WorldWideScience

Sample records for characteristics including gender

  1. Gender and Learner Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindal, Huda; Reid, Norman; Whitehead, Rex

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that girls and boys perform differently in traditional examinations in most countries. This study looks at a sample of 754 school students in Kuwait (aged about 13) and explores how boys and girls differ in the performance in a range of tests related to learner characteristics. The fundamental question is how boys and girls…

  2. Gender discrimination and job characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbelt, L.; Rispens, S.; Demerouti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between gender discrimination and the perceived job demands and job resources of women and men. This is important because it may provide insight into what factors contribute to women’s disadvantaged position at work.

  3. Gendered Characteristics of Female Learners’ Conversational Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Yoshida

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines gendered characteristics in four female Japanese language learners’ discourse practices in a communicative setting, where they interact with native Japanese speaking friends in a JFL context. Focusing on the relationship between gender ideologies and discourse practices, I explore the extent to which learners are aware of gender ideologies in the Japanese community and how these ideologies are influential in their discourse practices in the particular setting. In addition, how native speakers of Japanese evaluate gender-differentiated features produced by the learners during the interaction is investigated. Qualitatively-approached, this study revealed that each learner possesses a unique character in their utterances and perceptions, reflecting their individual awareness of gender ideologies and their negotiation of language use against the backdrop of social expectations. At the same time, a lack of such awareness emerged as an issue which kept them from fully and actively engaging in exploring their subjectivities. In addition, this study pointed out that native Japanese speakers utilised gender ideologies as the basis for their judgements on learners’ gendered features in their interaction.

  4. Gender differences in characteristics of suicide attempts

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    Ljušić Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt denotes activities directed towards one's own death which do not end in death. The ratio between attempted and realized suicides is expressed by the index called hazard ratio. Risk factors which contribute to suicidal behavior are: various emotional conditions, personality traits, stressful life events, substance misuse etc. The purpose of the study was to explore the frequencies and epidemiological and demographic characteristics of suicide attempts separately in men and women. The study sample involved 56 patients with the diagnosis suicide attempt (Tentamen suicidii treated on the Psychiatric department of the Clinical Center Priština, Gračanica. The data have been analyzed in respect to gender, age, profession/employment, mental disorder diagnosis, motivation (reason and the way of performing a suicide attempt. Results: suicide has been attempted by 42 women (75% and 14 men (25% of the sample. The prevalent age group of our sample (26.8% represents the patients below 20. The most prevalent are also unemployed patients, 33.3% of women and 50% of men. The most prevalent diagnosis is anxiety disorder (61.9% of women and 57.1% of men. The prevailing reason for attempting suicide in women was couple conflict (54.8% and existential problems in men (50%. Fifty one patients of the sample (91.1% have attempted suicide by intoxication with sedative drugs (anxiolytics. The majority of suicide attempts happened during afternoon and evening hours, i.e. in the period 12-24h. Conclusion: women have attempted suicide more frequently than men (ratio 3:1. Unemployment has been the prevailing professional characteristic in both genders. The most prevailing diagnosis is anxiety disorder. The chief motive in women is couple conflict and in men existential difficulties. In both genders the most frequent way of attempting suicide is poisoning, mostly in the period 12-24h.

  5. Gender differences in Finnish homicide offence characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä; Putkonen, Hanna; Lindberg, Nina; Holi, Matti; Rovamo, Tuija; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta

    2009-04-15

    Approximately 10% of the homicides in Finland are committed by females. This study was designed to compare offence circumstances and crime scene behaviour among female and male homicide offenders. The forensic examination reports and crime reports of all female offenders prosecuted for a homicide between 1995 and 2004 were collected and content analysed (n=91). A sample of male offenders was selected for a comparison group. In addition to several bivariate analyses, two multidimensional scaling analyses were conducted to identify the underlying structure of the offence characteristics-related variables in male and female offenders. The results showed that family members were the victims of female offenders more frequently than of male offenders. Child victims were almost always killed by females. No significant difference emerged between the gender groups in the proportion of victims being former intimate partners. The results also showed that different offence characteristics relate to offender gender and type of victim. In male offenders, covering the body relates to moving and hiding an acquaintance victim's body, while in females it relates to emotional detachment and family member victim. For females, post-offence behaviours that relate to seek for help and regret were more frequent than for males. There were only marginal differences in the use of violence between females and males.

  6. Strategies to include sexual orientation and gender identity in health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-04

    May 4, 2015 ... Social justice and equity are important principles in African health sciences ... Courses that endeavour to develop students' skills in patient-provider .... (sexual and emotional attraction) and gender identity (one's sense of.

  7. Strategies to include sexual orientation and gender identity in health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various disciplines can teach sexual orientation and gender identity issues in their context by challenging heteronormativity and highlighting specific LGBTI health concerns, and can do so more successfully with interactive teaching approaches that hold more potential than formalised lectures. Rights-based teaching ...

  8. Mexican-American Adolescents’ Gender-Typed Characteristics: The Role of Sibling and Friend Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Schaefer, David R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of sibling and friend characteristics in Mexican-American youth’s gender-typed characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests, and leisure activities) in early versus middle adolescence using a sibling design. Mexican-American 7th graders (M = 12.51 years; SD = .58) and their older siblings (M = 15.48 years; SD = 1.57) from 246 families participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Results revealed that younger/early adolescent siblings reported more traditional gender role attitudes than their older/middle adolescent siblings and older brothers were more traditional in their attitudes than older sisters. When comparing siblings’ gender-typed interests and leisure activities, boys reported more masculine orientations than girls and girls reported more feminine orientations than boys. Older brothers’ gender-typed characteristics were associated with the amount of time spent with and gender characteristics of their friendship group, but for younger brothers, sibling characteristics were associated with their gender-typed characteristics. In contrast, both sibling and friendship characteristics were significantly associated with older and younger sisters’ gender-typed characteristics. The discussion addressed the different correlates of older and younger sisters’ and brothers’ gender-typed characteristics. PMID:25539774

  9. Mexican-American Adolescents' Gender-Typed Characteristics: The Role of Sibling and Friend Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Schaefer, David R

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the role of sibling and friend characteristics in Mexican-American youth's gender-typed characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests, and leisure activities) in early versus middle adolescence using a sibling design. Mexican-American 7th graders (M = 12.51 years; SD = .58) and their older siblings (M = 15.48 years; SD = 1.57) from 246 families participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Results revealed that younger/early adolescent siblings reported more traditional gender role attitudes than their older/middle adolescent siblings and older brothers were more traditional in their attitudes than older sisters. When comparing siblings' gender-typed interests and leisure activities, boys reported more masculine orientations than girls and girls reported more feminine orientations than boys. Older brothers' gender-typed characteristics were associated with the amount of time spent with and gender characteristics of their friendship group, but for younger brothers, sibling characteristics were associated with their gender-typed characteristics. In contrast, both sibling and friendship characteristics were significantly associated with older and younger sisters' gender-typed characteristics. The discussion addressed the different correlates of older and younger sisters' and brothers' gender-typed characteristics.

  10. Skin Picking in Turkish Students: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…

  11. The influence of personality characteristics and gender on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB). One hundred and fifty (150) respondents comprising eighty (80) males and seventy (70) females were randomly drawn from the Ministries of Finance, Health, Lands and Survey; State Government ...

  12. [Characteristics of children and adolescents with gender dysphoria referred to the Hamburg Gender Identity Clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Inga; Gjergji-Lama, Voltisa; Romer, Georg; Möller, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing demand for counselling in gender dysphoria in childhood in Germany, there is a definite need for empirical data on characteristics and developmental trajectories of this clinical group. This study aimed to provide a first overview by assessing demographic characteristics and developmental trajectories of a group of gender variant boys and girls referred to the specialised Gender Identity Clinic in Hamburg. Data were extracted from medical charts, transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis methods. Categories were set up by inductive-deductive reasoning based on the patients' parents' and clinicians' information in the files. Between 2006 and 2010, 45 gender variant children and adolescents were seen by clinicians; 88.9% (n = 40) of these were diagnosed with gender identity disorder (ICD-10). Within this group, the referral rates for girls were higher than for boys (1:1.5). Gender dysphoric girls were on average older than the boys and a higher percentage of girls was referred to the clinic at the beginning of adolescence (> 12 years of age). At the same time, more girls reported an early onset age. More girls made statements about their (same-sex) sexual orientation during adolescence and wishes for gender confirming medical interventions. More girls than boys revealed self-mutilation in the past or present as well as suicidal thoughts and/or attempts. Results indicate that the presentation of clinically referred gender dysphoric girls differs from the characteristics boys present in Germany; especially with respect to the most salient age differences. Therefore, these two groups require different awareness and individual treatment approaches.

  13. [What worries Hungarian men? Characteristics of masculine gender role stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susánszky, Anna; Susánszky, Eva; Kopp, Mária

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the characteristics of stress associated with male gender role and its relationship to health and to risk behaviours among Hungarian men. The present analysis is based on data of the Hungarostudy 2006 survey. Forty-one percent of the participants were men. Eighty nine percent of the male respondents completed the Eisler-Skidmore Masculine Gender Role Stress Scale; data of 1764 persons were analyzed. Anxiety about sexual performance, breadwinner role, and appearance (i.e. tradition factor) causes a much greater burden of stress than anxiety about changing gender relationships (i.e. modernization factor). With the increase of age, stress caused by traditional role expectations significantly decreases; tensions caused by women's dominance and by situations which demand emotional response and empathy are the highest among middle aged men. Traditional gender role stress is more prevalent among pensioners than among economically active men; stress caused by the modernization of masculine gender role particularly afflicts unemployed men. Married men are to the least extent troubled by female dominance and difficulties in expressing emotions. Of the two dimensions analyzed here (tradition and modernization) only the values on the tradition factor were related to health status, psychological wellbeing, and frequency of smoking. Modernization of gender roles represents only a small--if any--stressor in the life of Hungarian men; on the other hand, unsuccessful adaptation to traditional role expectations highly increases the burden of stress and is closely related to smoking.

  14. Analysis of gender stereotypic characteristics in leaders and subordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Lupano Perugini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was realized to analyze the way leaders and subordinates describe themselves in relation to perceived gender stereotypic characteristics and, to verify if exists differences in these characteristics according position (leader/ subordinate. Participate 612 individuals, 329 male (54% y 283 female (46%, age average = 37,54 years (DE=11,88. 59 % of the participants occupied executive positions and the rest were subordinates. It was utilized and abbreviate version of the Bem Sex Roles (Bem, 1974 to data recollection. The obtained results show that male leaders describe themselves mainly with agentic-masculine attributes (e.g. dominant, compared with subordinates who describe themselves with communal- feminine characteristics (e.g. submission. On the other hand, the female leaders describe themselves mainly with androgyny attributes combining qualities of both genders (e.g. dominant and sensible to the needs of others; however the female subordinates show communal attributes (e.g. submission

  15. GENDER CHARACTERISTICS OF INNOVATION AND LEADERSHIP EXPLICITY IN STUDENTS

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    O B Mikhailova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical and empirical analysis of gender studies devoted to the innovative behavior component. The theoretical research on innovative behavior considers its separate aspects: the specificity of decision-making, the flexibility of various actions means, the attitude to risk, the motivation of achievement and value-motivational attitude to activity and leadership. Basing on the theoretical analy- sis of the innovative behavior components, the authors of the article presents an empirical study of gender characteristics of innovative traits and leadership skills among students.

  16. A global call for action to include gender in research impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Adam, Paula; Grant, Jonathan; Hinrichs-Krapels, Saba; Graham, Kathryn E; Valentine, Pamela A; Sued, Omar; Boukhris, Omar F; Al Olaqi, Nada M; Al Rahbi, Idrees S; Dowd, Anne-Maree; Bice, Sara; Heiden, Tamika L; Fischer, Michael D; Dopson, Sue; Norton, Robyn; Pollitt, Alexandra; Wooding, Steven; Balling, Gert V; Jakobsen, Ulla; Kuhlmann, Ellen; Klinge, Ineke; Pololi, Linda H; Jagsi, Reshma; Smith, Helen Lawton; Etzkowitz, Henry; Nielsen, Mathias W; Carrion, Carme; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Vizcaino, Esther; Naing, Lin; Cheok, Quentin H N; Eckelmann, Baerbel; Simuyemba, Moses C; Msiska, Temwa; Declich, Giovanna; Edmunds, Laurel D; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki; Buchan, Alison M J; Williamson, Catherine; Lord, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Surender, Rebecca; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-07-19

    Global investment in biomedical research has grown significantly over the last decades, reaching approximately a quarter of a trillion US dollars in 2010. However, not all of this investment is distributed evenly by gender. It follows, arguably, that scarce research resources may not be optimally invested (by either not supporting the best science or by failing to investigate topics that benefit women and men equitably). Women across the world tend to be significantly underrepresented in research both as researchers and research participants, receive less research funding, and appear less frequently than men as authors on research publications. There is also some evidence that women are relatively disadvantaged as the beneficiaries of research, in terms of its health, societal and economic impacts. Historical gender biases may have created a path dependency that means that the research system and the impacts of research are biased towards male researchers and male beneficiaries, making it inherently difficult (though not impossible) to eliminate gender bias. In this commentary, we - a group of scholars and practitioners from Africa, America, Asia and Europe - argue that gender-sensitive research impact assessment could become a force for good in moving science policy and practice towards gender equity. Research impact assessment is the multidisciplinary field of scientific inquiry that examines the research process to maximise scientific, societal and economic returns on investment in research. It encompasses many theoretical and methodological approaches that can be used to investigate gender bias and recommend actions for change to maximise research impact. We offer a set of recommendations to research funders, research institutions and research evaluators who conduct impact assessment on how to include and strengthen analysis of gender equity in research impact assessment and issue a global call for action.

  17. Women and tobacco: a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Amanda; Greaves, Lorraine; Nichter, Mimi; Bloch, Michele

    2012-03-01

    Female smoking is predicted to double between 2005 and 2025. There have been numerous calls for action on women's tobacco use over the past two decades. In the present work, evidence about female tobacco use, progress, challenges and ways forward for developing gendered tobacco control is reviewed. Literature on girls, women and tobacco was reviewed to identify trends and determinants of tobacco use and exposure, the application of gender analysis, tobacco marketing, the impact of tobacco control on girls and women and ways to address these issues particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Global female tobacco use is increasingly complex, involving diverse products and factors including tobacco marketing, globalisation and changes in women's status. In high-income countries female smoking is declining but is increasingly concentrated among disadvantaged women. In low-income and middle-income countries the pattern is more complex; in several regions the gap between girls' and boys' smoking is narrow. Gendered analyses and approaches to tobacco control are uncommon, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Tobacco control has remained largely gender blind, with little recognition of the importance of understanding the context and challenges of girl's and women's smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. There has been little integration of gender considerations in research, policy and programmes. The present work makes a case for gender and diversity analyses in tobacco control to reflect and identify intersecting factors affecting women's tobacco use. This will help animate the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's concern for gender specificity and women's leadership, and reduce the impact of tobacco on women.

  18. Gender influences headache characteristics with increasing age in migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolay, Hayrunnisa; Ozge, Aynur; Saginc, Petek; Orekici, Gulhan; Uludüz, Derya; Yalın, Osman; Siva, Aksel; Bıçakçi, Şebnem; Karakurum, Başak; Öztürk, Musa

    2015-08-01

    Migraine headache is one of the most common primary headache disorders and is three times more prevalent in women than in men, especially during the reproductive ages. The neurobiological basis of the female dominance has been partly established. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of gender on the headache manifestations in migraine patients. The study group consisted of 2082 adult patients from five different hospitals' tertiary care-based headache clinics. The relationship between headache characteristics and gender was evaluated in migraine with aura (MwA) and migraine without aura (MwoA). The duration, severity, frequency of headache and associated symptoms were evaluated in both genders and age-dependent variations and analyzed in two subgroups. Women with migraine were prone to significantly longer duration and intensity of headache attacks. Nausea, phonophobia and photophobia were more prevalent in women. Median headache duration was also longer in women than in men in MwA (p = 0.013) and MwoA (p < 0.001). Median headache intensity was higher in women than in men in MwA (p = 0.010) and MwoA (p = 0.009). The frequency of nausea was significantly higher in women than in men in MwA (p = 0.049). Throbbing headache quality and associated features (nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia) were significantly more frequent in women than in men in MwoA. The gender impact varied across age groups and significant changes were seen in female migraineurs after age 30. No age-dependent variation was observed in male migraineurs. Gender has an influence on the characteristics of the headache as well as on the associated symptoms in migraine patients, and this impact varies across the age groups, particularly in women. © International Headache Society 2014.

  19. 125I eye plaque dose distribution including penumbra characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Zerda, A; Chiu-Tsao, S T; Lin, J; Boulay, L L; Kanna, I; Kim, J H; Tsao, H S

    1996-03-01

    The two main purposes of this work are (1) to determine the penumbra characteristics for 125I eye plaque and the relative influence of the plaque and eye-air interface on the dose distribution, and (2) to initiate development of a treatment planning algorithm for clinical dose calculations. Dose was measured in a newly designed solid water eye phantom for an 125I (6711) seed at the center of a 20 mm COMS eye plaque using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) "cubes" and "minichips" inside and outside the eye, in the longitudinal and transverse central planes. TLD cubes were used in most locations, except for short distances from the seed and in the penumbra region. In the presence of both the plaque and the eye-air interface, the dose along the central axis was found to be reduced by 10% at 1 cm and up to 20% at 2.5 cm, relative to the bulk homogeneous phantom case. In addition, the overall dose reduction was greater for larger off-axis coordinates at a given depth. The penumbra characteristics due to the lip collimation were quantified, particularly the dependence of penumbra center and width on depth. Only small differences were observed between the profiles in the transverse and longitudinal planes. In the bulk geometry (without the eye-air interface), the dose reduction due to the presence of the plaque alone was found to be 7% at a depth of 2.5 cm. The additional reduction of 13% observed, with the presence of eye-air interface (20% combined), can be attributed to the lack of backscattering from the air in front of the eye. The dose-reduction effect due to the anterior air interface alone became unnoticeable at a depth of 1.1 cm (1.5 cm from the eye-air interface). An analytic fit to measured data was developed for clinical dose calculations for a centrally loaded seed. The central axis values of the dose rates multiplied by distance squared, Dr2, were fitted with a double exponential function of depth. The off-axis profile of Dr2, at a given depth, was

  20. Gender comparisons in psychological characteristics of obese, binge eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirik-Babb, P; Norring, C

    2005-12-01

    To investigate differences between male and female, obese binge eaters in levels of depression, anxiety and self-esteem. In addition, to make comparisons in these psychological characteristics, for both genders, between obese, binge eaters and obese nonbingers. Participants consisted of 48 female (26 binge eaters and 22 nonbingers) and 13 male (4 binge eaters and 9 nonbingers) outpatients in a hospital weight-loss program. Participants completed the following: Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns--Revised, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Females had a significantly higher level of depression (pself-esteem (pself-esteem. In both genders, binge eaters have higher levels of depression and anxiety and lower levels of self-esteem compared to nonbingers.

  1. Participatory modeling to support gender equality: The importance of including stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Engen, M.L. van; Engen, M. van

    2015-01-01

    - Purpose – Interventions to support gender equality in organisations are often unsuccessful. Stakeholders disagree about the causes and problem definition of gender equality or pay lip service to the principle of gender equality, but fail to implement gender equality in practice. The purpose of

  2. Participatory modeling to support gender equality : The importance of including stakeholders in interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; van Engen, Marloes

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Interventions to support gender equality in organisations are often unsuccessful. Stakeholders disagree about the causes and problem definition of gender equality or pay lip service to the principle of gender equality, but fail to implement gender equality in practice. The purpose of this

  3. Women's characteristics and gender role attitudes: support for father involvement with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, C D; Moon, M

    1999-12-01

    Women's (N = 364) personal characteristics and gender role attitudes were examined in relation to their support for father involvement with children. The respondents completed measures of trust, attitudes toward women, hostility, self-esteem, and father involvement. Nontraditional gender role attitudes, positive ratings of their own interpersonal trust, and low hostility toward men were predictive of the respondents' support for father involvement. Participant demographics (including age, marital status, and number of children) were unrelated to their views of father involvement. Results indicate the importance of considering the characteristics and attitudes women bring to the co-parental relationship in the examination of factors influencing father involvement with children. Findings are discussed within the context of mothers' primary child-care and gatekeeping roles.

  4. The Impact of Gender Characteristics on Mentoring in Graduate Departments of Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Priya

    2008-01-01

    There has been much research on gender inequality in graduate education and the benefits of mentoring. However, most of this research focuses on how mentoring addresses female graduate students' experiences of gender inequality instead of how the gender characteristics of departments impact the level of mentoring they offer. In particular, I…

  5. The Relationship between Gender and School Administrators' Perceptions of Bullying Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivyer, Tonia

    2010-01-01

    There remains a gap in research surrounding school administrators' perceptions of behavioral characteristics of bullies. Specifically, there is a lack of research that examines these perceptions by gender of administrator and gender of the bully. Using Goffman's frame theory, perceptions of behavioral characteristics of bullies influenced by…

  6. Characteristics of gender violence at the University of Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco González Sala

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempted to determine the prevalence of gender-based violence at the University of Valencia, the victim profile, resources, and beliefs about violence in the university community. The sample consisted of 3404 participants from the research and teaching staff, the administration and services personnel, and students. The results suggest an incidence of gender violence of 20.03%. The victim profile is a women student who is childless, at a perceived slight or moderate risk, who does not go to the police, but who experiences psychological repercussions from gender violence. In total, 86.99% of participants believe that the university has a gender violence service available and that action protocols and prevention programs have been implemented. Between 25% and 40% do not consider controlling behaviour and psychological abuse to constitute domestic violence. Gender violence prevention programs should be implemented.

  7. Gender characteristics of legal conscience in internal affairs agencies staff

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    Kuznetsova O.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the empirical research results of the level of legal conscience forming in law enforcement officials. The study of gender specifics of personnel is now becoming more and more relevant due to a constant increase in the number of women entering the Ministry of Internal Affairs service. The study involved 160 male and 120 female staff members. Analysis of the results revealed a general legal conscience trend typical for male and female employees which manifests in a high level of legal knowledge, adequate understanding of group relativity of moral and ethical norms, civic un-engagement and disinterest to leadership role. This trend reflects a certain viewpoint when human rights are considered to include only freedom, independence and personal self-assertion without responsibility and civic duties. It was found that female employees have higher level of legal conscience forming than male employees. This led to the conclusion of a high-availability of female employees to comply with legal regulations and requirements.

  8. Gender differences in episodic memory and visual working memory including the effects of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2013-01-01

    Analysing the relationship between gender and memory, and examining the effects of age on the overall memory-related functioning, are the ongoing goals of psychological research. The present study examined gender and age group differences in episodic memory with respect to the type of task. In addition, these subgroup differences were also analysed in visual working memory. A sample of 366 women and 330 men, aged between 16 and 69 years of age, participated in the current study. Results indicate that women outperformed men on auditory memory tasks, whereas male adolescents and older male adults showed higher level performances on visual episodic and visual working memory measures. However, the size of gender-linked effects varied somewhat across age groups. Furthermore, results partly support a declining performance on episodic memory and visual working memory measures with increasing age. Although age-related losses in episodic memory could not be explained by a decreasing verbal and visuospatial ability with age, women's advantage in auditory episodic memory could be explained by their advantage in verbal ability. Men's higher level visual episodic memory performance was found to result from their advantage in visuospatial ability. Finally, possible methodological, biological, and cognitive explanations for the current findings are discussed.

  9. Fathers in Turkey: Paternity Characteristics, Gender Role, Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ünüvar, Perihan

    2017-01-01

    Objective of this study is to examine the correlation the quality of paternity, gender roles and communication skills of fathers. The scores in the scale of supporting developmental tasks were used in order to determine the quality of paternity. The other data collection tools were the BEM sex role inventory and the communication skills inventory.…

  10. IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT AGE AND GENDER CHARACTERISTICS PROFESSIONAL PERSON

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    Avdeyeva Irina Olegovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In article some questions mentioning gender and age features of the identity of municipal employees, working in the social sphere and their influence on professionalism development are considered. Diagnostics of professional and important qualities and features of experts, their moral and regulatory sphere, adaptation potential and a motivational complex on means of application of the following diagnostic techniques is carried out: R. Kettell's 16 factorial questionnaire (16-PF, a form C, "Valuable orientations" M. Rokich, a multilevel personal questionnaire "Adaptability" (MLO-AM, a technique of studying of motivation of professional activity (K.Zemfir in A.Rean's modification. In this research the example of the multiple parameter linear model created and approved for identification and the analysis of age transformations of municipal employees, working in the social sphere is given. Conclusions are drawn on wagging of gender and age features of experts on development of professionalism of their personality.

  11. Demographics, behavior problems, and psychosexual characteristics of adolescents with gender identity disorder or transvestic fetishism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Bradley, Susan J; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Kibblewhite, Sarah J; Wood, Hayley; Singh, Devita; Choi, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study provided a descriptive and quantitative comparative analysis of data from an assessment protocol for adolescents referred clinically for gender identity disorder (n = 192; 105 boys, 87 girls) or transvestic fetishism (n = 137, all boys). The protocol included information on demographics, behavior problems, and psychosexual measures. Gender identity disorder and transvestic fetishism youth had high rates of general behavior problems and poor peer relations. On the psychosexual measures, gender identity disorder patients had considerably greater cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did transvestic fetishism youth and other control youth. Male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a nonhomosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex) reported more indicators of transvestic fetishism than did male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a homosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex). The percentage of transvestic fetishism youth and male gender identity disorder patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation self-reported similar degrees of behaviors pertaining to transvestic fetishism. Last, male and female gender identity disorder patients with a homosexual sexual orientation had more recalled cross-gender behavior during childhood and more concurrent cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation. The authors discuss the clinical utility of their assessment protocol.

  12. Job characteristics and voluntary mobility in the Netherlands : differential education and gender patterns?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gesthuizen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the impact of the subjective evaluation of job characteristics on voluntary mobility, the impact of voluntary mobility on changes in these job characteristics, and differential education and gender patterns. Design/methodology/approach – Ordered and

  13. Job characteristics and voluntary mobility in The Netherlands: Differential education and gender patterns?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gesthuizen, M.J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to address the impact of the subjective evaluation of job characteristics on voluntary mobility, the impact of voluntary mobility on changes in these job characteristics, and differential education and gender patterns. Design/methodology/approach - Ordered and

  14. The gender gap reloaded: are school characteristics linked to labor market performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Constant, Amelie

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the wage gender gap of young adults in the 1970s, 1980s, and 2000 in the US. Using quantile regression we estimate the gender gap across the entire wage distribution. We also study the importance of high school characteristics in predicting future labor market performance. We conduct analyses for three major racial/ethnic groups in the US: Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics, employing data from two rich longitudinal studies: NLS and NELS. Our results indicate that while some school characteristics are positive and significant predictors of future wages for Whites, they are less so for the two minority groups. We find significant wage gender disparities favoring men across all three surveys in the 1970s, 1980s, and 2000. The wage gender gap is more pronounced in higher paid jobs (90th quantile) for all groups, indicating the presence of a persistent and alarming "glass ceiling."

  15. The contribution of work characteristics, home characteristics and gender to burnout in medical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Hanne; van der Heijden, Frank M M A; van Hooff, Madelon L M; Prins, Jelle T; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M; van Ravesteijn, Hiske; Speckens, Anne E M

    2017-10-01

    Burnout is highly prevalent in medical residents. In order to prevent or reduce burnout in medical residents, we should gain a better understanding of contributing and protective factors of burnout. Therefore we examined the associations of job demands and resources, home demands and resources, and work-home interferences with burnout in male and female medical residents. This study was conducted on a nation-wide sample of medical residents. In 2005, all Dutch medical residents (n = 5245) received a self-report questionnaire on burnout, job and home demands and resources and work-home interference. Path analysis was used to examine the associations between job and home characteristics and work-home interference and burnout in both males and females. In total, 2115 (41.1 %) residents completed the questionnaire. In both sexes emotional demands at work and the interference between work and home were important contributors to burnout, especially when work interferes with home life. Opportunities for job development appeared to be an important protective factor. Other contributing and protective factors were different for male and female residents. In females, social support from family or partner seemed protective against burnout. In males, social support from colleagues and participation in decision-making at work seemed important. Effectively handling emotional demands at work, dealing with the interference between work and home, and having opportunities for job development are the most essential factors which should be addressed. However it is important to take gender differences into consideration when implementing preventive or therapeutic interventions for burnout in medical residents.

  16. Gender Earnings Gap in German Firms : The Impact of Firm Characteristics and Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Heinze, Anja; Wolf, Elke

    2006-01-01

    Most existing analyses on the gender wage gap (GWG) have neglected the establishment as a place where inequality between male and female employees arises and is maintained. The use of linked employee-employer data permits us to move beyond the individual and consider the importance of the workplace to explain gender pay differentials. That is, we first provide a comprehensive study on the effects of various firm characteristics and the institutional framework on the GWG in Germany. The innova...

  17. Gender, work roles and psychosocial work characteristics as determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, S; Hertzman, C; Ostry, A; Power, C

    1998-06-01

    This paper aims to identify gender similarities and differences in psychosocial work characteristics for those in and out of paid employment, to inform research on possible health-related effects. Specifically five questions are addressed: do women report poorer work characteristics than men; are gender differences related to specific characteristics; do work characteristics differ between full- and part-time women workers and between those in paid and unpaid work; are socio-economic gradients in work characteristics similar for men and women; and, if there are gradients, do they differ between women in paid and unpaid work? Analyses are based on the 33 year follow-up of the 1958 British birth cohort. Four psychosocial work characteristics were examined: learning opportunities, monotony, pace of work, and flexibility of breaks. Women reported more negative work characteristics than men, primarily because of differences in learning opportunities (26% lacked opportunity compared with 13% of men) and monotonous work (47 and 31% respectively). Women in full-time employment reported fewer negative characteristics (27%) than part-time (39%) or home-workers (36%). Home-workers had fewer opportunities for learning (36%) and greater monotony (49%) than paid workers (21 and 22% respectively), however fewer home-workers reported inability to control the work pace (11% compared to 23%) and inflexibility of breaks (21% compared to 47%). Socio-economic gradients in work characteristics were similar among men and women, except for flexibility of break times. A socio-economic gradient in work characteristics was found for full- and part-time workers, but not among home-workers. Differences in self reported health were also examined: a social gradient was found for all employment status groups, being strongest for home-workers despite the absence of a gradient in negative work characteristics. In conclusion, these marked gender differences in psychosocial work characteristics need

  18. Gender-related differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barski, Leonid; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Nevzorov, Roman; Rabaev, Elena; Zektser, Miri; Jotkowitz, Alan B; Zeller, Lior; Shleyfer, Elena; Almog, Yaniv

    2011-12-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is 1 of the most common and serious complications of diabetes, and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. There is a paucity of data regarding gender-related differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized for DKA. The purpose of this study was to assess whether gender plays a role in clinical characteristics and outcome of DKA. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with DKA between January 1, 2003 and January 1, 2010. The outcomes of male and female patients were compared. The primary outcome was in-hospital all-cause mortality. The secondary outcomes were 30-day all-cause mortality and rate of complications: sepsis, respiratory failure, multiple organ failure, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Eighty-nine men and 131 women with DKA were included in the study. Male patients had higher rates of chronic renal failure compared with women (16.9% vs 3.1%; P = 0.001), whereas more women than men received oral hypoglycemic therapy (19.8% vs 9.0%; P = 0.046); women also had higher glycosated hemoglobin levels before admission (11.9% [1.7%] vs 9.9% [2.2%]; P = 0.025). The in-hospital mortality rate was not significantly different for both genders (4.5% in the male group vs 3.8% in the female group; P = 1.0). We did not find significant differences between the 2 groups in the 30-day mortality rate (4.5% vs 6.1%; P = 0.7) or the rate of complications (5.6% vs 6.9%; P = 0.9). Advanced age, mechanical ventilation, and bedridden state were independent predictors of 30-day mortality. In our study we did not find statistically significant differences in the in-hospital mortality, 30-day all-cause mortality, or rate of complications between men and women hospitalized with DKA. However, women with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving oral hypoglycemic therapy required particular attention and might benefit from earlier introduction and intensification of insulin

  19. Gender differences in characteristics and outcomes of smokers diagnosed with psychosis participating in a smoking cessation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filia, Sacha L; Baker, Amanda L; Gurvich, Caroline T; Richmond, Robyn; Lewin, Terry J; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2014-03-30

    While research has identified gender differences in characteristics and outcomes of smokers in the general population, no studies have examined this among smokers with psychosis. This study aimed to explore gender differences among 298 smokers with psychosis (schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar affective disorder) participating in a smoking intervention study. Results revealed a general lack of gender differences on a range of variables for smokers with psychosis including reasons for smoking/quitting, readiness and motivation to quit, use of nicotine replacement therapy, and smoking outcomes including point prevalence or continuous abstinence, and there were no significant predictors of smoking reduction status according to gender at any of the follow-up time-points. The current study did find that female smokers with psychosis were significantly more likely than males to report that they smoked to prevent weight gain. Furthermore, the females reported significantly more reasons for quitting smoking and were more likely to be driven by extrinsic motivators to quit such as immediate reinforcement and social influence, compared to the male smokers with psychosis. Clinical implications include specifically focussing on weight issues and enhancing intrinsic motivation to quit smoking for female smokers with psychosis; and strengthening reasons for quitting among males with psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Testing Measurement Invariance of the Students' Affective Characteristics Model across Gender Sub-Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ergül

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to construct a significant structural measurement model comparing students' affective characteristics with their mathematic achievement. According to this model, the aim was to test the measurement invariances between gender sub-groups hierarchically. This study was conducted as basic and descriptive research. Secondary…

  1. Gender differences in rival characteristics that evoke jealousy in response to emotional versus sexual infidelity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has shown that in men jealousy is evoked more by a rival's status-related characteristics than in women, whereas in women jealousy is evoked more by a rival's physical attractiveness than in men. The present study examined whether the occurrence of this gender difference depends

  2. Gender Differences in Intrahousehold Schooling Outcomes: The Role of Sibling Characteristics and Birth-Order Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Anu; Dancer, Diane

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we examine the influence of gender, sibling characteristics and birth order on the schooling attainment of school-age Egyptian children. We use multivariate analysis to simultaneously examine three different schooling outcomes of a child having "no schooling", "less than the desired level of schooling", and an…

  3. Adaptive Characteristics and Suicidal Behavior: A Gender Comparison of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jon B.; Lamis, Dorian A.

    2007-01-01

    Differences in suicidal behavior and adaptive characteristics were examined in college students with a particular emphasis on gender differences. Participants consisted of 344 undergraduate students who were administered a revised version of the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire (SBQ), the Expanded Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL), and a…

  4. Outdoor thermal comfort characteristics in the hot and humid region from a gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chien-Hung; Chen, Chen-Peng; Tsai, Kang-Ting; Kántor, Noémi; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Matzarakis, Andreas; Lin, Tzu-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Thermal comfort is a subjective psychological perception of people based also on physiological thermoregulation mechanisms when the human body is exposed to a combination of various environmental factors including air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, and radiation conditions. Due to the importance of gender in the issue of outdoor thermal comfort, this study compared and examined the thermal comfort-related differences between male and female subjects using previous data from Taiwanese questionnaire survey. Compared with males, the results indicated that females in Taiwan are less tolerant to hot conditions and intensely protect themselves from sun exposure. Our analytical results are inconsistent with the findings of previous physiological studies concerning thermal comfort indicating that females have superior thermal physiological tolerance than males. On the contrary, our findings can be interpreted on psychological level. Environmental behavioral learning theory was adopted in this study to elucidate this observed contradiction between the autonomic thermal physiological and psychological-behavioral aspects. Women might desire for a light skin tone through social learning processes, such as observation and education, which is subsequently reflected in their psychological perceptions (fears of heat and sun exposure) and behavioral adjustments (carrying umbrellas or searching for shade). Hence, these unique psychological and behavioral phenomena cannot be directly explained by autonomic physiological thermoregulation mechanisms. The findings of this study serve as a reference for designing spaces that accommodates gender-specific thermal comfort characteristics. Recommendations include providing additional suitable sheltered areas in open areas, such as city squares and parks, to satisfy the thermal comfort needs of females.

  5. Characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Spain from a gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez-Barrera Valentin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical and management characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in men and women, to determine possible gender-associated differences between the two groups of patients. Methods An observational and descriptive epidemiological study (EPIDEPOC study. The study included patients with stable COPD and aged ≥ 40 years, evaluated in primary care. Data were collected relating to sociodemographic variables, clinical characteristics, quality of life (SF-12, severity of disease and treatment. The results obtained in men and women were compared. Results A total of 10,711 patients (75.6% males and 24.4% females were evaluated. Significant differences were found between males and females in relation to the following parameters: age (67.4 ± 9.2 years in men vs 66.1 ± 10.8 in women, p 2-adrenergic agonists, anticholinergic agents, theophyllines and mucolytic agents was significant greater in men. The total annual cost of COPD was greater in males than in females (1989.20 ± 2364.47 € vs 1724.53 ± 2106.90, p Conclusion The women with COPD evaluated in this study were younger, smoked less and have more comorbidity, a poorer quality of life, and lesser disease severity than men with COPD. However, they generated a lesser total annual cost of COPD than men.

  6. Acupuncture for neurological disorders in the Cochrane reviews:Characteristics of included reviews and studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deren Wang; Weimin Yang; Ming Liu

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize Cochrane reviews of acupuncture for neurological disorders, and characteristics of included reviews and studies.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online search of the Cochrane Library (Issue 7 of 12, July 2010) was performed with the key word "acupuncture" and systematic evaluations for acupuncture for neurological disorders were screened.STUDY SELECTION: Systematic reviews on acupuncture in the treatment of neurological disorders were included, and the characteristics of these reviews were analyzed based on methods recommended by the Cochrane collaboration.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Basic characteristics, methodological quality, main reasons for excluding trials, results and conclusions of Cochrane reviews were assessed.RESULTS: A total of 18 Cochrane systematic reviews were included, including 13 completed reviews and five research protocols. The 13 completed reviews involved 111 randomized controlled trials, including 43 trials (38.7%) conducted in China, 47 trials (42.3%) using sham-acupuncture or placebo as control, 15 trials (13.5%) with relatively high quality, 91 trials (81.9%) reporting data on follow-up. Primary outcomes used in the Cochrane reviews were reported by 65 trials (58.6%), and adverse events were reported in 11 trials (9.9%). Two hundred and eighty three trials were excluded. Two reviews on headache suggested that acupuncture is a valuable non-drug treatment for patients with chronic or recurrent headache, and has better curative effects on migraine compared with preventative drug treatment. CONCLUSION: Of the Cochrane reviews on acupuncture in the treatment of neurological disorders, two reviews evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture in treating headaches drew positive conculsions, while other reviews did not obtain positive conclusions due to a small sample size or low methodological quality. The methodological quality of acupuncture trials needs further improvement.

  7. The Development of Sex Role Stereotypes in the Third Year: Relationships to Gender Labeling, Gender Identity, Sex-Typed Toy Preference, and Family Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinraub, Marsha; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The onset and development of preschoolers' awareness of sex role stereotypes, gender labeling, gender identity, and sex-typed toy preference were explored in 26-, 31-, and 36-month-old children. Family characteristics that affect early sex role development also were investigated. (Author/RH)

  8. Effects of Low Light on Agronomic and Physiological Characteristics of Rice Including Grain Yield and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-hua LIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Light intensity is one of the most important environmental factors that determine the basic characteristics of rice development. However, continuously cloudy weather or rainfall, especially during the grain-filling stage, induces a significant loss in yield and results in poor grain quality. Stress caused by low light often creates severe meteorological disasters in some rice-growing regions worldwide. This review was based on our previous research and related research regarding the effects of low light on rice growth, yield and quality as well as the formation of grain, and mainly reviewed the physiological metabolism of rice plants, including characteristics of photosynthesis, activities of antioxidant enzymes in rice leaves and key enzymes involved in starch synthesis in grains, as well as the translocations of carbohydrate and nitrogen. These characteristics include various grain yield and rice quality components (milling and appearance as well as cooking, eating and nutritional qualities under different rates of shading imposed at the vegetative or reproductive stages of rice plants. Furthermore, we discussed why grain yield and quality are reduced under the low light environment. Next, we summarized the need for future research that emphasizes methods can effectively improve rice grain yield and quality under low light stress. These research findings can provide a beneficial reference for rice cultivation management and breeding program in low light environments.

  9. Gender difference and characteristics attributed to coronary artery disease in Gaza-Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamee, Amal; Abed, Yehia; Jalambo, Marwan O

    2013-05-26

    Traditionally coronary artery disease (CAD) has been considered as disease affecting men, and for long time women were not included in researches programme. In both sexes, coronary heart disease risk increases with age. Extensive clinical and statistical studies have identified serial factors that increase the risk of coronary heart disease, some of them can be modified, and some cannot. This study was performed to analyze the extent to which cardiovascular risk factors can explain the gender difference in coronary heart disease. The study design is a cross sectional study based on 155 cardiac patients admitted to cardiology department in Al-shifa hospital Gaza. The following cardiac risk factors were determined from the patient's records, smoking, diabetes, high blood pressure, Dyslipedemia and presence of family history of coronary artery disease. Catheterization results review were done. Statistical Package for Social Science version 17 was used for data entry and analysis. Frequency and cross tabulation were done to explore the relationship between the study variables. Chi-square test was used for testing statistical and P-value less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Most of risk factors were more favorable in females and increase with age. Myocardial infarction in male compared with female was 2 times higher, and chronic angina pain is common in female than male respectively 71.4% and 46.7%. Around 77% of female have two vessels disease and more. No great differences in number of diseased vessels among patients with myocardial infarction or chronic stable angina. Patients with low EF <50% have higher chance of affected vessels (82.9%). CAD stay the major problem in male and female, certain patient's characteristics and clinical conditions may place female at higher risk of coronary artery disease development or progression. This article addresses emerging knowledge regarding gender differences in CAD risk factors and responsiveness to risk reduction

  10. Effect of gender specific anthropometric characteristics on lung function in young competitive triathletes from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Hanapi M; Zainudin, Hakimi A; Knight, Victor F; Lumley, Steven A; Subramanium, Ananthan S; Caszo, Brinnell A; Gnanou, Justin V

    2017-04-01

    Anthropometric and lung function characteristics of triathletes are important for the implementation of individual specific training and recovery recommendations. However, limited data are available for these parameters in triathletes. Hence, the aim of this study was to characterize and examine the gender differences of lung function and anthropometry parameters in competitive triathletes from Malaysia. Body composition assessment and lung function tests were performed on sixteen competitive triathletes (nine male and seven female). The subject's body composition profile including muscle mass (kg), fat free mass (kg), and percent body fat was measured using a bio-impedance segmental body composition analyzer. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured by Quark PFT2 spirometer. The anthropometric measurements revealed that male triathletes were significantly taller than female triathletes and had significantly more protein and skeletal muscle mass. The female triathletes, however, had significantly higher percent body fat. Male triathletes had statistically significant higher FVC and FEV1 than female triathletes. Both the male and female triathletes showed a positive correlation between height, fat free mass and the lung function markers FVC and FEV1. This association was not seen with Body Mass Index (BMI) in female triathletes. The data from our study shows that anthropometric parameters are directly linked to lung function of a triathlete. We also found the relationship between BMI and lung function to be gender specific in triathletes and is dependent on the body protein and fat content. Hence, body composition characterization is essential and provides valuable information for developing individual specific training modules.

  11. Gender, renal function, and outcomes on the liver transplant waiting list: assessment of revised MELD including estimated glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robert P; Shaheen, Abdel Aziz M; Aspinall, Alexander I; Quinn, Robert R; Burak, Kelly W

    2011-03-01

    The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) allocation system for liver transplantation (LT) may present a disadvantage for women by including serum creatinine, which is typically lower in females. Our objectives were to investigate gender disparities in outcomes among LT candidates and to assess a revised MELD, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), for predicting waiting list mortality. Adults registered for LT between 2002 and 2007 were identified using the UNOS database. We compared components of MELD, MDRD-derived eGFR, and the 3-month probability of LT and death between genders. Discrimination of MELD, MELDNa, and revised models including eGFR for mortality were compared using c-statistics. A total of 40,393 patients (36% female) met the inclusion criteria; 9% died and 24% underwent LT within 3 months of listing. Compared with men, women had lower median serum creatinine (0.9 vs. 1.0 mg/dl), eGFR (72 vs. 83 ml/min/1.73 m(2)), and mean MELD (16.5 vs. 17.2; all p discrimination for 3-month mortality (c-statistics: MELD 0.896, MELD-eGFR 0.894, MELDNa 0.911, MELDNa-eGFR 0.905). Women are disadvantaged under MELD potentially due to its inclusion of creatinine. However, since including eGFR in MELD does not improve mortality prediction, alternative refinements are necessary. Copyright © 2010 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Robot Facial Characteristics and Gender in Persuasive Human-Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimi S. Ghazali

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing interest in social robotics makes it relevant to examine the potential of robots as persuasive agents and, more specifically, to examine how robot characteristics influence the way people experience such interactions and comply with the persuasive attempts by robots. The purpose of this research is to identify how the (ostensible gender and the facial characteristics of a robot influence the extent to which people trust it and the psychological reactance they experience from its persuasive attempts. This paper reports a laboratory study where SociBot™, a robot capable of displaying different faces and dynamic social cues, delivered persuasive messages to participants while playing a game. In-game choice behavior was logged, and trust and reactance toward the advisor were measured using questionnaires. Results show that a robotic advisor with upturned eyebrows and lips (features that people tend to trust more in humans is more persuasive, evokes more trust, and less psychological reactance compared to one displaying eyebrows pointing down and lips curled downwards at the edges (facial characteristics typically not trusted in humans. Gender of the robot did not affect trust, but participants experienced higher psychological reactance when interacting with a robot of the opposite gender. Remarkably, mediation analysis showed that liking of the robot fully mediates the influence of facial characteristics on trusting beliefs and psychological reactance. Also, psychological reactance was a strong and reliable predictor of trusting beliefs but not of trusting behavior. These results suggest robots that are intended to influence human behavior should be designed to have facial characteristics we trust in humans and could be personalized to have the same gender as the user. Furthermore, personalization and adaptation techniques designed to make people like the robot more may help ensure they will also trust the robot.

  13. Obesity paradox in heart failure patients – Female gender characteristics-KAMC-single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeren Khaled

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Our findings showed that heart failure patients with low BMI had poor adverse clinical outcome measures (poor EF, recurrent readmission, mortality and composite rates of CVA, TIA and unexplained syncope which reflect the effect of obesity paradox in those patients with HFrEF. Female patient subgroup showed similar characteristic findings which also might reflect the value of gender-specific BMI related clinical outcomes.

  14. Social Licence to Operate through a gender lens : The challenges of including women’s interests in development assistance projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijelava, David; Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses the concept of social licence to operate from a gender perspective. We examine the challenges associated with obtaining a gender-aware social licence for development assistance organizations working in conservative, traditional rural societies. We argue that during project

  15. Associations between eating occasion characteristics and age, gender, presence of children and BMI among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Degeneffe, Dennis; Rendahl, Aaron; Smith Edge, Marianne; Burns, Katie; O'Meara, Brian; Blevins, Greg

    2014-01-01

    To describe how frequency and characteristics of traditional meal and non-meal occasions vary by age, gender, presence of children, and body mass index (BMI). A cross-sectional survey was administered to a national demographically balanced sample of adults via an online market research panel. Online survey. Survey respondents were in the 18- to 80-year-old age range and had consumed any food or beverage at home or away from home the previous day. The sample included 2702 adults reporting on 6689 eating/drinking occasions. Most (80.3%) had no children at home; 43.5% were male and about two thirds were overweight/obese. Eating occasion characteristics and goals by age, gender, presence of children, and BMI. Older respondents were more likely to report planning traditional meal occasions and report on a breakfast occasion than younger respondents. Two prominent reasons that triggered consumption occasions were habit and hunger/thirst with one dominant benefit of satisfying hunger or thirst. Habit and nutrition played a larger role as a goal for eating occasions for older compared to younger respondents. When children were present in the household, respondents had a goal of connecting with "family, friends, or colleagues" at dinner compared to those without children. Few gender differences were noted; however, women more often reported goals of satisfying hunger/thirst and taste at lunch than men. BMI levels were related to a range of triggers, goals, and behaviors but not as prominently as the relationships observed with age. Those with BMI ≥ 30 were less health conscious regarding dinner and breakfast consumption compared to those with a lower BMI. Among demographic variables, age differences were noted in relation to eating occasion characteristics more often than other demographic characteristics or BMI. Understanding these differences can be beneficial in tailoring promotion of healthful intake at specific eating occasions for particular subgroups.

  16. Clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Sanliurfa City of Turkey including Syrian refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Koçarslan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in the city of Sanliurfa in Turkey, where Syrian refugees also reside. Materials and Methods: At the Harran University Hospital outpatient clinics between 2012 and 2013, 54 CL cases, including 24 Syrian patients, underwent punch biopsy of the skin and/or a touch imprint. Patients in whom leishmania parasites were detected were included in the study. The clinical and histopathological data of the patients were obtained by a review of the patients′ medical records. All the slides of each patient were re-evaluated histopathologically. Results: Fifty-four cases (mean age; 17 ± 12 years, consisting of 32 males (59.3% and 22 females (40.7%, were examined. The most common site of involvement was the face (63%. The most common presentation was noduloulcerative lesions (57.4%. Histopathologically, the majority of the cases exhibited hyperkeratosis, follicular plugging of the epidermis, chronic inflammatory infiltration, leishmania amastigotes and non-caseating granulomatous inflammation in the dermis. Conclusion: CL presents with a wide spectrum of expression, both clinically and histologically, and may mimic other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. The diagnosis of CL relies on the identification of leishmania amastigotes in either a direct smear of the lesion or in a tissue section.

  17. Clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Sanliurfa City of Turkey including Syrian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçarslan, Sezen; Turan, Enver; Ekinci, Turan; Yesilova, Yavuz; Apari, Rabia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the clinical and histopathological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the city of Sanliurfa in Turkey, where Syrian refugees also reside. At the Harran University Hospital outpatient clinics between 2012 and 2013, 54 CL cases, including 24 Syrian patients, underwent punch biopsy of the skin and/or a touch imprint. Patients in whom leishmania parasites were detected were included in the study. The clinical and histopathological data of the patients were obtained by a review of the patients' medical records. All the slides of each patient were re-evaluated histopathologically. Fifty-four cases (mean age; 17 ± 12 years), consisting of 32 males (59.3%) and 22 females (40.7%), were examined. The most common site of involvement was the face (63%). The most common presentation was noduloulcerative lesions (57.4%). Histopathologically, the majority of the cases exhibited hyperkeratosis, follicular plugging of the epidermis, chronic inflammatory infiltration, leishmania amastigotes and non-caseating granulomatous inflammation in the dermis. CL presents with a wide spectrum of expression, both clinically and histologically, and may mimic other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. The diagnosis of CL relies on the identification of leishmania amastigotes in either a direct smear of the lesion or in a tissue section.

  18. Gender, Parenthood and Wage Differences: The Importance of Time-Consuming Job Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Charlotta; Nermo, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (2000, 2010), we investigate how the gender wage gap varies with occupational prestige and family status and also examine the extent to which this gap is explained by time-consuming working conditions. In addition, we investigate whether there is an association between parenthood, job characteristics and wage (as differentiated by gender). The analyses indicate that there are gender differences regarding prestige-based pay-offs among parents that are partly explained by fathers' greater access to employment characterized by time-consuming conditions. Separate analyses for men and women demonstrate the presence of a marriage wage premium for both genders, although only men have a parenthood wage premium. This fatherhood premium is however only present in high-prestigious occupations. Compared with childless men, fathers are also more advantaged in terms of access to jobs with time-consuming working conditions, but the wage gap between fathers and childless men is not explained by differences in access to such working conditions.

  19. Eyewitness Testimony for a Simulated Juvenile Crime by Male and Female Criminals with Consistent or Inconsistent Gender-Role Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lauren R.

