural (AG), forested (FORS), and wastewater pollution control plant (WPCP) land uses. Concentrations of FIB and MST markers were measured in water and sediments, along with occurrences of the enteric pathogens Campylobacter, Listeria and Salmonella, and the virulence gene that carries Shiga toxin, stx2. Pathogens were detected in water more often than in underlying sediments. Shiga toxin was significantly related to land use, with concentrations of the ruminant marker selected as an independent variable that could correctly classify 76% and 64% of observed Shiga toxin occurrences in water and sediment, respectively. FIB concentrations and water quality parameters were also selected as independent variables that correctly classified Shiga toxin occurrences in water and sediment (54%-87%), and Salmonella occurrences in water (96%). Relationships between pathogens and indicator variables were generally inconsistent and no single indicator adequately described occurrence of all pathogens. Because of inconsistent relationships between individual pathogens and FIB/MST markers, incorporating a combination of FIB, water quality measurements, and MST markers may be the best way to assess

  18. Seasonal variations of airborne pollen in Allahabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahney, Manju; Chaurasia, Swati

    2008-01-01

    Using a Burkard 7-day volumetric sampler a survey of airborne pollen grains in Allahabad was carried out from December 2004--November 2005 to assess the qualitative and quantitative occurrence of pollen grains during different months of the year, and to characterize the pollen seasons of dominant pollen types in the atmosphere of Allahabad. 80 pollen types were identified out of the total pollen catch of 3,416.34 pollen grains/m(3). Bulk of the pollen originated from anemophilous trees and grasses. Thirteen pollen types recorded more than 1 % of the annual total pollen catch. Holoptelea integrifolia formed the major component of the pollen spectrum constituting 46.21 % of the total pollen catch followed by Poaceae, Azadirachta indica, Ailanthus excelsa, Putranjiva roxburghii, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ricinus communis, Brassica compestris, Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Madhuca longifolia, Syzygium cumini, other Asteraceae and Aegle marmelos. Highest pollen counts were obtained in the month of March and lowest in July. The pollen types recorded marked the seasonal pattern of occurrence in the atmosphere. February-May was the principal pollen season with maximum number of pollen counts and pollen types. Chief sources of pollen during this period were arboreal taxa. September-October was the second pollen season with grasses being the main source of pollen. Airborne pollen spectrum reflected the vegetation of Allahabad, except for Alnus sp., which grows in the Himalayan region. A significant negative correlation was found of daily pollen counts with minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. PMID:19061265

  19. Seasonality of Legionella isolates from environmental sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiansky, L; Drath, A; Dubery, B; Koornhof, H J

    1986-09-01

    Legionnaires' Disease in South Africa has tended to show a seasonal pattern of occurrence with peaks in late summer and autumn (November to May). We investigated the possibility of a correlation between the seasonal finding of the organism in environmental habitats and the occurrence of clinical cases. Results of tests performed on environmental specimens indicate that the isolation rate is higher in summer-autumn than during winter-spring. PMID:3793446

  20. Occurrence of veterinary pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment in Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servaes, K.; Vanermen, G.; Seuntjens, P.

    2009-04-01

    There is a growing interest in the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. Pharmaceuticals are classified as so-called ‘emerging pollutants'. ‘Emerging pollutants' are not necessarily new chemical compounds. Often these compounds are already present in the environment for a long time. But, their occurrence and especially their impact on the environment has only recently become clear. Consequently, data on their occurrence are rather scarce. In this study, we focus on the occurrence of veterinary pharmaceuticals in surface water in Flanders. We have only considered active substances administered to cattle, pigs and poultry. Based on the literature and information concerning the use in Belgium, a selection of 25 veterinary pharmaceuticals has been made. This selection consists of the most important antibiotics and antiparasitic substances applied in veterinary medicine in Belgium. We develop an analytical methodology based on UPLC-MS/MS for the detection of these veterinary pharmaceuticals in surface water. Therefore, the mass characteristics as well as the optimum LC conditions will be determined. To obtain limits of detection as low as possible, the samples are concentrated prior to analysis using solid phase extraction (SPE). Different SPE cartridges will be tested during the method development. At first, this SPE sample pre-treatment is performed off-line. In a next step, online SPE is optimized for this purpose. The analytical procedure will be subject to an in-house validation study, thereby determining recovery, repeatability (% RSD), limits of detection and limits of quantification. Finally, the developed methodology will be applied for monitoring the occurrence of veterinary pharmaceuticals in surface water and groundwater in Flanders. These water samples will be taken in areas characterized by intensive cattle breeding. Moreover, the samples will be collected during springtime. In this season, farmers apply manure, stored during winter

  1. Chemical characterization, the transport pathways and potential sources of PM2.5 in Shanghai: Seasonal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengfei; Huang, Zhongsi; Qiao, Ting; Zhang, Yuankai; Xiu, Guangli; Yu, Jianzhen

    2015-05-01

    The 24-h PM2.5 samples were collected at the site of East China University of Science and Technology (ECUST) in Shanghai from 2011 to 2012, representing winter, spring, summer and autumn, respectively. And PM2.5 and its chemical components including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), humic-like substance carbon (HULIS-C) and water-soluble ions were analyzed. The results suggested that the average PM2.5 concentrations were (70.35 ± 43.75) μg/m3, (69.76 ± 38.67) μg/m3, (51.26 ± 28.25) μg/m3 and (82.37 ± 48.70) μg/m3 in winter, spring, summer and autumn, respectively. Secondary inorganic ions (sulfate, nitrate and ammonium) were the dominant pollutants of PM2.5 in the four seasons. Total carbon (TC) was an important component explaining above 15% of PM2.5. OC/EC ratios were all above 2 ranging from 4.31 to 6.35; particularly in winter it reached the highest 6.35 which demonstrated that secondary organic carbon (SOC) should be a significant composition of PM2.5. The SOC calculated based on the OC/EC ratio method had stronger correlation with WSOC in summer and autumn (summer: R2 = 0.73 and autumn: R2 = 0.75). The HULIS-C and SOC most significantly correlated in autumn (R2 = 0.83). The data showed that PM2.5 atmospheric aerosols were more acidic in autumn and the concentrations of PM2.5 and its chemical components were much higher. Factor analysis (FA), cluster analysis of air mass back trajectories, potential source contribution function (PSCF) model and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) model were used to investigate the transport pathways and identify potential source areas of PM2.5 in different seasons. FA identified various sources of PM2.5: secondary aerosol reactions, the aged sea salts and road dusts. The results of cluster analysis, PSCF model and CWT model demonstrated that the local sources in the Yangtze River Delta Region (YRDR) made significant contributions to PM2.5. During winter and autumn long

  2. A method for characterizing late-season low-flow regime in the upper Grand Ronde River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Valerie J.; White, Seth

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a method for estimating ecologically relevant low-flow metrics that quantify late‑season streamflow regime for ungaged sites in the upper Grande Ronde River Basin, Oregon. The analysis presented here focuses on sites sampled by the Columbia River Inter‑Tribal Fish Commission as part of their efforts to monitor habitat restoration to benefit spring Chinook salmon recovery in the basin. Streamflow data were provided by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oregon Water Resources Department. Specific guidance was provided for selection of streamgages, development of probabilistic frequency distributions for annual 7-day low-flow events, and regionalization of the frequency curves based on multivariate analysis of watershed characteristics. Evaluation of the uncertainty associated with the various components of this protocol indicates that the results are reliable for the intended purpose of hydrologic classification to support ecological analysis of factors contributing to juvenile salmon success. They should not be considered suitable for more standard water-resource evaluations that require greater precision, especially those focused on management and forecasting of extreme low-flow conditions.

  3. Seasonal characterization of submicron aerosol chemical composition and organic aerosol sources in the southeastern United States: Atlanta, Georgia,and Look Rock, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Sri; Baumann, Karsten; Edgerton, Eric S.; Bairai, Solomon T.; Mueller, Stephen; Shaw, Stephanie L.; Knipping, Eladio M.; Gold, Avram; Surratt, Jason D.

    2016-04-01

    A year-long near-real-time characterization of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) was conducted at an urban (Atlanta, Georgia, in 2012) and rural (Look Rock, Tennessee, in 2013) site in the southeastern US using the Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) collocated with established air-monitoring network measurements. Seasonal variations in organic aerosol (OA) and inorganic aerosol species are attributed to meteorological conditions as well as anthropogenic and biogenic emissions in this region. The highest concentrations of NR-PM1 were observed during winter and fall seasons at the urban site and during spring and summer at the rural site. Across all seasons and at both sites, NR-PM1 was composed largely of OA (up to 76 %) and sulfate (up to 31 %). Six distinct OA sources were resolved by positive matrix factorization applied to the ACSM organic mass spectral data collected from the two sites over the 1 year of near-continuous measurements at each site: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA), low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA), isoprene-derived epoxydiols (IEPOX) OA (IEPOX-OA) and 91Fac (a factor dominated by a distinct ion at m/z 91 fragment ion previously observed in biogenic influenced areas). LV-OOA was observed throughout the year at both sites and contributed up to 66 % of total OA mass. HOA was observed during the entire year only at the urban site (on average 21 % of OA mass). BBOA (15-33 % of OA mass) was observed during winter and fall, likely dominated by local residential wood burning emission. Although SV-OOA contributes quite significantly ( ˜ 27 %), it was observed only at the urban site during colder seasons. IEPOX-OA was a major component (27-41 %) of OA at both sites, particularly in spring and summer. An ion fragment at m/z 75 is well correlated with the m/z 82 ion associated with the aerosol mass spectrum of IEPOX-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The

  4. Hurricane Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; JETT

    2008-01-01

    Three years after Katrina,the United States isdetermined not to repeatits mistakes This year has seen an unusually activeand deadly hurricane season, asstorms line up in the Atlantic Oceanto pummel the Caribbean and UnitedStates coastline.

  5. Amostragem, diversidade e sazonalidade de Hemerobiidae (Neuroptera em Coffea arabica L. cv. Obatã (Rubiaceae Sampling, diversity and seasonal occurrence of Hemerobiidae (Neuroptera in Coffea arabica L. cv. Obatã (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogéria Inês Rosa Lara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar métodos de amostragem, abundância sazonal e diversidade da população de Hemerobiidae associada a cultivo de café Coffea arabica L. cv. Obatã em Cravinhos, São Paulo, Brasil. Para tanto foram realizadas amostragens semanais no período de maio de 2005 a abril de 2006. Os métodos de amostragem utilizados foram: rede de varredura e armadilhas de Möericke e luminosa. Foram coletados 491 exemplares de Hemerobiidae pertencentes a quatro gêneros: Nusalala (231 espécimes / 47,2% do total de hemerobiídeos coletados, Megalomus (110 / 22,5%, Hemerobius (104 / 21,3% e Sympherobius (44 / 9%. A rede de varredura foi a mais eficiente para a captura de Hemerobiidae e a armadilha de Möericke foi o método de amostragem que apresentou os maiores valores de diversidade (H'= 0,56 e de equitabilidade (J= 0,93. Os hemerobiídeos estiveram presentes na área estudada durante o ano todo; as maiores freqüências foram registradas entre agosto e março (final do inverno, primavera e verão e o maior pico populacional ocorreu em janeiro (na metade do verão. Megalomus apresentou correlação positiva e significativa (pThis study evaluated sampling methods, seasonality and diversity of the hemerobiids associated to Coffea arabica L. cv. Obatã over a one-year period in Cravinhos, São Paulo, Brazil. The collecting methods were: sweeping net, light trap and Möericke trap. 489 hemerobiids belonging to four genera, were collected: Nusalala (231 individuals / 47.2% of the hemerobiids collected, Megalomus (110 / 22.5%, Hemerobius (104 / 21.3% and Sympherobius (44 / 9%. The sweeping net seems to be the most efficient method of sampling to capture Hemerobiidae and the Möericke trap presented the higher value of diversity (H'= 0,56 and equitability (J= 0,93. The hemerobiids were recorded in the area along the entire year. The highest abundance occurred from August to March (end of winter, spring and summer and the population

  6. PIXE characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 particulate matter collected during the winter season in Shanghai city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The samples of PM2.5 and PM10 inhalable particulate matter had been collected during the period of December 2002-January 2003 at nineteen representative sites of Shanghai urban and suburb area in order to investigate the chemical characterization of aerosol particle in winter. The samples were analyzed to determine the average concentrations for up to twenty elements by means of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). It was found that the average elemental concentrations in the urban center are higher than those in the suburb, except for Ti and P. The particulate mass data demonstrate that the ratio range of PM2.5/PM10 is from 0.32 to 0.85 and its average ratio is 0.6. The result of the enrichment factor shows that the inhalable particles may be divided into two categories, i.e., soil elements from the earth crust and anthropogenic pollution elements. It is noticed that toxic or harmful elements such as S, As, Pb, Ni, Mn and Se are enriched mainly in fine particles with diameter less than 2.5 μm. The fingerprints of major pollution sources such as coal (or oil) burning, vehicle exhaust emission and industry are also presented and discussed. (author)

  7. Characterization, localization, and seasonal changes of the sucrose transporter FeSUT1 in the phloem of Fraxinus excelsior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öner-Sieben, Soner; Rappl, Christine; Sauer, Norbert; Stadler, Ruth; Lohaus, Gertrud

    2015-08-01

    Trees are generally assumed to be symplastic phloem loaders. A typical feature for most wooden species is an open minor vein structure with symplastic connections between mesophyll cells and phloem cells, which allow sucrose to move cell-to-cell through the plasmodesmata into the phloem. Fraxinus excelsior (Oleaceae) also translocates raffinose family oligosaccharides in addition to sucrose. Sucrose concentration was recently shown to be higher in the phloem sap than in the mesophyll cells. This suggests the involvement of apoplastic steps and the activity of sucrose transporters in addition to symplastic phloem-loading processes. In this study, the sucrose transporter FeSUT1 from F. excelsior was analysed. Heterologous expression in baker's yeast showed that FeSUT1 mediates the uptake of sucrose. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that FeSUT1 was exclusively located in phloem cells of minor veins and in the transport phloem of F. excelsior. Further characterization identified these cells as sieve elements and possibly ordinary companion cells but not as intermediary cells. The localization and expression pattern point towards functions of FeSUT1 in phloem loading of sucrose as well as in sucrose retrieval. FeSUT1 is most likely responsible for the observed sucrose gradient between mesophyll and phloem. The elevated expression level of FeSUT1 indicated an increased apoplastic carbon export activity from the leaves during spring and late autumn. It is hypothesized that the importance of apoplastic loading is high under low-sucrose conditions and that the availability of two different phloem-loading mechanisms confers advantages for temperate woody species like F. excelsior. PMID:26022258

  8. FOUR SEASONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金典; 徐吟潇

    2012-01-01

    There are four seasons in a year. When spring comes, it gets warmer and warmer. Green grass bursts out from the ground and covers the earth with green clothes. Some trees sprout bright flowers. Swallows fly high up in the sky and sing happily as if they are welcoming the spring.

  9. Applications of multi-season hyperspectral remote sensing for acid mine water characterization and mapping of secondary iron minerals associated with acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gwendolyn E.

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting from the oxidation of sulfides in mine waste is a major environmental issue facing the mining industry today. Open pit mines, tailings ponds, ore stockpiles, and waste rock dumps can all be significant sources of pollution, primarily heavy metals. These large mining-induced footprints are often located across vast geographic expanses and are difficult to access. With the continuing advancement of imaging satellites, remote sensing may provide a useful monitoring tool for pit lake water quality and the rapid assessment of abandoned mine sites. This study explored the applications of laboratory spectroscopy and multi-season hyperspectral remote sensing for environmental monitoring of mine waste environments. Laboratory spectral experiments were first performed on acid mine waters and synthetic ferric iron solutions to identify and isolate the unique spectral properties of mine waters. These spectral characterizations were then applied to airborne hyperspectral imagery for identification of poor water quality in AMD ponds at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site, CA. Finally, imagery varying in temporal and spatial resolutions were used to identify changes in mineralogy over weathering overburden piles and on dry AMD pond liner surfaces at the Leviathan Mine. Results show the utility of hyperspectral remote sensing for monitoring a diverse range of surfaces associated with AMD.

  10. Characterization of Zn-bearing chlorite by Moessbauer and infrared spectroscopy - occurrence associated to the Pb-Zn-Ag deposits of Canoas, PR, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to provide new insights on mineralogical aspects of geochemical mapping/natural processes related to the chlorite formation (e.g. crystallochemistry and mechanisms of formation of these materials, which has been applied in different studies of environmental profiles), we investigated chlorite samples associated to the Pb-Zn-Ag sulfide ore from Canoas 1 deposit (Vale do Ribeira, state of Parana, Brazil). By means of Moessbauer (MS) and infrared (IV) spectroscopy, we addressed some issues as those related to the chloritization processes, as well as how Zn would be incorporated into its crystalline structure. Results carried out by ME and IV spectroscopy clearly pointed out for a chlorite occurrence, which in fact incorporates Zn into its structure and also alters the structural patterns for this mineral. Moreover, ME data sets indicated the presence of Fe which is located only in octahedral sites, in trans-configuration, and the Zn emplacement by the chloritization process also occurs in the brucite layer. (author)

  11. Characterization of collagen fibers by means of texture analysis of second harmonic generation images using orientation-dependent gray level co-occurrence matrix method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyan; Li, Hui; Wang, Chunyou; Gou, Shanmiao; Fu, Ling

    2012-02-01

    Collagen is the most prominent protein in the human body, making up 30% of the total protein content. Quantitative studies have shown structural differences between collagen fibers of the normal and diseased tissues, due to the remodeling of the extracellular matrix during the pathological process. The dominant orientation, which is an important characteristic of collagen fibers, has not been taken into consideration for quantitative collagen analysis. Based on the conventional gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method, the authors proposed the orientation-dependent GLCM (OD-GLCM) method by estimating the dominant orientation of collagen fibers. The authors validated the utility of the OD-GLCM method on second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopic images of tendons from rats with different ages. Compared with conventional GLCM method, the authors' method has not only improved the discrimination between different tissues but also provided additional texture information of the orderliness of collagen fibers and the fiber size. The OD-GLCM method was further applied to the differentiation of the preliminary SHG images of normal and cancerous human pancreatic tissues. The combination of SHG microscopy and the OD-GLCM method might be helpful for the evaluation of diseases marked with abnormal collagen morphology.

  12. Occurrence and characterization of monophasic Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (1,4,[5],12:i:-) of non-human origin in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasyl, Dariusz; Hoszowski, Andrzej

    2012-11-01

    The epidemiological role of monophasic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium tends to increase, indicating pandemic spread. The aim of the present study was to confirm the occurrence of this serological variant in Poland and to report the first cases in Belarus and Ukraine. Genetic similarity of monophasic isolates with Salmonella Typhimurium already present in these countries was assessed. Serotyping, duplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, antibiotic resistance and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling have been used to meet the study objectives. Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium was found at low frequency in various sources along the food chain, including feed, animals, meat, and sewage sludge. The first isolates date back to 2008. The clones observed in other European countries were found, along with a number of new, unrelated genetic lineages appearing locally in three countries. Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium is claimed to replace and discontinue the domination of pentaresistant Salmonella Typhimurium. Pigs and pork are assumed to be the main vectors of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium, but their relevance for public health is limited. PMID:23009171

  13. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from domestic animals in a rural area surrounding Atlantic dry forest fragments in Teodoro Sampaio municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevá, Anaiá da Paixão; Funada, Mikaela Renata; Souza, Sheila de Oliveira; Nava, Alessandra; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José; Soares, Rodrigo Martins

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in domestic animals in rural properties surrounding rain forest fragments within the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, southeastern Brazil. Conventional sucrose flotation method followed by molecular characterization of the parasites by sequencing PCR products amplified from SSU rRNA gene were used. Stool samples were collected from domestic animals raised as pets and livestock in all rural properties surrounding three forest fragments. Samples from cattle (197), equine (63), pigs (25), sheep (11), and dogs (28) were collected from 98 rural properties. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium within each animal species was 3.0% (6/197) among cattle and 10.7% (3/28) among dogs. Cryptosporidium was not detected in stool samples from equine, sheep, and pigs. All sequences obtained from the six samples of calves showed molecular identity with Cryptosporidium andersoni while all sequences from dog samples were similar to C. canis. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in these domestic animal species was low. The absence of C. parvum in the present study suggests that the zoonotic cycle of cryptosporidiosis may not be relevant in the region studied. The presence of Cryptosporidium species seldom described in humans may be, otherwise, important for the wild fauna as these animals are a source of infection and dissemination of this protozoan to other animal species. The impact and magnitude of infection by C. andersoni in wild ruminants and C. canis in wild canids have to be assessed in future studies to better understand the actual importance of these species in this region. PMID:21184703

  14. Occurrence of halogenated alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Gordon W

    2012-01-01

    Once considered to be isolation artifacts or chemical "mistakes" of nature, the number of naturally occurring organohalogen compounds has grown from a dozen in 1954 to >5000 today. Of these, at least 25% are halogenated alkaloids. This is not surprising since nitrogen-containing pyrroles, indoles, carbolines, tryptamines, tyrosines, and tyramines are excellent platforms for biohalogenation, particularly in the marine environment where both chloride and bromide are plentiful for biooxidation and subsequent incorporation into these electron-rich substrates. This review presents the occurrence of all halogenated alkaloids, with the exception of marine bromotyrosines where coverage begins where it left off in volume 61 of The Alkaloids. Whereas the biological activity of these extraordinary compounds is briefly cited for some examples, a future volume of The Alkaloids will present full coverage of this topic and will also include selected syntheses of halogenated alkaloids. Natural organohalogens of all types, especially marine and terrestrial halogenated alkaloids, comprise a rapidly expanding class of natural products, in many cases expressing powerful biological activity. This enormous proliferation has several origins: (1) a revitalization of natural product research in a search for new drugs, (2) improved compound characterization methods (multidimensional NMR, high-resolution mass spectrometry), (3) specific enzyme-based and other biological assays, (4) sophisticated collection methods (SCUBA and remote submersibles for deep ocean marine collections), (5) new separation and purification techniques (HPLC and countercurrent separation), (6) a greater appreciation of traditional folk medicine and ethobotany, and (7) marine bacteria and fungi as novel sources of natural products. Halogenated alkaloids are truly omnipresent in the environment. Indeed, one compound, Q1 (234), is ubiquitous in the marine food web and is found in the Inuit from their diet of whale

  15. Factors influencing the seasonal patterns of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auda Fares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of seasonal patterns in infectious disease occurrence dates back at least as far as the hippocratic era, but the mechanisms underlying these fluctuations remain poorly understood. Many classes of mechanistic hypotheses have been proposed to explain seasonality of various directly transmitted diseases, including at least the following; human activity, seasonal variability in human immune system function, seasonal variations in vitamin D levels, seasonality of melatonin, and pathogen infectivity. In this short paper will briefly discuss the role of these factors in the seasonal patterns of infectious diseases.

  16. [Occurrence and behavioral patterns of the spotted coastal dolphin Stenella attenuata (Cetacea: delphinidae) in the Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Collado, Laura; Ramírez, Alvaro Morales

    2005-01-01

    Dolphins are characterized by a significant behavioral versatility, which allows them to respond to environmental seasonality. Seasonal variation in dolphin behavior in tropical waters is not well known. Stenella attenuata graffmani is a resident dolphin in the clearly defined seasonal Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica, and we studied if dolphin group size, occurrence and behavioral patterns were associated with season and time of day in the gulf. Using strip transects we surveyed two locations for three consecutive years. School size ranged from 1 to 50 individuals, mean group size was 10.16 (SD = 9.61) individuals. Overall, foraging activities were the most frequent, followed by social interactions and travel. From 6:00 AM to 9:00 AM we mostly observed social interactions, followed by feeding-socializing (9:00 AM-12:00 PM) and feeding exclusively (12:00 PM-3:00 PM). Social activities intensified afterwards (3:00 PM-6:00 PM). Behavior and gulf seasonality were associated (chi2 = 90.52, gl = 6, p<0.05, n = 99). In the dry season (December-April) feeding predominated over other activities, but socializing was more frequent in the early rainy season (May-July). Larger groups (mean 12 dolphins) forage actively; smaller groups (mean 6 dolphins 6.51 +/- 5.12) foraged more passively. Seasonal variation in dolphin activities are likely to be associated with food availability, as observed in the high number of groups involved in foraging behaviors, and a high investment in foraging activities during the dry season. PMID:17354439

  17. An objective method for partitioning the entire flood season into multiple sub-seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Singh, Vijay P.; Guo, Shenglian; Zhou, Jianzhong; Zhang, Junhong; Liu, Pan

    2015-09-01

    Information on flood seasonality is required in many practical applications, such as seasonal frequency analysis and reservoir operation. Several statistical methods for identifying flood seasonality have been widely used, such as directional method (DS) and relative frequency (RF) method. However, using these methods, flood seasons are identified subjectively by visually assessing the temporal distribution of flood occurrences. In this study, a new method is proposed to identify flood seasonality and partition the entire flood season into multiple sub-seasons objectively. A statistical experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Results demonstrated that the proposed method performed satisfactorily. Then the proposed approach was applied to the Geheyan and Baishan Reservoirs, China, having different flood regimes. It is shown that the proposed method performs extremely well for the observed data, and is more objective than the traditional methods.

  18. DREAMS: a payload on-board the ExoMars EDM Schiaparelli for the characterization of Martian environment during the statistical dust storm season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfese, Cesare; Esposito, Francesca; Debei, Stefano; Bettanini, Carlo; Arruego Rodríguez, Ignacio; Colombatti, Giacomo; Harri, Ari-Matty.; Montmessin, Franck; Wilson, Colin; Aboudan, Alessio; Mugnuolo, Raffaele; Pirrotta, Simone; Marchetti, Ernesto; Witasse, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    , the dust opacity, and the atmospheric electric properties close to the surface of Mars. It will fly in January 2016 on-board the Schiaparelli Entry, Descent and landing Demonstrator Module (EDM) of the ExoMars space mission. It is foreseen to land on Mars in late October 2016 during the statistical dust storm season. Therefore, DREAMS might have the unique chance to make scientific measurements to characterize the Martian environment in a dusty scenario also performing the first ever measurements of atmospheric electric field on Mars. The relationship between the process of dust entrainment in the atmosphere during dust events and the enhancement of atmospheric electric field has been widely studied in an intense field test campaign in the Sahara desert. In order to better characterize this physical process, we performed atmospheric and environmental measurements comparable to those that DREAMS will acquire on Mars. Preliminary results will be discussed. DREAMS is in a high development state. A first model has been delivered to ESA and has been integrated in the EDM Flight Model. Integration tests are on-going. The DREAMS Flight Model will be delivered at the end of March this year.

  19. Forest fire occurrence prediction in Slovenia using GIS technology

    OpenAIRE

    Šturm, Tomaž

    2013-01-01

    The thesis discusses forest fire occurrence in the Karst forest management region in the period from 1995 to 2009. Data analysis has shown that fire occurrence has two season peaks which are highly associated with human activities in the natural environment (land cultivation, railway). Therefore fire mostly starts in unwooded areas, from where the wind spreads it into the woods. Most frequently it occurs in deciduous forests, and the largest burnt areas occur in coniferous forests. The kernel...

  20. Synchronous seasonal change in fin whale song in the North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Erin M; Širović, Ana; Bayless, Alexandra R; Hildebrand, John A

    2014-01-01

    Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) song consists of down-swept pulses arranged into stereotypic sequences that can be characterized according to the interval between successive pulses. As in blue (B. musculus) and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), these song sequences may be geographically distinct and may correlate with population boundaries in some regions. We measured inter-pulse intervals of fin whale songs within year-round acoustic datasets collected between 2000 and 2006 in three regions of the eastern North Pacific: Southern California, the Bering Sea, and Hawaii. A distinctive song type that was recorded in all three regions is characterized by singlet and doublet inter-pulse intervals that increase seasonally, then annually reset to the same shorter intervals at the beginning of each season. This song type was recorded in the Bering Sea and off Southern California from September through May and off Hawaii from December through April, with the song interval generally synchronized across all monitoring locations. The broad geographic and seasonal occurrence of this particular fin whale song type may represent a single population broadly distributed throughout the eastern Pacific with no clear seasonal migratory pattern. Previous studies attempting to infer population structure of fin whales in the North Pacific using synchronous individual song samples have been unsuccessful, likely because they did not account for the seasonal lengthening in song intervals observed here. PMID:25521493

  1. Synchronous seasonal change in fin whale song in the North Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Oleson

    Full Text Available Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus song consists of down-swept pulses arranged into stereotypic sequences that can be characterized according to the interval between successive pulses. As in blue (B. musculus and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, these song sequences may be geographically distinct and may correlate with population boundaries in some regions. We measured inter-pulse intervals of fin whale songs within year-round acoustic datasets collected between 2000 and 2006 in three regions of the eastern North Pacific: Southern California, the Bering Sea, and Hawaii. A distinctive song type that was recorded in all three regions is characterized by singlet and doublet inter-pulse intervals that increase seasonally, then annually reset to the same shorter intervals at the beginning of each season. This song type was recorded in the Bering Sea and off Southern California from September through May and off Hawaii from December through April, with the song interval generally synchronized across all monitoring locations. The broad geographic and seasonal occurrence of this particular fin whale song type may represent a single population broadly distributed throughout the eastern Pacific with no clear seasonal migratory pattern. Previous studies attempting to infer population structure of fin whales in the North Pacific using synchronous individual song samples have been unsuccessful, likely because they did not account for the seasonal lengthening in song intervals observed here.

  2. Characterizing CO2 fluxes for growing and non-growing seasons in a shrub ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shixiao; ZHAO Xinquan; FU Yuling; ZHAO Liang; LI Yingnian; CAO Guangmin; GU Song; WANG Qinxue; DU Mingyuan

    2005-01-01

    To assess carbon budget for shrub ecosystems on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, CO2flux was measured with an open-path eddy covariance system for an alpine shrub ecosystem during growing and non-growing seasons. CO2 flux dynamics was distinct between the two seasons. During the growing season from May to September, the ecosystem exhibited net CO2uptake from 08:00 to 19:00 (Beijing Standard Time), but net CO2 emission from 19:00 to 08:00.Maximum CO2 uptake appeared around 12:00 with values of 0.71, 1.19, 1.46 and 0.67 g CO2m-2 h-1 for June, July, August and September, respectively. Diurnal fluctuation of CO2 flux showed higher correlation with photosynthetic photon flux density than temperature. The maximum net CO2 influx occurred in August with a value of 247 g CO2 m-2. The total CO2 uptake by the ecosystem was up to 583 g CO2 m-2 for the growing season. During the non-growing season from January to April and from October to December, CO2 flux showed small fluctuation with the largest net CO2 efflux of 0.30 g CO2 m-2 h-1 in April. The diurnal CO2 flux was close to zero during most time of the day, but showed a small net CO2 efflux from 11:00 to 18:00. Diurnal CO2 flux, is significantly correlated to diurnal temperature in the non-growing season. The maximum monthly net CO2 efflux appeared in April, with a value of 105 g CO2 m-2. The total net CO2 efflux for the whole non-growing season was 356 g CO2 m-2.

  3. Oviposition activity and seasonal pattern of a population of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (L. (Diptera: Culicidae in subtropical Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micieli María Victoria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Monthly oviposition activity and the seasonal density pattern of Aedes aegypti were studied using larvitraps and ovitraps during a research carried out by the Public Health Ministry of Salta Province, in Tartagal, Aguaray and Salvador Mazza cities, in subtropical Argentina. The A. aegypti population was active in both dry and wet seasons with a peak in March, accordant with the heaviest rainfall. From May to November, the immature population level remained low, but increased in December. Ae. aegypti oviposition activity increased during the fall and summer, when the relative humidity was 60% or higher. Eggs were found in large numbers of ovitraps during all seasons but few eggs were observed in each one during winter. The occurrence and the number of eggs laid were variable when both seasons and cities were compared. The reduction of the population during the winter months was related to the low in the relative humidity of the atmosphere. Significant differences were detected between oviposition occurrences in Tartagal and Aguaray and Salvador Mazza cities, but no differences in the number of eggs were observed. Two factors characterize the seasonal distribution pattern of Ae. aegypti in subtropical Argentina, the absence of a break during winter and an oviposition activity concomitant of the high relative humidity of the atmosphere.

  4. Alternativa para caracterização da condutividade hidráulica saturada do solo utilizando probabilidade de ocorrência Alternative of characterization to the soil hydraulic conductivity utilizing probability of occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Glória Bastos de Freitas Mesquita

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A Condutividade Hidráulica Saturada (Ksat devido à sua importância em informar sobre a capacidade de transporte de água, solutos e substâncias químicas no solo deve ser bem caracterizada, pois de um modo geral, seu valor é utilizado nos cálculos de fluxos no solo. Com o objetivo de propor uma alternativa para caracterizá-la, a partir de uma série de dados, utilizou-se a função densidade de probabilidade lognormal para obter os valores da propriedade correspondentes aos níveis de 5 a 95% de probabilidade de ocorrência, visando descrever e indicar melhores valores a serem adotados como Ksat para a área considerada. Como resultado obteve-se uma análise da variável em termos de probabilidade de ocorrência. Essa representação, na medida em que associa o nível de probabilidade ao valor adotado para a propriedade, permite ao pesquisador avaliar o risco na estimativa de medidas dependentes de Ksat, visto que esta propriedade no solo apresenta alta variabilidade.The Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of the soil (Ksat due to its importance in inform about the capacity of transport of water, solutes and chemical substances in the soil should be well characterized, since in general, this value is used in calculations of flows in the soil. Aiming at proposing an alternative to characterize the Ksat, starting from a series of data, the function density of probability lognormal was used to obtain the values of the property which corresponde to the levels of occurrence probability from 5 to 95%, in order to describe and to indicate better values to be adopted as Ksat for the considered area. As a result, it was obtained an analysis of the values of the variable in terms of occurrence probability. This representation, associating each value to a probability level, allows to the researcher to evaluate the error on estimation of measurements that depend on Ksat, due to the fact that, this property in the soil presents high variability.

  5. Landscape seasons and air mass dynamics in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latvia is located in the middle of an area where the boreal and nemoral zones and the regions of oceanic and continental climate meet, and it was studied as a model territory of the most typical variation of boreo-nemoral ecotone. The subject of this study was seasonal dynamics of the state of landscapes and diachronous links between seasons. It was found that landscapes undergo 12 seasonal states or seasons during the annual cycle of insulation and air mass occurrence. Each season may be distinguished by a definite amount of solar radiation, distinctive state of heat and water balance, phenological state of vegetation, and a distinctive occurrence of different air mass types and their particular 'association'. During each season these variables show a particular combination of numerical values and a distinctive landscape pattern

  6. Orbit-spin coupling and the interannual variability of global-scale dust storm occurrence on Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Shirley, James H

    2016-01-01

    A new physical hypothesis predicts that a weak coupling of the orbital and rotational motions of extended bodies may give rise to a modulation of circulatory flows within their atmospheres. Driven cycles of intensification and relaxation of large-scale circulatory flows are predicted, with the phasing of these changes linked directly to the rate of change of the orbital angular momentum with respect to inertial frames. We test the hypothesis that global-scale dust storms (GDS) on Mars may occur when periods of circulatory intensification (associated with positive and negative extrema of the waveform) coincide with the southern summer dust storm season on Mars. The orbit-spin coupling hypothesis additionally predicts that the intervening transitional periods, which are characterized by the disappearance and subsequent sign change of this waveform, may be unfavorable for the occurrence of GDS, when they occur during the southern summer dust storm season. These hypotheses are confirmed through comparisons betwee...

  7. Analysis of ITU-R Performance and Characterization of Ku Band Satellite Downlink Signals during Rainy Season over Chennai Region of India

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh, S.; Madhan, M. G.; Sivaraj, M.; Parasuraman, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present the analysis of Ku band Satellite signal reception during rainy season over Chennai region, India (Latitude: 12° 56' 60 N, Longitude: 80° 7' 60 E). We also examine the effectiveness of International Telecommunication Union – Radio communication (ITU-R) model in predicting the rainfall induced attenuation in Ku band, over this region. An improved Simulink model for Digital Video Broadcast – Satellite (DVB-S2) downlink channel incorporating rain attenuation and Cross P...

  8. Seasonal characterization of CDOM for lakes in semiarid regions of Northeast China using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Song, Kaishan; Wen, Zhidan; Li, Lin; Zang, Shuying; Shao, Tiantian; Li, Sijia; Du, Jia

    2016-03-01

    The seasonal characteristics of fluorescent components in chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) for lakes in the semiarid region of Northeast China were examined by excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Two humic-like (C1 and C2) and protein-like (C3 and C4) components were identified using PARAFAC. The average fluorescence intensity of the four components differed under seasonal variation from June and August 2013 to February and April 2014. Components 1 and 2 exhibited a strong linear correlation (R2 = 0.628). Significantly positive linear relationships between CDOM absorption coefficients a(254) (R2 = 0.72, 0.46, p components (C1 and C2) were exhibited, respectively. A significant relationship (R2 = 0.930) was found between salinity and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). However, almost no obvious correlation was found between salinity and EEM-PARAFAC-extracted components except for C3 (R2 = 0.469). Results from this investigation demonstrate that the EEM-PARAFAC technique can be used to evaluate the seasonal dynamics of CDOM fluorescent components for inland waters in the semiarid regions of Northeast China, and to quantify CDOM components for other waters with similar environmental conditions.

  9. Comparison of drought occurrence in selected Slovak and Czech catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendekova, Miriam; Fendek, Marian; Porubska, Diana; Hanel, Martin; Horacek, Stanislav; Martinkova, Marta; Vizina, Adam

    2014-05-01

    The presented study is focused on the analysis and comparison of hydrological drought occurrence, development and duration in six small to middle sized catchments in the Czech Republic (CZ) and Slovakia. The main questions to be answered are: (1) are there correlations between the physical conditions in the catchments and drought occurrence, and (2) does the spatial trend of drought occurrence exist. The Žitava catchment is located in the central western part of Slovakia having runoff dominated by rainfall with the contribution of snow melting during the spring period. The Belá River catchment is located on the contact of Západné and Vysoké Tatry Mts. in the north of Slovakia. The runoff is snow to snow-rain combined type. The Ľupčianka catchment is located on the northern slopes of the Nízke Tatry Mts. in the northern part of the central Slovakia. The runoff regime is snow-rain combined in the upper part of the catchment, and of rain-snow type in the rest of catchment. The Rakovnický potok brook (CZ) has its spring in Rakovnická pahorkatina hilly land. Runoff is dominated by rainfall, quite heavily influenced by water uptakes in the catchment. The Teplá River (CZ) originates in peat meadows in the western part of the Czech Republic. Runoff is dominated by rainfall. The Metuje catchment (CZ) is formed by Adršsbach-Teplické stěny Upland. The headwater part is typical by deeply incest valleys, table mountains and pseudokarst caves. The discharge is fed dominantly by groundwater. The streamflow drought was characterized using discharge data, the groundwater drought using the base flow values. The local minimum method was used for base flow separation. The threshold level method (Q80, BF80) and the sequent peak algorithm were used for calculation of drought duration in discharge and base flow time series. The data of the same three decades of the common period (1971 - 1980, 1981 - 1990 and 1991 - 2000) were used. The resulting base flow values along with

  10. Seasonal Changes in Bird Species and Feeding Guilds along Elevational Gradients of the Central Himalayas, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katuwal, Hem Bahadur; Basnet, Khadga; Khanal, Bhaiya; Devkota, Shiva; Rai, Sanjeev Kumar; Gajurel, Jyoti Prasad; Scheidegger, Christoph; Nobis, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    The Himalayas are a global hotspot for bird diversity with a large number of threatened species, but little is known about seasonal changes in bird communities along elevational gradients in this region. We studied the seasonality of bird diversity in six valleys of the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Using 318 plots with a 50 m radius, located from 2200 to 3800 m a.s.l., and repeated sampling during different seasons (mainly pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon), we analyzed 3642 occurrences of 178 species. Birds classified in the literature as resident were more species-rich than migratory birds (140 vs. 38 species). In all six valleys and within the studied elevation range, species richness of all birds showed a peak at mid-elevation levels of 2600 or 3000 m a.s.l. Similar patterns were found for the most species-rich feeding guilds of insectivores (96 species) and omnivores (24 species), whereas the species richness of herbivores (37 species including frugivores) increased towards higher elevations. Among these feeding guilds, only species richness of insectivores showed pronounced seasonal changes with higher species numbers during post-monsoon season. Similarly, individual bird species showed distinct spatio-temporal distribution patterns, with transitions from species dominated by elevational differences to those characterized by strong seasonal changes. In an era of climate change, the results demonstrate that individual bird species as well as feeding guilds might greatly differ in their responses to climate warming and changes in the seasonality of the precipitation regime, two aspects of climate change which should not be analyzed independently. PMID:27367903

  11. Seasonal Changes in Bird Species and Feeding Guilds along Elevational Gradients of the Central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katuwal, Hem Bahadur; Basnet, Khadga; Khanal, Bhaiya; Devkota, Shiva; Rai, Sanjeev Kumar; Gajurel, Jyoti Prasad; Scheidegger, Christoph; Nobis, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    The Himalayas are a global hotspot for bird diversity with a large number of threatened species, but little is known about seasonal changes in bird communities along elevational gradients in this region. We studied the seasonality of bird diversity in six valleys of the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Using 318 plots with a 50 m radius, located from 2200 to 3800 m a.s.l., and repeated sampling during different seasons (mainly pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon), we analyzed 3642 occurrences of 178 species. Birds classified in the literature as resident were more species-rich than migratory birds (140 vs. 38 species). In all six valleys and within the studied elevation range, species richness of all birds showed a peak at mid-elevation levels of 2600 or 3000 m a.s.l. Similar patterns were found for the most species-rich feeding guilds of insectivores (96 species) and omnivores (24 species), whereas the species richness of herbivores (37 species including frugivores) increased towards higher elevations. Among these feeding guilds, only species richness of insectivores showed pronounced seasonal changes with higher species numbers during post-monsoon season. Similarly, individual bird species showed distinct spatio-temporal distribution patterns, with transitions from species dominated by elevational differences to those characterized by strong seasonal changes. In an era of climate change, the results demonstrate that individual bird species as well as feeding guilds might greatly differ in their responses to climate warming and changes in the seasonality of the precipitation regime, two aspects of climate change which should not be analyzed independently. PMID:27367903

  12. Pluto and Charon: Formation, seasons, composition

    OpenAIRE

    Brown­, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    Pluto and Charon, once thought to be a singular system in an odd orbit at the edge of the solar system, are now known as members of a vast population of icy bodies beyond Neptune. Models for the occurrence of the odd orbit and formation of these bodies in the context of the total population are reviewed. Pluto's orbital characteristics, coupled with the existence of volatiles on the surface, suggest that large-scale seasonal change should occur on the surface. Models of seasonal variability a...

  13. Seasonal Characterization of Solar Radiation Estimates Obtained from a MSG-SEVIRI-Derived Dataset and a RAMS-Based Operational Forecasting System over the Western Mediterranean Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is a key factor in the Earth’s energy balance and it is used as a crucial input parameter in many disciplines such as ecology, agriculture, solar energy and hydrology. Thus, accurate information of the global downward surface shortwave flux integration into the grid is of significant importance. From the different strategies used for grid integration of the surface solar radiation estimates, satellite-derived and numerical weather prediction forecasts are two interesting alternatives. In the current work, we present a comprehensive evaluation of the global downward solar radiation forecasts provided by the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS and the Downwelling Surface Shortwave Flux (DSSF product, derived from the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI. Both solar radiation estimates are compared to thirteen ground-based weather station measurements for the winter 2010–2011 and the summer 2011 seasons. For these periods, the most recent versions of RAMS (4.4 and 6.0 were running in parallel within the real-time weather forecasting system implemented over the Valencia Region. The solar radiation performance and accuracy are evaluated for these datasets segmented into two atmospheric conditions (clear and cloudy skies and two terrain classes (flat and hilly. DSSF shows a very good agreement over the study area. Statistical daily evaluations show that corresponding errors vary between seasons, with absolute bias ranging from −30 to 40 W·m−2, absolute root mean square errors (RMSE from 25 to 60 W·m−2, relative bias ranging from −11% to 7% and relative RMSE from 7% to 22%, depending on the sky condition and the terrain location as well, thus reproducing the observations more faithfully than RAMS, which produces higher errors in comparison to the measurements. In this regard, statistical daily evaluations show absolute bias values varying from −50 to 160 W·m−2

  14. Analysis of ITU-R Performance and Characterization of Ku Band Satellite Downlink Signals during Rainy Season over Chennai Region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suresh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the analysis of Ku band Satellite signal reception during rainy season over Chennai region, India (Latitude: 12° 56' 60 N, Longitude: 80° 7' 60 E. We also examine the effectiveness of International Telecommunication Union – Radio communication (ITU-R model in predicting the rainfall induced attenuation in Ku band, over this region. An improved Simulink model for Digital Video Broadcast – Satellite (DVB-S2 downlink channel incorporating rain attenuation and Cross Polarization Discrimination (XPD effects is developed to study the rain attenuation effects, by introducing the experimental data in the ITU-R model pertaining to that region. Based on the improved model, a Monte Carlo simulation of the DVB–S2 signal link is carried out and the performance is analyzed by received constellation and Bit Error Rate (BER parameters.

  15. Modulation of stable auroral red (SAR) arc occurrence rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data taken by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory photometer chain have been reviewed in a comprehensive search for stable auroral red (SAR) arc events during the period 1968--1978. Results of this search indicate both a seasonal and solar cycle control of SAR arclike events. The occurrence rate of these events is shown to follow the solar activity cycle. though with a phase lag of 2--3 years. Further, a rather distinct summertime minimum of occurrence frequency is pointed out (northern hemisphere). Possible mechanisms for the existence of this effect are discussed

  16. Seasonal to sub-seasonal palaeoenvironmental changes in Lake Sihetun (Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation, NE China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hethke, Manja; Fürsich, Franz T.; Jiang, Baoyu; Pan, Yanhong

    2013-01-01

    Sedimentary properties of the fossil-bearing deposits of Lake Sihetun (Yixian Formation, Lower Cretaceous) were investigated on a high-resolution, sub-millimetric scale. Data were obtained from three excavations and 50 thin-sections. Lake evolution is subdivided into four phases, of which Phases 2 and 3 provided suitable conditions for excellent fossil preservation. Six microfacies are recognized within these two phases: (1) allochthonous, siliciclastic laminae (26.1 μm thick on average), (2) chrysophycean cyst accumulations, (3) tuffaceous silt, (4) lacustrine chemical precipitates, (5) tuff and (6) normal-graded, sandy to silty siliciclastics. Phase 2 is characterized by Microfacies 1-5 and Phase 3 by Microfacies 6. Biofilms are common, and mass occurrences of framboids (pyrite pseudomorphs) are occurring in sediments of Phase 2. Varves can be verified for Microfacies 2 and 4 (179 μm thick). Thicknesses of Microfacies 2 highly fluctuate depending on the occurrence of seasonal heavier rains, which led to deposition of tuffaceous silt layers (Microfacies 3). Meromictic conditions dominated Phase 2, but recurrent mixing is demonstrated by short-lived colonization events by a benthic invertebrate fauna. The transition of Phase 2 to holomictic Phase 3 is marked by a dramatic increase in sediment yield associated with a change from dry to humid climates. Fossil preservation differs according to the diverse physical and chemical conditions during lake evolution. Phase 2 yields framboid replacement of organic tissue and excellent preservation of growth increments of clam-shrimp carapaces, which are poorly preserved in Phase 3. Conversely, though exhibiting a different mode of preservation, insect fossils are superbly preserved as dark stains sealed by silica coatings during Phase 3.

  17. Managing the Sneezing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Managing Allergies Managing the Sneezing Season Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table ... Academy of Allergen, Asthma and Immunology Read More "Managing Allergies" Articles Managing the Sneezing Season / A Pollen ...

  18. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Close ‹ Back to Health Library Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the ... How do I know if I have seasonal allergies? According to Dr. Georgeson, the best way to ...

  19. Seasonal Influenza Questions & Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Seasonal Influenza, More Information Questions & Answers Language: English Español ...

  20. Dry season streamflow persistence in seasonal climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dralle, David N.; Karst, Nathaniel J.; Thompson, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonally dry ecosystems exhibit periods of high water availability followed by extended intervals during which rainfall is negligible and streamflows decline. Eventually, such declining flows will fall below the minimum values required to support ecosystem functions or services. The time at which dry season flows drop below these minimum values (Q*), relative to the start of the dry season, is termed the "persistence time" (). The persistence time determines how long seasonal streams can support various human or ecological functions during the dry season. In this study, we extended recent work in the stochastic hydrology of seasonally dry climates to develop an analytical model for the probability distribution function (PDF) of the persistence time. The proposed model accurately captures the mean of the persistence time distribution, but underestimates its variance. We demonstrate that this underestimation arises in part due to correlation between the parameters used to describe the dry season recession, but that this correlation can be removed by rescaling the flow variables. The mean persistence time predictions form one example of the broader class of streamflow statistics known as crossing properties, which could feasibly be combined with simple ecological models to form a basis for rapid risk assessment under different climate or management scenarios.

  1. The Mexican Cycle of Suicide: A National Analysis of Seasonality, 2000-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Alfredo Fernández-Niño

    Full Text Available Suicide is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon with growing importance to public health. An increase in its occurrence has been observed in Mexico over the past 10 years. The present article analyzes the secular trend in suicide at the national level between the years 2000 and 2013.All suicides during the study period (n = 64,298, of which 82.11% were men were characterized using a spectral decomposition of the time series and a wavelet analysis to evaluate the effect of seasonal changes, type of area (urban versus rural and sex.A seasonal pattern was observed with statistically significant cycles every 12 months, where peaks were identified in May but only for men in urban zones as of the year 2007. In addition, specific days of the year were found to have a higher frequency of suicides, which coincided with holidays (New Year, Mother's Day, Mexican Independence Day and Christmas.A wavelet analysis can be used to decompose complex time series. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of this technique to the study of suicides in developing countries. This analysis enabled identifying a seasonal pattern among urban men in Mexico. The identification of seasonal patterns can help to create primary prevention strategies, increase the dissemination of crisis intervention strategies and promote mental health. These strategies could be emphasized during specific periods of the year and directed towards profiles with a higher risk.

  2. Seasonal Variation in Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Seasonality analyses are important in medical research. If the incidence of a disease shows a seasonal pattern, then an environmental factor must be considered in its etiology. We discuss a method for the simultaneous analysis of seasonal variation in multiple groups. The nuts and bolts are explained using simple trigonometry, an elementary…

  3. A framework for event co-occurrence detection in event streams

    OpenAIRE

    Jalali, Laleh; Jain, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that characterizing co-occurrence between events is an important but non-trivial and neglected aspect of discovering potential causal relationships in multimedia event streams. First an introduction to the notion of event co-occurrence and its relation to co-occurrence pattern detection is given. Then a finite state automaton extended with a time model and event parameterization is introduced to convert high level co-occurrence pattern definition to its corresponding pattern ...

  4. Occurrence statistics of magnetic impulsive events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moretto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we perform a statistical investigation of magnetic impulse events identified in the Greenland magnetometer stations through the years 1995–2001. We focus on occurrence statistics that can be determined reliably with an automatic event identification procedure. Durin the first two years we observed almost 40% more events than in the following years. Season is not a significant factor in event occurrence. Event occurrence peaks near 12:00 UT, corresponding to approximately 10:00 magnetic local time (MLT at the west coast of Greenland. More events occur prior to local noon than after. Event days are not distributed evenly. Large amplitude events, particularly, tend to appear on consecutive days. Events are observed at lower latitudes at earlier local times in a way consistent with the projection of the outer magnetospheric boundary into the ionosphere. Event latitude depends on dipole tilt angle in a manner similar to that reported for the cusp. Events occur during intervals of enhanced Kp. The main reason for this is that the events themselves contribute to the Kp index. Events exhibit a preference for high solar wind velocity. In particular, the large amplitude events occur during high-speed streams. A slight preference for lower density and more radial interplanetary magnetic fields, as compared to the nominal solar wind distribution, is also observed. However, both the nominal solar wind and event distribution exhibit large differences from year to year, indicating that events occur under a broad range of conditions.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric disturbances Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  5. Etiology and occurrence of gingival recession - An epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Sarpangala Mythri; Suryanarayan Maiya Arunkumar; Shashikanth Hegde; Shanker Kashyap Rajesh; Mohamed Munaz; Devasya Ashwin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Gingival recession is the term used to characterize the apical shift of the marginal gingiva from its normal position on the crown of the tooth. It is frequently observed in adult subjects. The occurrence and severity of the gingival recession present considerable differences between populations. To prevent gingival recession from occurring, it is essential to detect the underlying etiology. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of gingival recession and to ...

  6. MODIS derived fire characteristics and aerosol optical depth variations during the agricultural residue burning season, north India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad, E-mail: krisvkp@yahoo.com [Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (United States); Ellicott, Evan [Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (United States); Badarinath, K.V.S. [National Remote Sensing Center, Atmospheric Science Section, Hyderabad (India); Vermote, Eric [Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Agricultural residue burning is one of the major causes of greenhouse gas emissions and aerosols in the Indo-Ganges region. In this study, we characterize the fire intensity, seasonality, variability, fire radiative energy (FRE) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) variations during the agricultural residue burning season using MODIS data. Fire counts exhibited significant bi-modal activity, with peak occurrences during April-May and October-November corresponding to wheat and rice residue burning episodes. The FRE variations coincided with the amount of residues burnt. The mean AOD (2003-2008) was 0.60 with 0.87 (+1{sigma}) and 0.32 (-1{sigma}). The increased AOD during the winter coincided well with the fire counts during rice residue burning season. In contrast, the AOD-fire signal was weak during the summer wheat residue burning and attributed to dust and fossil fuel combustion. Our results highlight the need for 'full accounting of GHG's and aerosols', for addressing the air quality in the study area. - Highlights: > MODIS data could capture rice and wheat residue burning events. > The total FRP was high during the rice burning season than the wheat. > MODIS AOD variations coincided well with rice burning events than wheat. > AOD values exceeding one suggested intense air pollution. - This research work highlights the satellite derived fire products and their potential in characterizing the agricultural residue burning events and air pollution.

  7. MODIS derived fire characteristics and aerosol optical depth variations during the agricultural residue burning season, north India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural residue burning is one of the major causes of greenhouse gas emissions and aerosols in the Indo-Ganges region. In this study, we characterize the fire intensity, seasonality, variability, fire radiative energy (FRE) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) variations during the agricultural residue burning season using MODIS data. Fire counts exhibited significant bi-modal activity, with peak occurrences during April-May and October-November corresponding to wheat and rice residue burning episodes. The FRE variations coincided with the amount of residues burnt. The mean AOD (2003-2008) was 0.60 with 0.87 (+1σ) and 0.32 (-1σ). The increased AOD during the winter coincided well with the fire counts during rice residue burning season. In contrast, the AOD-fire signal was weak during the summer wheat residue burning and attributed to dust and fossil fuel combustion. Our results highlight the need for 'full accounting of GHG's and aerosols', for addressing the air quality in the study area. - Highlights: → MODIS data could capture rice and wheat residue burning events. → The total FRP was high during the rice burning season than the wheat. → MODIS AOD variations coincided well with rice burning events than wheat. → AOD values exceeding one suggested intense air pollution. - This research work highlights the satellite derived fire products and their potential in characterizing the agricultural residue burning events and air pollution.

  8. Seasonal Abundance of Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Abbas; Dutcher, James D.; Haider Karar

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006–2011) from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in “Desirable” variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, once in the spring and again in the late summer. Yellow pecan and blackmargined aphids exceeded the recommended treatment thresholds one time and black pecan aphids exceeded the recommended treatment levels three times ove...

  9. Precipitation increases the occurrence of sporadic legionnaires' disease in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nai-Tzu; Chen, Mu-Jean; Guo, Chao-Yu; Chen, Kow-Tong; Su, Huey-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Legionnaires' disease (LD) is an acute form of pneumonia, and changing weather is considered a plausible risk factor. Yet, the relationship between weather and LD has rarely been investigated, especially using long-term daily data. In this study, daily data was used to evaluate the impacts of precipitation, temperature, and relative humidity on LD occurrence in Taiwan from 1995-2011. A time-stratified 2:1 matched-period case-crossover design was used to compare each case with self-controlled data using a conditional logistic regression analysis, and odds ratios (ORs) for LD occurrence was estimated. The city, gender and age were defined as a stratum for each matched set to modify the effects. For lag day- 0 to 15, the precipitation at lag day-11 significantly affected LD occurrence (pprecipitation. In addition, stratified analyses further showed that positive associations of precipitation with LD incidence were only significant in male and elderly groups and during the warm season ORs = 1.023-1.029). However, such an effect was not completely linear. Only precipitations at 21-40 (OR = 1.643 (95% CIs = 1.074-2.513)) and 61-80 mm (OR = 2.572 (1.106-5.978)) significantly increased the risk of LD occurrence. Moreover, a negative correlation between mean temperature at an 11-day lag and LD occurrence was also found (OR = 0.975 (0.953-0.996)). No significant association between relative humidity and LD occurrence was identified (p>0.05). In conclusion, in warm, humid regions, an increase of daily precipitation is likely to be a critical weather factor triggering LD occurrence where the risk is found particularly significant at an 11-day lag. Additionally, precipitation at 21-40 and 61-80 mm might make LD occurrence more likely. PMID:25474539

  10. Seasonality of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auda Fares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was designed to review previous studies and analyse the current knowledge and controversies related to seasonal variability of tuberculosis (TB to examine whether TB has an annual seasonal pattern. Study Design and Methods: Systematic review of peer reviewed studies identified through literature searches using online databases belonging to PubMed and the Cochrane library with key words "Tuberculosis, Seasonal influence" and " Tuberculosis, Seasonal variation". The search was restricted to articles published in English. The references of the identified papers for further relevant publications were also reviewed. Results: Twelve studies conducted between the period 1971 and 2006 from 11 countries/regions around the world (South Western Cameroon, South Africa, India, Hong Kong, Japan, Kuwait, Spain, UK, Ireland, Russia, and Mongolia were reviewed. A seasonal pattern of tuberculosis with a mostly predominant peak is seen during the spring and summer seasons in all of the countries (except South Western Cameroon and Russia. Conclusions: The observation of seasonality leads to assume that the risk of transmission of M. tuberculosis does appear to be the greatest during winter months. Vitamin D level variability, indoor activities, seasonal change in immune function, and delays in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis are potential stimuli of seasonal tuberculosis disease. Additionally, seasonal variation in food availability and food intake, age, and sex are important factors which can play a role in the tuberculosis notification variability. Prospective studies regarding this topic and other related subjects are highly recommended.

  11. Geological occurrence of fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buseck, P.R.; Tsipursky, S.J.; Wang, S. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)); Hettich, R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Using HRTEM imaging, the authors found C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] fullerenes in shungite, a Precambrian carbon-rich rock from Karelia, Russia. Compositionally, shungite represents coals of the meta-anthracite rank, characterized by low ash and sulfur contents, low volatile yields, and high carbon contents. The shungite occurs within metamorphosed sediments. The overlying rocks consist of gray dolomitized sandstones and poorly sorted silts and clays; the underlying rocks are not exposed. The shungite consists of masses containing up to 99% carbon. Diabase is interstratified with shungite-bearing rocks, and the shungite concentration increases with proximity to the diabase. Their sample comes from inclusions in the diabase. In the HRTEM images the fullerenes appear round (presumably roughly spherical in three dimensions), with white rims and black centers, almost identical to images of synthetic C[sub 60] molecules. Following the HRTEM observations, the fullerene identities were confirmed, first by time-of-flight mass spectrometry and then by more precise laser ablation, laser desorption, and thermal desorption ionization plus Fourier transform (FT) mass spectrometry. These measurements verified that the fullerenes were not generated by the laser ionization event. HRTEM images show that locally they occur in ordered arrays that resemble crystals of synthetic C[sub 60]. FT mass spectra show that the C-13/C-12 isotopic ratios for C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] fall within the normal range of terrestrial isotopic values.

  12. Seasonal variability in penaeid prawn larval abundance in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.; Goswami, U.

    Seasonal variations in the occurrence and abundance of penaeid prawn larvae in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries of Goa, India were studied. Larvae and postlarvae of commercially important species viz. Metapenaeus dobsoni (Miers), M. affinis (H. Milne...

  13. Meteotsunami occurrence frequency along the Mediterranean coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masina, Marinella; Archetti, Renata; Lamberti, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    A number of research studies describe exceptional destructive meteotsunami events since long time whereas no systematic database is available of moderate events because sea level data were recorded with insufficient resolution. Sea level measurements recently collected with high sampling rate, one per minute or less, by tide gauges positioned along the Mediterranean coasts are examined, aiming to analyze the occurrence of oscillation events in the tsunami frequency range. Sea level data from operating tide stations inside the Mediterranean basin are made publicly available through the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Sea Level Monitoring Facility web site (http://www.ioc-sealevelmonitoring.org/). After the implementation of a rigorous quality check procedure to the raw water level time series, Hilbert transform is applied to two hour high-pass filtered observations to identify tsunami-like oscillation events. Events of seismic origin are identified by consistency between earthquake occurrence and tsunami wave travel time from the earthquake epicenter to the specific tide gauge. Similar analyses are performed to exclude sea waves induced harbor seiches events. A list of probable meteotsunami episodes occurred in the Mediterranean region is so compiled and their occurrence frequency and intensity statistics are evaluated at the different tide gauge sites over the time period of high frequency water level data availability ranging from five to seven years. The effects of atmospheric conditions and seabed topography are discussed. Detection and characterization of meteotsunamis, both of exceptional character and of weak intensity, represent an essential step toward improved assessments of coastal flooding risk along the Mediterranean coasts.

  14. Seasonal smooth transition autoregression

    OpenAIRE

    Franses, Philip Hans; Bruin, Paul; Dijk, Dick van

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we put forward a new time series model, which describes nonlinearity and seasonality simultaneously. We discuss its representation, estimation of the parameters and inference. This seasonal STAR (SEASTAR) model is examined for its practical usefulness by applying it to 18 quarterly industrial production series. The data are tested for smooth-transition nonlinearity and for time-varying seasonality. We find that the model fits the data well for 14 of the 18 series. We...

  15. Characterization of the variation in the imidazole alkaloid profile of Pilocarpus microphyllus in different seasons and parts of the plant by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry fingerprinting and identification of novel alkaloids by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Iika N; Mazzafera, Paulo; Eberlin, Marcos N; Zullo, Marco António T; Sawaya, Alexandra C H F

    2007-01-01

    Pilocarpus microphyllus (Rutaceae), popularly known as jaborandi, is the only commercial source of an imidazole alkaloid named pilocarpine. In the present study, the variation in the profile of imidazole alkaloids in different seasons and in different parts of the P. microphyllus plant during the summer was analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the positive ion mode [ESI(+)-MS]. The fingerprints of these extracts repeatedly presented similar ions which were mass-selected and studied by tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS/MS) and high-resolution mass spectrometry, resulting in the characterization of eight imidazole alkaloids. The data from the ESI(+)-MS fingerprints were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA), showing that pilocarpine was present mainly in the summer, whereas in the autumn mainly pilosine and winter anhydropilosine were found. Three alkaloids, reported for the first time in extracts of P. microphyllus, were found. Analysis of the distribution of alkaloids in different parts of the plant during the summer showed that, although pilocarpine was present throughout the plant, 13-nor-8(11)-dihydropilocarpine was found mainly in the stem, pilosine and anhydropilosine were present mainly in the intermediary leaves, and the three new alkaloids were mainly found in the leaflets and petioles. Based on the dissociation patterns of these alkaloids, we observed that there were three structurally related groups of alkaloids differing in their distribution in the plant tissues and responding differently to seasonal variations. These results also indicate that these three groups of alkaloids could belong to intermediate, parallel or competitive pathways for pilocarpine formation biosynthesis. PMID:17330216

  16. A winter season synoptic climatology of Alaska: 1956-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An objective, descriptive study of Alaska's winter climate is undertaken to identify regional monthly mean surface temperature and precipitation variability during the thirty-year period from 1956-57 to 1985-86. Ten basic anomaly 700-mb height patterns are described in terms of frequency of occurrence and possible associations with the surface climate variability observed in the nine NOAA land-based climate divisions of Alaska and the Gulf of Alaska (tenth division). Results indicate a cool, dry period from 1964-1976. Anomaly height patterns occurring during this period were predominantly characterized by northerly/northwesterly flow from the High Arctic or northeasterly flow from the Canadian Interior. The period from 1956-1962 was generally warm, and the most frequently occurring anomaly height patterns were characterized by southerly flow. The period following 1977 is the most variable of the thirty-year record. This period also includes some of the warmest temperatures seen in the records. Cold anomaly height patterns are interspersed among the slightly more frequent warm anomaly height patterns from 1977-1986. Overall seasonal-scale linear (best-fit approximations) trends appear to indicate a warmer, drier shift in the Interior climate and a warmer, wetter shift in the southern coastal climate

  17. Season of Birth and Risk for Adult Onset Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy T. Efird

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult onset glioma is a rare cancer which occurs more frequently in Caucasians than African Americans, and in men than women. The etiology of this disease is largely unknown. Exposure to ionizing radiation is the only well established environmental risk factor, and this factor explains only a small percentage of cases. Several recent studies have reported an association between season of birth and glioma risk. This paper reviews the plausibility of evidence focusing on the seasonal interrelation of farming, allergies, viruses, vitamin D, diet, birth weight, and handedness. To date, a convincing explanation for the occurrence of adult gliomas decades after a seasonal exposure at birth remains elusive.

  18. Uranium occurrences of the Thunder Bay-Nipigon-Marathon area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1981, 1982 and 1983 field seasons an inventory of all known uranium occurrences in the North Central Region of Ontario was undertaken. Three major categories of uranium occurrences were identified: uranium associated with the rocks of the Quetico Subprovince; uranium associated with the Proterozoic/Archean unconformity; and uranium associated with alkalic and carbonatite rocks of Late Precambrian age. Occurrences associated with the Quetico Belt are in white, albite-quartz-muscovite pegmatites. Occurrences associated with the Proterozoic/Archean unconformity are usually of high gradee (up to 12% U3O8), nearly always hematized and are related to fault or shear zones proximal to the unconformity. Although of high grade, many of the unconformity related occurrences are very narrow (<1 m). Alkalic and carbonatite rocks of Late Precambrian age are an important source of uranium but possible metallurgical problems might downgrade their potential. The Quetico Subprovince is anomalously high in background uranium, and therefore contains important source rocks for uranium. Areas that have the highest potential for uranium deposits in the North Central Region are the Nipigon Basin area, and the areas underlain by the Gunflint and Rove Formations. All the high grade vein-type uranium deposits related to the unconformity are found within the Nipigon Basin. 126 refs

  19. Monitoring and Characterizing Seasonal Drought, Water Supply Pattern and Their Impact on Vegetation Growth Using Satellite Soil Moisture Data, GRACE Water Storage and In-situ Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, G.; Velicogna, I.; Kimball, J. S.; Kim, Y.; Colliander, A.; Njoku, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    We combine soil moisture (SM) data from AMSR-E, AMSR-2 and SMAP, terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes from GRACE, in-situ groundwater measurements and atmospheric moisture data to delineate and characterize the evolution of drought and its impact on vegetation growth. GRACE TWS provides spatially continuous observations of total terrestrial water storage changes and regional drought extent, persistence and severity, while satellite derived soil moisture estimates provide enhanced delineation of plant-available soil moisture. Together these data provide complementary metrics quantifying available plant water supply. We use these data to investigate the supply changes from water components at different depth in relation to satellite based vegetation metrics, including vegetation greenness (NDVI) measures from MODIS and related higher order productivity (GPP) before, during and following the major drought events observed in the continental US for the past 14 years. We observe consistent trends and significant correlations between monthly time series of TWS, SM, NDVI and GPP. We study how changes in atmosphere moisture stress and coupling of water storage components at different depth impact on the spatial and temporal correlation between TWS, SM and vegetation metrics. In Texas, we find that surface SM and GRACE TWS agree with each other in general, and both capture the underlying water supply constraints to vegetation growth. Triggered by a transit increase in precipitation following the 2011 hydrological drought, vegetation productivity in Texas shows more sensitivity to surface SM than TWS. In the Great Plains, the correspondence between TWS and vegetation productivity is modulated by temperature-induced atmosphere moisture stress and by the coupling between surface soil moisture and groundwater through irrigation.

  20. Characterizing seasonal variability of storm events based on very high frequency monitoring of hydrological and chemical variables: comparing patterns in hot spots and hot moments for nutrient and sediment export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovet, Ophelie; Thelusma, Gilbert; Humbert, Guillaume; Dupas, Rémi; Faucheux, Mikael; Gilliet, Nicolas; Hamon, Yannick; Jaffrezic, Anne; Grimaldi, Catherine; Gruau, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    Storm events are critical hot moments of emission for several dissolved and particulate chemical species at major stake for water quality (e.g. dissolved organic carbon DOC, suspended sediments, phosphorus). During such events, the solutes or particles are exported from heterogeneous sources through various pathways to stream leading to specific integrated signals at the outlet characterized by very short dynamics. This is merely true in headwater catchments where the total duration of such events ranges over 10h to 3 days, with very quick variations in stream flow and concentrations at the outlet occurring in a few hours. Thus for investigating properly event processes, high frequency monitoring of flow and water quality is required. We analysed 103 storm events in a 5 km2 agricultural headwater catchment, part of the AgrHys Observatory, on the basis of a 3-year-long data set which combined meterological (Rainfall), hydrological (flow and piezometry), and water quality (turbidity, conductivity, DOC and NO3 concentrations) data recorded at very high frequencies (from 1 to 20 min) thanks to dedicated sensors. We proposed a range of quantitative storm descriptors for characterizing input (rainfall), antecedent and initial conditions (groundwater levels and saturated area), and stream response in terms of level and dynamics of flow (Q), groundwater levels, and concentrations (C) but also the C-Q relationships. Three intra annual periods have been previously defined for base flow dynamic according to shallow groundwater table variations so that they correspond to different connectivity status in the catchment. The seasonal and inter-annual variability of the storm events have been analysed using the descriptors and based on these predefined periods. Results show that the hydrological flowpaths and the consequent storm chemistry were controlled by the hydrological base flow regime rather than by the rain input characteristics. This highlights that the exports of NO3

  1. Seasonal Response and Characterization of a Scree Slope and Active Debris Flow Catchment Using Multiple Geophysical Techniques: The case of the Meretschibach Catchment, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Kerstin; Guzman, Daisy R. Lucas; Oggier, Nicole; Maurer, Hansruedi; Springman, Sarah M.

    2015-04-01

    Various types of mass movements cause extensive natural hazards in populated mountain regions. They need to be quantified, and possibly predicted, for implementing effective mitigation and protection measures. The Meretschibach catchment in the Valais area, Switzerland, is a source region for such events. Various forms of instabilities occur on the steep slopes. They manifest themselves in form of smaller rock falls and rock slides on the open scree slopes. Moreover, large sediment volumes of channelized stream deposits can evolve into debris flows, with a substantial run-out along the Meretschibach. Geophysical methods, such as electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating-radar (GPR) have been proven to be powerful tools for characterizing mass movements and slope instabilities. They complement other remote sensing techniques and in-situ geotechnical experiments. Ground-based and helicopter-borne GPR measurements were carried out at the Meretschibach test site, to determine the depth to the bedrock. The results indicate that the bedrock is generally shallow, ranging from a few centimetres to about 5 metres vertically below the surface. A particularly interesting aspect of the GPR investigations was the observation that bedrock depth could be resolved by both, ground-based and helicopter-borne GPR data. Ground-based GPR surveying proved to be extremely challenging on the steep slopes, and some areas were even inaccessible due to safety concerns. It is therefore encouraging for future projects that helicopter-borne GPR acquisition offers a promising alternative. The spatial distribution of the soil moisture content and the temporal variations were determined with repeated ERT measurements. The resulting tomograms allowed a conductive soil layer and more resistive bedrock to be distinguished clearly. The ERT results were in good agreement with in-situ geotechnical measurements in a nearby test pit, and the depth of the soil-bedrock interface was

  2. Developing seasonal rainfall scenarios for food security early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, Gregory J.; Funk, Christopher C.; Michaelsen, Joel; Magadzire, Tamuka; Goldsberry, Kirk P.

    2013-10-01

    Rainfed agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for 95 % of the local cereal production, impacting hundreds of millions of people. Early identification of poor rainfall conditions is a critical indicator of food security. As such, monitoring accumulated seasonal rainfall gives an important mid-season estimate of final accumulated totals. However, characterizing the remaining uncertainty in a season has largely been ignored by the food security community. This paper presents a new technique describing rainfall conditions over the duration of a crop-growing cycle by combining estimated rainfall-to-date with potential scenarios for the remaining season based on available satellite rainfall estimates, the common tool for rainfall analysis in Africa. The limited historical record provided by satellite rainfall estimates using previous seasons provides only a coarse view of likely seasonal totals. To combat this, scenarios developed by bootstrapping dekadal data to create synthetic seasons allow for a finer understanding of potential seasonal accumulations. Updating this throughout the season shows a narrowing envelope of seasonal totals, converging on the final seasonal result. The resulting scenarios inform the expectations for the final seasonal rainfall accumulation, allowing analysts to quantify and visualize the uncertainty in seasonal totals. Giving decision makers a tool for understanding the likelihood of specific rainfall amounts provides additional time to enact and mobilize efforts to reduce the impact of agricultural drought.

  3. Low-frequency variability of the atmospheric circulation: a comparison of statistical properties in both hemispheres and extreme seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical investigation is presented of the main variables characterizing the tropospheric general circulation in both hemispheres and extreme season, Winter and Summer. This gives up the opportunity of comparing four distinct realizations of the planetary circulation, as function of different orographic and thermal forcing conditions. Our approach is made possible by the availability of 6 years of global daily analyses prepared by ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecast). The variables taken into account are the zonal geostrophic wind, the zonal thermal wind and various large-scala wave components, averaged over the tropospheric depth between 1000 and 200 hPa. The mean properties of the analysed quantities in each hemisphere and season are compared and their principal characteristics are discussed. The probability density estimates for the same variables, filtered in order to eliminate the seasonal cycle and the high frequency 'noise', are then presented. The distributions are examined, in particular, with respect of their unimodal or multimodal nature and with reference to the recent discussion in the literature on the bimodality which has been found for some indicators of planetary wave activity in the Nothern Hemisphere Winter. Our results indicate the presence of nonunimodally distributed wave and zonal flow components in both hemispheres and extreme season. The most frequent occurrence of nonunimodal behaviour is found for those wave components which exhibit an almost vanishing zonal phase speed and a larger 'response' to orographic forcing

  4. Human plague occurrences in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon; Bertherat, Eric; Leirs, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, but particularly in Africa. Despite the long-standing history of human plague, it is difficult to get a historical and recent overview of the general situation. We searched and screened available information sources on human plague occurrences in ...

  5. Seasonality of Suicidal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor T. Postolache

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general.

  6. Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... allergies , sometimes called "hay fever" or seasonal allergic rhinitis, are allergy symptoms that occur during certain times ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Environmental Control Measures Can Kids Get Allergies All Year? Do ...

  7. RECURRENT SEASONAL ACUTE PSYCHOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Vivek

    1999-01-01

    Acute psychoses have been reported to occur more frequently in summer. This is a report of seasonal recurrence of acute psychosis in a patient. This case report emphasizes towards the biological etiology of acute psychoses.

  8. HEGY test under seasonal heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Nan; Politis, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Both seasonal unit roots and seasonal heterogeneity are common in seasonal data. When testing seasonal unit roots under seasonal heterogeneity, it is unclear if we can apply tests designed for seasonal homogeneous settings, for example the non-periodic HEGY test (Hylleberg, Engle, Granger, and Yoo, 1990). In this paper, the validity of both augmented HEGY test and unaugmented HEGY test is analyzed. The asymptotic null distributions of the statistics testing the single roots at $1$ or $-1$ tur...

  9. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Mendes Pereira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic distributions in CW Brazil. The Cerrado areas in the state of Goiás were found to be more suitable for the occurrence of synanthropic triatomines than the Amazon forest areas in the northern part of the state of Mato Grosso. The variable that best explains the evaluated models is temperature seasonality. The results indicate that almost the entire region presents climatic conditions that are appropriate for at least one triatomine species. Therefore, it is recommended that entomological surveillance be reinforced in CW Brazil.

  10. Cluster Analysis of the Wind Events and Seasonal Wind Circulation Patterns in the Mexico City Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Carreón-Sierra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The residents of Mexico City face serious problems of air pollution. Identifying the most representative scenarios for the transport and dispersion of air pollutants requires the knowledge of the main wind circulation patterns. In this paper, a simple method to recognize and characterize the wind circulation patterns in a given region is proposed and applied to the Mexico City winds (2001–2006. This method uses a lattice wind approach to model the local wind events at the meso-β scale, and hierarchical cluster analysis to recognize their agglomerations in their phase space. Data of the meteorological network of Mexico City was used as input for the lattice wind model. The Ward’s clustering algorithm with Euclidean distance was applied to organize the model wind events in seasonal clusters for each year of the period. Comparison of the hourly population trends of these clusters permitted the recognition and detailed description of seven circulation patterns. These patterns resemble the qualitative descriptions of the Mexico City wind circulation modes reported by other authors. Our method, however, permitted also their quantitative characterization in terms of the wind attributes of velocity, divergence and vorticity, and an estimation of their seasonal and annual occurrence probabilities, which never before were quantified.

  11. The Relationship Between Bipolar Disorder, Seasonality, and Premenstrual Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Deborah R.; Czarkowski, Kathryn A.; Epperson, C. Neill

    2011-01-01

    Cyclical mood disorders characterized by shifting affective states include bipolar disorder, seasonal affective disorder, and premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder. In this article, we explore the relationship between these disorders and bring the reader up to date on the advances made in the past year in understanding the relationship between bipolar disorder, seasonality, and premenstrual symptoms.

  12. Characterization and source identification of organic matter in view of land uses and heavy rainfall in the Lake Shihwa, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Organic matter derived from industrial area showed high biodegradability. • Organic matter transported from rural area was of refractory nature. • Autochthonous organic matter dominated in lake during the dry season. • Contributions of organic source by industrial and rural area increased at rainy season. - Abstract: The characteristics and sources of organic matter in water of the Lake Shihwa, which receives inputs from rural, urban, and industrial areas, were evaluated by examining the biodegradable organic carbon concentration, fluorescence spectra, and carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios, especially during rainy season and dry season. The organic matter transported from rural areas was of refractory nature, while that of industrial origin decomposed rapidly. As compared to the dry season, the organic matter in the rainy season was characterized by a reduced labile fraction. During the dry season, the autochthonous organic matter dominated in the lake, however, the contributions of allochthonous organic sources by industrial and rural areas significantly increased at rainy season. This investigation revealed that the transport of organic matter of anthropogenic origin to the Lake Shihwa was mainly influenced by heavy rainfall. Moreover, each anthropogenic source could differently influence the occurrence of organic matter in water of the Lake Shihwa

  13. Patterns of Precipitation and Convection Occurrence over the Mediterranean Basin Derived from a Decade of Microwave Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahjat Alhammoud

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean region is characterized by its vulnerability to changes in the water cycle, with the impact of global warming on the water resources being one of the major concerns in social, economical and scientific ambits. Even if precipitation is the best-known term of the Mediterranean water budget, large uncertainties remain due to the lack of suitable offshore observational data. In this study, we use the data provided by the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSU-B on board NOAA satellites to detect and analyze precipitating and convective events over the last decade at spatial resolution of 0.2° latitude × 0.2° longitude. AMSU-B observation shows that rain occurrence is widespread over the Mediterranean in wintertime while reduced in the eastern part of the basin in summer. Both precipitation and convection occurrences display a weak diurnal cycle over sea. In addition, convection occurrences, which are essentially located over land during summertime, shift to mostly over the sea during autumn with maxima in the Ionian sub-basin and the Adriatic Sea. Precipitation occurrence is also inferred over the sea from two other widely used climatological datasets, HOAPS (Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF reanalysis interim (ERA-Interim. There is generally a rather fair agreement between these climatologies for describing the large-scale patterns such as the strong latitudinal gradient of rain and eastward rain signal propagation. Furthermore, the higher spatial resolution of AMSU-B measurements (16 km at nadir gives access to mesoscale details in the region (e.g., coastal areas. AMSU-B measurements show less rain occurrences than HOAPS during wintertime, thereby suggesting that some of the thresholds used in our method might be too stringent during this season. We also observed that convection occurrences in ERA-Interim are systematically

  14. A Malthusian Model for All Seasons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisdorf, Jacob Louis; Sharp, Paul Richard

    2009-01-01

    An issue often discussed in relation to agricultural development is the effect on agricultural labour productivity of more intensive land-use. Introducing aspects of seasonality into a stylized Malthusian model, we unify two diverging views by showing that labour productivity may go up or down with...... agricultural intensification, depending on whether technological progress emerges in relation to cultivation or harvesting activities. Our result rests on evidence reported by Boserup (1965) and others, which suggests that harvest seasons in traditional agriculture are characterized by severe labour shortage....

  15. Determining indicator taxa across spatial and seasonal gradients in the Columbia River coastal margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Caroline S; Eiler, Alexander; Herfort, Lydie; Needoba, Joseph A; Peterson, Tawnya D; Crump, Byron C

    2013-10-01

    Bacterioplankton communities are deeply diverse and highly variable across space and time, but several recent studies demonstrate repeatable and predictable patterns in this diversity. We expanded on previous studies by determining patterns of variability in both individual taxa and bacterial communities across coastal environmental gradients. We surveyed bacterioplankton diversity across the Columbia River coastal margin, USA, using amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from 596 water samples collected from 2007 to 2010. Our results showed seasonal shifts and annual reassembly of bacterioplankton communities in the freshwater-influenced Columbia River, estuary, and plume, and identified indicator taxa, including species from freshwater SAR11, Oceanospirillales, and Flavobacteria groups, that characterize the changing seasonal conditions in these environments. In the river and estuary, Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria indicator taxa correlated strongly with seasonal fluctuations in particulate organic carbon (ρ=-0.664) and residence time (ρ=0.512), respectively. In contrast, seasonal change in communities was not detected in the coastal ocean and varied more with the spatial variability of environmental factors including temperature and dissolved oxygen. Indicator taxa of coastal ocean environments included SAR406 and SUP05 taxa from the deep ocean, and Prochlorococcus and SAR11 taxa from the upper water column. We found that in the Columbia River coastal margin, freshwater-influenced environments were consistent and predictable, whereas coastal ocean community variability was difficult to interpret due to complex physical conditions. This study moves beyond beta-diversity patterns to focus on the occurrence of specific taxa and lends insight into the potential ecological roles these taxa have in coastal ocean environments. PMID:23719153

  16. Seasonal variations of surface duct conditions in Ngaoundere, North Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaissassou, Samuel; Lenouo, André; Nzeukou, Armand; Tchawoua, Clément; Vondou, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal variations of refractivity gradients from 104 to 3000 m above ground level in the troposphere layer are presented based on observations from the radiosonde station located in Ngaoundere (13.5°E, 7.3°N), a middle belt savannah region of Cameroon. Six years (2006-2011) of data from in situ measurements made by Agency for the Safety of Air Navigation in Africa and Madagascar (ASECNA) of the temperature, moisture, and pressure are used to determine the surface duct conditions over Ngaoundere region. Each time that a negative gradient from the Abel-retrieved refractivity profiles is seen, it implies the presence of a duct in this study. The occurrence of ducts strongly depends on the local climate and synoptic weather conditions which have an appreciable influence on the refractivity vertical profile, especially the seasonal north-south movement of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) which provides wet and dry seasons to the region. Monthly and seasonal variations of ducts were also determined from the measured data. The highest and the lowest occurrence rate of surface ducts were observed during the wet and the dry seasons, respectively. September appears as the month when most of the ducts occur at the rate of at least one duct per day. The median duct thickness and duct strength are high and strong during the wet season, whereas they are low and weak during the dry season. When the data are separated into stable and unstable atmospheric conditions, we noticed that surface duct characteristics show some seasonal differences. Surface ducts are found to be more frequent in a stable atmosphere than in an unstable atmosphere. Statistical results are discussed alongside with local meteorological conditions and weather systems affecting the town of Ngaoundere. Besides, comments are made on their prospective significance in the region.

  17. Occurrence reporting and processing of operations information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-21

    DOE O 232.1A, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information, and 10 CFR 830.350, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information (when it becomes effective), along with this manual, set forth occurrence reporting requirements for Department of Energy (DOE) Departmental Elements and contractors responsible for the management and operation of DOE-owned and -leased facilities. These requirements include categorization of occurrences related to safety, security, environment, health, or operations (``Reportable Occurrences``); DOE notification of these occurrences; and the development and submission of documented follow-up reports. This Manual provides detailed information for categorizing and reporting occurrences at DOE facilities. Information gathered by the Occurrence Reporting and processing System is used for analysis of the Department`s performance in environmental protection, safeguards and security, and safety and health of its workers and the public. This information is also used to develop lessons learned and document events that significantly impact DOE operations.

  18. Occurrence reporting and processing of operations information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE O 232.1A, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information, and 10 CFR 830.350, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information (when it becomes effective), along with this manual, set forth occurrence reporting requirements for Department of Energy (DOE) Departmental Elements and contractors responsible for the management and operation of DOE-owned and -leased facilities. These requirements include categorization of occurrences related to safety, security, environment, health, or operations (''Reportable Occurrences''); DOE notification of these occurrences; and the development and submission of documented follow-up reports. This Manual provides detailed information for categorizing and reporting occurrences at DOE facilities. Information gathered by the Occurrence Reporting and processing System is used for analysis of the Department's performance in environmental protection, safeguards and security, and safety and health of its workers and the public. This information is also used to develop lessons learned and document events that significantly impact DOE operations

  19. Seasonal dependence of mesospheric gravity waves ( Peach Mountain Observatory, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q.; Killeen, T. L.

    We present results from a 14-month study of all-sky camera observations of the Hydroxyl (OH) nightglow made at the Peach Mountain Observatory, Michigan (42.3°N 83.7°W) Spatial variations in the observed OH airglow images have been used to assess gravity-wave (GW) occurrence frequency at ∼85 km altitude as a function of season. A Strong seasonal dependence of mesospheric GW activity is observed, with peak activity in the summer months and much reduced activity during the winter months. Gravity waves (as defined by observed coherent variations in relative OH brightnesses of >∼7.5) were found to be present on about 70% of the clear-sky nights during the summer months. During the spring, fall, and winter months, however, the observed GW occurrence frequency was very low (<10%). Most of the GWs were observed to propagate towards the eastward hemisphere. We suggest that the tropospherically-generated GWs are anisotropic (eastward) thus passing through to the mesosphere only in the summer and being filtered out by the intervening neutral winds during other seasons. It is also possible that the GWs are able to reach higher altitudes without breaking because of their smaller amplitudes at lower altitudes during the summer season relative to the winter season.

  20. Occurrence of two somatostatin variants in the frog brain: characterization of the cDNAs, distribution of the mRNAs, and receptor-binding affinities of the peptides.

    OpenAIRE

    Tostivint, H; Lihrmann, I; Bucharles, C; Vieau, D; Coulouarn, Y; A. Fournier; Conlon, J M; Vaudry, H.

    1996-01-01

    In tetrapods, only one gene encoding a somatostatin precursor has been identified so far. The present study reports the characterization of the cDNA clones that encode two distinct somatostatin precursors in the brain of the frog Rana ridibunda. The cDNAs were isolated by using degenerate oligonucleotides based on the sequence of the central region of somatostatin to screen a frog brain cDNA library. One of the cDNAs encodes a 115-amino acid protein (prepro-somatostatin-14; PSS1) that exhibit...

  1. ISSUES CONCERNING OCCURRENCE OF FLOODS ON THE VEDEA RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOMA FLORENTINA-MARIANA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of flood occurrence on the Vedea River. This study addresses several aspects of floods on the Vedea River, located in the Central Romanian Plain, located between Olt and Argeş rivers. Data recorded in the most important hydrological stations (Buzeşti, Văleni, Alexandria along the Vedea River were used, for a period of 40 years (1970-2009. Flood generating conditions, their typology and parameters were analyzed. Cavis software developed by specialists from INHGA Bucharest was employed, in order to draft the flood hydrographs and calculate the floods parameters. Also, we calculated the multi-annual and seasonal frequencies of flood occurrence. There are two main conclusions emerging from specific analysis. First, the most floods occur in late winter and early spring while the least are specific to autumn season. Second conclusion is that the highest flash floods recorded along the Vedea River are associated to heavy rainfall periods and they occurred in late spring and early summer.