    2009-01-01

    Eyewitness recall by 60 adolescents and 60 young adults in Experiment 1 and by 64 children and 63 preadolescents in Experiment 2 for a simulated theft in which gender-role characteristics and sex of criminal were manipulated (i.e., masculine male, feminine male, feminine female, masculine female) was investigated. Gender-role flexibility impacted…

  20. Gender and live weight on carcass and meat characteristics of donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hernández-Briano

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One hundred eighty-nine Catalan crossbreed donkeys (Equus africanus asinus were used to evaluate the effect of gender (gelding, n=106; or female, n=83 and live weight at slaughter (LW (kg, n=37 on carcass characteristics, non-carcass components and meat and fat color. Geldings had greater (P151kg. Meanwhile, the LW did not affect the color (L*, a* and b* values of subcutaneous fat (P>0.05. These results suggested that both gender and live weight should be considered when producing meat from donkeys. It is advisable to use geldings weighing more than 126kg at slaughter to obtain the greatest weight and carcass yield.

  1. Attenuation Characteristics of Strong Motions during the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes including Near-Field Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, H.; Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.; Ibrahim, R.

    2016-12-01

    During the two major earthquakes occurred in Kumamoto prefecture, at 21:26 on 14 April, 2016 (Mw 6.2, GCMT), and at 1:25 on 16 April, 2016 (Mw7.0, GCMT), a large number of strong ground motions were recorded, including those very close to the surface fault. In this study, we will discuss the attenuation characteristics of strong ground motions observed during the earthquakes. The data used in this study are mainly observed by K-NET, KiK-net, Osaka University, JMA and Kumamoto prefecture. The 5% damped acceleration response spectra (GMRotI50) are calculated based on the method proposed by Boore et al. (2006). PGA and PGV is defined as the larger one among the PGAs and PGVs of two horizontal components. The PGA, PGV, and GMRotI50 data were corrected to the bedrock with Vs of 1.5km/s based on the method proposed by Si et al. (2016) using the average shear wave velocity (Vs30) and the thickness of sediments over the bedrock. The thickness is estimated based on the velocity structure model provided by J-SHIS. We use a source model proposed by Koketsu et al. (2016) to calculate the fault distance and the median distance (MED) which defined as the closest distance from a station to the median line of the fault plane (Si et al., 2014). We compared the observed PGAs, PGVs, and GMRotI50 with the GMPEs developed in Japan using MED (Si et al., 2014). The predictions by the GMPEs are generally consistent with the observations during the two Kumamoto earthquakes. The results of the comparison also indicated that, (1) strong motion records from the earthquake on April 14th are generally consistent with the predictions by GMPE, however, at the periods of 0.5 to 2 seconds, several records close to the fault plane show larger amplitudes than the predictions by GMPE, including the KiK-net station Mashiki (KMMH16); (2) for the earthquake on April 16, the PGAs and GMRotI50 at periods from 0.1s to 0.4s with short distance from the fault plane are slightly smaller than the predictions by

  2. Adolescents' Perceptions of Popularity-Motivated Behaviors, Characteristics, and Relationships in Cyberspace and Cyber Aggression: The Role of Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F

    2017-06-01

    Research is increasingly revealing that adolescents utilize electronic technologies to promote and/or maintain their social standing among their peer group. Little is known about whether adolescents' perceptions of popularity-motivated behaviors, characteristics, and relationships in cyberspace are associated with popularity-motivated cyber relational aggression. It is also unclear how gender might impact these associations, especially considering that adolescent girls and boys differ in regard to the type of behaviors, characteristics, and relationships they believe contribute to popularity. To this end, this study examined the potential moderating effect of gender on the association between adolescents' perceptions of popularity-motivated behaviors, characteristics, and relationships in cyberspace and their engagement in popularity-motivated cyber relational aggression over 1 year, from seventh to eighth grade. There were 217 eighth graders (51 percent female; M age = 12.13) from three middle schools in a large Midwestern city in the United States included in this research. They completed questionnaires on their popularity-motivated behaviors, characteristics, and relationships in cyberspace and their perpetration of popularity-motivated cyber relational aggression during the seventh grade. One year later, they completed the perpetration of popularity-motivated cyber relational aggression questionnaire. The results revealed that the association between popularity-motivated behaviors, characteristics, and relationships in cyberspace and the perpetration of popularity-motivated cyber relational aggression was stronger for girls, while such an association was not found for boys. These findings indicate the importance of considering cyberspace as an environment in which adolescents can enhance their social standing among peers from their school.

  3. The Effects of Sex and Gender-Role Characteristics on Facets of Sociosexuality in Heterosexual Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammsayer, Thomas H; Borter, Natalie; Troche, Stefan J

    2017-02-01

    The present study was designed to systematically investigate the functional relationships among biological sex; masculine and feminine gender-role characteristics; and sociosexual behavior, attitude toward, and desire for uncommitted casual sex as three facets of sociosexual orientation. For this purpose, facets of sociosexuality were assessed by the Revised Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI-R) and masculine and feminine gender-role characteristics were assessed by a revised German version of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory in 499 male and 958 female heterosexual young adults. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed differential mediating effects of masculine and feminine gender-role characteristics on the relationship between biological sex and the three facets of sociosexual orientation. Sociosexual behavior was shown to be primarily controlled by an individual's level of masculine gender-role characteristics irrespective of biological sex. Sociosexual desire was identified as being a sole function of biological sex with no indication for any effect of masculine or feminine gender-role characteristics, while sociosexual attitude was influenced by biological sex as well as by masculine and feminine gender-role characteristics to about the same extent.

  4. Gender Differences in Relations among Perceived Family Characteristics and Risky Health Behaviors in Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Carey, Kate B; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Eckert, Tanya L; Park, Aesoon; Vanable, Peter A; Ewart, Craig K; Carey, Michael P

    2017-06-01

    Research regarding the role of gender in relations between family characteristics and health risk behaviors has been limited. This study aims to investigate gender differences in associations between family processes and risk-taking in adolescents. Adolescents (N = 249; mean age = 14.5 years) starting their first year at an urban high school in the northeastern USA completed self-report measures that assessed family characteristics (i.e., parental monitoring, family social support, family conflict) and health behaviors (i.e., tobacco use, alcohol use, marijuana use, sex initiation) as part of a prospective, community-based study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate gender differences in associations between the family characteristics and health behaviors. Among males, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of using tobacco and having ever engaged in sex. Among females, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with lower odds of marijuana use, alcohol use, and having ever engaged in sex. However, in contrast to males, among females (a) higher levels of perceived family social support were associated with lower odds of alcohol use and having ever engaged in sex and (b) higher levels of perceived family conflict were associated with higher odds of marijuana use and having ever engaged in sex. Family processes were more strongly related to health behaviors among adolescent females than adolescent males. Interventions that increase parental monitoring and family social support as well as decrease family conflict may help to protect against adolescent risk taking, especially for females.

  5. Sexual and gender minority's social media user characteristics: Examining preferred health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojung; Rodgers, Shelly; McElroy, Jane A; Everett, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of social media involvement on health issues in sexual and gender minorities (SGMs). Demographic and technological characteristics of social media users and nonusers were identified, and the influence of social media involvement on these factors was assessed for its potential to influence health information needs and preferences. A survey of 2,274 SGM individuals revealed that age, sexual orientation, number of Internet access points, and use of smartphones predicted levels of social media involvement. Results suggest that a broader range of traditional and nontraditional communication channels is needed to meet a diversity of health information needs in SGMs.

  6. Baseline Physiologic and Psychosocial Characteristics of Transgender Youth Seeking Care for Gender Dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Johanna; Schrager, Sheree M; Belzer, Marvin; Simons, Lisa K; Clark, Leslie F

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe baseline characteristics of participants in a prospective observational study of transgender youth (aged 12-24 years) seeking care for gender dysphoria at a large, urban transgender youth clinic. Eligible participants presented consecutively for care at between February 2011 and June 2013 and completed a computer-assisted survey at their initial study visit. Physiologic data were abstracted from medical charts. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, with limited comparisons between transmasculine and transfeminine participants. A total of 101 youth were evaluated for physiologic parameters, 96 completed surveys assessing psychosocial parameters. About half (50.5%) of the youth were assigned a male sex at birth. Baseline physiologic values were within normal ranges for assigned sex at birth. Youth recognized gender incongruence at a mean age of 8.3 years (standard deviation = 4.5), yet disclosed to their family much later (mean = 17.1; standard deviation = 4.2). Gender dysphoria was high among all participants. Thirty-five percent of the participants reported depression symptoms in the clinical range. More than half of the youth reported having thought about suicide at least once in their lifetime, and nearly a third had made at least one attempt. Baseline physiologic parameters were within normal ranges for assigned sex at birth. Transgender youth are aware of the incongruence between their internal gender identity and their assigned sex at early ages. Prevalence of depression and suicidality demonstrates that youth may benefit from timely and appropriate intervention. Evaluation of these youth over time will help determine the impact of medical intervention and mental health therapy. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender-related effects of vision impairment characteristics on depression in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Won; Lee, Wanhyung; Yoon, Jin-Ha

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the gender-specific associations between perceived vision impairment and symptoms of depression. We used the data from the 2012 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging database of 7448 individuals aged 45 years and older. Questionnaires assessing depression symptoms and perceived visual impairment at near, distance, and in general were administered. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate if visual impairment could lead to depression, adjusting for the potential confounders of age, socioeconomic status (household income, education level, marital status, and employment status), and health behaviors (alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity level) after gender stratification. Perceived general and near vision impairment were significantly associated with symptoms of depression in males (odds ratio [OR] = 2.78 and 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.91-4.04 and 1.78-3.63). Perceived general and distance vision impairment were significantly associated with symptoms of depression in females (OR = 2.16 and 2.08; 95% CI, 1.67-2.79 and 1.61-2.69). General sight with near vision impairment in males and general sight with distance vision impairment in females could be stronger predictors of depression than other vision impairment combinations (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.6461; p = 0.0425 in males; AUROC, 0.6270; p = 0.0318 in females). Conclusion Gender differences were found in the characteristics of visual impairment on symptoms of depression. Ophthalmologists should be aware that near vision impairment in males and distance vision impairment in females have an adjunctive effect that might contribute to symptoms of depression.

  8. Career representations in high school pupils and students in relation to gender characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Sheveleva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a study of career representations in school and university students in relation to gender characteristics. The sample consisted of 36 students of XI grade and 40 students of I year of high school. We tested the hypothesis about relationship of career representations with gen-der characteristics of the subjects and their stage of professional development. The methods we used were “career anchors” by E. Schein, “Psychological gender” by S. Bem, survey “Professional career ideals" by A.M. Sheveleva. The statistical significance level of results was 0.05. It was re-vealed that, despite both school pupils and students preferred achievements, wealth and social recognition as the content of the ideal career, there are differences between the samples. Pupils are more focused on the “General managerial competence” and “Security/stability”, the students –on “Service/dedication to a cause” and “Technical/functional competence”. Regardless of sex, school pupils with an increase of masculinity have enhanced value of ”Pure challenge” orienta-tion and lowered value of the “Mode of Life” ideal career. The female students with increased femininity have higher importance of such content ideal career as “Experience Acquisition” and “Professional Path”, the value of career orientation “Autonomy/independence” is increased.

  9. Characteristics Expected in Fields of Higher Education and Gender Stereotypical Traits Related to Academic Success: A Mirror Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verniers, Catherine; Martinot, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether the content of a gender stereotype concerning general academic achievement matched the characteristics deemed to predict success in the fields of higher education dominated by women and men respectively. A sample of 207 undergraduate students rated the extent to which characteristics ascribed to…

  10. Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-05-15

    The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined

  11. Impact of age and gender on the clinicopathological characteristics of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the impact of age and gender on the clinicopathological characteristics of histologically confirmed bladder cancer in India. Materials and Methods: From January 2001 to June 2008, records of patients with bladder cancer were evaluated for age and gender at presentation, clinical symptoms, cystoscopic finding, history of smoking, and histopathological characteristics. A total of 561 patients were identified from the computer-based hospital information system and the case files of patients. Results: A total of 97% of the patients presented with painless hematuria. The mean age was 60.2 ± 4.4 years old (range: 18-90 years old and the male to female ratio was 8.6:1. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC was the most common histological variety, which was present in 97.71% (470 of 481 of the patients. A total of 26% of the patients had muscle invasive disease at the time of presentation. However, 34.5% (166 of 481 of the patients did not show any evidence of detrusor muscle in their biopsy specimen. In patients with nonmuscle-invasive bladder carcinoma, 55% had p Ta while 45% had p T1. Overall, 44.7% (215 of 481 of the patients had low-grade disease. Among patients younger than 60 years old, low-grade (51.0% vs. 38.1%; P = 0.006 and low-stage (77.1% vs. 70.8%; P = 0.119 disease were more prevalent than in patients older than 60 years old. The incidence of smoking was much higher among males compared with females (74% vs. 22%. Conclusion: TCC is the predominant cancer, with significant male preponderance among Indian patients. Younger-aged patients have low-grade disease. Hematuria is the most common presentation and greater awareness is needed not to overlook bladder cancer.

  12. Assessing CO2 Mitigation Options Utilizing Detailed Electricity Characteristics and Including Renewable Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaida, K.; Alie, Colin; Elkamel, A.; Almansoori, A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel techno-economic optimization model for assessing the effectiveness of CO2 mitigation options for the electricity generation sub-sector that includes renewable energy generation. The optimization problem was formulated as a MINLP model using the GAMS modeling system. The model seeks the minimization of the power generation costs under CO2 emission constraints by dispatching power from low CO2 emission-intensity units. The model considers the detailed operation of the electricity system to effectively assess the performance of GHG mitigation strategies and integrates load balancing, carbon capture and carbon taxes as methods for reducing CO2 emissions. Two case studies are discussed to analyze the benefits and challenges of the CO2 reduction methods in the electricity system. The proposed mitigations options would not only benefit the environment, but they will as well improve the marginal cost of producing energy which represents an advantage for stakeholders.

  13. [Histopathological characteristics of genital and breast cancer included in epidemiologic study cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Mioara; Azoicăi, Doina

    2009-01-01

    The correct management of genitals and breast cancers and the improving of the preventional and therapeutical successes ratio involve the knowledge of the histopathological features of these nosological entities which have different origins, different risk factors, different simptomatology and also different prognosis. The descriptive evaluation of the histopathological features of the genitals and breast cancers to women from North-Eastern region of Romania. We have been included in the study 96 women (age range 23-77 years, mean 54,49) diagnosed with breast cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer and cervical cancer at the hospital admission, residency in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics within 23 months. The following main parameters were assessed: histological types, stage at diagnosis, Pap test. After data collection, these have been codified and included in a MS Excel Database, in order to be processed with SPSS 16 and EpiInfo 3.5.1. (2008) Softwares. The following cases' repartition on diagnostic types was observed: breast cancer (44 cases), cervical cancer (24 cases), endometrial cancer (16 cases) and ovarian cancer (12 cases). In our study, the most affected range of age was 40-69 years for breast cancer, 30-59 years for cervical cancer, over 6 years for endometrial cancer and 50-59 years for ovarian cancer. For the cervical neoplasia, 40% of analyzed cases were in incipient stages (in situ to IB stage lessions). More than 50% of breast cancer cases have been diagnosed in advances stages (IIB to IIIC stages). For the endometrium carcinoma, 45% of cases have been identified in incipient stages (in situ to IC). The ovarian neoplasia cases have been detected, most frequently, in advanced stages (III and IV). 25% of women which participated in our study had showed cervical changes. From a histopathological point of view, for cervical neoplasia, squamous carcinoma was the most frequent type (87%), for breast neoplasia--invasive ductal carcinoma (80

  14. Characteristics of an β-N-Acetylhexosaminidase from Bacillus sp. CH11, Including its Transglycosylation Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakake, Masahiro; Amai, Yukari; Konishi, Mizuki; Ikehira, Kaho

    2018-04-06

    β-N-Acetylhexosaminidase was identified from Bacillus sp. CH11 and found to have relatively high transferring activity. In this study, its enzymatic properties and transglycosylation activity including its acceptor specificity were investigated. Its molecular weight was estimated to be 90 kDa by SDS-PAGE and its optimal pH was approximately 7 with good stability from pH 6 to 8. Its optimal temperature was 40 °C, and its activity was stable at temperatures of up to 40 °C. To analyze its acceptor specificity for transglycosylation, N, N'-diacetylchitobiose was used as a donor substrate and alcohols, sugar alcohols, sugars and polyphenols were used as acceptors. Dialcohols, which have 2 hydroxyl groups on the outside of the carbon chains, were good acceptors. The molecular size of the acceptor did not influence the transglycosylation up to at least 1,5-pentanediol (carbon number: C5). Glycerin (C3), erythritol (C4), and xylitol (C5), all small molecular weight sugar alcohols, had high acceptor specificity. Transglycosylation to mono- and disaccharides and polyphenols was not observed except for L-fucose. For the β-N-acetylhexosaminidase-catalyzed transglycosylation of chitin oligosaccharides and xylitol, the transfer product was identified as 1-O-β-D-N-acetylglucosaminyl xylitol. The optimal ratio of xylitol was 24% to 2% N, N'-diacetylchitobiose and 226 mg per 1 g N, N'-diacetylchitobiose was produced. CH11 β-N-acetylhexosaminidase efficiently produced 1-O-β-D-N-acetylglucosaminyl xylitol via transglycosylation. The new transfer products including 1-O-β-D-N-acetylglucosaminyl xylitol are attractive compounds for their potential physiological functions. 1-O-β-D-N-Acetylglucosaminyl xylitol was produced effectively from chitin-oligosaccharides and xylitol by β-N-acetylhexosaminidase from Bacillus sp. CH11. This enzyme may be useful for the development of food materials for health-related applications such as oligosaccharides with intestinal functions and

  15. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rocio; Makino, Hiroshi; Cetinyurek Yavuz, Aysun; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to support the

  16. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Martin

    Full Text Available Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to

  17. The relationship between gender role stereotypes and requisite managerial characteristics: the case of nursing and midwifery professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkery, Elaine; Tiernan, Siobhan; Morley, Michael

    2014-09-01

    To examine the relationship between gender role stereotypes and requisite managerial characteristics within the nursing and midwifery profession. Studies have been carried out to determine gender role stereotypes and requisite managerial characteristics across a number of industries and among student samples. No study has been carried out within the nursing and midwifery profession. In order to allow for direct comparisons with previous research Schein's Descriptive Index (SDI) was used. A total 239 undergraduate and 171 postexperience responses were collected. Female nurses and midwives did not gender type the managerial role, whereas males gender typed the managerial role in favour of men. Student nurses and midwives recorded a stronger correlation between women and management than their qualified counterparts. Males gender typed the managerial role in favour of men. With an increase in numbers of men joining the profession and increased representation of males at the Clinical Nurse Manager (CMN) level there is a possibility that the profession will become two tiered. Health care organisations should pay careful consideration to career development and implement career structures which ensure equal access to managerial roles for both genders. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Doing Gender Online: New Mothers’ Psychological Characteristics, Facebook Use, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Yavorsky, Jill E.; Bartholomew, Mitchell K.; Sullivan, Jason M.; Lee, Meghan A.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Glassman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Online social networking sites, such as Facebook, have provided a new platform for individuals to produce and reproduce gender through social interactions. New mothers, in particular, may use Facebook to practice behaviors that align with their mothering identity and meet broader societal expectations, or in other words, to “do motherhood.” Given that Facebook use may undermine well-being, it is important to understand the individual differences underlying new mothers’ experiences with Facebook during the stressful first months of parenthood. Using survey data from a sample of 127 new mothers with Facebook accounts residing in the U.S. Midwest, we addressed two key questions: (a) Are individual differences in new mothers’ psychological characteristics associated with their use and experiences of Facebook? and (b) Are new mothers’ psychological characteristics associated with greater risk for depressive symptoms via their use and experiences of Facebook? Regression analyses revealed that mothers who were more concerned with external validation of their identities as mothers and those who believed that society holds them to excessively high standards for parenting engaged in more frequent Facebook activity and also reported stronger emotional reactions to Facebook commentary. Moreover, mothers who were more concerned with external validation were more likely to have featured their child in their Facebook profile picture. Mediation analyses indicated that mothers who were more prone to seeking external validation for their mothering identity and perfectionistic about parenting experienced increases in depressive symptoms indirectly via greater Facebook activity. PMID:28239228

  19. Doing Gender Online: New Mothers' Psychological Characteristics, Facebook Use, and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Yavorsky, Jill E; Bartholomew, Mitchell K; Sullivan, Jason M; Lee, Meghan A; Kamp Dush, Claire M; Glassman, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Online social networking sites, such as Facebook, have provided a new platform for individuals to produce and reproduce gender through social interactions. New mothers, in particular, may use Facebook to practice behaviors that align with their mothering identity and meet broader societal expectations, or in other words, to "do motherhood." Given that Facebook use may undermine well-being, it is important to understand the individual differences underlying new mothers' experiences with Facebook during the stressful first months of parenthood. Using survey data from a sample of 127 new mothers with Facebook accounts residing in the U.S. Midwest, we addressed two key questions: (a) Are individual differences in new mothers' psychological characteristics associated with their use and experiences of Facebook? and (b) Are new mothers' psychological characteristics associated with greater risk for depressive symptoms via their use and experiences of Facebook? Regression analyses revealed that mothers who were more concerned with external validation of their identities as mothers and those who believed that society holds them to excessively high standards for parenting engaged in more frequent Facebook activity and also reported stronger emotional reactions to Facebook commentary. Moreover, mothers who were more concerned with external validation were more likely to have featured their child in their Facebook profile picture. Mediation analyses indicated that mothers who were more prone to seeking external validation for their mothering identity and perfectionistic about parenting experienced increases in depressive symptoms indirectly via greater Facebook activity.

  20. Gender differences of foot characteristics in older Japanese adults using a 3D foot scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Mahshid; Kitano, Naruki; Okura, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of gender differences in foot shape assists shoe manufactures with designing appropriate shoes for men and women. Although gender differences in foot shapes are relatively known among young men and women, less is known about how the older men and women's feet differ in shape. A recent development in foot shape assessment is the use of 3D foot scanners. To our knowledge this technology has yet to be used to examine gender differences in foot shape of Japanese older adults. This cross-sectional study included 151 older men (74.5 ± 5.6 years) and 140 older women (73.9 ± 5.1 years) recruited in Kasama City, Japan. Foot variables were measured in sitting and standing positions using Dream GP Incorporated's 3D foot scanner, Footstep PRO (Osaka, Japan). Scores were analyzed as both raw and normalized to truncated foot length using independent samples t-test and analysis of covariance, respectively. In men, the measurement values for navicular height, first and fifth toe and instep heights, ball and heel width, ball girth, arch height index (just standing), arch rigidity index and instep girth were significantly greater than the women's, whereas the first toe angle, in both sitting and standing positions was significantly smaller. However, after normalizing, the differences in ball width, heel width, height of first and fifth toes in both sitting and standing and ball girth in sitting position were nonsignificant. According to Cohen's d, among all the foot variables, the following had large effect sizes in both sitting and standing positions: truncated foot length, instep, navicular height, foot length, ball girth, ball width, heel width and instep girth. This study provides evidence of anthropometric foot variations between older men and women. These differences need to be considered when manufacturing shoes for older adults.

  1. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994–2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  2. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Hartmann

    Full Text Available The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994-2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader

  3. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Miriam; Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994-2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  4. Another Look at Sex Differences in Preferred Mate Characteristics: The Effects of Endorsing the Traditional Female Gender Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesen-Schmidt, Mary C.; Eagly, Alice H.

    2002-01-01

    This research used an individual differences approach to test Eagly and Wood's (1999) claim that sex differences in the characteristics that people prefer in mates reflect the tendency for men and women to occupy different social roles in a society. The study related the extent to which participants endorsed the traditional female gender role to…

  5. Gender differences in the jealousy-evoking effect of rival characteristics : A study in Spain and Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Castro Solano, Alejandro; Zurriaga, Rosario; Gonzalez, Pilar

    This study examines gender differences in the jealousy-evoking nature of rival characteristics in two Spanish-speaking countries (Argentina and Spain). A total of 388 Spanish students and 444 Argentinean students participated in the study. First, the cross-cultural validity of a Dutch scale

  6. Obesity paradox in heart failure patients - Female gender characteristics-KAMC-single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Sheeren; Matahen, Rajaa

    2017-09-01

    The correlation between low body mass index (BMI) and congestive heart failure (obesity paradox) has been described in the literature; However, the association between BMI and clinical outcome measures is not well characterized. Little is known about CHF in the Middle Eastern female population; most of the gender-specific information on heart failure comes from higher income "Western" countries. We aimed to identify the correlation between heart failure patients especially those with low BMI and clinical/safety outcome measures with focusing on female patients subgroup characteristics. We performed group comparisons of statistically relevant variables using prospectively collected data of HFrEF patients hospitalized over a 12 month period. The 167 patients (Group I) enrolled by this study with mean age of 59.64 ± 12.9 years, an EF score of 23.96 ± 10.14, 62.9% had ischemic etiology, 12.5% were smoker, 18% had AF, 31.1% had received ICD/CRT-D and an estimated 8.85 ± 9.5 days length of stay (LOS). The low BMI group of patients (Group II) had means age of 58.7 ± 14.5 years, a significant lower EF score of 20.32 ± 8.58, significantly higher 30, 90 days readmission rates and in-house mortality (22%, 36.6% and 17.1% vs 10.2%, 20.4% and 6.6% respectively) and higher rates of CVA, TIA and unexplained syncope (19.5% vs 7.2%). Similarly, female patients with low BMI (Group IV) had lower EF score of 22.0 ± 53, higher 30,90 days readmission rates and in-house mortality (34.4%,43.8% and 25% vs 13.5%,21.6% and 5.4% respectively) and higher rates of CVA, TIA and unexplained syncope(10% vs 0%). Our findings showed that heart failure patients with low BMI had poor adverse clinical outcome measures (poor EF, recurrent readmission, mortality and composite rates of CVA, TIA and unexplained syncope) which reflect the effect of obesity paradox in those patients with HFrEF. Female patient subgroup showed similar characteristic findings which also might reflect the

  7. Work, family, and personal characteristics explain occupational and gender differences in work-family conflict among Japanese civil servants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, U; Sekine, M; Yamada, M; Tatsuse, T

    2017-12-01

    A high level of work-family conflict (WFC) is an important risk factor for physical and mental health problems. Although individual work-related factors for WFC have been extensively studied, relatively little is known about whether occupation and gender affect WFC and how such effects might be generated. Cross-sectional study. This study surveyed 3053 civil servants aged 20-65 years working in a local government in the west coast of Japan in 2003. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether there are occupational and gender differences in WFC and to clarify the factors underlying these differences. WFC was higher in professional and technical workers compared with other occupations for both men and women, with age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for these workers of 1.29 in men and 2.58 in women. In men, occupational differences in WFC disappeared after adjusting for work and family characteristics (OR = 1.15). In women, significant occupational differences remained in the final model, but after adjusting for work characteristics the adjusted OR for professional and technical workers was reduced to 1.69. Women were more likely than men to experience high WFC (OR = 2.52). After controlling for work characteristics, the gender difference was considerably reduced (OR = 1.68). Work characteristics play a fundamental role in the difference in WFC between not only occupational but also gender differences. Stressful work characteristics among professional and technical workers and among women in all work roles should be addressed to reduce occupational and gender differences in WFC in Japan. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Women victims of gender violence in shelters: Sociodemographic and maltreatment characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liria Fernández-González

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on the profiles of women victims of gender violence in shelters is scarce. This study aimed to describe the sociodemographic and abuse characteristics of this group, as well as to analyze changes in the study variables over the last 10 years. A descriptive study was conducted using the document analysis technique. The sample consisted of records of women who had been assisted in two shelters of the Provincial Council of Bizkaia between 2006 and 2015, an emergency shelter (n = 834 and a medium-long stay shelter (n = 84. The results indicate that, in general, the user of these shelters is a young woman, in more than half of the cases a foreigner, with few socioeconomic resources and a history of long-term abuse. Many women had experienced poly-victimization and repeated victimization. The most substantial changes in the past ten years were found for the country of origin and work and economic situation in the emergency center, as well as the time spent at the center. The results have implications for improving interventions.

  9. Gender differences in the clinical characteristics of traumatic spinal fractures among the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Xiang, Liangbi; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Yue; Ou, Lan

    2014-01-01

    In order to illustrate the epidemiology of traumatic spinal fractures among the elderly, with an emphasis on exploring gender differences in clinical characteristics, we retrospectively reviewed hospital records on all elderly patients with traumatic spinal fractures who were 60 years of age or older at two university-affiliated hospitals between January 2001 and December 2010. A total of 642 elderly patients with traumatic spinal fractures were identified, of whom 249 were male and 393 were female. Accidental falls from low heights were the most common cause of traumatic spinal fractures among the elderly (50.8%). Frequencies of falls from high heights and direct collisions with a blunt object were significantly higher in male than in female elderly patients (Pspinal fractures, spinal cord injuries, associated non-spinal injuries (ASOIs) and mean injury severity scores (ISSs) were significantly higher in males than in females (Pspinal fractures in females were significantly higher than in males (Pspinal fractures among the elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Socioeconomic and gender inequalities in job dissatisfaction among Japanese civil servants: the roles of work, family and personality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Cable, Noriko; Chandola, Tarani; Marmot, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study examines (1) whether there are employment grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction and (2) whether work, family, and personality characteristics explain grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction. The participants were 3,812 civil servants, aged 20-65, working at a local government in Japan. In both males and females, low control, low social support, work-to-family conflict, type A behaviour pattern and negative affectivity were significantly associated with job dissatisfaction. In females, high demands, long work hours and being unmarried were also associated with job dissatisfaction. Among males, in comparison with the highest grade employees, the age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for job dissatisfaction in the lowest grade employees was 1.90 (95% CI: 1.40-2.59). The grade differences reduced to 1.08 (0.76-1.54) after adjustment for work, family and personality characteristics. Among females, similar grade differences were observed, although the differences were not statistically significant. In comparison with males, the age-adjusted OR in females for job dissatisfaction was 1.32 (1.14-1.52). This gender difference was reduced to 0.95 (0.79-1.14) following adjustment for the other factors. The majority of employees belong to low to middle grades, and female employees have increased. Reducing grade and gender differences in work and family characteristics is needed.

  11. Socioeconomic and Gender Inequalities in Job Dissatisfaction among Japanese Civil Servants: The Roles of Work, Family and Personality Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEKINE, Michikazu; TATSUSE, Takashi; CABLE, Noriko; CHANDOLA, Tarani; MARMOT, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This study examines (1) whether there are employment grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction and (2) whether work, family, and personality characteristics explain grade and gender differences in job dissatisfaction. The participants were 3,812 civil servants, aged 20–65, working at a local government in Japan. In both males and females, low control, low social support, work-to-family conflict, type A behaviour pattern and negative affectivity were significantly associated with job dissatisfaction. In females, high demands, long work hours and being unmarried were also associated with job dissatisfaction. Among males, in comparison with the highest grade employees, the age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for job dissatisfaction in the lowest grade employees was 1.90 (95% CI: 1.40–2.59). The grade differences reduced to 1.08 (0.76–1.54) after adjustment for work, family and personality characteristics. Among females, similar grade differences were observed, although the differences were not statistically significant. In comparison with males, the age-adjusted OR in females for job dissatisfaction was 1.32 (1.14–1.52). This gender difference was reduced to 0.95 (0.79–1.14) following adjustment for the other factors. The majority of employees belong to low to middle grades, and female employees have increased. Reducing grade and gender differences in work and family characteristics is needed. PMID:25055848

  12. Student Socioeconomic Status and Gender: Impacts on School Counselors' Ratings of Student Personal Characteristics and School Counselors' Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glance, Dorea E.

    2012-01-01

    This research focused on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of student personal characteristics and school counselor self-efficacy. While previous literature focuses on how students' socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors' ratings of academic characteristics such as…

  13. A quasi-static algorithm that includes effects of characteristic time scales for simulating failures in brittle materials

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jinxing

    2013-04-24

    When the brittle heterogeneous material is simulated via lattice models, the quasi-static failure depends on the relative magnitudes of Telem, the characteristic releasing time of the internal forces of the broken elements and Tlattice, the characteristic relaxation time of the lattice, both of which are infinitesimal compared with Tload, the characteristic loading period. The load-unload (L-U) method is used for one extreme, Telem << Tlattice, whereas the force-release (F-R) method is used for the other, Telem T lattice. For cases between the above two extremes, we develop a new algorithm by combining the L-U and the F-R trial displacement fields to construct the new trial field. As a result, our algorithm includes both L-U and F-R failure characteristics, which allows us to observe the influence of the ratio of Telem to Tlattice by adjusting their contributions in the trial displacement field. Therefore, the material dependence of the snap-back instabilities is implemented by introducing one snap-back parameter γ. Although in principle catastrophic failures can hardly be predicted accurately without knowing all microstructural information, effects of γ can be captured by numerical simulations conducted on samples with exactly the same microstructure but different γs. Such a same-specimen-based study shows how the lattice behaves along with the changing ratio of the L-U and F-R components. © 2013 The Author(s).

  14. [Actuals of the treatment for gender identity disorder at puberty: introducing the suppression of secondary sexual characteristics from psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Jun

    2013-01-01

    We have treated young patients who feel gender dysphoria to help them accept their feelings of disconnection. We tell them that such feelings of disconnection are never strange, so they do not have to be suppressed, and can be expressed. To do that, the most important thing is that their parents firmly accept the situation, whereas they are the ones who also feel the most anxious. We need to provide psychological support carefully. The first major hurdle for children who have gender dysphoria is elementary school, even if parents are accepting. In elementary school, even children can distinguish beween male and female, and there are many situations where there is separation by gender in school events, so it is difficult to realize the expression of disconnection without school support. Therefore, understanding by school teachers is needed. When a school shows understanding, parental anxiety is alleviated. When a teacher provides firm support, children around them are more likely to accept the situation. Accordingly, support for children who have gender dysphoria consists of three pillars. The first of these is to help children accept their feelings of gender dysphoria and feel that they can be expressed. The second is to help their parents accept gender dysphoria and create an environment where it can be expressed. The third is to encourage schools to actively create such an environment. To deal with concrete problems which children face by providing these approaches promptly assists in promoting the social growth of children. Even if children feeling gender dysphoria have active school lives with such support, they face the following major hurdle : the secondary sexual characteristics. It has been reported in not only foreign countries but also Japan that there are many children who become mentally unbalanced and enter a maladaptive state, such as truancy and self-injury, on secondary sexual development. In the West, it has been reported that suppressive therapy

  15. [Data-mining characteristics of adverse drug reactions and pharmacovi-gilance of Chinese patent drugs including Aconitum herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Li, Fan; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Xiao-Fen; Piao, Jing-Zhu

    2018-01-01

    The common Aconitum herbs in clinical application mainly include Aconiti Radix(Chuanwu), Aconiti Kusnezoffii Radix(Caowu) and Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia(Fuzi), all of which have toxicity. Therefore, the safety of using Chinese patent drugs including Aconitum herbs has become an hot topic in clinical controversy. Based on the data-mining methods, this study explored the characteristics and causes of adverse drug reactions/events (ADR/ADE) of the Chinese patent drugs including Aconitum, in order to provide pharmacovigilance and rational drug use suggestions for clinical application. The detailed ADR/ADE reports about the Chinese patent drugs including Aconitum herbs were retrieved in the domestic literature databases since 1984 to now. The information extraction and data-mining were conducted based on the platforms of Microsoft office Excel 2016, Clementine 12.0 and Cytoscape 3.3.0. Finally, 78 detailed ADR/ADE reports involving a total of 30 varieties were included. 92.31% ADR/ADE were surely or likely led by the Chinese patent drugs including Aconitum, mostly involving multiple system/organ damages with good prognosis, and even 1 case of death. The incidence of included ADRs/ADEs was associated with various factors such as the patient idiosyncratic, drug toxicity, as well as clinical medication. The patient age was most closely related to ADR/ADEs, and those aged from 60 to 69 were more easily suffered from the ADRs/ADEs of Chinese patent drugs including Aconitum. The probability of ADR/ADEs for the drugs including Chuanwu or Caowu was greater than that of Fuzi, and the using beyond the instructions dose was the most important potential safety hazard in the clinical medication process. For the regular and characteristics of ADR/ADEs led by Chinese patent drugs including Aconitum, special attention shall be paid to the elder patients or with the patients with allergies; strictly control the dosage and course of treatment, strengthen the safety medication

  16. The negotiation of collective agreements in France: Challenges and characteristics of negotiating gender equality

    OpenAIRE

    Coron , Clotilde

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The negotiation of corporate agreements in France, the cornerstone of labor relations, has been the subject of much research. However, few address the issue of the process of the negotiation of a company agreement on gender equality, a theme that has been mandatory since the Génisson 2001 Act. This issue presents certain particularities (the transversal nature of gender equality across various Human Resource areas, legal framework obligations, etc.) that may affect the...

  17. Gender differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristic and the quality of life of Chinese schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu-Tao; Weng, Yong-Zhen; Leung, Chi-Ming; Tang, Wai-Kwong; Chan, Sandra S M; Wang, Chuan-Yue; Han, Bai; Ungvari, Gabor S

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the sociodemographic and clinical correlates of the gender of Chinese schizophrenia outpatients and their impact on patients quality of life (QOL). Two hundred and fifty-five clinically stable schizophrenia outpatients were randomly selected in Hong Kong. Counterparts matched according to gender, age, age at onset, and length of illness were recruited in Beijing, China. All of the subjects at both sites were interviewed by the same investigator using standardized assessment instruments. The combined Beijing-Hong Kong sample contained 251 male and 254 female patients. On univariate analysis more male patients were employed, they had a significantly higher monthly income, and took higher doses of antipsychotic drugs. No difference was found, however, in any of the QOL domains between the genders. On multivariate analysis being employed, taking a higher dose of antipsychotic drugs, having more severe extrapyramidal side-effects, and a higher score on the physical domain of QOL were independently associated with male gender. Female gender is independently associated with lower scores on the physical aspects of QOL, but there is no difference between the genders in the psychological, social and environmental aspects.

  18. PREVALENCE AND GENDER CHARACTERISTICS OF OBESITY IN ADOLESCENTS IN THE CITY OF PERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Ahmedova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, there is a well-publicised worldwide increase in obese patients. The origins of adult obesity, in the majority of cases, are in children. Objective: Our aim was to study the prevalence and gender features of excess weight and obesity in adolescents in Perm. Methods: The study included adolescents aged 13–14, living in the city of Perm. Medical examinations were compared in statistics from 2005 and 2013. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured on all children. Body mass index was calculated, as was a standard deviation coefficient. Sexual development was evaluated according to the criteria of Tanner. Results: 828 adolescents were viewed (444 in 2005 and 384 in 2013. The prevalence of overweight adolescents in 2005 was 12.5%, including 3.1% who were obese. In 2013, 20.3% of adolescents were diagnosed as overweight, with 5.5% being diagnosed as obese. Abdominal obesity to type was diagnosed in 52.4% of obese children. Over the past 8 years, the number of adolescents who are overweight and obese has increased by more than half. A statistically significant increase has beenrecorded for overweight adolescents (ᵪ2 = 5,16; p = 0,023. In adolescents with excess body weight, growth rates were higher than in those children with either normal body weight or obesity; these differences were statistically significant in boys (p = 0.016. The total score of puberty in boys who were overweight was statistically significantly higher than adolescents with normal body weight orobesity (p = 0.0116. Conclusion: The percentage of children who are overweight and obese hasincreased by 74% and 67%, respectively over an 8-year period, resulting ina statistically significant increase in relation to overweight children. There was a significant increase in the number of teenage girls who are overweight.

  19. A critical review on physical factors and functional characteristics that may explain a sex/gender difference in work-related neck/shoulder disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Julie N

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to critically review recent literature on physical and functional sex/gender (s/g) differences, with focus on physical determinants associated with neck/shoulder musculoskeletal injuries. It is well known that there are s/g differences in anthropometrical and functional body characteristics (e.g. size and strength). However, s/g differences may be wrongly attributed if data analysis does not include appropriate corrections (e.g. by strength for endurance). Recent literature on motor control shows that there may indeed be s/g differences in muscle coordination and movement strategies during upper limb tasks that are not currently explained by methodological inadequacies. Moreover, recent studies have shown differences between men and women in sensory hypersensitivity characteristics associated with neck/shoulder injuries. Taken together, the literature points to the importance of accounting for possible s/g differences at all levels of the biopsychosocial system in order to better understand sex- and gender-specific issues relevant to workplace health. This article critically reviews recent literature and a conceptual model highlighting s/g differences in physical and functional characteristics related to neck/shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (NSMSD). Findings have implications on understanding how personal factors may affect NSMSD risk. With better understanding, practitioners can make more appropriate decisions to prevent work-related NSMSD.

  20. Do physical and relational aggression explain adolescents' friendship selection? The competing roles of network characteristics, gender, and social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Berger, Christian; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2011-01-01

    The role of physical and relational aggression in adolescents' friendship selection was examined in a longitudinal sample of 274 Chilean students from 5th and 6th grade followed over 1 year. Longitudinal social network modeling (SIENA) was used to study selection processes for aggression while influence processes were controlled for. Furthermore, the effects of network characteristics (i.e., reciprocity and transitivity), gender, and social status on friendship selection were examined. The starting assumption of this study was that selection effects based on aggression might have been overestimated in previous research as a result of failing to consider influence processes and alternative characteristics that steer friendship formation. The results show that selection effects of both physical and relational aggression disappeared when network effects, gender, and social status were taken into account. Particularly gender and perceived popularity appeared to be far more important determinants of friendship selection over time than aggression. Moreover, a peer influence effect was only found for relational aggression, and not for physical aggression. These findings suggest that similarity in aggression among befriended adolescents can be considered to be mainly a by-product rather than a leading dimension in friendship selection. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. The Gender Wage Gap in France: the Role of Non-Cognitive Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Bensidoun, Isabelle; Trancart, Danièle

    2015-01-01

    (english) Differences between men and women in non-cognitive skills could be the reason why the gender gap closing didn’t improve since the middle of the nineties. To investigate this issue in the case of France we used the "Génération 1998 à 10 ans" database conducted by the Céreq. This survey provides information on gender preferences differences in terms of career versus family, risk attitudes or the vision individuals have of their professional futures. As these non-cognitive factors are ...

  2. Baseline characteristics of patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction included in the Karolinska Rennes (KaRen) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donal, Erwan; Lund, Lars H; Oger, Emmanuel; Hage, Camilla; Persson, Hans; Reynaud, Amélie; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Bauer, Fabrice; Sportouch-Dukhan, Catherine; Drouet, Elodie; Daubert, Jean-Claude; Linde, Cecilia

    2014-02-01

    Karolinska Rennes (KaRen) is a prospective observational study to characterize heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and to identify prognostic factors for long-term mortality and morbidity. To report characteristics and echocardiography at entry and after 4-8 weeks of follow-up. Patients were included following an acute heart failure presentation with B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)>100 ng/L or N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP)>300 ng/L and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)>45%. The mean ± SD age of 539 included patients was 77 ± 9 years and 56% were women. Patient history included hypertension (78%), atrial tachyarrhythmia (44%), prior heart failure (40%) and anemia (37%), but left bundle branch block was rare (3.8%). Median NT-proBNP was 2448 ng/L (n=438), and median BNP 429 ng/L (n=101). Overall, 101 patients did not return for the follow-up visit, including 13 patients who died (2.4%). Apart from older age (80 ± 9 vs. 76 ± 9 years; P=0.006), there were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between patients who did and did not return for follow-up. Mean LVEF was lower at entry than follow-up (56% vs. 62%; P<0.001). At follow-up, mean E/e' was 12.9 ± 6.1, left atrial volume index 49.4±17.8mL/m(2). Mean global left ventricular longitudinal strain was -14.6 ± 3.9%; LV mass index was 126.6 ± 36.2g/m(2). Patients in KaRen were old with slight female dominance and hypertension as the most prevalent etiological factor. LVEF was preserved, but with increased LV mass and depressed LV diastolic and longitudinal systolic functions. Few patients had signs of electrical dyssynchrony (ClinicalTrials.gov.- NCT00774709). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. A DOUBLE-CENTER RETROSPECTIVE 5 YEARS SURVEY OF 385 CABG CASES COMPARING GENDER CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Karimi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality especially in the indusirialzcd societies. This retrospective study was carried out on 385 patients who were referred to Shariati and Jamaran Hospitals from 1992 till 1997 and who underwent coronaty artery bypass grafting. The objective was to obtain a descriptive analysis of the important factors in this population and to draw a comparison betweent the two genders and to draw genders regarding these variables. The data were obtained from patients' files, angiography and operation notes; 82.9% of the study population were of male. The mean age of women was higher than men by 2.2years. The most common risk factors among the male gender were found to be smoking, hyperlipedemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Except for smoking which was omitted in women, all other risk factors showed a comparative low prevalence in this gender. Most patients (93.37% fell in group II and III of functional class as per NYHA classification and the most frequent signs and symptoms on admission being chest pain (81.5% and dyspnea (11.2%. The affected vessels in order of frequency were the left anterior descending, the right coronary and the circumflex arteries respectively. The average number of grafts utilized were 3 in the entire population. Overall mortality recorded was 2.1%.

  4. Gender classification in children based on speech characteristics: using fundamental and formant frequencies of Malay vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourmand, Alireza; Ting, Hua-Nong; Mirhassani, Seyed Mostafa

    2013-03-01

    Speech is one of the prevalent communication mediums for humans. Identifying the gender of a child speaker based on his/her speech is crucial in telecommunication and speech therapy. This article investigates the use of fundamental and formant frequencies from sustained vowel phonation to distinguish the gender of Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years. The Euclidean minimum distance and multilayer perceptron were used to classify the gender of 360 Malay children based on different combinations of fundamental and formant frequencies (F0, F1, F2, and F3). The Euclidean minimum distance with normalized frequency data achieved a classification accuracy of 79.44%, which was higher than that of the nonnormalized frequency data. Age-dependent modeling was used to improve the accuracy of gender classification. The Euclidean distance method obtained 84.17% based on the optimal classification accuracy for all age groups. The accuracy was further increased to 99.81% using multilayer perceptron based on mel-frequency cepstral coefficients. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex differences in gender characteristics of Australian nurses and male engineers: a comparative cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Fisher, Murray

    2011-08-01

    There continue to be assumptions within the nursing literature that nursing is synonymous with a feminine sex role identity. A comparative cross-sectional survey consisting of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and the Australian sex role scale was used to determine sex difference in gender characteristics of Australian nurses and with male engineers. A statistically significant difference in femininity was found between all the samples (F((2,908)) = 20.24, p orientation (t = 27.67) and self display (t = 12.42). Whilst differences in expressive characteristics were found between male and female nurses, a similar difference was found between male nurses and male engineers, supporting the notion that male nurses perceive themselves as having feminine characteristics essentially required for nursing.

  6. The relationship between the TMJ internal derangement state including rotational displacement and perforation and the clinical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hwan Seok; You Dong Soo

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to reveal the correlationship between the internal derangement state of TMJ and clinical characteristics including pain and mandibular dysfuntion. One hundred and twenty five subjects with TMJ signs and symptoms were chosen for two years. The level of pain and mandibular dysfuntion were evaluated by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Craniomandibular Index (CMI). The diagnostic categories of TMJ internal derangement were determined by arthrography and they included normal disc position, anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDR), rotational disc displacement with reduction (RDDR), andterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDNR), and rotational disc displacement without reduction (RDDNR). Also disc perforation was used as a criteria to divide the diagnostic subgroups. The obtained results were as follows ; 1. The patient distribution of each group was 5 in normal disc position (4%), 40 in ADDR (32%), 30 in RDDR (24%), 34 in ADDNR (27%), and 16 in RDDNR (13%). 2. Perforation was observed in 8% of ADDR, 10% of RDDR, 32% of ADDNR, and 19% of RDDNR. 3. CMI of perforation group was higher than that of reduction or normal group(p 0.05).

  7. Identification of hazardous drinking with the Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire: Relative operating characteristics as a function of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jennifer P; Haas, Amie L; Radomski, Sharon; Wickham, Robert E; Borish, Sarah E

    2016-10-01

    Heavy and problematic drinking is common on college campuses and is associated with myriad hazardous outcomes. The Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (YAACQ; Read et al., 2006) was developed to provide comprehensive and expedient assessment of negative consequences of young adult drinking and has been used in a number of research and clinical settings. To date, no empirically derived cutoffs for the YAACQ have been available for use in the identification of those drinkers at greatest risk. This was the objective of the present study. In a large (N = 1,311) and demographically heterogeneous multisite sample, we identified cutoff scores for the YAACQ, and the contrasted detection of hazardous drinking using these cutoffs with those recommended for the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). We also examined whether cutoffs differed by gender. Results of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis yielded cutoffs that delineate 3 levels (or zones) of hazardous drinking risk: low, moderate, and high. A cutoff of 8 differentiated those at low risk from those at moderate risk or greater, and a cutoff of 16 differentiated between moderate and high risk. These zones corresponded to other indices of risky drinking, including heavy episodic "binge" drinking, more frequent alcohol consumption, and engagement in alcohol risk behaviors. Scores differentiating low to moderate risk differed for men (8) and women (10), whereas the cutoff for high risk was the same (16) across the sexes. Findings suggest that the YAACQ can be used to reliably assess level of drinking risk among college students. Furthermore, these cut scores may be used to refer to interventions varying in intensity level, based on level of indicated alcohol risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Relationships among age, gender, anthropometric characteristics, and dynamic balance in children 5 to 12 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, Sarah M; Sweeney, Jane K; Roberts, Pamela L; Rauh, Mitchell J

    2015-01-01

    To examine relationships among age, gender, anthropometrics, and dynamic balance. Height, weight, and arm and foot length were measured in 160 children with typical development aged 5 to 12 years. Dynamic balance was assessed using the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, Pediatric Reach Test (PRT), and Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS). Moderate to good positive relationships (r = 0.61 and r = 0.56) were found between increasing age and PRT and PBS scores. A fair negative relationship (r = -0.49) was observed between age and TUG test. No significant gender-by-age group difference was observed. Age had the strongest influence on TUG and PBS scores; arm length had the strongest influence on PRT scores. Dynamic balance ability is directly related to chronological age. Age and arm length have the strongest relationships with balance scores. These findings may assist pediatric therapists in selecting dynamic balance tests according to age rather than specific diagnosis.

  9. GENDER CHARACTERISTIC OF INTERHEMISPHERIC INTERCOMMUNIONS IN THE MODULATION OF AGGRESSIVE ATMOSPHERE

    OpenAIRE

    Grigoryn V.G; Stepanyn L.S; Stepanyn A.J.

    2008-01-01

    A brain asymmetry male and female teenager with different level of personal aggression under influence of aggressogenic environment was investigated. Dependence of brain asymmetry character both on a level of personal aggression, and on a gender is shown. In frontal cortex inversion from the right to the left hemisphere, and increase of activity of the right orbito-frontal cortex by the end of experiment for aggressive boys is shown. Complementally interaction of the left and right hemisphere...

  10. Social and economic characteristics of street youth by gender and level of street involvement in Eldoret, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Sorber

    Full Text Available Street-connected youth are a neglected and vulnerable population, particularly in resource-constrained settings. The development of interventions and supports for this population requires insight into how they live. This study describes the social and economic characteristics of a convenience sample of street youth (SY in Eldoret, Kenya.Participants were eligible if they were aged 12-21, living in Eldoret, spending days only (part-time, or nights and days on the street (full-time and able and willing to consent or assent. Data were collected using a standardized interview conducted in English or Kiswahili. Binary dependent variables were having been arrested and/or jailed, and first priority for spending money (food vs. other. Nominal categorical dependent variables included major source of support, and major reason for being street-involved. Multivariable analysis used logistic regression models to examine the association of gender and level of street-involvement with social and economic factors of interest adjusting for age and length of time on the street. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.3.Of the 200 SY enrolled, 41% were female, mean age of 16.3 years; 71% were on the street full-time, and 29% part-time. Compared with part-time SY, full-time SY were more likely to have been arrested (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 2.33, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]:1.01-5.35, name food as their first spending priority (AOR: 2.57, 95%CI:1.03-6.45, have left home due to violence (AOR: 5.54, 95%CI: 1.67-18.34, and more likely to report friends on the street as a major source of support (AOR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.01-12.82. Compared with females, males were more likely to have ever been arrested (AOR: 2.66, 95%CI:1.14-6.18, and to have ever been jailed (AOR: 3.22, 95%CI:1.47-7.02.These results suggest a high degree of heterogeneity and vulnerability among SY in this setting. There is an urgent need for interventions taking into consideration these characteristics.