  2. Antiviral Drugs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee explains the nature of antiviral drugs and how they are used for seasonal flu.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  3. Seasonal Influenza: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Christina; Freedman, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It also has major social and economic consequences in the form of high rates of absenteeism from school and work as well as significant treatment and hospitalization costs. In fact, annual influenza epidemics and the resulting deaths and lost days of productivity…

  4. Take Three: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to keep from getting seasonal flu and spreading it to others by taking these three steps.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  5. Warning Signs: Seasonal Flu

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes the main symptoms of seasonal flu and when it is serious enough to seek medical help.  Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/29/2010.

  6. Weatherwords: The Hurricane Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Information and anecdotes are provided for the following topics: the typical length of the hurricane season for the North Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico; specifics related to the practice of naming hurricanes; and categorical details related to the Saffir/Simpson scale for rating hurricane magnitude. (JJK)

  7. A Season for Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, the editor of the Journal of Perinatal Education reflects on changing seasons and how birth remains a constant wonder. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  8. Sources and transport of contaminants of emerging concern: A two-year study of occurrence and spatiotemporal variation in a mixed land use watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, David J; Karpuzcu, M Ekrem; Arnold, William A; Barber, Brian L; Kaufenberg, Elizabeth F; Koskinen, William C; Novak, Paige J; Rice, Pamela J; Swackhamer, Deborah L

    2016-05-01

    The occurrence and spatiotemporal variation of 26 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) were evaluated in 68 water samples in 2011-2012 in the Zumbro River watershed, Minnesota, U.S.A. Samples were collected across a range of seasonal/hydrological conditions from four stream sites that varied in associated land use and presence of an upstream wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Selected CECs included human/veterinary pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides, phytoestrogens, and commercial/industrial compounds. Detection frequencies and concentrations varied, with atrazine, metolachlor, acetaminophen, caffeine, DEET, and trimethoprim detected in more than 70% of samples, acetochlor, mecoprop, carbamazepine, and daidzein detected in 30%-50% of samples, and 4-nonylphenol, cotinine, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, tylosin, and carbaryl detected in 10%-30% of samples. The remaining target CECs were not detected in water samples. Three land use-associated trends were observed for the detected CECs. Carbamazepine, 4-nonylphenol, erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, tylosin, and carbaryl profiles were WWTP-dominated, as demonstrated by more consistent loading and significantly greater concentrations downstream of the WWTP and during low-flow seasons. In contrast, acetaminophen, trimethoprim, DEET, caffeine, cotinine, and mecoprop patterns demonstrated both seasonally-variable non-WWTP-associated and continual WWTP-associated influences. Surface water studies of CECs often target areas near WWTPs. This study suggests that several CECs often characterized as effluent-associated have additional important sources such as septic systems or land-applied biosolids. Finally, agricultural herbicide (atrazine, acetochlor, and metolachlor) profiles were strongly influenced by agricultural land use and seasonal application-runoff, evident by significantly greater concentrations and loadings at upstream sites and in early summer when application and precipitation rates are

  9. Occurrence of thunderstorm and rainfall over punjab, pakistan (1961-2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occurrence of Thunderstorms (TS) and Rainfalls (RF) are contemplated via monthly, station wise seasonal and overall seasonal percentage analyses for all over the Punjab. Fifty years (1961-2010) data of the mentioned parameters for thirteen meteorological stations, uniformly distributed over the province, were utilized in this study. Monthly study has revealed the highest activity of TS and RF in the two months of monsoon (July and August) while rainfall occurrence acquired second highest frequency in the end of winter (March). Overall seasonal analysis shows markedly high activity of TS and RF in premonsoon and monsoon season while in winter RF frequency is almost twofold than TF. Further, rainfall yield in post-monsoon and winter season is comparable but TS activity is highly variable. Station wise seasonal analysis of winter explore that all stations acquire much more RF accompanied with little TS activity. The situation is altogether different for premonsoon and monsoon, while for post-monsoon it is composite. The results of this paper will help to provide updated cogitative assistance not only to the people concerned with the science, art or business of cultivating the soil but also to the community concerned with weather, aviation and planning. (author)

  10. Avaliação da ocorrência sazonal de percevejos em cinco espécies de maracujazeiro, utilizando dois métodos de amostragem Evaluation of seasonal stinkbug occurrence in five passion fruit species using two sampling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO CESAR CAETANO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar a ocorrência sazonal de percevejos em espécies de maracujazeiro (Passiflora spp. através de dois métodos de amostragem: número de percevejos por 0,5 m² e em 1,5 m linear de espaldeira. O experimento foi conduzido em pomar de maracujazeiro pertencente à Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - UNESP, Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo, entre setembro de 1997 e setembro de 1998. Foram utilizadas cinco espécies de maracujazeiro: P. alata, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. nitida, P. giberti e P. laurifolia. Após as avaliações semanais pôde-se concluir que as espécies de percevejo Leptoglossus gonagra, L. zonatus, Holhymenia histrio e Anisoscelis foliacea marginella foram as mais abundantes em maracujazeiro. L. gonagra, H. histrio e A. foliacea marginella apresentaram maiores populações entre o final de dezembro e início de maio e L. zonatus ocorreu em maior população entre o final de março e o de julho. O método de 0,5 m² foi o mais adequado para avaliação de percevejos. P. laurifolia foi mais atrativo para L. gonagra, P. edulis f. flavicarpa mais atrativo para L. zonatus e P. giberti para A. foliacea marginella e H. histrio.Stinkbug population dynamics has been studying in passion fruit (Passiflora spp. under field conditions in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State. Two sampling methods have been utilized: a countings of the number of insects occurring in a 0.5 m² wooden frame; b countings of the number of insects present in 1.5 linear meter, aside of a tutoring system. Five passion fruit species (Passiflora alata, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. nitida, P. giberti and P. laurifolia have been checked as to insect occurrence throughout a year. Weekly, insect samples have been collected in 5 randomly choosen sites in the orchard, for each evolution method.The most frequent stinkbug species, considering all the passion fruit species, have been the following: Leptoglossus gonagra, L

  11. Progress toward seasonal prediction in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaff, John Albert

    Seasonal prediction in the tropics has been a slowly developing, yet very important topic in Atmospheric Science. Its slow evolution is a product of its history, a history determined by the rise and fall of empires, technological advances, and scientific opinions, but motivated ultimately by profit. In recent years, long-lead forecasting techniques in the tropics have again become popular. The occurrence of strong El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, droughts, floods, and intense landfalling tropical cyclones, has again prompted the meteorological community to use their knowledge to create useful seasonal forecasts for several regions of the tropics. Such forecasts will facilitate better management of natural resources, disaster preparation, and economic growth in these regions. Much has been learned about seasonal forecasting in the tropics in the last 125 years and much will be learned in the future, but progress is gained slowly by the piecing together of a great number of observation studies. This paper details but a few such studies. Within, the history of seasonal prediction in the tropics is discussed. Following this discussion the paper examines the physical implications of summertime sea level pressure anomalies (SLPAs) in the tropical Atlantic, the development of a simple regression model to predict June through September SLPAs in the Caribbean Sea region, and the development of a statistical ENSO prediction method which is based entirely on the optimal combination of persistence, trends of initial conditions and climatology. The future of seasonal forecasting in the tropics is bright. New technology along with improved datasets is allowing diagnostic and predictive studies that were once thought too exhaustive to be undertaken. This optimistic opinion must be tempered by this fields long history. Public and scientific opinion can rapidly change if seasonal prediction is not approached responsibly. This responsibility entails a rigorous definition

  12. Modelling seasonality in Australian building approvals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry M Karamujic

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of seasonal influences on Australian housing approvals, represented by the State of Victoria[1] building approvals for new houses (BANHs. The prime objective of BANHs is to provide timely estimates of future residential building work. Due to the relevance of the residential property sector to the property sector as whole, BANHs are viewed by economic analysts and commentators as a leading indicator of property sector investment and as such the general level of economic activity and employment. The generic objective of the study is to enhance the practice of modelling housing variables. In particular, the study seeks to cast some additional light on modelling the seasonal behaviour of BANHs by: (i establishing the presence, or otherwise, of seasonality in Victorian BANHs; (ii if present, ascertaining is it deterministic or stochastic; (iii determining out of sample forecasting capabilities of the considered modelling specifications; and (iv speculating on possible interpretation of the results. To do so the study utilises a structural time series model of Harwey (1989. The modelling results confirm that the modelling specification allowing for stochastic trend and deterministic seasonality performs best in terms of diagnostic tests and goodness of fit measures. This is corroborated with the analysis of out of sample forecasting capabilities of the considered modelling specifications, which showed that the models with deterministic seasonal specification exhibit superior forecasting capabilities. The paper also demonstrates that if time series are characterized by either stochastic trend or seasonality, the conventional modelling approach[2] is bound to be mis-specified i.e. would not be able to identify statistically significant seasonality in time series.According to the selected modeling specification, factors corresponding to June, April, December and November are found to be significant at five per cent level

  13. Occurrence and characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other non-sorbitol-fermenting E. coli in cattle and humans in urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupindu, Athumani M; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Ngowi, Helena A;

    2014-01-01

    -sectional study was conducted to isolate and characterize non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) E. coli O157:H7 from urban and periurban livestock settings of Morogoro, Tanzania. Human stool, cattle feces, and soil and water samples were collected. Observations and questionnaire interview studies were used to gather...... E. coli isolates. These procedures detected 10 (7%) pathogenic E. coli including STEC (n=7), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (n=2), and attaching and effacing E. coli (A/EEC) (n=1) strains. The STEC strains had the ability to produce VT1 and different VT2 toxin subtypes that caused cytopathic...... residential areas, and there was direct contact between humans and cattle feces during manure handling. Cattle and manure management practices expose humans, animals, and the environment to pathogenic E. coli and other manure-borne pathogens. Therefore, there is a need to improve manure management practices...

  14. ULF wave occurrence statistics in a high-latitude HF Doppler sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. M.; Yeoman, T. K.; Jones, T. B.

    1999-06-01

    Ultra low frequency (ULF) wave activity in the high-latitude ionosphere has been observed by a high frequency (HF) Doppler sounder located at Tromsø, Norway (69.7°N, 19.2°E geographic coordinates). A statistical study of the occurrence of these waves has been undertaken from data collected between 1979 and 1984. The diurnal, seasonal, solar cycle and geomagnetic activity variations in occurrence have been investigated. The findings demonstrate that the ability of the sounder to detect ULF wave signatures maximises at the equinoxes and that there is a peak in occurrence in the morning sector. The occurrence rate is fairly insensitive to changes associated with the solar cycle but increases with the level of geomagnetic activity. As a result, it has been possible to characterise the way in which prevailing ionospheric and magnetospheric conditions affect such observations of ULF waves.

  15. Drugs of abuse, cytostatic drugs and iodinated contrast media in tap water from the Madrid region (central Spain):A case study to analyse their occurrence and human health risk characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, A; Zonja, B; Mastroianni, N; Negreira, N; López de Alda, M; Pérez, S; Barceló, D; Gil, A; Valcárcel, Y

    2016-01-01

    This work analyses the presence of forty-eight emerging pollutants, including twenty-five drugs of abuse and metabolites, seventeen cytostatic drugs and six iodinated contrast media, in tap water from the Madrid Region. Analysis of the target compounds in the tap water was performed by means of (on-line or off-line) solid-phase extraction followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A preliminary human health risk characterization was undertaken for each individual compound and for different groups of compounds with a common mechanism of action found in tap water. The results of the study showed the presence of eight out of the twenty-five drugs of abuse and metabolites analysed, namely, the cocainics cocaine and benzoylecgonine, the amphetamine-type stimulants ephedrine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methamphetamine, the opioid methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine and, finally caffeine at concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 502 ng L(-1). Four out of the six analysed iodinated contrast media, namely, diatrizoate, iohexol, iomeprol and iopromide, were detected in at least one sample, with concentration values varying between 0.4 and 5 ng L(-1). Cytostatic compounds were not detected in any sample. Caffeine was the substance showing the highest concentrations, up to 502 ng L(-1), mainly in the drinking water sampling point located in Madrid city. Among the other drugs of abuse, the most abundant compounds were cocaine and benzoylecgonine, detected at concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 86 ng L(-1) and from 0.11 to 53 ng L(-1), respectively. Regarding iodinated contrast media, iohexol was the most ubiquitous and abundant compound, with a frequency of detection of 100% and concentrations from 0.5 to 5.0 ng L(-1) in basically the same range in all sampling points. Taking into account the results and types of treatment applied, ozonisation plus granular activated carbon filtration appears to be

  16. Occurrence of pesticides from coffee crops in surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Ribeiro Vianna Neto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The excessive amount of pesticides applied in agricultural areas may reach surface water, thereby contaminating it. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of pesticides used in a sub-basin headwater with coffee crops, situated in the Dom Corrêa district, Manhuaçu, Minas Gerais. The region of study is a great producer of coffee. Crops occupy steep areas and are situated close to surface water bodies. In this study, four sample collection points were selected in streams as well as a point in the distribution network and two points in the water treatment station (raw and treated water a total of seven points. The samples were collected in rainy and dry seasons. Organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates and triazoles pesticides were identified by liquid and gas chromatography analysis with tandem mass spectrometry. The occurrence of pesticides was more evident in the rainy season. A total of 24 distinct pesticides were detected. At least one pesticide was identified in 67% of the samples collected during the rainy season and in 21% of the samples collected during drought. Many pesticides detected in water are not regulated in Brazilian legislation regarding potability.

  17. Seasonality and increasing frequency of Greenland glacial earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Göran; Nettles, Meredith; Tsai, Victor C

    2006-03-24

    Some glaciers and ice streams periodically lurch forward with sufficient force to generate emissions of elastic waves that are recorded on seismometers worldwide. Such glacial earthquakes on Greenland show a strong seasonality as well as a doubling of their rate of occurrence over the past 5 years. These temporal patterns suggest a link to the hydrological cycle and are indicative of a dynamic glacial response to changing climate conditions. PMID:16556839

  18. Vaccination against seasonal flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...

  19. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not pr...

  20. Summer season | Cafeteria closures

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Please note the following cafeteria closures over the summer season: Bldg. 54 closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 13: closed from 13/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Restaurant No. 2, table service (brasserie and restaurant): closed from 01/08/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 864: closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 865: closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013.

  1. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    This year, as usual, the Medical Service is helping to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal flu is especially recommended for anyone who suffers from chronic pulmonary, cardio-vascular or kidney disease or diabetes, is recovering from a serious illness or major surgery, or is over 65 years of age. The flu virus is transmitted through the air and through contact with contaminated surfaces, so frequent hand-washing with soap and/or an antiseptic hand wash is of great importance. As soon as the first symptoms appear (fever above 38°, shivering, coughing, muscle and/or joint pains, generalised weakness), you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. Anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor), with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA...

  2. Illinois’ 2000 breeding season report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the 2000 breeding season for grassland birds in Illinois. The report begins by summarizing weather conditions throughout the season and...

  3. Seasonal Allergy Research at NIH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapies in such disorders as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Inner-City Asthma Consortium: Since 1991, the NIAID ... reactions. Read More "Managing Allergies" Articles How to Control Your Seasonal Allergies / Allergy Diagnosis and Treatment / Seasonal ...

  4. Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection Questions & Answers Language: English Españ ...

  5. Occurrence of cutaneous haemangiomas in chickens: Morphological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, S C; Borello, B; Castagnaro, M

    1997-01-01

    The occurrence of cutaneous haemangiomas in chickens is described. Macroscopi-cally these lesions appeared as a marked redness of the skin, affecting in particular the pericloacal area. Histologically, they resembled capillary haemangiomas, characterized by the proliferation of newly-formed blood vessels. The proliferating cells were of endothelial origin, as demonstrated by ultrastructural observations and by the positivity of the proliferating cells to staining with specific markers (lectins and anti factor VIII-related antigen antibodies). PMID:18483924

  6. Familial occurrence of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis in 3-siblings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease of unknown etiology characterized by intra-alveolar calcium deposits. More than 500 cases were reported in the literature. The disorder affects people at every age beginning from the early childhood. It occurs probably as a result of autosomal recessive transmission. Familial occurrence is often found with family history of the disease being present in up to 50% of the reported cases. We report PAM in 3 siblings. (author)

  7. Polyoxyethylene Tallow Amine, a Glyphosate Formulation Adjuvant: Soil Adsorption Characteristics, Degradation Profile, and Occurrence on Selected Soils from Agricultural Fields in Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Mississippi, and Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tush, Daniel; Meyer, Michael T

    2016-06-01

    Polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA) is an inert ingredient added to formulations of glyphosate, the most widely applied agricultural herbicide. POEA has been shown to have toxic effects to some aquatic organisms making the potential transport of POEA from the application site into the environment an important concern. This study characterized the adsorption of POEA to soils and assessed its occurrence and homologue distribution in agricultural soils from six states. Adsorption experiments of POEA to selected soils showed that POEA adsorbed much stronger than glyphosate; calcium chloride increased the binding of POEA; and the binding of POEA was stronger in low pH conditions. POEA was detected on a soil sample from an agricultural field near Lawrence, Kansas, but with a loss of homologues that contain alkenes. POEA was also detected on soil samples collected between February and early March from corn and soybean fields from ten different sites in five other states (Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Mississippi). This is the first study to characterize the adsorption of POEA to soil, the potential widespread occurrence of POEA on agricultural soils, and the persistence of the POEA homologues on agricultural soils into the following growing season. PMID:27163278

  8. Investigation on the occurrence and significance of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate in phytoplankton and natural aquatic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francko, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    This study is an investigation into the occurrence and potential functions of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP), a potent and ubiquitous metabolic regulatory molecule in heterotrophic organisms, in phytoplankton and in natural aquatic communities. Laboratory-cultured phytoplankton were grown under both optimal and suboptimal nutrient regimes under constant temperature and illumination regimes. Cellular and extracellular cAMP production, characterized by a number of biochemical techniques, was correlated with growth rate dynamics, chlorophyll a synthesis, /sup 14/C-bicarbonate uptake, alkaline phosphatase activity, and heterocyst formation. The blue-green alga Anabaena flos-aquae was used as a model system in the examination of these metabolic variables. Additionally, this alga was used to test the effects of perturbation of cAMP levels on the aforementioned metabolic variables. Investigations on the occurrence and seasonal dynamics of cAMP in aquatic systems were conducted on Lawrence Lake, a hardwater oligotrophic lake, and on Wintergreen Lake, a hardwater hypereutrophic lake, both in southwestern Michigan. Putative cAMP from both systems was characterized by several biochemical techniques. Weekly sampling of particulate and dissolved cAMP in the epilimnia of both lakes was correlated with data on the rates of primary productivity, alkaline phosphatase activity, chlorophyll a synthesis and changes in phytoplankton community structure.

  9. Estimating the Length of the North Atlantic Basin Hurricane Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    For the interval 1945-2011, the length of the hurricane season in the North Atlantic basin averages about 130 +/- 42 days (the +/-1 standard deviation interval), having a range of 47 to 235 days. Runs-testing reveals that the annual length of season varies nonrandomly at the 5% level of significance. In particular, its trend, as described using 10-yr moving averages, generally has been upward since about 1979, increasing from about 113 to 157 days (in 2003). Based on annual values, one finds a highly statistically important inverse correlation at the 0.1% level of significance between the length of season and the occurrence of the first storm day of the season. For the 2012 hurricane season, based on the reported first storm day of May 19, 2012 (i.e., DOY = 140), the inferred preferential regression predicts that the length of the current season likely will be about 173 +/- 23 days, suggesting that it will end about November 8 +/- 23 days, with only about a 5% chance that it will end either before about September 23, 2012 or after about December 24, 2012.

  10. A mulher e o acidente de trânsito: caracterização do evento em Maringá, Paraná Women and traffic accidents: characterization of occurrences in Maringá, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Davantel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Os acidentes de trânsito são atualmente a primeira causa de mortalidade no conjunto de causas externas entre as mulheres. A mulher atual, pelas mudanças em seu papel na sociedade, vem se expondo a novos riscos. Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a mulher envolvida em acidente de trânsito, assim como os eventos. Foi realizado um estudo transversal, com dados secundários obtidos nos Boletins de Ocorrência de Acidente de Trânsito - BOAT, do 4º Batalhão da Polícia Militar de Maringá, Setor de Trânsito. Os dados foram categorizados e analisados por meio de testes não-paramétricos, de correlações (Spearman e teste de independência entre as variáveis (qui-quadrado. As mulheres envolvidas em acidente de trânsito eram em sua maioria solteiras (34,0%, com idade entre 21 e 30 anos (49,0%, nível de escolaridade acima do ensino médio (58,0% e predominantemente condutoras (65,0%. Os eventos ocorreram principalmente em dias úteis e nos período da tarde e da noite. As lesões foram mais frequentes em mulheres até os 20 anos e acima dos 51. Maior envolvimento em colisões com automóveis (69,%, com grande proporção de atropelamentos (14,2%, envolveram mulheres acima dos 50 anos e com menor nível de escolaridade. Foram mais atentas ao uso de dispositivos de segurança quando casadas e com maior nível de escolaridade. Estes dados sugerem novo perfil da mulher no trânsito, devendo o acompanhamento destas características e das consequências destes acidentes serem mais constantes em pesquisas, direcionando medidas e campanhas preventivas.Today traffic accidents are the first cause of morbidity in the group of external causes among women. Modern women have changed their role, exposing themselves to new risks. So, this study had as its purpose, characterize women involved in traffic accidents and to describe these accidents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with information obtained from the Traffic Accident Report

  11. ULF wave occurrence statistics in a high-latitude HF Doppler sounder

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, D. M.; Yeoman, T.K.; T. B. Jones

    1999-01-01

    Ultra low frequency (ULF) wave activity in the high-latitude ionosphere has been observed by a high frequency (HF) Doppler sounder located at Tromsø, Norway (69.7°N, 19.2°E geographic coordinates). A statistical study of the occurrence of these waves has been undertaken from data collected between 1979 and 1984. The diurnal, seasonal, solar cycle and geomagnetic activity variations in occurrence have been investigated. The findings demonstrate that the ability of the sounder to detect ULF wav...

  12. Habitat stability and occurrences of malaria vector larvae in western Kenya highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieli Harrysone

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the occurrence of malaria vector larvae in the valleys of western Kenya highlands is well documented, knowledge of larval habitats in the uphill sites is lacking. Given that most inhabitants of the highlands actually dwell in the uphill regions, it is important to develop understanding of mosquito breeding habitat stability in these sites in order to determine their potential for larval control. Methods A total of 128 potential larval habitats were identified in hilltops and along the seasonal streams in the Sigalagala area of Kakamega district, western Kenya. Water availability in the habitats was followed up daily from August 3, 2006 to February 23, 2007. A habitat is defined as stable when it remains aquatic continuously for at least 12 d. Mosquito larvae were observed weekly. Frequencies of aquatic, stable and larvae positive habitats were compared between the hilltop and seasonal stream area using χ2-test. Factors affecting the presence/absence of Anopheles gambiae larvae in the highlands were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Topography significantly affected habitat availability and stability. The occurrence of aquatic habitats in the hilltop was more sporadic than in the stream area. The percentage of habitat occurrences that were classified as stable during the rainy season is 48.76% and 80.79% respectively for the hilltop and stream area. Corresponding frequencies of larvae positive habitats were 0% in the hilltop and 5.91% in the stream area. After the rainy season, only 23.42% of habitat occurrences were stable and 0.01% larvae positive habitats were found in the hilltops, whereas 89.75% of occurrences remained stable in the stream area resulting in a frequency of 12.21% larvae positive habitats. The logistic regression analysis confirmed the association between habitat stability and larval occurrence and indicated that habitat surface area was negatively affecting the

  13. Correlation between the seasonal distribution of harbour porpoises and their prey in the Sound, Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveegaard, Signe; Andreasen, Heidi; Mouritsen, Kim N.; Jeppesen, Jens Peder; Teilmann, Jonas; Kinze, Carl C.

    2012-01-01

    –porpoise density season and seven in the low-density season. The distribution of occurrence and the distribution of number of Wsh species were diVerent between seasons, indicating a shift in prey intake between seasons. Furthermore, during the highdensity season, the mean and total prey weight per stomach as well...... Atlantic herring and Atlantic cod were equally important during the low-density season. Prey availability and predictability are suggested as the main drivers for harbour porpoise distribution, and this could be caused by the formation of frontal zones in spring in the northern part of the Sound, leading......Low densities of harbour porpoises in winter (November–March) and high densities in summer (April–October) were found in the Sound, connecting the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. Due to their high energy requirements, it is hypothesized that the density of harbour porpoises is related to local prey...

  14. Seasonal variation of prices of sugar cane, ethanol and electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal price of sugar cane, fuel alcohol (hydrated and anhydrous) and electricity tariffs as a way of aiding tool for optimization of energy generation, using biomass originating from cane sugar. Using the method of moving average centered was concluded that cane and electricity rates were close to seasonal average, with low range of prices, suggesting the non-occurrence of seasonal variation in prices. Unlike the seasonal indices of ethanol showed seasonal variation of prices with greater amplitude of seasonal index. Thus, the results suggest that the utilization of by-products of sugar cane to produce electrical power points to the prospect of reducing risks associated with variations in the price of ethanol, thereby contributing to greater stability and possibility to those involved in planning alcohol sector. (author)

  15. OPEN SEASON 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    如果你捧着爆米花(popcorn)去看电影,那最好不要选择这部电影,因为你会捧腹大笑得把爆米花洒一地;如果你边喝水边看电影,那也最好小心点,因为这部电影绝对会让你笑得喷水。是什么样的电影?那就是Open Season2!

  16. Statistics of GNSS amplitude scintillation occurrences over Dakar, Senegal, at varying elevation angles during the maximum phase of solar cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akala, A. O.; Awoyele, A.; Doherty, P. H.

    2016-03-01

    This study characterizes Global Navigation Satellite System amplitude scintillation over Dakar (14.75°N, 17.45°W, magnitude latitude: 5.88°N), Senegal. The data, which we arranged on daily and monthly scales, cover 14 months: September-November 2012; February-December 2013; and January-February 2014. The data were further binned into three levels of scintillation using the S4 index: weak (0.3 ≤ S4 < 0.4), moderate (0.4 ≤ S4 < 0.7), and intense (S4 ≥ 0.7), over varying elevation angles (10°, 20°, and 30°). Daily occurrences of scintillation were most frequent around 22-02 LT. On a month-by-month basis, October recorded the highest occurrences of scintillations, while June recorded the least. Furthermore, contrary to Akala et al. (2014, 2015) who earlier reported January as off season for scintillation occurrences at some sites in Africa, namely, Lagos (Central West Africa), Nairobi, and Kampala (East Africa), the current study recorded some scintillation occurrences at Dakar (far west of West Africa) in January. It therefore implies that longitudinal variations do exist in the climatology of ionospheric scintillations over Africa. Consequently, detailed understanding of the climatology and daily distributions of ionospheric scintillations over equatorial Africa, which is our key objective in this study (from the perspective of Dakar), is the basic requirement for developing robust physics-based scintillation models for the African equatorial region. Finally, we noted that the conventional adoption of high-elevation masking angles during scintillation data processing, with a view to suppressing multipath effects usually hid important ionospheric-induced scintillation data.

  17. The stochastic seasonal behavior of energy commodity convenience yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contributes to the commodity pricing literature by consistently modeling the convenience yield with its empirically observed properties. Specifically, in this paper, we show how a four-factor model for the stochastic behavior of commodity prices, with two long- and short-term factors and two additional seasonal factors, may accommodate some of the most important empirically observed characteristics of commodity convenience yields, such as the mean reversion and stochastic seasonality. Based on this evidence, a theoretical model is presented and estimated to characterize the commodity convenience yield dynamics that are consistent with previous findings. We also show that commodity price seasonality is better estimated through convenience yields than through futures prices. - Highlights: • Energy commodity convenience yields exhibit mean reversion and stochastic seasonality. • We present a model for convenience yields accounting for their observed characteristics. • Commodity price seasonality is better estimated through convenience yields

  18. Seasonal variability of tropical cyclones generated over the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guihua; WANG Hui; QI Yiquan

    2007-01-01

    The seasonal variability of tropical cyclones (CTCs) generated over the South China Sea (SCS) from 1948 to 2003 is analyzed. It peaks in occurrence in August and few generate in late winter (from January to March). The seasonal activity is attributed to the variability of atmosphere and ocean environments associated with the monsoon system. It is found that the monsoonal characteristics of the SCS basically determine the region of tropical cyclone (TC) genesis in each month.

  19. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2009-01-01

    As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not provide protection against the...

  20. Music season coming soon

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin in collaboration with Julio Rosenfeld

    2012-01-01

    On 16 June, CERN’s music season will open with Music on the Lawn. The event is the CERN Music Club’s contribution to the Fete de la Musique and will take place on the terrace of Restaurant 1 from 2 p.m. to 8 p.m. The Hardronic Festival, CERN’s long-running rock festival, will be held on the evenings of 20 and 21 July in Prévessin, on the terrace behind Restaurant 3. If you would like to help with the organisation, please contact the Music Club by e-mail: music.club@cern.ch.   The Canettes Blues Band during the 2011 Hardronic Festival. (© Christoph Balle, 2010). Summer is coming, and along with it comes the music season. CERN will be hosting its two annual rock music concerts: Music on the Lawn and the Hardronic Festival. The two events are organised by the CERN Music Club, which has been sharing the enjoyment of good music with its numerous fans for many years. “Music on the Lawn was originally created so that the members of the Mus...

  1. Co-occurrence of airborne allergenic pollen grains and fungal spores in Rzeszów, Poland (2000-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Kasprzyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The co-occurrence of airborne allergenic pollen grains and fungal spores was estimated in Rzeszów in the years 2000-2002. The volumetric method was used in this aerobiological study. Six taxa of pollen grains and five types of fungal spores characterized by strong allergenicity and/or high concentrations in the air were analyzed. The time series of pollen grains and fungal spores were compared using PCA analysis. The periods of the greatest concentrations of tree pollen did not coincide with similar periods for herbaceous plants and fungal spores. From February to mid-March, Alnus pollen dominated in the air. The second period was characterized by Betula pollen. It occurred in April. Herbaceous pollen and fungal spores occurred in the air simultaneously (from mid May to the end of August, creating a risky situation for sensitized people. The periods of the highest concentrations of Epicoccum and Ganoderma fungal spores did not coincide with the same period for the examined plant taxa. In Rzeszów the probability of becoming exposed to very high concentrations of allergenic pollen and fungal spores at the same time was high, especially in July, when the highest concentrations of Poaceae, Alternaria and Cladosporium were noted. The hypersensitivity to only one plant or fungal allergen is rarely encountered. Under the present scenarios of global warming, pollen seasons of many taxa will be longer and sufferers will have year-long symptoms.

  2. Ionospheric control of auroral occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Analogous to color CRTs, the aurora is a visual manifestation of the bombardment of atomic and molecular neutrals in the upper atmosphere by magnetic field-guided energetic charged particles (mainly electrons) from above. Based on this framework, the magnetosphere is the source of energetic particles, whereas the ionosphere is merely a passive 'illuminated target'. However, it is not clear if the magnetosphere is acting along in the energization of the particles because the energization occurs at the magnetosphere-ionosphere interface. The discovery of suppression of auroral acceleration events in sunlight [Newell et al., 1996] provides a new interpretation - the ionosphere is also playing an active role in the auroral production. The auroral sunlight effect is often attributed to an ionospheric feedback mechanism in which the background ionospheric conductance determines if an acceleration is required. However, a relationship between the background ionospheric conductance and the aurora has not been identified. In this presentation, we provide solid evidence to confirm that the ionospheric conductance plays a key role in modulating auroral intensity to a degree that may surpass its source's manipulation. This study is based on 56,675 Earth's disk FUV images of the polar regions acquired by TIMED/GUVI between February 2002 and November 2007. It is found that the occurrence rate of visible aurora reduces when the polar ionosphere is exposed to sunlight. Furthermore, the energy flux carried by precipitating electrons shows anti-correlation with the ionospheric background conductance. Suppression of the auroral energy flux is also found to continue in twilight until the ionosphere is totally in darkness - a strong evidence of ionospheric manipulation because the magnetospheric sunlight condition does not change. The present study suggests a new mechanism that governs our space disturbances, in addition to the more familiar

  3. Seasonality in human zoonotic enteric diseases: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Lal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although seasonality is a defining characteristic of many infectious diseases, few studies have described and compared seasonal patterns across diseases globally, impeding our understanding of putative mechanisms. Here, we review seasonal patterns across five enteric zoonotic diseases: campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, vero-cytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC, cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in the context of two primary drivers of seasonality: (i environmental effects on pathogen occurrence and pathogen-host associations and (ii population characteristics/behaviour. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically reviewed published literature from 1960-2010, resulting in the review of 86 studies across the five diseases. The Gini coefficient compared temporal variations in incidence across diseases and the monthly seasonality index characterised timing of seasonal peaks. Consistent seasonal patterns across transnational boundaries, albeit with regional variations was observed. The bacterial diseases all had a distinct summer peak, with identical Gini values for campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis (0.22 and a higher index for VTEC (Gini  0.36. Cryptosporidiosis displayed a bi-modal peak with spring and summer highs and the most marked temporal variation (Gini = 0.39. Giardiasis showed a relatively small summer increase and was the least variable (Gini = 0.18. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Seasonal variation in enteric zoonotic diseases is ubiquitous, with regional variations highlighting complex environment-pathogen-host interactions. Results suggest that proximal environmental influences and host population dynamics, together with distal, longer-term climatic variability could have important direct and indirect consequences for future enteric disease risk. Additional understanding of the concerted influence of these factors on disease patterns may improve assessment and prediction of enteric disease burden in temperate

  4. Seasonal variation of the onset of preeclampsia and eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Zahiri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is one of the three leading causes of maternal mortality. Studies have suggested that the incidence of preeclampsia may be partially dependent on the month or season of delivery. This study was conducted to evaluate whether seasonal variation has any effect on the incidence of eclampsia or preeclampsia.
    METHODS: From 1999 to 2001, a cross-sectional study in Alzahra Hospital was performed using all deliveries with gestational age more than 20 weeks. Variables of maternal age, parity, occurrence of preeclampsia and eclampsia, and season were evaluated and analyzed by chi-square test in SPSS 10.
    RESULTS: During the period of the study, there were 12,142 deliveries at Alzahra Hospital in Rasht. There were 2,579 (21.3% deliveries in spring, 2,696 (22.2% in summer, 3,645 (30% in autumn, and 3,222 (26.5% in winter. There was no statistically significant relationship between the age, parity and season. Hypertensive disorder was reported in 609 pregnancies (5%, with 11,533 (95% having no hypertensive disorder. Data showed that 397 patients (3.3% had preeclampsia and eclampsia. The highest rate of preeclampsia was in spring (3.6%, and the lowest rate was in summer (3%, but it revealed no statistical difference in the incidence of preeclampsia with season.
    CONCLUSIONS: We found no correlation between preeclampsia or eclampsia and season. It may be due to relative similarities between seasons in North of Iran. For example, there are relative similarities between spring and summer, and between autumn and winter.
    KEY WORDS: Pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, eclampsia, seasonal.

  5. Effect of season on fertility of sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stančić Blagoje L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced fertility of sows during the warmer period of the year is a well-known occurrence in practical production. Namely, during summer months gilts become sexually mature later, the interval from weaning to estrus is prolonged, there is a greater number of postlactation silent estruses anestrias and ovarian cysts, the value of conception is lower, there are more irregular failed fertilizations, there is a higher degree of embryo mortality, and the litter size is smaller. This is why this occurrence presents an important zootechnological, veterinary-medical and economic problem. Most scientific research shows that this phenomenon is a consequence of the effects of an extended daily photoperiod and a higher ambient temperature. However, the degree of the individual effect of these factors has not been determined clearly, or the physiological and endocrinological mechanisms of their action. It is probably not possible completely to avoid the negative influence of seasonal factors on reduced fertility in sows during the summer period. However, it can be significantly alleviated with a regular maintenance technology, diet, hygiene and medical protection of sows. This paper presents knowledge acquired so far on the manifestation of this phenomenon, its physiological and endocrine bases, as well as possibilities for its practical resolving.

  6. An Analysis of Japanese Hotel Plan Availability ---Regionality and Seasonality---

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, M.; Sato, A.

    This paper investigates regionality and seasonality of room planavailability in Japan. We employ the singular spectrum analysis to the daily plan availability and extract the trends. We examine the coefficient of a linear relation between a normalized trend at each prefecture and a normalized trend of the whole of Japan. It is concluded that the coefficients, with respect to the four seasons, characterize properties of the prefectures.

  7. Tests of Seasonal and Non-Seasonal Serial Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Donald W.K. Andrews; Liu, Xuemei Liu; Werner Ploberger

    1996-01-01

    This paper considers tests for seasonal and non-seasonal serial correlation in time series and in the errors of regression models. The problem of testing for white noise against multiplicative seasonal ARMA(l,l)-ARMA(l,l) alternatives is investigated. This testing problem is non-standard due to nuisance parameters that appear under the alternative but not under the null hypothesis. The likelihood ratio (LR), sup Lagrange multiplier (LM), and exponential average LM and LR tests are considered ...

  8. Seasonal occurrence and species specificity of fishy and musty odor in Huajiang Reservoir in winter, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of measurements from one year period on the existence of fishy and musty odor in drinking water at low temperatures (1–2 °C in Baotou, China, using an open-loop stripping analysis (OLSA systems and Gas chromatography spectrometry (GC. The main results show that it is micro-contaminated water body of the raw water in Huajiang Reservoir. The average phytoplankton abundance was 2.06×107 L−1, Cyanobacteria counts were at 2.0×106 L−1 and the dominate family of the algae are Chlorophyta, Cryptophyta, and Bacillariophyta. Experimental results indicated that under the ice whose thickness was 0.55 m, the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR of the surface varied from 70 to 636 W m−2 from November to March of next year. The average surface PAR was 114.8 W m−2, and the lowest value was 70.57 W m−2 (in December and the average bottom PAR was 19.04 W m−2, and the lowest value was 3.84 W m−2 (in December. The surface PAR, bottom PAR, eutrophic conditions in ice-covered Huajiang reservoir satisfied the growth and MIB/geosmin production of Cyanobacteria algae in winter. The 2-methyl-isoborneol (MIB concentration ranged from 29 ng L−1 to 102 ng L−1. The concentration of trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol (geosmin ranges from 20 ng L−1 to 65 ng L−1 and it is 2 to 5 times of the odor threshold concentrations (OTC. The correlations between MIB/geosmin and nitrogen are 0.63–0.37. Eutrophication is the most important factor influencing synthesis of taste and odors, but not temperature. Using bypassing pipe pumping Yellow River water directly to the Water treatment plant (WTP is an efficient way about T&O compounds׳ control in drinking water of Baotou city in winter.

  9. Seasonal Occurrence and Abundance of the Potato Psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, in south central Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli Sulc, has recently been identified as a vector of Candidatus Liberibacter, the putative causal agent of zebra chip (ZC) potato disease. ZC is causing millions of dollars in losses to the potato industry in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New...

  10. Seasonal occurrence of unique sediment plume in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sridhar, P.N.; Ali, M.M.; Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Ramana, I.V.; Jayakumar, S.

    to the point that no U.S. aca- demic institution currently operates a sea- going heat flow capacity. In September 2007, a workshop was con- vened in Salt Lake City with sponsorship from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and participation... Perspectives on Measuring and Interpreting Seafloor Heat Flux The Future of Marine Heat Flow: Defining Scientific Goals and Experimental Needs for the 21st Century; Salt Lake City, Utah, 6–7 September 2007 PAGE 23 ...

  11. Dynamics of whale shark occurrence at their fringe oceanic habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Afonso

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that the whale shark (Rhincodon typus, a vulnerable large filter feeder, seasonally aggregates at highly productive coastal sites and that individuals can perform large, trans-boundary migrations to reach these locations. Yet, the whereabouts of the whale shark when absent from these sites and the potential oceanographic and biological drivers involved in shaping their present and future habitat use, including that located at the fringes of their suitable oceanic habitat, are largely unknown. We analysed a 16-year (1998-2013 observer dataset from the pole-and-line tuna fishery across the Azores (mid-North Atlantic and used GAM models to investigate the spatial and temporal patterns of whale shark occurrence in relation to oceanographic features. Across this period, the whale shark became a regular summer visitor to the archipelago after a sharp increase in sighting frequency seen in 2008. We found that SST helps predicting their occurrence in the region associated to the position of the seasonal 22°C isotherm, showing that the Azores are at a thermal boundary for this species and providing an explanation for the post 2007 increase. Within the region, whale shark detections were also higher in areas of increased bathymetric slope and closer to the seamounts, coinciding with higher chl-a biomass, a behaviour most probably associated to increased feeding opportunities. They also showed a tendency to be clustered around the southernmost island of Santa Maria. This study shows that the region integrates the oceanic habitat of adult whale shark and suggests that an increase in its relative importance for the Atlantic population might be expected in face of climate change.

  12. Dynamics of whale shark occurrence at their fringe oceanic habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Pedro; McGinty, Niall; Machete, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that the whale shark (Rhincodon typus), a vulnerable large filter feeder, seasonally aggregates at highly productive coastal sites and that individuals can perform large, trans-boundary migrations to reach these locations. Yet, the whereabouts of the whale shark when absent from these sites and the potential oceanographic and biological drivers involved in shaping their present and future habitat use, including that located at the fringes of their suitable oceanic habitat, are largely unknown. We analysed a 16-year (1998-2013) observer dataset from the pole-and-line tuna fishery across the Azores (mid-North Atlantic) and used GAM models to investigate the spatial and temporal patterns of whale shark occurrence in relation to oceanographic features. Across this period, the whale shark became a regular summer visitor to the archipelago after a sharp increase in sighting frequency seen in 2008. We found that SST helps predicting their occurrence in the region associated to the position of the seasonal 22°C isotherm, showing that the Azores are at a thermal boundary for this species and providing an explanation for the post 2007 increase. Within the region, whale shark detections were also higher in areas of increased bathymetric slope and closer to the seamounts, coinciding with higher chl-a biomass, a behaviour most probably associated to increased feeding opportunities. They also showed a tendency to be clustered around the southernmost island of Santa Maria. This study shows that the region integrates the oceanic habitat of adult whale shark and suggests that an increase in its relative importance for the Atlantic population might be expected in face of climate change. PMID:25028929

  13. UMTRA project list of reportable occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This UMTRA Project List of Reportable occurrences is provided to facilitate efficient categorization of reportable occurrences. These guidelines have been established in compliance with DOE minimum reporting requirements under DOE Order 5000.3B. Occurrences are arranged into nine groups relating to US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project operations for active sites. These nine groupings are provided for reference to determined whether an occurrence meets reporting requirement criteria in accordance with the minimum reporting requirements. Event groups and significance categories that cannot or will not occur, and that do not apply to UMTRA Project operations, are omitted. Occurrence categorization shall be as follows: Group 1. Facility Condition; Group 2. Environmental; Group 3. Personnel Safety; Group 4. Personnel Radiation Protection; Group 5. Safeguards and Security; Group 6. Transportation; Group 7. Value Basis Reporting; Group 8. Facility Status; and Group 9. Cross-Category Items

  14. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from April 1 through June 30, 1990. The report discusses six abnormal occurrences, none involving a nuclear power plant. There were five abnormal occurrences at NRC licensees: (1) deficiencies in brachytherapy program; (2) a radiation overexposure of a radiographer; (3) a medical diagnostic misadministration; (4) administration of iodine-131 to a lactating female with subsequent uptake by her infant; and (5) a medical therapy misadministration. An Agreement State (Arizona) reported an abnormal occurrence involving a medical diagnostic misadministration. The report also contains information that updates a previously reported occurrence

  15. UMTRA project list of reportable occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This UMTRA Project List of Reportable occurrences is provided to facilitate efficient categorization of reportable occurrences. These guidelines have been established in compliance with DOE minimum reporting requirements under DOE Order 5000.3B. Occurrences are arranged into nine groups relating to US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project operations for active sites. These nine groupings are provided for reference to determined whether an occurrence meets reporting requirement criteria in accordance with the minimum reporting requirements. Event groups and significance categories that cannot or will not occur, and that do not apply to UMTRA Project operations, are omitted. Occurrence categorization shall be as follows: Group 1. Facility Condition; Group 2. Environmental; Group 3. Personnel Safety; Group 4. Personnel Radiation Protection; Group 5. Safeguards and Security; Group 6. Transportation; Group 7. Value Basis Reporting; Group 8. Facility Status; and Group 9. Cross-Category Items.