  11. Serum levels of IGF-1 are related to human skin characteristics including the conspicuousness of facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama-Nakagiri, Y; Naoe, A; Ohuchi, A; Kitahara, T

    2011-04-01

    Conspicuous facial pores are one type of serious aesthetic defects for many women. However, the mechanism(s) that underlie the conspicuousness of facial pores remains unclear. We previously characterized the epidermal architecture around facial pores that correlates with the appearance of those pores in various ethnic groups including Japanese. The goal of this study was to evaluate the possible relationships between facial pore size, the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores and sebum output levels to investigate the possible role of IGF-1 in the pathogenesis of conspicuous facial pores. The subjects consisted of 38 healthy Japanese women (aged 22-41 years). IGF-1 was measured using immunoradiometric assay. Surface replicas were collected to compare pore sizes of cheek skin and horizontal cross-section images of cheek skin were obtained non-invasively from the same subjects using in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy and the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores was determined. The skin surface lipids of each subject were collected from their cheeks and lipid classes were determined using gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. The serum level of IGF-1 correlated significantly with total pore area (R = 0.36, P facial pores (R = 0.43, P pore area (R = 0.32, P facial skin characteristics including facial pore size and with the severity of impairment of epidermal architecture around facial pores. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. Personality characteristics and affective status related to cognitive test performance and gender in patients with memory complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestberg, Susanna; Passant, Ulla; Risberg, Jarl; Elfgren, Christina

    2007-11-01

    The aims are to study personality characteristics of patients with memory complaints and to assess the presence of objective (OMI) versus subjective (SMI) memory impairment, the affective status, as well as potential gender differences. The patients were assessed by means of a neuropsychiatric examination and a neuropsychological test-battery. The Swedish version of the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used. The 57 patients (38 women, 19 men, mean age 56.9) differed from the Swedish normative group in three of the five personality factors: neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness. This was mainly because of the scores of the female patients. Approximately half of the patients had OMI. No differences regarding personality factors or affective status were found between OMI and SMI patients. The female patients scored significantly higher than the male patients on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Neuroticism and symptoms of depression interacted with memory performance and gender. Our findings demonstrate the importance of applying an objective assessment of memory functions and a gender perspective when studying patients with memory complaints.

  13. The relationship of gender balance at work, family responsibilities and workplace characteristics to drinking among male and female attorneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, E R

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of gender balance at work, family and home responsibilities and workplace factors to the drinking behaviors of attorneys. Using a stratified random sampling procedure, attorneys were selected from the bar associations of two large Midwestern cities. Telephone interviews were completed with 300 men and 257 women (37.3% of those originally selected), who were asked about characteristics of their work, the numbers of female attorneys they had contact with in four types of working relationships, overall and work-related drinking, and family and home responsibilities. Multiple regression and discriminant analyses were used to study the influence of these variables on drinking. Gender balance variables entered several of the analyses. For both men and women the frequency of work-related drinking positively correlated with the number of female attorneys in the organization, but was negatively related to the number of women who were peers. Family and home responsibilities entered predictive equations, both positively and negatively, for both men and women. Size of firm was positively correlated with frequency of business-related drinking and, for men, with frequency of social drinking related to work. The influence of the gender composition of the workplace on drinking behaviors may vary, for both men and women, by the type of contact involved, with closer or more active involvement with female colleagues associated with decreased frequency of drinking. Work-related drinking may also be related to home and family demands and the size of the firm, again for both genders.

  14. Quantification of pediatric and adult cervical vertebra-anatomical characteristics by age and gender for automotive application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenteau, Chantal S; Wang, Nicholas C; Zhang, Peng; Caird, Michelle S; Wang, Stewart C

    2014-01-01

    The cervical anatomy has been shown to affect injury patterns in vehicle crashes. Characterizing the spine anatomy and changes associated with growth and gender is important when assessing occupant protection. In this study, selected cervical characteristics were quantified. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 750 patients were selected from the University of Michigan trauma database; 314 were children and 436 were adults. Four variables were obtained: the maximum spinal canal radius, vertebral body depth, facet angles, and retroversion angles. The cervical spine measurements varied with age and gender. The body depth increased nonlinearly with age. The average vertebral body depth at C4 was 9.2 ± 0.38 mm in the 0-3 age group, 15.7 ± 0.29 mm in the 18-29 age group, and 17.2 ± 0.46 mm in the 60+ age group. Pediatric and adult males had larger vertebral body depth than females overall, irrespective of vertebral level (P vertebral body depth was 8-9 percent greater in male children and 13-16 percent greater in adult males. The average radius varied with gender, with male children generally having a larger radius than females irrespective of vertebral level (P vertebral level (P maturation by the age of 7. Facet angles decreased with age in children and increased with age in adults. The average facet angles were largest in the 0-3 age group (P cervical anatomical changes associated with age and gender. The information is useful when assessing differences in injury patterns between different segments of the population. Anatomical measurements of the cervical spine should be considered for the development of models used to assess injury mechanisms for various occupant age groups.

  15. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1 investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2 elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3 examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum. Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites

  16. A quasi-static algorithm that includes effects of characteristic time scales for simulating failures in brittle materials

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jinxing; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2013-01-01

    When the brittle heterogeneous material is simulated via lattice models, the quasi-static failure depends on the relative magnitudes of Telem, the characteristic releasing time of the internal forces of the broken elements and Tlattice

  17. Urinary Tract Infection in Children: Etiological Structure, Age and Gender Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Bezruk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the etiological structure of urinary tract infections, dynamics, gender and age dependence in the child population of Chernivtsi region. Patients and methods. During 2009–2013 2432 urine samples of the children treated in health care centers of Chernivtss region were investigated by bacteriological method with purpose of verification of the diagnosis urinary tract infections. Six hundred and fifty five strains of bacteria and fungi were isolated as etiological agents. Results. The patient’s gender was found to correlate with etiological structure of the urinary tract infections and the content of the residential urine microflora. The main etiological role of the Enterobacteriaceae family in general was demonstrated. As a causative agent of the urinary tract infection E.coli has been isolated more frequently in the urine samples of female patients (р < 0.05. In contrary, Proteus spp. has been isolated in male patients (р < 0.01. As a part of the urine resident microflora E.coli strains were more frequently isolated in the female urine samples (р < 0.05. Conclusion. The research will allow to hold the correct and reasoned medical and rehabilitation events on all stages of rendering of specialized medical care for children and to develop the programs directed on the improvement of indicators of health and prevention of disability in children.

  18. Life stories of people with rheumatoid arthritis who retired early: how gender and other contextual factors shaped their everyday activities, including paid work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, T A; Machold, K P; Smolen, J; Prodinger, B

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how contextual factors affect the everyday activities of women and men with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as evident in their life stories. Fifteen people with RA, who had retired early due to the disease, were interviewed up to three times, according to a narrative biographic interview style. The life stories of the participants, which were reconstructed from the biographical data and from the transcribed 'told story' were analysed from the perspective of contextual factors, including personal and environmental factors. The rigour and accuracy of the analysis were enhanced by reflexivity and peer-review of the results. The life stories of the participants in this study reflected how contextual factors (such as gender, the healthcare system, the support of families and social and cultural values) shaped their everyday activities. In a society such as in Austria, which is based on traditional patriarchal values, men were presented with difficulties in developing a non-paid-work-related role. For women, if paid work had to be given up, they were more likely to engage in alternative challenging activities which enabled them to develop reflective skills, which in turn contributed to a positive and enriching perspective on their life stories. Health professionals may thus use some of the women's strategies to help men. Interventions by health professionals in people with RA may benefit from an approach sensitive to personal and environmental factors.

  19. The Type of Forage Substrate Preparation Included as Substrate in a RUSITEC System Affects the Ruminal Microbiota and Fermentation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre V. Chaves

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In vitro fermentation systems such as the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC are frequently used to assess dietary manipulations in livestock, thereby limiting the use of live animals. Despite being in use for nearly 40 years, improvements are continually sought in these systems to better reflect and mimic natural processes in ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of forage preparation, i.e., frozen minced (FM and freeze-dried and ground (FDG, on the ruminal microbiota and on fermentation characteristics when included as a substrate in a RUSITEC system. A completely randomized design experiment was performed over a 15-day period, with 7 days of adaptation and an 8-day experimental period. Fermentation parameters (total gas, CH4, and volatile fatty acid production were analyzed on a daily basis over the experimental period and the archaeal and bacterial microbiota (liquid-associated microbes [LAM] and solid-associated microbes [SAM] was assessed at 0, 5, 10, and 15 days using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results from this study suggested a tendency (P = 0.09 of FM treatment to increase daily CH4 (mg/d production by 16.7% when compared with FDG treatment. Of the major volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, and butyrate, only butyrate production was greater (P = 0.01 with FM treatment compared with FDG substrate. The archaeal and bacterial diversity and richness did not differ between the forage preparations, although feed particle size of the forage had a significant effect on microbial community structure in the SAM and LAM samples. The Bacteroidetes phylum was more relatively abundant in the FM substrate treatment, while Proteobacteria was enriched in the FDG treatment. At the genus-level, Butyrivibrio, Prevotella, and Roseburia were enriched in the FM substrate treatment and Campylobacter and Lactobacillus in the FDG substrate treatment. Evidence from this study suggests that forage preparation

  20. Fatigue, insomnia and nervousness: gender disparities and roles of individual characteristics and lifestyle factors among economically active people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Legleye, Stéphane; Baumann, Michèle; Choquet, Marie; Falissard, Bruno; Chau, Nearkasen

    2009-09-01

    Individuals with certain personal, family and job characteristics are at elevated risk of poor mental health. Yet, the respective role of obesity, smoking, alcohol abuse, low education, income, living and family conditions, and socio-occupational category in fatigue/insomnia (FI), nervousness (N) and frequent drug use for those disorders (DFI and DN) among men and women and in gender disparities are not well known. We studied gender differences in FI, N, DFI, DN, and in their correlated, and whether the gender differences were mediated by individual and lifestyle factors among 3,450 active subjects aged 18-64, randomly selected from North-eastern France. Subjects completed a post-mailed questionnaire. Data were analyzed via adjusted odds ratio (ORa) computed with the logistic regression model. Women were more affected than men for FI (21.3 vs. 13.1%, OR adjusted for age ORa 1.80, 95% CI 1.50-2.16), DFI (11.6 vs. 7.1%, ORa 1.74, 1.38-2.21), N (14.7 vs. 9.9%, ORa 1.58, 1.28-1.94), and for DN (12.1 vs. 5.7%, ORa 2.29, 1.79-2.94). These differences were not mediated by the individual characteristics studied. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk patterns varied between the two sexes. Smoking was related to N in men as well as in women; alcohol abuse to DFI in men only; lack of family support to all outcome variables in men and women; low educational level to DFI in men only; low income to FI, N and DN in men and to FI and DN in women; being unmarried to DN in men; being divorced/separated to N and DN in women; being a manual worker to FI and being a farmer to DFI in men; and being a manual worker to DN and being an employee to FI in women (1.50 roles among men and women but they did not explain the gender disparities.

  1. Stalking of psychiatrists: psychopathological characteristics and gender differences in an Italian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronardi, Vincenzo M; Pomilla, Antonella; Ricci, Serafino; D'Argenio, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    Research has indicated that medical doctors and paramedics are at higher risk of being stalked than the general population. In particular, mental health care professionals alone represent one third of the victims of harassment. Because of the lack of studies in this specific sector, especially in Italy, in this study, we examined the stalking of psychiatrists by their patients, considering gender differences and the incidence of stalking in private practice and public mental health clinics in Rome. We found that the rate of stalking in private mental health settings is higher than that in public settings and that the perpetrators of stalking are mainly women who mostly target mental health professionals working in private practice. Implications of the findings are noted and discussed.

  2. Distal radius: anatomical morphometric gender characteristics. Do anatomical pre-shaped plates pay attention on it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppermann, Johannes; Bredow, Jan; Beyer, Frank; Neiss, Wolfram Friedrich; Spies, Christian K; Eysel, Peer; Dargel, Jens; Wacker, Max

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate differences in the osseous structure anatomy of male and female distal radii. Morphometric data were obtained of 49 distal human cadaveric radii. An imprint of the distal edge was attained using silicone mass and the palmar cortical angle (PCA) of the lateral and intermediate column, here declared as medial, according to the concept of Rikli and Rigazzoni. The lateral and medial length and five widths were digitally measured by three observers. In order to compare the measurements an unpaired t test was used. To prove the reliability of the measurements an intraclass correlation analyses was done. Overall mean medial PCA was 148.25° (SD ± 6.83) and mean lateral PCA 156.07° (SD ± 7.00). In male specimens, the mean medial PCA was 147.38° (SD ± 6.01) and mean lateral PCA was 153.6° (SD ± 6.20) whereas in female specimens, the mean medial PCA was 149.41° (SD ± 7.79) and the mean lateral PCA 159.37° (SD ± 6.78), with statistical significance for the female lateral PCA. No gender significant difference for the medial PCA and no significant side difference for the PCA's could be found. The ICC of the observers was r = 0.936 and 0.976 for the medial and for lateral PCA 0.957-0.984. The palmar cortical length of the distal radius was significantly longer in male specimens. For all widths, larger values for male radii were measured, being statistically significant in all cases. Male dimensions concerning the wide were significantly larger when compared with females. Regarding the PCA at the medial and lateral column, we found significant difference for lateral PCA concerning the gender. Overall, study results demonstrated an angle of 148.25° ± 6.83 for the medial PCA and 156.07° ± 7.00 for the lateral PCA.

  3. GENDER-RELATED CHARACTERISTICS OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Mukhtarenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective is to investigate characteristics of mixed anxiety-depressive disorders (MADD and the level of subjective self-control  in relation to health (SSCh, as well as the effect of affective disorder severity on clinical course and prognosis of the disease in men and women with acute myocardial infarction (AMI.Materials and methods. The study included 124 patients with AMI aged between 30 and 85 years (mean age 58.6  ±  12.1 years, who were divided into 2 groups: the 1st group contained 88 (71 % men, the 2nd group – 36 (29 % women.Results. Per the screening test, MADD was more frequently diagnosed in the female group (91.7 % compared to the male group (56.8 %,  р <0.001. Absence of anxiety symptoms per the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was more frequently observed in the male group (77.3 % vs. 52.8 %, р <0.01; relative risk (RR 1.46; 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.05–2.03, and significant level of anxiety per HADS was more frequently diagnosed in the female group (4.5 % vs. 27.8 %, р <0.01; RR 0.16; 95 % CI 0.05–0.48. Absence of depression symptoms per HADS was more frequently observed in the male group (68.2 % vs. 30.6 %, р <0.01; RR 2.23; 95 % CI 1.33–3.72, and moderate (14.8 % vs. 33.3 %, р <0.05; RR 0.44; 95 % CI 0.22–0.87 and severe (17.0 % vs. 36.1 %, р <0.05; RR 0.47; 95 % CI 0.25– 0.88 levels of depression per HADS were more common in the female group. Absence of depression symptoms per the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI was more frequently observed in the male group (42.1 % vs. 11.1 % women, р <0.01; RR 3.78; 95 % CI 1.45–9.84. In the female group, moderate (27.8 % vs. 10.2 %, р <0.05; RR 0.36; 95 % CI 0.16–0.83 and severe (13.9 % vs. 3.4 %, р <0.05; RR 0.24; 95 % CI 0.06–0.97 levels of depression per this scale were more common than in the male group. Left ventricular ejection fraction was lower  in the female group (41.4 ± 11.4 % compared to the male group (45.8 ± 10

  4. Gender differences in the clinical characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity in patients with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo; Siever, Larry J; Goodman, Marianne; McNamara, Margaret; Hazlett, Erin A; Koenigsberg, Harold W; New, Antonia S

    2015-10-30

    Gender is an important variable in the study of mental health because of the actual and perceived differences between men and women. Relatively little is known how males and females differ in their manifestations of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Demographic and clinical features of 323 participants with ASPD were assessed and recorded. Women had fewer episodes of antisocial behavior involving or not involving police, higher scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and on Emotional Abuse and Sexual Abuse subscales of the CTQ compared to men. CTQ scores positively correlated with the number of episodes of antisocial behavior involving police in men but not in women. The percentage of patients with comorbid borderline and histrionic personality disorders was higher and the percentage of participants with cocaine use disorder was lower among women compared to men. Comorbid alcohol use disorder was frequent in both groups, while a higher percentage of women had comorbid mood disorders compared to men. Logistic regression analysis demonstrates that CTQ scores, histrionic personality disorder, and antisocial behavior involving the police drive the difference between the groups. Our findings indicate that treatment of individuals with ASPD should focus on the management of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Small-worldness characteristics and its gender relation in specific hemispheric networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, F; Vecchio, F; Bramanti, P; Rossini, P M

    2015-12-03

    Aim of this study was to verify whether the topological organization of human brain functional networks is different for males and females in resting state EEGs. Undirected and weighted brain networks were computed by eLORETA lagged linear connectivity in 130 subjects (59 males and 71 females) within each hemisphere and in four resting state networks (Attentional Network (AN), Frontal Network (FN), Sensorimotor Network (SN), Default Mode Network (DMN)). We found that small-world (SW) architecture in the left hemisphere Frontal network presented differences in both delta and alpha band, in particular lower values in delta and higher in alpha 2 in males respect to females while in the right hemisphere differences were found in lower values of SW in males respect to females in gamma Attentional, delta Sensorimotor and delta and gamma DMNs. Gender small-worldness differences in some of resting state networks indicated that there are specific brain differences in the EEG rhythms when the brain is in the resting-state condition. These specific regions could be considered related to the functions of behavior and cognition and should be taken into account both for research on healthy and brain diseased subjects. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Erving

    A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…

  7. [Characteristics of falls producing hip fracture in an elderly population. Differences according to age and gender].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formiga, F; Ruiz, D; López-Soto, A; Duaso, E; Chivite, D; Pérez-Castejón, J M

    2006-01-01

    The majority of hip fractures are produced because of a fall. We examined the characteristics associated with falls causing hip fracture in elderly patients. Characteristics of falls owing to hip fracture were analyzed in 410 consecutive patients admitted in 6 hospitals during the 2004. We evaluated the location, time and the possible cause of fall: intrinsic risk factor, extrinsic or combined. We evaluated 316 women (77%) and 94 men, mean age 81.9 years. Previous to the hip fracture, the mean BI was 77.5. The mean value of falls during the last year was 1.9. Previously to the fall that caused hip fracture, we found that 24% of the patients had fallen repeatedly (more than two falls). Usually falls were at home (68%) and during daytime (80%). In 45% of patients an intrinsic risk factor was considered the most likely cause, in 33% an extrinsic risk factor and in 22% a combination. The majority of falls owing to hip fracture in elderly people happen in daytime, at home and due to intrinsic risk factors. Efforts to identify elderly people at risk of fall should be stressed in order to establish preventive measures.

  8. Gender Differences in Pay

    OpenAIRE

    Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn

    2000-01-01

    We consider the gender pay gap in the United States. Both gender-specific factors, including gender differences in qualifications and discrimination, and overall wage structure, the rewards for skills and employment in particular sectors, importantly influence the gender pay gap. Declining gender differentials in the U.S., and the more rapid closing of the gender pay gap in the U.S. than elsewhere, appear to be primarily due to gender-specific factors. However, the relatively large gender pay...

  9. Gender- and species-specific characteristics of bacteriomes from three psyllid species (Hemiptera: Psylloidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psyllids (Hemiptera: Pyslloidea) harbor bacterial symbionts in specialized organs called bacteriomes. Bacteriomes may be subject to manipulation to control psyllid pests including Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Cacopsylla pyricola (Forster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) if the bi...

  10. Are memberships in race, ethnicity, and gender categories merely surface characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagly, Alice H; Chin, Jean Lau

    2010-12-01

    Comments on Deep-level diversity and leadership (see record 2010-24768-017) by Kristen M. Klein and Mo Wang. In the special issue on Diversity and Leadership (April 2010), the authors made a strong case for the importance of diversity in workplace leadership, rejected premature declarations that workplace discrimination is obsolete, and called for leadership theories that acknowledge and promote the value of diversity. We suggest that researchers could better predict and increase leader effectiveness by explicitly addressing deep-level characteristics in theory and practice. By promoting surface-level diversity in leadership opportunities and deep-level similarities in leadership training, it is conceivable that organizations could counter adverse impact in leader selection while also improving organizational outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Variations in adolescents’ motivational characteristics across gender and physical activity patterns: A latent class analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lawler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neglecting to take account of the underlying context or type of physical activity (PA that underpins overall involvement has resulted in a limited understanding of adolescents’ PA participation. The purpose of the present research was to identify male and female adolescents’ leisure time PA patterns and examine whether psychological processes derived from self-determination theory differ as a function of the pattern of PA undertaken. Methods Nine hundred ninety-five students (61.2% females, 38.8% males; M age = 13.72 years, SD = 1.25 from eight secondary schools in Dublin, Ireland completed a physical activity recall 7 day diary and measures of intrinsic motivation, competence, relatedness, autonomy and autonomy support. Based on the diary five binary indicators of physical activity were derived reflecting recommended levels of MVPA on a minimum of 3 days, at least three sessions of non-organized physical activity (e.g. jog, team sport, individual sport, and organized non-sport physical activity (e.g. dance. Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of adolescents that engaged in similar patterns of physical activity. Profiles of physical activity participation were subsequently compared on motivational characteristics using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Latent class analysis revealed six distinct classes for girls (Organized Run/Swim & Dance/Gym; Organized Dance; Leisure Active Team Sport; Active Individual Sport; Walk/Run/Outdoor games; Non-Participation and five for boys (Leisure Active Gym; Leisure Active Individual Sport; Active Team Sport; Active Mixed Type; Non-Participation. Significant differences were found between the classes. Girls characterized by participation in team or individual sport, and boys represented by team sport participation demonstrated significantly higher self-determined motivational characteristics relative to other profiles of physical activity. Conclusion This research

  12. Variations in adolescents' motivational characteristics across gender and physical activity patterns: A latent class analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Margaret; Heary, Caroline; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2017-08-17

    Neglecting to take account of the underlying context or type of physical activity (PA) that underpins overall involvement has resulted in a limited understanding of adolescents' PA participation. The purpose of the present research was to identify male and female adolescents' leisure time PA patterns and examine whether psychological processes derived from self-determination theory differ as a function of the pattern of PA undertaken. Nine hundred ninety-five students (61.2% females, 38.8% males; M age = 13.72 years, SD = 1.25) from eight secondary schools in Dublin, Ireland completed a physical activity recall 7 day diary and measures of intrinsic motivation, competence, relatedness, autonomy and autonomy support. Based on the diary five binary indicators of physical activity were derived reflecting recommended levels of MVPA on a minimum of 3 days, at least three sessions of non-organized physical activity (e.g. jog), team sport, individual sport, and organized non-sport physical activity (e.g. dance). Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of adolescents that engaged in similar patterns of physical activity. Profiles of physical activity participation were subsequently compared on motivational characteristics using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Latent class analysis revealed six distinct classes for girls (Organized Run/Swim & Dance/Gym; Organized Dance; Leisure Active Team Sport; Active Individual Sport; Walk/Run/Outdoor games; Non-Participation) and five for boys (Leisure Active Gym; Leisure Active Individual Sport; Active Team Sport; Active Mixed Type; Non-Participation). Significant differences were found between the classes. Girls characterized by participation in team or individual sport, and boys represented by team sport participation demonstrated significantly higher self-determined motivational characteristics relative to other profiles of physical activity. This research offers a nuanced insight into the underlying type of activities that

  13. Response to Therapy and Outcomes in Oropharyngeal Cancer Are Associated With Biomarkers Including Human Papillomavirus, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Gender, and Smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Bhavna; Cordell, Kitrina G.; Lee, Julia S.; Prince, Mark E.; Tran, Huong H.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Urba, Susan G.; Worden, Francis P.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Tsien, Christina I.; Taylor, Jeremy; D'Silva, Nisha J.; Yang, Kun; Kurnit, David M.; Bradford, Carol R.

    2007-01-01

    Induction chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiation for responders or immediate surgery for non-responders is an effective treatment strategy head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) of the larynx and oropharynx. Biomarkers that predict outcome would be valuable in selecting patients for therapy. In this study, the presence and titer of high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in pre-treatment biopsies, as well as smoking and gender were examined in oropharynx cancer patients enrolled in an organ sparing trial. HPV16 copy number was positively associated with response to therapy and with overall and disease specific survival, whereas EGFR expression, current or former smoking behavior, and female gender (in this cohort) were associated with poor response and poor survival in multivariate analysis. Smoking cessation and strategies to target EGFR may be useful adjuncts for therapy to improve outcome in the cases with the poorest biomarker profile

  14. Distinct Adsorption Configurations and Self-Assembly Characteristics of Fibrinogen on Chemically Uniform and Alternating Surfaces including Block Copolymer Nanodomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Understanding protein–surface interactions is crucial to solid-state biomedical applications whose functionality is directly correlated with the precise control of the adsorption configuration, surface packing, loading density, and bioactivity of protein molecules. Because of the small dimensions and highly amphiphilic nature of proteins, investigation of protein adsorption performed on nanoscale topology can shed light on subprotein-level interaction preferences. In this study, we examine the adsorption and assembly behavior of a highly elongated protein, fibrinogen, on both chemically uniform (as-is and buffered HF-treated SiO2/Si, and homopolymers of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)) and varying (polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate)) surfaces. By focusing on high-resolution imaging of individual protein molecules whose configurations are influenced by protein–surface rather than protein–protein interactions, fibrinogen conformations characteristic to each surface are identified and statistically analyzed for structural similarities/differences in key protein domains. By exploiting block copolymer nanodomains whose repeat distance is commensurate with the length of the individual protein, we determine that fibrinogen exhibits a more neutral tendency for interaction with both polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) blocks relative to the case of common globular proteins. Factors affecting fibrinogen–polymer interactions are discussed in terms of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. In addition, assembly and packing attributes of fibrinogen are determined at different loading conditions. Primary orientations of fibrinogen and its rearrangements with respect to the underlying diblock nanodomains associated with different surface coverage are explained by pertinent protein interaction mechanisms. On the basis of two-dimensional stacking behavior, a protein assembly model is proposed for the formation of an extended fibrinogen network

  15. Characteristics of the ichthyofauna of a temperate microtidal estuary with a reverse salinity gradient, including inter-decadal comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, L; Tweedley, J R; Clarke, K R; Hallett, C S; Potter, I C

    2014-11-01

    Data on the fish fauna of the Leschenault Estuary on the lower west coast of Australia were collected and used as a model to elucidate the characteristics of permanently open estuaries with a reverse salinity gradient, which undergo seasonal changes similar to many other estuaries with Mediterranean climate. Focus was placed on determining (1) the relationships of the number of species, density, life cycle category and species composition of fishes with region (within estuary), season and year and salinity, (2) whether species are partitioned along the lengths of such systems and (3) the extent and significance of any inter-decadal changes in species composition. The analyses and interpretation involved using multi-factorial permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) designs, and three new or recently published visualization tools, i.e. modified non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) plots, coherent species curves and segmented bubble plots. The base, lower, upper and apex regions of the Leschenault Estuary, along which the salinity increased in each season except in winter when most rainfall occurs, were sampled seasonally for the 2 years between winter 2008 and autumn 2010. Estuarine residents contributed twice as many individuals, but less than half the number of species as marine taxa. While the numbers of marine species and estuarine residents declined between the base or lower and apex regions, the individuals of marine species dominated the catches in the base region and estuarine residents in the other three regions. Ichthyofaunal composition in each region underwent conspicuous annual cyclical changes, due to time-staggered differences in recruitment among species, and changed sequentially along the estuary, both paralleling salinity trends. Different groups of species characterized the fauna in the different regions and seasons, thereby partitioning resources among species. The ichthyofauna of the

  16. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP

    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  17. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP

    1996-01-01

    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  18. Demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in children with gender identity disorder : A cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Kettenis, PT; Owen, A; Kaijser, VG; Bradley, SJ; Zucker, KJ

    This study examined demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in clinic-referred children with gender identity problems in Toronto, Canada (N = 358), and Utrecht, The Netherlands (N = 130). The Toronto sample was, on average, about a year younger than the Utrecht sample

  19. The Biological Contributions to Gender Identity and Gender Diversity: Bringing Data to the Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polderman, Tinca J C; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Irwig, Michael S; Beach, Lauren; Chan, Yee-Ming; Derks, Eske M; Esteva, Isabel; Ehrenfeld, Jesse; Heijer, Martin Den; Posthuma, Danielle; Raynor, Lewis; Tishelman, Amy; Davis, Lea K

    2018-03-01

    The American Psychological Association defines gender identity as, "A person's deeply-felt, inherent sense of being a boy, a man, or a male; a girl, a woman, or a female; or an alternative gender (e.g., genderqueer, gender nonconforming, gender neutral) that may or may not correspond to a person's sex assigned at birth or to a person's primary or secondary sex characteristics" (American Psychological Association, Am Psychol 70(9):832-864, 2015). Here we review the evidence that gender identity and related socially defined gender constructs are influenced in part by innate factors including genes. Based on the data reviewed, we hypothesize that gender identity is a multifactorial complex trait with a heritable polygenic component. We argue that increasing the awareness of the biological diversity underlying gender identity development is relevant to all domains of social, medical, and neuroscience research and foundational for reducing health disparities and promoting human-rights protections for gender minorities.

  20. Disillusioning Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Britt-Marie

    2018-04-01

    Illusions are not errors but erroneous beliefs motivated by wishful ideas and fantasies. To disillusion gender is to challenge the traditional Freudian construction that splits masculinity and femininity into agency versus passivity, the first with power, the second without. Disillusioning femininity as impotent frees up potency and power as generativity. Disillusioning masculinity as phallic and omnipotent opens the masculine subject to permeability and vulnerability. Illusions regarding the transgender include the idea that there are only two gender categories and the idea that gender identity is generated solely from an internal sense of self. The wish "to be seen as" or "to pass as" one gender or the other shows that social structures exceed the individual. At least for now, the disillusionment of gender with which we are left marks a tension between the internal sense of gender identity and the social structures of gender.

  1. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: Role of Gender-Typed Characteristics, Self-Esteem, Body Image, Stressful Life Events, and Pubertal Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Diane; Fortin, Laurier; Potvin, Pierre; Papillon, Myra

    2002-01-01

    In a study of French-speaking adolescents (n=547), five measures designed to examine psychological well being found that body image, self-esteem, and negative stressful life events mediate the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Further analysis of a subsample who recently transitioned to high school also found…

  2. Gender reassignment surgery: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Bellringer, James

    2011-05-01

    Gender reassignment (which includes psychotherapy, hormonal therapy and surgery) has been demonstrated as the most effective treatment for patients affected by gender dysphoria (or gender identity disorder), in which patients do not recognize their gender (sexual identity) as matching their genetic and sexual characteristics. Gender reassignment surgery is a series of complex surgical procedures (genital and nongenital) performed for the treatment of gender dysphoria. Genital procedures performed for gender dysphoria, such as vaginoplasty, clitorolabioplasty, penectomy and orchidectomy in male-to-female transsexuals, and penile and scrotal reconstruction in female-to-male transsexuals, are the core procedures in gender reassignment surgery. Nongenital procedures, such as breast enlargement, mastectomy, facial feminization surgery, voice surgery, and other masculinization and feminization procedures complete the surgical treatment available. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health currently publishes and reviews guidelines and standards of care for patients affected by gender dysphoria, such as eligibility criteria for surgery. This article presents an overview of the genital and nongenital procedures available for both male-to-female and female-to-male gender reassignment.

  3. Gender Difference in the Clinical and Behavioral Characteristics of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Injection Drug Users in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hsing Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that drug injection risks and sexual behavior related risks are equally important in determining the risk of HIV infection among IDUs. Gender-specific approaches to prevention which reflect differences in gender-related patterns of risk are also needed.

  4. A cross-sectional study of the influence of neighborhood environment on childhood overweight and obesity: Variation by age, gender, and environment characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Jiang, Yu; Xu, Yanqing; Mzayek, Fawaz; Levy, Marian

    2018-03-01

    To examine the influence of neighborhood environment on childhood overweight and obesity in Shelby County Schools, Tennessee, and whether and to what extent that influence varies by age, gender, and the specific environment characteristics. 41,283 students were surveyed covering both individual-level covariates and several objective measures of neighborhood environment. Multilevel logistic regressions were used to examine the influence of neighborhood-level variables on overweight+obesity and obesity with adjustment of individual-level covariates. Further, a stratified analysis for each of the six groups by school level and gender. For both overweight+obesity and obesity, younger children were less sensitive to neighborhood characteristics than older children, and boys are less sensitive than girls. For girls in middle and high schools, the risk of overweight+obesity and obesity were positively associated with population density, and negatively associated with percent of poverty and percent of unhealthy food. Boys' risk of overweight+obesity and obesity were positively associated with distance to park. Neighborhood environment plays an important role in childhood overweight and obesity, and the effects vary by age, gender, and the specific neighborhood characteristic. Intervention programs tailored to specific groups may be more effective than ones targeted to children as a whole. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender inequality in self-reported health among the elderly in contemporary welfare countries: A cross-country analysis of time use activities, socioeconomic positions and family characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, Nicholas Kofi; Brand, Tilman; Zeeb, Hajo

    2017-01-01

    Paradoxically, despite their longer life expectancy, women report poorer health than men. Time devoted to differing social roles could be an explanation for the observed gender differences in health among the elderly. The objective of this study was to explain gender differences in self-reported health among the elderly by taking time use activities, socio-economic positions, family characteristics and cross-national differences into account. Data from the Multinational Time Use Study (MTUS) on 13,223 men and 18,192 women from Germany, Italy, Spain, UK and the US were analyzed. Multiple binary logistic regression models were used to examine the association between social factors and health for men and women separately. We further identified the relative contribution of different factors to total gender inequality in health using the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method. Whereas time allocated to paid work, housework and active leisure activities were positively associated with health, time devoted to passive leisure and personal activities were negatively associated with health among both men and women, but the magnitude of the association varied by gender and country. We found significant gender differences in health in Germany, Italy and Spain, but not in the other countries. The decomposition showed that differences in the time allocated to active leisure and level of educational attainment accounted for the largest health gap. Our study represents a first step in understanding cross-national differences in the association between health status and time devoted to role-related activities among elderly men and women. The results, therefore, demonstrate the need of using an integrated framework of social factors in analyzing and explaining the gender and cross-national differences in the health of the elderly population.

  6. Gender inequality in self-reported health among the elderly in contemporary welfare countries: A cross-country analysis of time use activities, socioeconomic positions and family characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Kofi Adjei

    Full Text Available Paradoxically, despite their longer life expectancy, women report poorer health than men. Time devoted to differing social roles could be an explanation for the observed gender differences in health among the elderly. The objective of this study was to explain gender differences in self-reported health among the elderly by taking time use activities, socio-economic positions, family characteristics and cross-national differences into account.Data from the Multinational Time Use Study (MTUS on 13,223 men and 18,192 women from Germany, Italy, Spain, UK and the US were analyzed. Multiple binary logistic regression models were used to examine the association between social factors and health for men and women separately. We further identified the relative contribution of different factors to total gender inequality in health using the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method.Whereas time allocated to paid work, housework and active leisure activities were positively associated with health, time devoted to passive leisure and personal activities were negatively associated with health among both men and women, but the magnitude of the association varied by gender and country. We found significant gender differences in health in Germany, Italy and Spain, but not in the other countries. The decomposition showed that differences in the time allocated to active leisure and level of educational attainment accounted for the largest health gap.Our study represents a first step in understanding cross-national differences in the association between health status and time devoted to role-related activities among elderly men and women. The results, therefore, demonstrate the need of using an integrated framework of social factors in analyzing and explaining the gender and cross-national differences in the health of the elderly population.

  7. Gender inequality in self-reported health among the elderly in contemporary welfare countries: A cross-country analysis of time use activities, socioeconomic positions and family characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, Nicholas Kofi; Brand, Tilman; Zeeb, Hajo

    2017-01-01

    Background Paradoxically, despite their longer life expectancy, women report poorer health than men. Time devoted to differing social roles could be an explanation for the observed gender differences in health among the elderly. The objective of this study was to explain gender differences in self-reported health among the elderly by taking time use activities, socio-economic positions, family characteristics and cross-national differences into account. Methods Data from the Multinational Time Use Study (MTUS) on 13,223 men and 18,192 women from Germany, Italy, Spain, UK and the US were analyzed. Multiple binary logistic regression models were used to examine the association between social factors and health for men and women separately. We further identified the relative contribution of different factors to total gender inequality in health using the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method. Results Whereas time allocated to paid work, housework and active leisure activities were positively associated with health, time devoted to passive leisure and personal activities were negatively associated with health among both men and women, but the magnitude of the association varied by gender and country. We found significant gender differences in health in Germany, Italy and Spain, but not in the other countries. The decomposition showed that differences in the time allocated to active leisure and level of educational attainment accounted for the largest health gap. Conclusions Our study represents a first step in understanding cross-national differences in the association between health status and time devoted to role-related activities among elderly men and women. The results, therefore, demonstrate the need of using an integrated framework of social factors in analyzing and explaining the gender and cross-national differences in the health of the elderly population. PMID:28949984

  8. The Influence of the Characteristics of the National Business System in the Disclosure of Gender-Related Corporate Social Responsibility Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Colares Oliveira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We analysed the influence of the characteristics of national business systems on the disclosure of gender-related corporate social responsibility practices by 150 companies in Latin America that signed the Declaration of Support for Women’s Empowerment Principles. The highest level of disclosure was related to the establishment of high-level corporate leadership for gender equality. Results show that the country’s level of “concentration of power” and “individualism”, and the “orientation towards femininity” have a negative influence on the disclosure of gender-related practices; in addition, the country’s level of “economic development” and the “pressure of unions” exert a positive influence. The results highlight the important role that some national and local institutions play in the women’s empowerment, leading companies to report information on adopted practices. The study innovates and contributes by introducing the explanation of gender-related social disclosure with the national business system approach in Latin America.

  9. [Geographical differences in clinical characteristics and management of stable outpatients with coronary artery disease: comparison between the Italian and international population included in the Worldwide CLARIFY registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Massimo; Tavazzi, Luigi

    2014-04-01

    Limited data are available regarding specific differences among countries in demographic and clinical characteristics and treatment of patients with stable coronary artery disease. CLARIFY is an international, prospective and longitudinal registry including more than 33 000 patients with stable coronary artery disease enrolled in 45 countries worldwide. Data were used to compare the characteristics of patients enrolled in Italy with those enrolled in Europe and in the rest of the world. Baseline data were available for 33 283 patients, 2112 of whom from Italy and 12 614 from the remaining western European countries. Italian patients were found to be older, more frequently smoker, hypertensive and with sedentary habits. In addition, they presented more frequently a history of myocardial infarction, carotid arterial disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In addition, when compared with patients of both European and international cohorts, more Italian patients had undergone coronary angiography and angioplasty. As far as treatment was concerned, a greater number of Italian patients were taking ivabradine, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers, nitrates, thienopyridines, while those taking beta-blockers, calcium antagonists and other antianginal medications were fewer. Among ambulatory patients with stable coronary artery disease, there are important geographic differences in terms of risk factors, clinical characteristics, surgical and pharmacological treatment.

  10. Meta-analytic approaches to determine gender differences in the age-incidence characteristics of schizophrenia and related psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dan; Kirkbride, James; Croudace, Tim; Morgan, Craig; Boydell, Jane; Errazuriz, Antonia; Murray, Robin M; Jones, Peter B

    2013-03-01

    A recent systematic review and meta-analysis of the incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in England investigated the variation in the rates of psychotic disorders. However, some of the questions of interest, and the data collected to answer these, could not be adequately addressed using established meta-analysis techniques. We developed a novel statistical method, which makes combined use of fractional polynomials and meta-regression. This was used to quantify the evidence of gender differences and a secondary peak onset in women, where the outcome of interest is the incidence of schizophrenia. Statistically significant and epidemiologically important effects were obtained using our methods. Our analysis is based on data from four studies that provide 50 incidence rates, stratified by age and gender. We describe several variations of our method, in particular those that might be used where more data is available, and provide guidance for assessing the model fit. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Associations between structural characteristics of the school setting and irregular lunch consumption – are there gender differences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Krølner, Rikke

    .52 (1.26-1.82). At the individual level, irregular lunch consumption was associated with being a boy, attending 7th grade, medium and low family social class, migration status, and living in a single and reconstructed family structure. Analyses stratified by gender showed similar results but among girls...... schoolchildren, and 2) examine whether gender modified these associations. Methods: Danish data from the international cross-sectional study ‘Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children in 2010 were used. Data were collected among schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 years from a random sample of 75 schools....... The schoolchildren (N=4922) completed a self-administered questionnaire at school (response rate=86.3%). School principals (N=69) completed the school setting questionnaire (response rate=92 %). Associations between school level variables and irregular lunch consumption were estimated by multilevel logistic...

  12. Age- and gender-related characteristics of the pubic symphysis and triradiate cartilage in pediatric computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Joerg; Suedkamp, Norbert P.; Reising, Kilian; Neubauer, Jakob; Saueressig, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    There is little information on the pubic symphysis' normal CT appearance in children. We sought to generate age-, gender- and maturity-related symphyseal width appearances in CT scans. Pelvic CT scans performed for any reason during a 6-year period in patients younger than 18 years were retrospectively analyzed. The symphysis width was measured in the axial plane and the triradiate cartilage was classified as open or closed. Four hundred twenty-seven CT scans were evaluated and 350 remained for analysis. Age- and gender-related measurements of the symphysis width are illustrated on various centile graphs. When grouping children by age in years 0-6, 7-11, 12-15 and 16-17, mean (standard deviation) symphysis width was 5.4 mm (0.9), 5.3 mm (1.1), 4.1 mm (1.1) and 3.5 mm (1.0), respectively, in girls and 5.9 mm (1.3), 5.4 mm (1.2), 5.2 mm (1.1) and 4.0 mm (1.0), respectively, in boys. Boys and girls were significantly different in the age groups 12-15 years (P<0.001) and 16-17 years (P=0.04). In the mature pelvis, the symphyseal gap is significantly (P<0.001) shorter in both genders, and in girls compared to boys (P=0.04). The pubic symphysis width in children differs according to age, gender and maturity. The reference values published herein may help detect symphyseal injury. (orig.)

  13. Age- and gender-related characteristics of the pubic symphysis and triradiate cartilage in pediatric computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Joerg; Suedkamp, Norbert P.; Reising, Kilian [Medical Centre -University of Freiburg, Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Freiburg (Germany); Neubauer, Jakob [Medical Centre - University of Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Saueressig, Ulrich [Kreiskrankenhaus Emmendingen, Department of Radiology, Emmendingen (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    There is little information on the pubic symphysis' normal CT appearance in children. We sought to generate age-, gender- and maturity-related symphyseal width appearances in CT scans. Pelvic CT scans performed for any reason during a 6-year period in patients younger than 18 years were retrospectively analyzed. The symphysis width was measured in the axial plane and the triradiate cartilage was classified as open or closed. Four hundred twenty-seven CT scans were evaluated and 350 remained for analysis. Age- and gender-related measurements of the symphysis width are illustrated on various centile graphs. When grouping children by age in years 0-6, 7-11, 12-15 and 16-17, mean (standard deviation) symphysis width was 5.4 mm (0.9), 5.3 mm (1.1), 4.1 mm (1.1) and 3.5 mm (1.0), respectively, in girls and 5.9 mm (1.3), 5.4 mm (1.2), 5.2 mm (1.1) and 4.0 mm (1.0), respectively, in boys. Boys and girls were significantly different in the age groups 12-15 years (P<0.001) and 16-17 years (P=0.04). In the mature pelvis, the symphyseal gap is significantly (P<0.001) shorter in both genders, and in girls compared to boys (P=0.04). The pubic symphysis width in children differs according to age, gender and maturity. The reference values published herein may help detect symphyseal injury. (orig.)

  14. Does gender modify associations between self rated health and the social and economic characteristics of local environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Anne M; Bentley, Rebecca; Turrell, Gavin; Broom, Dorothy H; Subramanian, S V

    2006-06-01

    To examine whether area level socioeconomic disadvantage and social capital have different relations with women's and men's self rated health. The study used data from 15 112 respondents to the 1998 Tasmanian (Australia) healthy communities study (60% response rate) nested within 41 statistical local areas. Gender stratified analyses were conducted of the associations between the index of relative socioeconomic disadvantage (IRSD) and social capital (neighbourhood integration, neighbourhood alienation, neighbourhood safety, political participation, social trust, trust in institutions) and individual level self rated health using multilevel logistic regression analysis before (age only) and after adjustment for individual level confounders (marital status, indigenous status, income, education, occupation, smoking). The study also tested for interactions between gender and area level variables. IRSD was associated with poor self rated health for women (age adjusted plevel variables. Political participation and neighbourhood safety were protective for women's self rated health but not for men's. Interactions between gender and political participation (p = 0.010) and neighbourhood safety (p = 0.023) were significant. These finding suggest that women may benefit more than men from higher levels of area social capital.

  15. Are gender differences in health-related quality of life attributable to sociodemographic characteristics and chronic disease conditions in elderly people?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to determine the gender differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL and to indicate to what extent this difference can be explained by differential in demographic and chronic disease conditions in Iranian elderly people. Methods: This analysis was carried out on cross-sectional data of QoL assessment among 750 elderly individuals aged 60–90 years who were dwelling in urban population of Babol, the North of Iran. The multiple linear regression model was used to estimate the association between gender and HRQoL after controlling sociodemographic characteristics and chronic disease conditions. Results: Women had significantly lower score in HRQoL in all subscales compared with men after adjusting several confounding factors (P = 0.001. The unadjusted mean difference in overall HRQoL scores was −11.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −13.8, −8.6 points, but it was reduced to −6.5 (95% CI: −9.0, −3.9 points between gender after adjusting by age, educational level, living status, physical activity, smoking, abdominal obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Conclusions: Adjusting for sociodemographic and chronic disease conditions reduced the effect size of poorer HRQoL for women compared with men but did not remove the sex differences. The poorer scores of HRQoL in Iranian women needs further physical, psychological, and social supports in elderly.

  16. Demographic Characteristics, Components of Sexuality and Gender, and Minority Stress and Their Associations to Excessive Alcohol, Cannabis, and Illicit (Noncannabis) Drug Use Among a Large Sample of Transgender People in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Cesar A; Gallego, Joseph D; Bockting, Walter O

    2017-08-01

    The current study examined demographics, sexual orientation, gender characteristics, and gender minority stress and their association to excessive alcohol, cannabis, and illicit (noncannabis) drug use among 1210 transgender adults living in the United States. The authors conducted a secondary analysis of data that included 680 transgender women (M age  = 32.63, SD age  = 12.29) and 530 transgender men (M age  = 26.14, SD age  = 7.42). A modified version of the Risk Behavioral Assessment quantified participants' alcohol, cannabis, and illicit drug use in the past 3 months. Overall, 21.5% of participants reported excessive alcohol use; no significant differences were found on the rates of excessive alcohol use between transgender women and men. Cannabis use among our sample was 24.4%; trangender men reported significantly higher rates of cannabis use compared to transgender women. Illicit drug (noncannabis) use among our sample was 11.6%; transgender men also reported significantly higher rates of illicit drug use compared to transgender women. Multivariate analyses suggested that gender dysphoria was significantly associated with: excessive alcohol use for transgender women, cannabis use among both transgender women and men, and illicit (noncannabis) drug use among transgender women. A nonheterosexual orientation was associated with increased odds of cannabis use among transgender women and men; a nonheterosexual orientation was associated with greater odds of illicit substance use among transgender men but not among transgender women. Gender minority stressors were independently associated with excessive alcohol use among transgender men and cannabis use among transgender women. The authors suggest that minority stress may only partially account for substance use among transgender people. Consequently, the authors suggest that in addition to minority stress, other biopsychosocial mechanisms should continue to be examined to identify pathways that may lead

  17. Work related characteristics, work-home and home-work interference and burnout among primary healthcare physicians: a gender perspective in a Serbian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnik, Katarina; Houkes, Inge

    2011-09-23

    Little information exists on work and stress related health of medical doctors in non-EU countries. Filling this knowledge gap is needed to uncover the needs of this target population and to provide information on comparability of health related phenomena such as burnout across countries. This study examined work related characteristics, work-home and home-work interference and burnout among Serbian primary healthcare physicians (PHPs) and compared burnout levels with other medical doctors in EU countries. Data were collected via surveys which contained Maslach Burnout Inventory and other validated instruments measuring work and home related characteristics. The sample consisted of 373 PHPs working in 12 primary healthcare centres. Data were analysed using t-tests and Chi square tests. No gender differences were detected on mean scores of variables among Serbian physicians, who experience high levels of personal accomplishment, workload, job control and social support, medium to high levels of emotional exhaustion, medium levels of depersonalisation and work-home interference, and low levels of home-work interference. There were more women than men who experienced low job control and high depersonalisation. Serbian physicians experienced significantly higher emotional exhaustion and lower depersonalisation than physicians in some other European countries. To diminish excessive workload, the number of physicians working in primary healthcare centres in Serbia should be increased. Considering that differences between countries were detected on all burnout subcomponents, work-related interventions for employees should be country specific. The role of gender needs to be closely examined in future studies as well.

  18. Characteristics of water obtained by dewatering cyanobacteria-containing sludge formed during drinking water treatment, including C-, N-disinfection byproduct formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hangzhou; Pei, Haiyan; Jin, Yan; Xiao, Hongdi; Ma, Chunxia; Sun, Jiongming; Li, Hongmin

    2017-03-15

    This is the first study to systematically investigate the characteristics of the water obtained by dewatering cyanobacteria-containing sludge generated in the drinking water treatment plant, including formation of C- and N-disinfection by-products (DBPs). Results showed that this 'dewatering water' (DW) had different properties when the sludge was stored at different times. The content of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and microcystins (MCs) in the DW were low when the sludge was treated or disposed of within 4 days; correspondingly, the C-, N-DBP production was also low. However, due to the damage of algal cells to some extent, the DOM and MC levels increased significantly for storage time longer than 4 days; the production of C-, N-DBPs also increased. There were also obvious differences in the characteristics of the DW from sludges generated with different coagulant species. Due to the better protective effect of FeCl 3 and polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC) flocs, the DOM and MC levels and the production of C-, N-DBPs in the DW with FeCl 3 and PAFC coagulation were lower than those with AlCl 3 coagulation, even though the sludges were stored for the same amount of time. Furthermore, because of the formation of Al and Fe hydroxides, precipitated onto the surface of flocs, the soluble Al and Fe in the DW decreased with increased storage time, especially in the first four days. Overall, this study revealed the trends in variation of DW quality for cyanobacteria-containing sludges formed with different coagulants, then FeCl 3 and PAFC coagulants are recommended and sludge should be treated or disposed of within 4 days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cold Heat Storage Characteristics of O/W-type Latent Heat Emulsion Including Continuum Phase of Water Treated with a Freezing Point Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hideo; Morita, Shin-Ichi

    This paper deals with flow and cold heat storage characteristics of the oil (tetradecane, C14H30, freezing point 278.9 K, Latent heat 229 kJ/kg)/water emulsion as a latent heat storage material having a low melting point. The test emulsion includes a water-urea solution as a continuum phase. The freezing point depression of the continuum phase permits enhancement of the heat transfer rate of the emulison, due to the large temperature difference between the latent heat storage material and water-urea solution. The velocity of emulsion flow and the inlet temperature of coolant in a coiled double tube heat exchanger are chosen as the experimental parameters. The pressure drop, the heat transfer coefficient of the emulsion in the coiled tube are measured in the temperture region over solid and liquid phase of the latent heat storage material. The finishing time of the cold heat storage is defined experimentally in the range of sensible and latent heat storage. It is clarified that the flow behavior of the emulsion as a non-Newtonian fluid has an important role in cold heat storage. The useful nondimentional correlation equations for the additional pressure loss coefficient, the heat transfer coefficient and the finishing time of the cold heat storage are derived in terms of Dean number and heat capacity ratio.

  20. Gender difference in the characteristics of and high-risk behaviours among non-injecting heterosexual methamphetamine users in Qingdao, Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Dianchang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing risk of HIV infections, few studies concerning the characteristics of non-injecting heterosexual methamphetamine (MA users and related risk behaviours have been conducted in China. Methods Gender differences in socio-demographic characteristics, perception of MA and STD/HIV, MA use practices, and sexual behaviours related to MA use were examined among 398 non-injecting heterosexual MA users (288 males, 110 females. Results Male MA users were more likely to be married, local, and self-employed; female MA users were more likely to be young, single, engaged in commercial service or unemployed. Female MA users usually start MA use at an earlier age than males (24.3 vs. 31.3 years old, with shorter abuse durations (2.6 vs. 2.9 years, higher frequency of MA use (3.6 vs. 2.4 times per week, and higher likelihood of using MA with heterosexual partners (100% vs. 78.1%. More male MA users have had multiple sex partners (96.9% vs. 77.3% and sex exchanges (72.9% vs. 46.4%. Among 277 males who had had sex with commercial sex workers (CSW, 69.4% never used condoms, and among 77 males who had had sex with multiple partners who are commercial sex workers and always or usually used condoms, 87.0% never changed condoms when changing partners. Conclusion There may be gender difference in the characteristics of high-risk behaviours among non-injecting heterosexual MA users. The findings suggest the integration of specific risk reduction strategies into intervention programs for non-injecting heterosexual MA user populations may significantly improve program goals.

  1. Gender differences in characteristics of physical and sexual victimization in patients with dual diagnosis: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Marleen M.; Dekker, Jack J. M.; Kikkert, Martijn J.; Kleinhesselink, Maaike D.; Goudriaan, Anna E.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with substance use disorders and co-occurring mental health disorders are vulnerable to violent victimization. However, no evidence-based interventions are available to reduce patients' vulnerability. An exploration of the characteristics of physical and sexual violence can provide valuable

  2. A Systematic Review of Combination Therapy with Stimulants and Atomoxetine for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Including Patient Characteristics, Treatment Strategies, Effectiveness, and Tolerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Méndez, Luis; Montgomery, William; Monk, Julie A.; Altin, Murat; Wu, Shenghu; Lin, Chaucer C.H.; Dueñas, Héctor J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this article was to systematically review the literature on stimulant and atomoxetine combination therapy, in particular: 1) Characteristics of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) given combination therapy, 2) treatment strategies used, 3) efficacy and effectiveness, and 4) safety and tolerability. Methods Literature databases (MEDLINE®, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science Citation Index Expanded, and SciVerse Scopus) were systematically searched using prespecified criteria. Publications describing stimulant and atomoxetine combination therapy in patients with ADHD or healthy volunteers were selected for review. Exclusion criteria were comorbid psychosis, bipolar disorder, epilepsy, or other psychiatric/neurologic diseases that could confound ADHD symptom assessment, or other concomitant medication(s) to treat ADHD symptoms. Results Of the 16 publications included for review, 14 reported findings from 3 prospective studies (4 publications), 7 retrospective studies, and 3 narrative reviews/medication algorithms of patients with ADHD. The other two publications reported findings from two prospective studies of healthy volunteers. The main reason for prescribing combination therapy was inadequate response to previous treatment. In the studies of patients with ADHD, if reported, 1) most patients were children/adolescents and male, and had a combined ADHD subtype; 2) methylphenidate was most often used in combination with atomoxetine for treatment augmentation or switch; 3) ADHD symptom control was improved in some, but not all, patients; and 4) there were no serious adverse events. Conclusions Published evidence of the off-label use of stimulant and atomoxetine combination therapy is limited because of the small number of publications, heterogeneous study designs (there was only one prospective, randomized controlled trial), small sample sizes, and geographic bias. Existing

  3. The relationship of gender and trauma characteristics to posttraumatic stress disorder in a community sample of traumatized northern plains American Indian adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, Mukund; Novins, Douglas K; Beals, Janette

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies have identified a high prevalence (25%-80%) of trauma among American Indian and non-American Indian adolescents and adults. However, only a fraction of traumatized individuals develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article examines the relationships of gender and trauma characteristics to a diagnosis of PTSD among a community sample of traumatized American Indian adolescents and young adults. Complete data were collected from 349 American Indians aged 15 to 24 years who participated in a cross-sectional community-based study from July 1997 to December 1999 and reported experiencing at least 1 traumatic event. Traumatic events and PTSD were assessed using a version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Logistic regression determined the relationships of gender, trauma type, age at first trauma, and number of traumas to the development of PTSD. Forty-two participants (12.0% of those who experienced a traumatic event) met criteria for lifetime PTSD. While all 4 of the independent variables noted above demonstrated univariate associations with PTSD, multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that only experiencing a sexual trauma (odds ratio [OR] = 4.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.76 to 11.28) and having experienced 6 or more traumas (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.06 to 6.04) were independent predictors of meeting criteria for PTSD. American Indian children and adolescents who experience sexual trauma and multiple traumatic experiences may be at particularly high risk for developing PTSD.

  4. Demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in children with gender identity disorder: a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Owen, Allison; Kaijser, Vanessa G; Bradley, Susan J; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2003-02-01

    This study examined demographic characteristics, social competence, and behavior problems in clinic-referred children with gender identity problems in Toronto, Canada (N = 358), and Utrecht, The Netherlands (N = 130). The Toronto sample was, on average, about a year younger than the Utrecht sample at referral, had a higher percentage of boys, had a higher mean IQ, and was less likely to be living with both parents. On the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), both groups showed, on average, clinical range scores in both social competence and behavior problems. A CBCL-derived measure of poor peer relations showed that boys in both clinics had worse ratings than did the girls. A multiple regression analysis showed that poor peer relations were the strongest predictor of behavior problems in both samples. This study-the first cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis of children with gender identity disorder-found far more similarities than differences in both social competence and behavior problems. The most salient demographic difference was age at referral. Cross-national differences in factors that might influence referral patterns are discussed.

  5. Gender Considerations in Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Renee; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Hall, Ryan

    2016-12-01

    The role of gender in violence is poorly understood. Research has shown that gender has an important and, at times, distinct role in the prediction of violence. However, this gender disparity diminishes in the setting of mental illness. The risk assessment of violence in women is largely based on research in violent men. There are distinct characteristics in female violence compared with male violence. Attention to these characteristics may lead to the development of gender-dependent tools that can be used to evaluate violence risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Brazilian adolescents' prosocial moral judgment and behavior: relations to sympathy, perspective taking, gender-role orientation, and demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, N; Zhou, Q; Koller, S

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine demographic and individual difference variables that predict level of prosocial moral judgment and self-reported prosocial behavior and to test mediating or moderating relations among predictors. The relations of prosocial moral reasoning and self-reported prosocial behavior to perspective taking, sympathy, age, sociometric status, and gender-role orientation were examined with a sample of 149 Brazilian adolescents who completed a series of questionnaire measures. Prosocial moral judgment was expected to be predicted by both sympathy and perspective taking, whereas sympathy or prosocial moral judgment was expected to mediate the relations of femininity and perspective taking to prosocial behavior. Self-reported perspective taking and sympathy interacted when predicting prosocial moral judgment; adolescents who were high in either sympathy or perspective taking (or both) scored high in prosocial moral reasoning. A feminine orientation predicted sympathy and perspective taking, perspective taking predicted prosocial moral reasoning and sympathy, and sympathy had both direct and indirect paths (through moral judgment) to prosocial behavior. The findings generally were consistent with the contention that both the tendency to take others' perspectives and to sympathize are related to level of prosocial moral reasoning, which in turn motivates prosocial behavior. Moreover, patterns of correlations among variables were similar to those found in the United States.

  7. Identifying the Gender Dimension in Research Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.; Lalonde, B.St.L.; Tippett, C.; Archambault, E.; Callaert, J.; Mantouvalou, K.; Arora, L.

    2016-07-01

    Globally, there is an increasing interest in integrating the gender dimension in research content (GDRC). As a first step towards monitoring progress in this area, a new indicator measuring the proportion of a country’s scientific publications integrating a gender dimension in their subject matter was developed for the European Commission’s She Figures 2015 publication. This indicator is based on a keyword-based query covering both sex-related terms (biological characteristics of both women and men) and gender-related terms (social/cultural factors of both women and men). The final GDRC dataset consisted of some 212,600 distinct publications including a gender dimension in their research content. Findings suggest that integrating a gender dimension into research content is relatively rare. Unsurprisingly, it was less common for scientific articles in the fields of agricultural sciences, engineering and technology, and natural sciences to do so, and more common in the social sciences. (Author)

  8. A tale of two epidemics: gender differences in socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behaviors among HIV positive individuals in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Servan-Mori, Edson; Beynon, Fenella; González, Andrea; Volkow, Patricia

    2015-12-16

    To date, the HIV epidemic in Mexico has been concentrated mainly among men who have sex with men, butheterosexual transmission, particularly to women, is increasingly important. This study examine gender differences in socio-demographic characteristics and risk behaviors of HIV positive individuals in Mexico City. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,490 clinic patients (male:female ratio 8:1) with HIV inMexico City in 2010. We examined socio-demographic characteristics, risk behavior, and history of HIV infection.From multivariate non-linear probability (probit) models we calculated predicted probabilities by sex of several outcomes: marginalization, demographic and sexual risk behaviors. Significant differences were found between men and women. Multivariate models suggest that women had lower schooling levels; were less likely to have been employed in the past month and earn more than the minimal wage; more likely to have children, to have been sexually abused, to never have used condoms and to report having been infected by a stable partner. Additionally, women were less likely to report having a partner with a history of migration to the USA and to have engaged in transactional sex. Significant differences exist between men and women with HIV in Mexico City in terms of their socioeconomicand behavioral profiles, which translate into differences in terms of exposure to HIV infection. Women face social and economic vulnerability while men tend to have riskier sexual behavior. Gender issues must be approached in prevention and treatment efforts, using diverse methods to target those most vulnerable and at risk.

  9. The characteristics and effects of motivational music in exercise settings: the possible influence of gender, age, frequency of attendance, and time of attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, D L; Karageorghis, C I; Sharp, N C C

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the characteristics and effects of motivational music in British gymnasia. The secondary purpose was to determine whether the characteristics and effects of motivational music were invariant in relation to gender, age, frequency of gymnasium attendance, and the time of day at which exercise participants attended gymnasia. Participants (n=532) from 29 David Lloyd Leisure exercise facilities across Britain responded to a questionnaire that was designed to assess music preferences during exercise via 2 open-ended questions and 1 scaled-response item. A content analysis of the questionnaire data yielded 45 analytic properties that were grouped into the following categories: specific music factors, general music factors, music programme factors, delivery factors, televisual factors, personal factors, contextual factors, and psychophysical response factors. The relative incidence of these analytic properties across gender groups (male/female), age groups (16-26 y, 27-34 y, 35-45 y, 46+ y), frequency of attendance groups (low, medium, high), and time of attendance groups (morning, afternoon, evening) was tested by use of chi(2) analyses. Of the personal variables tested, age exerted the greatest influence on musical preference during exercise; older participants expressed a preference for quieter, slower, and generally less overtly stimulative music. Music programmes that are prescribed to accompany exercise should be varied in terms of musical idiom and date of release. Such programmes will account for the preferences of different groups of exercise participants that attend gymnasia at different times of the day. Further, the music chosen should be characterised by a strong rhythmical component.

  10. Work related characteristics, work-home and home-work interference and burnout among primary healthcare physicians: A gender perspective in a Serbian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houkes Inge

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little information exists on work and stress related health of medical doctors in non-EU countries. Filling this knowledge gap is needed to uncover the needs of this target population and to provide information on comparability of health related phenomena such as burnout across countries. This study examined work related characteristics, work-home and home-work interference and burnout among Serbian primary healthcare physicians (PHPs and compared burnout levels with other medical doctors in EU countries. Methods Data were collected via surveys which contained Maslach Burnout Inventory and other validated instruments measuring work and home related characteristics. The sample consisted of 373 PHPs working in 12 primary healthcare centres. Data were analysed using t-tests and Chi square tests. Results No gender differences were detected on mean scores of variables among Serbian physicians, who experience high levels of personal accomplishment, workload, job control and social support, medium to high levels of emotional exhaustion, medium levels of depersonalisation and work-home interference, and low levels of home-work interference. There were more women than men who experienced low job control and high depersonalisation. Serbian physicians experienced significantly higher emotional exhaustion and lower depersonalisation than physicians in some other European countries. Conclusions To diminish excessive workload, the number of physicians working in primary healthcare centres in Serbia should be increased. Considering that differences between countries were detected on all burnout subcomponents, work-related interventions for employees should be country specific. The role of gender needs to be closely examined in future studies as well.

  11. Characteristics of female mentally disordered offenders culpable under the new legislation in Japan: A gender comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Takako; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Matsumoto, Satoko; Shiina, Akihiro; Iyo, Masaomi; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu; Igarashi, Yoshito

    2016-02-01

    Although a substantial increase in the number of female offenders has drawn interest towards understanding their unique characteristics, few studies have investigated the characteristics of female mentally disordered offenders in Japan and none since the legislation enacted in 2005 in Japan, which provided for special services for them. The aim of this study is to identify those characteristics of people detained under this legislation, which distinguish the women from the men and may indicate special needs among the women. A retrospective records-based study of all patients admitted to one secure unit in the 8 years since its opening in July 2005 until a census date of 31 October 2013. Thirty-six (15%) of the patients were women. Marriage, mood disorders, past suicide attempts and homicide were more common among the women than the men. Six of the female offender-patients had committed filicides, of which four were infanticides. There appears to be a particularly vulnerable sub-group of women with severe mood disorders, a history of serious suicide attempts and young children at risk of harming those children. Our sample was small and from a single unit so, given the potential importance of improving understanding of who is at risk in such circumstances, extending our study nationally seems indicated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The effect of gender on meat (Longissimus lumborum muscle quality characteristics in the fallow deer (Dama dama L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Piaskowska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the quality of meat (Longissimus lumborum muscle from male (11 bucks and female (10 does fallow deer (Dama dama L. aged 17-18 months, hunter-harvested in north-eastern Poland during one hunting season. Muscle samples collected from the carcasses of male fallow deer were characterized by a higher (P≤0.01 content of dry matter, protein, fat and energy, and a lower (P≤0.01 water/protein ratio than male counterparts. An analysis of the fatty acid profile revealed that the intramuscular fat of male fallow deer contained higher concentrations of C12:0, C20:0, C18:2 and C20:1 fatty acids (P≤0.01, and C16:1, C18:1 and C18:3 fatty acids (P≤0.05, whereas the intramuscular fat of female fallow deer contained higher levels of C16:0 and C17:1 fatty acids (P≤0.01, and C14:0, C17:0 and C20:4 fatty acids (P≤0.05, and higher (P≤0.01 amounts of saturated fatty acids. The fat extracted from the carcasses of bucks had a higher (P≤0.01 ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids. An analysis of the physicochemical properties of meat indicated that samples of the Longissimus lumborum muscle collected from the carcasses of male fallow deer were characterized by a lower (P≤0.01 pH and greater (P≤0.01 drip loss, and their colour had a higher (P≤0.01 contribution of redness, yellowness, and higher saturation. The effect of gender on meat quality was also confirmed by a sensory analysis, in which meat from bucks received higher scores for juiciness (P≤0.05, and meat from does for tenderness (P≤0.01.

  13. What women want: social characteristics, gender-based violence and social support preferences in a cohort of women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielding, Sally; Scott, Alison

    2017-04-01

    A total of 229 women attend Chalmers Centre (a city-centre integrated sexual health centre in Edinburgh, Scotland) for their HIV care and treatment. Local third-sector agencies provide peer support, but anecdotally, it is not well utilised and some demographic groups are under-represented. The aim of this study was to gain better understanding of the background social characteristics of these women, to ascertain what issues they are affected by, and to better identify what support is required and how it should be provided/facilitated. An anonymous self-completion questionnaire was developed, and all women attending HIV clinics between July and November 2015 were given the opportunity to participate. Additional data were accessed from the National Sexual Health database on cohort size and gender-based violence enquiries. Forty-four women living with HIV completed the questionnaire. 25% are unemployed. 84.6% had a combined household income of less than £30,000 per annum. 16.7% do not know anyone else, and 59.5% know only one other person, who is living with HIV. 32.6% would like to meet other/more women living with HIV, and 25.5% were unsure if they did or not. Of those who would, 42.9% would prefer a one-to-one setting, 42.9% would prefer a group setting, and 14.3% did not mind. 64.3% would prefer to meet off NHS premises. 26.8% were interested in discussion groups on women's issues, and 31.7% were unsure. The most popular suggestions for discussion group topics were stress/anxiety (nine women), HIV disclosure (eight women), diet and nutrition (seven women), and pregnancy and childbirth (six women). 26.8% were interested in attending a "women clinic" staffed by female staff, the same number were unsure if they would utilise this service or not. 50% of women had, at some point, experienced gender-based violence, 13.5% were currently experiencing gender-based violence, and four of these women have children living with them. From National Sexual Health records, only

  14. Psychological, clinical and social characteristics of patients implementing different types of aggression in the hospital (gender aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulygina V.G.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of the comparative analysis of clinical, social and psycho-pathological predictors of violations of the regime requirements, physical and verbal aggression among mentally ill women and men during the compulsory treatment are presented. It is revealed that the type of aggression in women sample significantly more frequently associated with clinical and social and pathopsychological characteristics: emotional unstable stew, learned in childhood and adolescence behavioral model of aggression and the severity of hostility and suspicion; the inertia of mental processes combined with low level of the cognitive functioning and a violation of insight in a broad sense. Among men – with the emotional and personal deformation, which were revealed before the beginning of illness, the decline in cognitive functioning and undeveloped links in the regulation of behavior, high level of aggressiveness in communication, internal conflict combined with the rigidity of self-concept. The authors concluded that assessment of risk factors from hospital-acquired aggression is an independent psycho-diagnostic work that needs to be provided with special tools, aimed whilst on the study of individual psychological characteristics of the regulation of behavior, strategies coping, communication installations and the treats of the aggression, as well as subjective ratings of social functioning in the hospital.

  15. The semiotics of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren, J

    1992-01-01

    The semiotics of gender are investigated in this article for the purpose of exploring the way that deep unconscious motives in relationship to cultural biases give rise to gender concepts. Theories of semiotic processes, including Jacques Lacan's concept of the psychoanalytic signifier, are explained briefly and applied to the signs of gender. The article concludes that gender concepts develop out of biology, unconscious feelings, and social patterning, and are not given, natural, and irrevocable.

  16. Gender Justice and School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Desheng

    2009-01-01

    Gender justice includes three basic dimensions: gender equality, respect for difference, and free choice. In reality, schools construct and reproduce the gender injustice of the social culture through multiple dimensions that include the visible and the invisible curriculum, and the teacher's behaviour. In terms of gender justice, the social…

  17. Comparative characteristics of vegetative support of central hemodynamics and physical performance of runners on 400 meters of both genders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. L. Mikhalyuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific search in the direction of the analysis of the mechanisms of adaptive reorganizations in the female body under the influence of sports and diagnostics of functional state is essential and urgent problem, which is of great importance in sports medicine. There is evidence of the convergence of the laws of sport performance in high class of male and female athletes who specialize in one and the same sport as the convergence of their morphological and functional parameters. The aim of this study was to make comparisons of heart rate variability, central hemodynamics and physical performance of the runners in the 400 meters of both genders. Materials and methods. In the preparatory period of the training process 100 athletes , specializing in run on 400 meters, were examined. 55 (55% were men and 45 (45%- women. Distribution by qualification of men: 11 of them had master of sports (MS qualifications – master of sports of international class (MSIC, 19 –candidate master (CMS, the athletes qualifications of 1 level – 12 and 13 athletes qualifications of II–III level. Women's qualification consists of athletes MS–MSIC – 7, 15 athletes qualifications of CMS, athletes qualifications of 1 level – 14 and 12 athletes qualifications of II–III level. Study of heart rate variability (HRV and the central hemodynamics was performed on diagnostic automated complex "CARDIO+" with the capability of automatic analysis of HRV and central hemodynamics. Also mathematical analysis techniques for the analysis of vegetative regulation of cardiac activity was used. Temporal and spectral indices of HRV were studied. Central hemodynamics was studied by automated tetrapolar rheography by W. Kubiček et al. in Pushkar Y.T. et al. modification. Determination of physical performance was carried out by the usual method on the cycle ergometer using submaximal test PWC170. Results and discussion. In men, the runners on 400 m, qualifications of MS

  18. Carcass characteristics of Criollo Cordobés kid goats under an extensive management system: effects of gender and liveweight at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvillani, A; Peña, F; de Gea, G; Gómez, G; Petryna, A; Perea, J

    2010-11-01

    Thirty males and thirty females suckling Criollo Cordobes kid goats of approximately 60 to 90 days old were used in this study. Kids were slaughtered at 9.511 kg of empty body weight. The carcasses showed a medium conformation index. The meat and fat colour, and internal subcutaneous fatness were mainly scored as either pink, cream, slight and low-medium, respectively. The shoulder comprised 66-67% muscle, 24-27% bone and 4-6% fat. The slaughter weight had significant effects on the following characteristics: dressing yield, carcass measures and indices, subcutaneous fatness, meat colour, and muscle/fat ratio. The effect of gender was smaller: the female kids presented the highest fatness values for all parameters studied. Also, these animals displayed the lowest percentage of joints of extra class. The meat of female kids contained significantly less muscle and bone and a higher proportion of fat than that of male kids. The allometric analysis displays an early growth in the carcass measures and indices, fifth quarter, joints and bone proportion of shoulder. Internal and dissectible fats show a late growth. Principal component (PC) analysis was performed to study the relationship between carcass quality variables. The six first PC's explained about 85% of the total variability. The weight and yield of the carcasses were more effective to define the first PC. The projection of the carcass quality data in the first two PC's allowed distinguishing between carcass weight and carcass conformation groups, but not between gender and fatness. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Gender and age characteristics and the trends in prevalence of obesity in the adult population in Russia during the 1994-2012 period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K; Keshabyants, E E; Peskova, E V

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult age and sex groups of the Russian population in the dynamics of observation from 1994 to 2012 was based on anthropometric measurements of weight and height in Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. The mean values of body mass index (BMI) and the frequency of obesity (BMI > 30.0) of the entire population have been increased during the observation period. The analyzing the data by gender revealed a significant increase in the frequency of obesity mainly among men, especially in the period 2005-2012, whereas among women increased incidence of obesity was negligible. The most rapid increase in the frequency of overweight and obesity in men noted in the age period of 20-30 years, and further increase in frequency of overweight and obesity with age were negligible. The rate of overweight and obesity in women had almost linear increase in the age period of 20-60 years. Comparative analysis of the prevalence of obesity showed that the obtained values for the 2000-2012 period were close to those characteristic of the developed world in recent decades. The growth of obesity rate in the general adult population in 2000-2005 and the 2005-2012 was 0.4% per year. At the same time, men showed a significant acceleration of the growth rate of obesity in the period 2005 to 2012 (0.61% per year) compared with the period 2000-2005 (0.44% per year). Increase in the frequency of obesity was observed in all regions in 2000 to 2012. The data should be considered as a rationale for research into the causes of gender differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the first place to find differences in the peculiarities of dietary intake between men and women at different ages of life, leading to the development of overweight and obesity.

  20. Cryopreservation does not alter main characteristics of Good Manufacturing Process-grade human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells including immunomodulating potential and lack of malignant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetzkendorf, Jana; Nerger, Katrin; Hering, Julian; Moegel, Angelika; Hoffmann, Katrin; Hoefers, Christiane; Mueller-Tidow, Carsten; Mueller, Lutz P

    2015-02-01

    The immunomodulating capacity of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) qualifies them as a therapeutic tool in several diseases. However, repeated transplantation with products of reproducible characteristics may be required. This could be achieved with cryopreserved aliquots of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-grade MSCs. However, the impact of cryopreservation on the characteristics of GMP-MSCs is ill defined. We produced fresh and cryopreserved MSCs from human donors with a xenogen-free GMP protocol. Immunogenicity and immunomodulating capacity were tested in co-culture with putative recipient-specific peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Risk of malignant transformation was assessed in vitro and in vivo. Cryopreservation had no impact on viability and consensus criteria of MSCs. In co-culture with PBMCs, MSCs showed low immunogenicity and suppressed mitogen-stimulated proliferation of PBMC irrespective of cryopreservation. Cytogenetic aberrations were not observed consistently in fresh and cryopreserved products, and no signs of malignant transformation occurred in functional assays. MSC products from an elderly pretreated donor showed reduced functional quality, but imminent failure of functional criteria could be detected by an increased population doubling time in early passages. This study is the first systematic analysis on cryopreservation of xenogen-free human bone marrow-derived GMP-MSCs. The data support that cryopreservation does not alter the characteristics of the cells and thus may allow the generation of products for serial transplantation. In addition, the protocol allowed early detection of MSC products with low functional capacity. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender aspects of status in teenage student groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachkova, Marianna E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Typical male and female roles and relationships can be observed at different social levels: intergroup, intragroup, interpersonal, intrapersonal. In adolescence, increased development of gender characteristics (gender identity, gender stereotypes, gender roles appears at all levels. Since the leading activity at this age is interpersonal communication, research into gender characteristics and their influence on relations in the student group is one of the most important tasks of modern psychology. One hundred and forty teenagers in grades 6-8 from secondary schools in Moscow, aged of 12–14, were involved in the research. Special social-psychological techniques were applied for assessment of status relations (sociometry, referentometry, methodology for defining the informal intragroup power structure and gender characteristics (Bem Sex Role Inventory in classical and modified versions, as well as correlation and cluster analyses. We found that representations about the group leader contained clear masculine features. We underline the discrepancy between the qualities attributed to the image of the leader and the qualities of the actual group leaders. Thus, the image of the leader includes predominantly masculine characteristics, while actual high-status group members describe themselves with both feminine and gender-neutral features. Finally gender-typed behavior and masculine traits are more typical of low-status teenagers.

  2. Characterization of SiO2/SiC interface states and channel mobility from MOSFET characteristics including variable-range hopping at cryogenic temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Yoshioka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of SiC MOSFETs (drain current vs. gate voltage were measured at 0.14−350 K and analyzed considering variable-range hopping conduction through interface states. The total interface state density was determined to be 5.4×1012 cm−2 from the additional shift in the threshold gate voltage with a temperature change. The wave-function size of interface states was determined from the temperature dependence of the measured hopping current and was comparable to the theoretical value. The channel mobility was approximately 100 cm2V−1s−1 and was almost independent of temperature.

  3. Characterization of SiO2/SiC interface states and channel mobility from MOSFET characteristics including variable-range hopping at cryogenic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Hironori; Hirata, Kazuto

    2018-04-01

    The characteristics of SiC MOSFETs (drain current vs. gate voltage) were measured at 0.14-350 K and analyzed considering variable-range hopping conduction through interface states. The total interface state density was determined to be 5.4×1012 cm-2 from the additional shift in the threshold gate voltage with a temperature change. The wave-function size of interface states was determined from the temperature dependence of the measured hopping current and was comparable to the theoretical value. The channel mobility was approximately 100 cm2V-1s-1 and was almost independent of temperature.

  4. Tiotropium improves lung function, exacerbation rate, and asthma control, independent of baseline characteristics including age, degree of airway obstruction, and allergic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerstjens, Huib A M; Moroni-Zentgraf, Petra; Tashkin, Donald P

    2016-01-01

    performed in parallel in patients with severe symptomatic asthma. Exploratory subgroup analyses of peak forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), trough FEV1, time to first severe exacerbation, time to first episode of asthma worsening, and seven-question Asthma Control Questionnaire responder rate were......BACKGROUND: Many patients with asthma remain symptomatic despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with or without long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs). Tiotropium add-on to ICS plus a LABA has been shown to improve lung function and reduce exacerbation risk in patients with symptomatic...... asthma. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the efficacy of tiotropium add-on therapy is dependent on patients' baseline characteristics. METHODS: Two randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, twin trials (NCT00772538 and NCT00776984) of once-daily tiotropium Respimat(®) 5 μg add-on to ICS plus a LABA were...

  5. Changes in the physicochemical characteristics, including flavour components and Maillard reaction products, of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikin, Yonathan; Kamiya, Asahiro; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

    2014-04-15

    Changes in the quality attributes of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar represented by physicochemical characteristics as well as flavour components and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were monitored every 3 months over 1 year of storage. Stored cane brown sugar became darker, and its moisture content and water activity (a(w)) increased during storage. Fructose and glucose levels decreased as non-enzymatic browning via the Maillard reaction occurred in the stored sample, and a similar trend was also discovered in aconitic and acetic acids. Stored cane brown sugar lost its acidic and sulfuric odours (58.70-39.35% and 1.85-0.08%, respectively); subsequently, the nutty and roasted aroma increased from 26.52% to 38.59% due to the volatile MRPs. The browning rate of stored cane brown sugar was positively associated with the development of volatile MRPs (Pearson's coefficient = 0.860), whereas the amount of 3-deoxyglucosone, an intermediate product of the Maillard reaction, had a lower association with the brown colour due to its relatively slow degradation rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of sociodemographic characteristics on underemployment in a longitudinal, nationally representative study of cancer survivors: Evidence for the importance of gender and marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Erin E; Davidoff, Amy; de Moor, Janet S; McNeel, Timothy S; Virgo, Katherine S; Coughlan, Diarmuid; Han, Xuesong; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Guy, Gery P; Banegas, Matthew P; Alfano, Catherine M; Dowling, Emily C; Yabroff, K Robin

    2018-01-01

    We examined the longitudinal association between sociodemographic factors and an expanded definition of underemployment among those with and without cancer history in the United States. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data (2007-2013) were used in multivariable regression analyses to compare employment status between baseline and two-year follow-up among adults aged 25-62 years at baseline (n = 1,614 with and n = 39,324 without cancer). Underemployment was defined as becoming/staying unemployed, changing from full to part-time, or reducing part-time work significantly. Interaction effects between cancer history/time since diagnosis and predictors known to be associated with employment patterns, including age, gender/marital status, education, and health insurance status at baseline were modeled. Approximately 25% of cancer survivors and 21% of individuals without cancer reported underemployment at follow-up (p = 0.002). Multivariable analyses indicated that those with a cancer history report underemployment more frequently (24.7%) than those without cancer (21.4%, p = 0.002) with underemployment rates increasing with time since cancer diagnosis. A significant interaction between gender/marital status and cancer history and underemployment was found (p = 0.0004). There were no other significant interactions. Married female survivors diagnosed >10 years ago reported underemployment most commonly (38.7%), and married men without cancer reported underemployment most infrequently (14.0%). A wider absolute difference in underemployment reports for married versus unmarried women as compared to married versus unmarried men was evident, with the widest difference apparent for unmarried versus married women diagnosed >10 years ago (18.1% vs. 38.7%). Cancer survivors are more likely to experience underemployment than those without cancer. Longer time since cancer diagnosis and gender/marital status are critical factors in predicting those at greatest risk of

  7. A Descriptive Longitudinal Study of Changes in Vape Shop Characteristics and Store Policies in Anticipation of the 2016 FDA Regulations of Tobacco Products, Including E-Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available After proposing the “Deeming Rule” in 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA began regulating the manufacturing, marketing, and sales of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette products as tobacco products in 2016. The current study conducted vape shop store observations and surveyed Los Angeles–area shop employees (assessing their beliefs, awareness, and perceptions of e-cigarettes and related FDA regulations at two time points one year apart to better understand what vape shop retailers would do given FDA’s soon-to-be-enacted Deeming Rule. The study also compared retailer beliefs/awareness/actions and store characteristics immediately after the Deeming Rule proposal versus a year after the Rule had been proposed, right before its enactment. Two data collection waves occurred before the Deeming Rule enactment, with Year 1 surveying 77 shops (2014 and Year 2 surveying 61 shops (2015–2016. Between the data collection points, 16 shops had closed. Among the shops that were open at both time points, the majority (95% in Year 1; 74% in Year 2 were aware of some FDA regulations or other policies applying to vape shops. However, overall awareness of FDA regulations and state/local policies governing e-cigarettes significantly decreased from Year 1 to Year 2. At both time points, all shops offered customers free puffs of nicotine-containing e-liquids (prohibited by the then upcoming Deeming Rule. Perceptions of e-cigarette safety also significantly decreased between the years. Exploring vape shop retailer perceptions and store policies (i.e., free puffs/samples displays, perceptions of e-cigarette safety, etc. over time will help the FDA assess the needs of the vape shop community and develop more effective retailer education campaigns and materials targeted to increase compliance with the newly enacted regulations.

  8. A Descriptive Longitudinal Study of Changes in Vape Shop Characteristics and Store Policies in Anticipation of the 2016 FDA Regulations of Tobacco Products, Including E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sheila; Escobedo, Patricia; Garcia, Robert; Cruz, Tess Boley; Unger, Jennifer B; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Meza, Leah; Sussman, Steve

    2018-02-11

    After proposing the "Deeming Rule" in 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began regulating the manufacturing, marketing, and sales of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) products as tobacco products in 2016. The current study conducted vape shop store observations and surveyed Los Angeles-area shop employees (assessing their beliefs, awareness, and perceptions of e-cigarettes and related FDA regulations) at two time points one year apart to better understand what vape shop retailers would do given FDA's soon-to-be-enacted Deeming Rule. The study also compared retailer beliefs/awareness/actions and store characteristics immediately after the Deeming Rule proposal versus a year after the Rule had been proposed, right before its enactment. Two data collection waves occurred before the Deeming Rule enactment, with Year 1 surveying 77 shops (2014) and Year 2 surveying 61 shops (2015-2016). Between the data collection points, 16 shops had closed. Among the shops that were open at both time points, the majority (95% in Year 1; 74% in Year 2) were aware of some FDA regulations or other policies applying to vape shops. However, overall awareness of FDA regulations and state/local policies governing e-cigarettes significantly decreased from Year 1 to Year 2. At both time points, all shops offered customers free puffs of nicotine-containing e-liquids (prohibited by the then upcoming Deeming Rule). Perceptions of e-cigarette safety also significantly decreased between the years. Exploring vape shop retailer perceptions and store policies (i.e., free puffs/samples displays, perceptions of e-cigarette safety, etc.) over time will help the FDA assess the needs of the vape shop community and develop more effective retailer education campaigns and materials targeted to increase compliance with the newly enacted regulations.

  9. Gender determination in populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLetchie, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

  10. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén; Beatriz Montes-Berges

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 1...

  11. Integron, Plasmid and Host Strain Characteristics of Escherichia coli from Humans and Food Included in the Norwegian Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunde, Marianne; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov; Slettemeås, Jannice Schau; Böckerman, Inger; Norström, Madelaine

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli (n=331) isolates from humans with bloodstream infections were investigated for the presence of class 1 and class 2 integrons. The integron cassettes arrays were characterized and the findings were compared with data from similar investigations on resistant E. coli from meat and meat products (n=241) produced during the same time period. All isolates were obtained from the Norwegian monitoring programs for antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens and in the veterinary sector. Methods used included PCR, sequencing, conjugation experiments, plasmid replicon typing and subtyping, pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis and serotyping. Integrons of class 1 and 2 occurred significantly more frequently among human isolates; 45.4% (95% CI: 39.9-50.9) than among isolates from meat; 18% (95% CI: 13.2 -23.3), (pfood source and from a human clinical sample highlights the possible role of meat as a source of resistance elements for pathogenic bacteria.

  12. Bioclim Deliverable D4/5: global climatic characteristics, including vegetation and seasonal cycles over Europe, for snapshots over the next 200,000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the BIOCLIM project is to develop and present techniques that can be used to develop self-consistent patterns of possible future climate changes over the next million years (climate scenarios), and to demonstrate how these climate scenarios can be used in assessments of the long-term safety of nuclear waste repository sites. Within the project, two strategies are implemented to predict climate change. The first is the hierarchical strategy, in which a hierarchy of climate models is used to investigate the evolution of climate over the period of interest. These models vary from very simple 2-D and threshold models, which simulate interactions between only a few aspects of the earth system, through general circulation models (GCMs) and vegetation models, which simulate in great detail the dynamics and physics of the atmosphere, ocean, and biosphere, to regional models, which focus in particular on the European region and the specific areas of interest. The second strategy is the integrated strategy, in which intermediate complexity climate models are developed, and used to consecutively simulate the development of the earth system over many millennia. Although these models are relatively simple compared to a GCM, they are more advanced than 2D models, and do include physical descriptions of the biosphere, cryo-sphere, atmosphere and ocean. This deliverable, D4/5, focuses on the hierarchical strategy, and in particular the GCM and vegetation model simulation of possible future climates. Deliverable D3 documented the first step in this strategy. The Louvain-la-Neuve 2-D climate model (LLN-2D) was used to estimate (among other variables) annual mean temperatures and ice volume in the Northern Hemisphere over the next 1 million years. It was driven by the calculated evolution of orbital parameters, and plausible scenarios of CO 2 concentration. From the results, 3 future time periods within the next 200,000 years were identified as being extreme, that is

  13. CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL STROKE OR TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK, INCLUDED INTO THE LIS-2 REGISTER (LYUBERTSY STUDY OF MORTALITY IN PATIENTS AFTER STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To provide final data on the three-year period of the inclusion of patients; to give most accurate "portrait" of patients hospitalized with a brain stroke within the framework of the LIS-2 register (Lyubertsy study of mortality in patients after stroke.Material and methods. All patients (n=960 admitted to the Lyubertsy district hospital №2 with stroke for the period from 01.2009 to 12.2011 were included into the study.Results. Men accounted for 37.5%, women - 62.5%, mean age was 71.1±9.8 years. The history of hypertension was present in 833 patients (86.8%, atrial fibrillation in 252 (26.8% patients, 199 (20.7% patients had previously undergone stroke. In-hospital mortality was 21.6% (207 patients had died; mean age 72.9±9.8 years. Low frequency of the antihypertensive therapy (34.5%, lipid-lowering therapy (0.7%, antiplatelet agents (5.7%, anticoagulation therapy prescription in patients with atrial fibrillation was detected.Conclusion. Insufficient assignment of drugs with a proven effect on the prognosis in patients with risk factors prior to the development of the reference stroke draws attention. High incidence of recurrent strokes indicates an underactive secondary prevention.

  14. Generalized two-dimensional (2D) linear system analysis metrics (GMTF, GDQE) for digital radiography systems including the effect of focal spot, magnification, scatter, and detector characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Amit; Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew T; Gupta, Sandesh K; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2010-03-01

    The MTF, NNPS, and DQE are standard linear system metrics used to characterize intrinsic detector performance. To evaluate total system performance for actual clinical conditions, generalized linear system metrics (GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE) that include the effect of the focal spot distribution, scattered radiation, and geometric unsharpness are more meaningful and appropriate. In this study, a two-dimensional (2D) generalized linear system analysis was carried out for a standard flat panel detector (FPD) (194-micron pixel pitch and 600-micron thick CsI) and a newly-developed, high-resolution, micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) (35-micron pixel pitch and 300-micron thick CsI). Realistic clinical parameters and x-ray spectra were used. The 2D detector MTFs were calculated using the new Noise Response method and slanted edge method and 2D focal spot distribution measurements were done using a pin-hole assembly. The scatter fraction, generated for a uniform head equivalent phantom, was measured and the scatter MTF was simulated with a theoretical model. Different magnifications and scatter fractions were used to estimate the 2D GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE for both detectors. Results show spatial non-isotropy for the 2D generalized metrics which provide a quantitative description of the performance of the complete imaging system for both detectors. This generalized analysis demonstrated that the MAF and FPD have similar capabilities at lower spatial frequencies, but that the MAF has superior performance over the FPD at higher frequencies even when considering focal spot blurring and scatter. This 2D generalized performance analysis is a valuable tool to evaluate total system capabilities and to enable optimized design for specific imaging tasks.

  15. Prevalence of gender nonconformity in Flanders, Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Van Caenegem, Eva; Wierckx, Katrien; ELAUT, ELS; Buysse, Ann; Dewaele, Alexis; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Gender nonconformity refers to the extent to which a person’s gender identity, gender role and/or gender expression differs from the cultural norms prescribed for people of a particular sex, within a certain society and era. Most data on gender nonconformity focus on the prevalence of gender dysphoria (which also includes a distress factor) or on the number of legal sex changes. However, not every gender nonconforming individual experiences distress or applies for treatment. Population-based ...

  16. Gender wage gap when women are highly inactive: Evidence from repeated imputations with Macedonian data

    OpenAIRE

    Petreski, Marjan; Mojsoska-Blazevski, Nikica; Petreski, Blagica

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to understand if large gender employment and participation gaps in Macedonia can shed some light on the gender wage gap. A large contingent of inactive women in Macedonia including long-term unemployed due to the transition process, female remittance receivers from the male migrant, unpaid family workers in agriculture and so on, is outside employment, but is not necessarily having the worst labour-market characteristics. In addition, both gender wage gap and...

  17. Gender Segregation Small Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth R Troske; William J Carrington

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies interfirm gender segregation in a unique sample of small employers. We focus on small firms because previous research on interfirm segregation has studied only large firms and because it is easier to link the demographic characteristics of employers and employees in small firms. This latter feature permits an assessment of the role of employer discrimination in creating gender segregation. Our first finding is that interfirm segregation is prevalent among small employers. I...

  18. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  19. Gendered language attitudes: exploring language as a gendered construct using Rasch measurement theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knisely, Kris A; Wind, Stefanie A

    2015-01-01

    Gendered language attitudes (GLAs) are gender-based perceptions of language varieties based on connections between gender-related and linguistic characteristics of individuals, including the perception of language varieties as possessing degrees of masculinity and femininity. This study combines substantive theory about language learning and gender with a model based on Rasch measurement theory to explore the psychometric properties of a new measure of GLAs. Findings suggest that GLAs is a unidimensional construct and that the items used can be used to describe differences among students in terms of the strength of their GLAs. Implications for research, theory, and practice are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the teaching and learning of languages.

  20. How Early Hormones Shape Gender Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Beltz, Adriene M.

    2015-01-01

    Many important psychological characteristics show sex differences, and are influenced by sex hormones at different developmental periods. We focus on the role of sex hormones in early development, particularly the differential effects of prenatal androgens on aspects of gender development. Increasing evidence confirms that prenatal androgens have facilitative effects on male-typed activity interests and engagement (including child toy preferences and adult careers), and spatial abilities, but relatively minimal effects on gender identity. Recent emphasis has been directed to the psychological mechanisms underlying these effects (including sex differences in propulsive movement, and androgen effects on interest in people versus things), and neural substrates of androgen effects (including regional brain volumes, and neural responses to mental rotation, sexually arousing stimuli, emotion, and reward). Ongoing and planned work is focused on understanding the ways in which hormones act jointly with the social environment across time to produce varying trajectories of gender development, and clarifying mechanisms by which androgens affect behaviors. Such work will be facilitated by applying lessons from other species, and by expanding methodology. Understanding hormonal influences on gender development enhances knowledge of psychological development generally, and has important implications for basic and applied questions, including sex differences in psychopathology, women’s underrepresentation in science and math, and clinical care of individuals with variations in gender expression. PMID:26688827

  1. Gender Inequality at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jerry A., Ed.

    These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…

  2. Structural interaction between gender and race inequality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alcides Figueiredo Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is guided by the theoretical notion that social divisions generate effects derived from its structural interaction. Having in mind this theoretical motivation, it estimates the gender earnings gap among white e non white (black and mixed color groups in Brazil. All the eight Generalized Linear Models estimated, whose variables are successively included, show that the gender gap is big across both racial groups but it is bigger among whites. The investigation explores the role of the underlying context of class inequality, as well as others factors, on understanding the racial variation of the gender inequality. The study considers that the characteristics of the racial inequality in Brazil, as well as the intersection between class and race, explain the bigger gender advantage for the white man. The racial hierarchy establishes limits of variation on the gender hierarchy for the non white.

  3. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  4. The Living Gender Curriculum: Helping FCS Students Analyze Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Schultz, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The concept of gender stereotypes permeates the lives of youth in the United States. This article provides background information and rationale for incorporating gender stereotype analysis into family and consumer sciences (FCS) coursework. The critical analysis of gender stereotypes includes numerous activities and assessments that encourage…

  5. Part-time work, underemployment and gender : worker versus job explanations

    OpenAIRE

    Kjeldstad, Randi; Nymoen, Erik H.

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses part-time work, both so-called voluntary and involuntary, in a gender perspective and discusses under what conditions women and men work part-time. The discussion is based on logistic regression models, including human capital, life-course- and household characteristics and job characteristics as independent variables. We use Norwegian Labour Force Survey data. The analysis shows that part-time work is a strongly gendered phenomenon, not only because it occurs much more f...

  6. Gender Identity in Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam; Karimi, Sakineh; Shirazi, Elham

    2017-07-01

    Sex assignment in infancy for patients with disorder of sex development (DSD) is a challenging problem. Some of the patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have DSD that may affect their gender identity. The study aimed to assess gender identity in patients with CAH. In this study, 52 patients with CAH, including 22 prepubertal children and 30 adolescents and adults, were assessed using two separate gender identity questionnaires for children and adults based on the criteria of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition. In the children group, compatibility was seen between gender identity and rearing gender. In the adult group, there were three cases of mismatching between gender identity and sex assignment composed of two females with poor control and one male with good control with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). Three girls with 11-hydroxylase deficiency (11-OHD) were reared as boy. Two of them with late diagnosis at 5 and 6 years of age had pseudoprecocious puberty. Parents and children did not accept to change the gender. One of them is 36 years old now, is depressed and unsatisfied with her gender, another girl is still child and has male sexual identity. One girl with 11-OHD and early diagnosis at birth with Prader 5 virilization but with good hormonal control was changed to female gender at 12 years of age when female sexual characteristics appeared; she is 34-years-old now, married, and with two children, and she is satisfied with her gender. In patients with CAH, gender identity disorder is a rare finding. Hormonal control, social, familial, and religious beliefs have impacts on gender identity of these patients.

  7. Gender differences in trusting strangers: Role of the target's gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-06-01

    Previous findings on gender differences in the behaviors of individuals, including trusting behaviors, are inconsistent. A criticism is that these studies neglect contextual factors. The present study aims to examine how the target's gender, as a primary context factor, influences the trusting behavior of individuals in one survey and two experimental situations. Results indicate that people tend to trust strangers of the opposite gender more than those of the same gender in mixed-gender situations. Furthermore, females trust females much more than males trust males. The results help people understand that when talking about gender differences in interpersonal situations, the gender identity of target persons should be considered. These findings are somewhat in conflict with those of previous studies conducted in Western cultures, and suggest that culture should also be explored in future studies on gender differences in interpersonal relationships. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Gendered globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen; Cai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Nordic countries (Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland) view gender equality as a social justice issue and are politically committed towards achieving gender equality nationally and internationally. Since China has taken a proactive position...... on globalization and global governance, gender equality is possibly an area that China may wish to explore in collaboration with the Nordic countries....

  9. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA POPESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study of female entrepreneurship traditionally has been inspired by gender equality issues. Female entrepreneurs were assumed to experience gender-related discrimination and to experience more difficulties when starting up and running a business than their male counterparts. Today research and policy have been more and more fuelled by the idea that female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress. Even when issues such as barriers and obstacles to female entrepreneurs are raised in the gender and entrepreneurship debate, this is usually done from the perspective that female entrepreneurs are an untapped resource and have potential to contribute to a country’s economic performance. Indeed, although gender equality is one of the arguments underlying the support for female entrepreneurs within the European Union, the argument that female entrepreneurs (have the potential tocontribute to economic performance continues to play a role here. The global growth of female entrepreneurship in the last decades has been accompanied by an increase in the number of studies on female entrepreneurship. Unlike most existing studies, which focus primarily upon female entrepreneurship in Western European countries, the present thesis investigates gender differences in entrepreneurship in the Eastern European countries. Different aspects of entrepreneurship are studied including the individual, the organization and the environment. A systematic distinction is made between direct and indirect gender effects on entrepreneurship to be able to disentangle ‘pure’ gender effects from effects of factors that are correlated with gender.

  10. Gender differences in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaxma, Charlotte A.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Borm, George F.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Leenders, Klaus L.; Eshuis, Silvia; Booij, Jan; Dluzen, Dean E.; Horstink, Martin W. I. M.

    Objective: To investigate gender differences in basic disease characteristics, motor deterioration and nigrostriatal degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: We studied 253 consecutive PD patients who were not receiving levodopa or dopamine agonists ( disease duration Results: Age at onset

  11. Gender differences in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaxma, C.A.; Bloem, B.R.; Borm, G.F.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Leenders, K.L.; Eshuis, S.; Booij, J.; Dluzen, D.E.; Horstink, M.W.I.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in basic disease characteristics, motor deterioration and nigrostriatal degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: We studied 253 consecutive PD patients who were not receiving levodopa or dopamine agonists (disease duration < or = 10 years). We

  12. Gender differences in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaxma, Charlotte A.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Borm, George F.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Leenders, Klaus L.; Eshuis, Silvia; Booij, Jan; Dluzen, Dean E.; Horstink, Martin W. I. M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in basic disease characteristics, motor deterioration and nigrostriatal degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: We studied 253 consecutive PD patients who were not receiving levodopa or dopamine agonists (disease duration < or = 10 years). We

  13. Childhood Gender Nonconformity and Intimate Partner Violence in Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhia, Avanti; Gordon, Allegra R; Roberts, Andrea L; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Hemenway, David; Austin, S Bryn

    2018-04-01

    Childhood gender nonconformity has been associated with numerous adverse experiences, including peer bullying and homophobic violence. However, little is known about gender nonconformity in the context of intimate relationships, independent of sexual orientation. This study aimed to examine associations between childhood gender nonconformity and intimate partner violence (IPV) in adolescence and early adulthood. Using data from the 2007 wave of the U.S. Growing Up Today Study ( N = 7,641, mean age = 22.8 years), we estimated risk ratios (RRs) for the association of gender nonconformity up to age 11 years and lifetime IPV victimization and perpetration. Models were adjusted for demographic characteristics, including sexual orientation identity. We assessed effect modification by gender and examined whether childhood abuse mediated the association between nonconformity and IPV. Males in the top decile of nonconformity were at elevated risk of IPV victimization (RR = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.15, 1.71]) and IPV perpetration (RR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.54, 3.56) compared with those below median nonconformity, adjusting for sexual orientation and demographic characteristics. There was no evidence of a similar association for females in the top decile of gender nonconformity. Childhood abuse did not mediate IPV disparities by gender nonconformity. We identify gender nonconformity as an important risk indicator for IPV victimization and perpetration among young adult males, independent of sexual orientation. Findings highlight the vulnerability of boys and men who do not conform to societal gender norms and the importance of studying gender expression as a determinant of violence. IPV prevention efforts may be improved with more explicit focus on socially constructed gender norms and support for diverse gender expressions. Further research into the pathways between nonconformity and IPV and in more diverse populations is needed to build a more comprehensive

  14. Delusions of Gender - Gender Benders

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlig, Louise; Zampetis, Marios Stylianos; Lochte, Frans; Ahmed, Samira M.; Karlsen, Luna Maria Stjerneby

    2014-01-01

    “Taking Cordelia Fine’s Delusions of Gender as it point of departure, together with popular gender theories by Simon Baron-Cohen and Louann Brizendine, we raise the following question: how strong is the foundation of biological determinism and how can we decide?” In this project the point of departure is taken in Cordelia Fine’s book Delusions of Gender. Fine brings forth several published scientific studies on gender differences, and she systematically debunks them one by one. This research ...

  15. Gender Diversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2014-01-01

    by non-citizen/citizen and redistribution/recognition divisions. Employing intersectionality as the methodological approach to gender diversities, the article shows how gender and ethnicity are articulated in the policy-making process which led to the adoption of EY 201, the activities undertaken during...