  16. Forecasting fluctuating outbreaks in seasonally driven epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lewi

    2009-03-01

    Seasonality is a driving force that has major impact on the spatio-temporal dynamics of natural systems and their populations. This is especially true for the transmission of common infectious diseases such as influenza, measles, chickenpox, and pertussis. Here we gain new insights into the nonlinear dynamics of recurrent diseases through the analysis of the classical seasonally forced SIR epidemic model. Despite many efforts over the last decades, it has been difficult to gain general analytical insights because of the complex synchronization effects that can evolve between the external forcing and the model's natural oscillations. The analysis advanced here attempts to make progress in this direction by focusing on the dynamics of ``skips'' where we identify and predict years in which the epidemic is absent rather than outbreak years. Skipping events are intrinsic to the forced SIR model when parameterised in the chaotic regime. In fact, it is difficult if not impossible to locate realistic chaotic parameter regimes in which outbreaks occur regularly each year. This contrasts with the well known Rossler oscillator whose outbreaks recur regularly but whose amplitude vary chaotically in time (Uniform Phase Chaotic Amplitude oscillations). The goal of the present study is to develop a ``language of skips'' that makes it possible to predict under what conditions the next outbreak is likely to occur, and how many ``skips'' might be expected after any given outbreak. We identify a new threshold effect and give clear analytical conditions that allow accurate predictions. Moreover, the time of occurrence (i.e., phase) of an outbreak proves to be a useful new parameter that carries important epidemiological information. In forced systems, seasonal changes can prevent late-initiating outbreaks (i.e., having high phase) from running to completion. These principles yield forecasting tools that should have relevance for the study of newly emerging and reemerging diseases.

  17. Variations in the occurrence of SuperDARN F region echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezelbash, M.; Fiori, R. A. D.; Koustov, A. V.

    2014-02-01

    The occurrence of F region ionospheric echoes observed by a number of SuperDARN HF radars is analyzed statistically in order to infer solar cycle, seasonal, and diurnal trends. The major focus is on Saskatoon radar data for 1994-2012. The distribution of the echo occurrence rate is presented in terms of month of observation and magnetic local time. Clear repetitive patterns are identified during periods of solar maximum and solar minimum. For years near solar maximum, echoes are most frequent near midnight during winter. For years near solar minimum, echoes occur more frequently near noon during winter, near dusk and dawn during equinoxes and near midnight during summer. Similar features are identified for the Hankasalmi and Prince George radars in the northern hemisphere and the Bruny Island TIGER radar in the southern hemisphere. Echo occurrence for the entire SuperDARN network demonstrates patterns similar to patterns in the echo occurrence for the Saskatoon radar and for other radars considered individually. In terms of the solar cycle, the occurrence rate of nightside echoes is shown to increase by a factor of at least 3 toward solar maximum while occurrence of the near-noon echoes does not significantly change with the exception of a clear depression during the declining phase of the solar cycle.

  18. Common Factors in Return Seasonalities

    OpenAIRE

    Matti Keloharju; Juhani T. Linnainmaa; Peter Nyberg

    2014-01-01

    A strategy that selects stocks based on their historical same-calendar-month returns earns an average return of 13% per year. We document similar return seasonalities in anomalies, commodities, international stock market indices, and at the daily frequency. The seasonalities overwhelm unconditional differences in expected returns. The correlations between different seasonality strategies are modest, suggesting that they emanate from different common factors. Our results suggest that seasonali...

  19. Occurrence of synanthropic triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in the Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Hitoshi Maeda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Entomological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Federal District of Brazil (DF, has recorded the following triatomine species: Panstrongylus megistus, P. geniculatus, P. diasi, Rhodnius neglectus, Triatoma pseudomaculata, and T. sordida. We aimed to analyze the spatial and temporal occurrence of triatomine species collected in DF, and their indices of natural infection with trypanosomes. METHODS: The Health State Secretariat of DF recorded triatomines between 2002 and 2010 in 20 administrative regions. This retrospective analysis considered the number of adults and nymphs of each species collected and infected in both intradomicile and peridomicile. RESULTS: A total of 754 triatomines were collected in 252 reported domiciles. Panstrongylus megistus was the most frequent species (65%, followed by T. pseudomaculata (14%. Of the 309 examined insects, only 3 (1% specimens of P. megistus were infected with flagellates morphologically similar to Trypanosoma cruzi. The spatial occurrence indicated a higher diversity of triatomines and frequency of T. sordida in rural areas. Moreover, there was a predominance of P. megistus in urban areas. The number of records of P. megistus in the rainy season was two times higher than that during the dry season. The largest number of triatomines was collected in November. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of P. megistus specimens infected with trypanosomes in domiciles, shows the potential risk of human infection in DF. Thus, it is essential to continue entomological surveillance, intensifying it in the rainy season and in regions of greater occurrence.

  20. Recent Increases in Extreme Temperature Occurrence over Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, S. J.; Kumar, A.; Chen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recently observed global and U.S. temperature increases are probed from the perspective of several hundred climate realizations afforded by the availability of reforecast climate model runs from the NCEP Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFSv2). The large number of seasonal realizations with the observed time varying CO2 affords a unique opportunity to explore the role of greenhouse gas changes on 3-month seasonal mean temperature increases, and specifically, whether they are the result of a shift in the mean temperature distribution or an increase in its variability. It is found that significant positive shifts in the temperature Probability Density Function (PDF) occurs primarily as the result of the time varying CO2 included in the historical model runs, although a contribution from natural climate variability modes cannot be categorically excluded. The temperature PDF comparison further indicates that the increasing global and U.S. temperatures over the last 30 years are predominantly the result of shifts in the mean temperature distribution and not increasing temperature variability. As such, the likelihood of increases in the occurrence of warm temperature extremes will likely continue to increase worldwide, leading to significant impacts on many socioeconomic sectors such as agriculture and public health.

  1. Modeling very large-fire occurrences over the continental United States from weather and climate forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, R.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Steel, E. A.; Larkin, Narasimhan K.

    2014-12-01

    Very large-fires (VLFs) have widespread impacts on ecosystems, air quality, fire suppression resources, and in many regions account for a majority of total area burned. Empirical generalized linear models of the largest fires (>5000 ha) across the contiguous United States (US) were developed at ˜60 km spatial and weekly temporal resolutions using solely atmospheric predictors. Climate-fire relationships on interannual timescales were evident, with wetter conditions than normal in the previous growing season enhancing VLFs probability in rangeland systems and with concurrent long-term drought enhancing VLFs probability in forested systems. Information at sub-seasonal timescales further refined these relationships, with short-term fire weather being a significant predictor in rangelands and fire danger indices linked to dead fuel moisture being a significant predictor in forested lands. Models demonstrated agreement in capturing the observed spatial and temporal variability including the interannual variability of VLF occurrences within most ecoregions. Furthermore the model captured the observed increase in VLF occurrences across parts of the southwestern and southeastern US from 1984 to 2010 suggesting that, irrespective of changes in fuels and land management, climatic factors have become more favorable for VLF occurrence over the past three decades in some regions. Our modeling framework provides a basis for simulations of future VLF occurrences from climate projections.

  2. Modeling very large-fire occurrences over the continental United States from weather and climate forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very large-fires (VLFs) have widespread impacts on ecosystems, air quality, fire suppression resources, and in many regions account for a majority of total area burned. Empirical generalized linear models of the largest fires (>5000 ha) across the contiguous United States (US) were developed at ∼60 km spatial and weekly temporal resolutions using solely atmospheric predictors. Climate−fire relationships on interannual timescales were evident, with wetter conditions than normal in the previous growing season enhancing VLFs probability in rangeland systems and with concurrent long-term drought enhancing VLFs probability in forested systems. Information at sub-seasonal timescales further refined these relationships, with short-term fire weather being a significant predictor in rangelands and fire danger indices linked to dead fuel moisture being a significant predictor in forested lands. Models demonstrated agreement in capturing the observed spatial and temporal variability including the interannual variability of VLF occurrences within most ecoregions. Furthermore the model captured the observed increase in VLF occurrences across parts of the southwestern and southeastern US from 1984 to 2010 suggesting that, irrespective of changes in fuels and land management, climatic factors have become more favorable for VLF occurrence over the past three decades in some regions. Our modeling framework provides a basis for simulations of future VLF occurrences from climate projections. (letter)

  3. Hemispheric asymmetry in martian seasonal surface water ice from MGS TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapst, Jonathan; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Wood, Stephen E.

    2015-11-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared bolometers measured planetary broadband albedo and temperature for more than three Mars years. As seasons progress on Mars, surface temperatures may fall below the frost point of volatiles in the atmosphere (namely, carbon dioxide and water). Systematic mapping of the spatial and temporal occurrence of these volatiles in the martian atmosphere, on the surface, and in the subsurface has shown their importance in understanding the climate of Mars. We examine TES daytime albedo, temperature, and atmospheric opacity data to map the latitudinal and temporal occurrence of seasonal surface water frost on Mars. We expand on previous work by looking at the behavior of water frost over the entire martian year, made possible with comprehensive, multi-year data. Interpretations of frost are based on albedo changes and the corresponding daytime temperature range. Data is considered consistent with water frost when there are significant albedo increases (>0.05 relative to frost-free seasons) and the observed temperatures are ∼170-200 K. We argue the presence of extensive water frost in the northern hemisphere, extending from the pole to ∼40°N, following seasonal temperature trends. In the north, water frost first appears near the pole at Ls = ∼160° and is last observed at Ls = ∼90°. Extensive water frost is less evident in southern hemisphere data, though both hemispheres show data that are consistent with the presence of a water ice annulus during seasonal cap retreat. Hemispherical asymmetry in the occurrence of seasonal water frost is due in part to the lower (∼40%) atmospheric water vapor abundances observed in the southern hemisphere. Our results are consistent with net transport of water vapor to the northern hemisphere. The deposition and sublimation of seasonal water frost may significantly increase the near-surface water vapor density that could

  4. Long-term temporal changes in the occurrence of a high forest fire danger in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Mäkelä

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate variation and change influence several ecosystem components including forest fires. To examine long-term temporal variations of forest fire danger, a fire danger day (FDD model was developed. Using mean temperature and total precipitation of the Finnish wildfire season (June–August, the model describes the climatological preconditions of fire occurrence and gives the number of fire danger days during the same time period. The performance of the model varied between different regions in Finland being best in south and west. In the study period 1908–2011, the year-to-year variation of FDD was large and no significant increasing or decreasing tendencies could be found. Negative slopes of linear regression lines for FDD could be explained by the simultaneous, mostly not significant increases in precipitation. Years with the largest wildfires did not stand out from the FDD time series. This indicates that intra-seasonal variations of FDD enable occurrence of large-scale fires, despite the whole season's fire danger is on an average level. Based on available monthly climate data, it is possible to estimate the general fire conditions of a summer. However, more detailed input data about weather conditions, land use, prevailing forestry conventions and socio-economical factors would be needed to gain more specific information about a season's fire risk.

  5. Middlemiocenemonsoon Precipitation Seasonality In Thailand Using Rhino-teethoxygenisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentaleb, I.; Kaandorp, R.; Tafforeau, P.; Ducrocq, S.; Chaimanee, Y.; Jaeger, J. J.; Ganssen, G.

    The present climate of Thailand is controlled by the Southeast Asian Monsoon system. Different time spans have been suggested for the first monsoon occurrence or intensification, from 30 Ma to the end of the Miocene (8-6 Ma) due to different hypotheses such as (i) Paratethys ocean shrinkage, (ii) Himalayan and Tibetan plateau uplift and (iii) chemical weathering and atmospheric [CO2]. One of the most appropriate way to study the past Monsoon occurrence is to reconstruct seasonal 18 paleo-precipitation distribution. We first calibrated a modern rhino tooth enamel18? O signal with seasonal precipitation amounts in Thailand. We show that the ? O of the rhino tooth is a powerful precipitation/evaporation proxy merely because the mammal hydroxylapatite precipitates under constant body temperature (no temperature corrections are needed). We applied the same high resolution analysis to a middle Miocene Thai specimen. The results show that middle Miocene seasonality in rainfall was similar to today (ca. 3 months), although the amount of precipitation was higher, which is in agreement with atmospheric general circulation model simulations suggesting at least an early monsoon installation.

  6. It's Open Season on Ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    It’s Open Season on Ticks Protect yourself from tickborne disease this hunting season Ticks feed on the blood of animals (such as rodents, rabbits, deer, and birds), but will bite humans too. Ticks live in grassy or wooded areas, or on ...

  7. Discovering Multi-Scale Co-Occurrence Patterns of Asthma and Influenza with Oak Ridge Bio-Surveillance Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Arvind; Pullum, Laura L.; Hobson, Tanner C.; Stahl, Christopher G.; Steed, Chad A.; Quinn, Shannon P.; Chennubhotla, Chakra S.; Valkova, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    We describe a data-driven unsupervised machine learning approach to extract geo-temporal co-occurrence patterns of asthma and the flu from large-scale electronic healthcare reimbursement claims (eHRC) datasets. Specifically, we examine the eHRC data from 2009 to 2010 pandemic H1N1 influenza season and analyze whether different geographic regions within the United States (US) showed an increase in co-occurrence patterns of the flu and asthma. Our analyses reveal that the temporal patterns extracted from the eHRC data show a distinct lag time between the peak incidence of the asthma and the flu. While the increased occurrence of asthma contributed to increased flu incidence during the pandemic, this co-occurrence is predominant for female patients. The geo-temporal patterns reveal that the co-occurrence of the flu and asthma are typically concentrated within the south-east US. Further, in agreement with previous studies, large urban areas (such as New York, Miami, and Los Angeles) exhibit co-occurrence patterns that suggest a peak incidence of asthma and flu significantly early in the spring and winter seasons. Together, our data-analytic approach, integrated within the Oak Ridge Bio-surveillance Toolkit platform, demonstrates how eHRC data can provide novel insights into co-occurring disease patterns. PMID:26284230

  8. Occurrence studies of intracranial tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larjavaara, S.

    2011-07-01

    Intracranial tumours are a histopathologically heterogeneous group of tumours. This thesis focused on three types of intracranial tumours; gliomas, meningiomas and vestibular schwannomas (VS). The main objectives of the dissertation were to estimate the occurrence of intracranial tumours by different subtypes, and to assess the validity and completeness of the cancer registry data. The specific aims of the publications were to evaluate the validity of reported incidence rates of meningioma cases, to describe the trends of VS incidence in four Nordic countries, and to define the anatomic distribution of gliomas and to investigate their location in relation to mobile phone use. Completeness of meningioma registration was examined by comparing five separate sources of information, and by defining the frequencies of cases reported to the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR). Incidence trends of VS were assessed in the four Nordic countries over a twenty-one-year period (1987 - 2007) using cancer registry data. The anatomic site of gliomas was evaluated using both crude locations in the cerebral lobes and, in more detail, a three-dimensional (3D) distribution in the brain. In addition, a study on specific locations of gliomas in relation to the typical position of mobile phones was conducted using two separate approaches: a case-case and a case-specular analysis. The thesis was based on four sets of materials. Data from the international Interphone study were used for the studies on gliomas, while the two other studies were register-based. The dataset for meningiomas included meningioma cases from the FCR and four clinical data sources in Tampere University Hospital (neurosurgical clinic, pathology database, hospital discharge register and autopsy register). The data on VS were obtained from the national cancer registries of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The coverage of meningiomas was not comprehensive in any of the data sources. The completeness of FCR was

  9. Occurrence studies of intracranial tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracranial tumours are a histopathologically heterogeneous group of tumours. This thesis focused on three types of intracranial tumours; gliomas, meningiomas and vestibular schwannomas (VS). The main objectives of the dissertation were to estimate the occurrence of intracranial tumours by different subtypes, and to assess the validity and completeness of the cancer registry data. The specific aims of the publications were to evaluate the validity of reported incidence rates of meningioma cases, to describe the trends of VS incidence in four Nordic countries, and to define the anatomic distribution of gliomas and to investigate their location in relation to mobile phone use. Completeness of meningioma registration was examined by comparing five separate sources of information, and by defining the frequencies of cases reported to the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR). Incidence trends of VS were assessed in the four Nordic countries over a twenty-one-year period (1987 - 2007) using cancer registry data. The anatomic site of gliomas was evaluated using both crude locations in the cerebral lobes and, in more detail, a three-dimensional (3D) distribution in the brain. In addition, a study on specific locations of gliomas in relation to the typical position of mobile phones was conducted using two separate approaches: a case-case and a case-specular analysis. The thesis was based on four sets of materials. Data from the international Interphone study were used for the studies on gliomas, while the two other studies were register-based. The dataset for meningiomas included meningioma cases from the FCR and four clinical data sources in Tampere University Hospital (neurosurgical clinic, pathology database, hospital discharge register and autopsy register). The data on VS were obtained from the national cancer registries of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The coverage of meningiomas was not comprehensive in any of the data sources. The completeness of FCR was

  10. Time of occurrence observable in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a general construction of an observable measuring the time of occurrence of an effect in quantum theory. Time delay in potential scattering theory is computed as a straightforward application

  11. Rare earth element mines, deposits, and occurrences

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains location, geologic and mineral economic data for world rare earth mines, deposits, and occurrences. The data in this compilation were derived...

  12. Brief Communication: Freaque wave occurrences in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Documenting freaque waves when they occured around the globe in 2013 is based here on news reports on the internet. It was found that there were a total 22 cases of freaque waves in 2013, based on those reported in clearly-defined physically specific environments. There were three cases in the deep ocean, six in nearshore areas, seven on sandy beaches, and seven on rocky shore areas. Note that most of the academic research has been on freaque waves in the deep ocean, which accounts for 13% of all occurrences. The majority of reported occurrences, 87%, are in the nearshore areas or along the beach area. Geographically, these cases are also fairly evenly spread around the globe. As of now, there is no general knowledge regarding the frequency of occurrence of these freaque waves, so that one may assume that 2013 was a customary year for freaque wave occurrences.

  13. The frequent occurrence of MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, Matthias [Gesellschaft fuer Technische Mikrobiologie und Hygieneueberwachung - Dr. Graff und Partner, Stadtweg 9, D-38176 Wendeburg (Germany); Neubert, Volkmar [Institut fuer Materialpruefung und Werkstofftechnik Dr. Doelling und Dr. Neubert GmbH, Freiberger Strasse 1, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) is not as rare as many materials scientist and corrosion practitioners do believe. It is not an exotic and scarce event, but can be found frequently in many fields of corrosion research, provided that it is looked for. The reason for the relatively few descriptions of MIC cases seems to be the fact, that the microbiological approach is not widely known and applied in the world of materials science. MIC is not so much a corrosion mechanism on its own, but it enhances the corrosion rates of the 'normal' mechanisms to such an extent, that in some cases 'incredible' fast corrosion progress can be observed. The reason is the microorganisms' function as bio-catalysts: Chemical reactions, which are very slow under normal chemical conditions can be highly accelerated by living organisms. Besides that, several microorganisms do produce very corrosive substances which in natural environments do not occur without the activity of microorganisms, e. g. sulfuric or nitric acid. We want to point out, that it can be very worthy to take microbial induced corrosion into account. MIC is not the general answer for all unsolved corrosion problems, but to think about it helps in many corrosion cases as the authors had to experience. The initial indication for the presence of MIC are markedly increased corrosion rates. In the following, some of our 'lessons' are presented as short case studies: Two of them deal with steel corrosion characterized by increased corrosion rates. The third example presents corrosion damage of aluminium structures, where from a technical point of view corrosion was not expected, least of all microbial induced corrosion. (authors)

  14. Estimating trends and seasonality in Australian monthly lightning flash counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Bryson C.; Chandler, Richard E.; Dowdy, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of a statistical analysis of lightning characteristics in mainland Australia for the period from approximately 1988 to 2012, based on monthly lightning flash count (LFC) series obtained from a network of 19 Comité Internationale des Grands Réseaux Electriques, 500 Hz peak transmission filter circuit sensors. The temporal structures of the series are examined in terms of detecting and characterizing seasonal cycles, long-term trends, and changes in seasonality over time. A generalized additive modeling approach is used to ensure that the estimated structures are determined by the data, rather than by the constraints of any assumed mathematical form for the trends and seasonal cycle. Results indicate strong seasonality at all sites, the presence of long-term trends at 16 sites, and interactions between trend and seasonality (corresponding to changes in seasonality over time) at 13 sites. The most systematic change corresponds to a progressive deepening of the seasonal cycle (i.e., an ongoing decline in winter lightning flash counts) and is most noticeable across southern Australia (south of 30°S). These results are consistent with previous analyses that have detected decreasing atmospheric instability during the austral winter since the mid-1970s. This is associated with increasing mean sea level pressure and declining rainfall.

  15. A stellar-mass-dependent drop in planet occurrence rates

    CERN Document Server

    Mulders, Gijs D; Apai, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The Kepler Space Telescope has discovered a large number of planets up to one year periods and down to terrestrial sizes. The cool star subsample allows characterization of small planets near the habitable zone, yet it is not clear if this population is representative of that around sun-like stars. In this paper, we show that occurrence rates of planets around M, K, G, and F stars observed with Kepler are significantly different from each other. We identify two trends with stellar mass: First, the occurrence of Earth to Neptune-sized planets (1 to 4 Earth radii) is successively higher towards cooler stars at all orbital periods probed by Kepler, confirming the result of Howard et al. (2012) and extending it down to Earth-sized planets; Second, a drop in occurrence rates towards the star is evident for all spectral types inwards of a ~10 day orbital period, with a plateau further out. The distance from the star where this drop occurs depends on spectral type, and scales with semi-major axis as the cube root of...

  16. Occurrence, fate and risk assessment of personal care products in river-groundwater interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Roig, Maria Pau; Jurado, Anna; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Pujades, Estanislao; Barceló, Damià

    2016-10-15

    This work presents the occurrence and fate of selected personal care products (PCPs) in the urban river-groundwater interface. To this end, urban river and groundwater samples were collected in Sant Adrià del Besòs (NE of Spain) and a total of 16 PCPs were analyzed including benzophenone derivatives, camphor derivatives, p-aminobenzoic acid derivatives, triazoles and parabens in three different campaigns (from May 2010 to July 2014). These compounds reach the aquifer through the recharge of Besòs River that receives large amounts of effluents from waste water treatment plants. Results have shown that most of the compounds were not or barely detected (maximum concentrations around 200ng/L) in groundwater samples during the different sampling campaigns. Only two triazoles, namely benzotriazole (BZT) and methyl benzotriazol (MeBZT) were found at high concentrations in groundwater samples (maximum concentration around 2000ng/L). The fate of PCPs in the aquifer was assessed using mixing analysis considering the seasonal variability of the Besòs River. Overall, measured groundwater concentrations were significantly much lower than those estimated by the mixing of the river water. This observation suggested that most of the PCPs are naturally removed when river water infiltrates the aquifer. However, some compounds were more persistent in the aquifer. These compounds were in descending order: the triazoles BZT and MeBZT followed by the camphor derivative 4MBC and the paraben MePB. The measured concentrations allowed us to assess the environmental risk posed by the selected UV-filters and parabens in the river and groundwater samples. Hazard Quotients (HQs) for different aquatic species were calculated in order to characterize the ecotoxicity potential of the studied compounds in the river-groundwater interface. HQ values were always below 1 indicating that at the concentrations observed in the surface or aquifer water of Besòs River these compounds pose no risk to

  17. Pre-Season Tennis Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Carl

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses common sports injuries associated with tennis, outlines a recommended year-round fitness program for tennis players, and describes specific exercises, equipment, and footwear that will reduce the occurrence of tennis-related injuries.

  18. A Stellar-mass-dependent Drop in Planet Occurrence Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Dániel

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler spacecraft has discovered a large number of planets with up to one-year periods and down to terrestrial sizes. While the majority of the target stars are main-sequence dwarfs of spectral type F, G, and K, Kepler covers stars with effective temperatures as low as 2500 K, which corresponds to M stars. These cooler stars allow characterization of small planets near the habitable zone, yet it is not clear if this population is representative of that around FGK stars. In this paper, we calculate the occurrence of planets around stars of different spectral types as a function of planet radius and distance from the star and show that they are significantly different from each other. We further identify two trends. First, the occurrence of Earth- to Neptune-sized planets (1-4 R ⊕) is successively higher toward later spectral types at all orbital periods probed by Kepler; planets around M stars occur twice as frequently as around G stars, and thrice as frequently as around F stars. Second, a drop in planet occurrence is evident at all spectral types inward of a ~10 day orbital period, with a plateau further out. By assigning to each spectral type a median stellar mass, we show that the distance from the star where this drop occurs is stellar mass dependent, and scales with semi-major axis as the cube root of stellar mass. By comparing different mechanisms of planet formation, trapping, and destruction, we find that this scaling best matches the location of the pre-main-sequence co-rotation radius, indicating efficient trapping of migrating planets or planetary building blocks close to the star. These results demonstrate the stellar-mass dependence of the planet population, both in terms of occurrence rate and of orbital distribution. The prominent stellar-mass dependence of the inner boundary of the planet population shows that the formation or migration of planets is sensitive to the stellar parameters.

  19. A STELLAR-MASS-DEPENDENT DROP IN PLANET OCCURRENCE RATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kepler spacecraft has discovered a large number of planets with up to one-year periods and down to terrestrial sizes. While the majority of the target stars are main-sequence dwarfs of spectral type F, G, and K, Kepler covers stars with effective temperatures as low as 2500 K, which corresponds to M stars. These cooler stars allow characterization of small planets near the habitable zone, yet it is not clear if this population is representative of that around FGK stars. In this paper, we calculate the occurrence of planets around stars of different spectral types as a function of planet radius and distance from the star and show that they are significantly different from each other. We further identify two trends. First, the occurrence of Earth- to Neptune-sized planets (1-4 R ⊕) is successively higher toward later spectral types at all orbital periods probed by Kepler; planets around M stars occur twice as frequently as around G stars, and thrice as frequently as around F stars. Second, a drop in planet occurrence is evident at all spectral types inward of a ∼10 day orbital period, with a plateau further out. By assigning to each spectral type a median stellar mass, we show that the distance from the star where this drop occurs is stellar mass dependent, and scales with semi-major axis as the cube root of stellar mass. By comparing different mechanisms of planet formation, trapping, and destruction, we find that this scaling best matches the location of the pre-main-sequence co-rotation radius, indicating efficient trapping of migrating planets or planetary building blocks close to the star. These results demonstrate the stellar-mass dependence of the planet population, both in terms of occurrence rate and of orbital distribution. The prominent stellar-mass dependence of the inner boundary of the planet population shows that the formation or migration of planets is sensitive to the stellar parameters

  20. Statistical physics approach to earthquake occurrence and forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arcangelis, Lucilla; Godano, Cataldo; Grasso, Jean Robert; Lippiello, Eugenio

    2016-04-01

    There is striking evidence that the dynamics of the Earth crust is controlled by a wide variety of mutually dependent mechanisms acting at different spatial and temporal scales. The interplay of these mechanisms produces instabilities in the stress field, leading to abrupt energy releases, i.e., earthquakes. As a consequence, the evolution towards instability before a single event is very difficult to monitor. On the other hand, collective behavior in stress transfer and relaxation within the Earth crust leads to emergent properties described by stable phenomenological laws for a population of many earthquakes in size, time and space domains. This observation has stimulated a statistical mechanics approach to earthquake occurrence, applying ideas and methods as scaling laws, universality, fractal dimension, renormalization group, to characterize the physics of earthquakes. In this review we first present a description of the phenomenological laws of earthquake occurrence which represent the frame of reference for a variety of statistical mechanical models, ranging from the spring-block to more complex fault models. Next, we discuss the problem of seismic forecasting in the general framework of stochastic processes, where seismic occurrence can be described as a branching process implementing space-time-energy correlations between earthquakes. In this context we show how correlations originate from dynamical scaling relations between time and energy, able to account for universality and provide a unifying description for the phenomenological power laws. Then we discuss how branching models can be implemented to forecast the temporal evolution of the earthquake occurrence probability and allow to discriminate among different physical mechanisms responsible for earthquake triggering. In particular, the forecasting problem will be presented in a rigorous mathematical framework, discussing the relevance of the processes acting at different temporal scales for different

  1. A STELLAR-MASS-DEPENDENT DROP IN PLANET OCCURRENCE RATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Apai, Dániel [Department of Astronomy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. (United States)

    2015-01-10

    The Kepler spacecraft has discovered a large number of planets with up to one-year periods and down to terrestrial sizes. While the majority of the target stars are main-sequence dwarfs of spectral type F, G, and K, Kepler covers stars with effective temperatures as low as 2500 K, which corresponds to M stars. These cooler stars allow characterization of small planets near the habitable zone, yet it is not clear if this population is representative of that around FGK stars. In this paper, we calculate the occurrence of planets around stars of different spectral types as a function of planet radius and distance from the star and show that they are significantly different from each other. We further identify two trends. First, the occurrence of Earth- to Neptune-sized planets (1-4 R {sub ⊕}) is successively higher toward later spectral types at all orbital periods probed by Kepler; planets around M stars occur twice as frequently as around G stars, and thrice as frequently as around F stars. Second, a drop in planet occurrence is evident at all spectral types inward of a ∼10 day orbital period, with a plateau further out. By assigning to each spectral type a median stellar mass, we show that the distance from the star where this drop occurs is stellar mass dependent, and scales with semi-major axis as the cube root of stellar mass. By comparing different mechanisms of planet formation, trapping, and destruction, we find that this scaling best matches the location of the pre-main-sequence co-rotation radius, indicating efficient trapping of migrating planets or planetary building blocks close to the star. These results demonstrate the stellar-mass dependence of the planet population, both in terms of occurrence rate and of orbital distribution. The prominent stellar-mass dependence of the inner boundary of the planet population shows that the formation or migration of planets is sensitive to the stellar parameters.

  2. A simple physical model for deep moonquake occurrence times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, R.C.; Bills, B.G.; Johnson, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    The physical process that results in moonquakes is not yet fully understood. The periodic occurrence times of events from individual clusters are clearly related to tidal stress, but also exhibit departures from the temporal regularity this relationship would seem to imply. Even simplified models that capture some of the relevant physics require a large number of variables. However, a single, easily accessible variable - the time interval I(n) between events - can be used to reveal behavior not readily observed using typical periodicity analyses (e.g., Fourier analyses). The delay-coordinate (DC) map, a particularly revealing way to display data from a time series, is a map of successive intervals: I(n+. 1) plotted vs. I(n). We use a DC approach to characterize the dynamics of moonquake occurrence. Moonquake-like DC maps can be reproduced by combining sequences of synthetic events that occur with variable probability at tidal periods. Though this model gives a good description of what happens, it has little physical content, thus providing only little insight into why moonquakes occur. We investigate a more mechanistic model. In this study, we present a series of simple models of deep moonquake occurrence, with consideration of both tidal stress and stress drop during events. We first examine the behavior of inter-event times in a delay-coordinate context, and then examine the output, in that context, of a sequence of simple models of tidal forcing and stress relief. We find, as might be expected, that the stress relieved by moonquakes influences their occurrence times. Our models may also provide an explanation for the opposite-polarity events observed at some clusters. ?? 2010.

  3. Long term prediction of flood occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Cristina; Montanari, Alberto; José Polo, María

    2016-05-01

    How long a river remembers its past is still an open question. Perturbations occurring in large catchments may impact the flow regime for several weeks and months, therefore providing a physical explanation for the occasional tendency of floods to occur in clusters. The research question explored in this paper may be stated as follows: can higher than usual river discharges in the low flow season be associated to a higher probability of floods in the subsequent high flow season? The physical explanation for such association may be related to the presence of higher soil moisture storage at the beginning of the high flow season, which may induce lower infiltration rates and therefore higher river runoff. Another possible explanation is persistence of climate, due to presence of long-term properties in atmospheric circulation. We focus on the Po River at Pontelagoscuro, whose catchment area amounts to 71 000 km2. We look at the stochastic connection between average river flows in the pre-flood season and the peak flows in the flood season by using a bivariate probability distribution. We found that the shape of the flood frequency distribution is significantly impacted by the river flow regime in the low flow season. The proposed technique, which can be classified as a data assimilation approach, may allow one to reduce the uncertainty associated to the estimation of the flood probability.

  4. Fitting optimum order of Markov chain models for daily rainfall occurrences in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deni, Sayang Mohd; Jemain, Abdul Aziz; Ibrahim, Kamarulzaman

    2009-06-01

    The analysis of the daily rainfall occurrence behavior is becoming more important, particularly in water-related sectors. Many studies have identified a more comprehensive pattern of the daily rainfall behavior based on the Markov chain models. One of the aims in fitting the Markov chain models of various orders to the daily rainfall occurrence is to determine the optimum order. In this study, the optimum order of the Markov chain models for a 5-day sequence will be examined in each of the 18 rainfall stations in Peninsular Malaysia, which have been selected based on the availability of the data, using the Akaike’s (AIC) and Bayesian information criteria (BIC). The identification of the most appropriate order in describing the distribution of the wet (dry) spells for each of the rainfall stations is obtained using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test. It is found that the optimum order varies according to the levels of threshold used (e.g., either 0.1 or 10.0 mm), the locations of the region and the types of monsoon seasons. At most stations, the Markov chain models of a higher order are found to be optimum for rainfall occurrence during the northeast monsoon season for both levels of threshold. However, it is generally found that regardless of the monsoon seasons, the first-order model is optimum for the northwestern and eastern regions of the peninsula when the level of thresholds of 10.0 mm is considered. The analysis indicates that the first order of the Markov chain model is found to be most appropriate for describing the distribution of wet spells, whereas the higher-order models are found to be adequate for the dry spells in most of the rainfall stations for both threshold levels and monsoon seasons.

  5. Occurrence and modeling of pharmaceuticals on a sewage-impacted Mediterranean river and their dynamics under different hydrological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Victoria [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, Barcelona (Spain); Marce, Rafael [Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, Emili Grahit 101, Girona (Spain); Perez, Sandra [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, Barcelona (Spain); Ginebreda, Antoni, E-mail: agmqam@idaea.csic.es [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, Barcelona (Spain); Cortina, Jose Luis [Cetaqua, Water Technology Centre, UPC North Campus, Paseo de los Tilos, 3, Barcelona (Spain); Barcelo, Damia [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, Emili Grahit 101, Girona (Spain)

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence of 73 representative pharmacologically active compounds (PhACs) was assessed in a sewage-impacted section of the Llobregat River (NE Catalonia, Spain). This Mediterranean river is characterized by flow rate fluctuations strongly influenced by seasonal rainfall. River flow variations increase the potential environmental risk posed by organic micro-pollutants as their concentrations may increase substantially under low flow conditions. Little is known about the transport behavior of emerging contaminants in surface waters once they are discharged from waste water treatment plants (WWTP) into rivers. This research aimed to study the presence and fate of emerging contaminants under different hydrological conditions by sampling two different sites along the river in different seasons. The highest levels of pharmaceuticals were determined during cold and dry periods. The impact of the flow changes on the concentration of the pharmaceuticals in the river was assessed with the relative sensitive coefficients. Due to expected dilution effects, the response of pharmaceuticals to river flow was negative. Only in a few cases, positive relationships between drug concentrations and flow were detected, suggesting an important role of other hydrological phenomena like sediment re-suspension as well as the source of pollutants. To evaluate the role of other factors influencing PhAC concentrations, a plug-flow model was applied to obtain disappearance constants 'k' for a set of selected compounds. Erythromycin presented k values of - 0.15 h{sup -1} in both sites being the compound more efficiently removed from the water column. The k values for ibuprofen, furosemide, enrofloxacin, enalapril, acetaminophen, diclofenac and Ketoprofen were between - 0.04 and - 0.10 h{sup -1} showing less disappearance than erythromycin in the water column. However, other compounds presented k values < 0.06, which suggested conservative behavior of these compounds in the water

  6. Occurrence and modeling of pharmaceuticals on a sewage-impacted Mediterranean river and their dynamics under different hydrological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of 73 representative pharmacologically active compounds (PhACs) was assessed in a sewage-impacted section of the Llobregat River (NE Catalonia, Spain). This Mediterranean river is characterized by flow rate fluctuations strongly influenced by seasonal rainfall. River flow variations increase the potential environmental risk posed by organic micro-pollutants as their concentrations may increase substantially under low flow conditions. Little is known about the transport behavior of emerging contaminants in surface waters once they are discharged from waste water treatment plants (WWTP) into rivers. This research aimed to study the presence and fate of emerging contaminants under different hydrological conditions by sampling two different sites along the river in different seasons. The highest levels of pharmaceuticals were determined during cold and dry periods. The impact of the flow changes on the concentration of the pharmaceuticals in the river was assessed with the relative sensitive coefficients. Due to expected dilution effects, the response of pharmaceuticals to river flow was negative. Only in a few cases, positive relationships between drug concentrations and flow were detected, suggesting an important role of other hydrological phenomena like sediment re-suspension as well as the source of pollutants. To evaluate the role of other factors influencing PhAC concentrations, a plug-flow model was applied to obtain disappearance constants “k” for a set of selected compounds. Erythromycin presented k values of − 0.15 h−1 in both sites being the compound more efficiently removed from the water column. The k values for ibuprofen, furosemide, enrofloxacin, enalapril, acetaminophen, diclofenac and Ketoprofen were between − 0.04 and − 0.10 h−1 showing less disappearance than erythromycin in the water column. However, other compounds presented k values < 0.06, which suggested conservative behavior of these compounds in the water column

  7. Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Occurrence and Foraging Activity of Coastal Dolphins in Menai Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Temple

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal patterns in distribution, occurrence and behaviour is vital for the effective conservation of cetaceans. This study used cetacean click detectors (C-PODs to investigate spatial and temporal variation in occurrence and foraging activity of the Indo-Pacific bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus and Indian Ocean humpback (Sousa plumbea dolphins resident in the Menai Bay Conservation Area (MBCA, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Occurrence was measured using detection positive minutes. Inter-click intervals were used to identify terminal buzz vocalisations, allowing for analysis of foraging activity. Data were analysed in relation to spatial (location and temporal (monsoon season, diel phase and tidal phase variables. Results showed significantly increased occurrence and foraging activity of dolphins in southern areas and during hours of darkness. Higher occurrence at night was not explained by diel variation in echolocation rate and so were considered representative of occurrence patterns. Both tidal phase and monsoon season influenced occurrence but results varied among sites, with no general patterns found. Foraging activity was greatest during hours of darkness, High water and Flood tidal phases. Comparisons of echolocation data among sites suggested differences in the broadband click spectra of MBCA dolphins, possibly indicative of species differences. These dolphin populations are threatened by unsustainable fisheries bycatch and tourism activities. The spatial and temporal patterns identified in this study have implications for future conservation and management actions with regards to these two threats. Further, the results indicate future potential for using passive acoustics to identify and monitor the occurrence of these two species in areas where they co-exist.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Occurrence and Foraging Activity of Coastal Dolphins in Menai Bay, Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Andrew J; Tregenza, Nick; Amir, Omar A; Jiddawi, Narriman; Berggren, Per

    2016-01-01

    Understanding temporal patterns in distribution, occurrence and behaviour is vital for the effective conservation of cetaceans. This study used cetacean click detectors (C-PODs) to investigate spatial and temporal variation in occurrence and foraging activity of the Indo-Pacific bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and Indian Ocean humpback (Sousa plumbea) dolphins resident in the Menai Bay Conservation Area (MBCA), Zanzibar, Tanzania. Occurrence was measured using detection positive minutes. Inter-click intervals were used to identify terminal buzz vocalisations, allowing for analysis of foraging activity. Data were analysed in relation to spatial (location) and temporal (monsoon season, diel phase and tidal phase) variables. Results showed significantly increased occurrence and foraging activity of dolphins in southern areas and during hours of darkness. Higher occurrence at night was not explained by diel variation in echolocation rate and so were considered representative of occurrence patterns. Both tidal phase and monsoon season influenced occurrence but results varied among sites, with no general patterns found. Foraging activity was greatest during hours of darkness, High water and Flood tidal phases. Comparisons of echolocation data among sites suggested differences in the broadband click spectra of MBCA dolphins, possibly indicative of species differences. These dolphin populations are threatened by unsustainable fisheries bycatch and tourism activities. The spatial and temporal patterns identified in this study have implications for future conservation and management actions with regards to these two threats. Further, the results indicate future potential for using passive acoustics to identify and monitor the occurrence of these two species in areas where they co-exist. PMID:26934473

  9. On seasonal fluctuations of available Olsen P in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Tabaglio

    Full Text Available The likelihood of a strong seasonal effect on the analytical results of soil chemical tests has been substantiated by several findings. The occurrence of such a trouble would heavily affect the routine work of chemical laboratories dealing with hundreds or thousands of soil samples every year and would possibly interfere even with current timing of soil sampling and testing in agronomical research. Soils from four different experimental fields were sampled and analyzed for Olsen P test through the growing season of both spring-summer crops (maize and autumn-spring crops (soft wheat. To avoid the cross effect of recent P applications, samples were collected only from the control plots, with no P applied. In a first long-time experiment the level of Olsen P was followed in three soils during two years, while in a second experiment the study considered two different soils for a couple of years each. The amount of extractable (available Olsen P showed significant fluctuations-with-time in four years out of six. The observed variations seems entirely due to P absorption by crops, as they appeared in the final samplings during the cropping season. The amount of decrease was nearly always small, less than 1-1.5 mg kg-1 soil, and consistent with the reduction of the available pool which is to be expected as crops gradually take up nutrients. As far as Olsen P is concerned, no evidence was found for the occurrence of erratic seasonal variations such as those previously reported. As soil samples for advisory purposes are usually taken at different times of the year, it seems reassuring that no complications are to be expected about information needed to interpret the results of chemical tests.

  10. Seasonality of floc strength in the southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettweis, Michael; Baeye, Matthias; Zande, Dimitry; Eynde, Dries; Joon Lee, Byung

    2014-03-01

    The suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration in the high turbidity zones of the southern North Sea is inversely correlated with chlorophyll (Chl) concentration. During winter, SPM concentration is high and Chl concentration is low and vice versa during summer. This seasonality has often been associated with the seasonal pattern in wind forcing. However, the decrease in SPM concentration corresponds well with the spring algal bloom. Does the decrease of SPM concentration caused by changing wind conditions cause the start of algae bloom, or does the algae bloom decrease SPM concentrations through enhanced flocculation and deposition? To answer the question, measurements from 2011 of particle size distribution (PSD), SPM, and Chl concentrations from the southern North Sea have been analyzed. The results indicate that the frequency of occurrence of macroflocs has a seasonal signal, while seasonality has little impact upon floc size. The data from a highly turbid coastal zone suggest that the maximum size of the macroflocs is controlled by turbulence and the available flocculation time during a tidal cycle, but the strength of the macroflocs is controlled by the availability of sticky organic substances associated with enhanced primary production during spring and summer. The results highlight the shift from mainly microflocs and flocculi in winter toward more muddy marine snow with larger amounts of macroflocs in spring and summer. The macroflocs will reduce the SPM concentrations in the turbidity maximum area as they settle faster. Consequently, the SPM concentration decreases and the light condition increases in the surface layer enhancing algae growth further.

  11. North Tropical Atlantic influence on western Amazon fire season variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Katia; Baethgen, Walter; Bernardes, Sergio; DeFries, Ruth; DeWitt, David G.; Goddard, Lisa; Lavado, Waldo; Lee, Dong Eun; Padoch, Christine; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miguel; Uriarte, Maria

    2011-06-01

    The prevailing wet climate in the western Amazon is not favorable to the natural occurrence of fires. Nevertheless, the current process of clearing of humid forests for agriculture and cattle ranching has increased the vulnerability of the region to the spread of fires. Using meteorological stations precipitation and the Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Active-Fires (AF) during 2000-2009, we show that fire anomalies vary closely with July-August-September (JAS) precipitation variability as measured by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The precipitation variability is, in turn, greatly determined by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the North Tropical Atlantic (NTA). We develop a linear regression model to relate local fire activity to an index of the NTA-SST. By using seasonal forecasts of SST from a coupled model, we are able to predict anomalous JAS fire activity as early as April. We applied the method to predict the severe 2010 JAS season, which indicated strongly positive seasonal fire anomalies within the 95% prediction confidence intervals in most western Amazon. The spatial distribution of predicted SPI was also in accordance with observed precipitation anomalies. This three months lead time precipitation and fire prediction product in the western Amazon could help local decision makers to establish an early warning systems or other appropriate course of action before the fire season begins.