  16. Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellemers, Naomi

    2018-01-04

    There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth. However, stereotypical expectations not only reflect existing differences, but also impact the way men and women define themselves and are treated by others. This article reviews evidence on the nature and content of gender stereotypes and considers how these relate to gender differences in important life outcomes. Empirical studies show that gender stereotypes affect the way people attend to, interpret, and remember information about themselves and others. Considering the cognitive and motivational functions of gender stereotypes helps us understand their impact on implicit beliefs and communications about men and women. Knowledge of the literature on this subject can benefit the fair judgment of individuals in situations where gender stereotypes are likely to play a role.

  17. Stereotyping gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2011-01-01

    , there is still some way to go before genuine gender equality and emancipation may become reality, in spite of Denmark’s image as egalitarian society. To try to explain this paradox, the paper explores gender perceptions by analysing how men and women talk about gender in focus group discussions and how the two...... gender categories evaluate themselves and the Other in their quest for social identities. Analysis of the focus group data indicates that, more often than not, the interviewees resort to stereotyping in their construction of identities. Using the Appraisal framework (Martin and White 2005) for analysing...... stereotypical categorizations made by the interviewees, the article argues that employees in the bank tend to reproduce and perpetuate a patriarchal management system in spite of various forces pulling in a new post-patriarchal direction where gender is just one of many identities....

  18. Gender equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on gender equity. Gender equity is difficult to achieve when there is no economic, social, or political equity. The Gender Development Index evidenced this. There were a lot of instances where women are psychologically traumatized, whether it is through domestic rape, purchased sexual services in the red light area, and seduction or violation of neighbors, relatives, daughter or child. The economic changes linked with globalization and media's influence have worsened women's position. The policy for empowerment of women is an attempt toward ensuring equity. Furthermore, many women and women's organizations are trying to address these inequities; wherein they fight for strong acceptance of women's rights, social, economic, and political rights, as well as equities between gender and within gender.

  19. Gender remix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick

    2002-01-01

    of a subjective identity. Based on interviews with children of immigrants from patriarchal societies living in Norway, one of the countries in the world where gender equality has reached furthest, the article reveals the tension they experience between the ways gender issues are dealt with in their families......Values and practices regarding sex and gender are among the most fundamental constituents of a society?s symbolic system as well as of an individual?s self. Gendered ways of behavior are symbolic markers of ethnicity, both in a process of labeling from the outside and in the construction...... and in the surrounding society. Their gender constructions cannot be understood only in light of cultural influence, as if on a scale running from conformity to parents? culture to conformity to Norwegian culture. There is something really new in the making ­ new combinations and new creations ­ reflecting...

  20. Gender remix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick

    2002-01-01

    Values and practices regarding sex and gender are among the most fundamental constituents of a society?s symbolic system as well as of an individual?s self. Gendered ways of behavior are symbolic markers of ethnicity, both in a process of labeling from the outside and in the construction...... of a subjective identity. Based on interviews with children of immigrants from patriarchal societies living in Norway, one of the countries in the world where gender equality has reached furthest, the article reveals the tension they experience between the ways gender issues are dealt with in their families...... and in the surrounding society. Their gender constructions cannot be understood only in light of cultural influence, as if on a scale running from conformity to parents? culture to conformity to Norwegian culture. There is something really new in the making ­ new combinations and new creations ­ reflecting...

  1. Gender development and the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Convincing evidence indicates that prenatal exposure to the gonadal hormone, testosterone, influences the development of children's sex-typical toy and activity interests. In addition, growing evidence shows that testosterone exposure contributes similarly to the development of other human behaviors that show sex differences, including sexual orientation, core gender identity, and some, though not all, sex-related cognitive and personality characteristics. In addition to these prenatal hormonal influences, early infancy and puberty may provide additional critical periods when hormones influence human neurobehavioral organization. Sex-linked genes could also contribute to human gender development, and most sex-related characteristics are influenced by socialization and other aspects of postnatal experience, as well. Neural mechanisms underlying the influences of gonadal hormones on human behavior are beginning to be identified. Although the neural mechanisms underlying experiential influences remain largely uninvestigated, they could involve the same neural circuitry as that affected by hormones.

  2. Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin (interleukin-2) in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT): geographical and gender differences in the baseline characteristics of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, S L; Wand, H; Law, M G; Arduino, R; Lopez, J C; Knysz, B; Pereira, L C; Pollack, S; Reiss, P; Tambussi, G

    2006-01-01

    ESPRIT, is a phase III, open-label, randomized, international clinical trial evaluating the effects of subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) plus antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus ART alone on HIV-disease progression and death in HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T-cells > or =300 cells/microL. To describe the baseline characteristics of participants randomized to ESPRIT overall and by geographic location. Baseline characteristics of randomized participants were summarized by region. 4,150 patients were enrolled in ESPRIT from 254 sites in 25 countries. 41%, 27%, 16%, 11%, and 5% were enrolled in Europe, North America, South America, Asia, and Australia, respectively. The median age was 40 years, 81% were men, and 76%, 11%, and 9% were Caucasian, Asian, and African American or African, respectively. 44% of women enrolled (n = 769) were enrolled in Thailand and Argentina. Overall, 55% and 38% of the cohort acquired HIV through male homosexual and heterosexual contact, respectively. 25% had a prior history of AIDS-defining illness; Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, M. tuberculosis, and esophageal candida were most commonly reported. Median nadir and baseline CD4+ T-cell counts were 199 and 458 cells/muL, respectively. 6% and 13% were hepatitis B or C virus coinfected, respectively. Median duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) was 4.2 years; the longest median duration was in Australia (5.2 years) and the shortest was in Asia (2.3 years). 17%, 13%, and 69% of participants began ART before 1995, between 1996 and 1997, and from 1998 onward, respectively. 86% used ART from two or more ART classes, with 49% using a protease inhibitor-based regimen and 46% using a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen. 78% had plasma HIV RNA below detection (ESPRIT has enrolled a diverse population of HIV-infected individuals including large populations of women and patients of African-American/African and Asian ethnicity often underrepresented in HIV

  3. Differential effects of gender on entropy perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satcharoen, Kleddao

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine differences in perception of entropy (color intensity) between male and female computer users. The objectives include identifying gender-based differences in entropy intention and exploring the potential effects of these differences (if any) on user interface design. The research is an effort to contribute to an emerging field of interest in gender as it relates to science, engineering and technology (SET), particularly user interface design. Currently, there is limited evidence on the role of gender in user interface design and in use of technology generally, with most efforts at gender-differentiated or customized design based on stereotypes and assumptions about female use of technology or the assumption of a default position based on male preferences. Image entropy was selected as a potential characteristic where gender could be a factor in perception because of known differences in color perception acuity between male and female individuals, even where there is no known color perception abnormality (which is more common with males). Although the literature review suggested that training could offset differences in color perception and identification, tests in untrained subject groups routinely show that females are more able to identify, match, and differentiate colors, and that there is a stronger emotional and psychosocial association of color for females. Since image entropy is associated with information content and image salience, the ability to identify areas of high entropy could make a difference in user perception and technological capabilities.

  4. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 164 undergraduates (50% women. Taking into account those stereotypes that are still differentially assigned to each gender, this study identifies current gender stereotypes that are independent of sociodemographic characteristics, such as age or sex. In addition, new gender stereotypes emerged recently were gathered, and important changes of stereotypes were emphasized, especially those of feminine stereotypes. According to social role theory, these changes are the consequence of social roles changes. Conclusions highlight that, although part of the results involve progress on the achievement of equality, traditional stereotypic characteristics are still referred to each gender, which perpetuate discrimination.

  5. Moderating Effects of Sexual Orientation and Gender Characteristic on Condom Use Intentions Among Boys' Senior High School Students in Taiwan: An Exploration Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chien-Mu; Huang, Jiun-Hau

    2017-10-27

    This study examined condom use intentions among adolescent boys in relation to the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB): attitude toward the behavior (ATB), subjective norm (SN), and perceived behavioral control (PBC). The potential moderating effects of sexual orientation and gender characteristic (masculine/feminine) were also explored. Anonymous survey data were collected from 929 students enrolled in a boys' senior high school in Taiwan (response rate: 89.9%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses found higher condom use intentions linked to more positive ATB (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 8.09) and supportive SN (AOR = 2.73), as well as high PBC under facilitating conditions (AOR = 2.04). Notably, nonheterosexual boys perceiving supportive SN (AOR = 0.23) or high support for condom use from teachers and health educators (AOR = 0.10 and 0.26, respectively) had lower condom use intentions than their heterosexual peers. By contrast, relatively feminine boys perceiving supportive SN (AOR = 2.06) or high support from close friends (AOR = 2.18) had higher condom use intentions than their masculine counterparts. In conclusion, ATB and SN were strongly linked to condom use intentions; PBC was significant only under facilitating conditions. Sexual orientation and gender characteristic had important moderating effects. These empirical findings could inform tailored health education programs to increase condom use intentions in the male student population.

  6. The Estimation Of The Regions’ Efficiency Of The Russian Federation Including The Intellectual Capital, The Characteristics Of Readiness For Innovation, Level Of Well-Being, And Quality Of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Leonidovich Makarov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the authors’ methodology, the models of productive potential of the Russian Federation regions, including estimations of intellectual capital, were constructed. It is shown that characteristics of well-being level and quality of life make a significant impact on the regional production’s efficiency. The characteristics of regions’ readiness to innovate are identified, it is possible to name it as a factor of production’s efficiency. It is shown that the inclusion of different factors of efficiency in the production potential model can significantly increase the differentiation of technical efficiency estimates, besides these estimates and their grades depend on a set of efficiency’s factors. On the basis of a comparison of real GRP and boundary GRP ratings, it is identified locally effective regions with a relatively high estimation of efficiency among regions with similar amounts of GRP and locally ineffective regions. It is calculated marginal effects of influence of the efficiency’s factors on the result of industrial activity in the region. It seems constructively to use these estimates while analyzing the prospects for regions’ development, which is based on the possibility of targeting impact on controllable efficiency’s factors. The article is also offered the option of methodology of the public policy efficiency estimation on the knowledge economy formation — an agent-based model for Russia, which is learning the “knowledge economy” sector and considering their relationship with the rest of the macroeconomic system.

  7. Gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Sean R; Russell, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Gender dysphoria is the distress or discomfort that may occur when a person's biological sex and gender identity do not align. The true prevalence of gender dysphoria is unknown in Australia because of varying definitions, different cultural norms and paucity of data. Individuals who identify as transgender are vulnerable, and have higher rates of discrimination, depression and suicidality, compared with the general population. The aim of this article is to familiarise general practitioners (GPs) with the principles of transgender care so they may provide a safe and supportive environment for patients presenting with concerns. It is important to have a basic understanding of how to conduct an initial consultation of gender dysphoria even if it is an uncommon presentation in general practice. Management should be individualised and may involve a combination of social work, education, counselling, hormone therapy and surgery.

  8. Gender theory and the family business

    OpenAIRE

    Staffansson Pauli, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Gender Theory started in understanding and explain women's role in society and are also now including men and masculinities, Gender Theory has recently been adapted to family business research. This chapter will briefly introduce Gender Theory and its development, before reviewing how it has been used in family business research. Arguing that the family business context is suitable in studying gender phenomena, the chapter outlines several ways through which Gender Theory could yield new insi...

  9. Violent Conflict and Gender Inequality: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Buvinic, Mayra; Das Gupta, Monica; Casabonne, Ursula; Verwimp, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Violent conflict, a pervasive feature of the recent global landscape, has lasting impacts on human capital, and these impacts are seldom gender neutral. Death and destruction alter the structure and dynamics of households, including their demographic profiles and traditional gender roles. To date, attention to the gender impacts of conflict has focused almost exclusively on sexual and gender-based violence. We show that a far wider set of gender issues must be considered to better document th...

  10. Morphological structure mediates the notional meaning of gender marking: Evidence from the gender-congruency effect in Hebrew speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Avital; Dank, Maya

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the gender-congruency effect of animate nouns in Hebrew. The Picture-Word Interference paradigm was used to manipulate gender congruency between target pictures and spoken distractors. Naming latency revealed an inhibitory gender-congruency effect, as naming the pictures took longer in the presence of a gender-congruent distractor than with a distractor from a different gender category. The inhibitory effect was demonstrated for feminine (morphologically marked) nouns, across two stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs) (Experiments 1a and 1b), and masculine (morphologically unmarked) nouns (Experiment 2). The same pattern was observed when participants had to produce bare nouns (Experiment 1) or gender-marked noun phrases (Experiment 3). The inhibitory pattern of the effect resembles previous findings of bare nouns in a subset of Romance languages, including Italian and Spanish. These findings add to previous research which investigated the gender-congruency effect of inanimate nouns, where no effect of gender-congruent words was found. The results are discussed in relation to the null effect previously found for inanimate nouns. The comparison of the present and previous studies is motivated by a common linguistic distinction between animate and inanimate nouns in Hebrew, which ascribes grammatical gender specifications to derivational structures (for inanimate nouns) versus inflectional structures (for animate nouns). Given the difference in the notional meaning of gender specification for animate and inanimate nouns, the case of Hebrew exemplifies how language-specific characteristics, such as rich morphological structures, can be used by the linguistic system to express conceptual distinctions at the form-word level.

  11. Development of AACAP practice parameters for gender nonconformity and gender discordance in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelson, Stewart L

    2011-10-01

    The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) is preparing a publication, Practice Parameter on Gay, Lesbian or Bisexual Sexual Orientation, Gender-Nonconformity, and Gender Discordance in Children and Adolescents. This article discusses the development of the part of the parameter related to gender nonconformity and gender discordance and describes the practice parameter preparation process,rationale, key scientific evidence, and methodology. Also discussed are terminology considerations, related clinical issues and practice skills, and overall organization of information including influences on gender development, gender role behavior, gender nonconformity and gender discordance, and their relationship to the development of sexual orientation.

  12. Optimizing personalized normative feedback: the use of gender-specific referents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa A; Neighbors, Clayton

    2007-03-01

    Many brief interventions include personalized normative feedback (PNF) using gender-specific or gender-neutral referents. Several theories suggest that information pertaining to more socially proximal referents should have greater influence on one's behavior compared with more socially distal referents. The current research evaluated whether gender specificity of the normative referent employed in PNF related to intervention efficacy. Following baseline assessment, 185 college students (45.2% women) were randomly assigned to one of three intervention conditions: gender-specific feedback, gender-neutral feedback, or assessment-only control. Immediately after completing measures of perceived norms, alcohol consumption, and gender identity, participants in the gender-neutral and gender-specific intervention conditions were provided with computerized information detailing their own drinking behavior, their perceptions of student drinking, and actual student drinking. After a 1-month follow-up, the results indicated that normative feedback was effective in changing perceived norms and reducing alcohol consumption for both intervention groups for women and men. The results provide support, however, for changes in perceived gender-specific norms as a mediator of the effects of normative feedback on reduced drinking behavior for women only. Additionally, gender-specific feedback was found to be more effective for women higher in gender identity, relative to the gender-neutral feedback. A post-assessment follow-up telephone survey administered to assess potential demand characteristics corroborated the intervention effects. Results extend previous research documenting efficacy of computer delivered PNF. Gender specificity and gender identity appear to be important elements to consider for PNF intervention efficacy for women.

  13. Gender differences in Latin-American patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán-Martínez, Carolina; Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Pineda-Tamayo, Ricardo; Mantilla, Rubén D; Castellanos-de la Hoz, Juan; Bernal-Macías, Santiago; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2012-12-01

    Data on the effect of gender in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in non-Caucasian populations is scarce. Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is a large population with unique characteristics, including high admixture. Our aim was to examine the effect of gender in patients with RA in LAC. This was a 2-phase study. First we conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in which 1128 consecutive Colombian patients with RA were assessed. Second, a systematic review of the literature was done to evaluate the effect of gender in LAC patients with RA. Our results show a high prevalence of RA in LAC women with a ratio of 5.2 women per man. Colombian women with RA are more at risk of having an early age at onset and developing polyautoimmunity and abdominal obesity, and they perform more household duties than their male counterparts. However, male gender was associated with the presence of extra-articular manifestations. Of a total of 641 potentially relevant articles, 38 were considered for final analysis, in which several factors and outcomes related to gender were identified. RA in LAC women is not only more common but presents with some clinical characteristics that differ from RA presentation in men. Some of those characteristics could explain the high rates of disability and worse prognosis observed in women with RA in LAC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gender identity development in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, Thomas D; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; de Vries, Annelou L C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence".This article aims to provide an outline of what is currently known on trajectories, and contributing factors to gender identity development in adolescence. We give a historical overview of the concept of gender identity, and describe general identity development in adolescence, gender identity development in the general population and in gender variant youth. Possible psychosocial (such as child and parental characteristics) and biological factors (such as the effects of prenatal exposure to gonadal hormones and the role of genetics) contributing to a gender variant identity are discussed. Studies focusing on a number of psychosocial and biological factors separately, indicate that each of these factors influence gender identity formation, but little is known about the complex interplay between the factors, nor about the way individuals themselves contribute to the process. Research into normative and gender variant identity development of adolescents is clearly lagging behind. However, studies on persons with gender dysphoria and disorders of sex development, show that the period of adolescence, with its changing social environment and the onset of physical puberty, seems to be crucial for the development of a non-normative gender identity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation and Comparison of High-Resolution (HR) and High-Light (HL) Phosphors in the Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) using Generalized Linear Systems Analyses (GMTF, GDQE) that include the Effect of Scatter, Magnification and Detector Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sandesh K; Jain, Amit; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the imaging characteristics of the high-resolution, high-sensitivity micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) with 35-micron pixel-pitch when used with different commercially-available 300 micron thick phosphors: the high resolution (HR) and high light (HL) from Hamamatsu. The purpose of this evaluation was to see if the HL phosphor with its higher screen efficiency could be replaced with the HR phosphor to achieve improved resolution without an increase in noise resulting from the HR's decreased light-photon yield. We designated the detectors MAF-HR and MAF-HL and compared them with a standard flat panel detector (FPD) (194 micron pixel pitch and 600 micron thick CsI(Tl)). For this comparison, we used the generalized linear-system metrics of GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE which are more realistic measures of total system performance since they include the effect of scattered radiation, focal spot distribution, and geometric un-sharpness. Magnifications (1.05-1.15) and scatter fractions (0.28 and 0.33) characteristic of a standard head phantom were used. The MAF-HR performed significantly better than the MAF-HL at high spatial frequencies. The ratio of GMTF and GDQE of the MAF-HR compared to the MAF-HL at 3(6) cycles/mm was 1.45(2.42) and 1.23(2.89), respectively. Despite significant degradation by inclusion of scatter and object magnification, both MAF-HR and MAF-HL provide superior performance over the FPD at higher spatial frequencies with similar performance up to the FPD's Nyquist frequency of 2.5 cycles/mm. Both substantially higher resolution and improved GDQE can be achieved with the MAF using the HR phosphor instead of the HL phosphor.

  16. Gendered Peer Involvement in Girls with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Effects of Prenatal Androgens, Gendered Activities, and Gender Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M; Bryk, Kristina; McHale, Susan

    2018-05-01

    A key question in understanding gender development concerns the origins of sex segregation. Children's tendencies to interact with same-sex others have been hypothesized to result from gender identity and cognitions, behavioral compatibility, and personal characteristics. We examined whether prenatal androgen exposure was related to time spent with boys and girls, and how that gendered peer involvement was related to sex-typed activities and gender identity and cognitions. We studied 54 girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) aged 10-13 years varying in degree of prenatal androgen exposure: 40 girls with classical CAH (C-CAH) exposed to high prenatal androgens and 14 girls with non-classical CAH (NC-CAH) exposed to low, female-typical, prenatal androgens. Home interviews and questionnaires provided assessments of gendered activity interests and participation, gender identity, and gender cognitions. Daily phone calls over 7 days assessed time spent in gendered activities and with peers. Girls with both C-CAH and NC-CAH interacted more with girls than with boys, with no significant group differences. The groups did not differ significantly in gender identity or gender cognitions, but girls with C-CAH spent more time in male-typed activities and less time in female-typed activities than did girls with NC-CAH. Time spent with girls reflected direct effects of gender identity/cognitions and gender-typed activities, and an indirect effect of prenatal androgens (CAH type) through gender-typed activities. Our results extend findings that prenatal androgens differentially affect gendered characteristics and that gendered peer interactions reflect combined effects of behavioral compatibility and feelings and cognitions about gender. The study also shows the value of natural experiments for testing hypotheses about gender development.

  17. Meat quality characteristics of Turkish indigenous Hair goat kids reared under traditional extensive production system: effects of slaughter age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplu, Hayriye Deger Oral; Goksoy, Ergun Omer; Nazligul, Ahmet; Kahraman, Tolga

    2013-08-01

    Meat quality characteristics of Turkish indigenous Hair goat kids reared under an extensive production system were investigated in this study. A total of 60 Hair goat kids (30 females and 30 males) were slaughtered at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of ages. Slaughter age significantly affected meat quality characteristics. Cooking loss (P Meat color became darker red with increasing slaughter age (P meat from male kids contained a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid than that from females (P meat from Hair kids slaughtered between 3 and 9 months of ages had better quality than those slaughtered at the other ages and also meat from male kids had better quality than those female kids slaughtered at the same age under extensive production system.

  18. Family Change and Gender Differences: Implications for Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.

    1988-01-01

    Examines theories of gender differences. Discusses alpha bias, exaggeration of gender opposition, as characteristic of psychodynamic and sex role theories; and beta bias, denial of gender differences, as evident in systems theories. Calls for new model of gender differences which recognizes asymmetry in women's and men's roles and…

  19. Decrements in health-related quality of life associated with gender nonconformity among U.S. adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Allegra R; Krieger, Nancy; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Haneuse, Sebastien; Samnaliev, Mihail; Charlton, Brittany M; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-08-01

    Gender nonconformity, that is, transgressing conventionally "masculine" vs. "feminine" characteristics, is often stigmatized. Stigmatization and discrimination are social stressors that raise risk of adverse mental and physical health outcomes and may drive health inequities. However, little is known about the relationship between such social stressors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This paper aimed to examine associations between perceived gender nonconformity and HRQOL in a cohort of U.S. adolescents and young adults. Using data from 8408 participants (18-31 years) in the U.S. Growing Up Today Study (93% white, 88% middle-to-high income), we estimated risk ratios (RRs) for the association of gender nonconformity (three levels: highly gender conforming, moderately conforming, and gender nonconforming) and HRQOL using the EuroQol questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L). Models were adjusted for demographic characteristics, including sexual orientation identity. Gender nonconformity was independently associated with increased risk of having problems with mobility [RR (95% confidence interval): 1.76 (1.16, 2.68)], usual activities [2.29 (1.67, 3.13)], pain or discomfort [1.59, (1.38, 1.83)], and anxiety or depression [1.72 (1.39, 2.13)], after adjusting for sexual orientation and demographic characteristics. Decrements in health utility by gender nonconformity were observed: compared to persons who were highly gender conforming, mean health utility was lower for the moderately gender conforming [beta (SE): -0.011 (.002)] and lowest for the most gender nonconforming [-0.034 (.005)]. In our study, HRQOL exhibited inequities by gender nonconformity. Future studies, including in more diverse populations, should measure the effect of gender-related harassment, discrimination, and violence victimization on health and HRQOL.

  20. Explaining sexual harassment judgments: looking beyond gender of the rater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Maureen; Gutek, Barbara A; Stockdale, Margaret; Geer, Tracey M; Melançon, Renée

    2004-02-01

    In two decades of research on sexual harassment, one finding that appears repeatedly is that gender of the rater influences judgments about sexual harassment such that women are more likely than men to label behavior as sexual harassment. Yet, sexual harassment judgments are complex, particularly in situations that culminate in legal proceedings. And, this one variable, gender, may have been overemphasized to the exclusion of other situational and rater characteristic variables. Moreover, why do gender differences appear? As work by Wiener and his colleagues have done (R. L. Wiener et al., 2002; R. L. Wiener & L. Hurt, 2000; R. L. Wiener, L. Hurt, B. Russell, K. Mannen, & C. Gasper, 1997), this study attempts to look beyond gender to answer this question. In the studies reported here, raters (undergraduates and community adults), either read a written scenario or viewed a videotaped reenactment of a sexual harassment trial. The nature of the work environment was manipulated to see what, if any, effect the context would have on gender effects. Additionally, a number of rater characteristics beyond gender were measured, including ambivalent sexism attitudes of the raters, their judgments of complainant credibility, and self-referencing that might help explain rater judgments. Respondent gender, work environment, and community vs. student sample differences produced reliable differences in sexual harassment ratings in both the written and video trial versions of the study. The gender and sample differences in the sexual harassment ratings, however, are explained by a model which incorporates hostile sexism, perceptions of the complainants credibility, and raters' own ability to put themselves in the complainant's position (self-referencing).

  1. Gender Differences in Ethnic Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Tüzin Baycan-Levent; Enno Masurel; Peter Nijkamp

    2003-01-01

    Gender-based differences are the most important topic of discussion in female entrepreneurship studies. While the earliest studies focused on psychological and sociological characteristics of female entrepreneurs, assuming there were only a few differences between males and females, more recent studies have focused on gender-based differences in entrepreneurship from a new perspective, referred to as the “integrated perspective”, which is rooted in psychological and sociological theories. Thi...

  2. Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women Global Research Global ... adverse reactions to the drugs. Women also suffer gender-specific consequences of HIV, including recurrent vaginal yeast ...

  3. The role of gender in social network organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psylla, Ioanna; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Mones, Enys

    2017-01-01

    interactions among them expressed via person-to-person contacts, interactions on online social networks, and telecommunication. Thus, we are able to study the differences between male and female behavior captured through a multitude of channels for a single cohort. We find that while the two genders...... are similar in a number of aspects, there are robust deviations that include multiple facets of social interactions, suggesting the existence of inherent behavioral differences. Finally, we quantify how aspects of an individual's characteristics and social behavior reveals their gender by posing...

  4. Gender & performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röttger, K.; Buchheim, E.; Groot, M.; Jonker, E.; Müller-Schirmer, A.; de Vos, M.; Walhout, E.; van der Zande, H.

    2012-01-01

    This Yearbook for Women’s History (Jaarboek voor Vrouwengeschiedenis) examines the theme of gender and performance. It is supervised by guest editor Kati Röttger, professor in Theatre Studies at the University of Amsterdam. The term performance - a temporary and active presentation, expression, or

  5. Interpreting Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Nicholson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author deconstructs dominant understandings of two concepts central to feminist analysis itself: gender and woman. Much of post-1960s feminist scholarship has relied on the distinction between “sex” and gender. Although this distinction has served many useful purposes (particularly that of allowing feminists to challenge biological determinism, it has also enabled feminists to preserve a type of dualistic thinking about women's identity. It has allowed feminists to think of differences among women as separable from that which women share. The author argues that this polar framework has enabled feminists to stress the deep differences between women's and men's culture-generated experiences. But, because the polar framework of contemporary society is neither completely stable or hegemonic nor links perfectly male and female experiences with male and female identified bodies, employing it as an unquestioned element of one's analysis also leads to problems. This framework falls to capture the gender deviance of many of us, reinforces cultural stereotypes of the meaning of female and male experience, and acts politically to suppress modes of being that challenge gender dualisms.

  6. Gender Equity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    gender balance in Sc. 2) What the academ ... awareness for this not just also the parents, the also the parents, the work. ... Simple things to implement (in submitted to the ... Girl's Guide to Life in rams of the ... challenges in their area. Stories of ...

  7. Electrophysiology of subject-verb agreement mediated by speakers’ gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eHanulíková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An important property of speech is that it explicitly conveys features of a speaker's identity such as age or gender. This event-related potential (ERP study examined the effects of social information provided by a speaker’s gender, i.e. the conceptual representation of gender, on subject-verb agreement. Despite numerous studies on agreement, little is known about syntactic computations generated by speaker characteristics extracted from the acoustic signal. Slovak is well suited to investigate this issue because it is a morphologically rich language in which agreement involves features for number, case, and gender. Grammaticality of a sentence can be evaluated by checking a speaker’s gender as conveyed by his/her voice. We examined how conceptual information about speaker gender, which is not syntactic but rather social and pragmatic in nature, is interpreted for the computation of agreement patterns. ERP responses to verbs disagreeing with the speaker's gender (e.g., a sentence including a masculine verbal inflection spoken by a female person 'the neighbours were upset because I *stoleMASC plums’ elicited a larger early posterior negativity compared to correct sentences. When the agreement was purely syntactic and did not depend on the speaker’s gender, a disagreement between a formally-marked subject and the verb inflection (e.g., the womanFEM *stoleMASC plums resulted in a larger P600 preceded by a larger anterior negativity compared to the control sentences. This result is in line with proposals according to which the recruitment of non-syntactic information such as the gender of the speaker results in N400-like effects, while formally-marked syntactic features lead to structural integration as reflected in a LAN/P600 complex.

  8. Electrophysiology of subject-verb agreement mediated by speakers' gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanulíková, Adriana; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    An important property of speech is that it explicitly conveys features of a speaker's identity such as age or gender. This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the effects of social information provided by a speaker's gender, i.e., the conceptual representation of gender, on subject-verb agreement. Despite numerous studies on agreement, little is known about syntactic computations generated by speaker characteristics extracted from the acoustic signal. Slovak is well suited to investigate this issue because it is a morphologically rich language in which agreement involves features for number, case, and gender. Grammaticality of a sentence can be evaluated by checking a speaker's gender as conveyed by his/her voice. We examined how conceptual information about speaker gender, which is not syntactic but rather social and pragmatic in nature, is interpreted for the computation of agreement patterns. ERP responses to verbs disagreeing with the speaker's gender (e.g., a sentence including a masculine verbal inflection spoken by a female person 'the neighbors were upset because I (∗)stoleMASC plums') elicited a larger early posterior negativity compared to correct sentences. When the agreement was purely syntactic and did not depend on the speaker's gender, a disagreement between a formally marked subject and the verb inflection (e.g., the womanFEM (∗)stoleMASC plums) resulted in a larger P600 preceded by a larger anterior negativity compared to the control sentences. This result is in line with proposals according to which the recruitment of non-syntactic information such as the gender of the speaker results in N400-like effects, while formally marked syntactic features lead to structural integration as reflected in a LAN/P600 complex.

  9. The Gender-Related Role of Teaching Profession in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygun, Selcuk

    2014-01-01

    Teaching is a professional job that requires expertise. The characteristics of the professionals can affect the quality of the profession. One of these characteristics is gender. In this study, the gender-related role of teaching profession in Turkey is examined. The analysis in a historical perspective of gender distributions of students who have…

  10. Gender profiling: a gendered race perspective on person-position fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Erika V; Galinsky, Adam D; Phillips, Katherine W

    2015-06-01

    The current research integrates perspectives on gendered race and person-position fit to introduce the concept of a gender profile. We propose that both the "gender" of a person's biological sex and the "gender" of a person's race (Asians are perceived as feminine and Blacks as masculine) help comprise an individual's gender profile-the overall femininity or masculinity associated with their demographic characteristics. We also propose that occupational positions have gender profiles. Finally, we argue that the overall gender profile of one's demographics, rather than just one's biological sex, determines one's fit and hirability for feminine or masculine occupational roles. The current five studies establish the gender profiles of different races and sexes, and then demonstrate that individuals with feminine-typed and masculine-typed gender profiles are selected for feminine and masculine positions, respectively. These studies provide new insights on who gets ahead in different environments. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  11. Risky, Generous, Gender Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Mollie V.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author offers guidelines to teachers on shaping pedagogy and classrooms in ways that include and value the experiences and learning of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) students. In order for teachers to create a context in which gender trouble can happen without violent consequences, they need to…

  12. Behavioural and cognitive sex/gender differences in autism spectrum condition and typically developing males and females

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, L.; Mandy, W.; Petrides, K.

    2017-01-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included ...

  13. SOSIALISASI BUDAYA ADIL GENDER OLEH ORGANISASI GENDER

    OpenAIRE

    Sumiarti, Sumiarti; Munfarida, Elya

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: equality and gender justice is a global issue. Along with the awareness of human rights, human beings begin to question and criticize the cultures already established that they perceive as unfair behavior constructor (bias) gender. From this point, then there are many organizations that provoke equality and gender justice. In this paper, the organization is called gender organizations. Gender organizations is a noble mission, to speak out gender equality and justice, but in practice...

  14. Gender Role Attitude with an Emphasis on Ethnicity and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Falahati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender roles defined as the patterns of behavior which are approved by society and culture. In other words gender role is the way men and women doing to recognition as feminine and masculine and culture, and society accepted and encourage those behaviors as appropriate behavior for men and women. Present study aimed to study gender role attitude using Islamic gender role attitude scale. A sample of 400 male and female students at public universities including Allameh-Tabataba'i University, Tehran University and the University of Kurdistan was drawn. Respondents were selected using random sampling method and data were collected with questionnaire. Results revealed that there were no traditional gender role attitude among students and all the respondents have professional and liberal attitude toward gender roles. There were significant gender differences between male and female in gender role attitude so that female students have more liberal attitude. In terms of ethnicity there were gender differences in Fars and Lur attitude, so that male have professional and female have liberal attitude. Among Kurdish respondents, male and female have liberal attitude while among Turkish, both male and female have traditional-professional attitude.

  15. The role of gender affirmation in psychological well-being among transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Tiffany R; Gamarel, Kristi E; Kahler, Christopher W; Iwamoto, Mariko; Operario, Don; Nemoto, Tooru

    2016-09-01

    High prevalence of psychological distress, including greater depression, lower self-esteem, and suicidal ideation, has been documented across numerous samples of transgender women and has been attributed to high rates of discrimination and violence. According to the gender affirmation framework (Sevelius, 2013), access to sources of gender-affirmative support can offset such negative psychological effects of social oppression. However, critical questions remain unanswered in regards to how and which aspects of gender affirmation are related to psychological well-being. The aims of this study were to investigate the associations between three discrete areas of gender affirmation (psychological, medical, and social) and participants' reports of psychological well-being. A community sample of 573 transgender women with a history of sex work completed a one-time self-report survey that assessed demographic characteristics, gender affirmation, and mental health outcomes. In multivariate models, we found that social, psychological, and medical gender affirmation were significant predictors of lower depression and higher self-esteem while no domains of affirmation were significantly associated with suicidal ideation. Findings support the need for accessible and affordable transitioning resources for transgender women in order to promote better quality of life among an already vulnerable population. As the gender affirmation framework posits, the personal experience of feeling affirmed as a transgender person results from individuals' subjective perceptions of need along multiple dimensions of gender affirmation. Personalized assessment of gender affirmation may thus be a useful component of counseling and service provision for transgender women.

  16. Gender matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina; Bjerge, Benedikte; Trifkovic, Neda

    such training may be in closing the gender wage gap. We use a matched employer–employee panel dataset to assess why firms train and whether formal training affects wage outcomes in Vietnamese SMEs. Training is generally found to be firm-sponsored and specific in nature. We find that training is associated......, firm-sponsored on-the-job training helps close the gender wage gap.......In many developing countries the skill base is a cause of concern with respect to international competition. Firm-provided training is generally seen as an important tool for bridging the skills gap between labour force and private sector demand. Yet little is known about how successful...

  17. Gendered Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the gendered nature of urban politics in Cape Town by focusing on a group of female, township politicians. Employing the Deleuzian concept of `wild connectivity', it argues that these politically entrepreneurial women were able to negotiate a highly volatile urban landscape...... by drawing on and operationalizing violent, male networks — from struggle activists' networks, to vigilante groups and gangs, to the police. The fact that they were women helped them to tap into and exploit these networks. At the same time, they were restricted by their sex, as their ability to navigate...... space also drew on quite traditional notions of female respectability. Furthermore, the article argues, the form of wild connectivity to an extent was a function of the political transition, which destabilized formal structures of gendered authority. It remains a question whether this form...

  18. Clinical implications of contemporary gender theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, Nancy

    2010-04-01

    The current intellectual scene in psychoanalysis is marked by vigorous theoretical controversies about gender. The ideas being debated have important implications for clinical work, which have not been thoroughly explicated or integrated into common practice. These implications include the following: gender can accrue idiosyncratic meanings; gender identity is considered fluid and rigidity of gender identity deemed problematic; gender-related conflicts are typically described as divergent; analysis of superego conflicts related to gender becomes particularly important; and, finally, gender-related biases are seen as inevitable and must be taken into account in the clinical situation. A detailed clinical example illustrates the application of these ideas. While the more dramatic cases related to gender have been more frequent subjects of study, conflicts about gender are everyday occurrences for our patients and deserve further attention.

  19. Gender Equality & Work: Are We There Yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Hasanovic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender is a social construct that outlines the roles, behaviors, activities and features that a particular society believes are appropriate for men and women. Gender equality is necessary in order to ensure a fair and productive labor market. Even though, Bosnia and Herzegovina has established legal framework including gender equality laws, women are still facing barriers to participation in the labor market. This research paper will indicate what are the main challenges behind the low participation of women in the labor market. It will provide information on gender differences; the main challenges, and also emphasize gender stereotypes which are contributing the gendered division in labor market.

  20. Gendered organisational cultures in German academic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felizitas Sagebiel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will describe and analyse how female professors manage formal and informal norms and values of their departments and organizations. State of the art includes different gender theories and research. With a qualitative methodological design (especially interviews and focus discussion groups, case studies were conducted in companies, political institutions, governmental research organizations and universities. From a gender perspective, the following aspects were analysed: gender stereotypes and gendered leadership expectations, transparent and strategic communication, expectations of output, commitment and availability, gender awareness, and integration in gendered networking and networks. The results focus on academic engineering cultures in investigated research institutes and one technical university.

  1. Pendidikan Gender Berbasis Sastra

    OpenAIRE

    Trianton, Teguh

    2015-01-01

    Recently, gender mainstreaming became most actual issue. One of its domains is on education. Practically, gender offered as important aspect on educational curriculum. From this point, emerge gender education discourse, namely an internalization process of gender equality issues through formal education. There are three important points on gender mainstreaming issue; first, gender education, two, gender issue on literary works, and three gender educations based on literary works.

  2. [Gender dysphoria in pervasive developmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Masaru; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Saito, Toshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are characterized by two essential symptoms: impairment in social interaction, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. PDD include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). These three disorders are sometimes termed autism spectrum disorders. A recent epidemiological survey demonstrated that the rate of PDD may be almost 1% and that many PDD cases might not be diagnosed properly in childhood. Erik Erikson described eight stages of psychosocial development through which a normally developing human should pass from infancy to adulthood. In the theory, an adolescent shows 'Identity vs. Role Confusion'. It has been reported that individuals with PDD often have identity crises which sometimes include gender dysphoria. This phenomenon might be related to the so-called identity diffusion in youth. When they reach their young youth, it has been said that subjects with PDD realize their uniqueness and differences compared to others, and, as a result, they may develop confusion of identity which could be exhibited as gender identity disorder. A recent study demonstrated that, amongst 204 children and adolescents who visited a GID clinic in the Netherlands, 7.8% were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders after a careful diagnostic procedure by a multi-disciplinary team. Taken together, PDD and GID seem closely related to each other. In this paper, we present four PDD cases with gender dysphoria and related symptoms: 1) a girl with PDD who repeatedly asserted gender identity disorder (GID) symptoms in response to social isolation at school, 2) a junior high school boy with PDD and transvestism, 3) a boy diagnosed with Asperger's disorder who developed a disturbance of sexual orientation, and 4) a boy with Asperger's disorder and comorbid childhood GID. Many of the clinical symptoms related to gender dysphoria might be explained by the

  3. Gender and Christian Higher Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ango, Samuel Peni

    2011-01-01

    Gender discrimination is still very high in Africa, including in the church. Often the arguments for gender disparity do not have objective grounds. However, those who advocate gender parity are often as subjective and sentimental as those who oppose it. There is a need for more objective arguments, based on empirical observations of the roles and…

  4. The role of gender in social network organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psylla, Ioanna; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Mones, Enys

    2017-01-01

    in isolation. Here we use a dataset of high resolution data collected using mobile phones, as well as detailed questionnaires, to study gender differences in a large cohort. We consider mobility behavior and individual personality traits among a group of more than 800 university students. We also investigate...... interactions among them expressed via person-to-person contacts, interactions on online social networks, and telecommunication. Thus, we are able to study the differences between male and female behavior captured through a multitude of channels for a single cohort. We find that while the two genders...... are similar in a number of aspects, there are robust deviations that include multiple facets of social interactions, suggesting the existence of inherent behavioral differences. Finally, we quantify how aspects of an individual's characteristics and social behavior reveals their gender by posing...

  5. The assessment validity of the curriculum in gender and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of validity applied to the studies specialized in gender in an education that has been offered by the National Pedagogical University since 1999 basing itself on two major areas: the external validity and internal validity. The first one contemplates four sections that include the review of gender studies in education as a field of knowledge, the comparative analysis of this educational program with similar (national and international, reviewing its relevance to public gender policy and education, as well as an overview of the demands of the professional workplace – the work of specialists in the field.Moreover, the assessment of internal validity followed a strategy that consisted of verifying consistency between course objectives with the overall objective of the curriculum, as well as reviewing the correspondence between the scope proposed for each theme for each course and the characteristics of the graduate profile.

  6. Outness and relationship satisfaction in same-gender couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoble, Naomi B; Linville, Deanna

    2012-04-01

    Self-disclosure of sexual orientation, or outness, is a fundamental feature of gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) experience, yet little is known about how outness impacts same-gender relationship satisfaction. Through a qualitative analysis of interviews with 15 same-gender couples, the complexities of navigating a stigmatized identity in a homonegative society emerged, including (a) characteristics of outness, (b) the influence of coupling on an individual's outness, and (c) the impact of outness on same-gender relationship satisfaction. Findings suggest that for GLB persons, outness is a developmental skill, an expression of identity and values, as well as a resilience strategy for managing discrimination and gay-related stress that influences, though does not singularly determine, relationship satisfaction. Implications for clinical practice and future research suggestions are presented. © 2010 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  7. A meta-analysis of gender stereotypes and bias in experimental simulations of employment decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Amanda J; D'Mello, Susan D; Sackett, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Gender bias continues to be a concern in many work settings, leading researchers to identify factors that influence workplace decisions. In this study we examine several of these factors, using an organizing framework of sex distribution within jobs (including male- and female-dominated jobs as well as sex-balanced, or integrated, jobs). We conducted random effects meta-analyses including 136 independent effect sizes from experimental studies (N = 22,348) and examined the effects of decision-maker gender, amount and content of information available to the decision maker, type of evaluation, and motivation to make careful decisions on gender bias in organizational decisions. We also examined study characteristics such as type of participant, publication year, and study design. Our findings revealed that men were preferred for male-dominated jobs (i.e., gender-role congruity bias), whereas no strong preference for either gender was found for female-dominated or integrated jobs. Second, male raters exhibited greater gender-role congruity bias than did female raters for male-dominated jobs. Third, gender-role congruity bias did not consistently decrease when decision makers were provided with additional information about those they were rating, but gender-role congruity bias was reduced when information clearly indicated high competence of those being evaluated. Fourth, gender-role congruity bias did not differ between decisions that required comparisons among ratees and decisions made about individual ratees. Fifth, decision makers who were motivated to make careful decisions tended to exhibit less gender-role congruity bias for male-dominated jobs. Finally, for male-dominated jobs, experienced professionals showed smaller gender-role congruity bias than did undergraduates or working adults. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Behavioural and cognitive sex/gender differences in autism spectrum condition and typically developing males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Laura; Mandy, William; Petrides, K V

    2017-08-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included in meta-analyses of sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition symptoms (social/communication impairments and restricted/repetitive behaviours and interests) and intelligence quotient. A total of 20 studies were included in a qualitative review of sex/gender differences in additional autism spectrum condition symptoms. For core traits and intelligence quotient, sex/gender differences were comparable in autism spectrum conditions and typical samples. Some additional autism spectrum condition symptoms displayed different patterns of sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions and typically developing groups, including measures of executive function, empathising and systemising traits, internalising and externalising problems and play behaviours. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions display typical sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition traits, suggesting that diagnostic criteria based on these symptoms should take into account typical sex/gender differences. However, awareness of associated autism spectrum condition symptoms should include the possibility of different male and female phenotypes, to ensure those who do not fit the 'typical' autism spectrum condition presentation are not missed.

  9. Career Advancement Outcomes in Academic Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM): Gender, Mentoring Resources, and Homophily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Eun

    This dissertation examines gender differences in career advancement outcomes among academic science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) scientists. In particular, this research examines effects of gender, PhD advisors and postdoctoral supervisors mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on the career advancement outcomes at early career stages. Female academic scientists have disadvantages in the career progress in the academic STEM. They tend to fall behind throughout their career paths and to leave the field compared to their male colleagues. Researchers have found that gender differences in the career advancement are shaped by gender-biased evaluations derived from gender stereotypes. Other studies demonstrate the positive impacts of mentoring and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads. To add greater insights to the current findings of female academic scientists' career disadvantages, this dissertation investigates comprehensive effects of gender, mentoring, and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on female scientists' career advancement outcomes in academic science. Based on the Status Characteristics Theory, the concept of mentoring, Social Capital Theory, and Ingroup Bias Theory, causal path models are developed to test direct and indirect effects of gender, mentoring resources, and gender homophily on STEM faculty's career advancement. The research models were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM) with data collected from a national survey, funded by the National Science Foundation, completed in 2011 by tenured and tenure-track academic STEM faculty from higher education institutions in the United States. Findings suggest that there is no gender difference in career advancement controlling for mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads and other factors including research productivity and domestic caregiving responsibilities. Findings also show that the positive relationship between

  10. Social physique anxiety and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors in adolescents: moderating effects of sport, sport-related characteristics, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Therme, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    The involvement of adolescents presenting high levels of social physique anxiety (SPA) in sport practice has been hypothesized as potentially problematic in terms of being associated with disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors (DEAB). Indeed, sport practice itself has been reported to be associated with higher levels of SPA and DEAB, and sport settings may sometimes promote unhealthy life habits. Nevertheless, current studies are few and present several limitations. The objective of the present study was to examine these relationships among adolescents involved or not in various types (i.e., leanness and individual) and contexts (i.e., organized and competitive) of sport practice. The sample included 766 French adolescents (337 boys and 429 girls), aged between 11 and 18 years, involved (n = 335) or not (n = 431) in sport practice. SPA and DEAB were assessed using French adaptations of the SPA scale and the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results reveal a significant and positive association between SPA and the DEAB scales. Furthermore, they show a positive relationship between SPA and (a) vomiting-purging behaviors in adolescents involved in individual sports and (b) generic DEAB (i.e., a subscale covering fear of getting fat, food preoccupation, and eating-related guilt), particularly in adolescents involved in individual sports. The relationship between SPA and DEAB does not differ according to adolescents' involvement in sport practice or according to their involvement in organized, competitive, or leanness sport practice more specifically. However, higher levels of SPA and DEAB were observed in adolescents involved in individual sports.

  11. Psychosexual outcome of gender-dysphoric children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallien, M.S.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To establish the psychosexual outcome of gender-dysphoric children at 16 years or older and to examine childhood characteristics related to psychosexual outcome. Method: We studied 77 children who had been referred in childhood to our clinic because of gender dysphoria (59 boys, 18 girls;

  12. Gender socialization and sex affilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić Saduša F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author's depth interviews with students of the University of Nis checked for the possibility of receptivity to sexual stereotypes and conditioning of sexual/gender socialization by sexual group affiliation. Examined the experiences and attitudes of students of both sexes regarding early gender socialization and it's characteristically stereotypes, stereotypes about dressing, instrumentalization of sexuality, the influence of parents/environment on the formation of sexual morality, own the gender socialization in the family, twin rules for the socialization of children of different gender and sex/gender roles in marriage. Belonging to the sex group has no effect on susceptibility to sexual stereotypes regarding early gender socialization and dressing. Difference may be seen in the effort to comment on and evaluate the wear behavior of girls more than a young man dressing, which may be an indicator for further research had sexual dimorphism in terms of dressing and nudity. It seems that the experience of respondents of both sexes are dependent primarily from the general family atmosphere (closeness, openness to communicate with each other, the absence of the traditional gender division of roles in the family/emotional distance from the parent of the opposite sex or of both parents, the rigidity, the strict division of gender roles in the family. In the first case, where both parents are involved in the upbringing of the child, relationships are intimate with both, and vice versa. Therefore, we can conclude about the lack of connection between the sex of the child and separated upbringing (traditional: the mother confides sexual education of women, a father of male child in the first case, and a link to another should only check to prove it. Sex does not condition susceptibility to stereotypes about education and gender roles. Traditionally, transitional and modern attitudes are equally represented in subjects of both sexes.

  13. Body Satisfaction and Physical Appearance in Gender Dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Grift, Tim C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Steensma, Thomas D; De Cuypere, Griet; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Haraldsen, Ira R H; Dikmans, Rieky E G; Cerwenka, Susanne C; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-04-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) is often accompanied by dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image problems. The aim of this study was to compare body satisfaction with perceived appearance by others in various GD subgroups. Data collection was part of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence. Between 2007 and 2012, 660 adults who fulfilled the criteria of the DSM-IV gender identity disorder diagnosis (1.31:1 male-to-female [MtF]:female-to-male [FtM] ratio) were included into the study. Data were collected before the start of clinical gender-confirming interventions. Sexual orientation was measured via a semi-structured interview whereas onset age was based on clinician report. Body satisfaction was assessed using the Body Image Scale. Congruence of appearance with the experienced gender was measured by means of a clinician rating. Overall, FtMs had a more positive body image than MtFs. Besides genital dissatisfaction, problem areas for MtFs included posture, face, and hair, whereas FtMs were mainly dissatisfied with hip and chest regions. Clinicians evaluated the physical appearance to be more congruent with the experienced gender in FtMs than in MtFs. Within the MtF group, those with early onset GD and an androphilic sexual orientation had appearances more in line with their gender identity. In conclusion, body image problems in GD go beyond sex characteristics only. An incongruent physical appearance may result in more difficult psychological adaptation and in more exposure to discrimination and stigmatization.

  14. Gender Differences in Ethnic Entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baycan, T.; Masurel, E.; Nijkamp, P.

    2006-01-01

    Gender-based differences are the most important topic of discussion in female entrepreneurship studies. While earlier studies focused on psychological and sociological characteristics of female entrepreneurs, assuming there were only a few differences between males and females, more recent studies

  15. Human gender classification: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, F.; Wu, Y.; Zhuang, Y.; Long, X.; Xu, W.

    2016-01-01

    The gender recognition is essential and critical for many applications in the commercial domains such as applications of human-computer interaction and computer-aided physiological or psychological analysis, since it contains a wide range of information regarding the characteristics difference

  16. A secondary meta-synthesis of qualitative studies of gender and access to cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Jan E; King-Shier, Kathryn M; Spaling, Melisa A; Duncan, Amanda S; Jaglal, Susan B; Stone, James A; Clark, Alexander M

    2015-08-01

    To discuss issues in the theorization and study of gender observed during a qualitative meta-synthesis of influences on uptake of secondary prevention and cardiac rehabilitation services. Women and men can equally benefit from secondary prevention/cardiac rehabilitation and there is a need to understand gender barriers to uptake. Meta-method analysis secondary to meta-synthesis. For the meta-synthesis, a systematic search was performed to identify and retrieve studies published as full papers during or after 1995 and contained: a qualitative research component wholly or in a mixed method design, extractable population specific data or themes for referral to secondary prevention programmes and adults ≥18 years. Databases searched between January 1995-31 October 2011 included: CSA Sociological Abstracts, EBSCOhost CINAHL, EBSCOhost Gender Studies, EBSCOhost Health Source Nursing: Academic Edition, EBSCOhost SPORTDiscus, EBSCOhost SocINDEX. Studies were reviewed against inclusion/exclusion criteria. Included studies were subject to quality appraisal and standardized data extraction. Of 2264 screened articles, 69 were included in the meta-method analysis. Only four studies defined gender or used gender theories. Findings were mostly presented as inherently the characteristic of gendered worldviews of participants. The major themes suggest a mismatch between secondary prevention/cardiac rehabilitation services and consumers' needs, which are usually portrayed as differing according to gender but may also be subject to intersecting influences such as age or socioeconomic status. There is a persistent lack of theoretically informed gender analysis in qualitative literature in this field. Theory-driven gender analysis will improve the conceptual clarity of the evidence base for gender-sensitive cardiac rehabilitation programme development. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Equal Opportunity? Gender Gaps in CEO Appointments and Executive Pay

    OpenAIRE

    Keloharju, Matti; Knüpfer, Samuli; Tåg, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses exceptionally rich data on Swedish corporate executives and their personal characteristics to study gender gaps in CEO appointments and pay. Both gaps are sizeable: 18% for CEO appointments and 27% for pay. At most one-eight of the gaps can be attributed to observable gender differences in executives' and their firms' characteristics. Further tests suggest that unobservable gender differences in characteristics are unlikely to account for the remaining gaps. Instead, our resul...