  12. Seasonal Abundance of Aphids and Aphidophagous Insects in Pecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Abbas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal occurrence of aphids and aphidophagous insects was monitored for six years (2006–2011 from full leaf expansion in May to leaf fall in October in “Desirable” variety pecan trees that were not treated with insecticides. Aphid outbreaks occurred two times per season, once in the spring and again in the late summer. Yellow pecan and blackmargined aphids exceeded the recommended treatment thresholds one time and black pecan aphids exceeded the recommended treatment levels three times over the six seasons. Increases in aphidophagous insect abundance coincided with aphid outbreaks in five of the six seasons. Among aphidophagous insects Harmonia axyridis and Olla v-nigrum were frequently collected in both the tree canopy and at the ground level, whereas, Coccinella septempunctata, Hippodamia convergens were rarely found in the tree canopy and commonly found at the ground level. Green lacewing abundance was higher in the ground level than in the tree canopy. Brown lacewings were more abundant in the tree canopy than at the ground level. Dolichopodid and syrphid fly abundance, at the ground level increased during peak aphid abundance in the tree canopy. Application of an aqueous solution of fermenting molasses to the pecan foliage during an aphid outbreak significantly increased the abundance of ladybeetles and lacewings and significantly reduced the abundance of yellow pecan, blackmargined and black pecan aphids.

  13. Seasonal effects on appearance of pyometra in bitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stančić Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is one of the most frequent and very grave diseases of the reproductive system in bitches. It occurs around 30 to 60 days following the latest oestrus in bitches that are not pregnant. Bitches older than 5 years have a significantly higher predisposition for this disease than younger bitches. There are also differences between certain breeds in the age at which this disease is manifested in a bitch. The objective of this work was to establish whether the seasons of the year also affect the incidence of pyometra in bitches in the territory of Vojvodina. The occurrence of pyometra was examined in a total of 318 bitches over a course of two years and during the different seasons of the year. It was established that a statistically significantly higher number of bitches (P,05 fall ill with this disease during the seasons September-November (31% and December-February (28% than during the seasons March-May (19% and June-August (22%. The obtained data can serve to secure better prevention and timely diagnoses of pyometra in bitches.

  14. COMMUNICATION GAPS AT SEASONAL RESTAURANT

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Thai

    2012-01-01

    Effective communication in the workplace plays a significant role in the success of a business. However, it is difficult to build up effective communication especially at seasonal restaurants where changing staff happens at high frequency. The aim of this research is to study the seasonality and its impacts on the staff organisation of Symposium Restaurant. Another aim is to define the structure of internal communication and the factors that cause communication barriers. The findings then ar...

  15. Seasonality and Photoperiodism in Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Roenneberg, Till; Merrow, Martha

    2001-01-01

    This review gives a retrospective of what is known about photoperiodism in fungi, which is largely based on reports about seasonal spore concentrations. Relatively few species have been investigated under laboratory conditions, so that our knowledge whether seasonal reproduction in fungi is mainly a direct response to environmental conditions or whether it involves a photoperiodic machinery with memory capacities and a relationship to the circadian system is extremely limited. To form a basis...

  16. Control of plankton seasonal succession by adaptive grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariani, Patrizio; Andersen, Ken Haste; Visser, Andre; Barton, A.D.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The ecological succession of phytoplankton communities in temperate seas is characterized by the dominance of nonmotile diatoms during spring and motile flagellates during summer, a pattern often linked to the seasonal variation in the physical environment and nutrient availability. We focus on the...

  17. Contaminated concrete: Occurrence and emerging technologies for DOE decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of the Facility Deactivation, Decommissioning, and Material Disposition Focus Area, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development, are to select, demonstrate, test, and evaluate an integrated set of technologies tailored to provide a complete solution to specific problems posed by deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning, (D ampersand D). In response to these goals, technical task plan (TTP) OR152002, entitled Accelerated Testing of Concrete Decontamination Methods, was submitted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report describes the results from the initial project tasks, which focused on the nature and extent of contaminated concrete, emerging candidate technologies, and matching of emerging technologies to concrete problems. Existing information was used to describe the nature and extent of contamination (technology logic diagrams, data bases, and the open literature). To supplement this information, personnel at various DOE sites were interviewed, providing a broad perspective of concrete contamination. Because characterization is in the initial stage at many sites, complete information is not available. Assimilation of available information into one location is helpful in identifying potential areas of concern in the future. The most frequently occurring radiological contaminants within the DOE complex are 137Cs, 238U (and it daughters), and 60Co, followed closely by 90Sr and tritium, which account for -30% of the total occurrence. Twenty-four percent of the contaminants were listed as unknown, indicating a lack of characterization information, and 24% were listed as other contaminants (over 100 isotopes) with less than 1% occurrence per isotope

  18. Response of African elephants (Loxodonta africana to seasonal changes in rainfall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Garstang

    Full Text Available The factors that trigger sudden, seasonal movements of elephants are uncertain. We hypothesized that savannah elephant movements at the end of the dry season may be a response to their detection of distant thunderstorms. Nine elephants carrying Global Positioning System (GPS receivers were tracked over seven years in the extremely dry and rugged region of northwestern Namibia. The transition date from dry to wet season conditions was determined annually from surface- and satellite-derived rainfall. The distance, location, and timing of rain events relative to the elephants were determined using the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM satellite precipitation observations. Behavioral Change Point Analysis (BCPA was applied to four of these seven years demonstrating a response in movement of these elephants to intra- and inter-seasonal occurrences of rainfall. Statistically significant changes in movement were found prior to or near the time of onset of the wet season and before the occurrence of wet episodes within the dry season, although the characteristics of the movement changes are not consistent between elephants and years. Elephants in overlapping ranges, but following separate tracks, exhibited statistically valid non-random near-simultaneous changes in movements when rainfall was occurring more than 100 km from their location. While the environmental trigger that causes these excursions remains uncertain, rain-system generated infrasound, which can travel such distances and be detected by elephants, is a possible trigger for such changes in movement.

  19. Water relations of evergreen and drought-deciduous trees along a seasonally dry tropical forest chronosequence

    OpenAIRE

    Hasselquist, Niles J.; Allen, Michael F; Santiago, Louis S.

    2010-01-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) are characterized by pronounced seasonality in rainfall, and as a result trees in these forests must endure seasonal variation in soil water availability. Furthermore, SDTF on the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, have a legacy of disturbances, thereby creating a patchy mosaic of different seral stages undergoing secondary succession. We examined the water status of six canopy tree species, representing contrasting leaf phenology (evergreen vs. drought...

  20. Seasonal variation in bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) in allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles, S A; Bardana, E J

    1997-01-01

    -driven BHR changes involves a type I hypersensitivity late-phase reaction. Characterized by recruitment of eosinophils, lymphocytes, and other cells that are central components of allergic inflammation and are not normally found in the lower airways, this reversible inflammatory process could in turn act, presumably via chemical mediators, on the airway smooth muscle. This may cause bronchoconstriction, but may also increase responsiveness to bronchoconstrictive stimuli independent of bronchoconstriction. This explanation for seasonal BHR changes is supported by findings of blood eosinophil (31,47) and BAL eosinophilic cationic protein (31) level changes that parallel BHR. Prevention of seasonal BHR changes using anti-inflammatory medications (32,33,35) also supports this hypothesis (30) however, and the complex potential interactions between infectious agents and air pollutants on seasonal BHR changes have yet to be studied directly. Therefore, although BHR indeed may predictably vary season to season in allergic individuals, additional investigation is needed to better characterize the reasons for this phenomenon. Further insight in this area may help address the reasons why there are often seasonal epidemics in asthma morbidity and mortality. PMID:9315410

  1. Trends in seasonal precipitation extremes - An indicator of ‘climate change’ in Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Indrani; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2009-03-01

    SummaryRecent news on the occurrence of off-seasonal natural disasters, such as pre-monsoon drought and post-monsoon flooding in India and particularly in the peninsular region, highlight the urgent need to look at the patterns of change in seasonal extremes at the local level. Kerala, the south-western state of the Indian peninsula, comprising of a total of six gridded areas, was chosen for this study focusing on the variability and changes in rainfall extremes in the different seasons. Since other studies by the authors have focused on the monsoon season, this paper considers the winter, spring and autumn seasons only. A set of indices derived from the daily rainfall time series is defined and used to examine the changes in extreme rainfall through assessing long-term trends by non-parametric Mann-Kendall technique. The trends are determined over the period of 1954-2003, which are also tested for significance. The results show that there are large intra-regional differences in the trends in different seasons. Local changes were found different from the large spatial scale averages in Kerala. Winter and autumn extreme rainfall were found having an increasing tendency with statistically significant changes in some regions indicating more occurrences of winter and autumn floods. On the other hand the spring seasonal extreme rainfall showed decreasing trends, which together with increasing frequency of the dry days is mainly affecting the total seasonal precipitation, which mainly point towards the vulnerability of Kerala to increasing probability of water scarcity in the pre-monsoon time and a delaying monsoon onset. Overall, the results of this study are good indicators of local climate changes over the five decades that will assist in seasonal forecasting and risk management.

  2. Multi-sensor analysis of changing growing season dynamics across northwest North America since 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, R.; White, M.; Schwartz, M.; Saatchi, S.; Myneni, R.; Dettinger, M.; Cayan, D.

    2005-12-01

    Changes in Pacific Climate on interannual (ENSO) and decadal time scales (Pacific Decadal Oscillation, PDO)have a strong impact on a variety of biospheric processes over northwest North America, including changes in vegetation phenology, snow hydrology, summer drought and fire frequency, forest growth and crop yields. Though evidence exists for a shift in PDO in 1998, the impact of such a shift on terrestrial ecosystems is not yet known. We used a variety of satellite (AVHRR, SSM/I, GOES) and surface (NWS, SNOTEL, streamflow) networks to characterize changes in climate and ecosystem conditions between 1991-97 and 1998-04. Satellite data show that cooler sea surface temperatures during 1998-04 period led to lower atmospheric water vapor over the North Pacific, which in turn led to lower dewpoint and night minimum temperatures over northwest North America. Such climatic changes were dramatic over spring, leading to a delay in the satellite-derived onset of growing season. Modeled budbreak/flowering phases, based on observed weather data, also show a delay of 4-7 days during 1998-04 compared to 1991-97. The delay in growing season onset after 1998 was further supported by later occurrence of soil thaw and snowmelt. It is probably too early to determine if any of the observed changes are a part of the purported shift in PDO. However if they persist, climate-sensitive sectors such as viticulture, with large expansions in recent years, could face potential problems. Continuous monitoring facilitated by a variety of satellite and ground-based sensors offers an unprecedented, spatio-temporal view of changes as they happen.

  3. Limitations in global information on species occurrences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Meyer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information on species distributions is crucial for answering central questions in biogeography, ecology, evolutionary biology and conservation. Millions of species occurrence records have been mobilized via international data-sharing networks, but inherent biases, gaps and uncertainties hamper broader application. In my PhD thesis, I presented the first comprehensive analyses of global patterns and drivers of these limitations across different taxonomic groups and spatial scales. Integrating 300 million occurrence records for terrestrial vertebrates and plants with comprehensive taxonomic databases, expert range maps and regional checklists, I demonstrated extensive taxonomic, geographical and temporal biases, gaps and uncertainties. I identified key socio-economic drivers of data bias across different taxonomic groups and spatial scales. The results of my dissertation provide an empirical baseline for effectively accounting for data limitations in distribution models, as well as for prioritizing and monitoring efforts to collate additional occurrence information.

  4. Report on Congress on abnormal occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from January 1 through March 31, 1991. The report discusses six abnormal occurrences, none of which involved a nuclear power plant. Five of the events occurred at NRC-licensed facilities: one involved a significant degradation of plant safety at a nuclear fuel cycle facility, one involved a medical diagnostic misadministration, and three involved medical therapy misadministrations. An Agreement State (Arizona) reported one abnormal occurrence that involved medical therapy misadministrations

  5. Simulation of Storm Occurrences Using Simulated Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokupitiya, Ravindra S.; Borgman, Leon E.; Anderson-Sprecher, Richard

    2005-11-01

    Modeling storm occurrences has become a vital part of hurricane prediction. In this paper, a method for simulating event occurrences using a simulated annealing algorithm is described. The method is illustrated using annual counts of hurricanes and of tropical storms in the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. Simulations closely match distributional properties, including possible correlations, in the historical data. For hurricanes, traditionally used Poisson and negative binomial processes also predict univariate properties well, but for tropical storms parametric methods are less successful. The authors determined that simulated annealing replicates properties of both series. Simulated annealing can be designed so that simulations mimic historical distributional properties to whatever degree is desired, including occurrence of extreme events and temporal patterning.

  6. Fire occurrence prediction in the Mediterranean: Application to Southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakosta, Panagiota; Öster, Jan; Scherb, Anke; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The areas that extend in the Mediterranean basin have a long fire history. The climatic conditions of wet winters and long hot drying summers support seasonal fire events, mainly ignited by humans. Extended land fragmentation hinders fire spread, but seasonal winds (e.g. Mistral in South France or Meltemia in Greece) can drive fire events to become uncontrollable fires with severe impacts to humans and the environment [1]. Prediction models in these areas should incorporate both natural and anthropogenic factors. Several indices have been developed worldwide to express fire weather conditions. The Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) is currently adapted by many countries in Europe due to the easily observable input weather parameters (temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, precipitation) and the easy-to-implement algorithms of the Canadian formulation describing fuel moisture relations [2],[3]. Human influence can be expressed directly by human presence (e.g. population density) or indirectly by proxy indicators (e.g. street density [4], land cover type). The random nature of fire occurrences and the uncertainties associated with the influencing factors motivate probabilistic prediction models. The aim of this study is to develop a prediction model of fire occurrence probability under natural and anthropogenic influence in Southern France and to compare it with earlier developed predictions in other Mediterranean areas [5]. Fire occurrence is modeled as a Poisson process. Two interpolation methods (Kriging and Inverse Distance Weighting) are used to interpolate daily weather observations from weather stations to a 1 km² spatial grid and their results are compared. Poisson regression estimates the parameters of the model and the resulting daily predictions are provided in terms of maps displaying fire occurrence rates. The model is applied to the regions Provence-Alpes-Côtes D'Azur und Languedoc-Roussillon in the South of France. Weather data are obtained from

  7. Seasonal variation of rainfall characteristics in different intensity classes over Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varikoden, Hamza; Preethi, B.; Samah, A. A.; Babu, C. A.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryUsing the rain rate from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3 h data, we made an attempt to explore the diurnal variation of rainfall occurrences in the spatial domain of Peninsular Malaysia. This data set is available for 10 years period from 1999 to 2008 at a high spatial resolution of 25 km latitude-longitude grid. The rainfall characteristics such as the percentage of rain occurrence and the relative contribution to the total seasonal rainfall in different intensity classes have been studied in detail for different seasons namely northeast monsoon (DJF), pre-monsoon (MAM), southwest monsoon (JJA) and early northeast monsoon (SON). We arbitrarily classified the rainfall into four different categories such as small, moderate, high and very high intensity classes. The diurnal variation of frequency of rainfall over the spatial domain of Peninsular Malaysia during different seasons is presented in detail. The diurnal variation is different in the coastal areas and the central parts of the Peninsula in all the seasons. Two peaks are noticed in the coastal areas, however, in the inland regions only a prominent single peak is observed. From the analysis of the very high intensity classes, we observed that the flash flood prone areas are east coastal belt especially the coastal belt from Kuantan to Kota Bharu during the northeast monsoon season. Isolated maxima were also observed in the western region surrounded by Klang Valley during the same season. During the southwest monsoon period, flash floods may be expected over the latitudinal belt between 2°N and 4°N. The number of occurrences of very high rainfall events and their relative contribution to the seasonal rainfall are high over the above region.

  8. Rainfall thresholds for shallow landslides occurrence in Calabria, southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vennari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In many areas, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides. Determining the rainfall conditions responsible for landslide occurrence is important, and may contribute to save lives and properties. In a long-term national project for the definition of rainfall thresholds for possible landslide occurrence in Italy, and for the implementation of a national landslide warning system, we compiled a catalogue of 186 rainfall events that have resulted in 251 shallow landslides in Calabria, southern Italy, from January 1996 to September 2011. Landslides were located geographically using Google Earth®, and were given a mapping and a temporal accuracy. We used the landslide information, and sub-hourly rainfall measurements obtained from two complementary networks of rain gauges, to determine cumulated event vs. rainfall duration (ED thresholds for Calabria. For the purpose, we adopted an existing method used to prepare rainfall thresholds and to estimate their associated uncertainties in central Italy. The regional thresholds for Calabria were found nearly identical to previous ED thresholds for Calabria obtained using a reduced set of landslide information, and slightly higher than the ED thresholds obtained for central Italy. We segmented the regional catalogue of rainfall events with landslides on lithology, soil regions, rainfall zones, and seasonal periods. The number of events in each subdivision was insufficient to determine reliable thresholds, but allowed for preliminary conclusions on the role of the environmental factors on the rainfall conditions responsible for shallow landslides in Calabria. We further segmented the regional catalogue based on administrative subdivisions used for hydro-meteorological monitoring and operational flood forecasting, and we determined separate ED thresholds for the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian coasts of Calabria. We expect the ED rainfall thresholds for Calabria to be used in regional and national landslide warning

  9. Climate variability and wildfire risk and occurrence in northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Codron, J. C.; Rasilla, D.; Diego, C.; Carracedo, V.

    2009-04-01

    In spite of their reputation of wetness, wildfires are a frequent event in Cantabria (Northern Spain), but their seasonality does not match the typical warm season maximum generalized in most of the Iberian Peninsula. They occur at the end of the winter and the beginning of the spring (January to March), being mostly anthropogenically triggered due to the necessity of preparing pastures in the uplands. However, catastrophic episodes of generalized burning are controlled by different atmospheric mechanisms, namely the occurrence of "Suradas", a downslope windstorms which combines high winds speeds and low humidities, and long periods of drought in late fall and winter. This contribution analyzes long term trends (1961 onwards) of several climatic variables during the highest wildfire risk period in order to assess to what extent the occurrence of wildfires may be linked to the recent climatic variability. Raw meteorological values of temperature, humidity, wind speed and precipitation are transformed into a well-known meteorological fire weather index, the Canadian Forest Fire Index (FWI). Besides, monthly values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index we used to assess the spatial and temporal magnitude and intensity of droughts. Our results show that the regional climate has become warmer and drier, due to the combined effects of increases in temperatures, sunshine duration, and the decrease in relative humidity and precipitation, variables that are likely to play an important role in drought. Unknown in the 60s, 70s and most of the 80s, drought has become a relatively frequent phenomenon during the last two decades, and, in fact, the two most extreme episodes of drought at century scale, during 1989-1990 and 1993, occur in the 90. However, both the frequency and the intensity of "Suradas" have reduced, and consequently, the high fire risk episodes are now less frequent, but their absolute maximum values remain unchanged. Those regional climate trends are strongly

  10. The relation between Puelche wind and the occurrence of forest fires in Bio Bio region, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a study of the relation between Puelche wind and forest fires in the Bio Bio Region, Chile. To establish a relationship between Puelche wind and forest fire generation, different data analysis methods and statistics test were applied. The relation between the total number of fires in the season and the days with Puelche wind were not statistically significant. When analyzing daily averages of fires produced with and without Puelche wind for each season, the highest daily fire occurrence values were found when there is Puelche wind, indicating that this event produces a strong effect on the daily occurrence of fires since these increased by 90% in comparison to the days without Puelche wind. The results of the difference between the number of fires with and without Puelche wind with respect to the average number of total fires indicate that the days with Puelche wind surpass both the total and the average values for days without Puelche wind, confirming the strong effect that a Puelche wind day has on forest fires. The greatest number of fires produced with Puelche wind occurs in the Province of Concepcion. This Province is the most affected by Puelche wind conditions despite having the smallest surface area for the region studied. Still, it is the most populous province of the region and has the greatest surface area with forests and plantations with respect to its size. Consequently, Puelche wind is a factor that increases the occurrence of forest fires and favors their propagation.

  11. Analysis of the beginnings of the rainy season and the daily rains in Mali between 1950-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we analyse the pluviometry in Mali using the daily rain readings from 40 stations between 1950-1990. First of all, we critically analysed these data concerning their quality in order to disclose possible lacks. After that, we determined for each station the beginning of the rainy season every year and the rain occurrences through the year and through the rainy season. Tabs

  12. Seasonal variations in groundwater chemistry of a phreatic coastal and crystalline terrain of central Kerala, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Laluraj, C.M.; Gopinath, G.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Seralathan, P.

    is of higher quality than that of the coastal plain. The study further reveals the need for seasonal or multi-seasonal sampling when a geochemical characterization is performed and the recognition of physical events, such as heavy precipitation or droughts...

  13. Extended season for northern butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Bengt

    2014-07-01

    Butterflies are like all insects in that they are temperature sensitive and a changing climate with higher temperatures might effect their phenology. Several studies have found support for earlier flight dates among the investigated species. A comparative study with data from a citizen science project, including 66 species of butterflies in Sweden, was undertaken, and the result confirms that most butterfly species now fly earlier during the season. This is especially evident for butterflies overwintering as adults or as pupae. However, the advancement in phenology is correlated with flight date, and some late season species show no advancement or have even postponed their flight dates and are now flying later in the season. The results also showed that latitude had a strong effect on the adult flight date, and most of the investigated species showed significantly later flights towards the north. Only some late flying species showed an opposite trend, flying earlier in the north. A majority of the investigated species in this study showed a general response to temperature and advanced their flight dates with warmer temperatures (on average they advanced their flight dates by 3.8 days/°C), although not all species showed this response. In essence, a climate with earlier springs and longer growing seasons seems not to change the appearance patterns in a one-way direction. We now see butterflies on the wings both earlier and later in the season and some consequences of these patterns are discussed. So far, studies have concentrated mostly on early season butterfly-plant interactions but also late season studies are needed for a better understanding of long-term population consequences.

  14. Diversity and seasonal dynamics of airborne Archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fröhlich-Nowoisky

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Archaea are widespread and abundant in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, accounting for up to ∼10% of the prokaryotes. Compared to Bacteria and other microorganisms, however, very little is known about the abundance, diversity, and dispersal of Archaea in the atmosphere. By DNA analysis targeting the 16S rRNA and amoA genes in samples of air particulate matter collected over one year at a continental sampling site in Germany, we obtained first insights into the seasonal dynamics of airborne Archaea. The detected Archaea were identified as Thaumarchaeota or Euryarchaeota, with soil Thaumarchaeota (group I.1b being present in all samples. The normalized species richness of Thaumarchaeota correlated positively with relative humidity and negatively with temperature. This together with an increase of bare agricultural soil surfaces may explain the diversity peaks observed in fall and winter. The detected Euryarchaeota were mainly methanogens with a low relative frequency of occurrence. A slight increase in their frequency during spring may be linked to fertilization processes in the surrounding agricultural fields. Comparison with samples from the Cape Verde islands and from other coastal and continental sites indicates that the proportions of Euryarchaeota are enhanced in coastal air, which is consistent with their suggested abundance in marine surface waters. We conclude that air transport may play an important role for the dispersal of Archaea, including ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and methanogens. Also, anthropogenic activities might influence the atmospheric abundance and diversity of Archaea.

  15. Diversity and seasonal dynamics of airborne archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J.; Ruzene Nespoli, C.; Pickersgill, D. A.; Galand, P. E.; Müller-Germann, I.; Nunes, T.; Gomes Cardoso, J.; Almeida, S. M.; Pio, C.; Andreae, M. O.; Conrad, R.; Pöschl, U.; Després, V. R.

    2014-11-01

    Archaea are widespread and abundant in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, and are thus outside extreme environments, accounting for up to ~10% of the prokaryotes. Compared to bacteria and other microorganisms, however, very little is known about the abundance, diversity, and dispersal of archaea in the atmosphere. By means of DNA analysis and Sanger sequencing targeting the 16S rRNA (435 sequences) and amoA genes in samples of air particulate matter collected over 1 year at a continental sampling site in Germany, we obtained first insights into the seasonal dynamics of airborne archaea. The detected archaea were identified as Thaumarchaeota or Euryarchaeota, with soil Thaumarchaeota (group I.1b) being present in all samples. The normalized species richness of Thaumarchaeota correlated positively with relative humidity and negatively with temperature. This together with an increase in bare agricultural soil surfaces may explain the diversity peaks observed in fall and winter. The detected Euryarchaeota were mainly predicted methanogens with a low relative frequency of occurrence. A slight increase in their frequency during spring may be linked to fertilization processes in the surrounding agricultural fields. Comparison with samples from the Cape Verde islands (72 sequences) and from other coastal and continental sites indicates that the proportions of Euryarchaeota are enhanced in coastal air, which is consistent with their suggested abundance in marine surface waters. We conclude that air transport may play an important role in the dispersal of archaea, including assumed ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and methanogens.

  16. Discovering Multi-Scale Co-Occurrence Patterns of Asthma and Influenza with Oak Ridge Bio-Surveillance Toolkit

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanathan, Arvind; Pullum, Laura L.; Hobson, Tanner C; Stahl, Christopher G.; Steed, Chad A; Quinn, Shannon P.; Chennubhotla, Chakra S.; Valkova, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    We describe a data-driven unsupervised machine learning approach to extract geo-temporal co-occurrence patterns of asthma and the flu from large-scale electronic healthcare reimbursement claims (eHRC) datasets. Specifically, we examine the eHRC data from 2009 to 2010 pandemic H1N1 influenza season and analyze whether different geographic regions within the United States (US) showed an increase in co-occurrence patterns of the flu and asthma. Our analyses reveal that the temporal patterns extr...

  17. Disability occurrence and proximity to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Klijs; J.P. Mackenbach; A.E. Kunst

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study. Logi

  18. Trends in dragonfly occurrence in Belgium (Odonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijf, de G.; Anselin, A.; Goffart, P.

    2003-01-01

    Trends in dragonfly occurrence in Belgium (Odonata) The group ‘Gomphus’ collected 65 000 records of 69 species of Odonata, more or less equally scattered over Belgium. The best-investigated areas are the northern part and some river valleys in the south. Most hot spots can be found in the northeaste

  19. Occurrence and properties of petunia peroxidase a.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Th.

    1989-01-01

    Peroxidases are probably the most extensively studied enzymes in higher plants. Various isoenzymes occur as soluble proteins in the apoplast and in the vacuole, or are bound to membranes and cell walls. Their occurrence is often organ-specific and developmentally controlled, and there is circumstant

  20. [Occurrence of accidents caused by Lonomia obliqua Walker, in the State of Paraná between 1989 and 2001].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Claudia Moreira; Danni-Oliveira, Inês Moresco

    2007-01-01

    The present article aimed to show the distribution of accidents involving the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua, Walker, 1855, in the State of Paraná between 1989 and 2001. The data were obtained from the Environmental Health Department of Paraná. The information collected was mapped using the Arcview program, and maps of the seasonal occurrence of accidents were generated. This seasonality was correlated with the insects life cycle and summer was shown to be the period with greatest incidence of accidents. The greatest concentrations occurred in the central-southern, southeastern and southwestern regions of the State. PMID:17568899

  1. High prevalence of seasonal affective disorder among persons with severe visual impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Ole Henrik; Hageman, Ida

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundLight severely affects the occurrence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD).AimsTo compare the prevalence of SAD in persons with severe visual impairment and persons with full sight, and in persons with severe visual impairment with or without light perception.MethodThis cross......-sectional study assessed the Global Seasonality Score (GSS) and the prevalence of SAD among 2781 persons with visual impairment and 4099 persons with full sight using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ).ResultsRespondents with visual impairment had significantly higher GSS and prevalence of SAD...... compared with full sight controls, P<0.001. Light perception respondents were more vulnerable to seasonal change than both full sight and no light perception respondents.ConclusionsThe study showed a highly significant association between visual impairment and SPAQ-defined SAD parameters, supporting the...

  2. AN EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE FLORIDA COOPERATIVE'S SEASONAL PRICING PLAN ON SEASONAL PRODUCTION VARIABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Washington, Andrew A.; Lawson, Robert W., Jr.; Kilmer, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    From 1993 - 1995, Florida dairy cooperatives implemented a seasonal pricing plan in an attempt to decrease the variability in seasonal production. Farmers that participated in the seasonal pricing plan were able to reduce seasonality in each year when compared to 1992 by as much as 20 percent. For farmers that did not participate, seasonality increased in each year by as much as 32 percent. Overall, the seasonal pricing plan was effective in reducing seasonality for those farmers that chose t...

  3. The occurrence of fatal, rainfall-induced landslides in Asia in the context of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petley, D.

    2009-04-01

    Globally, the continent in which landslides have caused the greatest number of fatalities is Asia. This is a region in which large changes are currently occurring, including profound economic restructuring; the development of megacities; alterations of both the size and the distribution of the population; modifications to land-use; diversion of hydrological systems; and of course changes to the climate. It is inevitable that these changes will drive an alteration in the occurrence and distribution of fatal, rainfall-induced landslides as triggering mechanisms, mass movement susceptibility and vulnerability all change. It is therefore surprising that there have been very few attempts to examine potential alterations to the occurrence of fatal landslides in Asia through time. In this research, the Durham Fatal Landslide Database has been used to examine the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall-induced fatal landslides across Asia. It is shown that there is a strong relationship between the occurrence of fatal landslides and climatic controls. For example, in S. Asia the rainfall-triggered fatal landslides are predominantly controlled by the SW (summer) monsoon, whilst in E. Asia the occurrence of tropical cyclones (typhoons) and La Nina events appear to have a much greater impact. In SE. Asia no clear climatic control has been identified, primarily because the climate is essentially non-seasonal. Thus, it appears that more local scale climatic processes control landslide occurrence. Using these observations for E. and S. Asia, where most of the recorded fatal landslides occur, the likely changes due to climate change-induced modifications to large-scale meteorological systems are examined. Thus, for example, modelling now allows estimates to be made of the likely future occurrence and strength of the SW monsoon and of tropical cyclones. It is shown that the likely response is a comparatively modest increase in landslide occurrence. These impacts are then

  4. Occurrence of ectoparasiticides in Australian beef cattle feedlot wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 6 ectoparasiticides – 2 synthetic pyrethroids (deltamethrin, cypermethrin) and 4 macrocyclic lactones (abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin and eprinomectin) in biosolids. The method was used to investigate the occurrence of these ectoparasiticides in beef cattle feedlot wastes in Australia from 5 commercial feedlot operations which employ varying waste management practices. Deltamethrin and cypermethrin were not detected in any of the samples while abamectin, ivermectin, doramectin and eprinomectin were detected in some of the samples with concentrations ranging from 1 to 36 μg/kg dry weight (d.w.) freeze dried feedlot waste. Levels of macrocyclic lactones detected in the feedlot wastes varied and were dependent on sample type. The effect of seasonal variations and waste management practices were also investigated in this study. -- Highlights: ► A method by LC-MS/MS was developed for a small scale survey of 6 ectoparasiticides in cattle feedlot wastes. ► Pyrethroids were not detected in feedlot samples. ► Macrocyclic lactones were detected in the concentration range 1–36 μg/kg d.w. ► Concentrations varied and were dependent on type of sample. -- The first reported study on concentrations of ectoparasiticides in waste from Australian beef cattle feedlot operations

  5. The impact of climate change on persistent contrail occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Emma; Shine, Keith; Stringer, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The formation of persistent contrails by aircraft flying through cold ice-supersaturated (CISS) regions contributes to anthropogenic climate change. However, as the climate itself changes during the 21st century, the potential for the formation of persistent contrails may also change. We recently (doi: 10.5194/esd-6-555-2015) found a global-mean decrease in the frequency of CISS regions of one third (11 to 7%) by the end of the 21st century, relative to present-day conditions, using climate model data from CMIP5. This decrease is dominated by the large decrease in CISS frequency in the tropics where the models predict strong upper-tropospheric warming, to levels above the threshold temperature at which contrails can form. The situation for the northern hemisphere mid-latitudes is less clear and dependent on model, latitude and season. Actual changes to contrail cover during this period will depend also on flight routing. An example is shown for the north Atlantic, where aircraft routing is strongly wind-dependent and therefore will be affected by changes to the jet stream. Here we combine our analysis of changes in CISS with projected changes in aircraft routes (which are calculated using the climate model winds), to estimate the net impact on persistent contrail occurrence in this region. We distinguish between the effect on eastbound flights, which generally aim to exploit the jet stream, and westbound flights that aim to avoid it.

  6. Likelihood Analysis of Seasonal Cointegration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Schaumburg, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    The error correction model for seasonal cointegration is analyzed. Conditions are found under which the process is integrated of order 1 and cointegrated at seasonal frequency, and a representation theorem is given. The likelihood function is analyzed and the numerical calculation of the maximum...... likelihood estimators is discussed. The asymptotic distribution of the likelihood ratio test for cointegrating rank is given. It is shown that the estimated cointegrating vectors are asymptotically mixed Gaussian. The results resemble the results for cointegration at zero frequency when expressed in terms...

  7. Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program designed to demonstrate the storage and retrieval of energy on a seasonal basis using heat or cold available from waste or other sources during a surplus period is described. Factors considered include reduction of peak period demand and electric utility load problems and establishment of favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems for commercialization of the technology. The initial thrust of the STES Program toward utilization of ground water systems (aquifers) for thermal energy storage is emphasized.

  8. ULF wave occurrence statistics in a high-latitude HF Doppler sounder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Wright

    Full Text Available Ultra low frequency (ULF wave activity in the high-latitude ionosphere has been observed by a high frequency (HF Doppler sounder located at Tromsø, Norway (69.7°N, 19.2°E geographic coordinates. A statistical study of the occurrence of these waves has been undertaken from data collected between 1979 and 1984. The diurnal, seasonal, solar cycle and geomagnetic activity variations in occurrence have been investigated. The findings demonstrate that the ability of the sounder to detect ULF wave signatures maximises at the equinoxes and that there is a peak in occurrence in the morning sector. The occurrence rate is fairly insensitive to changes associated with the solar cycle but increases with the level of geomagnetic activity. As a result, it has been possible to characterise the way in which prevailing ionospheric and magnetospheric conditions affect such observations of ULF waves.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere -magnetosphere interactions · Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities

  9. Occurrence of nitrosamines and their precursors in drinking water systems around mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Er; Shu, Yuanyuan; Li, Shixiang; Liao, Xiaobin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaojian; Chen, Chao; Krasner, Stuart

    2016-07-01

    N-Nitrosamines (NAs) in drinking water have attracted considerable attention in recent years due to their high carcinogenicity, frequent occurrence, and their potential regulation. During the past three years, we have collected about 164 water samples of finished water, tap water, and source water from 23 provinces, 44 cities from large cities to small towns, and 155 sampling points all over China. The occurrence of NAs in the finished and tap water was much higher in China than that in the U.S. Nine NAs were measured and NDMA had the highest concentration. The occurrence of NDMA was in 33% of the finished waters of water treatment plants and in 41% of the tap waters. The average NDMA concentration in finished and tap waters was 11 and 13 ng/L, respectively. Formation potentials (FPs) of source waters were examined with an average NDMA FP of 66 ng/L. Large variations in NA occurrence were observed geographically in China and temporally in different seasons. The Yangtze River Delta area, one sub-area in East China, had the highest concentrations of NAs, where the average NDMA concentrations in the finished and tap water were 27 and 28.5 ng/L, respectively, and the average NDMA FP in the source water was 204 ng/L. NA control may be achieved by applying breakpoint free chlorination and/or advanced treatment of ozone - granular activated carbon process to remove the NA precursors before disinfection. PMID:27105030

  10. Responses of squirrel monkeys to seasonal changes in food availability in an eastern Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Anita I

    2007-02-01

    Tropical forests are characterized by marked temporal and spatial variation in productivity, and many primates face foraging problems associated with seasonal shifts in fruit availability. In this study, I examined seasonal changes in diet and foraging behaviors of two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), studied for 12 months in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia, an area characterized by seasonal rainfall. Squirrel monkeys were primarily insectivorous (79% of feeding and foraging time), with fruit consumption highest during the rainy season. Although monkeys fed from 68 plant species, fruit of Attalea maripa palms accounted for 28% of annual fruit-feeding records. Dietary shifts in the dry season were correlated with a decline in ripe A. maripa fruits. Despite pronounced seasonal variation in rainfall and fruit abundance, foraging efficiency, travel time, and distance traveled remained stable between seasons. Instead, squirrel monkeys at this Eastern Amazonian site primarily dealt with the seasonal decline in fruit by showing dietary flexibility. Consumption of insects, flowers, and exudates increased during the dry season. In particular, their foraging behavior at this time strongly resembled that of tamarins (Saguinus sp.) and consisted of heavy use of seed-pod exudates and specialized foraging on large-bodied orthopterans near the forest floor. Comparisons with squirrel monkeys at other locations indicate that, across their geographic range, Saimiri use a variety of behavioral tactics during reduced periods of fruit availability. PMID:17154390

  11. Temporal Patterns of Larval Fish Occurrence in a Large Subtropical River.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmin Shuai

    Full Text Available Knowledge of temporal patterns of larval fish occurrence is limited in south China, despite its ecological importance. This research examines the annual and seasonal patterns of fish larval presence in the large subtropical Pearl River. Data is based on samples collected every two days, from 2006 to 2013. In total, 45 taxa representing 13 families and eight orders were sampled. The dominant larval family was Cyprinidae, accounting for 27 taxa. Squaliobarbus curriculus was the most abundant species, followed by Megalobrama terminalis, Xenocypris davidi, Cirrhinus molitorella, Hemiculter leuscisculus and Squalidus argentatus. Fish larvae abundances varied significantly throughout the seasons (multivariate analyses: Cluster, SIMPROF and ANOSIM. The greatest numbers occurred between May and September, peaking from June through August, which corresponds to the reproductive season. In this study, redundancy analysis was used to describe the relationship between fish larval abundance and associated environmental factors. Mean water temperature, river discharge, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature and precipitation play important roles in larval occurrence patterns. According to seasonal variations, fish larvae occurrence is mainly affected by water temperature. It was also noted that the occurrence of Salanx reevesii and Cyprinus carpio larvae is associated with higher dissolved oxygen (DO concentrations, higher atmospheric pressure and lower water temperatures which occur in the spring. On the other hand, M. terminalis, X. davidi, and C. molitorella are associated with high precipitation, high river discharge, low atmospheric pressure and low DO concentrations which featured during the summer months. S. curriculus also peaks in the summer and is associated with peak water temperatures and minimum NH3-N concentrations. Rhinogobius giurinus occur when higher atmospheric pressure, lower precipitation and lower river discharges occur in the autumn

  12. Temporal Patterns of Larval Fish Occurrence in a Large Subtropical River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Fangmin; Li, Xinhui; Li, Yuefei; Li, Jie; Yang, Jiping; Lek, Sovan

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of temporal patterns of larval fish occurrence is limited in south China, despite its ecological importance. This research examines the annual and seasonal patterns of fish larval presence in the large subtropical Pearl River. Data is based on samples collected every two days, from 2006 to 2013. In total, 45 taxa representing 13 families and eight orders were sampled. The dominant larval family was Cyprinidae, accounting for 27 taxa. Squaliobarbus curriculus was the most abundant species, followed by Megalobrama terminalis, Xenocypris davidi, Cirrhinus molitorella, Hemiculter leuscisculus and Squalidus argentatus. Fish larvae abundances varied significantly throughout the seasons (multivariate analyses: Cluster, SIMPROF and ANOSIM). The greatest numbers occurred between May and September, peaking from June through August, which corresponds to the reproductive season. In this study, redundancy analysis was used to describe the relationship between fish larval abundance and associated environmental factors. Mean water temperature, river discharge, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature and precipitation play important roles in larval occurrence patterns. According to seasonal variations, fish larvae occurrence is mainly affected by water temperature. It was also noted that the occurrence of Salanx reevesii and Cyprinus carpio larvae is associated with higher dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, higher atmospheric pressure and lower water temperatures which occur in the spring. On the other hand, M. terminalis, X. davidi, and C. molitorella are associated with high precipitation, high river discharge, low atmospheric pressure and low DO concentrations which featured during the summer months. S. curriculus also peaks in the summer and is associated with peak water temperatures and minimum NH3-N concentrations. Rhinogobius giurinus occur when higher atmospheric pressure, lower precipitation and lower river discharges occur in the autumn. Dominant fish

  13. Trends in atmospheric patterns conducive to seasonal precipitation and temperature extremes in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Daniel L; Horton, Daniel E; Singh, Deepti; Diffenbaugh, Noah S

    2016-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that changes in atmospheric circulation have altered the probability of extreme climate events in the Northern Hemisphere. We investigate northeastern Pacific atmospheric circulation patterns that have historically (1949-2015) been associated with cool-season (October-May) precipitation and temperature extremes in California. We identify changes in occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns by measuring the similarity of the cool-season atmospheric configuration that occurred in each year of the 1949-2015 period with the configuration that occurred during each of the five driest, wettest, warmest, and coolest years. Our analysis detects statistically significant changes in the occurrence of atmospheric patterns associated with seasonal precipitation and temperature extremes. We also find a robust increase in the magnitude and subseasonal persistence of the cool-season West Coast ridge, resulting in an amplification of the background state. Changes in both seasonal mean and extreme event configurations appear to be caused by a combination of spatially nonuniform thermal expansion of the atmosphere and reinforcing trends in the pattern of sea level pressure. In particular, both thermal expansion and sea level pressure trends contribute to a notable increase in anomalous northeastern Pacific ridging patterns similar to that observed during the 2012-2015 California drought. Collectively, our empirical findings suggest that the frequency of atmospheric conditions like those during California's most severely dry and hot years has increased in recent decades, but not necessarily at the expense of patterns associated with extremely wet years. PMID:27051876

  14. Occurrence of Septoria tritici blotch in 1994-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czesław Zamorski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to study an occurrence and intensity of septoria tritici blotch on wheat in different regions of Poland as well as reaction of winter wheat cultivars and breeding lines to infection by Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel Schroeter (an. Septoria tritici ( Rob. ex Desm . under field conditions. Observation conducted during 1994-1996 indicated on occurrence of septoria tritici blotch each year and on important infection degree of winter wheat by Mycosphaerella gruminicola in some regions of the country. The highest infection was noted in 1995 and the lowest in 1994. Infection degree for majority of cultivars was quite high. Some cultivars and lines were characterized by very high infection. Among them were the old (Kujawianka Więcławska and Wysokolitewka Sztywnosłoma and the newest (Tercja cultivars. On some old cultivars (Leszczyńska Wczesna and Żelazna even no traces of infection were observed although favourable weather condition existance and the presence of neighbourhood diseased plants. Field observation of cultivars and breeding lines showed different reaction of tested wheat genotypes to Mycosphaerella graminicola infection.

  15. Relation between the occurrence rate of ESF and the verticalplasma drift velocity at sunset derived form global observations

    OpenAIRE

    Stolle, C.; Luhr, H.; Fejer, Bela G.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigate two global climatological data sets; the occurrence rate of Equatorial Spread- F (ESF), associated with equatorial plasma irregularities, at 400 km altitude obtained from CHAMP observations, and the evening equatorial vertical plasma drift, vz, from ROCSAT-1 measurements. First, as retrieved for a solar flux level of F10.7=150, the longitudinal variation of the two independently derived quantities correlates between 84% and 93% in the seasons December solstice, e...

  16. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 85 reportable events (18 from the 4th Qtr FY-15 and 67 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 25 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (8 from this quarter and 17 from the prior three quarters).

  17. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  18. Pharmaceuticals occurrence in a WWTP with significant industrial contribution and its input into the river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occurrence and removal of 81 representative Pharmaceutical Active Compounds (PhACs) were assessed in a municipal WWTP located in a highly industrialized area, with partial water reuse after UV tertiary treatment and discharge to a Mediterranean river. Water monitoring was performed in an integrated way at different points in the WWTP and river along three seasons. Consistent differences between therapeutic classes were observed in terms of influent concentration, removal efficiencies and seasonal variation. Conventional (primary and secondary) treatment was unable to completely remove numerous compounds and UV-based tertiary treatment played a complementary role for some of them. Industrial activity influence was highlighted in terms of PhACs presence and seasonal distribution. Even if global WWTP effluent impact on the studied river appeared to be minor, PhACs resulted widespread pollutants in river waters. Contamination can be particularly critical in summer in water scarcity areas, when water flow decreases considerably. -- Highlights: • Seasonal variation revealed a higher spring-summer removal compared to winter time. • Biological process was unable to provide a complete removal for most compounds. • UV-based tertiary treatment did play a complementary removal role for specific PhACs. • Diffuse river contamination and local WWTP contribution to it were observed. • River attenuation capacity is an important factor for removing most of the compounds. -- PhACs integrated WWTP-river data evaluation of coupled biological process and UV tertiary treatment in a WWTP with significant industrial contribution and in the receiving river waters

  19. Occurrence and properties of petunia peroxidase a.

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriks, Th.