  18. Gender Wage Gap: Discrimination or Different Preferences of Men and Women? A Case Study of Ostrava, Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana Machová; Lenka Filipová

    2013-01-01

    This paper was written as a part of a research project studying problem of wage determinant measuring and wage discrimination considering different wage requirements of men and women. The wage determinants and gender wage discrimination are analyzed using a probit model. The whole analysis is methodologically based on Mincer’s Wage Regression and Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition of gender wage gap. The wage variables include, aside from standard personal characteristics, dummies for institution...

  19. Gender-based Restrictions in Tourism: An Example of the Phenomenon of Avaton in the Modern Socio-cultural Expanse

    OpenAIRE

    Kapilevich, L.V.; Karvounis, Y.A.

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the problems of the impact of tourism, including pilgrimage, on the socio-cultural environment of modern society, changes and reformatting of the gender restrictions of religious content. Investigated the access restrictions based on gender to objects of tourist interest as an example of socio-religious phenomenon “avaton” monastic republic of Athos in Northern Greece. Avaton regarded as a characteristic example of the alignment and sustained physical boundaries of the ...

  20. "Journal of Documentary Reproduction", 1938-1942: Domain as Reflected in Characteristics of Authorship and Citation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thomas D.

    1997-01-01

    Places the "Journal of Documentary Reproduction", published by the American Library Association, in an historical context and defines its domain in terms of the characteristics of its contributors. Authorship characteristics include occupation, institutional affiliation, geographic distribution, and gender. (Author/LRW)

  1. Prevalence of Gender Nonconformity in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caenegem, Eva; Wierckx, Katrien; Elaut, Els; Buysse, Ann; Dewaele, Alexis; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; De Cuypere, Griet; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2015-07-01

    Gender nonconformity refers to the extent to which a person's gender identity, gender role and/or gender expression differs from the cultural norms prescribed for people of a particular sex, within a certain society and era. Most data on gender nonconformity focus on the prevalence of gender dysphoria (which also includes a distress factor) or on the number of legal sex changes. However, not every gender nonconforming individual experiences distress or applies for treatment. Population-based research on the broad spectrum of gender nonconformity is scarce and more information on the variance outside the gender binary is needed. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of gender incongruence (identifying stronger with the other sex than with the sex assigned at birth) and gender ambivalence (identifying equally with the other sex as with the sex assigned at birth) based on two population-based surveys, one of 1,832 Flemish persons and one of 2,472 sexual minority individuals in Flanders. In the general population, gender ambivalence was present in 2.2 % of male and 1.9 % of female participants, whereas gender incongruence was found in 0.7 % of men and 0.6 % of women. In sexual minority individuals, the prevalence of gender ambivalence and gender incongruence was 1.8 and 0.9 % in men and 4.1 and 2.1 % in women, respectively. With a current Flemish population of about 6 million, our results indicate a total of between 17,150 and 17,665 gender incongruent men and between 14,473 and 15,221 gender incongruent women in Flanders.

  2. Labor Market Effects on Dropping out of High School: Variation by Gender, Race, and Employment Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Ralph B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    It is known from previous research that the likelihood of dropping out is affected by a number of individual traits, including, among others, socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, gender, and employment status. It is also known that dropping out is contingent on a variety of school characteristics. What is less known about is how dropping…

  3. Gender gap in entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Startienė, Gražina; Remeikienė, Rita

    2008-01-01

    The article considers a significant global issue - gender gap starting and developing own business. The field of business was for a long time reserved to men, thus, despite of an increasing number of female entrepreneurs during last decade, the number of female entrepreneurs in Europe, including Lithuania, remains lower than the one of male entrepreneurs. According to the data of various statistical sources, an average ratio of enterprises newly established by men and women in EU countries is...

  4. The gender problem in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Lars [Nobel Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    Gender is a range of characteristics used to distinguish between males and females, particularly in the cases of men and women and the masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. While the social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and some gender studies particularly do, research in the natural and medical sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans. Radiation protection regulations also take into account the possibly different radiation risks of males and females. The following contribution investigates how far this is justified, and what are the consequences. (orig.)

  5. Gender analysis of the Russian labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2014-01-01

    The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor ...

  6. The gender problem in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Gender is a range of characteristics used to distinguish between males and females, particularly in the cases of men and women and the masculine and feminine attributes assigned to them. While the social sciences sometimes approach gender as a social construct, and some gender studies particularly do, research in the natural and medical sciences investigates whether biological differences in males and females influence the development of gender in humans. Radiation protection regulations also take into account the possibly different radiation risks of males and females. The following contribution investigates how far this is justified, and what are the consequences. (orig.)

  7. Women, gender equality, and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Carolyn

    2009-03-01

    Discussion of women, gender equality, and diabetes should be placed in the context of United Nations mandates on women's health which highlight the need for equal access to information, prevention activities, services, and care across the life cycle. Gender differences and inequalities have been identified in relation to causes and consequences of diabetes and access to services and support between women and men, and among different groups of women. Appropriate gender-sensitive policy responses, including research and data collection, need to be developed. The recent United Nations resolution on diabetes provides an opportunity to strengthen the focus on women and diabetes.

  8. Gender differences in metabolic syndrome components among the Korean 66-year-old population with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangjin; Ko, Young; Kwak, Chanyeong; Yim, Eun-Shil

    2016-01-23

    Gender is thought to be an important factor in metabolic syndrome and its outcomes. Despite a number of studies that have demonstrated differences in metabolism and its components that are dependent on gender, limited information about gender differences on the characteristics of metabolic syndrome and its components is available regarding the Korean old adult population. This study aimed to identify gender differences in characteristics of the metabolic syndrome and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Secondary analysis of data from a nationwide cross-sectional survey for health examination at the time of transitioning from midlife to old age was performed. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for gender differences among the Korean 66-year-old population with metabolic syndrome. Gender differences in metabolic syndrome components that contributed to the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome were identified. In males, the most common component was high blood sugar levels (87.5%), followed by elevated triglyceride levels (83.5%) and high blood pressure (83.1%). In females, the most commonly identified component was elevated triglyceride levels (79.0%), followed by high blood sugar levels (78.6%) and high blood pressure (78.5%). Gender differences for other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including family history, health habits, and body mass index were observed. Gender-specific public health policies and management strategies to prevent cardiovascular disease among the older adult population should be developed for Koreans undergoing the physiological transition to old age.

  9. The case for addressing gender and power in sexuality and HIV education: a comprehensive review of evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, Nicole A

    2015-03-01

    Curriculum-based sexuality and HIV education is a mainstay of interventions to prevent STIs, HIV and unintended pregnancy among young people. Evidence links traditional gender norms, unequal power in sexual relationships and intimate partner violence with negative sexual and reproductive health outcomes. However, little attention has been paid to analyzing whether addressing gender and power in sexuality education curricula is associated with better outcomes. To explore whether the inclusion of content on gender and power matters for program efficacy, electronic and hand searches were conducted to identify rigorous sexuality and HIV education evaluations from developed and developing countries published between 1990 and 2012. Intervention and study design characteristics of the included interventions were disaggregated by whether they addressed issues of gender and power. Of the 22 interventions that met the inclusion criteria, 10 addressed gender or power, and 12 did not. The programs that addressed gender or power were five times as likely to be effective as those that did not; fully 80% of them were associated with a significantly lower rate of STIs or unintended pregnancy. In contrast, among the programs that did not address gender or power, only 17% had such an association. Addressing gender and power should be considered a key characteristic of effective sexuality and HIV education programs.

  10. Gender analysis of the Russian labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of gender inequality in the labor market affects all world countries to some extent. As salary is the basis of population’s sources of income in Russia, unequal pay to men and women for equal work can trigger gender discrimination in the labor market and beyond. The article focusses on the gender analysis of the Russian labor market. It focuses on conjunctural conditions of the labor market in a gender aspect, socio-economic characteristics of men and women as subjects of the labor market and the institutional features of the Russian labor market. The study reveals that, despite lower wages, women, judging by their socio-economic characteristics, possess competitive advantages over men, having higher level of education and better state of health. In addition to horizontal segregation, traditional partition of industries to “male” and “female”, the main causes of gender wage gaps are discriminatory social attitudes and social role of women. The issue to address gender discrimination in the modern Russian society becomes more critical due to contradiction between normative-legal acts, stipulating the gender equality in all spheres of life, and discriminatory social attitudes. The article gives a brief overview of research and practice publications on the problem of gender disparities in labor remuneration and methods to address them in the developed world. The state statistical monitoring of labor productivity in terms of gender is considered as a tool for in-depth study of discrimination

  11. Gender, motivation, experience and wages

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Swaffield

    2000-01-01

    Using data from the British Household Panel Survey, 1991-97 this paper investigates the structure of the female wage equation and the gender wage differential. The discriminatory portion of the gender wage differential is overstated by over 40% when inadequate measures of female labour market experience are included in the wage equation. The degree of labour market motivation, aspirations and constraints are found to have a significant impact on the female wage. Moreover, the impact of time o...

  12. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include......: detailed accounting of marketing margins, home consumption, risk, and gender roles in agricultural production. Our results show that agricultural technology improvements benefit both male and female occupants of rural households. Due to economic interactions, agricultural technology improvements...

  13. Gender Awareness Raising & EFL

    OpenAIRE

    長坂, 達彦; ナガサカ, タツヒコ; Tatsuhiko, Nagasaka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this short paper is to provide an example of classroom application of the concept of gender roles within the broader framework of Gender Awareness. More generally, it attempts to introduce growing interest in Gender Awareness within the context of changing perspective on Language Learning. What is understood by "gender roles" or "gender domain" will be examined. Explicit and traditional concept of gender roles will be briefly discussed with the relationship between explicit and imp...

  14. Gender issues in translation

    OpenAIRE

    ERGASHEVA G.I.

    2015-01-01

    The following research is done regarding gender in translation dealing specifically with the issue of the translators’ gender identity and its effect on their translations, as well as on how gender itself is translated and produced. We will try to clarify what gender is, how gender manifests itself in the system of language, and what problems translators encounter when translating or producing gender-related materials

  15. Gender Salary Differences in Economics Departments in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ana Maria; Takahashi, Shingo

    2011-01-01

    By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary…

  16. PENDIDIKAN GENDER SEJAK USIA DINI MELALUI HYPNOPARENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Yulia Wulansari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual violence that occurs in children is increasing. Girls are more prone for being victimized by malicious perpetrators. Children are abused, tainted and killed as if their lives are worthless. Child protection law from sexual crimes has been applied in Indonesia. However, it still needs some self-prevention from the children. Gender education is one of the efforts in protecting girls from sexual violence. Early gender education is intended so that girls will be able to take care of themselves from their gender opponents. Gender education can be delivered by parents to their daughter through hypnoparenting method before bedtime. This method combines the aspects of early childhood characteristics with theta wave in the brain. Hypnoparenting suggestions will stay in children’s long-term memory so it is appropriate to instill gender education since in the early age. Keyword: gender education, hypnoparenting, early age children.

  17. Charismatic female leadership and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meret, Susi

    2015-01-01

    Research on the leadership and electorates of populist right-wing parties emphasizes that most of these parties are charismatic and male-dominated, both as regards their leadership and voters. However, while studies about the gender gap focus mainly on demand-side factors, such as electoral support......, socio-economic characteristics and the voters' attitudes towards issues such as immigration, those that analyse the role and position of gender issues are still rare. Similarly, or even more, overlooked is an analysis of the rhetoric, style, charisma and discourse of populist female leaders...

  18. Choosing to Lose our Gender Expertise: Queering Sex/Gender in School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePalma, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Most people, school teachers and children included, are altogether too sure about what gender is: there are two "opposite" sexes, man and woman, and gender is the inevitable categorical expression of natural sex. Like all commonsense views, however, the gender binary has been socially constructed through normalising discourses that frame…

  19. Gender Responsive Livestock Research

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Livestock researchers and development practitioners need to ... Qualitative approaches that integrate gender analysis frameworks and tools; Gender .... and social attitudes, which means multiple methods ... Combining quantitative tools that.

  20. The Multiplicity of Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skewes, Lea

    2015-01-01

    people could quickly sum up the full pallet of meanings that comes with these gender categories. What does it mean to be a man or a woman? Is your sex/gender best captured by your biology (genitalia, hormones and chromosomes), your gender identity (the gender you perceive yourself to be) or your gender...... expression (how you chose to express your gender in clothes, jewelry, gestures, tone of voice)? Many people go through life never making those nuanced gender distinctions. However, where you situated yourself on the different gendered spectrums can have a significant effect on your life and well-being....

  1. Towards ensuring gender equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, A

    1996-01-01

    All people should participate in the development process. Many, however, remain excluded from the benefits of development. For example, women are privy to only a small share of developmental opportunities. The goals of equality, development, and peace were stated during the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in September 1995. The author considers whether women truly have equitable access to literacy, education, food, nutrition, health, employment, and the political and economic decision making process. She stresses that the goals pronounced at the Fourth World Conference on Women must be backed up with the necessary resources, including institutions established at the local, state, and national levels to ensure that the objectives are implemented and the implementation is monitored. The author further argues that in order for women to achieve equality with men, all girls must have access to primary and secondary schools; basic literacy is inadequate. Moreover, gender stereotyping must be avoided and gender sensitization ensured at all levels.

  2. Traditional Masculinity and Femininity: Validation of a New Scale Assessing Gender Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachel, Sven; Steffens, Melanie C.; Niedlich, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Gender stereotype theory suggests that men are generally perceived as more masculine than women, whereas women are generally perceived as more feminine than men. Several scales have been developed to measure fundamental aspects of gender stereotypes (e.g., agency and communion, competence and warmth, or instrumentality and expressivity). Although omitted in later version, Bem's original Sex Role Inventory included the items “masculine” and “feminine” in addition to more specific gender-stereotypical attributes. We argue that it is useful to be able to measure these two core concepts in a reliable, valid, and parsimonious way. We introduce a new and brief scale, the Traditional Masculinity-Femininity (TMF) scale, designed to assess central facets of self-ascribed masculinity-femininity. Studies 1–2 used known-groups approaches (participants differing in gender and sexual orientation) to validate the scale and provide evidence of its convergent validity. As expected the TMF reliably measured a one-dimensional masculinity-femininity construct. Moreover, the TMF correlated moderately with other gender-related measures. Demonstrating incremental validity, the TMF predicted gender and sexual orientation in a superior way than established adjective-based measures. Furthermore, the TMF was connected to criterion characteristics, such as judgments as straight by laypersons for the whole sample, voice pitch characteristics for the female subsample, and contact to gay men for the male subsample, and outperformed other gender-related scales. Taken together, as long as gender differences continue to exist, we suggest that the TMF provides a valuable methodological addition for research into gender stereotypes. PMID:27458394

  3. Traditional Masculinity and Femininity: Validation of a New Scale Assessing Gender Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachel, Sven; Steffens, Melanie C; Niedlich, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Gender stereotype theory suggests that men are generally perceived as more masculine than women, whereas women are generally perceived as more feminine than men. Several scales have been developed to measure fundamental aspects of gender stereotypes (e.g., agency and communion, competence and warmth, or instrumentality and expressivity). Although omitted in later version, Bem's original Sex Role Inventory included the items "masculine" and "feminine" in addition to more specific gender-stereotypical attributes. We argue that it is useful to be able to measure these two core concepts in a reliable, valid, and parsimonious way. We introduce a new and brief scale, the Traditional Masculinity-Femininity (TMF) scale, designed to assess central facets of self-ascribed masculinity-femininity. Studies 1-2 used known-groups approaches (participants differing in gender and sexual orientation) to validate the scale and provide evidence of its convergent validity. As expected the TMF reliably measured a one-dimensional masculinity-femininity construct. Moreover, the TMF correlated moderately with other gender-related measures. Demonstrating incremental validity, the TMF predicted gender and sexual orientation in a superior way than established adjective-based measures. Furthermore, the TMF was connected to criterion characteristics, such as judgments as straight by laypersons for the whole sample, voice pitch characteristics for the female subsample, and contact to gay men for the male subsample, and outperformed other gender-related scales. Taken together, as long as gender differences continue to exist, we suggest that the TMF provides a valuable methodological addition for research into gender stereotypes.

  4. The impact of gender on the assessment of body checking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Lauren; Hildebrandt, Tom; Bannon, Katie; Walker, Catherine; Walton, Kate E

    2011-01-01

    Body checking includes any behavior aimed at global or specific evaluations of appearance characteristics. Men and women are believed to express these behaviors differently, possibly reflecting different socialization. However, there has been no empirical test of the impact of gender on body checking. A total of 1024 male and female college students completed two measures of body checking, the Body Checking Questionnaire and the Male Body Checking Questionnaire. Using multiple group confirmatory factor analysis, differential item functioning (DIF) was explored in a composite of these measures. Two global latent factors were identified (female and male body checking severity), and there were expected gender differences in these factors even after controlling for DIF. Ten items were found to be unbiased by gender and provide a suitable brief measure of body checking for mixed gender research. Practical applications for body checking assessment and theoretical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender consistency and flexibility: using dynamics to understand the relationship between gender and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Matthew D; Martin, Carol L; Hessler, Eric E; Amazeen, Polemnia G; Hanish, Laura D; Fabes, Richard A

    2012-04-01

    Controversy surrounds questions regarding the influence of being gender consistent (i.e., having and expressing gendered characteristics that are consistent with one's biological sex) versus being gender flexible (i.e., having and expressing gendered characteristics that vary from masculine to feminine as circumstances arise) on children's adjustment outcomes, such as self-esteem, positive emotion, or behavior problems. Whereas evidence supporting the consistency hypothesis is abundant, little support exists for the flexibility hypothesis. To shed new light on the flexibility hypothesis, we explored children's gendered behavior from a dynamical perspective that highlighted variability and flexibility in addition to employing a conventional approach that emphasized stability and consistency. Conventional mean-level analyses supported the consistency hypothesis by revealing that gender atypical behavior was related to greater maladjustment, and dynamical analyses supported the flexibility hypothesis by showing that flexibility of gendered behavior over time was related to positive adjustment. Integrated analyses showed that gender typical behavior was related to the adjustment of children who were behaviorally inflexible, but not for those who were flexible. These results provided a more comprehensive understanding of the relation between gendered behavior and adjustment in young children and illustrated for the first time the feasibility of applying dynamical analyses to the study of gendered behavior.

  6. Gender-marked age stereotypes in english proverbs and sayings

    OpenAIRE

    Галапчук-Тарнавська, Олена Михайлівна; Halapchuk-Tarnavska, Olena M.

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are characteristic features of male/female gender group behavior that are expected by a society.Gender stereotypes in the Ukrainian language are viewed as ethnic stereotypes and perform the function of accumulating and systemizing the social, cultural and historical experiences of the Ukrainian people.Gender-marked age stereotypes are widely accepted believes held about certain age that are perceived as being appropriate for women and men.Family roles are also subject to ch...

  7. Gender differences in tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunberg, N E; Winders, S E; Wewers, M E

    1991-01-01

    Gender differences in overall tobacco use clearly exist. In general, men are more likely to use tobacco products than are women. However, this simple generalization, ignoring type of tobacco products, time, and culture, masks many more interesting gender differences in tobacco use. There are pronounced gender differences in tobacco use of specific tobacco products within some cultures but not others. Yet these differences have changed across time, including narrowing and widening of this gender gap, depending on culture and tobacco product. This article addresses these issues and presents possible psychosocial, biological, and psychobiological explanations for these phenomena. In addition, the implications of these differences and ways to learn more about these important differences are discussed.

  8. The impact of nontraditionalism on the malleability of gender stereotypes in Spain and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, Esther Lopez; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio

    2011-08-01

    Gender stereotypes and inequalities are based on and sustained by people's perception of gender roles. The evolution of these gender roles, however, might be substantially different depending on cultural and social evolution in different countries. In a study, we investigated stereotypes in Germany and Spain, where residents might have different beliefs about gender roles due to their different social evolution after the Second World War and their economic and social advances. Results showed that in both countries people's expectations of differences in masculine characteristics between men and women were less noticeable than perceptions in the past or present. We also demonstrated that people perceive an increase in masculinity in women. This increase is more evident in Spaniards than in Germans. In estimations about the past, present, and future, Spaniards also perceived an increase of gender-stereotypic feminine characteristics more in men than in women. Our results are consistent with the predictions of social role theory, as gender stereotypes can include dynamic aspects and the content of these stereotypes is rooted in social roles.

  9. Psychosexual outcome of gender-dysphoric children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallien, Madeleine S C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2008-12-01

    To establish the psychosexual outcome of gender-dysphoric children at 16 years or older and to examine childhood characteristics related to psychosexual outcome. We studied 77 children who had been referred in childhood to our clinic because of gender dysphoria (59 boys, 18 girls; mean age 8.4 years, age range 5-12 years). In childhood, we measured the children's cross-gender identification and discomfort with their own sex and gender roles. At follow-up 10.4 +/- 3.4 years later, 54 children (mean age 18.9 years, age range 16-28 years) agreed to participate. In this group, we assessed gender dysphoria and sexual orientation. At follow-up, 30% of the 77 participants (19 boys and 4 girls) did not respond to our recruiting letter or were not traceable; 27% (12 boys and 9 girls) were still gender dysphoric (persistence group), and 43% (desistance group: 28 boys and 5 girls) were no longer gender dysphoric. Both boys and girls in the persistence group were more extremely cross-gendered in behavior and feelings and were more likely to fulfill gender identity disorder (GID) criteria in childhood than the children in the other two groups. At follow-up, nearly all male and female participants in the persistence group reported having a homosexual or bisexual sexual orientation. In the desistance group, all of the girls and half of the boys reported having a heterosexual orientation. The other half of the boys in the desistance group had a homosexual or bisexual sexual orientation. Most children with gender dysphoria will not remain gender dysphoric after puberty. Children with persistent GID are characterized by more extreme gender dysphoria in childhood than children with desisting gender dysphoria. With regard to sexual orientation, the most likely outcome of childhood GID is homosexuality or bisexuality.

  10. Gender, globalisation, and democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, S

    2000-03-01

    This article discusses the link between gender, globalization and democracy in relation to women¿s empowerment. Analyzing gender relations within the processes of development planning involves five approaches: 1) welfare, 2) equity, 3) anti-poverty, 4) efficiency, and 5) empowerment. In addition, a new approach, which combines efficiency and empowerment, must be added to highlight the problematic nature of the direction of causality assumed by traditional theory of development. The rise on women's representation in national parliament can be attributed to the increase of women's economic power and women's political struggles. However, promotion of globalization produces new opportunities for feminist politics, as well as difficulties, which include: the emergent position of productive engagement in which an efficient economy and democratic society are seen as interdependent; and increase in parliamentary representation correlates with increased paid employment for women. In conclusion, the author underscores that globalization is a gendered process which is restructuring social relations on a large scale and the challenges it bring provide opportunities for women in development.

  11. Gender Differences in Sustained Attentional Control Relate to Gender Inequality across Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Elizabeth; Okabe, Hidefusa; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy; Esterman, Michael; DeGutis, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Sustained attentional control is critical for everyday tasks and success in school and employment. Understanding gender differences in sustained attentional control, and their potential sources, is an important goal of psychology and neuroscience and of great relevance to society. We used a large web-based sample (n = 21,484, from testmybrain.org) to examine gender differences in sustained attentional control. Our sample included participants from 41 countries, allowing us to examine how gender differences in each country relate to national indices of gender equality. We found significant gender differences in certain aspects of sustained attentional control. Using indices of gender equality, we found that overall sustained attentional control performance was lower in countries with less equality and that there were greater gender differences in performance in countries with less equality. These findings suggest that creating sociocultural conditions which value women and men equally can improve a component of sustained attention and reduce gender disparities in cognition.

  12. Gender Differences in Sustained Attentional Control Relate to Gender Inequality across Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Elizabeth; Okabe, Hidefusa; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy; Esterman, Michael; DeGutis, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Sustained attentional control is critical for everyday tasks and success in school and employment. Understanding gender differences in sustained attentional control, and their potential sources, is an important goal of psychology and neuroscience and of great relevance to society. We used a large web-based sample (n = 21,484, from testmybrain.org) to examine gender differences in sustained attentional control. Our sample included participants from 41 countries, allowing us to examine how gender differences in each country relate to national indices of gender equality. We found significant gender differences in certain aspects of sustained attentional control. Using indices of gender equality, we found that overall sustained attentional control performance was lower in countries with less equality and that there were greater gender differences in performance in countries with less equality. These findings suggest that creating sociocultural conditions which value women and men equally can improve a component of sustained attention and reduce gender disparities in cognition. PMID:27802294

  13. Gender equality in university sportspeople's drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Hunter, Jackie; Kypri, Kypros; Ali, Ajmol

    2008-11-01

    In large population-based alcohol studies males are shown consistently to drink more, and more hazardously, than females. However, research from some countries suggests that gender differences in drinking are converging, with females drinking more than in the past. Large population-based research may miss gender-based changes in drinking behaviours that occur in sub-populations most at risk of hazardous drinking. We examine gender differences in a sub-population where hazardous drinking is common and endorsed, namely university sportspeople. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a drinking motives measure were used to assess hazardous drinking behaviours and drinking motives in 631 university sportspeople (females = 331, 52%). There were no gender differences in AUDIT scores. However, drinking motives differed between genders, with coping motives being a significant predictor of hazardous drinking in females but not males. Hazardous drinking, including binge drinking (46.3%) and frequent binge drinking (35%), in New Zealand university sportspeople is high for both males and females. New Zealand university sportspeople are one population where gender differences in drinking are not apparent and run counter to European population based research and research in US sporting populations. Gender role equality in the university systems, and endorsement of drinking in sporting culture, may account for the lack of gender differences in this New Zealand sporting population. Future research on gender differences in drinking should examine sub-populations where gender role differentiation is low, and socio-cultural/structural factors supporting gender equality are high.

  14. Gender differences in environmental related behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalen, Hanne Marit; Halvorsen, Bente

    2011-11-15

    This report discusses gender differences in the data collected in the OECD household survey on environmental behaviour. The survey asked a sample of 10 000 respondents from 10 countries (Norway, Sweden, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Mexico, Australia and Korea) concerning household behaviour with respect to five areas: recycling, energy and water saving, organic food consumption and transportation. This report identifies and describes gender differences in behaviour, in underlying preferences and in household characteristics in this data. We use regression analyses to identify and test for significant gender differences in preferences, and we use differences in means to test for gender differences in background variables and the total effect of gender on behaviour. In our estimations, where we test for significant gender differences in preferences, we find many significant differences with respect to several of the explanatory variables affecting behaviour. However, there was no clear pattern for most of these gender differences. The only systematic gender difference we found in the estimations was that the belief that they can actually contribute to a better environment seems to be a more important motivator for environmental friendly behaviour for men than it is for women. There are also many significant differences between the genders in the distribution of key background variables, in particular with respect to income, car ownership, participation in the workforce, education and choice of residence. However, these gender differences in preferences and background variables only result in pronounced gender differences in behaviour to a small degree. The exception is transportation, where gender differences are large and significant. Men have a higher probability of owning a car or a motorcycle than women. And given that the respondent owns a car, men drive significantly more than women. For the rest of the behaviour measured in this

  15. TRANSCENDENTAL ASPECTS OF GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Khmel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the basic principles of gender philosophy applying methodological tools of communicative pragmatics; to demonstrate how gender construct can provide gender humanism formation as one of the ideals of democratic society; to specify gender glossary terms such as “gender democracy”, “gender equality” and “gender justice”. Methodology. In order to investigate a theoretical framework in feminist philosophy, methodological tools of communicative pragmatics and discursive ethics that were elaborated by modern German philosophers J. Habermas, K.-O. Apel for analyzing ethical gender principles and their legitimation ways have been used in this research. Scientific novelty. Based on methodological differences in concepts of J. Habermas and K.-O. Apel, two opposite approaches to gender concept analysis – rational and pragmatic (Habermas and transcendental conceptual (K.-O. Apel have been found out. The article helps to specify the framework of categories and concepts. According to the legitimation way of gender ethical theory it was discovered that such notions as “gender democracy”, “gender equality” and “gender justice” do not have the same meanings. According to the analysis of communicative action program and consensus, the “gender equality” concept by Habermas is an artificial social construct that is methodologically grounded in cognitivism and diminishes the possibilities of gender values legitimation. According to K.-O. Apel, the concept of “gender justice” is based on transcendental moral and ethical sense of opposite genders unity and does not discharge unequal distribution of responsibilities and any invasion as well as represents certain extent of their difference. Conclusions. Fast growing gender changes in the society face ageold drawbacks of moral and spiritual principles of communities, taking into account social and cultural, national and gender identity. Thorough understanding of

  16. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  17. Investment characteristics, stock characteristics and portfolio diversification of finance professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Tariqul Islam Khan; Siow-Hooi Tan; Lee-Lee Chong; Hway-Boon Ong

    2017-01-01

    This study estimates if Malaysian finance professionals' investment characteristics and stock characteristics' preferences affect their portfolio diversification, and whether the effects of these predictors vary across professionals' gender, income and experience. Employing a survey and ordinal regression models, the findings demonstrate that investment characteristics such as active trading, usage of internet and telephone, and saving for retirement objective are likely to improve diversific...

  18. DIFFERENT ENDURANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF FEMALE AND MALE GERMAN SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baumgart

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to assess gender differences regarding lactate threshold and intermittent shuttle run performance in female and male soccer players as well as to investigate the relationships between both endurance characteristics in both genders. Fourteen female (1st division and thirteen male (4th division soccer players completed an incremental test (IT to determine running velocities at 2 and 4 mmol · l-1 blood lactate (v2 and v4 and maximum velocity (vmax as well as an interval shuttle run test (ISRT to determine running distance. Based on v2 and v4 and their percentages in relation to vmax, three intensity zones were calculated: a low lactate zone (v4. Female soccer players have a lower v4 (8.2%, vmax (11.3% and ISRT distance (31.6%. No gender difference was found in v2. In contrast to males, ISRT distance correlates with vmax as well as with v2 and v4 in female soccer players. The intensity zones v4 differ between genders. The present study revealed that gender differences increase when the running performance is intermittent including change of directions. In both genders, different relationships between lactate threshold and intermittent shuttle run performance exist. During incremental testing, the running performances of female and male players reflect different distributions of aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways. The revealed gender differences should be considered for soccer endurance training.

  19. The Development of Gender Stereotype Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Children of 4 to 10 years of age were told about children whose sex was not specified and who had a masculine or feminine toy or characteristic. Results indicated that children first learn characteristics relevant to their own sex, and that older children's stereotypic judgments about gender are more extreme than those of younger children. (BC)

  20. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  1. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  2. Physical and chemical characteristics including total and geochemical forms of phosphorus in sediment from the top 30 centimeters of cores collected in October 2006 at 26 sites in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nancy S.; Ingle, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    μThis study of phosphorus (P) cycling in eutrophic Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Lakebed sediments from the upper 30 centimeters (cm) of cores collected from 26 sites were characterized. Cores were sampled at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 cm. Prior to freezing, water content and sediment pH were determined. After being freeze-dried, all samples were separated into greater than 63-micron (μm) particle-size (coarse) and less than 63-μm particle-size (fine) fractions. In the surface samples (0.5 to 4.5 cm below the sediment water interface), approximately three-fourths of the particles were larger than 63-μm. The ratios of the coarse particle-size fraction (>63 μm) and the fine particle-size fraction (determination of total concentrations of aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), carbon (C), iron (Fe), poorly crystalline Fe, nitrogen (N), P, and titanium (Ti). Total Fe concentrations were the largest in sediment from the northern portion of UKL, Howard Bay, and the southern portion of the lake. Concentrations of total Al, Ca, and Ti were largest in sediment from the northern, central, and southernmost portions of the lake and in sediment from Howard Bay. Concentrations of total C and N were largest in sediment from the embayments and in sediment from the northern arm and southern portion of the lake in the general region of Buck Island. Concentrations of total C were larger in the greater than 63-μm particle-size fraction than in the less than 63-μm particle-size fraction. Sediments were sequentially extracted to determine concentrations of inorganic forms of P, including loosely sorbed P, P associated with poorly crystalline Fe oxides, and P associated with mineral phases. The difference between the concentration of total P and sum of the concentrations of inorganic forms of P is referred to as residual P. Residual P was the largest fraction of P in all

  3. Gender, culture, and mathematics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet S; Mertz, Janet E

    2009-06-02

    Using contemporary data from the U.S. and other nations, we address 3 questions: Do gender differences in mathematics performance exist in the general population? Do gender differences exist among the mathematically talented? Do females exist who possess profound mathematical talent? In regard to the first question, contemporary data indicate that girls in the U.S. have reached parity with boys in mathematics performance, a pattern that is found in some other nations as well. Focusing on the second question, studies find more males than females scoring above the 95th or 99th percentile, but this gender gap has significantly narrowed over time in the U.S. and is not found among some ethnic groups and in some nations. Furthermore, data from several studies indicate that greater male variability with respect to mathematics is not ubiquitous. Rather, its presence correlates with several measures of gender inequality. Thus, it is largely an artifact of changeable sociocultural factors, not immutable, innate biological differences between the sexes. Responding to the third question, we document the existence of females who possess profound mathematical talent. Finally, we review mounting evidence that both the magnitude of mean math gender differences and the frequency of identification of gifted and profoundly gifted females significantly correlate with sociocultural factors, including measures of gender equality across nations.

  4. Gender differences in cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

    2011-07-01

    The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil [Child Neuropsychological Assessment] (Matute, Rosselli, Ardila, & Ostrosky-Solis, 2007), were analyzed. The sample included 788 monolingual children (350 boys, 438 girls) ages 5 to 16 years from Mexico and Colombia. Gender differences were observed in oral language (language expression and language comprehension), spatial abilities (recognition of pictures seen from different angles), and visual (Object Integration Test) and tactile perceptual tasks, with boys outperforming girls in most cases, except for the tactile tasks. Gender accounted for only a very small percentage of the variance (1%-3%). Gender x Age interactions were observed for the tactile tasks only. It was concluded that gender differences during cognitive development are minimal, appear in only a small number of tests, and account for only a low percentage of the score variance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Gender, Technology, and Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Lamont

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT is vitally important to many organizations, including libraries. Yet a review of employment statistics and a citation analysis show that men make up the majority of the IT workforce, in libraries and in the broader workforce. Research from sociology, psychology, and women’s studies highlights the organizational and social issues that inhibit women. Understanding why women are less evident in library IT positions will help inform measures to remedy the gender disparity.

  6. Dilemmas in the Danish approach to gender equality : gender equality without gender quota

    OpenAIRE

    ROLANDSEN AGUSTÍN, Lise; SIIM, Birte

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses the dilemmas, contradictions and paradoxes in the Danish approach to gender quotas and gender equality and discusses the intersections of citizenship, democracy and gender justice. Gender research understands gender quota as a means to achieve equal rights, gender equality and gender parity. Gender theory has conceptualized gender parity as one step towards achieving gender justice in all arenas of social, political and economic life. The Danish cases illustrate that conte...

  7. A review on gender linguistics studies

    OpenAIRE

    Roozbeh Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Gender linguistics is a cynosure branch within the framework of language sociology and it deals with the effect that the gender, as a variable, has on the creation of lingual diversities. Because a great many of the social-cultural concepts, including gender, are multifaceted, one-dimensional and absolute perceptions of such concepts lead to some sort of superficiality, particularly in research areas. The present article, firstly, deals with the presentation of the notions opined by two promi...

  8. Exploring differential item functioning (DIF) with the Rasch model: a comparison of gender differences on eighth grade science items in the United States and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiar, Tasha Calvert

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, women and minorities have not been fully represented in science and engineering. Numerous studies have attributed these differences to gaps in science achievement as measured by various standardized tests. Rather than describe mean group differences in science achievement across multiple cultures, this study focused on an in-depth item-level analysis across two countries: Spain and the United States. This study investigated eighth-grade gender differences on science items across the two countries. A secondary purpose of the study was to explore the nature of gender differences using the many-faceted Rasch Model as a way to estimate gender DIF. A secondary analysis of data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) was used to address three questions: 1) Does gender DIF in science achievement exist? 2) Is there a relationship between gender DIF and characteristics of the science items? 3) Do the relationships between item characteristics and gender DIF in science items replicate across countries. Participants included 7,087 eight grade students from the United States and 3,855 students from Spain who participated in TIMSS. The Facets program (Linacre and Wright, 1992) was used to estimate gender DIF. The results of the analysis indicate that the content of the item seemed to be related to gender DIF. The analysis also suggests that there is a relationship between gender DIF and item format. No pattern of gender DIF related to cognitive demand was found. The general pattern of gender DIF was similar across the two countries used in the analysis. The strength of item-level analysis as opposed to group mean difference analysis is that gender differences can be detected at the item level, even when no mean differences can be detected at the group level.

  9. Entrepreneurs' characteristics and marketing communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Entrepreneurs' characteristics and marketing communication practices of SMEs in South Africa. ... no significant difference in the marketing communication tools adopted by SMEs on the basis of gender ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  10. Why sex and gender matter in implementation research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Tannenbaum

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a recent swell in activity by health research funding organizations and science journal editors to increase uptake of sex and gender considerations in study design, conduct and reporting in order to ensure that research results apply to everyone. However, examination of the implementation research literature reveals that attention to sex and gender has not yet infiltrated research methods in this field. Discussion The rationale for routinely considering sex and gender in implementation research is multifold. Sex and gender are important in decision-making, communication, stakeholder engagement and preferences for the uptake of interventions. Gender roles, gender identity, gender relations, and institutionalized gender influence the way in which an implementation strategy works, for whom, under what circumstances and why. There is emerging evidence that programme theories may operate differently within and across sexes, genders and other intersectional characteristics under various circumstances. Furthermore, without proper study, implementation strategies may inadvertently exploit or ignore, rather than transform thinking about sex and gender-related factors. Techniques are described for measuring and analyzing sex and gender in implementation research using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Summary The present paper describes the application of methods for integrating sex and gender in implementation research. Consistently asking critical questions about sex and gender will likely lead to the discovery of positive outcomes, as well as unintended consequences. The result has potential to strengthen both the practice and science of implementation, improve health outcomes and reduce gender inequities.

  11. Why sex and gender matter in implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Greaves, Lorraine; Graham, Ian D

    2016-10-27

    There has been a recent swell in activity by health research funding organizations and science journal editors to increase uptake of sex and gender considerations in study design, conduct and reporting in order to ensure that research results apply to everyone. However, examination of the implementation research literature reveals that attention to sex and gender has not yet infiltrated research methods in this field. The rationale for routinely considering sex and gender in implementation research is multifold. Sex and gender are important in decision-making, communication, stakeholder engagement and preferences for the uptake of interventions. Gender roles, gender identity, gender relations, and institutionalized gender influence the way in which an implementation strategy works, for whom, under what circumstances and why. There is emerging evidence that programme theories may operate differently within and across sexes, genders and other intersectional characteristics under various circumstances. Furthermore, without proper study, implementation strategies may inadvertently exploit or ignore, rather than transform thinking about sex and gender-related factors. Techniques are described for measuring and analyzing sex and gender in implementation research using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The present paper describes the application of methods for integrating sex and gender in implementation research. Consistently asking critical questions about sex and gender will likely lead to the discovery of positive outcomes, as well as unintended consequences. The result has potential to strengthen both the practice and science of implementation, improve health outcomes and reduce gender inequities.

  12. Gender Stereotyping in Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hussain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotyping and gender role development is one of the debatable concerns to sociologists especially those who are interested in sociology of gender. This study attempts to investigate the role of family inculcating gender stereotyping in Pakhtun culture and its impact on gender role development conducted in public-sector universities of Malakand Division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The data were collected through in-depth interview method using interview guide as a tool of data collection. A sample size of 24 respondents consisting male and female students and teachers (8 samples from each university through purposive sampling technique was selected from three universities in the region, that is, University of Malakand, University of Swat, and Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Sharingal (main campus. The collected information has been analyzed qualitatively where primary information has been linked with secondary data for further elaboration and attainment of grounded facts. The study reveals that gender stereotyping and gender role formation are sociocultural and relational constructs, which are developed and inculcated in the institutional network, social interaction, and social relationships especially in family. The study indicated that in family sphere, gender stereotyping and gender role formation are the outcome of gender socialization, differential familial environment, and parents’ differential role with children. The study recommends that gender-balanced familial environment, adopting the strategy of gender mainstreaming and positive role of media, can overcome gender stereotyping and reduce its impacts on gender and social role formation.

  13. Gender-related factors influencing perceptions of homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, F Y; McCreary, D R; Carpenter, K M; Engle, A; Korchynsky, R

    1999-01-01

    There is a long history linking gender role conformity to perceived homosexuality. However, the lack of a systematic theoretical model hinders the elucidation of the interrelationships among gender stereotypes, conformity to gender stereotypes, and perceived homosexuality, as well as other factors which may mediate these relationships. The purpose of the present study was to propose such a model by combining theories of gender stereotype formation and maintenance with research investigating perceptions of homosexuality. Specifically, this study examined college students' perceptions of gender role characteristics in male and female adult target persons and these students' perceptions of the likelihood that the targets were homosexual. Path analysis demonstrated that the sex and occupation of the target person were significantly related to perceived masculinity, femininity, and homosexuality of the target person. Furthermore, individual differences in these relationships were observed, indicating that the sex and gender role characteristics of the participant influenced perceptions of the gender role attributes and homosexuality of the target person.

  14. Gender-related differences in the multi-pathway effect of social determinants on quality of life in older age?the COURAGE in Europe project

    OpenAIRE

    Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Galas, Aleksander; Zawisza, Katarzyna; Chatterji, Somnath; Haro, Josep Maria; Ayuso-Mateos, Jos? Luis; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Gender-related differences in life expectancy, prevalence of chronic conditions and level of disability in the process of ageing have been broadly described. Less is known about social determinants, which may have different impacts on quality of life in men and women. The investigation aims to reveal gender-related differences in social determinants on quality of life assessed by a multi-pathway model including health, social, demographic and living place characteristics. Methods The ...

  15. 40 CFR 305.2 - Use of number and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of number and gender. 305.2... Use of number and gender. As used in this part, words in the singular also include the plural and words in the masculine gender also include the feminine, as the case may require. ...

  16. 40 CFR 300.6 - Use of number and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of number and gender. 300.6... PLAN Introduction § 300.6 Use of number and gender. As used in this regulation, words in the singular also include the plural and words in the masculine gender also include the feminine and vice versa, as...

  17. 40 CFR 22.2 - Use of number and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of number and gender. 22.2 Section... PERMITS General § 22.2 Use of number and gender. As used in these Consolidated Rules of Practice, words in the singular also include the plural and words in the masculine gender also include the feminine, and...

  18. The influence of gender and gender typicality on autobiographical memory across event types and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie A; Graci, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Gender differences in autobiographical memory emerge in some data collection paradigms and not others. The present study included an extensive analysis of gender differences in autobiographical narratives. Data were collected from 196 participants, evenly split by gender and by age group (emerging adults, ages 18-29, and young adults, ages 30-40). Each participant reported four narratives, including an event that had occurred in the last 2 years, a high point, a low point, and a self-defining memory. Additionally, all participants completed self-report measures of masculine and feminine gender typicality. The narratives were coded along six dimensions-namely coherence, connectedness, agency, affect, factual elaboration, and interpretive elaboration. The results indicated that females expressed more affect, connection, and factual elaboration than males across all narratives, and that feminine typicality predicted increased connectedness in narratives. Masculine typicality predicted higher agency, lower connectedness, and lower affect, but only for some narratives and not others. These findings support an approach that views autobiographical reminiscing as a feminine-typed activity and that identifies gender differences as being linked to categorical gender, but also to one's feminine gender typicality, whereas the influences of masculine gender typicality were more context-dependent. We suggest that implicit gendered socialization and more explicit gender typicality each contribute to gendered autobiographies.

  19. Gender Congruency From a Neutral Point of View: The Roles of Gender Classes and Conceptual Connotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2018-02-01

    The question of whether language affects thought is long-standing, with grammatical gender being one of the most contended instances. Empirical evidence focuses on the gender congruency effect, according to which referents of masculine nouns are conceptualized more strongly as male and those of feminine nouns more strongly as female. While some recent studies suggest that this effect is driven by conceptual connotations rather than grammatical properties, research remains theoretically inconclusive because of the confounding of grammatical gender and conceptual connotations in gendered (masculine or feminine) nouns. Taking advantage of the fact that German also includes a neuter gender, the current study attempted to disentangle the relative contributions of grammatical properties and connotations to the emergence of the gender congruency effect. In three pairs of experiments, neuter and gendered nouns were compared in an Extrinsic Affective Simon Task based on gender associations, controlled for a possible role of gender-indicating articles. A congruency effect emerged equally strongly for neuter and gendered nouns, but disappeared when including connotations as covariate, thereby effectively excluding grammatical gender as the (only) driving force for this effect. Based on a critical discussion of these findings, we propose a possible mechanism for the emergence of the effect that also has the potential to accommodate conflicting patterns of findings from previous research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Underemployment in a gender segregated labour market

    OpenAIRE

    Kjeldstad, Randi; Nymoen, Erik H.

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses factors behind underemployment in Norway and has a focus on gender. The analysis, based on Labour Force Survey data, shows that economic fluctuations during the latest one and a half decade bring about changing underemployment levels of both women and men. The Norwegian labour market is strongly gender segregated and the processes and characteristics of underemployment differ between male and female dominated labour market sectors. The former sectors are generally more e...

  1. Assessment of Gender Balanced Policies across Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Šrámová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    The thesis aims to analyze the representation of women in the top management within companies in the Czech Republic and companies' approach towards gender diversity. Theoretical background is provided as an introduction to the topic. Terms leadership and leadership styles are defined. The thesis follows with gender leadership specifics and typical characteristics for the Czech Republic. The research part is based on the interviews with HR representatives conducted in five chosen companies. Ty...

  2. Gender differentiation in the lexicon of the serbian language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дарія Володимирівна Девлиш

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses its attention on the concepts "gender", "gender stereotype" and linguistic picture of the world. The lexicon of the Serbian language was researched through the prism of the analysis of synonymic rows which are used to represent character traits of men and women. In the structure of these concepts the following terms were pointed out: external characteristics, physical characteristics, internal characteristics, intellectual characteristics. Within the framework of the microcomponent “internal characteristics” two different negative features of both genders were analyzed: indecisive man, rude man; talkative woman, angry woman. 

  3. Gender-related differences in individuals seeking treatment for kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N

    2008-03-01

    Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for prevention and treatment strategies. Few empirical investigations have been performed in kleptomania, particularly with respect to gender-related influences. From 2001--2007, 95 adult subjects (n=27 [28.4%] males) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-defined kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics, including symptom severity, comorbidity, and functional impairment, to identify gender-related differences. Men and women showed substantial symptom severity and functional impairment. Compared with affected men, women with kleptomania were more likely to be married (47.1% vs 25.9%; P=.039), have a later age at shoplifting onset (20.9 vs 14 years of age; P=.001), steal household items (PKleptomania is similarly associated with significant impairment in women and men. Gender-related differences in clinical features and co-occurring disorders suggest that prevention and treatment strategies incorporate gender considerations.

  4. Features of gender identity among schoolchildren of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Y. Marchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose . Gender identity manifestations in schoolchildren were investigated. Material . The study involved schoolchildren of 3 -11th forms of the secondary schools (206 – boys, 213 - girls. For the research of age peculiarities in psychological gender, a questioner worked out by Sundry Bam which consists of 60 statements was used. Results . A number of aspects of self description which have different psychological characteristics in boys and girls were analysed. A peculiarity of gender identity in schoolchildren, which was identified by the overall number of respondents in whom the androgens personality type was identified, was singled out. Out of 206 boys – 90% have an androgens index, as for the girls – 69.5% refer to androgens personality type. The presence of feminine character qualities in boys and masculine – in girls was found out, which proves maximal development of feminine and masculine in one person. This will help social adaptation of schoolchildren. Conclusions . Physical education has enormous potential emotional and physical impact on the formation of gender identity of students and their notions of femininity and masculinity. This can directly affect the formation of life value orientations students in general, including the formation of values in the sphere of physical culture.

  5. Striving to Achieve Gender Equity in Education: A Zimbabwean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Striving to Achieve Gender Equity in Education: A Zimbabwean Experience ... of all forms of inequalities in its society, including gender inequalities in education. ... implementation of policies meant to promote education of girls and women.

  6. Studies in Gender and Development in Africa: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim and Scope Studies in Gender and Development in Africa (SIGADA) is a ... lived realities and activisms on gender issues in development with the view to ... analytical work including issues, claims, arguments; implications/relevance etc.) vi.

  7. What Explains the Gender Gap in Financial Literacy? The Role of Household Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Raquel; Mullen, Kathleen J; Zamarro, Gema; Zissimopoulos, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Using newly collected data from the RAND American Life Panel, we examine potential explanations for the gender gap in financial literacy, including the role of marriage and who within a couple makes the financial decisions. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition reveals the majority of the gender gap in financial literacy is not explained by differences in the characteristics of men and women-but rather differences in coefficients, or how literacy is produced. We find that financial decision making of couples is not centralized in one spouse although it is sensitive to the relative education level of spouses.

  8. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin

    2006-01-01

    and less softcore pornography than women. Gender differences in sexual behavioral factors were limited to masturbation patterns with men masturbating more than women. Male gender, higher frequency of masturbation, lower age at first exposure, and younger age were found to account for 48.8% of the total...... variance of pornography consumption. The results were discussed in relation to the sociocultural environment and evolutionary theory. It is argued that gender differences in social acceptability, adherence to gender stereotypes, traditions of gender sexuality, gender norms, and mating strategies are key......The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using...

  9. Deliverable 6.2 - Software: upgraded MC simulation tools capable of simulating a complete in-beam ET experiment, from the beam to the detected events. Report with the description of one (or few) reference clinical case(s), including the complete patient model and beam characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    The ENVISION Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Deliverable 6.2 - Software: upgraded MC simulation tools capable of simulating a complete in-beam ET experiment, from the beam to the detected events. Report with the description of one (or few) reference clinical case(s), including the complete patient model and beam characteristics

  10. Gender Identity and Gender Confusion in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be influenced by their identification with the males and females in their lives, the sense of being a girl or a boy (i.e. gender identity) cannot be changed. Gender Stereotypes Over time, society has recognized that stereotypes of ...

  11. Gender, Discourse, and "Gender and Discourse."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Hayley

    1997-01-01

    A critic of Deborah Tannen's book "Gender and Discourse" responds to comments made about her critique, arguing that the book's analysis of the relationship of gender and discourse tends to seek, and perhaps force, explanations only in those terms. Another linguist's analysis of similar phenomena is found to be more rigorous. (MSE)

  12. Gendered nursing education and practice in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooladi, Marjaneh M

    2003-01-01

    Through qualitative ethnographic methods, the researcher gendered nursing education and practice among human nursing students and faculty. Interaction with nursing students and faculty occurred in a familiar turf using the native language in interviews and on field observations. Settings included classrooms, skills laboratory, faculty offices, clinical areas, and informants' homes. Formal and informal interviews, observations, and printed materials provided useful data to reach consistent common patterns. Thematic analysis and triangulation of data identified gender variations in care and compassion, spirituality, economic motives, and practice preference. Integrated experiences of pre-Islamic period were used to describe the current developments of gendered nursing education and practice in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Study of gendered nursing education and practice brings attention to the cultural significance of gender issues. This body of knowledge will benefit American nurses and educators by increasing their cultural understanding of gender.

  13. Learning about gender on campus: an analysis of the hidden curriculum for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ling-Fang; Yang, Hsing-Chen

    2015-03-01

    Gender sensitivity is a crucial factor in the provision of quality health care. This paper explores acquired gendered values and attitudes among medical students through an analysis of the hidden curriculum that exists within formal medical classes and informal learning. Discourse analysis was adopted as the research method. Data were collected from the Bulletin Board System (BBS), which represented an essential communication platform among students in Taiwan before the era of Facebook. The study examined 197 gender-related postings on the BBS boards of nine of 11 universities with a medical department in Taiwan, over a period of 10 years from 2000 to 2010. The five distinctive characteristics of the hidden curriculum were as follows: (i) gendered stereotypes of physiological knowledge; (ii) biased treatment of women; (iii) stereotyped gender-based division of labour; (iv) sexual harassment and a hostile environment, and (v) ridiculing of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people. Both teachers and students co-produced a heterosexual masculine culture and sexism, including 'benevolent sexism' and 'hostile sexism'. As a result, the self-esteem and learning opportunities of female and LGBT students have been eroded. The paper explores gender dynamics in the context of a hidden curriculum in which heterosexual masculinity and stereotyped sexism are prevalent as norms. Both teachers and students, whether through formal medical classes or informal extracurricular interactive activities, are noted to contribute to the consolidation of such norms. The study tentatively suggests three strategies for integrating gender into medical education: (i) by separating physiological knowledge from gender stereotyping in teaching; (ii) by highlighting the importance of gender sensitivity in the language used within and outside the classroom by teachers and students, and (iii) by broadening the horizons of both teachers and students by recounting examples of the lived

  14. The Prevalence of Only-Child Status Among Children and Adolescents Referred to a Gender Identity Service Versus a Clinical Comparison Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S Kathleen; VanderLaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Wood, Hayley; Wasserman, Lori; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2017-08-18

    Several studies indicate that homosexual males have a high proportion of older brothers compared to heterosexual males. Natal males with gender dysphoria who are likely to be homosexual also display this sibship pattern. Until recently, there was little evidence linking homosexuality and/or gender dysphoria in females to unique sibship characteristics. Two studies have indicated that natal female youth clinically referred for gender dysphoria are more likely to be only children (Schagen, Delemarre-van de Waal, Blanchard, & Cohen-Kettenis, 2012; VanderLaan, Blanchard, Wood, & Zucker, 2014). However, these studies did not include control groups of youth clinically referred for other reasons. Thus, it is unclear whether the increased likelihood of only-child status is specific to gender-referred natal females. This study compared only-child status among youth referred to a mental health service for gender dysphoria (778 males, 245 females) versus other reasons (783 males, 281 females). Prehomosexual gender-referred males were less likely to be only children than clinical controls. Contrary to previous findings, gender-referred females were not more likely to be only children, indicating that increased likelihood of only-child status is not specific to gender-referred females, but is characteristic of clinic-referred females more generally.

  15. Doubly blind: a systematic review of gender in randomised controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan P. Phillips

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although observational data show social characteristics such as gender or socio-economic status to be strong predictors of health, their impact is seldom investigated in randomised controlled studies (RCTs. Objective & design: Using a random sample of recent RCTs from high-impact journals, we examined how the most often recorded social characteristic, sex/gender, is considered in design, analysis, and interpretation. Of 712 RCTs published from September 2008 to 31 December 2013 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, Lancet, Canadian Medical Association Journal, or New England Journal of Medicine, we randomly selected 57 to analyse funding, methods, number of centres, documentation of social circumstances, inclusion/exclusion criteria, proportions of women/men, and reporting about sex/gender in analyses and discussion. Results: Participants’ sex was recorded in most studies (52/57. Thirty-nine percent included men and women approximately equally. Overrepresentation of men in 43% of studies without explicit exclusions for women suggested interference in selection processes. The minority of studies that did analyse sex/gender differences (22% did not discuss or reflect upon these, or dismissed significant findings. Two studies reinforced traditional beliefs about women's roles, finding no impact of breastfeeding on infant health but nevertheless reporting possible benefits. Questionable methods such as changing protocols mid-study, having undefined exclusion criteria, allowing local researchers to remove participants from studies, and suggesting possible benefit where none was found were evident, particularly in industry-funded research. Conclusions: Social characteristics like sex/gender remain hidden from analyses and interpretation in RCTs, with loss of information and embedding of error all along the path from design to interpretation, and therefore, to uptake in clinical practice. Our results suggest that to

  16. Doubly blind: a systematic review of gender in randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan P; Hamberg, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Although observational data show social characteristics such as gender or socio-economic status to be strong predictors of health, their impact is seldom investigated in randomised controlled studies (RCTs). Using a random sample of recent RCTs from high-impact journals, we examined how the most often recorded social characteristic, sex/gender, is considered in design, analysis, and interpretation. Of 712 RCTs published from September 2008 to 31 December 2013 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, Lancet, Canadian Medical Association Journal, or New England Journal of Medicine, we randomly selected 57 to analyse funding, methods, number of centres, documentation of social circumstances, inclusion/exclusion criteria, proportions of women/men, and reporting about sex/gender in analyses and discussion. Participants' sex was recorded in most studies (52/57). Thirty-nine percent included men and women approximately equally. Overrepresentation of men in 43% of studies without explicit exclusions for women suggested interference in selection processes. The minority of studies that did analyse sex/gender differences (22%) did not discuss or reflect upon these, or dismissed significant findings. Two studies reinforced traditional beliefs about women's roles, finding no impact of breastfeeding on infant health but nevertheless reporting possible benefits. Questionable methods such as changing protocols mid-study, having undefined exclusion criteria, allowing local researchers to remove participants from studies, and suggesting possible benefit where none was found were evident, particularly in industry-funded research. Social characteristics like sex/gender remain hidden from analyses and interpretation in RCTs, with loss of information and embedding of error all along the path from design to interpretation, and therefore, to uptake in clinical practice. Our results suggest that to broaden external validity, in particular, more refined trial designs and

  17. Confronting Gender Inequality in a Business School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Amanda; Jones, Deborah; Rey Vasquez, Carla; Krisjanous, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    This study, set in a New Zealand Business School, takes an integrative view of the university as an "inequality regime" Acker, J. (2006b). Inequality regimes: Gender, class and race in organizations. "Gender and Society," 20(4), 441-464 including all types of women staff: academic women in permanent positions, academics on…

  18. Addressing Gender Equity in Nonfaculty Salaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toukoushian, Robert K.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses methodology of gender equity studies on noninstructional employees of colleges and universities, including variable selection in the multiple regression model and alternative approaches for measuring wage gaps. Analysis of staff data at one institution finds that experience and market differences account for 80 percent of gender pay…

  19. Gender Equality Policies and Higher Education Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Gender equality policies regulate the Swedish labour market, including higher education. This study analyses and discusses the career development of postgraduate students in the light of labour market influences. The principle of gender separation is used to understand these effects. Swedish register data encompassing information on 585…

  20. Leadership Effectiveness and Gender

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gedney, Christine

    1999-01-01

    This research paper on the subject of Leadership Effectiveness and Gender attempts to conduct a focused amount of research to answer the question about the correlation between gender and leadership effectiveness...

  1. Gender Inequality and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Spielmann, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rat...

  2. Workshop I: Gender Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Eden; Kurup, Anitha; Meza-Montes, Lilia; Shastri, Prajval; Ghose, Shohini

    2015-12-01

    Participants in the Gender Studies workshop of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics discussed the gender question in science practice from a policy perspective, informed by investigations from the social science disciplines. The workshop's three sessions—"Equity and Education: Examining Gender Stigma in Science," "A Comparative Study of Women Scientists and Engineers: Experiences in India and the US," and "Toward Gender Equity Through Policy: Characterizing the Social Impact of Interventions—are summarized, and the resulting recommendations presented.

  3. Delusions of Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Overgaard, Anne Cecilie; Nielsen, Simone Barnekow; Joensen, Saskia van Dam; Arabi, Sara Albu

    2015-01-01

    This project strives to examine how gender is established in children. Throughout the project, we have taken into consideration what roles society and biological determinism play in the establishment of gender. Furthermore, the project examines how gender performativity and societal influence can help us get a better picture of the gender establishment. The paper is written as a philosophical discussion with a point of departure in experimental psychologist Cordelia Fine’s book ‘Delusions of ...

  4. The Gender Pay Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Manning

    2006-01-01

    Empirical research on gender pay gaps has traditionally focused on the role of gender-specific factors, particularly gender differences in qualifications and differences in the treatment of otherwise equally qualified male and female workers (i.e., labor market discrimination). This paper explores the determinants of the gender pay gap and argues for the importance of an additional factor, wage structure, the array of prices set for labor market skills and the rewards received for employment ...

  5. Strategies for gender-equitable HIV services in rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Gita; Peters, David H; Bollinger, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of HIV in rural India has the potential to heighten gender inequity in a context where women already suffer significant health disparities. Recent Indian health policies provide new opportunities to identify and implement gender-equitable rural HIV services. In this review, we adapt Mosley and Chen's conceptual framework of health to outline determinants for HIV health services utilization and outcomes. Examining the framework through a gender lens, we conduct a comprehensive literature review for gender-related gaps in HIV clinical services in rural India, focusing on patient access and outcomes, provider practices, and institutional partnerships. Contextualizing findings from rural India in the broader international literature, we describe potential strategies for gender-equitable HIV services in rural India, as responses to the following three questions: (1) What gender-specific patient needs should be addressed for gender-equitable HIV testing and care? (2) What do health care providers need to deliver HIV services with gender equity? (3) How should institutions enforce and sustain gender-equitable HIV services? Data at this early stage indicate substantial gender-related differences in HIV services in rural India, reflecting prevailing gender norms. Strategies including gender-specific HIV testing and care services would directly address current gender-specific patient needs. Rural care providers urgently need training in gender sensitivity and HIV-related communication and clinical skills. To enforce and sustain gender equity, multi-sectoral institutions must establish gender-equitable medical workplaces, interdisciplinary HIV services partnerships, and oversight methods, including analysis of gender-disaggregated data. A gender-equitable approach to rural India's rapidly evolving HIV services programmes could serve as a foundation for gender equity in the overall health care system. PMID:19244284

  6. Stresses and Disability in Depression across Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmishtha S. Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression, though generally episodic, results in lasting disability, distress, and burden. Rising prevalence of depression and suicide in the context of epidemiological transition demands more attention to social dimensions like gender related stresses, dysfunction, and their role in outcome of depression. Cross-sectional and follow-up assessment of men and women with depression at a psychiatric tertiary centre was undertaken to compare their illness characteristics including suicidal ideation, stresses, and functioning on GAF, SOFAS, and GARF scales (N=107. We reassessed the patients on HDRS-17 after 6 weeks of treatment. Paired t-test and chi-square test of significance were used to compare the two groups, both before and after treatment. Interpersonal and marital stresses were reported more commonly by women (P<0.001 and financial stresses by men (P<0.001 though relational functioning was equally impaired in both. Women had suffered stresses for significantly longer duration (P=0.0038. Men had more impairment in social and occupational functioning compared to females (P=0.0062. History of suicide attempts was significantly associated with more severe depression and lower levels of functioning in case of females with untreated depression. Significant cross-gender differences in stresses, their duration, and types of dysfunction mandate focusing on these aspects over and above the criterion-based diagnosis.

  7. Nationalism, Gender and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Stoltz, Pauline

    Feminist scholars have pointed out that constructions of gender and gender equality are embedded in national narratives and politics of belonging (Yuval-Davis 2011; Siim & Mokre 2013). This paper aims to explore gendered approaches to nationalism and to discuss how nationalism in Scandinavia is a...

  8. Peculiarities of Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Garduno, Sylvia Aide Figueroa; Kovacova, Nikola; Arjona, Ruben Campos

    2017-01-01

    This project challenges the essentialist notions of gender in fantasy genre. The trilogy of Miss Peregrine’s Peculiar Children will shed light on the shifting patterns of gender performativity in fantasy. To drive our analysis, we will resort to Judith Butler’s theory of gender performativity, Joseph Campbell’s monomyth and William Indick’s study of fantasy and myth.

  9. Gender and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…

  10. Gender and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  11. Decomposing the gender wage gap with sample selection adjustment: evidence from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Badel; Ximena Peña

    2010-01-01

    Despite the remarkable improvement of female labor market characteristics, a sizeable gender wage gap exists in Colombia. We employ quantile regression techniques to examine the degree to which current small differences in the distribution of observable characteristics can explain the gender gap. We find that the gap is largely explained by gender differences in the rewards to labor market characteristics and not by differences in the distribution of characteristics. We claim that Colombian w...

  12. Gender Issues in Health Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Prabhakarrao Doke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gender wise analysis of data brings out biological, behavioural and social variables which indicate inequality in the health parameters in male and female sex. There is discrimination against women. Right to birth is denied by sex selective elimination, right to survival is denied by the neglect of girl child resulting in declining trend of child sex ratio which has reached an alarming low level of 914 in 2011 in spite of the fact that the female sex is biologically stronger. The mortality and morbidity indicators are unfavourable to the females. Maternal mortality in developing countries including India is unacceptably high. There is a failure of achievement of Millennium Development Goals in relation to maternal mortality and gender equality and empowerment of women. Crime against women is increasing. Violence is domestic or at workplace or occurring in public places. Social factors like male dominance and subordinate status of women make them vulnerable to unfair treatment, discrimination, denial of basic human rights to survival, education, health, inheritance, etc. The preventive measures in the form of education of masses for effective change in behaviour against gender discrimination, provision of facilities for achieving gender equality, and legislative measures for controlling violence against women at domestic and public level need intensification to achieve social justice of gender equality.

  13. Hydrogeological challenges through gender approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Maria Rosaria; Saltari, Davide; Di Giacomo, Tullia Valeria

    2017-04-01

    Women and Men play a different role in the society, tied from the differences (physical, biological, somatic, etc…) typical of each one. In the last decades, more gender approach has been introduced in a number of fields including the hydrogeological risk. Experiences, needs and potential of each one, women and men, covers both the risk reduction before the occurrence of extreme events (vulnerability assessment and prediction of the expected risk), then in the next emergency and intervention in follow-up actions to the overcoming of the event for the return to everyday life. The response of the extreme hydrological events are also subordinated from gender participation and it is closely related from other aspects, as natural disasters (flood events), gender inequalities and urban floodings. These aspects are also scheduled by the different approaches: a woman focuses different primary and social aspects than a man. How women can help organizations offering new 'policies' and government is the main aspect to be considered and how a gender approach can mitigate disasters to hydrological risk. It depends on some factors: gender inequalities (gender perception and sensibility), importance of natural disasters and urban floodings. Gender inequalities can match both in the natural disasters and urban floodings in a relevant way. ICT solutions can also give a helpful framework to accelerate and focus the quicker condition to get the better approach and solution. Gender has a particular significant, explanatory variable in disaster research. Many studies, show how women have higher mortality and morbidity rates than men during natural disasters, especially in lower income countries. In the aftermath disasters, at the same time, specific responsibilities on women are imposed from the gendered division of labour. Furthermore gender differences are sometimes attributed to traditional women's roles, discrimination, lower physical strength, nutritional deficiencies, etc. as

  14. Diversity begets diversity: A global perspective on gender equality in scientific society leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Dominique A; Burdfield-Steel, Emily; Potvin, Jacqueline M; Heap, Stephen M

    2018-01-01

    Research shows that gender inequality is still a major issue in academic science, yet academic societies may serve as underappreciated and effective avenues for promoting female leadership. That is, society membership is often self-selective, and board positions are elected (with a high turnover compared to institutions)-these characteristics, among others, may thus create an environment conducive to gender equality. We therefore investigate this potential using an information-theoretic approach to quantify gender equality (male:female ratios) in zoology society boards around the world. We compare alternative models to analyze how society characteristics might predict or correlate with the proportion of female leaders, and find that a cultural model, including society age, size of board and whether or not a society had an outward commitment or statement of equality, was the most informative predictor for the gender ratio of society boards and leadership positions. This model was more informative than alternatives that considered, for instance, geographic location, discipline of study or taxonomic focus. While women were more highly represented in society leadership than in institutional academic leadership, this representation was still far short of equal (~30%): we thus also provide a checklist and recommendations for societies to contribute to global gender equality in science.

  15. Influences of gender identity on children's maltreatment of gender-nonconforming peers: a person × target analysis of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauletti, Rachel E; Cooper, Patrick J; Perry, David G

    2014-05-01

    We investigated whether gender identity influences preadolescents' tendency to single out gender-atypical peers for abuse. Data were gathered from 195 boys and girls (M age = 10.1 years) in the fall and spring of a school year. Children self-reported multiple dimensions of gender identity (intergroup bias, felt pressure for gender differentiation, felt gender typicality, gender contentedness); peers assessed each other's social behavior (gender nonconformity, aggression toward each classmate). Using multilevel modeling, we examined how children's attacks on gender-nonconforming peers (relative to their attacks on other peers) changed over the school year depending on their gender identity. There was modest support for the hypothesis that overconfident, arrogant gender identity promotes abuse of gender-atypical peers but considerable support for the hypothesis that insecure, self-questioning gender identity fosters this tendency. Implications for issues central to contemporary personality theory (e.g., Person × Situation interaction) are discussed. New and somewhat surprising information about the cognitive and behavioral characteristics of gender-nonconforming preadolescents is provided.

  16. Men and women are from Earth: examining the latent structure of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carothers, Bobbi J; Reis, Harry T

    2013-02-01

    Taxometric methods enable determination of whether the latent structure of a construct is dimensional or taxonic (nonarbitrary categories). Although sex as a biological category is taxonic, psychological gender differences have not been examined in this way. The taxometric methods of mean above minus below a cut, maximum eigenvalue, and latent mode were used to investigate whether gender is taxonic or dimensional. Behavioral measures of stereotyped hobbies and physiological characteristics (physical strength, anthropometric measurements) were examined for validation purposes, and were taxonic by sex. Psychological indicators included sexuality and mating (sexual attitudes and behaviors, mate selectivity, sociosexual orientation), interpersonal orientation (empathy, relational-interdependent self-construal), gender-related dispositions (masculinity, femininity, care orientation, unmitigated communion, fear of success, science inclination, Big Five personality), and intimacy (intimacy prototypes and stages, social provisions, intimacy with best friend). Constructs were with few exceptions dimensional, speaking to Spence's (1993) gender identity theory. Average differences between men and women are not under dispute, but the dimensionality of gender indicates that these differences are inappropriate for diagnosing gender-typical psychological variables on the basis of sex. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. [Intersection between gender and socioeconomic status in medical sciences career choice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Hernández, Georgina; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Compeán-Dardón, Sandra; Verde-Flota, Elizabeth; Delgado-Sáncnchez, Guadalupe; Tamez-González, Silivia

    2006-01-01

    Analyze the relationship between gender identity and socioeconomic level associated with career choice among undergraduate students selecting the area of health sciences. Our sample was comprised of first year medical nutrition, dentistry and nursing students (n=637) admitted to the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Xochimilco. A self administered questionnaire was used. The dependent variable was career choice. Independent variables included socioeconomic status, gender norms in student's homes, and gender stereotype internalization. More female nursing students came from low socioeconomic strata, while medical students had a higher socioeconomic status. Among males, more nursing and medical students belonged to a higher socioeconomicstrata. Nutrition and dentistry students belonged to a medium strata. In comparison with males from high socioeconomic strata more male participants reported that household chores were divided among men and women. For women, as the socioeconomic level increased, the participation of men and women also increased. In the indicators of internalization of gender stereotypes, nursing students had the highest rates in the submission scale, but the lowest for masculinity and machismo. As the socioeconomic strata increased, the characteristics of masculinity and machismo also increased. The present results seem to indicate that among women of low socioeconomic strata more traditional gender stereotypes prevail which lead them to seek career choices considered femenine. Among men, there is a clear relationship between career choice, socioeconomic level and internalization of gender stereotypes.

  18. Deconstructing race and gender differences in adolescent obesity: Oaxaca-blinder decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Robinson, Whitney R; Bleich, Sara N; Wang, Y Claire

    2016-03-01

    To analyze sources of racial and gender disparities in adolescent obesity prevalence in the United States using Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. Data were obtained from the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a 2010 nationally representative study of 9th-12th grade students. Obesity status was determined from objective height and weight data; weight-related behaviors and school, home, and environmental data were collected via questionnaire. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition was used to independently analyze racial and gender obesity prevalence differences (PD), i.e., comparing Black girls to White girls, and Black girls to Black boys. Overall, measured characteristics accounted for 46.8% of the racial PD but only 11.9% of the gender PD. Racial PD was associated with Black girls having less fruit/vegetable access at home, obtaining lunch at school more often, and playing fewer sports than White girls. Gender PD was associated with differential associations between physical activity (PA) measures-including total activities in the past year and days of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in the past week-and obesity. School lunch and home food environmental variables accounted for racial disparities, but not gender disparities, in obesity prevalence. Gender differences in mechanisms between PA and obesity should be explored further. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  19. Gender Orders Unbound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    During the last thirty years, the modernisation of gender relations has been dynamic and comprehensive, shaped by the conflicting forces of globalisation as well as women's movements around the world. As the patterns of segregation and discrimination of the classical industrial gender order erode......, new complexities and contentions in gender relations emerge at various sites such as politics, work and families. The main aim of the book is to trace formal as well as informal gender contracts as they emerge in everyday life and also in new norms and regulations set by state and enterprises. Core...... issues are the chances and the barriers for equality and new forms of gender reciprocity and solidarity....

  20. An Overview of "Doing Gender" in Women's Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutright, Chelsea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a focus of practice-based studies and the phenomenon of gender as a practice, this paper explores how to examine the practice of gender within women’s organizations. The author looks at the impacts of gendered individuals within organizations, questions the contemporary literature on organizing as an inherently masculine space, and explores how gendered organizing impacts predominately female-based organizations in their interactions with male dominated organizations. It concludes that utilizing a practice-based approach to organizing which includes a gendered analysis of practice offers a compelling way to understand gender within NGOs and other organizations focused on women’s issues.

  1. Gender Stereotype Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior. PMID:25517903

  2. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  3. Face adaptation improves gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Shen, Jianhong; Chen, Juan; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to a visual pattern can alter the sensitivities of neuronal populations encoding the pattern. However, the functional roles of adaptation, especially in high-level vision, are still equivocal. In the present study, we performed three experiments to investigate if face gender adaptation could affect gender discrimination. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that adapting to a male/female face could selectively enhance discrimination for male/female faces. Experiment 3 showed that the discrimination enhancement induced by face adaptation could transfer across a substantial change in three-dimensional face viewpoint. These results provide further evidence suggesting that, similar to low-level vision, adaptation in high-level vision could calibrate the visual system to current inputs of complex shapes (i.e. face) and improve discrimination at the adapted characteristic. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiological evaluation of the posterior pelvic ring in paediatric patients: Results of a retrospective study developing age- and gender-related non-osseous baseline characteristics in paediatric pelvic computed tomography - References for suspected sacroiliac joint injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Jörg; Neubauer, Jakob; Saueressig, Ulrich; Südkamp, Norbert Paul; Reising, Kilian

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of paediatric pelvic injury is low, yet they are often indicative of accompanying injuries, and an instable pelvis at presentation is related to long-term poor outcome. Judging diastasis of the sacroiliac joint in paediatric pelvic computed tomography is challenging, as information on their normal appearance is scarce. We therefore sought to generate age- and gender-related standard width measurements of the sacroiliac joint in children for comparison. A total of 427 pelvic computed tomography scans in paediatric patients (sacroiliac joint width bilaterally in axial and coronal planes. We illustrate age- and gender-related measurements of the sacroiliac joint width as a designated continuous 3rd, 15th, 50th, 85th and 97th centile graph, respectively. Means and standard deviations in the joint width are reported for four age groups. There are distinct changes in the sacroiliac joint's appearance during growth. In general, male children exhibit broader sacroiliac joints than females at the same age, although this difference is significant only in the 11 to 15-year-old age group. The sacroiliac joint width in children as measured in coronal and axial CT scans differs in association with age and gender. When the sacroiliac joint width is broader than the 97th centile published in our study, we strongly encourage considering a sacroiliac joint injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of gender on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat and fat quality of calves of Avileña-Negra Ibérica breed fattened under free-range conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argimiro Daza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of gender (entire males vs females on growth performance, carcass traits and meat and fat quality of Avileña-Negra Ibérica calves, fattened under free range conditions and supplemented with concentrate, were investigated. The average daily gain, leg width and thorax depth were higher in males than in females. Carcass conformation score, fore-quarter weight and percentage in carcass were higher in males than in females, whereas dressing percentege, loins and flank percentages in carcass and carcass fatness degree were higher in females than in males. Instrumental colour variables of muscle were not affected by gender at days 1, 3, 7 and 9 of refrigerated storage. In muscle, the L*, a*, b*, chroma, oxymyoglobine and oxymyoglobine/metmyoglobine ratio values observed 9 days after slaughter were lower than those at days 1 and 3 after slaughter. Intramuscular fat percentage of Longissimus thoracis muscle was higher in females than in males. Gender had no effect on α-tocopherol content in intramuscular fat (IMF from Longissimus thoracis muscle. The omental and IMF of females had lower C18:2 n-6, Σ n-6 and Σ PUFA proportions than those from the males. In IMF C16:1, C18:1 n-9 and Σ MUFA proportions were greater in females than in males. The IMF percentage in Longissimus thoracis affected significantly to its fatty acid composition.

  6. The Gender Wage Gap: Does a Gender Gap in Reservation Wages Play a Part?

    OpenAIRE

    Caliendo, Marco; Lee, Wang-Sheng; Mahlstedt, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on re-examining the gender wage gap and the potential role that reservation wages play. Based on two waves of rich data from the IZA Evaluation Dataset Survey we examine the importance of gender differences in reservation wages to explain the gender gap in realized wages for a sample of newly unemployed individuals actively searching for a full-time job in Germany. The dataset includes measures for education, socio-demographics, labor market history, psychological factors a...

  7. Gender Culture and Gender Gap in Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Campa; Alessandra Casarico; Paola Profeta

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes to what extent gender culture affects gender gap in employment. Drawing on Italian data, we measure culture by building two indices: one based on individuals' attitudes, as done in the existing literature; one based on firms' attitudes. Firms' beliefs, which express their set of ideas, values and norms, though generally neglected, are as important as individuals' attitudes to explain female labor market outcomes. Using an instrumental variable analysis, we show that our ...

  8. Gender differences in nurse practitioner salaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jessica; El-Banna, Majeda M; Briggs, Linda A; Park, Jeongyoung

    2017-11-01

    While male nurses have been shown to earn considerably more than female nurses, there is less evidence on gender disparities in salary among nurse practitioners (NPs). This study examines whether the gender gap in NP salaries persists after controlling for differences in work setting and demographic factors. We analyzed the relationship between gender and salary (2011 pretax earnings) among 6591 NPs working as NPs at least 35 h per week, using the 2012 National Sample Survey of Nurse Practitioners. We first conducted bivariate regression analyses examining the relationship between gender and earnings, and then developed a multivariate model that controlled for individual differences in demographic and work characteristics. Male NPs earned $12,859 more than female NPs, after adjusting for individual differences in demographics and work characteristics. The gender gap was $7405 for recent NP graduates, and grew over time. Male NPs earned significantly more than female NPs across all clinical specialty areas. The gender disparities in NP salaries documented here regardless of professional seniority or clinical area should spark healthcare organizations to conduct pay equity assessments of their employees' salaries to identify and ameliorate pay inequality. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  9. Some aspects of gender inequality in selected African literary texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Kwatsha

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on gender inequalities in selected African literary texts. I explore the way in which some African writers view gender inequalities and stereotypes in their characters. We will also be able to see who is involved and affected by these gender inequalities and how. Gender theory will be used as a framework. The aspects of gender that are discussed, include gender stereotypes, gender roles, gender identity, the superiority of men, inequality in polygamous marriages, sex roles, the sexual division of labour and arranged marriage. This study will also include the views of writers from other part of Africa. These views have a lot in common but sometimes they vary because of the influence and different ideologies of the society concerned.

  10. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Background Early adolescence (ages 10–14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents’ personal gender attitudes. Objectives To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. Methods A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984–2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Results Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents’ construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. Conclusions The findings from this

  11. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kågesten, Anna; Gibbs, Susannah; Blum, Robert Wm; Moreau, Caroline; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Herbert, Ann; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Early adolescence (ages 10-14) is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes. To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally. A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes). Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods) spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age). Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers) are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media) is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents. The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different cultural

  12. Understanding Factors that Shape Gender Attitudes in Early Adolescence Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kågesten

    Full Text Available Early adolescence (ages 10-14 is a period of increased expectations for boys and girls to adhere to socially constructed and often stereotypical norms that perpetuate gender inequalities. The endorsement of such gender norms is closely linked to poor adolescent sexual and reproductive and other health-related outcomes yet little is known about the factors that influence young adolescents' personal gender attitudes.To explore factors that shape gender attitudes in early adolescence across different cultural settings globally.A mixed-methods systematic review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature in 12 databases from 1984-2014. Four reviewers screened the titles and abstracts of articles and reviewed full text articles in duplicate. Data extraction and quality assessments were conducted using standardized templates by study design. Thematic analysis was used to synthesize quantitative and qualitative data organized by the social-ecological framework (individual, interpersonal and community/societal-level factors influencing gender attitudes.Eighty-two studies (46 quantitative, 31 qualitative, 5 mixed-methods spanning 29 countries were included. Ninety percent of studies were from North America or Western Europe. The review findings indicate that young adolescents, across cultural settings, commonly express stereotypical or inequitable gender attitudes, and such attitudes appear to vary by individual sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity and immigration, social class, and age. Findings highlight that interpersonal influences (family and peers are central influences on young adolescents' construction of gender attitudes, and these gender socialization processes differ for boys and girls. The role of community factors (e.g. media is less clear though there is some evidence that schools may reinforce stereotypical gender attitudes among young adolescents.The findings from this review suggest that young adolescents in different

  13. Taxes and gender equity: Codes, behaviours, and (un)intended ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... English · Français ... Might tax policies be used to promote gender equity and transform existing gendered roles in society? ... These implicit biases operate through the structure of work-related deductions and allowances ... Country case studies are included in “Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative ...

  14. 40 CFR 260.3 - Use of number and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of number and gender. 260.3... (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL General § 260.3 Use of number and gender. As used in parts 260 through 265 and 268 of this chapter: (a) Words in the masculine gender also include the...

  15. 40 CFR 211.103 - Number and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Number and gender. 211.103 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.103 Number and gender. In this part, words in the singular will be understood to include the plural, and words in the masculine gender will be understood to...

  16. 40 CFR 307.12 - Use of number and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of number and gender. 307.12... LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA) CLAIMS PROCEDURES General § 307.12 Use of number and gender. As used in this part, words in the singular also include the plural and vice versa, and words in the masculine gender also...

  17. Gendered Harassment in Secondary Schools: Understanding Teachers' (Non) Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Elizabeth J.

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of teachers' perceptions of and responses to gendered harassment in Canadian secondary schools based on in-depth interviews with six teachers in one urban school district. Gendered harassment includes any behaviour that polices and reinforces traditional heterosexual gender norms such as (hetero)sexual harassment,…

  18. Buzzwords at Play: Gender, Education, and Political Participation in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulds, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The discourse around development is full of buzzwords, including gender and a myriad of variants that underscore the importance of development policies addressing gender imbalances. Despite their prevalence in development policy and research, terminology related to gender is often used broadly, inappropriately, and without nuance. For…

  19. The Role of Gender Consciousness in Challenging Patriarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierema, Laura L.

    2003-01-01

    In an action research project, eight women explored their development of gender consciousness, finding that a hidden curriculum taught subordination to the patriarchal system. Connected learning fostered gender consciousness and led to connected action. Action included teaching others about gender issues, making the invisible visible, and adopting…

  20. Gender and Natural Resource Management: Livelihoods, Mobility ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-05-31

    May 31, 2012 ... Melissa Leach, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, UK. ... resource management that want to include a gender perspective. ... New initiative will match climate knowledge to developing country needs.

  1. Gender Inequality and Trade Liberalization: A Case Study of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Naeem; Hyder, Kalim

    2006-01-01

    The main focus of this study is to explore the impact of trade liberalization on gender inequalities in Pakistan. The overall gender inequality based on three dimensions, including labour market, education and health facilities are analyzed in this paper using data from 1973 to 2005. Exports and imports to GDP ratio, per capita GDP, and number of girls’ school to number of boys’ school ratio are identified as important determinants of overall gender inequality in Pakistan and gender inequalit...

  2. I'll Have What She's Having: The Impact of Model Characteristics on Children's Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Brandy N.; Gelman, Susan A.; Kaciroti, Niko; Russell, Joshua W.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates children's use of social categories in their food selection. Across three studies, we presented preschoolers with sets of photographs that contrasted food-eating models with different characteristics, including model gender, race (Black, White), age (child or adult), and/or expression (acceptance or rejection of the…

  3. Gender differences in economic support and well-being of older Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Reidy, Erin; Knodel, John

    2004-09-01

    This report provides a comprehensive analysis of gender differences in economic support and well-being in eight countries in Southern and Eastern Asia (Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, and Taiwan). We examine multiple economic indicators, including sources of income, receipt of financial and material support, income levels, ownership of assets, and subjective well-being. Results show substantial variation in gender differences across indicators and provide an important qualification to widely held views concerning the globally disadvantaged position of older women. Whereas men tend to report higher levels of income than women, there is generally little gender difference in housing characteristics, asset ownership, or reports of subjective economic well-being. Unmarried women are economically advantaged compared to unmarried men in some respects, in part because they are more likely to be embedded in multigenerational households and receive both direct and indirect forms of support from family members.

  4. Bridging the Gender Divide: Facilitating the Educational Path for Men in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Eric A; Rowsey, Pamela Johnson; Gray, Tamryn Fowler; Kneipp, Shawn M; Giscombe, Cheryl Woods; Foster, Beverly B; Alexander, G Rumay; Kowlowitz, Vicki

    2017-05-01

    Although the number of men entering the nursing profession over the past century has increased incrementally, the proportion of men remains low in contrast to the U.S. On matriculation into nursing school, men face stereotypes about the nursing profession and the characteristics of the men who enter it. Men may also face a number of gender-based barriers, including lack of history about men in nursing, lack of role models, role strain, gender discrimination, and isolation. This article describes each of these barriers and provides strategies to improve male students' learning experience. The efforts of one nursing school to address many of these barriers are also described. Through acknowledging gender barriers and taking intentional steps to address them with prenursing and nursing students, schools of nursing may create a more inclusive environment and enhance the profession's diversity. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(5):295-299.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Is gender policy related to the gender gap in external cause and circulatory disease mortality? A mixed effects model of 22 OECD countries 1973–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backhans Mona

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender differences in mortality vary widely between countries and over time, but few studies have examined predictors of these variations, apart from smoking. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between gender policy and the gender gap in cause-specific mortality, adjusted for economic factors and health behaviours. Methods 22 OECD countries were followed 1973–2008 and the outcomes were gender gaps in external cause and circulatory disease mortality. A previously found country cluster solution was used, which includes indicators on taxes, parental leave, pensions, social insurances and social services in kind. Male breadwinner countries were made reference group and compared to earner-carer, compensatory breadwinner, and universal citizen countries. Specific policies were also analysed. Mixed effect models were used, where years were the level 1-units, and countries were the level 2-units. Results Both the earner-carer cluster (ns after adjustment for GDP and policies characteristic of that cluster are associated with smaller gender differences in external causes, particularly due to an association with increased female mortality. Cluster differences in the gender gap in circulatory disease mortality are the result of a larger relative decrease of male mortality in the compensatory breadwinner cluster and the earner-carer cluster. Policies characteristic of those clusters were however generally related to increased mortality. Conclusion Results for external cause mortality are in concordance with the hypothesis that women become more exposed to risks of accident and violence when they are economically more active. For circulatory disease mortality, results differ depending on approach – cluster or indicator. Whether cluster differences not explained by specific policies reflect other welfare policies or unrelated societal trends is an open question. Recommendations for further studies are made.

  6. COST network genderSTE: Networking Gender Equality in Research and Innovation in Europe and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Sánchez de Madariaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender is one of five priorities of the European Research Area, as stated in the Communication adopted in July 2012 entitled A Reinforced European Research Area Partnership for Excellence and Growth (EC 2012c. Following this Communication, the EC has fully integrated gender dimensions in its proposal for a regulation on the new research framework program Horizon 2020¸ which includes in article 15 a provision for gender mainstreaming (EC 2011b. One final upcoming policy instrument announced by the EC is the Recommendation on Gender, Science and Innovation that will address member states and be adopted in the next months. Against this European policy background , the international COST network genderSTE (Gender, Science, Technology and Environment aims at enhancing a better integration of gender dimensions in science and technology at three main levels: i promoting women’s careers in science and technology through structural change of institutions (as recommended by EC by disseminating existing research and practice; ii promoting a better integration of gender in the content of science, research and technology, by dissemination existing research on the topic, ie the UE-US Gendered Innovations Project; iii identifying gender dimensions relevant to environment-related Horizon2020 Grand Challenges and other urban EC initiatives.  

  7. An elusive goal? Gender equity and gender equality in health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, S

    2012-04-01

    Variations in the health of men and women are well known: men have poorer life expectancy than women in virtually every country, and there are differences between women and men in patterns of morbidity across the life course. These variations reflect both biology and gender, and health systems play a part through the services they offer. In recent years a number of national governments and international bodies have paid increasing attention to gender inequalities, and gender mainstreaming has been adopted by as a key policy objective at various levels of governance. While gender mainstreaming has resulted in some successes, analysis of the depth of change suggests a less optimistic view, reflecting the persistence of barriers to gender mainstreaming in health, which include a lack of resources, uncertainty over the goals of gender mainstreaming, and notional rather than genuine adoption of gender mainstreaming principles. Underlying these barriers however, is the use of bureaucratic and systems-based approaches to gender mainstreaming. The failure to challenge underlying gender relations of power allows gender strategies to become technocratic exercises which achieve results in terms of the boxes ticked, but not in relation to what matters: the health and health opportunities of both women and men. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Macro-level gender equality and alcohol consumption: a multi-level analysis across U.S. States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah C M

    2012-07-01

    Higher levels of women's alcohol consumption have long been attributed to increases in gender equality. However, only limited research examines the relationship between gender equality and alcohol consumption. This study examined associations between five measures of state-level gender equality and five alcohol consumption measures in the United States. Survey data regarding men's and women's alcohol consumption from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were linked to state-level indicators of gender equality. Gender equality indicators included state-level women's socioeconomic status, gender equality in socioeconomic status, reproductive rights, policies relating to violence against women, and women's political participation. Alcohol consumption measures included past 30-day drinker status, drinking frequency, binge drinking, volume, and risky drinking. Other than drinker status, consumption is measured for drinkers only. Multi-level linear and logistic regression models adjusted for individual demographics as well as state-level income inequality, median income, and % Evangelical Protestant/Mormon. All gender equality indicators were positively associated with both women's and men's drinker status in models adjusting only for individual-level covariates; associations were not significant in models adjusting for other state-level characteristics. All other associations between gender equality and alcohol consumption were either negative or non-significant for both women and men in models adjusting for other state-level factors. Findings do not support the hypothesis that higher levels of gender equality are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption by women or by men. In fact, most significant findings suggest that higher levels of equality are associated with less alcohol consumption overall. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender Roles and Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A. Eisenchlas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One consequence of the advent of cyber communication is that increasing numbers of people go online to ask for, obtain, and presumably act upon advice dispensed by unknown peers. Just as advice seekers may not have access to information about the identities, ideologies, and other personal characteristics of advice givers, advice givers are equally ignorant about their interlocutors except for the bits of demographic information that the latter may offer freely. In the present study, that information concerns sex. As the sex of the advice seeker may be the only, or the predominant, contextual variable at hand, it is expected that that identifier will guide advice givers in formulating their advice. The aim of this project is to investigate whether and how the sex of advice givers and receivers affects the type of advice, through the empirical analysis of a corpus of web-based Spanish language forums on personal relationship difficulties. The data revealed that, in the absence of individuating information beyond that implicit in the advice request, internalized gender expectations along the lines of agency and communality are the sources from which advice givers draw to guide their counsel. This is despite the trend in discursive practices used in formulating advice, suggesting greater language convergence across sexes.

  10. Factors Relating to Managerial Stereotypes: The Role of Gender of the Employee and the Manager and Management Gender Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Stoker, Janka I.; Van der Velde, Mandy; Lammers, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Several studies have shown that the traditional stereotype of a ?good? manager being masculine and male still exists. The recent changes in the proportion of women and female managers in organizations could affect these two managerial stereotypes, leading to a stronger preference for feminine characteristics and female leaders. This study examines if the gender of an employee, the gender of the manager, and the management gender ratio in an organization are related to employees? manag...

  11. Gender roles revised?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to deepen the understanding of how mobile phone usage is related to gender in general and the negotiation of gender roles in particular. It will focus on how women in Kenya appropriate mobile phones and how the appropriation is influenced by prevailing gender norms...... but also in turn is influencing gender relations. Mobile phone use is strongly intertwined with everyday life and thus this chapter will approach mobile phone use, as practices or a site where gender roles are potentially negotiated, challenged but also reinforced. Geographically the study that constituted...... the basis for this chapter is set in Kenya, where family relations and gender roles is presently undergoing changes. The data was gathered in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya, an area, which is predominantly rural, but also home to the city Eldoret and its surrounding peri-urban areas. The situation for women...

  12. [Concept of gender, mainstreaming gender and equal opportunities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesó Curto, M Pilar

    2010-05-01

    The concept of gender is related to the concepts of socially constructed masculinity and femininity Gender Studies that take into account this concept is useful for all disciplines of both health and social, arise in the eighteenth century and incorporated in Spain in the 80s of the twentieth century Agrarian societies with patriarchy changed the social status of women making them dependent. The industrial revolution brought wage employment for women that did not result in positive consequences for overall health or your mental health. The gender mainstreaming boost since 1985 trying to build a future strategy for the advancement of women, the term for the first time at the Third UN World Conference on Women--Nairobi, 1985--where the government's commitment to acquire implementation of the forward-looking strategies for the advancement of women, which include all the organizations under the UN. Will be in Beijing 1995--Fourth World Conference on Women United Nations--where it was found that equality for women was still limited and not fully protected against discrimination. Policies for gender equality since the United Nations, European Union and Spain have been happening since 1975. Spain has been important in the creation of the Women's Institute in 1983 and the four equal opportunity plans that have been happening since 1988 (1988-1990, 1993-1995, 1997-2000, 2003-2006).

  13. Women leaders in academia, gender and stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Carolina Moncayo Orjuela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the leadership characteristics typical of women in managerial positions in higher education institutions, starting from a particular literary approach and found in research regarding this topic. It is based on the subjective constructions of social duality between the masculine and feminine genders and attributes in the social relations of power. Also, within the conceptual framework examines leadership as a social construction and, therefore, their dependence on the various social characterizations. To fulfill the goal four themes were set. They allow the categorization of the literature review, namely: leadership and development, gender and stereotypes, leadership and gender, and to end, women's leadership in education institutions. Finally, we present the results of the literature research, where the transactional transformational, participative and authoritarian leadership styles are clearly evident, from which the transformational, characteristic of women, is the must in power and leadership positions in higher education institutions.

  14. VIEWS ON SUCCESS IN LIFE BASED GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Magdalena IORGA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the characteristics of success in life we must consider the social construction of genders (male and female manifested in the interaction between the sexes. Social interpretation of biological sex leads to the identification of a set of behaviors particular to each sex, both in society and subsequently in private life as well as in the public eye. The research aims to identify the opinions and beliefs on the matter of students from the Veterinary Medicine University of Bucharest, their views on success in life, in the work place, in their study environment and in society as a whole, the characteristics of each gender, equality between women and men. The research findings reveal a specific social pattern determined by gender and residential environment.

  15. Gender Inequality since 1820

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, Sarah; Dilli, Selin; Rijpma, Auke

    2014-01-01

    Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and marriage age (to cover socioeconomic status); and in parliamentary seats and suffrage (to cover political rights). A composite indicator shows strong progress in reducing gender inequality in the pa...

  16. Pemberian Stereotype Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Saguni, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are broad categories which reflect the impressions and beliefs about appropriate behavior for women and men. Stereotypical masculine or feminine in the students could produce significant consequences. Gender experts stated that the existence of gender differences in mathematics and natural science are caused by the experience possessed by boys and girls. According to the cognitive view of the interaction between children in the social environment is key to the development o...

  17. Gender, Poverty and Demography

    OpenAIRE

    Buvinic, Mayra; Gupta, Monica Da; Casabonne, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written on gender inequality and how it affects fertility and mortality outcomes as well as economic outcomes. What is not well understood is the role of gender inequality, embedded in the behavior of the family, the market, and society, in mediating the impact of demographic processes on economic outcomes. This article reviews the empirical evidence on the possible economic impacts of gender inequalities that work by exacerbating demographic stresses associated with different d...

  18. Gender and Economic Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Harcourt, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    The following article draws on the discussion of the iuéd Colloquium on Gender and Economic Globalization. The Colloquium aimed to draw out the impact of economic globalization on gender relations, with a particular focus on poor women in developing countries. Globalization – for or against women? In order to look at the impact of economic globalization on gender relations, and more particularly on poor women’s lives, we are confronted with a complex set of interlinked dynamics. Inequitable g...

  19. Gender in crop agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Agriculture Organization; The World Bank; IFAD

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This is a module in the "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook" published by the World Bank, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Fund for Agricultural Development. This module examines the role of gender in crop agriculture as an essential component of development and poverty reduction. Gender is an integral aspect of crop agriculture because women's roles in crop production and household subsistence, as well as their knowledge of complex production syst...

  20. Gender a management

    OpenAIRE

    Dragounová, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on gender issues in management. The emphasis is puting on role of gender in management, on differences in harmonization of the working and family life for men and women and with respekt to difficult situations in career building for women, especially in matters of competence for the performance of this office. The thesis further focuses on the issues of equal opportunities for men and women to build their own career, gender inequalities and problems in relationships of fam...

  1. Transcending Frozen Gender Stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Troels Bo Haarh; Svanborg, Mikkel; Kühn, Lena; Lomholm Chemnitz, Marie; Barba, Clara; Howard Kitchen, Nikolaj

    2013-01-01

    This project is centered around examining the root of gender stereotyping and discrimination. It entails an account for the heteronormative matrix as an inhibiting norm that was coined by Judith Butler. This ground-giving model will be explored and then applied to Simon Baron-Cohen who participates in the project as a representation of the heteronormative matrix. Cordelia Fine allows us to understand how the matrix influences our way of thinking and performing gender. Gender neutrality is the...

  2. Gender equality and meritocracy

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Stina

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines how gender equality measures and discourses are reconciled with notions of merit in academia. Gender equality is often defined as equal rights for women and men and has become a widely accepted political goal and vision. Meritocratic principles build on the assumption that everyone, regardless of gender, class, race and sexuality, has the same opportunities to advance provided they are sufficiently hardworking and intelligent. Meritocratic principles thus build on the ass...

  3. Gender differences in leadership in the health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhizar, R; Cramer, C

    2000-03-01

    The leadership characteristics and behaviors of men and women differ. As increasing numbers of women enter positions of leadership, understanding of these differences can increase the quality and productiveness of relationships in the workplace. This article describes the evolution of women in leadership, gender differences in leadership style, and the way gender may affect behaviors in the workplace.

  4. Factors associated with gender equality among church-going young men in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusey, Hendrew; San Sebastian, Miguel; Christianson, Monica; Edin, Kerstin E

    2017-12-11

    While women and girls are made vulnerable by inequitable and violent versions of masculinities, there is increasing evidence that gender equality will not be achieved without partnering with men. The aim of this study was to assess gender-equitable norms and their determinants among church-going young men in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 289 church-going young men, aged 18-24 years, residing in three disadvantaged communes of Kinshasa. Variables included sociodemographic characteristics, attitudes towards gender equality and responses to issues related to the Gender-Equitable Men (GEM) scale. Logistic regression was applied to identify the associations between sociodemographic characteristics, attitudes and the GEM scale. The findings provide evidence of attitudes and beliefs that act as barriers to gender equality. For instance, the majority of church-going young men (83.74%) agreed that a man is the only decision maker in the home and about half (50.87%) of the respondents supported the statement "There are times a woman deserves to be beaten". Similarly, around half of the participants agreed with the idea of men's uncontrollable sex drive (50.87%) and men's toughness (50.17%). Close to half of the participants (44.29%) agreed that it is women's responsibility to prevent pregnancy. These attitudes co-existed with a few gender-equitable norms as 82.70% agreed on the importance of joint decisions concerning family planning. An association between education, certain places of residence, being single or separated, and supportive attitudes towards gender equality was found with higher scores for the GEM. Our study findings indicate that a high proportion of church-going young men do not endorse gender-equitable norms. Therefore, churches urgently need comprehensive gender equality and masculinity policies and programmes to influence young men's attitudes and behaviours. The promotion of gender equality in

  5. [Sexual orientation and partner-choice of transsexual women and men before gender-confirming interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerwenka, Susanne; Nieder, Timo Ole; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2012-06-01

    Diverse partner relationship constellations of gender dysphoric women and men with different sexual orientations are explored in a sample of 93 persons before gender-confirming interventions in persons with female gender identity and male body characteristics (MF) and persons with male gender identity and female body characteristics (FM). While in both gender groups the majority is single, relationship patterns show differences. Apart from working life, FM already live predominantly in the new, male gender role and have partners by whom they are desired as males. In contrast, only a small proportion of MF already conduct their private lives in the new, female gender role, and they often have relationships with partners sexually attracted to males and not to their female gender identity. The findings indicate a need for differing resources for gender dysphoric women and men in the process of a transsexual course of development. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Suicidality, Economic Shocks, and Egalitarian Gender Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2016-02-01

    Durkheim conceived of suicide as a product of social integration and regulation. Although the sociology of suicide has focused on the role of disintegration, to our knowledge, the interaction between integration and regulation has yet to be empirically evaluated. In this article we test whether more egalitarian gender norms, an important form of macro-regulation, protects men and women against suicidality during economic shocks. Using cross-national data covering 20 European Union countries from the years 1991 to 2011, including the recent economic crises in Europe, we first assessed the relation between unemployment and suicide. Then we evaluated potential effect modification using three measures of gender equality, the gender ratio in labour force participation, the gender pay gap, and women's representation in parliament using multiple measures. We found no evidence of a significant, direct link between greater gender equality and suicide rates in either men or women. However, a greater degree of gender equality helped protect against suicidality associated with economic shocks. At relatively high levels of gender equality in Europe, such as those seen in Sweden and Austria, the relationship between rising unemployment rates and suicide in men disappeared altogether. Our findings suggest that more egalitarian forms of gender regulation may help buffer the suicidal consequences of economic shocks, especially in men.

  7. Suicidality, Economic Shocks, and Egalitarian Gender Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Durkheim conceived of suicide as a product of social integration and regulation. Although the sociology of suicide has focused on the role of disintegration, to our knowledge, the interaction between integration and regulation has yet to be empirically evaluated. In this article we test whether more egalitarian gender norms, an important form of macro-regulation, protects men and women against suicidality during economic shocks. Using cross-national data covering 20 European Union countries from the years 1991 to 2011, including the recent economic crises in Europe, we first assessed the relation between unemployment and suicide. Then we evaluated potential effect modification using three measures of gender equality, the gender ratio in labour force participation, the gender pay gap, and women’s representation in parliament using multiple measures. We found no evidence of a significant, direct link between greater gender equality and suicide rates in either men or women. However, a greater degree of gender equality helped protect against suicidality associated with economic shocks. At relatively high levels of gender equality in Europe, such as those seen in Sweden and Austria, the relationship between rising unemployment rates and suicide in men disappeared altogether. Our findings suggest that more egalitarian forms of gender regulation may help buffer the suicidal consequences of economic shocks, especially in men. PMID:26877572

  8. From Gender Bias to Gender Awareness in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was "gender blind" by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly,…

  9. Toward a Redefinition of Sex and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Rhoda Kesler

    1979-01-01

    Present psychological terminology facilitates biologically determinist models of sex differences, making it less likely that environmental sources of such differences will be explored. The term "gender," rather than "sex," should be used for those characteristics socioculturally considered appropriate to males and females.…

  10. Gender and Regional Differences in Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Lingling; Zhou, Chunfang; Zhang, Song

    2016-01-01

    in Mainland China and 703 students in Taiwan. Based on data analysis, we find common characteristics, gender differences, and regional differences in the creativity of female postgraduate students. The female students in both regions are less confident in their abilities in scientific research and innovative...