    1989-01-01

    Peroxidases are probably the most extensively studied enzymes in higher plants. Various isoenzymes occur as soluble proteins in the apoplast and in the vacuole, or are bound to membranes and cell walls. Their occurrence is often organ-specific and developmentally controlled, and there is circumstantial evidence that they function in growth, differentiation and defence. In Chapter I biochemical, physiological and genetic aspects of higher-plant peroxidases are reviewed, particularly in relatio...

  20. The occurrence of prime numbers revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Tapia Moore; José Tapia Yañez

    2016-01-01

    Based on an arithmetical and autocatalytic approach, the authors propose a solution for the occurrence of prime numbers. Exact arithmetical calculations are provided for: the closest prime to any given positive integer (or any number of bigger or smaller primes from that integer); the quantity of prime (and composite) numbers between 1 and any positive integer; the quantity of prime (and composite) numbers between any two positive integers.

  1. Hemispheric and longitudinal asymmetries in CME occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. A considerable amount of evidence has accumulated in support of the existence of persistent, systematic north-south (hemispherical) and longitudinal (active longitudes) asymmetries in the Sun. These features have been observed, e.g., in sunspots, solar flares, solar wind and the heliospheric magnetic field. In this work we analyze the occurrence of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) observed by the SOHO LASCO instrument during the solar cycle 23. We use the manually compiled LASCO CME catalog maintained at the CDAW Data Center and for comparison the CACTus CME catalog based on automatic detection of CMEs by the CACTus software developed at SIDC in the Royal Observatory of Belgium. We discuss the temporal evolution of the occurrence rate of CMEs and study the north-south and east-west asymmetries and their temporal change. We also present a preliminary analysis of CME occurrence in a rotating coordinate system. We discuss the observations in view of the earlier evidence for hemispherical asymmetries and active longitudes.

  2. THE SEASONAL CYCLE OF SURFACE CHLOROPHYLL ALONG THE PERUVIAN COAST: COMPARISON BETWEEN SEAWIFS SATELLITE OBSERVATIONS AND DYNAMICAL/BIOGEOCHEMICAL COUPLED MODEL SIMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Echevin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal cycle of surface chlorophyll along the Peruvian coasts is studied with SeaWiFS satellite observations and coupled dynamical/biogeochemical ORCA/PISCES model simulations. The observed mean spatial structure of surface chlorophyll is shown to be in good agreement with that of the model. However the seasonal cycles contrast: whereas the model produces a spring bloom consistent with maximum upwelling and deepest mixed layer in the winter season, the observed seasonal cycle shows two distinct blooms one in late spring-early summer and other in fall. Several hypotheses are suggested to explain the fall bloom and its non-occurrence in the model

  3. The Influence of Seasonal Characteristics on the Accident Consequences Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to examine the influence of seasonal characteristics on accident consequences, we defined a limited number of basic spectra based on the relative importance of source term release parameters and meteorological conditions on offsite health effects and economic impacts. We then investigated the variation in numbers and frequency of early health effects and economic impacts resulting from the severe accidents of the YGN 3 and 4 nuclear power plants from spectrum to spectrum by using MACCS code. These investigations were for meteorological conditions defined as typical on an annual basis. Also, we investigated the variation in numbers and frequency of early health effects and economic impacts for the same standard spectra for meteorological conditions defined as typical on a seasonal basis recognizing that there are four seasons with distinct meteorological characteristics. Results show that there are large differences in consequences from spectrum to spectrum, although an equal amount and mix of radioactive material is released to the atmosphere in each case. Therefore, release parameters and meteorological data have to be well characterized in order to estimate accident consequences resulting from an accident accurately. Also, there are large differences in the estimated number of health effects and economic impacts from season to season due to distinct seasonal variations in meteorological conditions in Korea. In fall, the early fatalities and early fatality risk show minimum values due to enhanced dispersion arising from increased atmospheric instability, and the early fatalities show maximum value in summer due to a large rainfall rate. On the contrast, the economic cost shows maximum value in fall and minimum in summer due to different atmospheric dispersion and rainfall rate. Therefore, it is necessary to consider seasonal characteristics in developing emergency response strategies for reducing offsite early health risks in the event of a severe

  4. Contaminated concrete: Occurrence and emerging technologies for DOE decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, K.S.; Wilson-Nichols, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Morris, M.I. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The goals of the Facility Deactivation, Decommissioning, and Material Disposition Focus Area, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development, are to select, demonstrate, test, and evaluate an integrated set of technologies tailored to provide a complete solution to specific problems posed by deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning, (D&D). In response to these goals, technical task plan (TTP) OR152002, entitled Accelerated Testing of Concrete Decontamination Methods, was submitted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report describes the results from the initial project tasks, which focused on the nature and extent of contaminated concrete, emerging candidate technologies, and matching of emerging technologies to concrete problems. Existing information was used to describe the nature and extent of contamination (technology logic diagrams, data bases, and the open literature). To supplement this information, personnel at various DOE sites were interviewed, providing a broad perspective of concrete contamination. Because characterization is in the initial stage at many sites, complete information is not available. Assimilation of available information into one location is helpful in identifying potential areas of concern in the future. The most frequently occurring radiological contaminants within the DOE complex are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}U (and it daughters), and {sup 60}Co, followed closely by {sup 90}Sr and tritium, which account for {minus}30% of the total occurrence. Twenty-four percent of the contaminants were listed as unknown, indicating a lack of characterization information, and 24% were listed as other contaminants (over 100 isotopes) with less than 1% occurrence per isotope.

  5. SRKW occurrence coastal - Occurrence of SRKW on the US West Coast using passive acoustic recorders

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Southern Resident Killer Whales (SRKW) are listed as a Distinct Population Segment under the Endangered Species Act. Their movements, presence, and seasonal...

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF TOURIST SEASON IN COSTAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Corluka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism seasonality is the major characteristic of tourism industry, a well know but less understood phenomenon. Seasonal fluctuations of tourism demand are implying numerous negative implications affecting tourist destination, tourist operators and tourist demand. Almost every tourist destination is facing seasonality, but the most pronounced seasonal concentration of tourist activities have costal destinations which attract tourist demand motivated primary by the 3S – sun, sand and sea concept. Seasonality in business operation is the most challenging in tourist companies with a large share of fixed capacity, as the hotel accommodating sector. Former research of causes of seasonality, implications of seasonality and potential strategies to combat seasonality had methodological flaw. Tourism product, as a product with seasonal characteristic, requires analysis of performance by season. The objective of this paper is to classify tourist season in coastal tourist destinations regarding hotel occupancy rates. This is the first attempt to empirically classify tourist season. Sample surveys are 218 hotels located in Dalmatia, Croatia. Cluster analysis on hotel occupancy rate date was conducted, whereby the statistical significance between seasons were testes by Friedman test and the statistical significance between destinations were tested by F-test and ANOVA. Further, factor analysis was conducted to test the achieved results. Regarding the research result tourist season can be divided into three seasons: low, medium and high. Low season as the longest consisting of five months: January, February, March, November and December, middle season as the shortest consisting of three months: April, May and October and high season consisting of four months: June, July, August and September. Research findings are a significant contribution to tourism theory and practice.

  7. Probabilistic forecasting of seasonal drought behaviors in the Huai River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mingzhong; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Chen, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    The Huai River basin is one of the major supplier of agricultural products in China, and droughts have critical impacts on agricultural development. Good knowledge of drought behaviors is of great importance in the planning and management of agricultural activities in the Huai River basin. With the copula functions to model the persistence property of drought, the probabilistic seasonal drought forecasting models have been built in the Huai River basin. In this study, droughts were monitored by the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) with the time scales of 3, 6, and 9 months, and their composite occurrence probability has been used to forecast the seasonal drought. Results indicated that the uncertainty related to the predicted seasonal drought is larger when more severe droughts occurred in the previous seasons, and the severe drought which occurs in summer and autumn will be more likely to be persistent in the next season while the severe drought in winter and spring will be more likely to be recovered in the subsequent season. Furthermore, given the different drought statuses in the previous season, spatial patterns of the predicted drought events with the largest occurrence probability have also been investigated, and results indicate that the Huai River basin is vulnerable to the extreme drought in most parts of the basin, e.g., the severe drought in winter will be more likely to be persistent in spring in the central part of the southern Huai River basin. Such persistent drought events pose serious challenges for planning and management of agricultural irrigation, then results of the study will be valuable for the planning of crop cultivation or mitigation of the losses caused by drought in the Huai River basin, China.

  8. Seasonal variations in mood and behavior associate with common chronic diseases and symptoms in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Syaron; Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Tuuli; Männistö, Satu; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Partonen, Timo

    2016-04-30

    The purpose of this study was to assess how seasonality is associated with some of the most common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the general Finnish population. The global seasonality score (GSS) was used to measure the magnitude of seasonality in 4689 participants, in addition to which they reported the extent to which the seasonal variations in mood and behavior were experienced as a problem. Regression models and the odds ratios were adopted to analyze the associations adjusted for a range of covariates. Seventy percent of the participants had seasonal variations in sleep duration, social activity, mood, or energy level, and forty percent those in weight and appetite. Angina pectoris and depression were significantly associated with seasonality throughout the analysis. Hypertension, high cholesterol levels, diabetes, other (than rheumatoid) joint diseases and other (than depressive) psychological illnesses were significantly associated with experiencing a problem due to the seasonal variations, with an increase in the GSS, and with seasonal affective disorder and its subsyndromal form. The co-occurrence of the seasonal variations in mood and behavior with certain common NCDs warrants future research to have insights into the etiology and potentially shared pathways and mechanisms of action. PMID:27086231

  9. Characteristics, seasonal distribution and surface degradation features of microplastic pellets along the Goa coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerasingam, S.; Saha, M.; Suneel, V.; Vethamony, P.; Rodrigues, A.C.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Naik, B.G.

    existing: (i) primary microplastics which are made to carry out certain functions (e.g. toothpaste, skin cleansers and cosmetics) and microplastic pellets (MPPs) used for the manufacturing plastic material and (ii) secondary microplastics, which... beach during June and Vagator beach during January. In both the seasons, the minimum number of MPPs was obtained in Keri beach. In June, the occurrence of MPPs along the Goa coast show an increasing trend from Keri beach to Galgibag beach. Large number...

  10. Marked seasonality of Cyclospora cayetanensis infections: ten-year observation of hospital cases, Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminsky, Rina Girard; Lagos, Javier; Raudales Santos, Gabriela; Urrutia, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Document seasonality occurrence and epidemiologic characteristics of Cyclospora cayetanensis infections during a 10-year period from patients consulting at the University Hospital, Honduras. Methods Retrospective non interventional hospital-based study analyzed laboratory results from the period 2002 to 2011 of fresh and Ziehl-Nielsen carbolfuchsin stained routine stool samples received for parasitologic examination. Sporadically a sample with numerous oocysts was allowed to sporul...

  11. Seasonal differences in organochlorine pesticide concentrations of zooplankton and fish in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.; Nair, M.

    reviewed by Harding (1986) and Fowler (1990). Kannan rt al. (1995) have made a comparative study of organochlorine residue levels in fish from several tropical and temperate regions. In this paper, we report the occurrence of seasonal variations... of fish obtained during the March cruise was taken for pesticide residue analysis. Of the nine species of fish collected in September. a composite sample was prepared from three to five specimens of each, for analysis. About 10 g (wet wt) of skeletal...

  12. Prediction of Zoonosis Incidence in Human using Seasonal Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA)

    OpenAIRE

    Permanasari, Adhistya Erna; Rambli, Dayang Rohaya Awang; Dominic, Dhanapal Durai

    2009-01-01

    Zoonosis refers to the transmission of infectious diseases from animal to human. The increasing number of zoonosis incidence makes the great losses to lives, including humans and animals, and also the impact in social economic. It motivates development of a system that can predict the future number of zoonosis occurrences in human. This paper analyses and presents the use of Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) method for developing a forecasting model that able to suppo...

  13. Adapting to a warmer ocean: Seasonal shift of baleen whale movements over three decades

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Ramp; Julien Delarue; Palsbøll, Per J; Richard Sears; Hammond, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    "Global warming poses particular challenges to migratory species, which face changes to the multiple environments occupied during migration. For many species, the timing of migration between summer and winter grounds and also within-season movements are crucial to maximise exploitation of temporarily abundant prey resources in feeding areas, themselves adapting to the warming planet. We investigated the temporal variation in the occurrence of fin (Balaenoptera physalus) and humpback whales (M...

  14. Clinical patterns and seasonal trends in respiratory syncytial virus hospitalizations in São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Sandra E; Klaus E. STEWIEN; Divina A. O. QUEIROZ; Durigon, Edison L.; Török, Thomas J.; Anderson, Larry J.; MIYAO Cristina R.; Hein, Noely; BOTOSSO Viviane F.; Márcia M. PAHL; Gilio, Alfredo E.; EJZENBERG Bernardo; OKAY Yassuhiko

    2001-01-01

    The respiratory viruses are recognized as the most frequent lower respiratory tract pathogens for infants and young children in developed countries but less is known for developing populations. The authors conducted a prospective study to evaluate the occurrence, clinical patterns, and seasonal trends of viral infections among hospitalized children with lower respiratory tract disease (Group A). The presence of respiratory viruses in children's nasopharyngeal was assessed at admission in a pe...

  15. An Index to PGE-Ni-Cr Deposits and Occurrences in Selected Mineral-Occurrence Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, J. Douglas; Galloway, John P.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Databases of mineral deposits and occurrences are essential to conducting assessments of undiscovered mineral resources. In the USGS's (U.S. Geological Survey) global assessment of undiscovered resources of copper, potash, and the platinum-group elements (PGE), only a few mineral deposit types will be evaluated. For example, only porphyry-copper and sediment-hosted copper deposits will be considered for the copper assessment. To support the global assessment, the USGS prepared comprehensive compilations of the occurrences of these two deposit types in order to develop grade and tonnage models and delineate permissive areas for undiscovered deposits of those types. This publication identifies previously published databases and database records that describe PGE, nickel, and chromium deposits and occurrences. Nickel and chromium were included in this overview because of the close association of PGE with nickel and chromium mineralization. Users of this database will need to refer to the original databases for detailed information about the deposits and occurrences. This information will be used to develop a current and comprehensive global database of PGE deposits and occurrences.

  16. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turtle, E. P.; DelGenio, A. D.; Barbara, J. M.; Perry, J. E.; Schaller, E. L.; McEwen, A. S.; West, R. A.; Ray, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem has observed Titan for 1/4 Titan year, and we report here the first evidence of seasonal shifts in preferred locations of tropospheric methane clouds. South \\polar convective cloud activity, common in late southern summer, has become rare. North \\polar and northern mid \\latitude clouds appeared during the approach to the northern spring equinox in August 2009. Recent observations have shown extensive cloud systems at low latitudes. In contrast, southern mid \\latitude and subtropical clouds have appeared sporadically throughout the mission, exhibiting little seasonality to date. These differences in behavior suggest that Titan s clouds, and thus its general circulation, are influenced by both the rapid temperature response of a low \\thermal \\inertia surface and the much longer radiative timescale of Titan s cold thick troposphere. North \\polar clouds are often seen near lakes and seas, suggesting that local increases in methane concentration and/or lifting generated by surface roughness gradients may promote cloud formation. Citation

  17. Seasonality as a Parrondian game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock-Lopez, Enrique, E-mail: epeacock@williams.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7701 Cape Town (South Africa)

    2011-08-15

    Switching strategies can be related to the so-called Parrondian games, where the alternation of two losing games yields a winning game. We consider two dynamics that by themselves yield undesirable behaviors, but when alternated, yield a desirable oscillatory behavior. In the analysis of the alternate-logistic map, we prove that alternating parameter values yielding extinction with parameter values associated with chaotic dynamics results in periodic trajectories. Ultimately, we consider a four season logistic model with either migration or immigration. -- Highlights: → We consider the logistic map as a population model and include parameter switching. → From bifurcation diagrams, we find parameters that follow the Parrondian Paradox. → We study a four-season Parrondian model that includes migration or immigration.

  18. Seasonality of Diesel Fuel Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Ibendahl, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    Diesel fuel is a major expense for most farmers. Diesel fuel prices do exhibit some seasonality so farmers can try to lower their fuel expenses by buying their fuel in months when prices are lower. However, purchasing fuel before it is needed results in a carrying charge to the farmer. This paper examines the optimal purchase month for diesel fuel for both spring planting and fall harvest. Both risk neutral and risk-averse farmers are considered. Higher interest rates discourage advance purch...

  19. Seasonality as a Parrondian game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock-López, Enrique

    2011-08-01

    Switching strategies can be related to the so-called Parrondian games, where the alternation of two losing games yields a winning game. We consider two dynamics that by themselves yield undesirable behaviors, but when alternated, yield a desirable oscillatory behavior. In the analysis of the alternate-logistic map, we prove that alternating parameter values yielding extinction with parameter values associated with chaotic dynamics results in periodic trajectories. Ultimately, we consider a four season logistic model with either migration or immigration.

  20. Life history adaptations to seasonality

    OpenAIRE

    Varpe, Øystein Heggernes

    2007-01-01

    The thesis contains studies of animal life histories at high latitudes. Several topics are covered; from ecosystem consequences of life histories to tests of specific behavioural predictions put forward based on life history arguments. Work on complete life histories is also included in an attempt to understand the evolution of capital and income breeding in marine copepods. My main research questions, followed by main topics and findings, are as follows: • How are seasonal ...

  1. Geophysical Processes - MO 2016 Inventory of Landslide Occurrences (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Missouri Inventory of Landslide Occurrences (MILO) is a statewide inventory of landslides and slope failure occurrences. Landslides can occur anywhere a hill...

  2. Seasonal changes in nasal cytology in mite-allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelardi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Gelardi,1 Diego G Peroni,2 Cristoforo Incorvaia,3 Nicola Quaranta,1 Concetta De Luca,1 Salvatore Barberi,4 Ilaria Dell'Albani,5 Massimo Landi,6 Franco Frati,5 Olivier de Beaumont7 1Otolaryngology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 6Department of Pediatrics, National Healthcare System, ASL TO1, Turin, Italy; 7Medical Affairs Department, Stallergenes, Antony, France Background: House dust mites (HDMs are a major cause of allergic rhinitis (AR and asthma worldwide. Recent studies suggested that the allergen load presents seasonal modifications, giving rise to seasonal variation in nasal inflammation and symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by nasal cytology whether nasal inflammation in mite-allergic patients changes with the seasons of the year. Methods: The study included 16 patients (seven males and nine females, mean age 38.1 years with persistent AR caused by monosensitization to HDMs. Nasal cytology was performed in all patients once monthly for 1 year. Results: Nasal cytology showed that the cells most commonly detected in the nasal mucosa were neutrophils. During the period from October to April, a peak in the number of neutrophils and also the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes/plasma cells were found, which shows the occurrence of more intense inflammation during these months. Conclusion: Nasal cytology provides useful data in detecting nasal inflammation and its association with the clinical stage of AR. The seasonal variations in nasal cytology are likely to be induced by the fluctuations in the HDM allergen that have been uncovered in recent investigations. Keywords: allergens

  3. Assessing Changes in the Local Tropical Rainfall Seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin. Msc. Dr. Luis G. Hidalgo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A single procedure to assess possible changes in the tropical nominal rainfall seasons (rainless,transition and rainy for almost any tropical location has beenwritten and applied. That procedure uses monthly rain gauge data series of a location embracing a reasonably large period of register. Three kindsof episodes (scarce, mild and copious to characterizethe seasons of each year are defined. Two tropical thresholds of 25 mm and 50 mm define the seasons but four local thresholds define events. The period is divided into two segments (antique and modern for frequency calculations.Occurrences of zero rainfall in the segments are carefully stated to verify results. Missing data items may be filled with adjusted satellite data obtained by Internet in a National Aeronautics Space Administration web portal. Annual enterprises plans could be enhanced with theannual perform of procedure application to their tropical operative locations. The procedure comes from simplified versions of two previous papers. Procedure application to the El Dorado tropical location data of 46 years divided into antique (31 years, 1968-1998 and modern (15 years, 1999-2013 segmentsgave as main preliminary result that frequency of copious(much rain episodes of the rainless(no rainy local season (January-March have increased in +23% between segments; this fact is classified as a possible weak enhancement to wet in the rains indicated by an inner classification issued as part of the procedure. El Dorado frequency of the zero rainfalloccurrencesremained nearly constant from 2/31 (antique to 1/15 (modern requiring further verification. This kind of assessment must be constituted as a permanent activity inside tropical weather-sensitive enterprises.

  4. Mechanisms of Seasonal-ENSO interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Tziperman, E; Cane, M; Tziperman, Eli; Zebiak, Steve; Cane, Mark

    1995-01-01

    The mechanisms of interaction between the seasonal cycle and ENSO are investigated using the Zebiak and Cane ENSO prediction model. The most dominant seasonal effect is found to be due to the wind divergence field, as determined by the seasonal motion of the ITCZ, through its effect on the atmospheric heating. The next order seasonal effects are due to the seasonality of the background SST and ocean upwelling velocity, and the corresponding mechanisms are analyzed. It is suggested that the seasonal forcing has a first order effect on ENSO's dynamics. Important aspects of the seasonal forcing may be included in idealized delayed oscillator ENSO models by making the model background seasonally shift from stable to unstable states.

  5. First Occurrence of Mandarinoite in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harvey E.BELKIN; ZHENG Baoshan; ZHU Jianming

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the first occurrence of the rare mineral mandarinoite (Fe3+2 Se3 O9@ 6H2O) in China. Itoccurs in the Lower Permian Maokou Formation carbonaceous shale in Yutangba Village east of Enshi City in south-western Hubei Province. The shale is selenium-rich and contains native selenium, V-Mo-Cr-bearing iron oxide, clay andquartz. Weathering of the selenium in the bedrock under moderate to high redox conditions in the presence of ferric ironhas formed mandarinoite.

  6. Uranium - the element: its occurrence and uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium metal and its compounds have been of great interest to physicists and chemists due to its use for both civil and military applications, e.g. production of electricity, use in the medical field and for making nuclear weapons. This review paper describes the occurrence, chemistry and metallurgy of the element 'uranium', its conversion to stable compounds such as yellow cake, uranium tetrafluoride and uranium hexafluoride and the enrichment technologies and uses for both civil and military purposes. The paper is meant for ready reference for students and teachers in connection with the recent spate of interest shown in nuclear power generation in Pakistan and abroad. (author)

  7. Frequency of bryophytes occurrence in epiphytic communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gapon

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Frequency of bryophytes occurrence in epiphytic communities of broad-leaved forests of Vorskla River valley and their ecology-biologic peculiarities are analysed. Distinct relations of bryophyte species to specific wood species are not found, while some species, i.e. Hypnum pallescens (Hedw. P. Beauv., Platygyrium repens (Brid. B. S. G., Bryum subelegans Kindb. are attached to Quercus robur L., but Radula complanata (L. Dum., Leskeеlla nervosa (Brid. Loeske and species of the Anomodon genus − to Fraxinus excelsior L.

  8. Controlling Effects of Surrounding Rock to Coal Seam Gas Occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Laibin Wang; Shiwen Zhang; Jinshan Shen; Zhongwen Zhang; Xiaotong Yang

    2013-01-01

    Surrounding rock of coal seam was one of the important factors to gas occurrence. The coal seam gas occurrence was studied by the index of roof strata thickness or sand content rate; we found that there were certain shortcomings. In order to reasonably evaluate the influence of coal seam surrounding rock on gas occurrence in Panji mining area, we quantitatively evaluated the effect of coal seam surrounding rock on gas occurrence by influence coefficient of roof strata thickness, and built si...

  9. Quantification of agricultural drought occurrence as an estimate for insurance programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannayan, M.; Hoogenboom, G.

    2015-11-01

    Temporal irregularities of rainfall and drought have major impacts on rainfed cropping systems. The main goal of this study was to develop an approach for realizing drought occurrence based on local winter wheat yield loss and rainfall. The domain study included 11 counties in the state of Washington that actively grow rainfed winter wheat and an uncertainty rainfall evaluation model using daily rainfall values from 1985 to 2007. An application was developed that calculates a rainfall index for insurance that was then used to determine the drought intensity for each study year and for each study site. Evaluation of the drought intensity showed that both the 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 growing seasons were stressful years for most of the study locations, while the 2005-2006 and the 2006-2007 growing seasons experienced the lowest drought intensity for all locations. Our results are consistent with local extension reports of drought occurrences. Quantification of drought intensity based on this application could provide a convenient index for insurance companies for determining the effect of rainfall and drought on crop yield loss under the varying weather conditions of semi-arid regions.

  10. Coastal flood risks and seasonal tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Kellens, W.; Maeyer, P.

    2010-01-01

    Since coastal tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors of tourism industry, coastal areas have become increasingly vulnerable in case of flooding. Yet, coastal tourism is a seasonal phenomenon, with variations according to climate, holiday seasons and seasonal traditions. Despite its relevance in environmental issues, the effects of seasonal tourism have only scarcely been studied in coastal flood risk management. In this study, GIS and detailed tourist census data are used to analyze th...

  11. CLASSIFICATION OF TOURIST SEASON IN COSTAL TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Corluka; Kresimir Mikinac; Angela Milenkovska

    2016-01-01

    Tourism seasonality is the major characteristic of tourism industry, a well know but less understood phenomenon. Seasonal fluctuations of tourism demand are implying numerous negative implications affecting tourist destination, tourist operators and tourist demand. Almost every tourist destination is facing seasonality, but the most pronounced seasonal concentration of tourist activities have costal destinations which attract tourist demand motivated primary by the 3S – sun, sand ...

  12. Seasonality of reproduction and production in farm fishes, birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemineau, P; Malpaux, B; Brillard, J P; Fostier, A

    2007-03-01

    A very large majority of farm animals express seasonal variations in their production traits, thus inducing seasonal availability of fresh derived animal products (meat, milk, cheese and eggs). This pattern is in part the consequence of the farmer's objective to market his products in the most economically favourable period. It may also be imposed by the season-dependent access to feed resources, as in ruminants, or by the specific requirements derived from adaptation to environmental conditions such as water temperature in fish. But seasonal variations in animal products are also the consequence of constraints resulting from the occurrence of a more or less marked seasonal reproductive season in most farm animal species including fish, poultry and mammals. Like their wild counterparts, at mid and high latitudes, most farm animals normally give birth at the end of winter-early spring, the most favourable period for the progeny to survive and thus promote the next generation. As a consequence, most species show seasonal variations in their ovulation frequency (mammals and fish: presence or absence of ovulation; birds: variations or suppression of laying rates), spermatogenic activity (from moderate to complete absence of sperm production), gamete quality (variations in fertilisation rates and embryo survival), and also sexual behaviour. Among species of interest for animal production, fishes and birds are generally considered as more directly sensitive to external factors (mainly temperature in fish, photoperiod in birds). In all species, it is therefore advisable that artificial photoperiodic treatments consisting of extra-light during natural short days (in chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, sheep and goats) or melatonin during long days (in goats, sheep) be extensively used to either adjust the breeding season to animal producer needs and/or to completely overcome seasonal variations of sperm production in artificial insemination centres (mammals) and breeder flock

  13. Sinkhole occurrence in consequence of heavy rainstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Mario; Pisano, Luca; Vennari, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    Sinkholes, the most typical geological hazard in karst, are widespread in Apulia (south-eastern Italy), due to the presence in about the whole region of soluble rocks. Sinkholes can cause damage to private property and civil infrastructures such as buildings and roads. Detailed mapping of sinkholes is critical in understanding the hydrological processes, beside being extremely useful to mitigate the related geological risk. Sinkholes typically function as a major connection between the water flowing at the surface and the groundwaters, by collecting rainfall and rapidly draining it within the bedrock. In Apulia, the main risk to the humans is generally linked to anthropogenic sinkholes, with the possibility of collapses related to man-made caves (quarries, mines, civil settlements, etc.; see Parise, 2012, 2015a). Natural sinkholes are less frequent, or appears at least to be less reported, since they generally occur in rural areas, and often are rapidly canceled by landowners. During the first week of September 2014, the Gargano Promontory (northern Apulia) was affected by an intense storm, characterized by rainfall cumulates well above the seasonal mean values. The total amount of measured rainfall for the whole event (covering the period from September 1, to September 6, 2014) reached a peak of over 500 mm (Martinotti et al., 2015). As a response to the storm, and due to peculiarity of the Gargano karst setting, several geo-hazards (different types of slope failures, floods and sinkholes) were recorded over an area of 2300 km2. As regards sinkholes, during the September 2014 storm, at least a dozen of phenomena, mostly of small size, were documented. These are prevailingly concentrated in two areas in the surroundings of the towns of San Marco in Lamis and Monte Sant'Angelo. In particular, at San Marco in Lamis, four sinkholes (the deepest about 6 m-deep and 5 m-wide, showing at the bottom the upper portion of the epikarst, with pinnacles of limestone rocks

  14. 7 CFR 916.15 - Marketing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing season. 916.15 Section 916.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.15 Marketing season. Marketing season means the period beginning...

  15. Prediction uncertainty in seasonal partial duration series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Funder; Rosbjerg, Dan

    1991-01-01

    In order to obtain a good description of the exceedances in a partial duration series it is often necessary to divide the year into a number (2-4) of seasons. Hereby a stationary exceedance distribution can be maintained within each season. This type of seasonal models may, however, not be suitable...

  16. End-of-season heating fuel report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The year-end report notes that the 1991-92 heating season had lower average oil prices (retail home heating fuel) than the past two winters and prices remained relatively stable throughout the season. This year, the heating season average was $.87 per gallon, $1.05 for kerosene, and $1.33 for propane

  17. Occurrence of Pasteurellaceae bacteria in the oral cavity of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Lena; Hansen, Mie Johanne; Kelly, Androo;

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of bacteria belonging to the family Pasteurellaceae in the oral cavity of captive Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) was investigated using phenotypic and subsequent genotypic characterization and phylogenetic analyses. A total of 62 bacterial isolates obtained from Tasmanian ...

  18. Seasonal and solar cycle variations of equatorial spread-F in the American zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The range type of spread-F near the magnetic equator seems to be associated with the post sunset uplifting of the F-layer which itself is caused by the strong eastward horizontal electric field in the evening before its reversal to the normal nighttime westward direction. The frequency type of spread-F seems to be the latter development of the F-region irregularities. During any solar epoch, the occurrence of range spread is maximum diurnally at 2100 LT and seasonally around November and February months, a secondary peak develops around 0500 during June solstices. The occurrence of frequency spread is maximum around 0000 LT diurnally and seasonally around June-July. The solar cycle effect of range spread is quite significant raising the rate and peak value of post sunset increase of its occurrence; however, the occurrence decreases very rapidly with time after 2100 LT during high sunspot years. Further, the range spread occurs fairly frequently during the post midnight hours of the low sunspot years especially for June solstices. Thus the relation between sunspots and range spread is positive for pre-midnight hours and strongly negative for post midnight hours giving an inverse relation between sunspots and whole night average range spread. (author)

  19. Occurrence of Ionophores in the Danish Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Alex Bak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics in the environment are a potential threat to environmental ecosystems as well as human health and safety. Antibiotics are designed to have a biological effect at low doses, and the low levels detected in the environment have turned focus on the need for more research on environmental occurrence and fate, to assess the risk and requirement for future regulation. This article describes the first occurrence study of the antibiotic polyether ionophores (lasalocid, monensin, narasin, and salinomycin in the Danish environment. Various environmental matrices (river water, sediment, and soil have been evaluated during two different sampling campaigns carried out in July 2011 and October 2012 in an agricultural area of Zealand, Denmark. Lasalocid was not detected in any of the samples. Monensin was measured at a concentration up to 20 ng·L−1 in river water and 13 µg·kg−1 dry weight in the sediment as well as being the most frequently detected ionophore in the soil samples with concentrations up to 8 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Narasin was measured in sediment samples at 2 µg·kg−1 dry weight and in soil between 1 and 18 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Salinomycin was detected in a single soil sample at a concentration of 30 µg·kg−1 dry weight.

  20. Occurrence of potentially pathogenic arcobacters in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottola, Anna; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Figueras, Maria José; Pérez-Cataluña, Alba; Marchetti, Patrizia; Serraino, Andrea; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Terio, Valentina; Tantillo, Giuseppina; Di Pinto, Angela

    2016-08-01

    Considering that several recent cases of human gastroenteritis have been associated with species from the Arcobacter genus, and that few data are currently available about the occurrence of this genus in Italian shellfish, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. and the presence of virulence-associated genes. The approach consisted of cultural and biomolecular (multiplex-PCR and 16S-RFLP) methods identifying isolates, followed by PCR assays aimed at the cadF, ciaB, cjl349, irgA, hecA putative virulence genes. Arcobacter spp. was detected in 16/70 (22.8%) shellfish samples. Specifically, Arcobacter spp. was highlighted in 10/42 (23.8%) mussel and in 6/28 (21.4%) clam samples. Subsequently, biomolecular assays revealed Arcobacter butzleri in 12/16 (75%) and Arcobacter cryaerophilus 1B in 4/16 (25%) isolates. PCRs aimed at the five putative virulence genes demonstrated widespread distribution of these genes among Arcobacter isolates and some differences from the results published by other authors. Our research provides more information regarding the health risks associated with the consumption of raw bivalve molluscs and underlines the need to implement an adequate control plan by performing intensive and continuous monitoring in order to guarantee human health. PMID:27052698

  1. Occurrence and succession of mycorrhizas in Alnus incana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arveby, A.S. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Section of Forest Ecophysiology; Granhall, U. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Microbiology

    1998-12-31

    The occurrence of different mycorrhizas of the grey alder, Alnus incana (L.) Moench., in Sweden was investigated. Root sampling was carried out in planted and natural grey alder stands, representing different soil types, geographical sites, and plant ages. Mycorrhizal infection of roots was found to be frequent at all investigated sites, except for some planted peat bogs, where alders do not occur naturally. At the latter sites, mycorrhizal infection was less frequent and consisted only of ectomycorrhizas. Young trees here were non-mycorrhizal. At all other sites vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) was found to be the almost exclusive type of mycorrhiza in first-year seedlings. In trees older than one year ectomycorrhiza was the dominating type. In the planted stands up to five years of age no fruitbodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi were found. In such stands the ectomycorrhizas generally had thin, translucent mantles and could be observed only by microscopic examination. In one old plantation (27 years) and in the natural stands sporocarps of several specific `alder fungi` were found. Here, the mycorrhizal root tips had thick, mostly whitish mantles. The Hartig net was in all cases confined to penetration between epidermal cells. Soil collected from one alder site and two non-alder biotopes readily infected grey alder seedlings with Frankia and VAM fungi whereas a peat soil failed to infect seedlings with any symbiont. In vitro inoculation of nodulated seedlings with Glomus mossae (Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerdemann and Trappe resulted in VAM-infection. Simultaneous syntheses with isolates of alder-specific, and other, ectomycorrhizal fungi, using three different methods, failed. On the basis of these results an endomycorrhizal-ectomycorrhizal succession after the first growth season in Alnus incana is concluded. A subsequent succession of ectomycorrhizal species from early-stage to late-stage ones is discussed 58 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Modelling occurrence and abundance of species when detection is imperfect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Nichols, J.D.; Kery, M.

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between species abundance and occupancy are of considerable interest in metapopulation biology and in macroecology. Such relationships may be described concisely using probability models that characterize variation in abundance of a species. However, estimation of the parameters of these models in most ecological problems is impaired by imperfect detection. When organisms are detected imperfectly, observed counts are biased estimates of true abundance, and this induces bias in stated occupancy or occurrence probability. In this paper we consider a class of models that enable estimation of abundance/occupancy relationships from counts of organisms that result from surveys in which detection is imperfect. Under such models, parameter estimation and inference are based on conventional likelihood methods. We provide an application of these models to geographically extensive breeding bird survey data in which alternative models of abundance are considered that include factors that influence variation in abundance and detectability. Using these models, we produce estimates of abundance and occupancy maps that honor important sources of spatial variation in avian abundance and provide clearly interpretable characterizations of abundance and occupancy adjusted for imperfect detection.

  3. Seasonal drought effects on carbon sequestration of a mid-subtropical planted forest of southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>Continuous measurement of carbon dioxide exchange using the eddy covariance (EC) technique is made at the Qianyanzhou mid-subtropical planted forest as part of the ChinaFLUX network. Qianyanzhou planted forest is affected by typical subtropical continental monsoon climate. It has plentiful water and heat resource but is in inconsistency of its seasonal distribution in the mid-subtropical region, thus seasonal drought frequently occurs in this planted forest. In this study, seasonal drought effect on ecosystem carbon sequestration was analyzed based on net ecosystem productivity (NEP), ecosystem respiration (RE) and gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) at the month scale in 2003 and 2004. In this drought-stressed planted forest, ecosystem carbon sequestration showed a clear seasonality, with low rates during seasonal drought and in winter. The declining degree of ecosystem carbon sequestration under the seasonal drought condition was determined by the accumulation of soil moisture deficits and a co-occurrence of high temperatures. Different drought effects are expected for RE and GEP. The net effect of ecosystem carbon balance depends on how these two quantities are affected relatively to each other. Summer drought and heat wave are two aspects of weather that likely play an important part in the annual NEP of forest in this region.

  4. Storage Mixing Variability Across Seasons and Scales in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsouris, A. J.; Lyon, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Our ability to accurately assess water residence times and storage volumes hinges on data availability. However, hydrological data is often limited or non-existing in most regions of the world. This study synthesizes hydrological tracer data with hydroclimatic information in order to disentangle storage volume dynamics and variability across data-limited African catchments. Specifically, we focus on the Kilombero Valley in Tanzania where there is a large potential to develop and expand the agricultural sector and thus increasing food security nationally. The lack hydrological data and subsequent limited process understanding hinders our capacity to assess the sustainability of such an increased and intensified agriculture landscape. We demonstrate how hydrological tracers constitute an exceptionally valuable piece of information for constraining model parameterizations, improving process understanding and representing storage volumes in data limited regions. Geochemical (e.g., Ca2+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, SO42-, Cl-) and stable water isotope (d18O and d2H) tracers were used to estimate recharge rates and seasonal shifts in hydrologic flow pathways. End member mixing analysis (EMMA) applied within the GLUE uncertainty framework was used to assess relative source contributions to streamflow and storage volume connectivity across scales. Strong variations in stable water isotopes between rainfall seasons in Tanzania and geological partitioning of storages allowed for clear characterization of seasonal variations in hydrologic flow pathway development. Wetlands dominated the wet season flows while variability in the connectivity of water storages could be seen during the dry season. Differences in the wetting up versus drying down storage mixing across the landscape highlights process shifts. This characterization improves our ability to utilize the limited data available in Kilombero Valley as it provides the basis for modelling surface-groundwater interactions regionally and

  5. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ok Baek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory

  6. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  7. [Evaluation of microbiological quality of seasoning purchased in the retail network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik-Stopczyńska, Barbara; Jakubowska, Barbara; Szot, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    The estimation of microbiological quality of seasoning purchased in the retail network was the aim of this work. The study included five kinds of seasoning manufactured by four Polish companies. Microbiological analysis of the material included: total count of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and their spores, count of yeast and moulds and occurrence of coliforms bacteria, E. coli, Salmonella sp. and S. aureus. The results showed that the total count of mesophilic aerobic bacteria was high (10(5) -10(6) cfu x g(-1)) in the most of estimated spices and bacteria occurred mainly as spores. The low titre of coliform reduced down to 10(-2)-10(-3), occurrence of E. coli it was stated in 20% of samples of spices. However no pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp., S. aureus) was detected. Contamination of seasoning by yeasts and moulds was low in majority of samples and only in two samples the count of moulds was higher than 10(3) cfu x g(-1) and not answered requirements. Moulds were mainly represented by Aspergillus sp. (A. glaucus, A. niger, A. flavus) and than by Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp. Microbiological quality of seasoning was differentiated in dependence on the manufacturer. PMID:20803899

  8. Seasonal and interannual variability of cladoceran communities in two peri-alpine lakes: uncoupled response to the 2003 heat wave.

    OpenAIRE

    Anneville, Orlane; Molinero, Juan Carlos; Souissi, Sami; Gerdeaux, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Seasonal and interannual dynamics of cladoceran species were analyzed during the period 1995-2003 in two deep peri-alpine lakes morphologically different but subjected to similar regional climatic forcing. The seasonal succession of cladoceran species was characterized and the impact of extreme climatic events on the annual pattern of species succession was assessed. Using a multivariate method, we show that the cladoceran species display marked seasonality patterns that d...

  9. Seasonal and interannual variability of cladoceran communities in two peri-alpine lakes: uncoupled response to the 2003 heat wave

    OpenAIRE

    Anneville, O.; Molinero, Juan Carlos; SOUISSI, S.; GERDEAUX D.

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal and interannual dynamics of cladoceran species were analyzed during the period 1995–2003 in two deep peri-alpine lakes morphologically different but subjected to similar regional climatic forcing. The seasonal succession of cladoceran species was characterized and the impact of extreme climatic events on the annual pattern of species succession was assessed. Using a multivariate method, we show that the cladoceran species display marked seasonality patterns that differed in the two l...

  10. The contribution of terrestrial sources and sinks to trends in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric carbon dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Randerson, JT; Thompson, MV; Conway, TJ; Fung, IY; Field, CB

    1997-01-01

    © 1997 by the American Geophysical Union. We characterized decadal changes in the amplitude and shape of the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2 with three kinds of analysis. First, we calculated the trends in the seasonal cycle of measured atmospheric CO2 at observation stations in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Laboratory network. Second, we assessed the impact of terrestrial ecosystems in various localities on the mean seasonal cycle of ...

  11. Diverse patterns of stored water use among saplings in seasonally dry tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Brett T; Kursar, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Tree species in seasonally dry tropical forests likely vary in their drought-survival mechanisms. Drought-deciduousness, which reduces water loss, and low wood density, which may permit dependence on stored water, are considered key traits. For saplings of six species at two distinct sites, we studied these and two associated traits: the seasonal amount of water released per stem volume ("water released") and the hydraulic capacitance of the stem (C). Two deciduous species with low stem density, Cavanillesia platanifolia and Bursera simaruba, had high C and high dry-season stem water potential (Ψ(stem)), but differed in dry-season water released. C. platanifolia did not use stored water during the dry season whereas B. simaruba, in a drier forest, released stored water. In both, water released was highest while flushing leaves, suggesting that stored water supports leaf flushing. In contrast, two deciduous species with intermediate stem density, Annona hayesii and Genipa americana, had intermediate C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and high seasonal change in water released. Meanwhile, two evergreen species with intermediate stem density, Cojoba rufescens and Astronium graveolens, had relatively low C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and intermediate seasonal change in water released. Thus, at least three, distinct stored-water-use strategies were observed. Additionally, bark relative water content (RWC) decreased along with Ψ(stem) during the dry season while xylem RWC did not change, suggesting that bark-stored water buffers Ψ(stem) seasonally. Together these results suggest that seasonal use of stored water and change in Ψ(stem) are associated with functional groups that are characterized by combinations of deciduousness and stem density. PMID:26025573

  12. Seasonal Variation of Carabid Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae Abundance and Diversity in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Rainio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation in arthropod abundances is observed in many tropical forests all over the world. This study examines seasonal occurrence of carabid beetles in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar, where little research has been done concerning seasonality of arthropods. Carabid beetles were collected from secondary and primary montane rainforests throughout a one year. In total, 1205 individuals of 50 species were collected. During the year there was a considerable variation in the abundances of carabids. The highest number of individuals was collected in February, which is a warm and rainy month while the lowest numbers were obtained in May, which is in the beginning of drier months. Species composition varied considerably during the year, 28 % of the species were found only in one month, and only one species was collected in every sampling month. For total species inventory at least one year of collecting is then recommended.

  13. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, October--December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. This report covers the period from October 1 through December 31, 1992. There are two abnormal occurrences at nuclear power plants and six abnormal occurrences involving medical misadministration (all therapeutic) at NRC-licensed facilities discussed in this report. No abnormal occurrences were reported by the NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating three previously reported abnormal occurrences

  14. Report to congress on abnormal occurrences: January--March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 208 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to congress. This report covers the period from January 1 through March 31, 1992. The abnormal occurrences involving medical therapy misadministrations at NRC-licensed facilities are discussed in this report. There were no abnormal occurrences at a nuclear power plant, and none were reported by NRC's Agreement States. The report also contains information updating some previously reported abnormal occurrences

  15. Seasonal variation of prices of sugar cane, ethanol and electric power; Variacao estacional dos precos da cana-de-acucar, alcool combustivel e energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Carmem Ozana de; Silva, Gerson Henrique da; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Francisco Beltrao, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal price of sugar cane, fuel alcohol (hydrated and anhydrous) and electricity tariffs as a way of aiding tool for optimization of energy generation, using biomass originating from cane sugar. Using the method of moving average centered was concluded that cane and electricity rates were close to seasonal average, with low range of prices, suggesting the non-occurrence of seasonal variation in prices. Unlike the seasonal indices of ethanol showed seasonal variation of prices with greater amplitude of seasonal index. Thus, the results suggest that the utilization of by-products of sugar cane to produce electrical power points to the prospect of reducing risks associated with variations in the price of ethanol, thereby contributing to greater stability and possibility to those involved in planning alcohol sector. (author)

  16. Harvest season, high polluted season in East China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    East China, a major agricultural zone with a dense population, suffers from severe air pollution during June, the agricultural harvest season, every year. Crop burning emits tremendous amounts of combustion products into the atmosphere, not only rapidly degrading the local air quality but also affecting the tropospheric chemistry, threatening public health and affecting climate change. Recently, in mid-June 2012, crop fires left a thick pall of haze over East China. We evaluated the PM10, PM2.5 (particulates less than 10 and 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and BC (black carbon) emissions by analyzing detailed census data and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing images and then simulated the consequent pollution using meteorological and dispersion models. The results show that the crop fires sweeping from the south to the north are responsible for the intensive air pollution during harvest season. It is necessary for scientists and governments to pay more attention to this issue. (letter)

  17. Community-wide changes in intertaxonomic temporal co-occurrence resulting from phenological shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fangyuan; Hu, Junhua; Liu, Yang; Giam, Xingli; Lee, Tien Ming; Luo, Hao; Wu, Jia; Liang, Qiaoyi; Zhao, Jian; Long, Xiaoyan; Pang, Hong; Wang, Biao; Liang, Wei; Zhang, Zhengwang; Gao, Xuejie; Zhu, Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Global climate change is known to affect the assembly of ecological communities by altering species' spatial distribution patterns, but little is known about how climate change may affect community assembly by changing species' temporal co-occurrence patterns, which is highly likely given the widely observed phenological shifts associated with climate change. Here, we analyzed a 29-year phenological data set comprising community-level information on the timing and span of temporal occurrence in 11 seasonally occurring animal taxon groups from 329 local meteorological observatories across China. We show that widespread shifts in phenology have resulted in community-wide changes in the temporal overlap between taxa that are dominated by extensions, and that these changes are largely due to taxa's altered span of temporal occurrence rather than the degree of synchrony in phenological shifts. Importantly, our findings also suggest that climate change may have led to less phenological mismatch than generally presumed, and that the context under which to discuss the ecological consequences of phenological shifts should be expanded beyond asynchronous shifts. PMID:26680152

  18. Dynamic and chemical controls on new particle formation occurrence and characteristics from in situ and satellite-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R. C.; Pryor, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    We analyze the association between satellite-based measurements of chemical conditions (sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations), insolation (UV), and aerosol particle properties (aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE)); and the occurrence of new particle formation (NPF), formation rates (J6), growth rates (GR), and survival probabilities (SP) using particle size distribution measurements taken during two extended field campaigns at a forested location in southern Indiana. When conditionally sampled by event occurrence and non-occurrence the satellite-derived parameters exhibit significant differences and also show some degree of skill in predicting NPF though logistic regression analysis. During leaf-on measurement periods, NPF occurrence exhibits strong seasonality (NPF is more frequent in spring vs. summer) and is associated with a low condensational sink, while leaf-off NPF occurrence is associated with high near-surface UV receipt. Multiple linear regression equations of J6, GR, and SP using the chemical conditions as predictors exhibit some significant r2 values (p regression coefficients do not differ significantly from zero.

  19. RESEARCH ON RED TIDE OCCURRENCES USING ENCLOSED EXPERIMENTAL ECOSYSTEMS IN WEST XIAMEN HARBOR, CHINA--RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIOUS FACTORS AND RED TIDE OCCURRENCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A series of enclosed ecosystem experiments were conducted in a land-based tank near the seaside of West Xiamen Harbor. The results of experiments conducted in different seasons and years showed a repeatable phytoplankton succession. In this relatively stable ecosystem with added nutrients and trace metals, diatoms dominated initially, dinoflagellates dominated in the later stage, and dinoflagellate red tides eventually occurred. Vitamin B12 enrichment may speed up this succession process. Stirring the water column could stop this process. Soluble Mn at a level of 3-4 μg/L in seawater, which also is the existing concentration of soluble Mn in Xiamen Harbor seawater, is sufficient for the multiplication of algae and occurrence of red tide. The present study showed that excessive soluble Mn in Xiamen Harbor cannot cause red tide, and that Fe was one of the important factors causing diatom red tide in this present study.

  20. Etiology and occurrence of gingival recession - An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarpangala Mythri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Gingival recession is the term used to characterize the apical shift of the marginal gingiva from its normal position on the crown of the tooth. It is frequently observed in adult subjects. The occurrence and severity of the gingival recession present considerable differences between populations. To prevent gingival recession from occurring, it is essential to detect the underlying etiology. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of gingival recession and to identify the most common factor associated with the cause of gingival recession. Methods: A total of 710 subjects aged between 15 years to 60 years were selected. Data were collected by an interview with the help of a proforma and then the dental examination was carried out. The presence of gingival recession was recorded using Miller's classification of gingival recession. The Silness and Loe Plaque Index, Loe and Silness gingival index, community periodontal index were recorded. The data thus obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Chi-square test and Student's unpaired t-test. Results: Of 710 subjects examined, 291 (40.98% subjects exhibited gingival recession. The frequency of gingival recession was found to increase with age. High frequency of gingival recession was seen in males (60.5% compared to females (39.5%. Gingival recession was commonly seen in mandibular incisors (43.0%. Miller's class I gingival recession was more commonly seen. The most common cause for gingival recession was dental plaque accumulation (44.1% followed by faulty toothbrushing (42.7%. Conclusion: Approximately half of the subjects examined exhibited gingival recession. The etiology of gingival recession is multifactorial, and its appearance is always the result of more than one factor acting together.

  1. Whale shark (Rhincodon typus seasonal presence, residence time and habitat use at darwin island, galapagos marine reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Acuña-Marrero

    Full Text Available The life history of the whale shark (Rhincodon typus, including its reproductive ecology, still remains largely unknown. Here, we present results from the first whale shark population study around Darwin Island, Galapagos Marine Reserve. Following a diversified approach we characterized seasonal occurrence, population structure and size, and described habitat use of whale sharks based on fine scale movements around the island. Whale shark presence at Darwin Island was negatively correlated with Sea Surface Temperature (SST, with highest abundance corresponding to a cool season between July and December over six years of monitoring. From 2011 to 2013 we photo-identified 82 whale sharks ranging from 4 to 13.1 m Total Length (TL. Size distribution was bimodal, with a great majority (91.5% of adult female individuals averaging 11.35 m±0.12 m (TL±SE, all but one showing signs of a potential pregnancy. Population dynamics models for apparently pregnant sharks estimated the presence of 3.76±0.90 (mean ± SE sharks in the study area per day with an individual residence time of 2.09±0.51 (mean ± SE days. Movement patterns analysis of four apparently pregnant individuals tracked with acoustic tags at Darwin Island revealed an intense use of Darwin's Arch, where no feeding or specific behavior has been recorded, together with periodic excursions around the island's vicinity. Sharks showed a preference for intermediate depths (20-30 m with occasional dives mostly to mid-water, remaining the majority of their time at water temperatures between 24-25°C. All of our results point to Darwin Island as an important stopover in a migration, possibly with reproductive purposes, rather than an aggregation site. Current studies carried out in this area to investigate regional scale movement patterns may provide essential information about possible pupping grounds for this enigmatic species.

  2. Whale shark (Rhincodon typus) seasonal presence, residence time and habitat use at darwin island, galapagos marine reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Marrero, David; Jiménez, Jesús; Smith, Franz; Doherty, Paul F; Hearn, Alex; Green, Jonathan R; Paredes-Jarrín, Jules; Salinas-de-León, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    The life history of the whale shark (Rhincodon typus), including its reproductive ecology, still remains largely unknown. Here, we present results from the first whale shark population study around Darwin Island, Galapagos Marine Reserve. Following a diversified approach we characterized seasonal occurrence, population structure and size, and described habitat use of whale sharks based on fine scale movements around the island. Whale shark presence at Darwin Island was negatively correlated with Sea Surface Temperature (SST), with highest abundance corresponding to a cool season between July and December over six years of monitoring. From 2011 to 2013 we photo-identified 82 whale sharks ranging from 4 to 13.1 m Total Length (TL). Size distribution was bimodal, with a great majority (91.5%) of adult female individuals averaging 11.35 m±0.12 m (TL±SE), all but one showing signs of a potential pregnancy. Population dynamics models for apparently pregnant sharks estimated the presence of 3.76±0.90 (mean ± SE) sharks in the study area per day with an individual residence time of 2.09±0.51 (mean ± SE) days. Movement patterns analysis of four apparently pregnant individuals tracked with acoustic tags at Darwin Island revealed an intense use of Darwin's Arch, where no feeding or specific behavior has been recorded, together with periodic excursions around the island's vicinity. Sharks showed a preference for intermediate depths (20-30 m) with occasional dives mostly to mid-water, remaining the majority of their time at water temperatures between 24-25°C. All of our results point to Darwin Island as an important stopover in a migration, possibly with reproductive purposes, rather than an aggregation site. Current studies carried out in this area to investigate regional scale movement patterns may provide essential information about possible pupping grounds for this enigmatic species. PMID:25551553

  3. Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus) Seasonal Presence, Residence Time and Habitat Use at Darwin Island, Galapagos Marine Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Marrero, David; Jiménez, Jesús; Smith, Franz; Doherty, Paul F.; Hearn, Alex; Green, Jonathan R.; Paredes-Jarrín, Jules; Salinas-de-León, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    The life history of the whale shark (Rhincodon typus), including its reproductive ecology, still remains largely unknown. Here, we present results from the first whale shark population study around Darwin Island, Galapagos Marine Reserve. Following a diversified approach we characterized seasonal occurrence, population structure and size, and described habitat use of whale sharks based on fine scale movements around the island. Whale shark presence at Darwin Island was negatively correlated with Sea Surface Temperature (SST), with highest abundance corresponding to a cool season between July and December over six years of monitoring. From 2011 to 2013 we photo-identified 82 whale sharks ranging from 4 to 13.1 m Total Length (TL). Size distribution was bimodal, with a great majority (91.5%) of adult female individuals averaging 11.35 m±0.12 m (TL±SE), all but one showing signs of a potential pregnancy. Population dynamics models for apparently pregnant sharks estimated the presence of 3.76±0.90 (mean ± SE) sharks in the study area per day with an individual residence time of 2.09±0.51 (mean ± SE) days. Movement patterns analysis of four apparently pregnant individuals tracked with acoustic tags at Darwin Island revealed an intense use of Darwin's Arch, where no feeding or specific behavior has been recorded, together with periodic excursions around the island's vicinity. Sharks showed a preference for intermediate depths (20–30 m) with occasional dives mostly to mid-water, remaining the majority of their time at water temperatures between 24–25°C. All of our results point to Darwin Island as an important stopover in a migration, possibly with reproductive purposes, rather than an aggregation site. Current studies carried out in this area to investigate regional scale movement patterns may provide essential information about possible pupping grounds for this enigmatic species. PMID:25551553

  4. Population structure, persistence, and seasonality of autochthonous Escherichia coli in temperate, coastal forest soil from a Great Lakes watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, M.N.; Whitman, R.L.; Shively, D.A.; Sadowsky, M.J.; Ishii, S.

    2006-01-01

    The common occurrence of Escherichia coli in temperate soils has previously been reported, however, there are few studies to date to characterize its source, distribution, persistent capability and genetic diversity. In this study, undisturbed, forest soils within six randomly selected 0.5 m2 exclosure plots (covered by netting of 2.3 mm2 mesh size) were monitored from March to October 2003 for E. coli in order to describe its numerical and population characteristics. Culturable E. coli occurred in 88% of the samples collected, with overall mean counts of 16 MPN g-1, ranging from soil temperatures, suggesting that seasonality were not a strong factor in population density control. Mean E. coli counts in soil samples (n = 60) were significantly higher inside than immediately outside the exclosures; E. coli distribution within the exclosures was patchy. Repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (Rep-PCR) demonstrated genetic heterogeneity of E. coli within and among exclosure sites, and the soil strains were genetically distinct from animal (E. coli) strains tested (i.e. gulls, terns, deer and most geese). These results suggest that E. coli can occur and persist for extended periods in undisturbed temperate forest soils independent of recent allochthonous input and season, and that the soil E. coli populations formed a cohesive phylogenetic group in comparison to the set of fecal strains with which they were compared. Thus, in assessing E. coli sources within a stream, it is important to differentiate background soil loadings from inputs derived from animal and human fecal contamination. ?? 2005 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The Impact of Amazonian Deforestation on Dry-Season Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Adler, Robert F.; Xu, Li-Ming; Surratt, Jason; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Many modeling studies have concluded that widespread deforestation of Amazonia would lead to decreased rainfall. We analyze geosynchronous infrared satellite data with respect percent cloudiness, and analyze rain estimates from microwave sensors aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. We conclude that in the dry-season, when the effects of the surface are not overwhelmed by synoptic-scale weather disturbances, deep convective cloudiness, as well as rainfall occurrence, all increase over the deforested and non-forested (savanna) regions. This is in response to a local circulation initiated by the differential heating of the region's varying forestation. Analysis of the diurnal cycle of cloudiness reveals a shift toward afternoon hours in the deforested and savanna regions, compared to the forested regions. Analysis of 14 years of data from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager data revealed that only in August did rainfall amounts increase over the deforested region.

  6. Temporal patterns in the occurrence of selected tropical fishes in mangrove creeks: implications for the fisheries management in north Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Giarrizzo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available To examine the temporal patterns in the occurrence of a tropical ichthyofauna, fisheries-independent samples were collected between September 2003 and July 2004 from intertidal mangrove creeks in the Curuçá estuary, Pará, north Brazil. Juveniles occurred year-round with the most intense occurrence during the wet/dry transition season (Anchovia clupeoides, Cetengraulis edentulus, Rhinosardinia amazonica, Mugil sp.. The occurrence of Colomesus psittacus and Anchoa hepsetus was continuous. Sciades herzbergii displayed two peaks (wet and dry season while Cathorops sp. peaked only in the wet season. The continuous presence of juveniles in the tropical mangroves suggested that the fisheries management should be based on large no-take areas rather than closed seasons.Com o objetivo de examinar padrões temporais em recrutamento de uma ictiofauna tropical, pescarias experimentais foram realizadas entre setembro 2003 e Julio 2004 em canais de maré com vegetação de mangue no estuário do rio Curuçá, Pará, Norte do Brasil. Juvenis ocorreram durante todo o ano, entretanto com maior intensidade no período de recrutamento, durante a transição da estação chuvosa para a seca (Anchovia clupeoides, Cetengraulis edentulus, Rhinosardinia amazonica, Mugil sp.. O recrutamento foi continuo para Colomesus psittacus e Anchoa hepsetus. Sciades herzbergii apresentou dois picos de recrutamento (estação chuvosa e seca, entretanto Cathorops sp. teve somente um (estação chuvosa. A presença contínua de juvenis nos manguezais sugere que o manejo da pesca em regiões tropicais com vegetação de mangue deveria se direcionar em definir grandes áreas de proteção ao lugar de épocas de defeso.

  7. Seasonality and the effectiveness of mass vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Dennis L; Dimitrov, Dobromir T

    2016-04-01

    Many infectious diseases have seasonal outbreaks, which may be driven by cyclical environmental conditions (e.g., an annual rainy season) or human behavior (e.g., school calendars or seasonal migration). If a pathogen is only transmissible for a limited period of time each year, then seasonal outbreaks could infect fewer individuals than expected given the pathogen's in-season transmissibility. Influenza, with its short serial interval and long season, probably spreads throughout a population until a substantial fraction of susceptible individuals are infected. Dengue, with a long serial interval and shorter season, may be constrained by its short transmission season rather than the depletion of susceptibles. Using mathematical modeling, we show that mass vaccination is most efficient, in terms of infections prevented per vaccine administered, at high levels of coverage for pathogens that have relatively long epidemic seasons, like influenza, and at low levels of coverage for pathogens with short epidemic seasons, like dengue. Therefore, the length of a pathogen's epidemic season may need to be considered when evaluating the costs and benefits of vaccination programs. PMID:27105983

  8. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul

    2016-05-01

    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index (SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  9. SEASONALITY AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MASS VACCINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Dennis L.; Dimitrov, Dobromir T.

    2016-01-01

    Many infectious diseases have seasonal outbreaks, which may be driven by cyclical environmental conditions (e.g., an annual rainy season) or human behavior (e.g., school calendars or seasonal migration). If a pathogen is only transmissible for a limited period of time each year, then seasonal outbreaks could infect fewer individuals than expected given the pathogen’s in-season transmissibility. Influenza, with its short serial interval and long season, probably spreads throughout a population until a substantial fraction of susceptible individuals are infected. Dengue, with a long serial interval and shorter season, may be constrained by its short transmission season rather than the depletion of susceptibles. Using mathematical modeling, we show that mass vaccination is most efficient, in terms of infections prevented per vaccine administered, at high levels of coverage for pathogens that have relatively long epidemic seasons, like influenza, and at low levels of coverage for pathogens with short epidemic seasons, like dengue. Therefore, the length of a pathogen’s epidemic season may need to be considered when evaluating the costs and benefits of vaccination programs. PMID:27105983

  10. ASSOCIATION OF THE MTNR1A GENE POLYMORPHISMS AND SEASONAL REPRODUCTION IN SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentino Držaić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal reproduction in sheep greatly limits the possibilities of continuous year-round production and equitable supply of sheep products on the market. The begging of breeding season in sheep is associated with melatonin secretion under the darkness influence. Melatonin, through specific G protein coupled receptors, MT1 and MT2, affects target tissues and organs. MTNR1A gene is located on 26th chromosome and has two polymorphic sites in sheep. The presence of polymorphism (M/M, R/R is related to non-seasonal presence of estrus, while absence of polymorphism (m/m, r/r is related to seasonal estrus presence. Individuals with "M" or "R" allele in homozygous or heterozygous form are characterized by more successful reproduction during long photoperiod or outside the usual breeding season.

  11. Olmsted Syndrome: Rare Occurrence in Four Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukharia, Atishay; Komal, Sweta; Sudhanan, V Madhu; Chaudhary, Shyam Sundar

    2016-01-01

    Olmsted syndrome is a very rare and severe cicatrizing keratoderma associated with periorificial lesion. Most cases are sporadic but familial occurrence has been also seen. Till now around 73 cases have been reported and none of the reported cases have 4 siblings affected from this disease. We are reporting cases of 4 siblings of age 30 year female, 26 year female, 20 year male and 10 year male who were born to a third degree consangueinous marriage and presented with palmoplantar keratoderma, periorificial hyperkeratosis, flexion deformity, pseudoainhum and contracture of digits. There was no cardiac involvement. Hence, the diagnosis of Olmsted syndrome was made and all four patients were non responsive to treatment which included topical corticosteroid, topical salicylic acid, systemic isotretinoin, systemic acitretin and oral zinc in child. PMID:27293270

  12. Handbook of gas hydrate properties and occurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuustraa, V.A.; Hammershaimb, E.C.

    1983-12-01

    This handbook provides data on the resource potential of naturally occurring hydrates, the properties that are needed to evaluate their recovery, and their production potential. The first two chapters give data on the naturally occurring hydrate potential by reviewing published resource estimates and the known and inferred occurrences. The third and fourth chapters review the physical and thermodynamic properties of hydrates, respectively. The thermodynamic properties of hydrates that are discussed include dissociation energies and a simplified method to calculate them; phase diagrams for simple and multi-component gases; the thermal conductivity; and the kinetics of hydrate dissociation. The final chapter evaluates the net energy balance of recovering hydrates and shows that a substantial positive energy balance can theoretically be achieved. The Appendices of the Handbook summarize physical and thermodynamic properties of gases, liquids and solids that can be used in designing and evaluating recovery processes of hydrates. 158 references, 67 figures, 47 tables.

  13. Active Longitude and Solar Flare Occurrences

    CERN Document Server

    Gyenge, N; Baranyi, T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to specify the spatio-temporal characteristics of flare activity observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) satellites in connection with the behaviour of the longitudinal domain of enhanced sunspot activity known as active longitude (AL). By using our method developed for this purpose, we identified the AL in every Carrington Rotation provided by the Debrecen Photoheliographic Data (DPD). The spatial probability of flare occurrence has been estimated depending on the longitudinal distance from AL in the northern and southern hemispheres separately. We have found that more than the 60\\% of the RHESSI and GOES flares is located within $\\pm 36^{\\circ}$ from the active longitude. Hence, the most flare-productive active regions tend to be located in or close to the active longitudinal belt. This observed feature may allow predicting the geo-effective position of the domain of enhanced fla...

  14. Epidemic occurrence of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, M; Schaberg, D; Bruhn, F W; Richardson, C J; Fox, W W

    1979-06-01

    In case-control studies of three epidemics of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in three different high-risk nurseries in three states, no particular risk factor was associated with affected infants or their mothers. Epidemic cases had higher birth weights and Apgar scores and fewer perinatal difficulties than those previously reported for sporadic cases. Seven infants fed primarily breast milk were not protected against disease. Early antibiotic therapy was associated with a significantly decreased risk of disease in one outbreak. In two hospitals, affected infants who received antibiotic therapy during the first three days of life had a significantly later disease onset. The occurrence of the disease in epidemics and the decreased risk or modification of disease with antibiotic therapy support an infectious etiology for NEC. PMID:108997

  15. Occurrence rate of extreme magnetic storms

    CERN Document Server

    Yermolaev, Yu I; Nikolaeva, N S; Yermolaev, M Yu

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analysis of occurrence rate of magnetic storms induced by different types of interplanetary drivers is made on the basis of OMNI data for period 1976-2000. Using our catalog of large scale types of solar wind streams we study storms induced by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICME) (separately magnetic clouds (MC) and Ejecta) and both types of compressed regions: corotating interaction regions (CIR) and Sheaths. For these types of drivers we calculate integral probabilities of storms with minimum Dst < -50, -70, -100, -150, and -200 nT. The highest probability in this interval of Dst is observed for MC, probabilities for other drivers are 3-10 times lower than for MC. Extrapolation of obtained results to extreme storms shows that such a magnetic storm as Carrington storm in 1859 with Dst = -1760 nT is observed on the Earth with frequency 1 event during ~500 year.

  16. Preferential occurrence of 1-2 microindels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen A; Gonzalez, Kelly D; Scaringe, William A; Wang, Ji-Cheng; Sommer, Steve S

    2006-01-01

    Microindels are unique, infrequent mutations that result in inserted and deleted sequences of different sizes (between one and 50 nucleotides) at the same nucleotide position. Little is known about the mutational mechanisms that are responsible for these mutations. From our database of 6,016 independent somatic mutational events in the lacI gene in Big Blue mice, we assembled the 30 microindels (0.5%) for analysis. Microindels with one nucleotide inserted and two nucleotides deleted (1-2 microindels) accounted for seven (23%) of the microindels observed, with the remaining microindels distributed among 21 other combinations of insertion and deletion sizes. A preferential occurrence of 1-2 microindels (20%) was also observed in human germline transmitted mutations in the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD). An examination of the sequence flanking the mouse 1-2 microindels did not reveal obvious site specificity or associated secondary structure. A detailed examination of 1-2 microindels did not reveal the features typical of pure microinsertion and microdeletion events, but rather suggested a unique mutational mechanism. The 1 bp insertion in 1-2 microinsertions, and pure 1 bp insertions show distinct features. The mechanism for 1-2 microindels is not obviously a simple combination of pure microinsertion and microdeletion events. The dramatic enhancement of 1-2 microindels requires explanation. We speculate that certain error-prone polymerases may be responsible for the preferential occurrence of 1-2 microindels in both somatic tissues and germ cells. It is estimated that a human adult carries roughly 400 billion somatic 1-2 microindels with the potential to predispose to cancer. PMID:16281281

  17. Caracterização sazonal de acúmulos isolados de própolis em colônias de Plebeia emerina (Hymenoptera, Apidae no sul do Brasil Seasonal characterization of isolated propolis clusters in Plebeia emerina (Hymenoptera, Apidae colonies in the south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila G. dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Em colônias de abelhas sem ferrão a aplicação da própolis é ampla, sendo utilizada como matéria-prima nas construções e defesa contra inimigos. Há registros de armazenamento de própolis viscosa, sob forma de acúmulos isolados. Neste trabalho propõe-se a caracterização sazonal da área, do número e da distribuição espacial dos acúmulos isolados de própolis em colônias de Plebeia emerina (Friese, 1900. Colônias foram avaliadas entre outubro/2003 e setembro/2004, medindo-se mensalmente os acúmulos isolados de própolis e registrando-se a posição relativa dos mesmos nas colméias. Entre outubro e março, a área dos acúmulos de própolis nas colônias variou entre 0,50 e 4,92 cm² e o número de acúmulos foi de 3 a 16. No período de abril a setembro, a área foi de 4,54 a 18,48 cm² e o número de acúmulos de 9 a 36. Sugere-se que o aumento da própolis acumulada possa estar relacionado à preparação das colônias para o outonoinverno quando a coleta do produto é reduzida. A análise sazonal da distribuição dos depósitos isolados de própolis corrobora com os registros da área total, indicando preferência da posição anterior da colônia para acumular a própolis. Esta constatação fortalece a hipótese do uso da própolis viscosa dos depósitos isolados na defesa, principalmente junto à entrada das colônias.In colonies of stingless bees, propolis is used for many applications, such as in raw material for constructions and for their defense against enemies. There are records of viscous propolis storage, in form of isolated clusters. In this work, the seasonal characterization of area, number and spatial distribution of isolated propolis clusters in Plebeia emerina (Friese, 1900 colonies is proposed. Colonies were evaluated between October/2003 and September/2004, by measuring in a monthly basis the isolated propolis clusters and recording the relative position of these clusters within the beehives. Between

  18. Viewing Seasonality in 8 Megacities at 4 Microns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, M. A.; Kovalskyy, V.; Small, C.; Henebry, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    The middle infrared (MIR) spectral region, between 3 and 5 microns, offers a different perspective on cities. The MIR is the mixing zone of both emitted terrestrial radiation and reflected solar radiation. The relatively long wavelengths enable views of surfaces often obscured by anthropogenic haze. Green vegetation appears very dark in the MIR due to high absorption by leaf water. In contrast, building, roofing, and paving materials reflect much MIR and exposed soils and dried vegetation reflect even more. Thus, physics dictates a strong expression of seasonality in the MIR. But is there sufficient signal in the MIR to merit it as a complementary approach for characterizing urbanized areas and monitoring their dynamics? We have explored this question in a research effort that links two NASA Interdisciplinary Science projects on the effect of cities on the environment. We focused on 8 global megacities: Beijing, Cairo, Istanbul, Mexico, Moscow, Nairobi, New Delhi, and São Paulo. We used Level 1B calibrated radiance data from band 23 (~4 microns) of the Aqua MODIS during ascending passes in 2010. These 1 km data were processed to reduce cloud cover using monthly maximum value compositing into four sensor view zenith angle (VZA) classes: 0Mexico City, Nairobi, São Paulo). The monsoon imposed strong MIR seasonality in New Delhi. The strength of the seasonality was modulated by the VZA with smaller VZAs (30°). SNR was higher in the summer months and quite low in the winter months at high latitudes, as was expected due to the seasonal cycle of irradiance. The urban land cover showed higher seasonal dynamic range than most other cover types, with the forest 'natural' type showing least seasonal variation and agriculture showing more variation than forest but less than urban. Where the 'natural' type included much exposed soil or dried vegetation (savanna near Nairobi and New Delhi or desert near Cairo), the seasonal dynamic range in the MIR exceeded that of the

  19. Seasonal hemispherical SWIR airglow imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jeffrey; Dayton, David C.; Gonglewski, John D.; Myers, Michael M.; Nolasco, Rudolph

    2011-09-01

    Airglow luminescence in the SWIR region due to upper atmospheric recombination of solar excited molecules is a well accepted phenomenon. While the intensity appears broadly uniform over the whole sky hemisphere, we are interested in variations in four areas: 1) fine periodic features known as gravity waves, 2) broad patterns across the whole sky, 3) temporal variations in the hemispheric mean irradiance over the course of the night, and 4) long term seasonal variations in the mean irradiance. An experiment is described and results presented covering a full year of high resolution hemispheric SWIR irradiance images. An automated gimbal views 45 hemispheric positions, using 30 second durations, and repeats approximately every half hour through out the night. The gimbal holds co-mounted and bore-sighted visible and SWIR cameras. Measuring airglow with respect to spatial, temporal, and seasonal variations will facilitate understanding its behavior and possible benefits, such as night vision and predicting upper atmosphere turbulence. The measurements were performed in a tropical marine location on the island of Kauai Hi.

  20. Animal habitat quality and ecosystem functioning: Exploring seasonal patterns using NDVI

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegand, Thorsten; Naves, Javier; M.F. Garbulsky; Fernández, Néstor

    2008-01-01

    Many animal species have developed specific evolutionary adaptations to survive prolonged periods of low energy availability that characterize seasonal environments. The seasonal course of primary production, a major aspect of ecosystem functioning, should therefore be an important factor determining the habitat quality of such species. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the relationship between habitat quality and ecosystem functioning for brown bears (Ursus arctos), a species showing hy...

  1. Industrial Marketing in Sport: Understanding Season Ticket Renewal Across Account Types

    OpenAIRE

    Clinton J. Warren

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the first to extend industrial (or business-to-business) marketing principles to the market for traditional season tickets. In doing so, a three-dimensional characterization of the season ticket holder (STH) is developed and provides a new foundation upon which market segmentation and ticket sales initiatives can be built. This study then uses this new framework to segment and examine the key renewal factor differences across STH account types. Specifically, group differences on...

  2. An analysis of grass (Poaceae) pollen seasons in Lublin in 2001-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Dąbrowska

    2012-01-01

    Grass pollen allergens are a frequent cause of pollen allergy in Poland and other European countries. The research on aeroplankton conducted in Lublin since 2001 allows characterization of the course of grass pollen seasons and estimation of the effect of maximum and minimum temperatures, relative air humidity, precipitation and maximum wind velocity on the taxon's pollen concentration. The gravimetric method was used in the study. During the eight-year research period, the pollen season usua...

  3. Seasonality and Sleep: A Clinical Study on Euthymic Mood Disorder Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Colombo; Barbara Barbini; Mara Cigala Fulgosi; Dario Delmonte; Chiara Gavinelli; Chiara Brambilla; Enrico Smeraldi

    2012-01-01

    Background. Research on mood disorders has progressively focused on the study of seasons and on the mood in association with them during depressive or manic episodes yet few studies have focused on the seasonal fluctuation that characterizes the patient's clinical course both during an illness episode and during euthymic periods. Methods. 113 euthymic outpatients 46 affected by major recurrent depression and 67 affected by bipolar disorder were recruited. We evaluated the impact of clinical “...

  4. Solar radiation interactions with seasonal sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Jens Kristian

    Presently, the Arctic Ocean is undergoing an escalating reduction in sea ice and a transition towards a seasonal sea ice environment. This warrants detailed investigations into improving our understanding of the seasonal evolution of sea ice and snow covers, and their representation in climate models. The interaction of solar radiation with sea ice is an important process influencing the energy balance and biological activity in polar seas, and consequently plays a key role in the earth's climate system. This thesis focuses on characterization of the optical properties---and the underlying physical properties that determine them---of seasonal sea ice during the fall freeze-up and the spring melt periods. Both periods display high spatial heterogeneity and rapid temporal changes in sea ice properties, and are therefore poorly understood. Field data were collected in Amundsen Gulf/Franklin Bay (FB), southern-eastern Beaufort Sea, in Oct.-Nov. 2003 and Apr. 2004 and in Button Bay (BB), western Hudson Bay, in Mar.-May 2005 to address (1) the temporal and spatial evolution of surface albedo and transmittance, (2) how radiative transfer in sea ice is controlled by its physical nature, and (3) the characteristics of the bottom ice algae community and its effect on the optical properties. The fall study showed the importance of surface features such as dry or slushy bare ice, frost flowers and snow cover in determining the surface albedo. Ice thickness was also important, however, mostly because surface features were associated with thickness. For example, nilas (snow layer as snow grains were dissolved or merged with the salty and warm brine skim layer on the surface, while surface conditions on thicker ice types were cold and dry enough to support a snow cover. In general, the surface albedo increased exponentially with an ice thickness increase, however, variability within ice thickness types were very large. It is apparent that a more complete treatment of brine

  5. A framework for examining climate-driven changes to the seasonality and geographical range of coastal pathogens and harmful algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jacobs

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to alter coastal ecosystems in ways which may have predictable consequences for the seasonality and geographical distribution of human pathogens and harmful algae. Here we demonstrate relatively simple approaches for evaluating the risk of occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in the genus Vibrio and outbreaks of toxin-producing harmful algae in the genus Alexandrium, with estimates of uncertainty, in U.S. coastal waters under future climate change scenarios through the end of the 21st century. One approach forces empirical models of growth, abundance and the probability of occurrence of the pathogens and algae at specific locations in the Chesapeake Bay and Puget Sound with ensembles of statistically downscaled climate model projections to produce first order assessments of changes in seasonality. In all of the case studies examined, the seasonal window of occurrence for Vibrio and Alexandrium broadened, indicating longer annual periods of time when there is increased risk for outbreaks. A second approach uses climate model projections coupled with GIS to identify the potential for geographic range shifts for Vibrio spp. in the coastal waters of Alaska. These two approaches could be applied to other coastal pathogens that have climate sensitive drivers to investigate potential changes to the risk of outbreaks in both time (seasonality and space (geographical distribution under future climate change scenarios.

  6. Seasonal variation of the mesospheric inversion layer and thunderstorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Temperature and ozone volume mixing ratio profiles obtained from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) aboard the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) over India and over the open ocean to the south during the period 1991-2001 are analyzed to study the characteristic features of the Mesospheric Inversion Layer (MIL) at 70 to 85 km altitude and its relation with the ozone mixing ratio at this altitude. We have also analyzed both the number of lightning flashes measured by the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) onboard the MicroLab-1 satellite for the period April 1995 - March 2000 and ground-based thunderstorm data collected from 78 widespread Indian observatories for the same period to show that the MIL amplitude and thunderstorm activity are correlated. All the data sets examined exhibit a semiannual variation. The seasonal variation of MIL amplitude and the frequency of occurrence of the temperature inversion indicate a fairly good correlation with the seasonal variation of thunderstorms and the average ozone volume mixing ratio across the inversion layer. The observed correlation between local thunderstorm activity, MIL amplitude and mesospheric ozone volume mixing ratio are explained by the generation, upward propagation and mesospheric absorption of gravity waves produced by thunderstorms.

  7. Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Preferential Flow Occurrence in the Shale Hills Catchment: From the Hillslope to the Catchment Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Lin, H.

    2013-12-01

    jointly by complex interactions among landform units, soil types, initial soil moisture, precipitation features, and season. Through the wavelet method (coherence spectrum and phase differences), dual-pore filtering effects of soil system were proven, rendering it possible to further infer characteristic properties of the underlying hydrological processes in the subsurface. We found that preferential flow dominates the catchment discharge response at short-time periods (matrix flow may dominate the discharge response at the time scales of around 10-12 days. The temporal and spatial patterns of PF occurrence revealed in this study can help advance the modeling and prediction of complex PF dynamics in this and other similar landscapes.

  8. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from domestic animals in a rural area surrounding Atlantic dry forest fragments in Teodoro Sampaio municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil Ocorrência e caracterização molecular de Cryptosporidium spp. isolados de animais domésticos de propriedades rurais circunvizinhas a fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica Seca do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaiá da Paixão Sevá

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in domestic animals in rural properties surrounding rain forest fragments within the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, southeastern Brazil. Conventional sucrose flotation method followed by molecular characterization of the parasites by sequencing PCR products amplified from SSU rRNA gene were used. Stool samples were collected from domestic animals raised as pets and livestock in all rural properties surrounding three forest fragments. Samples from cattle (197, equine (63, pigs (25, sheep (11, and dogs (28 were collected from 98 rural properties. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium within each animal species was 3.0% (6/197 among cattle and 10.7% (3/28 among dogs. Cryptosporidium was not detected in stool samples from equine, sheep, and pigs. All sequences obtained from the six samples of calves showed molecular identity with Cryptosporidium andersoni while all sequences from dog samples were similar to C. canis. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in these domestic animal species was low. The absence of C. parvum in the present study suggests that the zoonotic cycle of cryptosporidiosis may not be relevant in the region studied. The presence of Cryptosporidium species seldom described in humans may be, otherwise, important for the wild fauna as these animals are a source of infection and dissemination of this protozoan to other animal species. The impact and magnitude of infection by C. andersoni in wild ruminants and C. canis in wild canids have to be assessed in future studies to better understand the actual importance of these species in this region.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de Cryptosporidium, em animais domésticos de propriedades rurais ao redor de fragmentos de mata Atlântica de interior no município de Teodoro Sampaio, por exame convencional de flutuação em solução de sacarose, seguido de caracterização molecular

  9. Seasonal dynamics of turbidity maximum in the Muthupet estuary, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, K. L.; Jegathambal, P.; James, E. J.

    2015-10-01

    Results are presented of the longitudinal and vertical profiling of salinity and suspended particulate matter (SPM) at the Muthupet estuary, India, during a one year period under widely varying freshwater flow conditions. Freshwater flow was available during post-monsoon and monsoon. An up-estuary shift in the location of estuarine turbidity maxima (ETM) was observed during the transition from post-monsoon to pre-monsoon and further it shifted downstream during the transition from pre-monsoon to monsoon, thereby exhibiting a pronounced seasonal cycle. The salinity intrusion was dependent on the freshwater discharge and was expressed as a power function of freshwater flow, explaining 97% of the variance. The formation of a salt plug in Muthupet estuary and its seasonal dynamics were observed, which is not an identified feature of any of the Indian estuaries studied so far. The geographical positions of salt plug and ETM core were more or less the same during their formation. The occurrence of two ETM during the LW of post-monsoon and the absence of ETM during monsoon explains the strong seasonal variation in the formation of ETM. The primary factor affecting the formation of ETM was identified as the freshwater flow over an annual cycle; the resuspension of sediments by tidal current affecting the formation on a flood/ebb cycle was secondary. The extent of shift of ETM was found to be an inverse logarithmic function of the freshwater discharge. The separation between ETM intrusion and salinity intrusion increased two fold with the increase in ETM intrusion.

  10. Unusual occurrences in fast breeder test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is a 40 MWt/13.2 MWe sodium cooled mixed carbide fuelled reactor. Its main aim is to generate experience in the design, construction and operation of fast reactors including sodium systems and to serve as an irradiation facility for the development of fuel and structural materials for future fast reactors. It achieved first criticality in Oct 85 with Mark I core (70% PuC - 30% UC). Steam generator was put in service in Jan 93 and power was raised to 10.5 MWt in Dec 93. Turbine generator was synchronised to the grid in Jul 97. The indigenously developed mixed carbide fuel has achieved a burnup of 44,000 MW-d/t max at a linear heat rating of 320 W/cm max without any fuel clad failure. The commissioning and operation of sodium systems and components have been smooth and performance of major components, viz., sodium pumps, intermediate heat exchangers and once through sodium heated steam generators (SG) have been excellent. There have been three minor incidents of Na/NaK leaks during the past 14 years, which are described in the paper. There have been no incident of a tube leak in SG. However, three incidents of water leaks from water / steam headers have been detailed. The plant has encountered some unusual occurrences, which were critically analysed and remedial measures, in terms of system and procedural modifications, incorporated to prevent recurrence. This paper describes unusual occurrences of fuel handling incident of May 1987, main boiler feed pump seizure in Apr 1992, reactivity transients in Nov 1994 and Apr 1995, and malfunctioning of the core cover plate mechanism in Jul 1995. These incidents have resulted in long plant shutdowns. During the course of investigation, various theoretical and experimental studies were carried out for better understanding of the phenomena and several inspection techniques and tools were developed resulting in enriching the technology of sodium cooled reactors. FBTR has 36 neutronic and process

  11. The suprachiasmatic nuclei as a seasonal clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomans, Claudia P; Ramkisoensing, Ashna; Meijer, Johanna H

    2015-04-01

    In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) contains a central clock that synchronizes daily (i.e., 24-h) rhythms in physiology and behavior. SCN neurons are cell-autonomous oscillators that act synchronously to produce a coherent circadian rhythm. In addition, the SCN helps regulate seasonal rhythmicity. Photic information is perceived by the SCN and transmitted to the pineal gland, where it regulates melatonin production. Within the SCN, adaptations to changing photoperiod are reflected in changes in neurotransmitters and clock gene expression, resulting in waveform changes in rhythmic electrical activity, a major output of the SCN. Efferent pathways regulate the seasonal timing of breeding and hibernation. In humans, seasonal physiology and behavioral rhythms are also present, and the human SCN has seasonally rhythmic neurotransmitter levels and morphology. In summary, the SCN perceives and encodes changes in day length and drives seasonal changes in downstream pathways and structures in order to adapt to the changing seasons. PMID:25451984

  12. Seasonality of congenital anomalies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luteijn, Johannes Michiel; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude;

    2014-01-01

    with influenza. RESULTS: We detected statistically significant seasonality in prevalence of anomalies previously associated with influenza, but the conception peak was in June (2.4% excess). We also detected seasonality in congenital cataract (April conceptions, 27%), hip dislocation and/or dysplasia (April, 12......%), congenital hydronephrosis (July, 12%), urinary defects (July, 5%), and situs inversus (December, 36%), but not for nonchromosomal anomalies combined, chromosomal anomalies combined, or other anomalies analyzed. CONCLUSION: We have confirmed previously described seasonality for congenital cataract and hip...... dislocation and/or dysplasia, and found seasonality for congenital hydronephrosis and situs inversus which have not previously been studied. We did not find evidence of seasonality for several anomalies which had previously been found to be seasonal. Influenza does not appear to be an important factor...

  13. In Brief: NOAA predicts busy hurricane season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    Scientists at NOAA's Climate Prediction Center estimate that there is a 75% chance that the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season will be more active than average, with 13-17 named storms, 7-10 hurricanes, and 3-5 hurricanes reaching Category 3 or higher. An average hurricane season has 11 named storms, 6 hurricanes, and 2 major hurricanes. According to Gerry Bell, NOAA's lead seasonal hurricane forecaster, the 2007 season could be in the higher range of predicted activity if a La Niña forms, or even higher if the La Niña is particularly strong. Last year, NOAA also predicted an above-normal Atlantic season; the actual season, however, was quiet, to which NOAA scientists credit an unexpected El Ni~o that developed rapidly and created an environment hostile to storm formation and strengthening.

  14. Review and analysis of Unusual Occurrence Reports, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an index and analysis of final Unusual Occurrence Reports (UORs) received by the Nuclear Standards Office (NSO) during 1978. UORs covered by this report are those submitted by DOE-NPD and RRT contractors and laboratories in accordance with RDT standard F 1-3T, Preparation of Unusual Occurrence Reports. The bulk of the report consists of a list of occurrences by contractor and facility, a list of occurrences by accession number (AN) assigned by the NSO, and a key-word-in-context (KWIC) index of the occurrences. Tables are presented that show the frequency of broad categories of occurrences during the period; the types of equipment or systems involved in those incidents; and the factors responsible for them

  15. Lexical Co-occurrence, Statistical Significance, and Word Association

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhari, Dipak; Laxman, Srivatsan

    2010-01-01

    Lexical co-occurrence is an important cue for detecting word associations. We present a theoretical framework for discovering statistically significant lexical co-occurrences from a given corpus. In contrast with the prevalent practice of giving weightage to unigram frequencies, we focus only on the documents containing both the terms (of a candidate bigram). We detect biases in span distributions of associated words, while being agnostic to variations in global unigram frequencies. Our framework has the fidelity to distinguish different classes of lexical co-occurrences, based on strengths of the document and corpuslevel cues of co-occurrence in the data. We perform extensive experiments on benchmark data sets to study the performance of various co-occurrence measures that are currently known in literature. We find that a relatively obscure measure called Ochiai, and a newly introduced measure CSA capture the notion of lexical co-occurrence best, followed next by LLR, Dice, and TTest, while another popular m...