  11. Are Teacher Beliefs Gender-Related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker - de Pauw, Emmy; van Wesel, F.; Verwijmeren, Thijs; Denessen, Eddie; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Teacher beliefs influence student behaviour and learning outcomes. Little is known about the role of specific teacher characteristics (e.g., gender and teaching domain) in the formation of these beliefs. In the current study, three versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) were used to assess

  12. Are teacher beliefs gender-related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker-Pauw, E. de; Wesel, F. van; Verwijmeren, T.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Krabbendam, L.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher beliefs influence student behaviour and learning outcomes. Little is known about the role of specific teacher characteristics (e.g., gender and teaching domain) in the formation of these beliefs. In the current study, three versions of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) were used to assess

  13. Gender differences in economic experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Ergun, Selim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the experimental economics literature on gender differences concerning four salient subjects: risk aversion, trust, deception and leadership. We review both experiments conducted in a laboratory and field experiments. We summarize very briefly the main characteristics of the experiments we review and point out the main results related to gender differences. The vast majority of the articles we have revised document gender differences in behavior; differences which could be explained by sex-role stereotypes which could be formed even in early stages of life and/or hormonal differences such as the female hormone oxytocin or estrogen.

    Este artículo revisa la literatura en el área de economía experimental sobre las diferencias de género en cuatro temas destacados: aversión al riesgo, confianza, engaño y liderazgo. Se revisan tanto experimentos realizados en laboratorios como experimentos de campo. Resumimos brevemente las principales características de los experimentos que consideramos y señalamos los principales resultados relacionados con las diferencias de género. La gran mayoría de los artículos que hemos revisado documentan diferencias de género en el comportamiento. Estas diferencias podrían explicarse por los estereotipos de roles sexuales que podrían formarse incluso en edades tempranas y / o diferencias hormonales como la hormona femenina oxitocina, o el estrógeno.

  14. Predictors and consequences of gender typicality: the mediating role of communality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Matthew D; Berenbaum, Sheri A

    2013-04-01

    Considerable work has shown the benefits for psychological health of being gender typed (i.e., perceiving oneself in ways that are consistent with one's sex). Nevertheless, little is known about the reasons for the link. In two studies of young adults (total N = 673), we studied (1) the ways in which gender typing is predicted from gender-related interests and personal qualities, and (2) links between gender typing and adjustment (self-esteem and negative emotionality). In the first study, gender typicality was positively predicted by a variety of gender-related characteristics and by communal traits, a female-typed characteristic; gender typicality was also positively associated with adjustment. To clarify the role of communality in predicting gender typicality and its link with adjustment, we conducted a follow-up study examining both gender typicality and "university typicality." Gender typicality was again predicted by gender-related characteristics and communality, and associated with adjustment. Further, university typicality was also predicted by communality and associated with adjustment. Mediation analyses showed that feelings of communality were partly responsible for the links between gender/university typicality and adjustment. Thus, the psychological benefits suggested to accrue from gender typicality may not be specific to gender, but rather may reflect the benefits of normativity in general. These findings were discussed in relation to the broader literature on the relation between identity and adjustment.

  15. MENGGAGAS PENDIDIKAN KARAKTER RESPONSIF GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiyan Hadi

    2016-03-01

    ABSTRACT Problems of character education already started sticking in various aspects of life involving men and women. Efforts are needed breakthrough in the design of character educational that can transform the moral values into action and real personality with gender responsive. This brief paper tries to review how the essence of character education and curriculum design as it should be prepared in the perspective of gender justice. This paper concludes that character education is different from the of moral education. If moral education tends to teach the ethical dimensions, good and bad in cognitive level, then character education requires a holistic approach. Character education should include three aspects of knowing, feeling and acting of the good. Therefore, in designing the curriculum needs to consider the three-sphere which is supported by intervention efforts and habituation, starting at the class, school, and family environment. In order for the construction of curricula is not gender-biased, the need to put forward a gender perspective in developing a character education curriculum especiallya in Islamic education in all level in Indonesia.

  16. FURTHER ASPECTS OF GENDER MARKING IN ENGLISH AND ROMANIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MANEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reverts to some of the main issues posed by the expression of the grammatical and conceptual notion of gender in English and Romanian. It revisits some aspects of defining gender and gender classes (including the epicene, common gender and neuter gender, neutralization, the idea of fuzziness in treating gender, and some of the errors and inconsistencies linked with the expression of gender in the light of the more recent linguistic approaches flawed by excessive feminism. The existence of the epicenes in the two languages compared, and the (provable existence of a Common Gender in Romanian, as well (e.g. abonat, alegător, bolnav, creştin, pacient, zoolog are also dealt with. A number of inconsistencies of usage, idiosyncrasies and cases of actual solecism are addressed, with illustrations inspired by the author’s didactic experience.

  17. Authorship in "College & Research Libraries" Revisited: Gender, Institutional Affiliation, Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, James L.

    1996-01-01

    Updates earlier studies on the characteristics of authorship of articles published in "College & Research Libraries", focusing on gender, institutional affiliation, and extent of collaboration. Results show representation by academic librarians and authors affiliated with library schools increased, collaboration predominated, and…

  18. Gender moderates the relationship between attachment insecurities and emotion dysregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velotti, P.; D’Aguanno, M.; de Campora, G.; di Francescantonio, S.; Garofalo, C.; Giromini, L.; Petrocchi, C.; Terrasi, M.; Zavattini, G.C.

    2016-01-01

    The relation between attachment styles and emotion regulation is well documented, and emotion dysregulation is considered characteristic of individuals with insecure attachment styles. Although gender differences in emotion regulation have often been reported, it is not clear whether the association

  19. Three demographic consequences of gender-specific behavior pattern: The case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šobot Ankica

    2012-01-01

    gender gap in this view. Greater mortality rate in men implies diversity of factors and characteristics of concrete social context. Part of the response lies in their greater exposure to risky behavior. Apart from that, the importance of socio-psychological factors has been recognized, which includes the prevailing concept of gender roles and gender relations. The asymmetric division of activities and obligations regarding parenthood represents an increasingly important determinant of low reproductive norms. Empirical research confirms the prevailing realization of motherhood in everyday parent activities and in the responsibility for raising and upbringing children. Sweden is an example of a country in which the above average European fertility rates correspond with a more equal division of parenting roles, whereby the support for coordinating parenthood and the profession is orientated both towards mothers and fathers equally. A gender sensible approach in solving demographic matters implies recognizing the position and status of both sexes and acknowledging the gender relations as a relevant factor. The analyzed issues are not specific only to the demographic development of Serbia. Nevertheless, their solving implies confronting cultural norms, achieved degrees of economic and social development, as well as building necessary institutional mechanisms.

  20. Researching gender: the challenge of global diversity today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia Longman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The text of this paper is based on a lecture given at the symposium of the Ghent African Platform “Researching Gender in/on Africa” at Ghent University in December 2009. It addresses some general challenges faced by ‘gender studies’ as an autonomous field versus ‘gender research’ as an integrated topic within mainstream disciplines in academia. Gender studies have sometimes superseded ‘women’s studies’ and expanded to cover the terrain of study of various forms of diversity including men’s and transgender studies. We will show that the ‘mainstreaming’ of gender in public policy at local, national and transnational levels is a development which may potentially lead to the loss of a – feminist – political edge. Secondly, while gender studies with their emphasis on socially constructed gender as opposed to biological essentialist understandings of ‘sex’ appear to face the challenge of a popular ‘new biological determinism’, it is shown that the binary model of sex/gender in fact has been criticised for some time now from within feminist theory and gender research. This is (selectively illustrated with research from four disciplines, including the work of African gender studies scholars, i.e. feminist philosophy, social sciences (in particular socio-cultural anthropology, history and biology itself. This then shows how the accusation that gender studies would be ‘socially deterministic’ without attending to bodily matters or materiality is unfounded. Finally, it is argued that there is still a need for gender studies to become more culturally diverse, more global and transnational in its outlook, by becoming more deeply attuned to the way gender intersects with other forms of difference and taking into account postcolonial critiques of western feminist paternalism, without falling into the trap of cultural relativism. Key words: gender studies, feminism, sex/gender debate, gender mainstreaming, postcolonial

  1. Diskursus Gender Dalam Pendidikan Islam

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Mahathir Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Our religious orientation today is still dominated by the bias of the normative discourse of women's interests. Especially regarding gender relations. We actually realize that many religious law, personal law such families, religious practices, and including also the social and political leadership over the legitimacy of religious especially for women, is based on the assumption of patriarchy and sexism. The system is based on patriarchy and sexism,...

  2. Does gender activism aggravate the superiority of one gender over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Does gender activism aggravate the superiority of one gender over the other? ... findings reveal that firstly, failure to value and embrace diversity by males, perpetuate gender discrimination. ... Keywords: Context, Culture, Structures, Systems ...

  3. Gender Differences Among Patients With Hepatitis C Virus Undergoing Rehabilitation Through Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Massah

    2018-03-01

    Discussion: The study results demonstrated some gender differences in baseline characteristics and psychological problems. Such differences may have important impacts on methadone treatment outcomes. Further studies are suggested.

  4. [Bipolar disorder and criminality: a comparative study by gender].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bram, N; Rafrafi, R; Ben Romdhane, I; Ridha, R

    2013-12-01

    Unlike schizophrenia, the impact of gender on the criminality of patients with bipolar disorder has received little attention. To estimate the sex ratio in relation to acts committed by forensic bipolar patients and evaluate the impact of gender on the characteristics of this crime. A comparative study by gender, conducted at the psychiatric hospital Razi has included all patients with bipolar disorder hospitalized between 1990 and 2010 after being relaxed for mental illness, owing to the Tunisian penal code. The total number of patients was 36 and the sex ratio of 3.5.A suicide history was four times more common in women. Alcohol abuse was found only in men. Relapses were more frequent in women (3.06 I year against 1.14 I year, p = 0.02). Rapid cycling and comorbid anxiety were noted only in female patients. Filicide and prostitution were committed exclusively by women, economic crimes and sexual assaults were the preserve of men. The male offenses were more impulsive and unpremeditated (p = 0.04). Although sex ratio is in favor of men, women's representation in the violence induced by bipolar disorder is significant, resulting, particularly during depressive phases, by serious and deadly acts. Preventive measures of acting out in bipolar patients must be supported and especially adapted to the genre

  5. Gender and age differences in expressing disruptive behavior during class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekić Jasmina M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the phenomenon of school indiscipline which proved to be an important factor of disruption in the teaching process. The aims of our research were to determine whether there were gender and age differences in expressing indiscipline during a class, as well as to examine the latent space of the School Indiscipline Scale. The sample included 897 students (42.1% boys and 57.9% girls who attend elementary (46.6% or secondary (53.4% school, aged 12 - 19. The instrument used was the Scale of School Indiscipline. The results of the component analysis indicated four components: nonparticipation, aggression, defiance to authority and cheating. By applying the MANOVA test we detected gender differences in all four subscales: that girls tend to cheat or not participate in the teaching process, while boys are more inclined to aggression and authority defiance. Regarding age differences it was noted that elementary school students are more inclined to behave aggressively while secondary school students tend not to participate and cheat. Bearing in mind that knowing gender and age differences of expressing unwanted behavior in school is very important it seems that the success of any prevention programs depend, to a large extent, upon their congruence with the students with different characteristics.

  6. Research on gender differences in online health communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Sun, Min; Li, Jia

    2018-03-01

    With the growing concern about health issues and the emergence of online communities based on user-generated content (UGC), more and more people are participating in online health communities (OHCs) to exchange opinions and health information. This paper aims to examine whether and how male and female users behave differently in OHCs. Using data from a leading diabetes community in China (Tianmijiayuan), we incorporate three different techniques: topic modeling analysis, sentiment analysis and friendship network analysis to investigate gender differences in chronic online health communities. The results indicated that (1) Male users' posting content was usually more professional and included more medical terms. Comparatively speaking, female users were more inclined to seek emotional support in the health communities. (2) Female users expressed more negative emotions than male users did, especially anxiety and sadness. (3) In addition, male users were more centered and influential in the friendship network than were women. Through these analyses, our research revealed the behavioral characteristics and needs for different gender users in online health communities. Gaining a deeper understanding of gender differences in OHCs can serve as guidance to better meet the information needs, emotional needs and relationship needs of male and female patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender Inequality since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, Sarah; Dilli, Selin; Rijpma, Auke

    2014-01-01

    Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and

  8. Intersectionality, Diversity and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2016-01-01

    In the discourses of Danish politicians on ethno-national diversity and integration, the notion of diversity is gendered, especially the articulation of the ‘working woman’ and her labor market participation. Equality, diversity and gender are, thus, intertwined in political, discursive construct...

  9. Gender, Toys and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Becky

    2010-01-01

    In spite of continuing patterning of curriculum subject preference and choice by gender, there has been little recent attention to the argument developed in the 1970s that children play with different toys according to their gender, and that these provide girls and boys with (different) curriculum-related skills. The article describes a…

  10. Gender diversity in teams

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazala Azmat

    2014-01-01

    Women’s representation on corporate boards, political committees, and other teams is increasing, in part because of legal mandates. Data on team dynamics and gender differences in preferences (risk-taking behavior, taste for competition, prosocial behavior) show how gender composition influences group decision-making and subsequent performance through channels such as investment decisions, internal management, corporate governance, and social responsibility.

  11. GENDER SPECIFICS OF USING DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES BY CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Gulshat Firazovna Shakirova*

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the gender characteristics of children of preschool age that are actively using digital technologies in everyday life are studied, the age characteristics of children are described, and the terminology of the research is defined. The study used psychological methods: questionnaire, observation of children of preschool age on the basis of the questionnaire "Masculinity, femininity and gender personality type" (a modification of O. G. Lopukhova), the conversation "Boys and ...

  12. Gender awareness among physicians – the effect of specialty and gender. A study of teachers at a Swedish medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamberg Katarina

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important goal for medical education today is professional development including gender equality and awareness of gender issues. Are medical teachers prepared for this task? We investigated gender awareness among physician teachers, expressed as their attitudes towards the role of gender in professional relationships, and how it varied with physician gender and specialty. We discuss how this might be related to the gender climate and sex segregation in different specialties. Method Questionnaires were sent to all 468 specialists in the clinical departments and in family medicine, who were engaged in educating medical students at a Swedish university. They were asked to rate, on visual analogue scales, the importance of physician and patient gender in consultation, of preceptor and student gender in clinical tutoring and of physician gender in other professional encounters. Differences between family physicians, surgical, and non-surgical hospital doctors, and between women and men were estimated by chi-2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The response rate was 65 %. There were differences between specialty groups in all investigated areas mainly due to disparities among men. The odds for a male family physician to assess gender important were three times higher, and for a male non-surgical doctor two times higher when compared to a male surgical doctor. Female teachers assessed gender important to a higher degree than men. Among women there were no significant differences between specialty groups. Conclusions There was an interaction between physician teachers' gender and specialty as to whether they identified gender as important in professional relationships. Male physicians, especially from the surgical group, assessed gender important to a significantly lower degree than female physicians. Physicians' degree of gender awareness may, as one of many factors, affect working climate and the

  13. Gendering transnational party politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantola, Johanna; Rolandsen-Agustín, Lise

    2016-01-01

    research traditions, we build toward an analytical framework to study gender and transnational party politics. Our empirical analysis focuses on two policy issues, the economic crisis and the sexual and reproductive health and rights, analyzing European Parliament reports, debates and voting on the issues...... from 2009 to 2014. By focusing on gender equality constructions and the way in which consensus and contestation are built around them within and between party groups, we argue that shared constructions about gender equality are issue specific and change over time. Consensus breaks down along the left......In this article, we analyze transnational party politics in the European Union from a gender perspective. This is a subject that has been neglected both by mainstream European studies on party politics and by gender scholars who work on political parties. Drawing on the insights of these two...

  14. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Verdonk, P.; Benschop, Y.W.M.; Haes, H. de; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was ‘gender blind’ by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly, medicine is said to be ‘male biased’ because the largest body of knowledge on health and illness is about men and their health. Thirdly, gender role ...

  15. The aging population: imperative to uncouple sex and gender to establish "gender equal" health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Gloria A; Mussman, Brianna

    2015-04-01

    The transgender community has long been marginalized in society. As the world's population ages, gender-unbiased health services for this growing population, with age-related chronic illnesses, will be essential. To optimally eliminate hurdles that trans individuals often confront when requesting services, it appears judicious to eliminate the strict and antiquated definition of what constitutes "normal" female and "normal" male. A review of literature on transgender medicine on PubMed over the last five years was conducted. Existing statistics indicate that unacceptable bias and discrimination are occurring, making trans patients less likely to seek care. There are emerging initiatives that address the transgender and gender non-conforming population. Ongoing needs include defining what constitutes "gender equal," understanding the continuum of gender identity, and establishing and implementing guidelines for gender equal counseling and care. With the routine practice of defining sex at birth and equating sex with gender in the health care setting, the transgender patient encounters multiple barriers to accessing and acquiring health care services. These strict gender labels appear to preclude the institution of gender equal care. Care templates on gender equal patient encounters should be implemented to better address transgender health needs in a non-biased manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Gender Feeling Amplitude: an instrument to assist clinicians with the assessment of gender diverse adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Elizabeth

    2017-10-01

    Background The Gender Feeling Amplitude (GFA) is a 68-item list of words and phrases with which to identify the feelings and severity of a young person's distress regarding their gender identity and gender diversity, and takes ~1min to administer. For this pilot study, 67 adolescents and youth who sought support, confirmation or intervention (either via themselves or their parents) regarding gender diversity or gender transition were given the GFA in a face-to-face meeting before the beginning of an assessment procedure for gender diversity. Forty-three assigned females and 24 assigned males aged between 10 and 20 years were analysed by frequency of item, age and assigned gender. Of the 68 items, those circled by close to 50% or more of the participants were 'self-conscious', 'awkward' and 'don't fit in'. One-third or more circled the words 'shy', 'supported', 'hopeful', 'discomfort', 'as if I'm not being seen properly', 'forced to be something I'm not', 'depressed' and 'stressed'. Comparisons showed some variations in responses by both assigned gender and age, and the discussion includes ways the GFA may be able to assist a health practitioner with explorations of gender diversity and interventions for counselling.

  17. Because Gender Matters : Strengthening Social and Gender ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Addressing inequality and environmental insecurity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) will require enhanced capacity to conduct social and gender analysis in environment and natural resource management (ENRM) research. This project aims to build capacity in and demonstrate the value added to ...

  18. From gender identity disorder to gender identity creativity: true gender self child therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrensaft, Diane

    2012-01-01

    True gender self child therapy is based on the premise of gender as a web that weaves together nature, nurture, and culture and allows for a myriad of healthy gender outcomes. This article presents concepts of true gender self, false gender self, and gender creativity as they operationalize in clinical work with children who need therapeutic supports to establish an authentic gender self while developing strategies for negotiating an environment resistant to that self. Categories of gender nonconforming children are outlined and excerpts of a treatment of a young transgender child are presented to illustrate true gender self child therapy.

  19. On gender and writing On gender and writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Gordenstein

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction to this collection of 22 essays on gender and writing the editor confesses: I was never interested in including articles which would attack the idea of whether gender and the writing process had anything in common. I wasn't interested in anyone who held an 'androgyny' view of the writing process or in anyone who had anti-feminist views. The people I asked were all people who had something positive to say about how they saw gender and the writing process coming together in their work. (p.9 Consequently one finishes this book with the impression that almost all these writers know one another and share views on politics, literature and sex. The largest group of essays is from single mothers or gay women who write fiction, theater or poetry. Of the 22 writers almost all are British, all but 3 1/2 are female (the half because he "shares" a doubled personality with his wife, all but a few speak of being formed by the turbulent 1960's. In the introduction to this collection of 22 essays on gender and writing the editor confesses: I was never interested in including articles which would attack the idea of whether gender and the writing process had anything in common. I wasn't interested in anyone who held an 'androgyny' view of the writing process or in anyone who had anti-feminist views. The people I asked were all people who had something positive to say about how they saw gender and the writing process coming together in their work. (p.9 Consequently one finishes this book with the impression that almost all these writers know one another and share views on politics, literature and sex. The largest group of essays is from single mothers or gay women who write fiction, theater or poetry. Of the 22 writers almost all are British, all but 3 1/2 are female (the half because he "shares" a doubled personality with his wife, all but a few speak of being formed by the turbulent 1960's.

  20. Feminists wrestle with testosterone: hormones, socialization and cultural interactionism as predictors of women's gendered selves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Shannon N; Risman, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    Sociology of gender has developed beyond a personality-centered idea of "sex-roles" to an approach that stresses interaction and social structure. At the same time, there has been a concurrent development in the psychological sex-differences and medical literatures toward including the biological bases of sex-typed behavior and gender identities. In this paper, while we conceptualize gender as a social structure, we focus only on the individual level of analysis: testing the relative strength of (maternal circulating) prenatal hormones, childhood socialization, and the power of expectations attached to adult social roles (cultural interactionist) as explanations for women's self-reported feminine and masculine selves. Our findings are complex, and support some importance of each theory. Prenatal hormones, childhood socialization, and cultural interactionism were all influential factors for gendered selves. While cultural expectations predicted only feminine selves, prenatal hormones were more robust predictors of masculine sense of self. While personality may be a relatively stable characteristic influenced by the body and childhood socialization, our results reinforce the importance of studying how the social world responds to and reinforces gendered personality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Doing Gender in Management Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Judi

    1999-01-01

    Explores teaching gender to management students, mainly those working toward Masters in Business Administration degrees. Introduces a gender awareness approach and illustrates it with two examples of "doing" gender using multiple associations of that term. (SLD)

  2. Gender Role Violations and the Sexual Double Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikman, Yuliana; Marks, Michael J; Young, Tara M; Zeiber, Jacqueline A

    2016-12-01

    The sexual double standard (SDS) suggests that women are evaluated negatively and men positively for engaging in similar sexual behaviors. According to social role theory, the SDS exists due to gender role structures. Consequently, perceived violations of women's sexual behavior are associated with the SDS. In addition to gender role violations of sexual behavior, two additional violations of gender roles exist: heterosexual sexual orientation norms and gender role characteristics. The current study aims to investigate whether the SDS persists for sexual orientation-violating and gender role characteristic-violating targets, and to examine which of the three gender role violations influence evaluations of others' sexual behavior. A U.S. sample of 483 participants evaluated target individuals who were either female or male, heterosexual/gay man or lesbian, feminine or masculine, and had 1 or 12 sexual partners. Results indicate that SDS persists for gender role-violating targets but is exhibited differently for targets violating heterosexual sexual orientation norms and gender role characteristics.

  3. The Impact of Personal Gender-Typicality and Partner Gender-Traditionality on Taking Sexual Initiative: Investigating a Social Tuning Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerink, Peggy M J; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2017-01-01

    Sexual assertiveness is an issue of interest in the context of gender equality and sexual health. This study investigated the social tuning hypothesis that encountering a gender-traditional partner would lead to stronger gender-typical behavior, i.e., respectively, higher and lower levels of taking sexual initiative among men and women. Participants ( N = 271) read a vignette describing a romantic partner, who was either presented as gender-traditional or not, followed by a sexual scenario. Subsequently, participants were asked about their expectations toward their own sexual initiative taking. Results showed a significant 'target gender-traditionality × participant gender × participant gender-typicality (masculinity/femininity)' interaction meaning that less gender-typical men were more likely to initiate sexual contact in the experimental, compared to the control condition. Men low in masculine characteristics showed higher initiative taking in response to a gender-traditional target female. We conclude that less gender-typical men seem to employ more social tuning toward their sexual partner, whereas more gender-typical men seem to adhere to their gender-typical behavior regardless of perceived partner characteristics. These results were not seen among the women in the sample. These findings are a starting point for the further development of experimental investigations regarding the gendered nature of both sexual initiative taking and sexual assertiveness in general.

  4. The Impact of Personal Gender-Typicality and Partner Gender-Traditionality on Taking Sexual Initiative: Investigating a Social Tuning Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerink, Peggy M. J.; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

    2017-01-01

    Sexual assertiveness is an issue of interest in the context of gender equality and sexual health. This study investigated the social tuning hypothesis that encountering a gender-traditional partner would lead to stronger gender-typical behavior, i.e., respectively, higher and lower levels of taking sexual initiative among men and women. Participants (N = 271) read a vignette describing a romantic partner, who was either presented as gender-traditional or not, followed by a sexual scenario. Subsequently, participants were asked about their expectations toward their own sexual initiative taking. Results showed a significant ‘target gender-traditionality × participant gender × participant gender-typicality (masculinity/femininity)’ interaction meaning that less gender-typical men were more likely to initiate sexual contact in the experimental, compared to the control condition. Men low in masculine characteristics showed higher initiative taking in response to a gender-traditional target female. We conclude that less gender-typical men seem to employ more social tuning toward their sexual partner, whereas more gender-typical men seem to adhere to their gender-typical behavior regardless of perceived partner characteristics. These results were not seen among the women in the sample. These findings are a starting point for the further development of experimental investigations regarding the gendered nature of both sexual initiative taking and sexual assertiveness in general. PMID:28203216

  5. GENDER CONFLICTS OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Moskalyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Actuality of work. Student age has the most favourable conditions for psychological, biological and social development; however, there are reasons why such natural advantages over other social groups can be completely or partially levelled. One of them is the presence of conflicts in the life of a student, a special group, among which there are women. The causes of the emergence of gender conflicts in individual social groups and the strategies for their solution have not been sufficiently explored and require further study and, therefore, are relevant. Purpose of the article is to investigate the causes of gender conflicts among students as a separate social group and to develop measures to address them and prevent them. Methodology. The research conducted in the work is based on the analysis and generalization of the causes of the emergence of gender conflicts among students, the identification of the main sources of information that form the consciousness of children and adolescents, and also influence their attitude to gender equality. Originality. The nature of gender conflicts has been quite effectively studied for a long time. However, the scope of research is limited to the most numerous social groups, such as the family, labour collective, political and public organizations, etc. Being a dynamic and socio-demographic formation, the students perform an important function in society – it takes a direct part in the transformation of all spheres of the life activity of the society. Based on the study of the objective conditions of the social environment with certain models of socialization that form the consciousness of students from early childhood, a three-component system of influence was first proposed, which is aimed at overcoming gender inequality and preventing gender conflicts among students. At the same time, the interaction of the components of the system will allow to minimize the gender inequality index in our country

  6. Intersectional harassment and deviant embodiment among Autistic adults: (dis)ability, gender and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jessica Penwell

    2017-11-01

    Harassment scholarship increasingly attends to the intersectional nature of harassment and its function within systems of domination. However, little of this work includes disability. In-depth interviews with 24 adults on the autism spectrum in the USA demonstrate the intersections of gender, sexuality and (dis)ability in the construction of deviant embodiments as targets for harassment. These intersections also shape how participants made sense of these experiences of violence. Participants' disability characteristics were often read as gender or sexual variance, with harassers relying on sexist and heterosexist constructs to frighten, demean or humiliate them for disability characteristics. Participant experiences demonstrate the cisgender basis of 'able-bodied' identity as well as the 'able-bodied' basis of cisgender and heterosexual identities and experiences. The interdependency of gender, sexuality and (dis)ability embodiment point to how it is critical for scholars and activists to account for the role of gender and heterosexist harassment in ableist oppression and disability harassment in (hetero)sexist oppression, as well as the limits of current US law enforcement structures in providing redress for harassment.

  7. Fenomena Kesetaraan Gender dalam Kredit

    OpenAIRE

    Rachmina, Dwi

    2009-01-01

    Gender inequality still exists in Indonesia on various sectors. However, the Gender-related Development Index (GDI) and Gender Empowerment Measurement (GEM) showed an increasing trends in recent years. The increase in GDI and GEM index indicates the gender equality in education, labor and business opportunities. Meanwhile, the gender equality in access to credit and capital is still unclear. This paper discusses the gender issue in credit policy, accessibility and utilization in Indonesia usi...

  8. Gender Differences in Children’s Language: A Meta-Analysis of Slovenian Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič-Umek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Child gender has been proved to affect toddlers’/children’s language development in several studies, but its effect was not found to be stable across different ages or various aspects of language ability. The effect of gender on toddler’s, children’s and adolescents’ language ability was examined in the present meta-analysis of ten Slovenian studies (nine cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study. The ten studies were published between 2004 and 2016 and included a total of 3,657 toddlers, children and adolescents, aged from 8 months to 15 years. The language outcome measures refer to different aspects of language ability, including vocabulary, mean length of utterance, sentence complexity, language expression and comprehension, storytelling ability and metalinguistic awareness. Across the studies, language ability was assessed using different approaches and instruments, most of which were standardised on samples ofSlovenian speaking children. Based on the reported arithmetic means and standard deviations, the effect sizes of gender for each of the included studies were calculated, as well as the average effect size of gender across the different studies. The findings of the meta-analysis showed that the effect size of gender on toddlers’/children’s/adolescents’ language largely depended on their age and the aspect of language measured. The effect sizes increased with children’s increasing age. All significant effects proved to be in favour of girls. The findings were interpreted in relation to the characteristics of language development and social cultural factors that can contribute to gender differences in language ability.

  9. Un/Doing Gender? A Case Study of School Policy and Practice in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2009-01-01

    This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and…

  10. The gender pay gap in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Debra Leaker

    2008-01-01

    Measuring differences between mens' and womens' earnings, presents estimates from ASHE, the LFS and the NES panel data setThe gender pay gap is a measure of the difference between the earnings of men and women. This article presents estimates of the gender pay gap from the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings, the Labour Force Survey and the New Earnings Survey panel data set. It examines how different personal and labour market characteristics influence the earnings of men and women.The resul...

  11. Gender-Role Portrayals in Television Advertising Across the Globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, Jörg; Prieler, Michael; Adam, Karoline

    Although there are numerous studies on gender-role portrayals in television advertising, comparative designs are clearly lacking. With content analytical data from a total of 13 Asian, American, and European countries, we study the stereotypical depiction of men and women in television advertisements. Our sample consists of 1755 ads collected in May 2014. Analyzing the gender of the primary character and voiceover, as well as the age, associated product categories, home- or work setting, and the working role of the primary character, we concluded that gender stereotypes in TV advertising can be found around the world. A multilevel model further showed that gender stereotypes were independent of a country's gender indices, including Hofstede's Masculinity Index, GLOBE's Gender Egalitarianism Index, the Gender-related Development Index, the Gender Inequality Index, and the Global Gender Gap Index. These findings suggest that gender stereotyping in television advertising does not depend on the gender equality prevalent in a country. The role of a specific culture in shaping gender stereotypes in television advertising is thus smaller than commonly thought.

  12. For data's sake: dilemmas in the measurement of gender minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Jennifer L; Theall, Katherine; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Kendall, Carl

    2018-03-13

    Gender-minority health disparity research is limited by binary gender measurement practices. This study seeks to broaden current discourse on gender identity measurement in the USA, including measurement adoption challenges and mitigation strategies, thereby allowing for better data collection to understand and address health disparities for people of all genders. Three data sources were used to triangulate findings: expert interviews with gender and sexuality research leaders; key-informant interviews with gender minorities in New Orleans, LA; and document analysis of relevant surveys, guides and commentaries. Ten key dilemmas were identified: 1) moving beyond binary gender construction; 2) conflation of gender, sex and sexual orientation; 3) emerging nature of gender-related language; 4) concerns about item sensitivity; 5) research fatigue among gender minorities; 6) design and analytical limitations; 7) categorical and procedural consistency; 8) pre-populated vs. open-field survey items; 9) potential misclassification; and 10) competing data collection needs. Researchers must continue working toward consensus concerning better practices is gender measurement and be explicit about their methodological choices. The existence of these dilemmas must not impede research on important health issues affecting gender minorities.

  13. Gender relations and health research: a review of current practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottorff Joan L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The importance of gender in understanding health practices and illness experiences is increasingly recognized, and key to this work is a better understanding of the application of gender relations. The influence of masculinities and femininities, and the interplay within and between them manifests within relations and interactions among couples, family members and peers to influence health behaviours and outcomes. Methods To explore how conceptualizations of gender relations have been integrated in health research a scoping review of the existing literature was conducted. The key terms gender relations, gender interactions, relations gender, partner communication, femininities and masculinities were used to search online databases. Results Through analysis of this literature we identified two main ways gender relations were integrated in health research: a as emergent findings; and b as a basis for research design. In the latter, gender relations are included in conceptual frameworks, guide data collection and are used to direct data analysis. Conclusions Current uses of gender relations are typically positioned within intimate heterosexual couples whereby single narratives (i.e., either men or women are used to explore the influence and/or impact of intimate partner gender relations on health and illness issues. Recommendations for advancing gender relations and health research are discussed. This research has the potential to reduce gender inequities in health.

  14. Baltic Consortium on Promoting Gender Equality in Marine Research Organisations (Baltic Gender)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kısakürek Ibsen, Başak; Braun, Sarah; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Kutser, Tiit; Stadmark, Johanna; Vaitkevičienė, Viktorija; Waniek, Joanna; Werner, Iris; Matthes, Katja

    2017-04-01

    Marine Science and Technology has been traditionally a male-dominated research field, with a significant lack of women in leadership positions. However, the whole intellectual capacity of men and women alike are needed to create innovative solutions for the sustainable use of marine resources in the face of major global challenges for the development of the marine environment. The EU-funded project, Baltic Gender (GA No. 710363), responds to this need for creating policies and implementing measures at the institutional level with the aim of harvesting the full human capital for the needs of marine research. The main goal of Baltic Gender is to help reduce gender segregation and gender inequalities in Marine Science and Technology. To this end, eight partner institutions from five countries in the Baltic Sea region (Estonia, Finland, Germany, Lithuania and Sweden) came together for the exchange of institutional practices as well as for the transfer of knowledge from institutions/countries leading in gender equality to those following. Baltic Gender will sow the seeds for long-lasting institutional practices by initiating schemes and strategies that promote gender equality in the partner institutions. These include, for instance: the founding of grass-root networks that support the career advancement of women; creating strategies for better reconciliation of work and family life of women and men; the review and improvement of institutional policies and practices with regard to gender balance, fairness and transparency; development of a method protocol for incorporating gender analysis into research projects or programmes of Marine Science and Technology; initiating gender focused training and mentoring in or across all partner institutions. The project will support the implementation of Gender Equality Plans (GEPs), which consist of a set of actions an institution commits to in order to identify any existing gender bias and to implement strategies to advance gender

  15. Tracking Gendered Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eriksson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prominent features of digital music services is the provision of personalized music recommendations that come about through the profiling of users and audiences. Based on a range of "bot experiments," this article investigates if, and how, gendered patterns in music recommendations are provided by the streaming service Spotify. While our experiments did not give any strong indications that Spotify assigns different taste profiles to male and female users, the study showed that male artists were highly overrepresented in Spotify's music recommendations; an issue which we argue prompts users to cite hegemonic masculine norms within the music industries. Although the results should be approached as historically and contextually contingent, we argue that they point to how gender and gendered tastes may be constituted through the interplay between users and algorithmic knowledge-making processes, and how digital content delivery may maintain and challenge gender relations and gendered power differentials within the music industries. Seen through the lens of critical research on software, music and gender performativity, the experiments thus provide insights into how gender is shaped and attributed meaning as it materializes in contemporary music streams.

  16. [Sex- and gender-sensitive research in epidemiology and medicine: how can this be achieved? Aims and first results of the network "Sex-/Gender-Sensitive Research in Epidemiology, Neurosciences and Genetics/Cancer Research"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, I; Gansefort, D; Kindler-Röhrborn, A; Pfleiderer, B

    2014-09-01

    It is considered general knowledge among physicians and epidemiologists that biological and social aspects associated with being male or female have a strong influence on health and disease. Integrating these aspects into research is necessary to counteract the problems--including ethical problems--resulting from a different evidence basis for men and women. From January 2011 to June 2014 the Federal Ministry of Education and Research supported the network "Sex-/Gender-Sensitive Research in Epidemiology, Neuroscience and Genetics/Cancer Research" with three subprojects, which aimed to promote gender-sensitive research practices. The concepts and results are presented in this article. The subproject gathered data (literature analyses, questionnaires) and offered programs for young scientists. Experiences and results were collected and generalized, for instance, in the form of definitions of terms. 50 young scientists have taken part in the training program, identifying associations and barriers in sex-/gender-sensitive research. Among others, a working definition for "sex-/gender-sensitive research" was developed, as well as definitions for the terms "sex-specific" (for biological characteristics that are specific to men or women) and "sex-/gender-dependent" or "sex-/gender-associated" (for biological and social factors, for which the extent of occurrence differs between the sexes). The concepts realized by the network are well suited to stimulate further development and discussions. The definition of terms is an important base for a productive and high-yielding interdisciplinary collaboration.

  17. Gender issues in reproductive health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinma, Echendu D; Adinma, Brian-D J I

    2011-01-01

    Gender, for its impact on virtually every contemporary life issue, can rightly be regarded as a foremost component of reproductive health. Reproductive health basically emphasises on people and their rights to sexuality, reproduction, and family planning, and the information to actualize these right, which has been inextricably linked to development at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994. Women's sexual and reproductive rights became recognised as universal human right, violations of which occur in some reproductive health areas including gender concerns. Gender inequality and inequity encompass gender based violence as well as gender discrimination which cuts across the life cycle of the woman; attitudes, religious and cultural practices of various nations; and issues related to employment, economy, politics, and development. The redress of gender inequality is a collective responsibility of nations and supranational agencies. Nations should adopt a framework hinged on three pedestals--legal, institutional and policy, employing the three recommended approaches of equal treatment, positive action, and gender mainstreaming.

  18. Complementing Gender Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anant

    2016-01-01

    The existing gender analysis frameworks start with a premise that men and women are equal and should be treated equally. These frameworks give emphasis on equal distribution of resources between men and women and believe that this will bring equality which is not always true. Despite equal distribution of resources, women tend to suffer and experience discrimination in many areas of their lives such as the power to control resources within social relationships, and the need for emotional security and reproductive rights within interpersonal relationships. These frameworks believe that patriarchy as an institution plays an important role in women's oppression, exploitation, and it is a barrier in their empowerment and rights. Thus, some think that by ensuring equal distribution of resources and empowering women economically, institutions like patriarchy can be challenged. These frameworks are based on proposed equality principle which puts men and women in competing roles. Thus, the real equality will never be achieved. Contrary to the existing gender analysis frameworks, the Complementing Gender Analysis framework proposed by the author provides a new approach toward gender analysis which not only recognizes the role of economic empowerment and equal distribution of resources but suggests to incorporate the concept and role of social capital, equity, and doing gender in gender analysis which is based on perceived equity principle, putting men and women in complementing roles that may lead to equality. In this article the author reviews the mainstream gender theories in development from the viewpoint of the complementary roles of gender. This alternative view is argued based on existing literature and an anecdote of observations made by the author. While criticizing the equality theory, the author offers equity theory in resolving the gender conflict by using the concept of social and psychological capital.

  19. Gendered Violence, Intersectionalities and Resisting Gender Neutrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Stubbs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Developments in feminist theory and research towards a more complex approach to gender relations and a more differentiated understanding of gendered violence have been positive but also have been the subject of significant debate. Some debates have long histories, while others mark more newly emergent concerns. In this paper I reflect on three areas of debate: intersectionality, complex gendering and complex inequalities; differentiating between forms of gendered violence (with a focus on intimate partner violence (IPV, and criminalisation. In each of these areas, feminist frameworks and knowledge concerning gendered violence have been challenged and the resurgence of gender neutral accounts has been notable. I argue that keeping a structural analysis to the fore provides the best way forward for constructive debate in the field aligned with feminist aspirations for the achievement of substantive equality. El desarrollo de la teoría feminista y la investigación hacia un enfoque más complejo de las relaciones de género y una comprensión más diferenciada de la violencia de género ha sido positivo, pero también ha sido objeto de un importante debate. Algunos debates tienen una larga historia, mientras que otros marcan preocupaciones emergentes surgidas en los últimos tiempos. En este trabajo se reflexiona sobre tres áreas de debate: interseccionalidad, configuración de géneros compleja y desigualdades complejas; diferenciación entre formas de violencia de género (fijándose en la violencia de pareja (VP; y la criminalización. En cada una de estas áreas, se han cuestionado los marcos feministas y el conocimiento relativo a la violencia de género, y ha sido notable el resurgimiento de cuentas de género neutro. Se defiende que fomentar un análisis estructural ofrece la mejor forma de fomentar un debate constructivo en el campo alineado con las aspiraciones feministas para el logro de una igualdad sustantiva. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM

  20. Language Teachers’ Burnout and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Jamshidirad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of gender on the three burnout dimensions; emotional exhaustion (EE, depersonalization (DP and personal accomplishment (PA among English language teachers in Malaysia. This study was a quantitative survey study. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES (Maslach, Jackson, & Schwab, 1986 was used to collect the data to determine the burnout levels of the teachers with respect to its three dimensions. These Data was collected from 28 English language teachers (50% female. Descriptive and inferential statistics including frequency, percentage, means, standard deviations, and t-test were used in the analysis. The results showed that gender was not a predictor of burnout in this sample. The study can have useful implications for educational administrators who deal with language teachers.

  1. What is Gender Equality? A General Review of Gender Politics and Gendered Bodies in Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Yoriko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the connections among the concepts of sex, gender, and bodies because understanding their meanings is essential for gender studies and feminist theory, especially with relation to gender politics in sports.

  2. Is the gap more than gender? A longitudinal analysis of gender, gender role orientation, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Livingston, Beth A

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of between-individual differences in gender role orientation were also considered). Results indicated that whereas traditional gender role orientation was positively related to earnings, gender significantly predicted the slope of this relationship: Traditional gender role orientation was strongly positively associated with earnings for men; it was slightly negatively associated with earnings for women. Occupational segregation partly explained these gender differences. Overall, the results suggest that although gender role attitudes are becoming less traditional for men and for women, traditional gender role orientation continues to exacerbate the gender wage gap.

  3. Gender and Social Remittances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe

    the extent to which migrant experiences generally constitute a source of inspiration for imagining and working for transformations in gender ideologies and practices in the current life in Yemen of these return migrants. According to Levitt (2001) such inspiration will on certain conditions work as social...... is on the surprise of finding, upon return, that social norms had changed in Yemen, in terms of a more restrictive approach to practices defined by gender. The return migrants all came to Yemen when they were still in their youth and they have had to accommodate to new gender norms upon their return in spite...

  4. Special Issue on Gender and Writing | Gender and literacy issues and research: Placing the spotlight on writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy M. Parr

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Writing Research, we review four decades of research, bringing writing to the forefront in conversations devoted to gender and literacy. We identify the impetus for much of the research on gender and writing and situate the four articles in this special issue within three themes: gender patterns in what and how students write, cognitive and socio-cultural factors influencing gender differences in student writing, and attempts to provide alternatives to stereotypical gender patterns in student writing. These interdisciplinary themes, further developed within the four articles, underscore the need to consider gender as a complex social, cognitive and linguistic characteristic of both reading and writing.

  5. Higher Education Faculty in Mexico and the United States: Characteristics and Policy Issues. Understanding the Differences: A Working Paper Series on Higher Education in the U. S. and Mexico. Working Paper Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Cheryl D.; Sanchez, Maria Dolores Soler

    This working paper analyzes higher education faculty characteristics in Mexico and the United States. The first section describes and compares Mexican and U.S. faculty characteristics and conditions, including total number of faculty, student-teacher ratios, full- versus part-time status, rank, tenure, average salaries, gender and ethnicity, and…

  6. Gender differences in the electrocardiogram screening of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessem, Bram B; de Bruijn, Matthijs M C; Nieuwland, Wybe W

    2017-02-01

    Gender-related differences are frequently used in medicine. Electrocardiograms are also subject to such differences. This study evaluated gender differences in ECG parameters of young athletes, discussing the possible implications of these differences for ECG criteria used in the cardiovascular screening of young athletes. Observational cross-sectional study. In 2013 and 2014 all the ECGs from the cardiovascular screenings performed at University Sports Medical Centre in Groningen of the student athletes who wanted to participate in a college sports program were collected. The ECG characteristics were scored using computer-based measurements and the Seattle ECG criteria. The study population included 1436 athletes, of which 72% were male. Male athletes were older (19.3 years vs. 18.6 years), participated in sports more frequently (4.0/week vs. 3.8/week) and spent more hours per week practising sports (6.4h/week vs. 5.8h/week) than female athletes. Male athletes had significantly higher PR intervals (149ms vs. 141ms), lead voltages and QRS duration (98ms vs. 88ms). Female athletes had significantly higher resting heart rates (69/min vs. 64/min) and QTc intervals (407ms vs. 400ms). Male athletes also had significantly higher amounts of sinus bradycardia (38.3% vs. 23.0%), incomplete RBBB (15.0% vs. 3.7%), early repolarisation (4.5% vs. 1.0%) and isolated QRS voltage criteria for LVH (26.3% vs. 4.6%). All P-values were ≤0.001. ECGs of young athletes demonstrate gender-related differences. These differences could be considered in their cardiovascular screening. For the Seattle ECG criteria we advise additional research into the clinical implications of using gender-based cut-off values for the QRS duration in the intraventricular conduction delay criterion. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Systematic Review of the Role of Gender in Securing and Maintaining Employment Among Youth and Young Adults with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Cagliostro, Elaine; Albarico, Mikhaela; Srikanthan, Dilakshan; Mortaji, Neda

    2018-06-01

    Purpose There is a critical need for gender-specific vocational supports for young adults with disabilities as they transition to employment. We conducted a systematic review to explore the role of gender in securing and maintaining employment. Methods Systematic searches of seven databases identified 48 studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Using a narrative synthesis approach, these studies were analyzed in terms of the characteristics of the participants, methodology, results, and quality of the evidence. Results Among the 48 studies, 112,473 participants (56% male), mean age (of the total sample) was 21, represented across ten countries. Twenty-one studies reported that young men with disabilities had better employment outcomes than women with disabilities. Eight studies showed that females with disabilities had better employment outcomes than males. Five studies reported that there were no gender differences in employment outcomes for youth with various disabilities. With regards to maintaining employment, men with disabilities often work more hours and have better wages compared to women with disabilities. There are several gender-related barriers and facilitators to maintaining employment including social supports and gender role expectations. Conclusions Our findings highlight that there is a critical need for gender-specific vocational supports for young adults with disabilities.

  8. Gender theories or theories and gender? If and how feminist gender studies became a new science field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise Matos

    Full Text Available This article seeks to define what would be the order of gender studies within the Brazilian academic setting today. Given three sets of distinct reflections, the article tries to explore gender initially understood as a "theme" and a "concept" to subvert it and postulate gender today as a new scientific field. These three sets of reflections refer to: 1 the place of the current art of gender and feminist studies in Brazilian academic reflections; 2 the consequent attempt to explain and delimit the theoretical conceptions in these studies, which includes the objective of going beyond a mere concept, tool or analytic construction, establishing a new field of study in social and human sciences and even a new epistemology in the sciences; and 3 the discussions of the implications and consequences that such an initiative would have on the sciences, in addition to bringing contributions to a feminist epistemology as well as postulating a science with a multicultural and emancipating character.

  9. Gender inequality and gender differences in authoritarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Mark J; Henry, P J

    2012-10-01

    Authoritarianism may be endorsed in part as a means of managing and buffering psychological threats (e.g., Duckitt & Fisher, 2003; Henry, 2011). Building on this research, the authors postulated that authoritarianism should be especially prevalent among women in societies with high levels of gender inequality because they especially face more psychological threats associated with stigma compared with men. After establishing that authoritarianism is, in part, a response to rejection, a psychological threat associated with stigma (Study 1), the authors used multilevel modeling to analyze data from 54 societies to find that women endorsed authoritarian values more than men, especially in individualistic societies with high levels of gender inequality (Study 2). Results show that the threats of stigma for women are not uniform across different cultures and that the degree of stigma is related to the degree of endorsement of psychologically protective attitudes such as authoritarianism.

  10. Ideological discourse of gender inequality in feminine sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Parkhomenko

    2017-07-01

    social mobility; c contemporary gender ideology and socialization, characterized by the fact that the future for both sexes is unpredictable and uncontrollable, the lack of understanding between parents and children; gender differences standards for parents and children. For modern ideology and gender socialization patterns characteristic have also been found out from multivariate stereotypes of gender relations (patriarchal, feminine, eclectic and partnerships, lack of a clear prevalence of gender stereotypes and combinations.

  11. Konformitas Gender (Studi Kritik atas Kesetaraan Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmatiar Pasya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lately, the issues relating to gender equality are being hotly discussed. One theindicators of this is the legalization effort of RUU-KKG in the law of the State. Thisissue was raised because the Feminists see that there is an imbalance in rotes betweenwomen and men, as well as in the realm of social, political, economic, and households.This patriarchal culture engenders women to always be under-emphasized in their statusand positions in these fields. So they’re not able to do similiar roles as men. This issue isreinforced not only by academics through a scientific approach but also by some religiousfigures. Some of them assess that the equality between men and women has been enshrinedin the Qur’an. Therefore, the assessment of both is not only by gender, but piety. As wellit doesn’t make much difference in regards to the idea of equality. Because the Qur’anitself equates to both in carrying out tasks in life. This paper will examine whether theissues in regards to gender equality in the Qur’an amounts to absolute equality orequality that not necessarily takes the same form.

  12. Trends in gender differences in accidents mortality: Relationships to changing gender roles and other societal trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Earle

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tests five hypotheses concerning trends in gender differences in accidents mortality and accident-related behavior, using data for the US, UK, France, Italy, and Japan, 1950-98. As predicted by the Convergence Hypothesis, gender differences have decreased for amount of driving, motor vehicle accidents mortality, and occupational accidents mortality. However, for many types of accidents mortality, gender differences were stable or increased; these trends often resulted from the differential impact on male and female mortality of general societal trends such as increased illicit drug use or improved health care. Similarly, trends in gender differences in accident-related behavior have shown substantial variation and appear to have been influenced by multiple factors, including gender differences in rates of adoption of different types of innovations.

  13. Social constructions of gender roles, gender-based violence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The links between gender roles, gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS risk are complex and culturally specific. In this qualitative study we investigated how women and men in two black communities in the Western Cape, South Africa, constructed their gender identities and roles, how they understood gender-based violence ...

  14. Gender Beliefs and Embedded Gendered Values in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilson, Anette; Folkesson, Anne-Mari; Lindberg, Ingeborg Moqvist

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore practitioners' gender beliefs and how gendered values are embedded in Swedish preschool practice. The research question is: What beliefs about gender and the associated values, can be identified in practitioners' talk when they discuss gender issues? The study is informed by Bronwyn Davies' theoretical ideas…

  15. Gender Attribution and Gender Agreement in French Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boloh, Yves; Ibernon, Laure; Royer, Stephanie; Escudier, Frederique; Danillon, Aurelia

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies on grammatical gender in French individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have led to conflicting findings and interpretations regarding keys abilities--gender attribution and gender agreement. New production data from a larger SW sample (N = 24) showed that gender attribution scores in SW participants exactly mirrored those of…

  16. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, P.; Benschop, Y.W.M.; Haes, H. de; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was ‘gender blind’ by not

  17. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, P.; Benschop, Y.W.M.; de Haes, H.C.J.M.; Lagro-Janssen, T.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was 'gender blind' by not

  18. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, P.; Benschop, Y.W.M.; Haes, J.C.J.M. de; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was ‘gender

  19. Characteristics That Differentiate Telecommuting from Non-Telecommuting Professionals in the Quality Assurance and Quality Control Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claybon, Tina S.

    2013-01-01

    The interest in working from home in contrast to going to an office continues to be a growing phenomenon. This research examined personal characteristics of telecommuters and non-telecommuters including age, gender, years of working for the organization, and job satisfaction in the quality control and quality assurance arena. This study aimed to…

  20. Gender in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What is the difference between plant sex and plant gender? Why does stress .... environmental sex determination is often predictable. Sunlit patches favour .... ensures that these self-incompatible plants receive cross-pollen only. i emporal ...