  16. Identifying and Mapping Seasonal Surface Water Frost with MGS TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapst, J.; Bandfield, J. L.; Wood, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared bolometers measured surface broadband albedo and temperature for more than three Mars years. As seasons progress on Mars, surface temperatures may fall below the frost point of volatiles in the atmosphere (namely, carbon dioxide and water). Systematic mapping of the spatial and temporal occurrence of these volatiles in the martian atmosphere, on the surface, and in the subsurface has shown their importance in understanding the climate of Mars. However, few studies have investigated seasonal surface water frost and its role in the global water cycle. We examine zonally-averaged TES daytime albedo, temperature, and water vapor abundance data [after Smith, 2004] to map the presence of surface water frost on Mars. Surface water frost occurs in the polar and mid latitudes, in regions with surface temperatures less than 220 K and above 150 K, and can significantly increase albedo relative to the bare surface. In the northern hemisphere water frost is most apparent in late fall/early winter, before the onset of carbon dioxide frost. Dust storms occurring near northern winter solstice affect albedo data and prevent us from putting a latitudinal lower limit on the water frost in the northern hemisphere. Regardless, seasonal water frost occurs at least as low as 48°N in Utopia Planitia, beginning at Ls=~230°, as observed by Viking Lander 2 [Svitek and Murray, 1990]. Daytime surface water frost was also observed at the Phoenix Lander site (68°N) beginning at Ls=~160° [Cull et al., 2010]. The timing of albedo variations observed by TES agree relatively well with lander observations of seasonal frost. Seasonal water frost is not detected during fall in the southern hemisphere. A potential explanation for this discrepancy, compared with frost detections in the north, is the disparity in atmospheric water vapor abundance between the two hemispheres. The frost point temperatures for water vapor

  17. Seasonal influenza: Waiting for the next pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Clem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ongoing cases of H1N1 influenza (aka Swine Flu occurring around the globe, seasonal influenza has a tendency to be overlooked by the media and general population as a source of illness and death. Yet, these pandemic influenza viruses arise from these seasonal influenza viruses. This article will provide an overview of seasonal influenza, its prevention and treatment, and the global surveillance system in place, used to detect the next influenza pandemic.

  18. Seasonal Influenza: Waiting for the Next Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Clem; Sagar Galwankar

    2009-01-01

    With the ongoing cases of H1N1 influenza (aka Swine Flu) occurring around the globe, seasonal influenza has a tendency to be overlooked by the media and general population as a source of illness and death. Yet, these pandemic influenza viruses arise from these seasonal influenza viruses. This article will provide an overview of seasonal influenza, its prevention and treatment, and the global surveillance system in place, used to detect the next influenza pandemic.

  19. Pineal Calcification and Seasonality in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Kaempfe, Nina

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: During winter, 25% of the general population experiences an increased need to sleep as well as an increased craving for foods rich in carbohydrates. This so-called seasonality in humans is analogous to winter hibernation in animals and, when pathogenic, is termed Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). Seasonal changes of day/night cycles affect the secretion of melatonin which, in turn, triggers breeding and hibernation in animals. It is believed that SAD could be linked to such sea...

  20. Outbreaks of Hantavirus induced by seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buceta, J.; Escudero, C.; de La Rubia, F. J.; Lindenberg, Katja

    2004-02-01

    Using a model for rodent population dynamics, we study outbreaks of Hantavirus infection induced by the alternation of seasons. Neither season by itself satisfies the environmental requirements for propagation of the disease. This result can be explained in terms of the seasonal interruption of the relaxation process of the mouse population toward equilibrium, and may shed light on the reported connection between climate variations and outbreaks of the disease.

  1. Seasonality and equilibrium business cycle theories

    OpenAIRE

    R. Anton Braun; Evans, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    Barksy-Miron [1989] find that the postwar U.S. economy exhibits a regular seasonal cycle, as well as the business cycle phenomenon. Are these findings consistent with current equilibrium business cycle theories as surveyed by Prescott [1986]? We consider a dynamic, stochastic equilibrium business cycle model which includes deterministic seasonals and nontime-separable preferences. We show how to compute a perfect foresight seasonal equilibrium path for this economy. An approximation to the st...

  2. Factors Affecting the Occurrence and Distribution of Pesticides in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Henry M.

    2007-01-01

    The Yakima River Basin is a major center of agricultural production. With a cultivated area of about 450,000 ha (hectares), the region is an important producer of tree fruit, grapes, hops, and dairy products as well as a variety of smaller production crops. To control pest insects, weeds, and fungal infections, about 146 pesticide active ingredients were applied in various formulations during the 2000 growing season. Forty-six streams or drains in the Yakima River Basin were sampled for pesticides in July and October of 2000. Water samples also were collected from 11 irrigation canals in July. The samples were analyzed for 75 of the pesticide active ingredients applied during the 2000 growing season - 63 percent of the pesticides were detected. An additional 14 pesticide degradates were detected, including widespread occurrence of 2 degradates of DDT. The most frequently detected herbicide was 2,4-D, which was used on a variety of crops and along rights-of-way. It was detected in 82 percent of the samples collected in July. The most frequently detected insecticide was azinphos-methyl, which was used primarily on tree fruit. It was detected in 37 percent of the samples collected in July. All occurrences of azinphos-methyl exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency recommended chronic concentration for the protection of aquatic organisms. More than 90 percent of the July samples and 79 percent of the October samples contained two or more pesticides, with a median of nine in July and five in October. The most frequently occurring herbicides in mixtures were atrazine, 2,4-D, and the degradate deethylatrazine. The most frequently occurring insecticides in mixtures were azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, and p,p'-DDE (a degradate of DDT). A greater number of pesticides and higher concentrations were found in July than in October, reflecting greater usage and water availability for transport during the summer growing and irrigation season. Most of the samples collected in

  3. Inter-ocean asynchrony in whale shark occurrence patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Sequieira, A.M.M.; Mellin, C.; Floch, Laurent; Williams, P G; Bradshaw, C. J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The whale shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith, 1828) is a migratory species (classed as Vulnerable by the IUCN) with genetic and circumstantial evidence for inter-ocean connectivity. Given this migratory behaviour, populationwide occurrence trends can only be contextualized by examining the synchrony in occurrence patterns among locations where they occur. We present a two-step modelling approach of whale shark spatial and temporal probability of occurrence in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocea...

  4. PAST WINDSTORM OCCURRENCE TREND, DAMAGE, AND LOSSES IN PENANG, MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    MAJID, T. A.; S. A. S. Zakaria; WAN CHIK, F. A.; DERAMAN, S. N. C.; MUHAMMAD, M. K. A.

    2016-01-01

    Windstorm occurrence in several parts of Malaysia, particularly in the northern region, has severely affected humans, causing damage to property as well as fatality. This study aims to investigate the past windstorm occurrence trend, including damage and losses, in Penang districts from 2010 to 2013. Data on windstorm occurrence and on damages and losses from districts were collected from the Land and District office and Social Welfare Department of Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia. The monthly win...

  5. Occurrence, detection and detoxification of mycotoxins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Visenuo Aiko; Alka Mehta

    2015-12-01

    Mycotoxins have been identified as important toxins affecting animal species and humans ever since the discovery of aHatoxin Bl in 1960. Mycotoxigenic fungi are ubiquitous in nature and are held responsible for economic loss as they decrease crop yield and quality of food. The presence of fungi and their mycotoxins are reported not only in food grains but also in medicinal herbs and processed foods. Since prevention is not always possible, detoxification of mycotoxins have been attempted using several means; however, only few have been accepted for practical use, e.g. ammonia in the com industry. Organizations such as the World Health Organization, US Food and Drug Adminis-tration and European Union have set regulations and safety limits of important mycotoxins, viz. aHatoxins, fusarium toxins, ochratoxin, patulin zearalenone, etc., to ensure the safety of the consumers. This review article is a brief and up-to-date account of the occurrence, detection and detoxification of mycotoxins for those interested in and considering research in this area.

  6. Aichi Virus 1: Environmental Occurrence and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Kitajima

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1, belonging to the genus Kobuvirus in the family Picornaviridae, has been proposed as a causative agent of human gastroenteritis potentially transmitted by fecal-oral routes through contaminated food or water. AiV-1 is globally distributed and has been detected in various types of environmental samples, such as sewage, river water, groundwater, and shellfish. Recent environmental studies revealed that this virus could be detected in higher frequency and greater abundance than other human enteric viruses. These findings suggest that AiV-1 could potentially be an appropriate indicator of viral contamination in the environment because of its high prevalence in water environments as well as structural and genetic similarity with some of the other important enteric viruses. Further studies on the occurrence and fate of AiV-1 in environments, even in combination with clinical studies of many regions, are needed for a better understanding of their epidemiology, temporal and geographical distribution, environmental stability, and potential health risks to humans.

  7. Foreshock occurrence rates before large earthquakes worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Global rates of foreshock occurrence involving shallow M ??? 6 and M ??? 7 mainshocks and M ??? 5 foreshocks were measured, using earthquakes listed in the Harvard CMT catalog for the period 1978-1996. These rates are similar to rates ones measured in previous worldwide and regional studies when they are normalized for the ranges of magnitude difference they each span. The observed worldwide rates were compared to a generic model of earthquake clustering, which is based on patterns of small and moderate aftershocks in California, and were found to exceed the California model by a factor of approximately 2. Significant differences in foreshock rate were found among subsets of earthquakes defined by their focal mechanism and tectonic region, with the rate before thrust events higher and the rate before strike-slip events lower than the worldwide average. Among the thrust events a large majority, composed of events located in shallow subduction zones, registered a high foreshock rate, while a minority, located in continental thrust belts, measured a low rate. These differences may explain why previous surveys have revealed low foreshock rates among thrust events in California (especially southern California), while the worldwide observations suggest the opposite: California, lacking an active subduction zone in most of its territory, and including a region of mountain-building thrusts in the south, reflects the low rate apparently typical for continental thrusts, while the worldwide observations, dominated by shallow subduction zone events, are foreshock-rich.

  8. Occurrence of viruses infecting pea in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiari, N; Kohi-Habibi, M; Mosahebi, Gh

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the incidence of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Broad bean wilt virus-1 (BBWV), Pea leafroll virus (PLRV), Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV), Pea seed borne mosaic virus (PSbMV), Potato virus x(PVX), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) on pea (Pisum sativum) in Iran. A Total of 1276 random and 684 symptomatic pea samples were collected during the spring and summer of 2002-2004 in Tehran province of Iran, where pea is grown, and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using specific polyclonal antibodies. Serological diagnoses were confirmed by electron microscopy and host range studies. Incidence of viruses in decreasing order was PVX (69%), ToMV (59%), PSbMV (36.6%), BBWV-1 (26.1%), BYMV (20.3%), AMV (17.77%), TSWV (12.6%), PEMV (10.9%), PLRV (6.78%). In this survey, natural occurrence of AMV, BBWV-1, PSbMV, TSWV, PVX and ToMV was reported for the first time on the pea in Iran. PMID:17390891

  9. General Properties, Occurrence, and Preparation of Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyt, John F.

    D-Glucose and its derivatives and analogues, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-muramic acid, D-glucopyranosyl uronic acid, and D-glucitol represent 99.9% of the carbohydrates on the earth. D-Glucose is found in the free state in human blood and in the combined state in disaccharides, sucrose, lactose, and α,α-trehalose, in cyclic dextrins, and in polysaccharides, starch, glycogen, cellulose, dextrans; N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and an analogue N-acetyl-D-muramic acid are found in bacterial cell wall polysaccharide, murein, along with teichoic acids made up of poly-glycerol or -ribitol phosphodiesters. Other carbohydrates, D-mannose, D-mannuronic acid, D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-galacturonic acid, D-iduronic acid, L-guluronic acid, L-rhamnose, L-fucose, D-xylose, and N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid are found in glycoproteins, hemicelluloses, glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides of plant exudates, bacterial capsules, alginates, and heparin. D-Ribofuranose-5-phosphate is found in many coenzymes and is the backbone of RNAs (ribonucleic acid), and 2-deoxy-D-ribofuranose-5-phosphate is the backbone of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). D-Fructofuranose is found in sucrose, inulin, and levan. The general properties and occurrence of these carbohydrates and general methods of isolation and preparation of carbohydrates are presented.

  10. Seasonal Changes in Central England Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Hillebrand, Eric

    deterministic and stochastic trends, as well as seasonally varying autocorrelation and residual variances. The model can be summarized as containing a permanent and a transitory component, where global warming is captured in the permanent component, on which the seasons load differentially. The phase of the......The aim of this paper is to assess how climate change is reflected in the variation of the seasonal patterns of the monthly Central England Temperature time series between 1772 and 2013. In particular, we model changes in the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle. Starting from the seminal work...

  11. Report to Congress on abnormal occurrences, April--June 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 identifies an abnormal occurrence as an unscheduled incident or event which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission determines to be significant from the standpoint of public health or safety and requires a quarterly report of such events to be made to Congress. For this reporting period, there was one abnormal occurrence at nuclear power plants licensed to operate involving significant deficiencies in management controls at Slurry Nuclear Power Station. There was one abnormal occurrence under other NRC-issued licenses; the event involved a medical therapy misadministration. One other abnormal occurrence, involving industrial radiography overexposures, was reported by an Agreement State (Texas). 40 refs

  12. Reproductive seasonality in the mare: neuroendocrine basis and pharmacologic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G L; Thorson, J F; Prezotto, L D; Velez, I C; Cardoso, R C; Amstalden, M

    2012-08-01

    Reproductive seasonality in the mare is characterized by a marked decline in adenohypophyseal synthesis and secretion of LH beginning near the autumnal equinox. Thus, ovarian cycles have ceased in most mares by the time of the winter solstice. Endogenous reproductive rhythms in seasonal species are entrained or synchronized as a result of periodic environmental cues. In the horse, this cue is primarily day length. Hence, supplemental lighting schemes have been used managerially for decades to modify the annual timing of reproduction in the mare. Although a full characterization of the cellular and molecular bases of seasonal rhythms has not been realized in any species, many of their synaptic and humoral signaling pathways have been defined. In the mare, neuroendocrine-related studies have focused primarily on the roles of GnRH and interneuronal signaling pathways that subserve the GnRH system in the regulatory cascade. Recent studies have considered the role of a newly discovered neuropeptide, RF-related peptide 3 that could function to inhibit GnRH secretion or gonadotrope responsiveness. Although results that used native peptide sequences have been negative in the mare and mixed in all mammalian females, new studies that used an RFRP3 antagonist (RF9) in sheep are encouraging. Importantly, despite continuing deficits in some fundamental areas, the knowledge required to control seasonal anovulation pharmacologically has been available for >20 yr. Specifically, the continuous infusion of native GnRH is both reliable and efficient for accelerating reproductive transition and is uniquely applicable to the horse. However, its practical exploitation continues to await the development of a commercially acceptable delivery vehicle. PMID:22579068

  13. Impact of soil moisture changes on growing season length at a teak plantation in Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshifuji, N.; Kumagai, T.; Tantasirin, C.; Suzuki, M.

    2008-12-01

    Growing season length is an important factor affecting energy, water, and carbon exchange at deciduous forests. However, our understandings about the extent of inter-annual variation in growing season length and its cause of deciduous forests in tropical region are still not enough, though the impact of modification of growing season length is likely to be critical especially in tropical region because of high radiant energy throughout the year. In order to clarify the extent of inter-annual variation in growing season length and its major cause of a teak plantation in Northern Thailand, we monitored radiative transmittance through the canopy and heat-pulse velocities of canopy trees for 7-year period. We found large inter-annual variations in the timings of leaf-out, leaf-fall, and the start and stop of transpiration. As a result, we revealed that the year-to-year variation in the length of canopy duration and transpiration period spanned about 60 days. It was also found that these large year-to-year variations can be explained by the differences in the timings of soil moisture changes caused by the differences in the timings of rainfall occurrence. These results imply a profound potential impact of modification of rainfall regime on canopy-atmosphere water and carbon exchange on annual time scale through the modification of growing season length.

  14. Seasonal variation in thoracic vessel calcifications: Evidence from a chest computed tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality exhibit a winter peak and a summer trough, a fact that could have radiological manifestations. Purpose: To identify possible seasonal trends in the occurrence of thoracic vessel calcifications. Material and Methods: 505 male construction workers (aged 39-80 years) were each imaged once with chest spiral computed tomography (CT) during a 2-year period. Based on visual assessment of calcified plaques (0=no, 1=slight, 2=moderate, 3=extensive calcification), sum scores of atherosclerosis in coronary arteries, in the thoracic aorta, in the pre-cervical artery bases, and overall were constructed. The scores were regressed on the annual rank number of the CT day. Results: By using the cubic regression model, seasonal variation in calcified plaques in coronary arteries (P=0.003), in pre-cervical artery origins (P=0.015), and in the overall sum score (P=0.004) was observed. The peak occurred in January-February and the nadir in August. Depending on the model, about 2-3% of the variation in atherosclerotic calcifications could be explained by the season of imaging. Conclusion: The observed seasonal trend in calcifications parallels with mortality reports. Seasonal variations should be considered in atherosclerosis treatment studies. Confirmatory studies using modern imaging technology are needed in different countries and geographical locations, preferably with repeat imaging of the same individuals

  15. Estimating the empirical probability of submarine landslide occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical probability for the occurrence of submarine landslides at a given location can be estimated from age dates of past landslides. In this study, tools developed to estimate earthquake probability from paleoseismic horizons are adapted to estimate submarine landslide probability. In both types of estimates, one has to account for the uncertainty associated with age-dating individual events as well as the open time intervals before and after the observed sequence of landslides. For observed sequences of submarine landslides, we typically only have the age date of the youngest event and possibly of a seismic horizon that lies below the oldest event in a landslide sequence. We use an empirical Bayes analysis based on the Poisson-Gamma conjugate prior model specifically applied to the landslide probability problem. This model assumes that landslide events as imaged in geophysical data are independent and occur in time according to a Poisson distribution characterized by a rate parameter λ. With this method, we are able to estimate the most likely value of λ and, importantly, the range of uncertainty in this estimate. Examples considered include landslide sequences observed in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, and in Port Valdez, Alaska. We confirm that given the uncertainties of age dating that landslide complexes can be treated as single events by performing statistical test of age dates representing the main failure episode of the Holocene Storegga landslide complex.

  16. Occurrence of blanketing Es layer (Esb) over the equatorial region during the peculiar minimum of solar cycle 24

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, V; B. Kakad; C. K. Nayak; G. Surve; Emperumel, K.

    2014-01-01

    A thin and highly dense sporadic E layer, which can occasionally block the upper ionospheric layers, is called blanketing sporadic E (Esb). We present the statistical seasonal local time occurrence pattern of Esb at equatorial station Tirunelveli (8.7° N, 77.8° E, dip latitude 0.7° N) during the extended minimum of solar cycle 24 (2007–2009). In spite of nearly the same average solar activity during both 2007 and 2009, considerable differences are noticed in the seasonal...

  17. Occurrence, Structure and Mineral Phases of Nanoparticles in an Anthrosol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Sheng-Gao; SUN Fang-Fang; ZONG Yu-Tong

    2013-01-01

    Soils contain various kinds of crystalline to amorphous solid particles with at least one dimension in the nanoscale (< 100 nm).These nanoparticles contribute greatly to dynamic soil processes such as soil genesis,trace element cycling,contaminant transport,and chemical reaction.The nano-sized fraction of an Anthrosol was obtained to determine the occurrence,chemical composition,structure,and mineral phases of nanoparticles using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.Selected area electron diffraction or the fast Fourier transform of high-resolution images was used in structural characterization of the nanoparticles with HRTEM.Two nanoscale mineral types,i.e.,mineral nanoparticles and nanominerals,were observed in the Anthrosol.Mineral nanoparticles in soil included well crystalline aluminumsilicate nanosheets,nanorods,and nanoparticles.Nanosheets with a length of 120-150 nm and a width of about 10-20 nm were identified as chlorite/vermiculite series.The presence of clear lattice fringe spacing in HRTEM image of nanoparticles indicated that mineral nanoparticles had a relatively good crystallinity.The nanomineral ferrihydrite also existed in the Anthrosol.The HRTEM images and the particle size distribution histogram suggested that these ferrihydrite nanoparticles were quite homogeneous,and had a narrow size distribution range (1-7 nm) with a mean diameter of 3.6 ± 1.6 nm.Our HRTEM observation indicated that mineral nanoparticles and nanominerals were common and widely distributed in Anthrosols.HRTEM and selected area diffraction or lattice fringe spacing characterization provided further proofs to the structure of nanoparticles formed in soil.

  18. [Relationships between summer drought and strong typhoon events and pine wilt disease occurrence in East Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei

    2012-06-01

    The occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease cause huge losses to Japan, China, and South Korea in East Asia, and have received concerns from many countries. By the methods of field observation and meteorological data analysis, this paper studied the characteristics of the occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease and their relations to the meteorological disaster events. In Japan, China and South Korea, the meteorological extreme events of persistent summer drought and strong typhoon could trigger the occurrence of pine wilt. In extremely dry and hot environment, pine trees often appeared energy metabolism imbalance and entire tree wilt. However, in the years with lower temperature and more rainfall, less or nearly no pine wilt event occurred. It was suggested that before the attack by pine wood nematode and its vectors, the vigor of the pines had already declined, and thus, pine wilt disease could be confined in the areas often hit by summer drought and strong typhoon events. In the areas with suitable natural environment characterized by less summer drought and strong typhoon events and no improperly enlarged pine planting, there would be little possibility of widespread occurrence of pine wilt disease. PMID:22937641

  19. A bootstrap based space-time surveillance model with an application to crime occurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngho; O'Kelly, Morton

    2008-06-01

    This study proposes a bootstrap-based space-time surveillance model. Designed to find emerging hotspots in near-real time, the bootstrap based model is characterized by its use of past occurrence information and bootstrap permutations. Many existing space-time surveillance methods, using population at risk data to generate expected values, have resulting hotspots bounded by administrative area units and are of limited use for near-real time applications because of the population data needed. However, this study generates expected values for local hotspots from past occurrences rather than population at risk. Also, bootstrap permutations of previous occurrences are used for significant tests. Consequently, the bootstrap-based model, without the requirement of population at risk data, (1) is free from administrative area restriction, (2) enables more frequent surveillance for continuously updated registry database, and (3) is readily applicable to criminology and epidemiology surveillance. The bootstrap-based model performs better for space-time surveillance than the space-time scan statistic. This is shown by means of simulations and an application to residential crime occurrences in Columbus, OH, year 2000.

  20. Monthly and Seasonal Cloud Cover Patterns at the Manila Observatory (14.64°N, 121.08°E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioquia, C. T.; Lagrosas, N.; Caballa, K.

    2014-12-01

    A ground based sky imaging system was developed at the Manila Observatory in 2012 to measure cloud occurrence and to analyse seasonal variation of cloud cover over Metro Manila. Ground-based cloud occurrence measurements provide more reliable results compared to satellite observations. Also, cloud occurrence data aid in the analysis of radiation budget in the atmosphere. In this study, a GoPro Hero 2 with almost 180o field of view is employed to take pictures of the atmosphere. These pictures are taken continuously, having a temporal resolution of 1min. Atmospheric images from April 2012 to June 2013 (excluding the months of September, October, and November 2012) were processed to determine cloud cover. Cloud cover in an image is measured as the ratio of the number of pixels with clouds present in them to the total number of pixels. The cloud cover values were then averaged over each month to know its monthly and seasonal variation. In Metro Manila, the dry season occurs in the months of November to May of the next year, while the wet season occurs in the months of June to October of the same year. Fig 1 shows the measured monthly variation of cloud cover. No data was collected during the months of September (wherein the camera was used for the 7SEAS field campaign), October, and November 2012 (due to maintenance and repairs). Results show that there is high cloud cover during the wet season months (80% on average) while there is low cloud cover during the dry season months (62% on average). The lowest average cloud cover for a wet season month occurred in June 2012 (73%) while the highest average cloud cover for a wet season month occurred in June 2013 (86%). The variations in cloud cover average in this season is relatively smaller compared to that of the dry season wherein the lowest average cloud cover in a month was during April 2012 (38%) while the highest average cloud cover in a month was during January 2013 (77%); minimum and maximum averages being 39

  1. Uranium occurrences in the Granite Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the work and results of the South Greenland Exploration Programme (Sydex) during the 1984 field season in the Granite Zone, and discusses the results and conclusions that can be drawn from them. It also contains a structural analysis of the Ivigtut-Julianehaab region, which will help in future exploration by indicating the likely directions of uraniferous faults and fractures. It also includes suggestions for future work with both exploration and scientific aspects. The project was carried out by the Geological Survey Greenland (GGU) in co-operation with Risoe National Laboratory. It was financed by the Danish Ministry of Energy. The structural analysis was carried out using previous geological maps, our own field observations and an analysis of lineament frequencies taken from aerial photographs and satellite images. Major lineaments in the region are due to E-W sinistral wrench faults and NE-SW normal faults. Analysis of the minor lineaments showed that the region could be divided into three blocks which have each reacted differently to the same regional stress field which was active throughout the Gardar period. A northern block which has been influenced by an older system of faults in the Archaean gneiss, a central block dominated by a graben, and a southern block where there is a change to a less intensively faulted area. 2 maps, 27 refs. (EG)

  2. Seasonal variations in urinary risk factors among patients with nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    and increased physical activity. Seasonal variations in phosphorus excretion are probably dietary in origin. The summertime was characterized by an increased propensity for the crystallization of uric acid but not of calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate.

  3. Occurrence and seasonal variation in distribution of fecal indicator bacteria in Tapi estuary along the West coast of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Borade, S.; Dhawde, R.; Maloo, A.; Gajbhiye, S.N.; Dastager, S.G.

    and outer areas of Tapi estuarine and their presence in water columns is of serious concern. It indicated the increase in the human induced activities in the near coastal zone and riverine discharges sources. The common practice is that settlements... of Southern Portugal. Water. Air. Soil Poll. 138 (2002) 319-334. 3 Aikten M N, Impact of agricultural practices and river catchment characteristics on river and bathing water quality. Wat. Sci. Technol. 48 (2003) 217-224. 4 Rodrigues V, Ramaiah N, Karti...

  4. Seasonal occurrence and response of maize inbred lines to pink stem borer in the northwest of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Cartea González, María Elena; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Ordás Pérez, Amando; Alvarez, A.

    1994-01-01

    The most important pest of maize (Zea mays L) in North America and Europe is the European com borer (Os¬trinia nubilalis Hbn). However, in southern Europe another com borer species, the pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagri¬oides Lef.), also causes significant damage to maize. The dam¬age caused by the pink stem borer in the northwest of Spain was not important a few years ago, but today this damage has increased considerably. Few studies about this pest have been made thus far. The first objectiv...

  5. Out-of-season recollection of drug use for seasonal IgE-mediated rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, Uffe; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2005-01-01

    The history of seasonal, IgE-mediated (allergic) rhinitis is often obtained postseasonally as a retrospective assessment. It is not known whether recollected drug use is representative for the in-seasonal medication history....

  6. Characterization and occurence of eairly softening disorder in 'golden' papaya fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Pedro Jacomino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of green skin and soft pulp in 'Golden' papaya fruit during certain seasons has been reported by farmers in the northern of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The objective of this study was to characterize and determine the occurrence of this disorder, which was referred as "early softening disorder". Fruits were harvested weekly for 11 months (from September to July. The fruits were stored at 10°C, and then fruit flesh firmness and skin color were analyzed. The results of the firmness test were submitted to regression analysis assuming a linear trendline. The slope of the curve was called the 'softening index' (SI. Fruits with early softening are characterized by a loss of firmness in less than 10 days, even when stored under refrigeration. Although softened, the skin of the fruit remains partially green. Fruits with the disorder occurred more frequently from mid-summer to mid-autumn (February to May. It is not possible to distinguish early softening disorder fruits from those without the disorder by skin color and flesh firmness analysis at the time of the harvest.

  7. A simple method for defining malaria seasonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Lucy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently no standard way of defining malaria seasonality, resulting in a wide range of definitions reported in the literature. Malaria cases show seasonal peaks in most endemic settings, and the choice and timing for optimal malaria control may vary by seasonality. A simple approach is presented to describe the seasonality of malaria, to aid localized policymaking and targeting of interventions. Methods A series of systematic literature reviews were undertaken to identify studies reporting on monthly data for full calendar years on clinical malaria, hospital admission with malaria and entomological inoculation rates (EIR. Sites were defined as having 'marked seasonality' if 75% or more of all episodes occurred in six or less months of the year. A 'concentrated period of malaria' was defined as the six consecutive months with the highest cumulative proportion of cases. A sensitivity analysis was performed based on a variety of cut-offs. Results Monthly data for full calendar years on clinical malaria, all hospital admissions with malaria, and entomological inoculation rates were available for 13, 18, and 11 sites respectively. Most sites showed year-round transmission with seasonal peaks for both clinical malaria and hospital admissions with malaria, with a few sites fitting the definition of 'marked seasonality'. For these sites, consistent results were observed when more than one outcome or more than one calendar year was available from the same site. The use of monthly EIR data was found to be of limited value when looking at seasonal variations of malaria transmission, particularly at low and medium intensity levels. Conclusion The proposed definition discriminated well between studies with 'marked seasonality' and those with less seasonality. However, a poor fit was observed in sites with two seasonal peaks. Further work is needed to explore the applicability of this definition on a wide-scale, using routine

  8. PLS Road surface temperature forecast for susceptibility of ice occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Mario; Khalifa, Abderrhamen; Bues, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Winter maintenance relies on many operational tools consisting in monitoring atmospheric and pavement physical parameters. Among them, road weather information systems (RWIS) and thermal mapping are mostly used by service in charge of managing infrastructure networks. The Data from RWIS and thermal mapping are considered as inputs for forecasting physical numerical models, commonly in place since the 80s. These numerical models do need an accurate description of the infrastructure, such as pavement layers and sub-layers, along with many meteorological parameters, such as air temperature and global and infrared radiation. The description is sometimes partially known, and meteorological data is only monitored on specific spot. On the other hand, thermal mapping is now an easy, reliable and cost effective way to monitor road surface temperature (RST), and many meteorological parameters all along routes of infrastructure networks, including with a whole fleet of vehicles in the specific cases of roads, or airports. The technique uses infrared thermometry to measure RST and an atmospheric probes for air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and global radiation, both at a high resolution interval, to identify sections of the road network prone to ice occurrence. However, measurements are time-consuming, and the data from thermal mapping is one input among others to establish the forecast. The idea was to build a reliable forecast on the sole data from thermal mapping. Previous work has established the interest to use principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of a reduced number of thermal fingerprints. The work presented here is a focus on the use of partial least-square regression (PLS) to build a RST forecast with air temperature measurements. Roads with various environments, weather conditions (clear, cloudy mainly) and seasons were monitored over several months to generate an appropriate number of samples. The study was conducted to determine the minimum

  9. Season of birth of breast cancer patients and its relation to patients' reproductive history in Tokyo, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakao,Hiroko

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal distribution of the birth dates of 405 pre-menopausal and 285 post-menopausal breast cancer patients was investigated in order to determine whether or not the season of their birth was related to various reproductive risk factors of breast cancer, including nulliparity, late age at first birth, early age at menarche, late age at menopause, and a history of benign breast diseases. The seasonal distributions of births were compared between groups of patients categorized according to whether they possessed each risk factor or not, separately for pre- and post-menopausal patients. Patients with the same menopausal status generally had the same seasonal distribution of births, irrespective of whether or not they possessed a risk factor. Moreover, low-risk patients exhibited more deviation in the seasonal distribution of birth from general births than the high-risk patients. These results suggest that the distinctive seasonal distribution of birth observed in breast cancer patients is basically a phenomenon independent from the effect of the reproductive history on the occurrence of breast cancer, and that specific seasonal factors are involved at the fetal or neonatal stage in the etiology of breast cancer.

  10. Indoors illumination and seasonal changes in mood and behavior are associated with the health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aromaa Arpo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Seasonal changes in mood and behavior are common in a general population, being of relevance to public health. We wanted to analyze whether the HRQoL is associated with the seasonal changes in mood and behavior. Because the shortage of exposure to daylight or artificial bright light has been linked to the occurrence of the seasonal changes, we wanted to know whether illumination indoors contributes to the HRQoL. Methods Of the sample of 7979 individuals, being representative of the Finnish general population aged 30 and over, 88% were interviewed face to face, and 84% participated in the health status examination after which the self-report assessment of the HRQoL and the seasonal changes in mood and behavior took place. The illumination levels experienced indoors were asked during the interview and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 was filled in before the health examination. Results The HRQoL was influenced by both the seasonal changes in mood and behavior (P Conclusion The routinely emerging seasonal changes in mood and behavior are associated with the HRQoL and mental well-being. Better illumination indoors might alleviate the season-bound symptoms and thereby enhance the HRQoL and mental well-being.

  11. Seasonal Frost in Terra Sirenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This image of the Terra Sirenum region of Mars was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0918 UTC (4:18 a.m. EST) on Nov. 25, 2006, near 38.9 degrees south latitude, 195.9 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. At this time, Mars' southern hemisphere was experiencing mid-winter. During Martian southern winter, the southern polar cap is covered and surrounded by carbon dioxide frost and water frost. This is unlike Earth, whose frozen winter precipitation is made up of only one volatile -- water. The carbon dioxide frost evaporates, or sublimates, at a lower temperature than water frost. So, during spring, the carbon dioxide ice evaporates first and leaves a residue of water frost, which later sublimates as well. The image shown here covers part of a crater rim, which is illuminated from the upper left. North is at the top. The topography creates a cold microenvironment on the south side of the rim that is partially protected from solar illumination. That cold surface contains an outlier of the southern seasonal frost about 15 degrees of latitude closer to the equator than the average edge of the frost at this season. The top image was constructed from three infrared wavelengths that highlight the bluer color of frost than the background rock and soil. Note that the frost occurs both on sunlit and shaded surfaces on the south side of the rim. The shaded areas are still visible because they are illuminated indirectly by the Martian sky. The bottom image was constructed by measuring the depths of spectral absorption bands due to water frost and carbon dioxide frost, and displaying the results in image form. Blue shows strength of an absorption due to water frost near 1.50 micrometers, and green shows strength of an absorption due to carbon dioxide frost near 1.45 micrometers. Red shows brightness of the surface at 1

  12. Postpartum consultation: Occurrence, requirements and expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlgren Ingrid

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a matter of routine, midwives in Sweden have spoken with women about their experiences of labour in a so-called 'postpartum consultation'. However, the possibility of offering women this kind of consultation today is reduced due to shortage of both time and resources. The aim of this study was to explore the occurrence, women's requirements of, and experiences of a postpartum consultation, and to identify expectations from women who wanted but did not have a consultation with the midwife assisting during labour. Methods All Swedish speaking women who gave birth to a live born child at a University Hospital in western Sweden were consecutively included for a phone interview over a three-week period. An additional phone interview was conducted with the women who did not have a postpartum consultation, but who wanted to talk with the midwife assisting during labour. Data from the interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Of the 150 interviewed women, 56% (n = 84 had a postpartum consultation of which 61.9% (n = 52 had this with the midwife assisting during labour. Twenty of the 28 women who did not have a consultation with anyone still desired to talk with the midwife assisting during labour. Of these, 19 were interviewed. The content the women wanted to talk about was summarized in four categories: to understand the course of events during labour; to put into words, feelings about undignified management; to describe own behaviour and feelings, and to describe own fear. Conclusion The survey shows that the frequency of postpartum consultation is decreasing, that the majority of women who give birth today still require it, but only about half of them receive it. It is crucial to develop a plan for these consultations that meets both the women's needs and the organization within current maternity care.

  13. Seasonal patterns in human A (H5N1 virus infection: analysis of global cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya B Mathur

    Full Text Available Human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI A (H5N1 have high mortality. Despite abundant data on seasonal patterns in influenza epidemics, it is unknown whether similar patterns exist for human HPAI H5N1 cases worldwide. Such knowledge could help decrease avian-to-human transmission through increased prevention and control activities during peak periods.We performed a systematic search of published human HPAI H5N1 cases to date, collecting month, year, country, season, hemisphere, and climate data. We used negative binomial regression to predict changes in case incidence as a function of season. To investigate hemisphere as a potential moderator, we used AIC and the likelihood-ratio test to compare the season-only model to nested models including a main effect or interaction with hemisphere. Finally, we visually assessed replication of seasonal patterns across climate groups based on the Köppen-Geiger climate classification.We identified 617 human cases (611 with complete seasonal data occurring in 15 countries in Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Case occurrence was much higher in winter (n = 285, p = 0.03 than summer (n = 64, and the winter peak occurred across diverse climate groups. There was no significant interaction between hemisphere and season.Across diverse climates, HPAI H5N1 virus infection in humans increases significantly in winter. This is consistent with increased poultry outbreaks and HPAI H5N1 virus transmission during cold and dry conditions. Prioritizing prevention and control activities among poultry and focusing public health messaging to reduce poultry exposures during winter months may help to reduce zoonotic transmission of HPAI H5N1 virus in resource-limited settings.

  14. Seasonal patterns of mixed species groups in large East African mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffner, Christian; Kioko, John; Leweri, Cecilia; Krause, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Mixed mammal species groups are common in East African savannah ecosystems. Yet, it is largely unknown if co-occurrences of large mammals result from random processes or social preferences and if interspecific associations are consistent across ecosystems and seasons. Because species may exchange important information and services, understanding patterns and drivers of heterospecific interactions is crucial for advancing animal and community ecology. We recorded 5403 single and multi-species clusters in the Serengeti-Ngorongoro and Tarangire-Manyara ecosystems during dry and wet seasons and used social network analyses to detect patterns of species associations. We found statistically significant associations between multiple species and association patterns differed spatially and seasonally. Consistently, wildebeest and zebras preferred being associated with other species, whereas carnivores, African elephants, Maasai giraffes and Kirk's dik-diks avoided being in mixed groups. During the dry season, we found that the betweenness (a measure of importance in the flow of information or disease) of species did not differ from a random expectation based on species abundance. In contrast, in the wet season, we found that these patterns were not simply explained by variations in abundances, suggesting that heterospecific associations were actively formed. These seasonal differences in observed patterns suggest that interspecific associations may be driven by resource overlap when resources are limited and by resource partitioning or anti-predator advantages when resources are abundant. We discuss potential mechanisms that could drive seasonal variation in the cost-benefit tradeoffs that underpin the formation of mixed-species groups. PMID:25470495

  15. Development of Crop Yield Estimation Method by Applying Seasonal Climate Prediction in Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Y.; Lee, E.

    2015-12-01

    Under the influence of recent climate change, abnormal weather condition such as floods and droughts has issued frequently all over the world. The occurrence of abnormal weather in major crop production areas leads to soaring world grain prices because it influence the reduction of crop yield. Development of crop yield estimation method is important means to accommodate the global food crisis caused by abnormal weather. However, due to problems with the reliability of the seasonal climate prediction, application research on agricultural productivity has not been much progress yet. In this study, it is an object to develop long-term crop yield estimation method in major crop production countries worldwide using multi seasonal climate prediction data collected by APEC Climate Center. There are 6-month lead seasonal predictions produced by six state-of-the-art global coupled ocean-atmosphere models(MSC_CANCM3, MSC_CANCM4, NASA, NCEP, PNU, POAMA). First of all, we produce a customized climate data through temporal and spatial downscaling methods for use as a climatic input data to the global scale crop model. Next, we evaluate the uncertainty of climate prediction by applying multi seasonal climate prediction in the crop model. Because rice is the most important staple food crop in the Asia-Pacific region, we assess the reliability of the rice yields using seasonal climate prediction for main rice production countries. RMSE(Root Mean Squire Error) and TCC(Temporal Correlation Coefficient) analysis is performed in Asia-Pacific countries, major 14 rice production countries, to evaluate the reliability of the rice yield according to the climate prediction models. We compare the rice yield data obtained from FAOSTAT and estimated using the seasonal climate prediction data in Asia-Pacific countries. In addition, we show that the reliability of seasonal climate prediction according to the climate models in Asia-Pacific countries where rice cultivation is being carried out.

  16. Seasonal-longitudinal variability of equatorial plasma bubbles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Burke

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We compare seasonal and longitudinal distributions of more than 8300 equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs observed during a full solar cycle from 1989-2000 with predictions of two simple models. Both models are based on considerations of parameters that influence the linear growth rate, γRT, of the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the context of finite windows of opportunity available during the prereversal enhancement near sunset. These parameters are the strength of the equatorial magnetic field, Beq, and the angle, α, it makes with the dusk terminator line. The independence of α and Beq from the solar cycle phase justifies our comparisons.

    We have sorted data acquired during more than 75000 equatorial evening-sector passes of polar-orbiting Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP satellites into 24 longitude and 12 one-month bins, each containing ~250 samples. We show that: (1 in 44 out of 48 month-longitude bins EPB rates are largest within 30 days of when α=0°; (2 unpredicted phase shifts and asymmetries appear in occurrence rates at the two times per year when α≈0°; (3 While EPB occurrence rates vary inversely with Beq, the relationships are very different in regions where Beq is increasing and decreasing with longitude. Results (2 and (3 indicate that systematic forces not considered by the two models can become important. Damping by interhemispheric winds appears to be responsible for phase shifts in maximum rates of EPB occurrence from days when α=0°. Low EPB occurrence rates found at eastern Pacific longitudes suggest that radiation belt electrons in the drift loss cone reduce γRT by enhancing E-layer Pedersen conductances. Finally, we analyze an EPB event observed during a magnetic storm at a time and place where α≈-27°, to illustrate how electric-field penetration from

  17. Risk factors of depression occurrence in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this lecture is focus on different aspects of occurerence of depression in Adolescence, especially with focus on risk factors. I introduced epidemiology of depression : causes, treatment, and prevention (Abela & Hankin,2008). The special part of the lecture was focus on etiology of depression. Adolescence is characterized by positive gains in cognitive maturity, better interpersonal skills, new experiences, increased autonomy, and hormonal changes (Feldman & Elliot, 1990). Alt...

  18. Rainfall thresholds for the possible occurrence of landslides in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Brunetti

    2010-03-01

    probabilistic thresholds is proposed. The four thresholds separate five fields, each characterized by different rainfall intensity-duration conditions, and corresponding different probability of possible landslide occurrence. The scheme can be implemented in landslide warning systems that operate on rainfall thresholds, and on precipitation measurements or forecasts.

  19. Discrimination And Biophysical Characterization Of Brazilian Cerrado Physiognomies With Eo-1 Hyperspectral Hyperion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tomoaki; Huete, Alfredo R.; Ferreira, Laerte G.; Sano, Edson E.

    2004-01-01

    The savanna, typically found in the sub-tropics and seasonal tropics, are the dominant vegetation biome type in the southern hemisphere, covering approximately 45% of the South America. In Brazil, the savanna, locally known as "cerrado," is the most intensely stressed biome with both natural environmental pressures (e.g., the strong seasonality in weather, extreme soil nutrient impoverishment, and widespread fire occurrences) and rapid/aggressive land conversions (Skole et al., 1994; Ratter et al., 1997). Better characterization and discrimination of cerrado physiognomies are needed in order to improve understanding of cerrado dynamics and its impact on carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Brazilian cerrado biome. Satellite remote sensing have been known to be a useful tool for land cover and land use mapping (Rougharden et al., 1991; Hansen et al., 2000). However, attempts to discriminate and classify Brazilian cerrado using multi-spectral sensors (e.g., Landsat TM) and/or moderate resolution sensors (e.g., NOAA AVHRR NDVI) have often resulted in a limited success due partly to small contrasts depicted in their multiband, spectral reflectance or vegetation index values among cerrado classes (Seyler et al., 2002; Fran a and Setzer, 1998). In this study, we aimed to improve discrimination as well as biophysical characterization of the Brazilian cerrado physiognomies with hyperspectral remote sensing. We used Hyperion, the first satellite-based hyperspectral imager, onboard the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) platform.

  20. Waterfowl ecology and avian influenza in california: Do host traits inform us about viral occurrence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, N.J.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Cardona, C.J.; Ackerman, J.T.; Schultz, A.K.; Spragens, K.A.; Boyce, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether host traits influenced the occurrence of avian influenza virus (AIV) in Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans) at wintering sites in California's Central Valley. In total, 3487 individuals were sampled at Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge and Conaway Ranch Duck Club during the hunting season of 2007-08. Of the 19 Anatidae species sampled, prevalence was highest in the northern shoveler (5.09%), followed by the ring-necked duck (2.63%), American wigeon (2.57%), bufflehead (2.50%), greater white-fronted goose (2.44%), and cinnamon teal (1.72%). Among host traits, density of lamellae (filtering plates) of dabbling ducks was significantly associated with AIV prevalence and the number of subtypes shed by the host, suggesting that feeding methods may influence exposure to viral particles. ?? 2010 American Association of Avian Pathologists.